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Sample records for added mass effect

  1. Higgs mechanism and the added-mass effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswami, Govind S; Phatak, Sachin S

    2015-04-08

    In the Higgs mechanism, mediators of the weak force acquire masses by interacting with the Higgs condensate, leading to a vector boson mass matrix. On the other hand, a rigid body accelerated through an inviscid, incompressible and irrotational fluid feels an opposing force linearly related to its acceleration, via an added-mass tensor. We uncover a striking physical analogy between the two effects and propose a dictionary relating them. The correspondence turns the gauge Lie algebra into the space of directions in which the body can move, encodes the pattern of gauge symmetry breaking in the shape of an associated body and relates symmetries of the body to those of the scalar vacuum manifold. The new viewpoint is illustrated with numerous examples, and raises interesting questions, notably on the fluid analogues of the broken symmetry and Higgs particle, and the field-theoretic analogue of the added mass of a composite body.

  2. Added masses of ship structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  3. Added-Mass Effects on a Horizontal-Axis Tidal Turbine Using FAST v8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Robynne [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-09

    Added mass on tidal turbine blades has the potential to alter the blade dynamic response, such as natural frequencies and vibration amplitudes, as a response to blade acceleration. Currently, most aeroelastic design tools do not consider such effects as they are complex and expensive to model, and they are not an intrinsic part of most blade-element momentum theory codes, which are commonly used in the tidal energy industry. This article outlines the addition of added-mass effects to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's design tool FAST v8. A verification is presented for a spring-mass system with an initial displacement, and a case study is performed for the Reference Model 1 20-m-diameter tidal turbine. For the 20-m-diameter turbine, it was shown that the natural frequency of vibration is reduced by 65% when added mass is considered. Further, the thrust loads are increased by 2.5% when the blades are excited by a 5% step increase in inflow velocity when added mass is considered. This decrease can have a significant impact on the overall turbine design, as it is important to design the blades with a natural frequency so that they are not excited by the rotor speed and its harmonics, wherein aerodynamic excitation can lead to fatigue damage. However, it was shown that when turbulent inflow with an intensity of 20% was modeled, there was almost no impact on the loads and blade displacement with added-mass effects except for a small difference in the fatigue response of the blade to turbulent load fluctuations.

  4. Meson effective mass in the isospin medium in hard-wall AdS/QCD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, Shahin [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey); Baku State University, Institute for Physical Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-02-15

    We study a mass splitting of the light vector, axial-vector, and pseudoscalar mesons in the isospin medium in the framework of the hard-wall model. We write an effective mass definition for the interacting gauge fields and scalar field introduced in gauge field theory in the bulk of AdS space-time. Relying on holographic duality we obtain a formula for the effective mass of a boundary meson in terms of derivative operator over the extra bulk coordinate. The effective mass found in this way coincides with the one obtained from finding of poles of the two-point correlation function. In order to avoid introducing distinguished infrared boundaries in the quantization formula for the different mesons from the same isotriplet we introduce extra action terms at this boundary, which reduces distinguished values of this boundary to the same value. Profile function solutions and effective mass expressions were found for the in-medium ρ, a{sub 1}, an π mesons. (orig.)

  5. Effects of Added Mass and Structural Damping on Dynamic Responses of a 3D Wedge Impacting on Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyao Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact between the wave and the bottom of a high-speed vessel is often simplified as water-entry problems of wedges. Most investigations focus on the water entry of two dimensional (2D wedges. The effects of added mass and structural damping are still not fully investigated. By combining the normal mode method, the hydrodynamic impact model of rigid wedges and the potential flow theory, a dynamic model for predicting the response of a three dimensional (3D wedge impacting on water with a constant velocity is established in this paper. The present model can selectively consider the effects of the added mass and the structural damping. The present method has been validated through comparisons with results of published literatures and commercial software. It is found that the added mass can increase the stress response before the flow separation, and reduce the vibration frequency after the flow separation. Due to the effect of the added mass, the stress response of some positions after the flow separation is even higher than that before the flow separation. The structural damping has a negligible effect on the stress before the flow separation, but it can reduce vibration stress after the flow separation.

  6. Influence of the added mass effect and boundary conditions on the dynamic response of submerged and confined structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentín, D; Presas, A; Egusquiza, E; Valero, C

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic response of submerged and confined disk-like structures is of interest in the flied of hydraulic machinery, especially in hydraulic turbine runners. This response is difficult to be estimated with accuracy due to the strong influence of the boundary conditions. Small radial gaps as well as short axial distances to rigid surfaces greatly modify the dynamic response because the fact of the added mass and damping effects. Moreover, the effect of the shaft coupling is also important for certain mode-shapes of the structure. In the present study, the influence of the added mass effect and boundary conditions on the dynamic behavior of a submerged disk attached to a shaft is evaluated through experimental tests and structural- acoustic coupling numerical simulations. For the experimentation, a test rig has been developed. It consists of a confined disk attached to a shaft inside a cylindrical container full of water. The disk can be fixed at different axial positions along the shaft. Piezoelectric patches are used to excite the disk and the response is measured with submersible accelerometers. For each configuration tested, the natural frequencies of the disk and the shaft are studied. Numerical results have been compared with experimental results

  7. The Effect of an Added Mass on the Frequency Shifts of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam for Bio-Mass Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We present analytical formulations to calculate the induced resonance frequency shifts of electrically actuated clamped-clamped microbeams due to an added mass. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, we investigate the linear dynamic responses of the beams added masses, which are modeled as discrete point masses. Analytical expressions based on perturbation techniques and a one-mode Galerkin approximation are developed to calculate accurately the frequency shifts under a DC voltage as a function of the added mass and position. The analytical results are compared to numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem. Results are shown for the fundamental as well as the higher-order modes of the beams. The results indicate a significant increase in the frequency shift, and hence the sensitivity of detection, when scaling down to nano scale and using higher-order modes.

  8. The Effect of an Added Mass on the Frequency Shifts of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam for Bio-Mass Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-12-05

    We present analytical formulations to calculate the induced resonance frequency shifts of electrically actuated clamped-clamped microbeams due to an added mass. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, we investigate the linear dynamic responses of the beams added masses, which are modeled as discrete point masses. Analytical expressions based on perturbation techniques and a one-mode Galerkin approximation are developed to calculate accurately the frequency shifts under a DC voltage as a function of the added mass and position. The analytical results are compared to numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem. Results are shown for the fundamental as well as the higher-order modes of the beams. The results indicate a significant increase in the frequency shift, and hence the sensitivity of detection, when scaling down to nano scale and using higher-order modes.

  9. Added Mass of a Spherical Cap Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimčík, Miroslav; Punčochář, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, OCT 18 (2014), s. 1-8 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : spherical cap * added mass * single particle Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2014

  10. Application of consistent fluid added mass matrix to core seismic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, K. H.; Lee, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the application algorithm of a consistent fluid added mass matrix including the coupling terms to the core seismic analysis is developed and installed at SAC-CORE3.0 code. As an example, we assumed the 7-hexagon system of the LMR core and carried out the vibration modal analysis and the nonlinear time history seismic response analysis using SAC-CORE3.0. Used consistent fluid added mass matrix is obtained by using the finite element program of the FAMD(Fluid Added Mass and Damping) code. From the results of the vibration modal analysis, the core duct assemblies reveal strongly coupled vibration modes, which are so different from the case of in-air condition. From the results of the time history seismic analysis, it was verified that the effects of the coupled terms of the consistent fluid added mass matrix are significant in impact responses and the dynamic responses

  11. Calculation of Added Mass for Submerged Reactor with Complex Shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jong-Oh; Kim, Gyeongho; Choo, Yeon-Seok; Yoo, Yeon-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) is currently under construction. Its reactor is located on the bottom of a reactor pool which is filled with water to a depth of 12m. Some components are installed on or inside the reactor and their structural integrity and safety performance need to be verified under seismic situations. For the verification, time history data or Floor Response Spectrum (FRS) on their support location, which is the reactor, should be obtained. A Finite Element (FE) model with fluid elements can give very accurate results for the matter; however, it costs too many resources and takes too much time for the transient analyses. In order to make the model more efficient and simple, added masses are often used to simulate the effect of water instead of the fluid elements. Many literatures introduce methods to calculate the added mass according to the exterior shape of structures. In this paper, how to calculate added masses for complex shaped structure was suggested. The proposed method was applied to RSA for KJRR and its accuracy was verified through comparison of the natural frequencies of RSA with fluid elements and the added masses. They showed the differences less than 1.5% between two models. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed method is quite useful to obtain added masses for complex shaped structure.

  12. Introduction to the concept of added mass in fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Dan Tam.

    1977-07-01

    The physical phenomenum which leads to the concept of added mass for an inviscid fluid is recalled. The added-mass tensor for a solid body moving through an unbounded fluid is defined and some of its properties are presented. The Taylor theorem is exposed, which enables some of the tensor components to be analytically derived in particular cases. Added-mass values are provided for bodies of particular shape. Applications of the added-mass concept to different problems are given [fr

  13. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wade C.; Lewis, Charlotte R.; Openshaw, Anna P.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration.

  14. Octopus-inspired drag cancelation by added mass pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Gabriel; Giorgio-Serchi, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Recent work has shown that when an immersed body suddenly changes its size, such as a deflating octopus during rapid escape jetting, the body experiences large forces due to the variation of added-mass energy. We extend this line of research by investigating a spring-mass oscillator submerged in quiescent fluid subject to periodic changes in its volume. This system isolates the ability of the added-mass thrust to cancel the bluff body resistance (having no jet flow to confuse the analysis) and moves closer to studying how these effects would work in a sustained propulsion case by studying periodic shape-change instead of a "one-shot" escape maneuver. With a combination of analytical, numerical, and experimental results, we show that the recovery of added-mass kinetic energy can be used to completely cancel the drag of the fluid, driving the onset of sustained oscillations with amplitudes as large as four times the average body radius. Moreover, these results are fairly independent of the details of the shape-change kinematics as long as the Stokes number and shape-change number are large. In addition, the effective pumping frequency range based on parametric oscillator analysis is shown to predict large amplitude response region observed in the numerics and experiments.

  15. Generalized added masses computation for fluid structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzeri, L.; Cecconi, S.; Scala, M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this paper a description of a method to simulate the dynamic effect of a fluid between two structures by means of an added mass and an added stiffness. The method is based on a potential theory which assumes the fluid is inviscid and incompressible (the case of compressibility is discussed); a solution of the corresponding field equation is given as a superposition of elementary conditions (i.e. applicable to elementary boundary conditions). Consequently the pressure and displacements of the fluid on the boundary are given as a function of the series coefficients; the ''work lost'' (i.e. the work done by the pressures on the difference between actual and estimated displacements) is minimized, in this way the expansion coefficients are related to the displacements on the boundaries. Virtual work procedures are then used to compute added masses. The particular case of a free surface (with gravity effects) is discussed, it is shown how the effect can be modelled by means of an added stiffness term. Some examples relative to vibrations in reservoirs are given and discussed. (orig.)

  16. Vacuum degeneracy and Conformal Mass in Lovelock AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Henriquez, Gabriel; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2017-11-01

    It is shown that the notion of Conformal Mass can be defined within a given anti-de Sitter (AdS) branch of a Lovelock gravity theory as long as the corresponding vacuum is not degenerate. Indeed, conserved charges obtained by the addition of Kounterterms to the bulk action turn out to be proportional to the electric part of the Weyl tensor, when the fall-off of a generic solution in that AdS branch is considered. The factor of proportionality is the degeneracy condition for the vacua in the particular Lovelock AdS theory under study. This last feature explains the obstruction to define Conformal Mass in the degenerate case.

  17. Kinetic energy and added mass of hydrodynamically interacting gas bubbles in liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    1988-01-01

    By averaging the basic equations on microscale, expressions are derived for the effective added mass density and the kinetic energy density of a mixture of liquid and gas bubbles. Due to hydrodynamic interaction between the bubbles there appears to be a difference between the effective added mass

  18. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  19. Water-Exit Process Modeling and Added-Mass Calculation of the Submarine-Launched Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process that the submarine-launched missile exits the water, there is the complex fluid solid coupling phenomenon. Therefore, it is difficult to establish the accurate water-exit dynamic model. In the paper, according to the characteristics of the water-exit motion, based on the traditional method of added mass, considering the added mass changing rate, the water-exit dynamic model is established. And with help of the CFX fluid simulation software, a new calculation method of the added mass that is suit for submarine-launched missile is proposed, which can effectively solve the problem of fluid solid coupling in modeling process. Then by the new calculation method, the change law of the added mass in water-exit process of the missile is obtained. In simulated analysis, for the water-exit process of the missile, by comparing the results of the numerical simulation and the calculation of theoretical model, the effectiveness of the new added mass calculation method and the accuracy of the water-exit dynamic model that considers the added mass changing rate are verified.

  20. Global dynamics of asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes with negative mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Dominic

    2018-05-01

    The Einstein vacuum equations in 5D with negative cosmological constant are studied in biaxial Bianchi IX symmetry. We show that if initial data of Eguchi–Hanson type, modelled after the 4D Riemannian Eguchi–Hanson space, have negative mass, the future maximal development does not contain horizons, i. e. the complement of the causal past of null infinity is empty. In particular, perturbations of Eguchi–Hanson–AdS spacetimes within the biaxial Bianchi IX symmetry class cannot form horizons, suggesting that such spacetimes are potential candidates for a naked singularity to form. The proof relies on an extension principle proven for this system and a priori estimates following from the monotonicity of the Hawking mass.

  1. Effective ads: new technology answers old questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Couwenberg (Linda)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMarketing experts commonly refer to ads as either “emotional” or “rational” in their appeal to consumers. This dichotomy of “thinking versus feeling” is most evident when it comes to discussions around what makes an ad effective. Some studies suggest that an ad that pulls on the

  2. Effective AdS/renormalized CFT

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, JiJi

    2011-01-01

    For an effective AdS theory, we present a simple prescription to compute the renormalization of its dual boundary field theory. In particular, we define anomalous dimension holographically as the dependence of the wave-function renormalization factor on the radial cutoff in the Poincare patch of AdS. With this definition, the anomalous dimensions of both single- and double- trace operators are calculated. Three different dualities are considered with the field theory being CFT, CFT with a dou...

  3. Generalized derivation of the added-mass and circulatory forces for viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limacher, Eric; Morton, Chris; Wood, David

    2018-01-01

    The concept of added mass arises from potential flow analysis and is associated with the acceleration of a body in an inviscid irrotational fluid. When shed vorticity is modeled as vortex singularities embedded in this irrotational flow, the associated force can be superimposed onto the added-mass force due to the linearity of the governing Laplace equation. This decomposition of force into added-mass and circulatory components remains common in modern aerodynamic models, but its applicability to viscous separated flows remains unclear. The present work addresses this knowledge gap by presenting a generalized derivation of the added-mass and circulatory force decomposition which is valid for a body of arbitrary shape in an unbounded, incompressible fluid domain, in both two and three dimensions, undergoing arbitrary motions amid continuous distributions of vorticity. From the general expression, the classical added-mass force is rederived for well-known canonical cases and is seen to be additive to the circulatory force for any flow. The formulation is shown to be equivalent to existing theoretical work under the specific conditions and assumptions of previous studies. It is also validated using a numerical simulation of a pitching plate in a steady freestream flow, conducted by Wang and Eldredge [Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 27, 577 (2013), 10.1007/s00162-012-0279-5]. In response to persistent confusion in the literature, a discussion of the most appropriate physical interpretation of added mass is included, informed by inspection of the derived equations. The added-mass force is seen to account for the dynamic effect of near-body vorticity and is not (as is commonly claimed) associated with the acceleration of near-body fluid which "must" somehow move with the body. Various other consequences of the derivation are discussed, including a concept which has been labeled the conservation of image-vorticity impulse.

  4. Effective ads: new technology answers old questions

    OpenAIRE

    Couwenberg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMarketing experts commonly refer to ads as either “emotional” or “rational” in their appeal to consumers. This dichotomy of “thinking versus feeling” is most evident when it comes to discussions around what makes an ad effective. Some studies suggest that an ad that pulls on the heart strings will pack the most punch; others suggest a blend of logic and emotion. However, new research reveals which areas of the brain are stimulated by different ad appeals – and the brain activi...

  5. Progresses on the computation of added masses for fluid structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzeri, L.; Cecconi, S.; Scala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of coupled vibrations of fluids and structures is analyzed, in the case of irrotational incompressible fluid fields the effect is modelled as an added mass matrix. The Modified Boundary Elements technique is used; a particular case (cylindrical reservois with sloshing) and the general case are examined. (orig.)

  6. Added mass induced by an uncompressible ideal and still fluid on a structure a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, G.

    1994-02-01

    We first recall the most important definitions about the fluid/structure interaction. We also define some non-dimensional numbers in order to analyze the physical effects in the fluid we have to take into account: viscosity, compressibility, gravity, inertial effect. Then, in the first part called ''Calculation of the added mass: Models'', we explain the equations which allow us to find the added mass on one structure. After that, we deal with the dynamical behaviour of tube bundles immersed in a fluid. We present a two dimensional modelling. Therefore, the fluid structure interaction only takes place in the planes perpendicular to the tube axis. The added mass matrix of the fluid on the whole tubes is built for every kind of cross-section. But we also focus our attention on the special case of circular cross-section. Lastly, when the number of the tubes in the bundle is huge, the direct calculation of the global added mass matrix is impossible: we must use a method of homogenization to describe the global dynamical behaviour of the tube bundles. In particular, the eigenfrequencies of such homogenized medium are determined. We especially focus our attention on the square nuclear fuel bundles immersed in a confined fluid. In the second part called ''Numerical methods used for the fluid structure interaction'', we first tackle the integral methods. However, in these methods, some theoretical and numerical difficulties arise and this fact makes the advantage of a little number of degrees of freedom far less interesting. This leads us to consider the finite element methods. It allows us to determine the added mass matrix of the fluid on the structure expressed with the nodal interpolation functions used by the FE methods. We then propose a discretization of the equations of the movement of tube bundles immersed in a fluid, with or without homogenization. At last, we compare the efficiency of the integral methods to the FE methods. (author). figs., tabs., 54 refs

  7. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T; Hayashi, S [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1997-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Investigation of dynamic characteristics of shells with holes and added mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seregin Sergey Valer’evich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin cylindrical shells are widely used in construction, engineering and other industries. In case of designing a reservoir for the isothermal storage of liquefied gases such cases are inevitable, when housing requires various technical holes. A point wise added mass can appear into practice in the form of suspended spotlights, radar, architectural inclusions in buildings and structures of various purposes. It is known, that the dynamic asymmetry as an initial irregular geometric shape, including holes, and the added mass leads to specific effects in shells. In the paper the impact of a cut on the frequency and form of its own vibrations of thin circular cylindrical shells is theoretically examined with the help of the equations of linear shallow shell theory. For modal equations with Nav’e boundary conditions, we used the Bubnov - Galerkin method. The authors have expressed a formula for finding the lowest of the split-frequency vibrations of a shell with a cutout. It is stated, that in case of an appropriate choice of added mass value the lower frequencies are comparable with the case of vibrations of a shell with a hole. By numerical and experimental modeling and finite element method in the environment of MSC "Nastran" oscillation frequencies a shell supporting a concentrated mass and a shell with a cutout were compared. It is shown, that the results of the dynamic analysis of shells with holes with a suitable choice of the attached mass values are comparable with the results of the analysis of shells carrying a point mass. It was concluded that the edges in the holes, significantly affect the reduction in the lowest frequency, and need to be strengthened.

  10. Independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Kerry Elizabeth; Matrangola, Sara Louise; Madigan, Michael Lawrence

    2012-04-16

    Human balance during quiet standing is influenced by adding mass to the body with a backpack, with symmetrically-applied loads to the trunk, or with obesity. Adding mass to the body increases both the weight and inertia of the body, which theoretically could provide counteracting effects on body dynamics and balance. Understanding the independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance may provide additional insight into human balance that could lead to novel advancements in balance training and rehabilitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance during quiet standing. Sixteen normal-weight young adult participants stood as still as possible on a custom-built backboard apparatus under four experimental conditions: baseline, added inertia only, added weight only, and added inertia and weight. Adding inertia by itself had no measurable effect on center of pressure movement or backboard movement. Adding weight by itself increased center of pressure movement (indicated greater effort by the postural control system to stand as still as possible) and backboard movement (indicating a poorer ability of the body to stand as still as possible). Adding inertia and weight at the same time increased center of pressure movement but did not increase backboard movement compared to the baseline condition. Adding inertia and adding weight had different effects on balance. Adding inertia by itself had no effect on balance. Adding weight by itself had a negative effect on balance. When adding inertia and weight at the same time, the added inertia appeared to lessen (but did not eliminate) the negative effect of adding weight on balance. These results improve our fundamental understanding of how added mass influences human balance.

  11. Adding interventions to mass measles vaccinations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Verguet, Stéphane; Morris, Shaun K; Sharma, Jitendar K; Ram, Usha; Gauvreau, Cindy; Jones, Edward; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2016-10-01

    To quantify the impact on mortality of offering a hypothetical set of technically feasible, high-impact interventions for maternal and child survival during India's 2010-2013 measles supplementary immunization activity. We developed Lives Saved Tool models for 12 Indian states participating in the supplementary immunization, based on state- and sex-specific data on mortality from India's Million Deaths Study and on health services coverage from Indian household surveys. Potential add-on interventions were identified through a literature review and expert consultations. We quantified the number of lives saved for a campaign offering measles vaccine alone versus a campaign offering measles vaccine with six add-on interventions (nutritional screening and complementary feeding for children, vitamin A and zinc supplementation for children, multiple micronutrient and calcium supplementation in pregnancy, and free distribution of insecticide-treated bednets). The measles vaccination campaign saved an estimated 19 016 lives of children younger than 5 years. A hypothetical campaign including measles vaccine with add-on interventions was projected to save around 73 900 lives (range: 70 200-79 300), preventing 73 700 child deaths (range: 70 000-79 000) and 300 maternal deaths (range: 200-400). The most effective interventions in the whole package were insecticide-treated bednets, measles vaccine and preventive zinc supplementation. Girls accounted for 66% of expected lives saved (12 712/19 346) for the measles vaccine campaign, and 62% of lives saved (45 721/74 367) for the hypothetical campaign including add-on interventions. In India, a measles vaccination campaign including feasible, high-impact interventions could substantially increase the number of lives saved and mitigate gender-related inequities in child mortality.

  12. Feasibility study of a wearable exoskeleton for children: is the gait altered by adding masses on lower limbs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rossi

    Full Text Available We are designing a pediatric exoskeletal ankle robot (pediatric Anklebot to promote gait habilitation in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. Few studies have evaluated how much or whether the unilateral loading of a wearable exoskeleton may have the unwanted effect of altering significantly the gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding masses up to 2.5 kg, the estimated overall added mass of the mentioned device, at the knee level alters the gait kinematics. Ten healthy children and eight children with CP, with light or mild gait impairment, walked wearing a knee brace with several masses. Gait parameters and lower-limb joint kinematics were analyzed with an optoelectronic system under six conditions: without brace (natural gait and with masses placed at the knee level (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA tests were conducted in order to find noteworthy differences among the trial conditions and between loaded and unloaded legs. No statistically significant differences in gait parameters for both healthy children and children with CP were observed in the five "with added mass" conditions. We found significant differences among "natural gait" and "with added masses" conditions in knee flexion and hip extension angles for healthy children and in knee flexion angle for children with CP. This result can be interpreted as an effect of the mechanical constraint induced by the knee brace rather than the effect associated with load increase. The study demonstrates that the mechanical constraint induced by the brace has a measurable effect on the gait of healthy children and children with CP and that the added mass up to 2.5 kg does not alter the lower limb kinematics. This suggests that wearable devices weighing 25 N or less will not noticeably modify the gait patterns of the population examined here.

  13. Resistive thrust production can be as crucial as added mass mechanisms for inertial undulatory swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeirua, M.; Godoy-Diana, R.; Thiria, B.

    2015-08-01

    In this Rapid Communication, we address a crucial point regarding the description of moderate to high Reynolds numbers aquatic swimmers. For decades, swimming animals have been classified in two different families of propulsive mechanisms based on the Reynolds number: the resistive swimmers, using local friction to produce the necessary thrust force for locomotion at low Reynolds number, and the reactive swimmers, lying in the high Reynolds range, and using added mass acceleration (described by perfect fluid theory). However, inertial swimmers are also systems that dissipate energy, due to their finite size, therefore involving strong resistive contributions, even for high Reynolds numbers. Using a complete model for the hydrodynamic forces, involving both reactive and resistive contributions, we revisit here the physical mechanisms responsible for the thrust production of such swimmers. We show, for instance, that the resistive part of the force balance is as crucial as added mass effects in the modeling of the thrust force, especially for elongated species. The conclusions brought by this work may have significant contributions to the understanding of complex swimming mechanisms, especially for the future design of artificial swimmers.

  14. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a

  15. CFD Based Added Mass Prediction in Cruise Condition of Underwater Vehicle Dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoes Moelyadi, Mochammad; Bambang Riswandi, Bagus

    2018-04-01

    One of the unsteady flow behavior on the hydrodynamic characteristics of underwater vehicle is the presence of added mass. In cruising conditions, the underwater vehicle may require the addition of speed or experience the disturbance in the form of unsteady flow so that cause the hydrodynamic interaction between the surface of the vehicle with the surrounding fluid. This leads to the rise of local velocity of flow and the great changes of hydrodynamic forces which are very influential on the stability of the underwater vehicle. One of the result is an additional force called added mass. It is very useful parameter to control underwater vehicle dynamic.This paper reports the research on the added mass coefficient of underwater vehicles obtained through the Computational Fluid Dynmaic (CFD) simulation method using CFX software. Added mass coefficient is calculated by performing an unsteady simulation or known as transient simulation. Computational simulations are based on the Reynold Average Navier- Stokes (RANS) equation solution. The simulated vehicle moves forward and backward according to the sinus function, with a frequency of 0.25 Hz, a 2 m amplitude, a cruising depth of 10 m below sea level, and Vcruise 1.54 m / s (Re = 9.000.000). Simulation result data includes velocity contour, variation of force and acceleration to frequency, and added mass coefficient.

  16. Theory for added mass of a vibrating circular rod in a two-phase air-water fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohgo, Osamu; Hara, Fumio

    1985-01-01

    It has been well known that there are added mass and attenuation effect due to surrounding fluid in a structure vibrating in the fluid, and those are different according to the density and viscosity of the fluid and the form of the structure. In this study, in order to clarify added mass, the model of the vapor-liquid two-phase fluid with discontinuous density distribution was made. That is, bubbles were assumed to be a bubble column without bending stiffness and mass, and potential analysis was applied to a two-dimensional fluid field composed of a round section beam and the bubble column, thus their relative motion was hydrodynamically analyzed, and the theory for evaluating added mass was developed. The added mass experimentally determined from the response gain of a single round section cantilever when it was oscillated steadily, uniformly and at random in the vapor-liquid two-phase fluid being stationary as a whole and the theoretical result were examined by comparison, and equivalent bubble diameter was considered, thereafter, the validity of the model was examined. (Kako, I.)

  17. Finite temperature effective action, AdS5 black holes, and 1/N expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Gomez, Cesar; Liu Hong; Wadia, Spenta R.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological matrix model to study string theory in AdS 5 xS 5 in the canonical ensemble. The model reproduces all the known qualitative features of the theory. In particular, it gives a simple effective potential description of Euclidean black hole nucleation and the tunneling between thermal anti-de Sitter (AdS) and the big black hole. It also has some interesting predictions. We find that there exists a critical temperature at which the Euclidean small black hole undergoes a Gross-Witten phase transition. We identify the phase transition with the Horowitz-Polchinski point where the black hole horizon size becomes comparable to the string scale. The appearance of the Hagedorn divergence of thermal AdS is due to the merger of saddle points corresponding to the Euclidean small black hole and thermal AdS. The merger can be described in terms of a cusp (A 3 ) catastrophe and divergences at the perturbative string level are smoothed out at finite string coupling using standard techniques of catastrophe theory

  18. Frequency Shifts of Micro and Nano Cantilever Beam Resonators Due to Added Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-03-21

    We present analytical and numerical techniques to accurately calculate the shifts in the natural frequencies of electrically actuated micro and nano (carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) cantilever beams implemented as resonant sensors for mass detection of biological entities, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) cells. The beams are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams, including the nonlinear electrostatic forces and the added biological cells, which are modeled as discrete point masses. The frequency shifts due to the added masses of the cells are calculated for the fundamental and higher-order modes of vibrations. Analytical expressions of the natural frequency shifts under a direct current (DC) voltage and an added mass have been developed using perturbation techniques and the Galerkin approximation. Numerical techniques are also used to calculate the frequency shifts and compared with the analytical technique. We found that a hybrid approach that relies on the analytical perturbation expression and the Galerkin procedure for calculating accurately the static behavior presents the most computationally efficient approach. We found that using higher-order modes of vibration of micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) beams or miniaturizing the sizes of the beams to nanoscale leads to significant improved frequency shifts, and thus increased sensitivities. © 2016 by ASME.

  19. Effect of adding Si on shape memory effect in Co-Ni alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Weimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Liu Yan [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Jiang Bohong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: bhjiang@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhou Pingnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-11-25

    In this paper, the effect of adding Si to Co-31.5 mass% Ni alloys on fcc-hcp martensitic transformation is investigated. The Co-Ni-Si ternary alloys with different amount of Si from 1 to 5 mass% were prepared. The stacking fault probability of Co-Ni-Si polycrystalline alloys were determined by X-ray diffraction profile analysis and compared with the binary Co-Ni alloy. The results show that the stacking fault probability of the fcc phase of alloys increases with increasing Si content. The effect of Si on phase transformation and shape memory behavior is evaluated. The experimental results show that both the critical strength and the shape memory effect of the ternary alloys will increase by the addition of Si. The improvement mechanism of the shape memory effect by adding Si to binary Co-Ni alloys is discussed.

  20. The effects of openness on attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and brand beliefs in Dutch magazine ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Gisbergen, M.S. van; Bosman, J.A.M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, magazine advertisers have used an increasing number of open ads. Open ads do not guide consumers towards a specific interpretation as traditional ads do, and they require more effort to decipher. An experiment was carried out to determine the effects of ad openness on the attitude

  1. A note on physical mass and the thermodynamics of AdS-Kerr black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett [Department of Mathematics, National University of Singapore, 10, Lower Kent Ridge Road, 119076 (Singapore); Ong, Yen Chin, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yenchin.ong@nordita.org [Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    As with any black hole, asymptotically anti-de Sitter Kerr black holes are described by a small number of parameters, including a ''mass parameter'' M that reduces to the AdS-Schwarzschild mass in the limit of vanishing angular momentum. In sharp contrast to the asymptotically flat case, the horizon area of such a black hole increases with the angular momentum parameter a if one fixes M; this appears to mean that the Penrose process in this case would violate the Second Law of black hole thermodynamics. We show that the correct procedure is to fix not M but rather the ''physical'' mass E=M/(1−a{sup 2}/L{sup 2}){sup 2}; this is motivated by the First Law. For then the horizon area decreases with a. We recommend that E always be used as the mass in physical processes: for example, in attempts to ''over-spin'' AdS-Kerr black holes.

  2. An experimental study on the effect of ad placement, product involvement and motives on Facebook ad avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Broeck, Van den, Evert; Poels, Karolien; Walrave, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Facebook users do not visit the social networking site to see advertising. They are either just surfing the platform or searching for information. Therefore, advertising content is vulnerable to ad avoidance. In this study, the effect of two Facebook ad placements, sidebar ads and message stream ads, on ad avoidance intention was investigated through an online experiment. Sidebar placements are put next to the content stream, while message stream advertising is interwoven with the o...

  3. Effect of exogenously added rhamnolipids on citric acid production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of exogenously added rhamnolipids on citric acid production yield. Wojciech Białas, Roman Marecik, Alicja Szulc, Łukasz Ławniczak, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Filip Ciesielczyk, Teofil Jesionowski, Andreas Aurich ...

  4. Evidence of Added Worker Effect from the 2008 Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan, Sinem H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the research on interdependencies in spousal labor supply by analyzing labor supply response of married women to their husbands' job losses ("added worker effect"). It empirically tests the hypothesis of added worker effect relying on a case study on Turkey during the global economic crisis of 2008. Identification is achieved by exploiting the exogenous variation in the output of male-dominated sectors that were hit hard by the crisis and the high degree of gender se...

  5. Positron effective mass in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, B.K.; Shan, Y.Y.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The positron effective mass in Si is obtained from the first-principles calculations along various crystallographic directions. The effect of electron-positron correlation on the band mass is examined in this work. A positron pseudopotential scheme is worked out to calculate the isotropic band mass without explicitly solving the band energy. The effective mass 1.46m obtained as a sum of band mass and the positron-plasmon interaction compares very well with 1.5m obtained from the positron mobility data

  6. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Paolo; Thearle, Marie S; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2015-08-01

    Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m(2); body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Higher 24-hour RQ (P FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m(2) or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake.

  7. Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Regarding Blood Donation. ... PY Kulkarni, AD Kulkarni ... Establishment of mobile counseling units by blood banks may help to create a voluntary blood donor.

  8. Estimation of added-mass and damping coefficients of a tethered spherical float using potential flow theory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Chandramohan, P.; Sastry, J.S.; Narasimhan, S.

    Added-mass (alpha) and damping coefficients (beta) of a tethered spherical float, undergoing oscillatory motion in sinusoidal waves, have been derived from the motion generated velocity potential for one degree-of-freedom (surge) using potential...

  9. THE EFFECT OF LEVERAGE AND ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED ON MARKET VALUE ADDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Jančovičová BOGNÁROVÁ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic value added (EVA is a performance measure developed by Stern Stewart & Co. that attempts to measure the true economic profit produced by a company. Such a metric is useful for investors who wish to determine how well a company has produced value for its investors, and it can be compared against the company's peers for a quick analysis of how well the company is operating in its industry. Market value added (MVA, on the other hand, is simply the difference between the current total market value of a company and the capital contributed by investors (including both shareholders and bondholders. It is typically used for companies that are larger and publicly-traded. MVA is not a performance metric like EVA, but instead is a wealth metric, measuring the level of value a company has accumulated over time. In order to maximise the value for shareholders, companies should strive towards maximising MVA and not necessarily their total market value. It is believed, that the best way to do so is to maximize EVA, which reflects a company’s ability to earn returns above the cost of capital. The leverage available to companies that incur fixed costs and use borrowed capital with a fixed interest charge has been known and quantified by financial managers for some time. In this research the effect of leverage and EVA on MVA as the measure of shareholder wealth creation was analysed. Leverage and EVA have been used as the independent variables whereas MVA has been used as the measure of shareholder wealth creation. Correlation and regression methods have been employed to find out in what way financial managers can practice the effects of leverage and EVA to maximize MVA. The results showed that EVA and leverage have no profound impact on MVA of the selected Slovak companies

  10. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum ...

  11. Effects of sulfamethoxazole on soil microbial communities after adding substrate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoling, L.A.; Baath, E.; Greve, G.D.; Wouterse, M.; Schmitt, H.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on soil bacteria was studied using two methods (leucine incorporation and Biolog plates) of estimating pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT). SMX was added to an agricultural soil in a microcosm setup. The addition of different substrates

  12. Analytical study of the frequency shifts of micro and nano clamped–clamped beam resonators due to an added mass

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-03-18

    We present analytical formulations to calculate the induced resonance frequency shifts of electrically actuated clamped–clamped micro and nano (Carbon nanotube) beams due to an added mass. Based on the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, we investigate the linear dynamic responses of the beams added masses, which are modeled as discrete point masses. Analytical expressions based on perturbation techniques and a one-mode Galerkin approximation are developed to calculate accurately the frequency shifts under a DC voltage as a function of the added mass and position. The analytical results are compared to numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem. Results are shown for the fundamental as well as the higher-order modes of the beams. The results indicate a significant increase in the frequency shift, and hence the sensitivity of detection, when scaling down to nano scale and using higher-order modes. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  13. EFFECT OF ADDING THE INTERNAL STANDARD TO BLOOD SAMPLES, PRIOR TO THE PREPARATION OF BLOOD SPOTS FOR ACYLCARNITINE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, José Henry; Pourfarzam, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Background: some general factors can influence when determining acylcarnitines through tandem mass spectrometry. Objective: to study the effect of adding the internal standard to blood samples before the preparation of filter paper cards compared with the addition of internal standard after having the filter paper cards prepared for determining acylcarnitines in blood for tandem mass spectrometry. Methodology: two groups of blood samples were prepared: group one without adding internal standa...

  14. Added effect of heat wave on mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Hye Ah; Lim, Youn Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-05-01

    A heat wave could increase mortality owing to high temperature. However, little is known about the added (duration) effect of heat wave from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and different effect sizes depending on the definition of heat waves and models. A distributed lag non-linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the added effect of heat wave on mortality after adjusting for long-term and intra-seasonal trends and apparent temperature. We evaluated the cumulative relative risk of the added wave effect on mortality on lag days 0-30. The models were constructed using nine definitions of heat wave and two relationships (cubic spline and linear threshold model) between temperature and mortality to leave out the high temperature effect. Further, we performed sensitivity analysis to evaluate the changes in the effect of heat wave on mortality according to the different degrees of freedom for time trend and cubic spline of temperature. We found that heat wave had the added effect from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and it was considerable in the aspect of cumulative risk because of the lagged influence. When heat wave was defined with a threshold of 98th percentile temperature and ≥2, 3, and 4 consecutive days, mortality increased by 14.8 % (7.5-22.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI)), 18.1 % (10.8-26.0, 95 % CI), 18.1 % (10.7-25.9, 95 % CI), respectively, in cubic spline model. When it came to the definitions of 90th and 95th percentile, the risk increase in mortality declined to 3.7-5.8 % and 8.6-11.3 %, respectively. This effect was robust to the flexibility of the model for temperature and time trend, while the definitions of a heat wave were critical in estimating its relationship with mortality. This finding could help deepen our understanding and quantifying of the relationship between heat wave and mortality and select an appropriate definition of heat wave and temperature model in the future

  15. THE EFFECT OF LEVERAGE AND ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED ON MARKET VALUE ADDED

    OpenAIRE

    Kristína Jančovičová BOGNÁROVÁ

    2018-01-01

    Economic value added (EVA) is a performance measure developed by Stern Stewart & Co.) that attempts to measure the true economic profit produced by a company. Such a metric is useful for investors who wish to determine how well a company has produced value for its investors, and it can be compared against the company's peers for a quick analysis of how well the company is operating in its industry. Market value added (MVA), on the other hand, is simply the difference between the c...

  16. Effect of adding a swirl on flow pattern and recirculation zone in ADS windowless spallation target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie, E-mail: nauty@ucas.ac.cn [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Gao, Lei [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yang, Lei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Lu, Wen-qiang [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The reduction of the recirculation zone and the stability of the free surface are key issues in the target. • A swirl is numerically added in the target to make the recirculation zone small and stable. • Numerical simulation with different boundary conditions is carried out. • Physical analysis is presented to explain the numerical results. - Abstract: Aiming the key issues in the accelerator driven system (ADS), windowless spallation target focus on the minimization of the recirculation zone and on the stability of the free surface, an innovation has been made by numerically adding swirl to the fluid at the inlet. At first, two phase flow pattern in the simulation is compared with the experiments and numerical method is employed correctly. The results reveal that the recirculation zone and the flow pattern are greatly influenced when the swirl strength is changed from 1.0 rad/s to 2.5 rad/s. The height of the recirculation zone decreases with increase in swirl strength and completely disappears when the swirl strength reaches 2.0 rad/s. In addition, larger swirl strength leads to different flow pattern and a new cavitation zone is generated under the recirculation zone. The Bernoulli's equation and angular momentum conservation are applied to make it clear that this phenomena is due to the decrease of the axial pressure caused by the radial velocity. Moreover, the new cavitation zone totally links to the vapor area above the recirculation zone when the swirl strength is 2.5 rad/s. The results are very helpful to the design and optimization of the ADS windowless spallation target.

  17. Effect of adding a swirl on flow pattern and recirculation zone in ADS windowless spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Gao, Lei; Yang, Lei; Lu, Wen-qiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The reduction of the recirculation zone and the stability of the free surface are key issues in the target. • A swirl is numerically added in the target to make the recirculation zone small and stable. • Numerical simulation with different boundary conditions is carried out. • Physical analysis is presented to explain the numerical results. - Abstract: Aiming the key issues in the accelerator driven system (ADS), windowless spallation target focus on the minimization of the recirculation zone and on the stability of the free surface, an innovation has been made by numerically adding swirl to the fluid at the inlet. At first, two phase flow pattern in the simulation is compared with the experiments and numerical method is employed correctly. The results reveal that the recirculation zone and the flow pattern are greatly influenced when the swirl strength is changed from 1.0 rad/s to 2.5 rad/s. The height of the recirculation zone decreases with increase in swirl strength and completely disappears when the swirl strength reaches 2.0 rad/s. In addition, larger swirl strength leads to different flow pattern and a new cavitation zone is generated under the recirculation zone. The Bernoulli's equation and angular momentum conservation are applied to make it clear that this phenomena is due to the decrease of the axial pressure caused by the radial velocity. Moreover, the new cavitation zone totally links to the vapor area above the recirculation zone when the swirl strength is 2.5 rad/s. The results are very helpful to the design and optimization of the ADS windowless spallation target

  18. Evolutionary effects of mass loss in low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of mass loss on the evolution of low-mass stars (actual mass smaller than 1.4 solar masses) are reviewed. The case of globular cluster stars is discussed in some detail, and it is shown that evolutionary theory sets quite precise limits to the mass-loss rate in population II red giants. The effects of mass loss on the final evolutionary stages of stars producing white dwarfs is also discussed. In particular, the interaction of the wind from the hot central star with the surrounding planetary nebula is considered. Finally, the problem of the origin of hydrogen-deficient stars is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Performance Improvement of Membrane Stress Measurement Equipment through Evaluation of Added Mass of Membrane and Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in keeping membrane structures in stable condition is to maintain the proper stress distribution over the membrane. However, it is difficult to determine the quantitative real stress level in the membrane after the completion of the structure. The stress relaxation phenomenon of the membrane and the fluttering effect due to strong wind or ponding caused by precipitation may cause severe damage to the membrane structure itself. Therefore, it is very important to know the magnitude of the existing stress in membrane structures for their maintenance. The authors have proposed a new method for separately estimating the membrane stress in two different directions using sound waves instead of directly measuring the membrane stress. The new method utilizes the resonance phenomenon of the membrane, which is induced by sound excitations given through an audio speaker. During such experiment, the effect of the surrounding air on the vibrating membrane cannot be overlooked in order to assure high measurement precision. In this paper, an evaluation scheme for the added mass of membrane with the effect of air on the vibrating membrane and the correction of measurement error is discussed. In addition, three types of membrane materials are used in the experiment in order to verify the expandability and accuracy of the membrane measurement equipment.

  20. Frequency Shifts of Micro and Nano Cantilever Beam Resonators Due to Added Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    of biological entities, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) cells. The beams are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams, including the nonlinear electrostatic forces and the added biological cells, which are modeled as discrete

  1. Quark mass effects in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper recent studies of invariant QCD coupling anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with account of fermionic mass effects are summarized. The main results are: An explicit expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with accurate account of heavy quark masses. A quantitative analysis on the basis of the above-mentioned expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) of the energy dependence of the scale QCD parameter ν and the conclusion about its inadequacy in the modern energy range

  2. Mass, angular momentum and thermodynamics in four-dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Rodrigo [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, the connection between the Lorentz-covariant counterterms that regularize the four-dimensional AdS gravity action and topological invariants is explored. It is shown that demanding the spacetime to have a negative constant curvature in the asymptotic region permits the explicit construction of such series of boundary terms. The orthonormal frame is adapted to appropriately describe the boundary geometry and, as a result, the boundary term can be expressed as a functional of the boundary metric, extrinsic curvature and intrinsic curvature. This choice also allows to write down the background-independent Noether charges associated to asymptotic symmetries in standard tensorial formalism. The absence of the Gibbons-Hawking term is a consequence of an action principle based on a boundary condition different than Dirichlet on the metric. This argument makes plausible the idea of regarding this approach as an alternative regularization scheme for AdS gravity in all even dimensions, different than the standard counterterms prescription. As an illustration of the finiteness of the charges and the euclidean action in this framework, the conserved quantities and black hole entropy for four-dimensional Kerr-AdS are computed.

  3. Added mass induced by an uncompressible ideal and still fluid on a structure a bibliography; Prise en compte d`un fluide parfait incompressible au repos comme masse ajoutee sur une structure. Synthese bibliographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.

    1994-02-01

    We first recall the most important definitions about the fluid/structure interaction. We also define some non-dimensional numbers in order to analyze the physical effects in the fluid we have to take into account: viscosity, compressibility, gravity, inertial effect. Then, in the first part called ``Calculation of the added mass: Models``, we explain the equations which allow us to find the added mass on one structure. After that, we deal with the dynamical behaviour of tube bundles immersed in a fluid. We present a two dimensional modelling. Therefore, the fluid structure interaction only takes place in the planes perpendicular to the tube axis. The added mass matrix of the fluid on the whole tubes is built for every kind of cross-section. But we also focus our attention on the special case of circular cross-section. Lastly, when the number of the tubes in the bundle is huge, the direct calculation of the global added mass matrix is impossible: we must use a method of homogenization to describe the global dynamical behaviour of the tube bundles. In particular, the eigenfrequencies of such homogenized medium are determined. We especially focus our attention on the square nuclear fuel bundles immersed in a confined fluid. In the second part called ``Numerical methods used for the fluid structure interaction``, we first tackle the integral methods. However, in these methods, some theoretical and numerical difficulties arise and this fact makes the advantage of a little number of degrees of freedom far less interesting. This leads us to consider the finite element methods. It allows us to determine the added mass matrix of the fluid on the structure expressed with the nodal interpolation functions used by the FE methods. We then propose a discretization of the equations of the movement of tube bundles immersed in a fluid, with or without homogenization. At last, we compare the efficiency of the integral methods to the FE methods. (author). figs., tabs., 54 refs.

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Bjørk, Anders A

    2015-01-01

    the mass balance into a term for surface mass balance (that is, total precipitation minus total sublimation minus runoff) and a dynamic term. We find that many areas currently undergoing change are identical to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the twentieth century. We also reveal...

  5. Modeling and Inferring Aircraft Takeoff Mass from Runway ADS-B Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Lovell, D.; Fricke, H.

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft mass is an important parameter in many ways, either to build aircraft performance models, to predict flight trajectories, or to simulate air traffic. Mass data is usually considered as sensitive information for airlines and is, therefore, not disclosed to researchers publicly. In this

  6. Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Study of Cloned versus Normal Pigs Fed Either Restricted or Ad Libitum High-Energy Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Genetically identical cloned pigs should in principle eliminate biological variation and provide more pronounced effects when subjected to, e.g., dietary interventions, but little is known about how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning. Therefore, an investigation...... of the metabolome of cloned pigs compared to normal control pigs was performed to elucidate the variation and possible differences in the metabolic phenotypes during a dietary intervention. A total of 19 control pigs and 17 cloned pigs were given the same high-energy dense diet either ad libitum or in a restricted...... manner (60% of ad libitum) for 6 months, and plasma was subjected to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry nontargeted metabolomics and biochemical analyses. Low systemic levels of IGF-1 could indicate altered growth conditions and energy metabolism in cloned pigs. In response to ad libitum feeding...

  7. Computation of Added Mass and Damping Coefficients of a Horizontal Circular Cylinder in Open Foam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents numerical computation of added massand damping coefficients of a slender horizontal cylinder in thefree surface zone, which typically serves as a fish cage floater. A fully viscous two phase flow solver in OpenFOAM was employed in the numerical computation. The purpose...

  8. The investigation of added masses and damping factors for vibrations of tube and tube bundles in fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyavskii, V.F.; Fedotovskii, V.S.; Kukhtin, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    The vibrations of single cylinders in fluid being surrounded by the solid walls of different form as well as the bundles of cylindric rods have been considered in this report. A model is proposed for hydrodynamic damping of vibrations and the analytic solution of a problem concerning damping of cylinder vibrations in fluid surrounded by a concentric shell. It has been shown that the fluid viscosity and vibration frequency influence the value of the fluid added mass and the damping factor of vibrations

  9. Finite-size effect of η-deformed AdS5×S5 at strong coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changrim Ahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We compute Lüscher corrections for a giant magnon in the η-deformed (AdS5×S5η using the su(2|2q-invariant S-matrix at strong coupling and compare with the finite-size effect of the corresponding string state, derived previously. We find that these two results match and confirm that the su(2|2q-invariant S-matrix is describing world-sheet excitations of the η-deformed background.

  10. Cost-effective advertising through TV and newspaper "banner" ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Krauss, Katie; Medeiros, Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Banner ads, small strip ads in newspapers used to specifically promote an information piece, were introduced into one newspaper in the Connecticut market in 1999 by Yale-New Haven Hospital (YNHH). Based on their success, the concept was expanded to six additional newspapers in late 2000 and to TV in the summer of 2001. Between 2000-2002, even as the overall marketing/advertising budget declined 30%, switching advertising dollars from image/display ads to banner ads resulted in consumer awareness of YNHH increasing from 29% to 42%. Perception of YNHH as "the advanced medicine" hospital grew from 22% to 40% during the same period. The specific strategic and operational actions generated since the implementation of the program are detailed and the advantages and disadvantages of this banner advertising approach are discussed. Banner ads may offer an alternative approach for organizations to advertise their products and programs.

  11. Loop effects in AdS/CFT and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2003-01-01

    Double-trace operators which are relevant deformations of large N conformal field theories give rise to renormalization group flows that can be studied on both sides of the AdS/CFT duality. One-loop calculations in AdS can be compared successfully to results derived in field theory using the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. The calculations do not rely on supersymmetry, and they apply in any dimension, provided the original conformal field theory and its AdS dual are well-defined. A speculative idea is proposed for solving the cosmological constant problem based on non-gravitational strings that become light as the universe expands. This is a summary of my talk presented at the Nishinomiya-Yukawa Symposium in Nishinomiya, Japan. (author)

  12. Effects of adding cellulose on rheological characteristics of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    plants and are finding applications as food ingredient in many products (Bahr,. 1996). Cereals, like .... might continue to absorb more water as higher levels of cellulose would be added. ... the dough and retention of carbon dioxide. Some other ...

  13. The Effective Mass of a Ball in the Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, J.; Pantaleone, J.

    2010-01-01

    The air surrounding a projectile affects the projectile's motion in three very different ways: the drag force, the buoyant force, and the added mass. The added mass is an increase in the projectile's inertia from the motion of the air around it. Here we experimentally measure the added mass of a spherical projectile in air. The results agree well…

  14. Effect of dexmedetomidine added to spinal bupivacaine for urological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMustafa, Mahmoud M.; AbuHalaweh, Sami A.; Aloweidi, AbdelKarim S.; Murshidi, Mujalli M.; Ammari, Bassam A.; Awwad, Ziad M.; AlEdwan, Ghazi M.; Ramsay, Micheal A.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the effect of adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine for neuraxial anesthesia. Sixty-six patients were studied between April and May 2008 in the University of Jordan, Amman Jordan. They were randomly assigned into 3 groups, each receiving spinal bupivacaine 12.5mg combined with normal saline (group N) Dexmedetomidine 5ug (group D5), or dexmedetomidine 10ug (group D10). The onset times to reach T10 sensory and Bromage 3 motor block, and the regression times to reach S1 sensory level and Bromage 0 motor scale, were recorded. The mean time of sensory block to reach the T10 dermatome was 4.7 +/- 2.0 minutes in D10 group, 6.3+/-2.7 minutes in D5, and 9.5+/-3.0 minutes in group N. The mean time to reach Bromage 3 scale was 10.4+/-3.4 minutes in group D10, 13.0+/-3.4 minutes in D5, and 18.0+/-3.3 minutes in group N. The regression time to reach S1 dermatome was 338.9+/-44.8 minutes in group D10, 277.1+/-23.2 minutes in D5, and 165.5+/-32.9 minutes in group N. The regression to Bromage 0 was 302.9+/-36.7 minutes in D10, 246.4 +/-25.7 minutes in D5, and 140.1+/-32.3 minutes in group N. Onset and regression of sensory and motor block were highly significant (N vesus D5, N versus D10, and D5 versus D10, p<0.001). Dexmedetomidine has a dose dependant effect on the onset and regression of sensory and motor block when used as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia. (author)

  15. Shear-wave elastography quantitative assessment of the male breast: added value to distinguish benign and malignant palpable masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombé, Amandine; Hurtevent-Labrot, Gabrielle; Asad-Syed, Maryam; Palussière, Jean; MacGrogan, Gaetan; Kind, Michèle; Ferron, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the ability of shear-wave elastography (SWE) to distinguish between benign and malignant palpable masses of the adult male breast. Clinical examination, mammography, B-mode and Doppler ultrasound findings and SWE quantitative parameters were compared in 50 benign lesions (including 40 gynaecomastias) and 15 malignant lesions (invasive ductal carcinomas) from 65 patients who were consecutively addressed for specialized advice at our comprehensive cancer centre. Mean elasticity (El mean), maximum elasticity (El max), El mean of the surrounding fatty tissue and lesion to fat ratio (El ratio) were reported for each patient. Malignant masses displayed significantly higher El mean (p masses without overlap of values between the two groups. By adding SWE to clinical examination, mammography and ultrasound, all the lesions would have been retrospectively correctly diagnosed as benign or malignant. One false positive could have been downstaged, 14/65 undetermined masses could have been correctly reclassified as 4 malignant and 10 benign lesions, for which biopsies could have consequently been avoided. Evaluation of male breast palpable masses by SWE demonstrates that malignant masses are significantly stiffer lesions and may improve diagnostic management when clinical examination, mammography and conventional ultrasound are doubtful. Advances in knowledge: Quantitative SWE is feasible in male breast and could be of great interest to help classify doubtful lesions after classical clinical and radiological evaluations, probably because of different anatomy and different tumours epidemiology compared with female breast.

  16. Effects of Data Replication on Data Exfiltration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Utilizing Reactive Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    aerial vehicle VANET vehicular ad hoc network VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol VRR Virtual Ring Routing xiii EFFECTS OF DATA REPLICATION ON DATA...ad hoc networks in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), and flying ad hoc net- works (FANETs). Much of the research...metric, such as capacity, congestion , power, or combinations thereof. Caro refers to two different types of ants, FANTs and BANTs which are analogous to

  17. Added value of shear-wave elastography for evaluation of breast masses detected with screening US imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Kim, Won Hwa; Bae, Min Sun; Seo, Mirinae; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Chu, A Jung; Gweon, Hye Mi; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the additional value of shear-wave elastography (SWE) to B-mode ultrasonography (US) and to determine an appropriate guideline for the combined assessment of screening US-detected breast masses. This study was conducted with institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. From March 2010 to February 2012, B-mode US and SWE were performed in 159 US-detected breast masses before biopsy. For each lesion, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category on B-mode US images and the maximum stiffness color and elasticity values on SWE images were assessed. A guideline for adding SWE data to B-mode US was developed with the retrospective cohort to improve diagnostic performance in sensitivity and specificity and was validated in a distinct prospective cohort of 207 women prior to biopsy. Twenty-one of 159 masses in the development cohort and 12 of 207 breast masses in the validation cohort were malignant. In the development cohort, when BI-RADS category 4a masses showing a dark blue color or a maximum elasticity value of 30 kPa or less on SWE images were downgraded to category 3, specificity increased from 9.4% (13 of 138) to 59.4% (82 of 138) and 57.2% (79 of 138) (P breast masses. BI-RADS category 4a masses detected at US screening that showed a dark blue color or a maximum elasticity value of 30 kPa or less on SWE images can be safely followed up instead of performing biopsy. © RSNA, 2014.

  18. Characterization of ashes of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for potential added in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.M.F.D.; Sales, K.A.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2012-01-01

    This work is in characterizing ash from biomass grass (Pennisetum purpureums) for incorporation into red ceramic masses. The ashes of elephant grass were generated from burning this dry biomass in an industrial furnace of red ceramic. The morphology of the material generated was observed by an optical microscope. The chemical composition was determined by fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, and the identification of phases by X-ray diffraction. The particle size distribution was obtained by sieving. Thermogravimetric analyzes were also conducted. The results indicate that these ashes are constituted of high quantities of SiO 2 , MgO, CaO and K 2 O, totaling approximately 75% of composition of matter. They have a particle size of 0.7 to 2.2mm featuring. The residue as a kind of coarse particles. Therefore, the results of this study can support future research to the addition of this residue in structural ceramics products (red ceramic)

  19. Value-Added Taxes, Chain Effects, and Informality

    OpenAIRE

    Áureo de Paula; Jose A. Scheinkman

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates determinants of informal economic activity. We present an equilibrium model of informality and test its implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. A novel theoretical contribution in this model is the role of value added taxes in transmitting informality. It predicts that the informality of a firm is correlated to the informality of f...

  20. Does Attitude toward the Ad Endure? The Moderating Effects of Attention and Delay.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Amitava; Nedungadi, Prakash

    1992-01-01

    Do the effects of attitude toward the ad on consumer decisions endure beyond the scenarios that characterize previous research? In examining this question, the authors focus on the persistence of ad-attitude effects as a function of the level of attention at encoding and the delay between ad exposure and response. The results of an experiment designed to test their hypotheses suggest that ad-attitude effects do not persist in a number of instances. Over time, as memory for an ad fades, its ef...

  1. Neutrino mass hierarchy and matter effects

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Matter effects modify the mixing and the effective masses of neutrinos in a way which depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy. Consequently, for normal and inverted hierarchies the oscillations and flavor conversion results are different. Sensitivity to the mass hierarchy appears whenever the matter effects on the 1-3 mixing and mass splitting become substantial. This happens in supernovae in wide energy range and in the matter of the Earth. The Earth density profile is a multi-layer medium wh...

  2. Quark mass effects in quark number susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Thorben; Petreczky, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The quark degrees of freedom of the QGP with special focus on mass effects are investigated. A next-to-leading-order perturbation theory approach with quark mass dependence is applied and compared to lattice QCD results. (paper)

  3. Effect of Modifying Prosthetic Socket Base Materials by Adding Nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The curing process of prosthetic socket base materials requires attention owing to a series of associated problems that are yet to be addressed and solved. However, to date, few relevant studies have been reported. In this paper, nanodiamonds modified with a silane coupling agent were dispersed into a prosthetic socket base material, and the performance of the modified base materials was investigated. Adding a predetermined amount of nanodiamonds to the prosthetic socket base material increased the glass transition temperature, improved the mechanical properties of the cured base material, and reduced the influence of the volatile gas formed during the curing process on the environment. With increasing nanodiamond contents, the glass transition temperature increased and the mechanical properties improved slightly. Owing to the high thermal conductivity of the nanodiamonds, the localized heat, as a result of the curing process, could be dissipated and released. Thus, adding nanodiamonds led to a more uniform temperature field forming in the curing system. This improved the curing process and reduced the formation of volatile monomers, thereby decreasing the adverse impact of the generated volatile gases on the environment. All of these provide a potential strategy for modifying prosthetic socket base materials.

  4. Effects of dark energy on the efficiency of charged AdS black holes as heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Chinese Academy of Science, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-08-15

    In this paper, we study the heat engine where a charged AdS black hole surrounded by dark energy is the working substance and the mechanical work is done via the PdV term in the first law of black hole thermodynamics in the extended phase space. We first investigate the effects of a kind of dark energy (quintessence field in this paper) on the efficiency of the RN-AdS black holes as the heat engine defined as a rectangular closed path in the P-V plane. We get the exact efficiency formula and find that the quintessence field can improve the heat engine efficiency, which will increase as the field density ρ{sub q} grows. At some fixed parameters, we find that a larger volume difference between the smaller black holes(V{sub 1}) and the bigger black holes(V{sub 2}) will lead to a lower efficiency, while the bigger pressure difference P{sub 1} - P{sub 4} will make the efficiency higher, but it is always smaller than 1 and will never be beyond the Carnot efficiency, which is the maximum value of the efficiency constrained by thermodynamics laws; this is consistent to the heat engine in traditional thermodynamics. After making some special choices for the thermodynamical quantities, we find that the increase of the electric charge Q and the normalization factor a can also promote the heat engine efficiency, which would infinitely approach the Carnot limit when Q or a goes to infinity. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of the added mass for a spheroid-type unmanned underwater vehicle by vertical planar motion mechanism test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Keon Lee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows added mass and inertia can be acquired from the pure heaving motion and pure pitching motion respectively. A Vertical Planar Motion Mechanism (VPMM test for the spheroid-type Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV was compared with a theoretical calculation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis in this paper. The VPMM test has been carried out at a towing tank with specially manufactured equipment. The linear equations of motion on the vertical plane were considered for theoretical calculation, and CFD results were obtained by commercial CFD package. The VPMM test results show good agreement with theoretical calculations and the CFD results, so that the applicability of the VPMM equipment for an underwater vehicle can be verified with a sufficient accuracy.

  6. The Effects of Adding Motivational Elements to User Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loorbach, N.R.; Karreman, Joyce; Steehouder, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of three studies that we conducted to investigate the effects of motivational elements in user instructions. We tested for effects on usability, in particular on task effectiveness, task efficiency and user satisfaction. Motivational elements are textual additions or

  7. Competitive Effects of Mass Customization

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova

    2010-01-01

    Earlier theoretical literature on mass customization maintains that customization reduces product differentiation and intensifies price competition. In contrast, operations management studies argue that customization serves primarily to differentiate a company from its competitors. Interactive involvement of the customer in product design creates an affective relationship with the firm, relaxing price competition. This paper provides a model that incorporates consumer involvement to explain t...

  8. Health-related ad information and health motivation effects on product evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effect of health-related ad information on perceived product healthfulness and purchase intention. Also, the study investigates whether consumers' health motivation moderates the effects, because of the way health motivation affects processing of health-related information...... in ads. Three types of healthrelated ad elements are distinguished: functional claims, process claims and health imagery. These elements were combined in mock ads and an online experiment was run to test the study hypotheses. Results show that health imagery has the largest impact on consumers' product...

  9. The Effect of Comparatively-Framed versus Similarity-Framed E-Cigarette and Snus Print Ads on Young Adults’ Ad and Product Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C.; Greene, Kathryn; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the effects of comparative-framing [C-F; ads highlighting differences between the advertised product and conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products] versus similarity-framing (S-F; ads highlighting congruence with conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products) in e-cigarette and snus ads on young adult smokers’ and non-smokers’ ad- and product-related perceptions. Methods One thousand fifty one (1,051) young adults (18–24 years; 76% women; 50% smokers) from existing consumer panels were recruited in a within-subjects quasi-experiment. Each participant viewed 4 online advertisements, varied by tobacco product type (e-cigarette or snus) and ad framing (C-F or S-F). The dependent measures for this study were ad-related (ad perceptions, ad credibility) and product-related perceptions (absolute and comparative risk perceptions, product appeal, and product use intentions). Results Former and current smokers rated C-F ads as more persuasive than S-F ads, as evidenced by favorable ad perceptions and high product use intentions. Former and current smokers also rated e-cigarette ads with more favorable ad perceptions, low absolute and comparative risk perceptions, high product appeal, and high product use intentions as compared to snus ads. However, the effect sizes of the significant differences are less than.2, indicating small magnitude of difference between the study variables. Conclusions Unless FDA regulates e-cig and snus advertising, there is a potential of decreasing risk perceptions and increasing use of e-cigs among young adults. Further research on implicit/explicit comparative claims in e-cigarettes and snus advertisements that encourage risk misperceptions is recommended. PMID:28042597

  10. The Effect of Comparatively-Framed versus Similarity-Framed E-Cigarette and Snus Print Ads on Young Adults' Ad and Product Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effects of comparative-framing [C-F; ads highlighting differences between the advertised product and conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products] versus similarity-framing (S-F; ads highlighting congruence with conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products) in e-cigarette and snus ads on young adult smokers' and non-smokers' ad- and product-related perceptions. One thousand fifty one (1,051) young adults (18-24 years; 76% women; 50% smokers) from existing consumer panels were recruited in a within-subjects quasi-experiment. Each participant viewed 4 online advertisements, varied by tobacco product type (e-cigarette or snus) and ad framing (C-F or S-F). The dependent measures for this study were ad-related (ad perceptions, ad credibility) and product-related perceptions (absolute and comparative risk perceptions, product appeal, and product use intentions). Former and current smokers rated C-F ads as more persuasive than S-F ads, as evidenced by favorable ad perceptions and high product use intentions. Former and current smokers also rated e-cigarette ads with more favorable ad perceptions, low absolute and comparative risk perceptions, high product appeal, and high product use intentions as compared to snus ads. However, the effect sizes of the significant differences are less than.2, indicating small magnitude of difference between the study variables. Unless FDA regulates e-cig and snus advertising, there is a potential of decreasing risk perceptions and increasing use of e-cigs among young adults. Further research on implicit/explicit comparative claims in e-cigarettes and snus advertisements that encourage risk misperceptions is recommended.

  11. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Industry sponsored anti-smoking ads and adolescent reactance: test of a boomerang effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, L; Dauphinee, A L; Wang, Y; Fortmann, S P

    2006-02-01

    To examine whether adolescents' exposure to youth smoking prevention ads sponsored by tobacco companies promotes intentions to smoke, curiosity about smoking, and positive attitudes toward the tobacco industry. A randomised controlled experiment compared adolescents' responses to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a tobacco company (Philip Morris or Lorillard), or to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a non-profit organisation (the American Legacy Foundation), or to five ads about preventing drunk driving. A large public high school in California's central valley. A convenience sample of 9th and 10th graders (n = 832) ages 14-17 years. Perceptions of ad effectiveness, intention to smoke, and attitudes toward tobacco companies measured immediately after exposure. As predicted, adolescents rated Philip Morris and Lorillard ads less favourably than the other youth smoking prevention ads. Adolescents' intention to smoke did not differ as a function of ad exposure. However, exposure to Philip Morris and Lorillard ads engendered more favourable attitudes toward tobacco companies. This study demonstrates that industry sponsored anti-smoking ads do more to promote corporate image than to prevent youth smoking. By cultivating public opinion that is more sympathetic toward tobacco companies, the effect of such advertising is likely to be more harmful than helpful to youth.

  13. Fire Effects Information System: New engine, remodeled interior, added options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith

    2010-01-01

    Some of today's firefighters weren't even born when the Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) (Web site ) "hit the streets" in 1986. Managers might remember using a dial-up connection in the early 1990s to access information on biology, ecology, and fire offered by FEIS.

  14. The Remarkable Beneficial Effect of Adding Oral Simvastatin to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease with unpredictable prognosis. Given the immunomodulatory effects of statins, the present study was conducted to determine whether the addition of orally administered simvastatin to the topical betamethasone, a standard antipsoriatic treatment, can produce a more ...

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on gelatine films added with antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraide, Felipe H.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on the gelatin films in presence of antioxidant. Gelatin solutions of glycerine and poly vinil alcohol, with and without the addition were prepared until the complete homogenization. The films were irradiated with 20 and 40 kGy in a electron accelerator, in the presence of air and at the room temperature. The use of ionizing radiation and the addition of antioxidant changed the properties of the film. The result of water absorption test revealed that with increasing of radiation dose occurred a reduction in the absorption, suggesting that happen a reticulation

  16. Effects of added polyacrylamide on changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Zhuo-Xian; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-02-01

    The effects of adding polyacrylamide (PAM), to attempt to delay the loss of capillary water and achieve a better level of organic matter humification, in the composting of kitchen waste were evaluated. Four treatments, with initial moisture content of 60 % were used: 0.1 % PAM added before the start of composting (R1), 0.1 % PAM added when the thermophilic phase of composting became stable (at >50 °C) (R2), 0.1 % PAM added when the moisture content significantly decreased (R3), and no PAM added (R4). The introduction of PAM in R1 and R2 significantly increased the capillary force and delayed the loss of moisture content and capillary water. The introduction of PAM in R2 and R3 improved the composting process, in terms of the degradation of biochemical fractions and the humification degree. These results show that the optimal time for adding PAM was the initial stage of the thermophilic phase.

  17. The Reliability, Impact, and Cost-Effectiveness of Value-Added Teacher Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews evidence regarding the intertemporal reliability of teacher rankings based on value-added methods. Value-added methods exhibit low reliability, yet are broadly supported by prominent educational researchers and are increasingly being used to evaluate and fire teachers. The article then presents a cost-effectiveness analysis…

  18. The Effect of Marijuana Scenes in Anti-marijuana Public Service Announcements on Adolescents’ Evaluation of Ad Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N.; Fishbein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature—marijuana scenes—on adolescents’ perception of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents’ evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements (PSAs) that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana PSAs negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads amon...

  19. Effective masses and the nuclear mean field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaux, C.; Sartor, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effective mass characterizes the energy dependence of the empirical average nuclear potential. This energy dependence has two different sources, namely the nonlocality in space of the microscopic mean field on the one hand, and its true energy dependence on the other hand. Correspondingly it is convenient to divide the effective mass into two components, the k-mass and the ω-mass. The latter is responsible for the existence of a peak in the energy dependence of the effective mass. This peak is located near the Fermi energy in nuclear matter and in nuclei, as well as in the electron gas, the hard sphere Fermi gas and liquid helium 3. A related phenomenon is the existence of a low energy anomaly in the energy dependence of the optical model potential between two heavy ions. (orig.)

  20. Differential Effects of Ads On Attention, Emotion and Choice in Compulsive Buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagdziunaite, Dalia; Beloshapkov, Dimo; Moeslund, Maria

    2015-01-01

    susceptible to peer opinions and social influence, being prompted by the “materialistic ideal” as communicated in ads and luxury and fashion brands products. However, little is still known about the underlying neurobiological, psychological and physiological mechanisms of ad information processing and ad...... effect on choice for CBs. One crucial aspect concerns whether CBD sufferers are more likely to be swayed by persuasion efforts as seen in advertisements, and if this is reflected in immediate emotional and cognitive responses during the ad exposure. In this study we have studied the cognitive...... and emotional responses to ads in compulsive and non-compulsive tendencies showing consumers. For this purpose, we employed eye-tracking using a Tobii T60 XL synchronized with an ABM-10X EEG brain scanner. 54 women screened for compulsiveness were shown 20 advertisements of 4 different product categories...

  1. Effect of Adding Elements on Microstructure of Mg-3Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Bin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of alloy Mg-3Si(mass fraction/%, same as below after successive additions with different elements of Zn, Nd, Gd and Y was observed and the microstructure evolution was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show the primary Mg2Si particles co-exist with eutectic Mg2Si particles in binary alloy Mg-Si. With minor addition of Zn element, only primary Mg2Si can be found in ternary Mg-3Si-3Zn system while eutectic Mg2Si particles disappear. In quaternary alloy Mg-2.0Nd-3.0Zn-3.0Si, the addition of Nd element can effectively refine the primary Mg2Si particles and form some Mg41Nd5 particles. After continuous adding of Gd and Y elements into quaternary system, Gd5Si3 and YSi particles increase significantly in the alloy Mg-8.0Gd-4.0Y-2.0Nd-3.0Zn-3.0Si, while volume fraction of primary Mg2Si decrease significantly. Thermo-Calc calculation predicts that the Gibbs free energy for primary particles Gd5Si3, YSi is lower, and therefore Gd, Y atom and Si are more likely to form compounds. In Mg-8Gd-4Y-2Nd-3Zn-3Si alloy, room temperature Gibbs free energy for primary particles Mg2Si, Gd5Si3, YSi is -9.56×104, -8.72×104, -2.83×104J/mol, respectively, and the mass fraction of these particles is 8.07%, 5.27%, 1.40% respectively.

  2. Impact of model resolution on simulated wind, drifting snow and surface mass balance in Terre Adélie, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Scarchilli, C.; Agosta, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of model resolution on the simulated wind speed, drifting snow climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of Terre Ad´elie and its surroundings, East Antarctica. We compare regional climate model simulations at 27 and 5.5 km resolution for the year 2009. The wind speed

  3. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kassouf

    Full Text Available The UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method ("rinse-wipe-rinse" for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants.

  4. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added to feed mixture ... The interaction effects of RRO and ZnO did not result to a significant change in ... Therefore, the effects of RRO deteriorated the quality of meat by raising the ...

  5. The effective mass of the Kerr spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, R.; Chellathurai, V.; Dadhich, N.

    1988-01-01

    The expressions for the effective mass of rotating spacetimes existing in the literature do not incorporate the rotational contribution at all. We generalise a result of Cohen and de Felice [1984, J. Math. Phys. 25, 992] and show how rotational effects can be taken into account. (author)

  6. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Item analysis of ADAS-Cog: effect of baseline cognitive impairment in a clinical AD trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Jeffrey J; Peng, Yahong; Liu, Lian; Lines, Christopher R

    2010-03-01

    We explored the association of Alzheimer's disease (AD) Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog) item scores with AD severity using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the same study. Post hoc analyses were performed using placebo data from a 12-month trial of patients with mild-to-moderate AD (N =281 randomized, N =209 completed). Baseline distributions of ADAS-Cog item scores by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) sum of boxes score (measures of dementia severity) were estimated using local and nonparametric regressions. Mixed-effect models were used to characterize ADAS-Cog item score changes over time by dementia severity (MMSE: mild =21-26, moderate =14-20; global CDR: mild =0.5-1, moderate =2). In the cross-sectional analysis of baseline ADAS-Cog item scores, orientation was the most sensitive item to differentiate patients across levels of cognitive impairment. Several items showed a ceiling effect, particularly in milder AD. In the longitudinal analysis of change scores over 12 months, orientation was the only item with noticeable decline (8%-10%) in mild AD. Most items showed modest declines (5%-20%) in moderate AD.

  8. Deformation and shell effects in nuclear mass formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, César; Hirsch, Jorge G.; Mariano, Alejandro E.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the ability of three different Liquid Drop Mass (LDM) formulas to describe nuclear masses for nuclei in various deformation regions. Separating the 2149 measured nuclear species into eight sets with similar quadrupole deformations, we show that the masses of prolate deformed nuclei are better described than those of spherical ones. In fact, the prolate deformed nuclei are fitted with an RMS smaller than 750 keV, while for spherical and semi-magic species the RMS is always larger than 2000 keV. These results are found to be independent of pairing. It is also shown that the macroscopic sector of the Duflo–Zuker (DZ) mass model reproduces shell effects, while most of the deformation dependence is lost and the RMS is larger than in any LDM. Adding to the LDM the microscopically motivated DZ master terms introduces the shell effects, allowing for a significant reduction in the RMS of the fit but still exhibiting a better description of prolate deformed nuclei. The inclusion of shell effects following the Interacting Boson Model's ideas produces similar results.

  9. Deformation and shell effects in nuclear mass formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, Cesar [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Hirsch, Jorge G., E-mail: hirsch@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mariano, Alejandro E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2012-01-15

    We analyze the ability of three different Liquid Drop Mass (LDM) formulas to describe nuclear masses for nuclei in various deformation regions. Separating the 2149 measured nuclear species into eight sets with similar quadrupole deformations, we show that the masses of prolate deformed nuclei are better described than those of spherical ones. In fact, the prolate deformed nuclei are fitted with an RMS smaller than 750 keV, while for spherical and semi-magic species the RMS is always larger than 2000 keV. These results are found to be independent of pairing. It is also shown that the macroscopic sector of the Duflo-Zuker (DZ) mass model reproduces shell effects, while most of the deformation dependence is lost and the RMS is larger than in any LDM. Adding to the LDM the microscopically motivated DZ master terms introduces the shell effects, allowing for a significant reduction in the RMS of the fit but still exhibiting a better description of prolate deformed nuclei. The inclusion of shell effects following the Interacting Boson Model's ideas produces similar results.

  10. Schroedinger equations with indefinite effective mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levai, G.; Znojil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The interaction of a particle with the medium around it is usually described by some potential function V (x). It is also often necessary to take into consideration the effects of this medium using a position-dependent effective mass. A wide variety of effective masses m(x) have been used in methodological studies and applications mainly restricted to one dimensional problems, including mass functions that vanish at certain locations or those reaching infinity in some limit. The common feature of these m(x) functions was that they were all non-negative. In our recent study on the PT -symmetric version of the Coulomb potential we found that an asymptotically negative effective mass is necessary for the stability of the energy spectrum. This result inspired us to investigate under which conditions can one apply mass functions that are negative at least in some domains of the coordinate space. For the sake of simplicity we considered the infinitely deep squarewell potential in one dimension V(x) = (+∞, /x/ > L > 1, 0, /x/ 0 , /x/ 0 the energy spectrum becomes unbounded from below. This is not surprising considering that with a negative mass the kinetic energy also becomes negative. In order to stabilize the spectrum we considered energy-dependent effective mass functions that kept the mass finite even for increasing values of the energy. Our first choice was m(x,E) = (1, /x/ ∈ (1,L), -tanh (E), /x/ 2 tanh λ(k) tan k(L - 1) = -1, where λ(k) = k √tanh k 2 . With this choice the energy spectrum was found to be bounded from below. Qualitatively similar results were found for our second example, where we considered a threshold energy E thr by m(x,E) = 1, /x/ ∈ (1,L) , -1, E ≥ E thr , +1, E thr ), /x/ 2 , /x/ 0 and b = b(E) > 0. This lead to the rescaled secular equation tan κa/b x tanh κ(L - a) = b. (3) This setting allowed the investigation of the special limit in which the m(x) turns into the Dirac delta function. We

  11. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  12. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects

  13. INTRAMOLECULAR ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN HYDROCARBON MASS SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, D. P.; Schachtschneider, J. H.

    1963-07-15

    Approximate calculations based on the quasi-equilibrium rate theory of the origin of mass spectra are shown to lead to an approximately correct magnitude for the intramolecular ( pi /sup -/) isotope effect on C--H bond dissociation probabilities of various deuterohydrocarbons. (auth)

  14. Schrodinger equations with indefinite effective mass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav; Levai, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 376, č. 45 (2012), s. 3000-3005 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/1433 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum particle * effective mass * position dependence * energy dependence * stability * solvable models Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.766, year: 2012

  15. Effect of the transverse parasitic mode on beam performance for the ADS driver linac in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Peng; Pei Shilun; Wang Jiuqing; Li Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    The ADS (Accelerator Driven subcritical System) driver linac in China is designed to run in CW (Continuous Wave) mode with 10 mA designed beam current. In this scenario, the beam-induced parasitic modes in the ADS driver linac may make the beam unstable or deteriorate the beam performance. To evaluate the parasitic mode effect on the beam dynamics systematically, simulation studies using the ROOT-based numerical code SMD have been conducted. The longitudinal beam instability induced by the HOMs (High Order Modes) and SOMs (Same Order Modes) has little effect on the longitudinal beam performance for the current ADS driver linac design based on the 10 MeV/325 MHz injector I from previous studies. Here the transverse parasitic mode (i.e., dipole HOM) effect on the transverse beam performance at the ADS driver linac exit is investigated. To more reasonably quantify the dipole mode effect, the multi-bunch effective emittance is introduced in this paper. (authors)

  16. Nuclear masses, deformations and shell effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Jorge G; Barbero, César A; Mariano, Alejandro E

    2011-01-01

    We show that the Liquid Drop Model is best suited to describe the masses of prolate deformed nuclei than of spherical nuclei. To this end three Liquid Drop Mass formulas are employed to describe nuclear masses of eight sets of nuclei with similar quadrupole deformations. It is shown that they are able to fit the measured masses of prolate deformed nuclei with an RMS smaller than 750 keV, while for the spherical nuclei the RMS is, in the three cases, larger than 2000 keV. The RMS of the best fit of the masses of semi-magic nuclei is also larger than 2000 keV. The parameters of the three models are studied, showing that the surface symmetry term is the one which varies the most from one group of nuclei to another. In one model, isospin dependent terms are also found to exhibit strong changes. The inclusion of shell effects allows for better fits, which continue to be better in the prolate deformed nuclei region.

  17. Qualitative effect of added gluten on dough properties and quality of Chinese steamed bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutens isolated from fifteen soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours were added into a SRW wheat flour to obtain protein levels of 9.6% and 11.3% for determination of the qualitative effect of gluten protein on the dough properties and quality of northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB). Sodium dodecy...

  18. A small effect of adding antiviral agents in treating patients with severe Bell palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.L. van der; Rovers, M.M.; Ru, J.A. de; Heijden, G.J. van der

    2012-01-01

    In this evidence-based case report, the authors studied the following clinical question: What is the effect of adding antiviral agents to corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with severe or complete Bell palsy? The search yielded 250 original research articles. The 6 randomized trials of

  19. Comparing the Effects of Four Instructional Treatments on EFL Students' Achievement in Writing Classified Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The current study set out to compare the effect of traditional and non-traditional instructional treatments; i.e. explicit, implicit, task-based and no-instruction approaches on students' abilities to learn how to write classified ads. 72 junior students who have all taken a course in Reading Journalistic Texts at the Payame-Noor University…

  20. Effects of short-acting Bronchodilators added to maintenance tiotropium therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Bantje, Theo A.; Luursema, Peter B.; Sinninghe, Henk E. J.; de Jong, Jan W.; Lee, Angela; Wijker, Stella P. C.; Cornelissen, Piet J. G.

    Background: Combining bronchodilators has been shown to be beneficial in patients with COPD. The additive effects of short-acting bronchodilators added to maintenance tiotropium therapy, however, are unknown. Methods: Following 3 weeks of tiotropium pretreatment, 60 patients with COPD (FEV1 40% of

  1. Maternal and neonatal effects of adding morphine to low‑dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Labor is one of the most painful experiences a woman may face during her lifetime. One of the most effective methods used for eliminating this pain is epidural analgesia. The aim of this study to determine the impact of adding morphine to low‑dose bupivacaine epidural anesthesia on labor and neonatal outcomes, and ...

  2. The effect of methylphenidate on three forms of response inhibition in boys with AD/HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Swanson, J.; Morein-Zamir, S.; Meiran, N.; Schut, H.; Vlasveld, L.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The current study was aimed at (a) investigating the effect of three doses methylphenidate (MPH) and placebo on inhibition of a prepotent response, inhibition of an ongoing response, and interference control in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), and (b) studying dose-response

  3. The Implications of Summer Learning Loss for Value-Added Estimates of Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth; Hayes, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    School districts across the United States increasingly use value-added models (VAMs) to evaluate teachers. In practice, VAMs typically rely on lagged test scores from the previous academic year, which necessarily conflate summer with school-year learning and potentially bias estimates of teacher effectiveness. We investigate the practical…

  4. Exploring AdS waves via nonminimal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Hassaiene, Mokhtar

    2006-01-01

    We consider nonminimally coupled scalar fields to explore the Siklos spacetimes in three dimensions. Their interpretation as exact gravitational waves propagating on AdS space restrict the source to behave as a pure radiation field. We show that the related pure radiation constraints single out a unique self-interaction potential depending on one coupling constant. For a vanishing coupling constant, this potential reduces to a mass term with a mass fixed in terms of the nonminimal-coupling parameter. This mass dependence allows the existence of several free cases including massless and tachyonic sources. There even exists a particular value of the nonminimal-coupling parameter for which the corresponding mass exactly compensates the contribution generated by the negative scalar curvature, producing a genuinely massless field in this curved background. The self-interacting case is studied in detail for the conformal coupling. The resulting gravitational wave is formed by the superposition of the free and the self-interaction contributions, except for a critical value of the coupling constant where a nonperturbative effect relating the strong and weak regimes of the source appears. We establish a correspondence between the scalar source supporting an AdS wave and a pp wave by showing that their respective pure radiation constraints are conformally related, while their involved backgrounds are not. Finally, we consider the AdS waves for topologically massive gravity and its limit to conformal gravity

  5. Warped AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li Wei; Padi, Megha; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l -2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS 3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,R) x U(1)-invariant warped AdS 3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS 3 . We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS 3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS 3 . Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS 3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS 3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c R -formula and c L -formula.

  6. Effects of a plyometric training program with and without added load on jumping ability in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlifa, Riadh; Aouadi, Ridha; Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Jlid, Mohamed Chedly; Hbacha, Hamdi; Castagna, Carlo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a standard plyometric training protocol with or without added load in improving vertical jumping ability in male basketball players. Twenty-seven players were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group (no plyometric training), plyometric training group (PG), and loaded plyometric group (LPG, weighted vests 10-11% body mass). Before and after the 10-week training program, all the players were tested for the 5-jump test (5JT), the squat jump (SJ), and the countermovement jump (CMJ). The PG and LPG groups performed 2 and 3 training sessions per week, during the first 3 and the last 7 weeks, respectively. The results showed that SJ, CMJ, and 5JT were significantly improved only in the PG and LPG groups. The best effects for jumps were observed in LPG (p training program may result in greater vertical and horizontal-jump performances in basketball players.

  7. Ambient temperature and added heat wave effects on hospitalizations in California from 1999 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbakov, Toki; Malig, Brian; Guirguis, Kristen; Gershunov, Alexander; Basu, Rupa

    2018-01-01

    Investigators have examined how heat waves or incremental changes in temperature affect health outcomes, but few have examined both simultaneously. We utilized distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) to explore temperature associations and evaluate possible added heat wave effects on hospitalizations in 16 climate zones throughout California from May through October 1999-2009. We define heat waves as a period when daily mean temperatures were above the zone- and month-specific 95th percentile for at least two consecutive days. DLNMs were used to estimate climate zone-specific non-linear temperature and heat wave effects, which were then combined using random effects meta-analysis to produce an overall estimate for each. With higher temperatures, admissions for acute renal failure, appendicitis, dehydration, ischemic stroke, mental health, non-infectious enteritis, and primary diabetes were significantly increased, with added effects from heat waves observed for acute renal failure and dehydration. Higher temperatures also predicted statistically significant decreases in hypertension admissions, respiratory admissions, and respiratory diseases with secondary diagnoses of diabetes, though heat waves independently predicted an added increase in risk for both respiratory types. Our findings provide evidence that both heat wave and temperature exposures can exert effects independently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Free Vibrations of a Cantilevered SWCNT with Distributed Mass in the Presence of Nonlocal Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. De Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hamilton principle is applied to deduce the free vibration frequencies of a cantilever single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT in the presence of an added mass, which can be distributed along an arbitrary part of the span. The nonlocal elasticity theory by Eringen has been employed, in order to take into account the nanoscale effects. An exact formulation leads to the equations of motion, which can be solved to give the frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes. Moreover, two approximate semianalytical methods are also illustrated, which can provide quick parametric relationships. From a more practical point of view, the problem of detecting the mass of the attached particle has been solved by calculating the relative frequency shift due to the presence of the added mass: from it, the mass value can be easily deduced. The paper ends with some numerical examples, in which the nonlocal effects are thoroughly investigated.

  9. Effects of added organic matter and water on soil carbon sequestration in an arid region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Lai

    Full Text Available It is generally predicted that global warming will stimulate primary production and lead to more carbon (C inputs to soil. However, many studies have found that soil C does not necessarily increase with increased plant litter input. Precipitation has increased in arid central Asia, and is predicted to increase more, so we tested the effects of adding fresh organic matter (FOM and water on soil C sequestration in an arid region in northwest China. The results suggested that added FOM quickly decomposed and had minor effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC pool to a depth of 30 cm. Both FOM and water addition had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass increased with added FOM, reached a maximum, and then declined as the FOM decomposed. The FOM had a more significant stimulating effect on microbial biomass with water addition. Under the soil moisture ranges used in this experiment (21.0%-29.7%, FOM input was more important than water addition in the soil C mineralization process. We concluded that short-term FOM input into the belowground soil and water addition do not affect the SOC pool in shrubland in an arid region.

  10. Effective Gravitational Theories in String Theory and the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Vigand

    an effective theory for higher dimensional extended black holes in a uid/elastic perturbative derivative expansion. Moreover, we show that the approach is quite universal and can be extended to various supergravities. Finally, we consider a new generalization of the method, which allows us to treat (SUGRA...... as low/high spin. As a byproduct of our analysis, we find a new stationary dipole-charged black hole solution on the AdS S backgrounds of type IIB/M-theory. We finally consider, via a double scaling extremal limit, a novel null-wave zero-temperature giant graviton exhibiting a BPS spectrum. Finally......We consider various aspects of effective gravitational theories, including supergravity, within the framework of the blackfold approach. The thesis is naturally split into three parts. In the first part of the thesis, we explore the blackfold approach and explain how it is possible to write down...

  11. Effects of some added carbohydrates on cellulases and ligninase and decomposition of whole bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, P; Prabhu, K A

    1986-01-01

    Two basidiomycetes mould isolates were studied for the production of extracellular cellulases and ligninase in submerged shake culture using whole bagasse as substrate. The effects of some added carbohydrates on enzyme production, substrate decomposition and biomass formation were examined. In both cultures the addition of lactose stimulated biomass production and increased the decomposition of total carbohydrate and lignin contents of bagasse. Lactose was the only sugar which stimulated cellulase and ligninase in both cultures. 19 references.

  12. Inhibition effect on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork by adding hawthorn flavonoid extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoming; Liu Chao; Cao Lei; Li Kexi

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of hawthorn flavonoid extract and its inhibition effect on irradiated pork lipid oxidant were investigated. The results showed that hawthorn flavonoids had efficient scavenging effect on DPPH free radicals (DPPH ·), and the scavenging rate reached 56% while 2 ml of 0.035 mg/ml hawthorn flavonoid extract was added. Hawthorn flavonoid extract can inhibition the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork effectively and it showed a stronger inhibition ability while the hawthorn flavonoid extract were used together with Vc. It is concluded that can decrease the lipid oxidation of pork, hawthorn flavonoid extract is a remarkable natural antioxidant. (authors)

  13. Effects of added fertilizers and carbon source on the persistence of carbaryl in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, R.; Lord, K.A.; Luchini, L.C.; Mesquita, T.B.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of added fertilizers and carbon source on the persistence of carbaryl in two types of soils was investigated using the technique of liquid scintillation counting. In both soils, the addition of fertilzers (NPK) had little effect on the rate of degradation of carbaryl. In contrast, the addition of sucrose, with or without fertilizer increases degradation of carboryl in a yellow red latosol soil poor in organic matter but has little effect on the degradation in a humic gley soil rich in organic mutter. (Author) [pt

  14. The effects of involvement and ad type on attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Yam; Torres, Ivonne M

    2009-01-01

    This article examines consumers' attitudes toward Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs that are influenced by the use different types of DTC ads and product involvement. Our findings suggest that product involvement and the type of DTC ad are significant predictors of consumers' attitudinal responses toward DTC advertising. High involvement consumers have more favorable attitudes toward the drug's price, DTC ad and brand name, and a higher intention to ask a doctor about the advertised drug than low involvement consumers. In contrast to Informational and Reminder DTC ads, Persuasive ads have more favorable effects on consumers' reactions to DTC prescription drug advertising.

  15. a European Global Navigation Satellite System — the German Market and Value Adding Chain Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollerthun, A.; Wieser, M.

    2002-03-01

    Since Europe is considering to establish a "market-driven" European Global Navigation Satellite System, the German Center of Aerospace initiated a market research to justify a German investment in such a European project. The market research performed included the following market segments: aviation, railway, road traffic, shipping, surveying, farming, military, space applications, leisure, and sport. In these market segments, the forementioned inputs were determined for satellite navigation hardware (receivers) as well as satellite navigation services. The forecast period was from year 2007 to 2017. For the considered period, the market amounts to a total of DM 83.0 billion (approx. US $50 billion), whereas the satellite navigation equipment market makes up DM 39.8 billion, and charges for value-added-services amount to DM 43.2 billion. On closer examination road traffic can be identified as the dominant market share, both in the receiver-market and service-market. With a share of 96% for receivers and 73% for services the significance of the road traffic segment becomes obvious. The second part of this paper investigates the effects the market potential has on the Value-Adding-Chain. Therefore, all participants in the Value-Adding-Chain are identified, using industrial cost structure models the employment effect is analyzed, and possible tax revenues for the state are examined.

  16. Effect of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed lignan added to bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Helena K; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Hiidenhovi, Jaakko A; Hietaniemi, Veli; Korhonen, Hannu J T; Ryhänen, Eeva-Liisa

    2006-01-11

    The study focused on the effects of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed-derived secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) added to various bakery products. The SDG concentration of doughs, baked rye breads, graham buns, and muffins was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection; the baked products were analyzed immediately after baking and upon storage at room temperature for 1 week and at -25 degrees C for 1 and 2 months, respectively. Added SDG was found to withstand normal baking temperatures in all bakery products. SDG also was a relatively stable compound during storage. Similarly, the content of SDG in flax buns containing fat-free flaxseed meal was unaffected by storage. We conclude that cereal-based bakery products can be supplemented with flaxseed-derived SDG.

  17. The effect of directional inertias added to pelvis and ankle on gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Gait training robots should display a minimum added inertia in order to allow normal walking. The effect of inertias in specific directions is yet unknown. We set up two experiments to assess the effect of inertia in anteroposterior (AP) direction to the ankle and AP and mediolateral (ML) direction to the pelvis. Methods We developed an experimental setup to apply inertia in forward backward and or sideways directions. In two experiments nine healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.5 km/h and 4.5 km/h with no load and with AP loads of 0.3, 1.55 and 3.5 kg to the left ankle in the first experiment and combinations of AP and ML loads on the pelvis (AP loads 0.7, 4.3 and 10.2 kg; ML loads 0.6, 2.3 and 5.3 kg). We recorded metabolic rate, EMG of major leg muscles, gait parameters and kinematics. Results & discussion Adding 1.55 kg or more inertia to the ankle in AP direction increases the pelvis acceleration and decreases the foot acceleration in AP direction both at speeds of 4.5 km/h. Adding 3.5 kg of inertia to the ankle also increases the swing time as well as AP motions of the pelvis and head-arms-trunk (HAT) segment. Muscle activity remains largely unchanged. Adding 10.2 kg of inertia to the pelvis in AP direction causes a significant decrease of the pelvis and HAT segment motions, particularly at high speeds. Also the sagittal back flexion increases. Lower values of AP inertia and ML inertias up to 5.3 kg had negligible effect. In general the found effects are larger at high speeds. Conclusions We found that inertia up to 2 kg at the ankle or 6 kg added to the pelvis induced significant changes, but since these changes were all within the normal inter subject variability we considered these changes as negligible for application as rehabilitation robotics and assistive devices. PMID:23597391

  18. Suspensions of polymer-grafted nanoparticles with added polymers-Structure and effective pair-interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Sivasurender; Saw, Shibu; Kandar, A K; Dasgupta, C; Sprung, M; Basu, J K

    2015-08-28

    We present the results of combined experimental and theoretical (molecular dynamics simulations and integral equation theory) studies of the structure and effective interactions of suspensions of polymer grafted nanoparticles (PGNPs) in the presence of linear polymers. Due to the absence of systematic experimental and theoretical studies of PGNPs, it is widely believed that the structure and effective interactions in such binary mixtures would be very similar to those of an analogous soft colloidal material-star polymers. In our study, polystyrene-grafted gold nanoparticles with functionality f = 70 were mixed with linear polystyrene (PS) of two different molecular weights for obtaining two PGNP:PS size ratios, ξ = 0.14 and 2.76 (where, ξ = Mg/Mm, Mg and Mm being the molecular weights of grafting and matrix polymers, respectively). The experimental structure factor of PGNPs could be modeled with an effective potential (Model-X), which has been found to be widely applicable for star polymers. Similarly, the structure factor of the blends with ξ = 0.14 could be modeled reasonably well, while the structure of blends with ξ = 2.76 could not be captured, especially for high density of added polymers. A model (Model-Y) for effective interactions between PGNPs in a melt of matrix polymers also failed to provide good agreement with the experimental data for samples with ξ = 2.76 and high density of added polymers. We tentatively attribute this anomaly in modeling the structure factor of blends with ξ = 2.76 to the questionable assumption of Model-X in describing the added polymers as star polymers with functionality 2, which gets manifested in both polymer-polymer and polymer-PGNP interactions especially at higher fractions of added polymers. The failure of Model-Y may be due to the neglect of possible many-body interactions among PGNPs mediated by matrix polymers when the fraction of added polymers is high. These observations point to the need for a new framework to

  19. The effective cross section for double parton scattering within a holographic AdS/QCD approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traini, Marco, E-mail: marcoclaudio.traini@unitn.it [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INFN - TIFPA, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Rinaldi, Matteo [Departament de Fisica Teòrica, Universitat de València and Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 46100 Burjassot, València (Spain); Scopetta, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Vento, Vicente [Departament de Fisica Teòrica, Universitat de València and Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 46100 Burjassot, València (Spain)

    2017-05-10

    A first attempt to apply the AdS/QCD framework for a bottom–up approach to the evaluation of the effective cross section for double parton scattering in proton–proton collisions is presented. The main goal is the analytic evaluation of the dependence of the effective cross section on the longitudinal momenta of the involved partons, obtained within the holographic Soft-Wall model. If measured in high-energy processes at hadron colliders, this momentum dependence could open a new window on 2-parton correlations in a proton.

  20. Effects of adding a virtual reality environment to different modes of treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloot, L H; van der Krogt, M M; Harlaar, J

    2014-03-01

    Differences in gait between overground and treadmill walking are suggested to result from imposed treadmill speed and lack of visual flow. To counteract this effect, feedback-controlled treadmills that allow the subject to control the belt speed along with an immersive virtual reality (VR) have recently been developed. We studied the effect of adding a VR during both fixed speed (FS) and self-paced (SP) treadmill walking. Nineteen subjects walked on a dual-belt instrumented treadmill with a simple endless road projected on a 180° circular screen. A main effect of VR was found for hip flexion offset, peak hip extension, peak knee extension moment, knee flexion moment gain and ankle power during push off. A consistent interaction effect between VR and treadmill mode was found for 12 out of 30 parameters, although the differences were small and did not exceed 50% of the within subject stride variance. At FS, the VR seemed to slightly improve the walking pattern towards overground walking, with for example a 6.5mm increase in stride length. At SP, gait became slightly more cautious by adding a VR, with a 9.1mm decrease in stride length. Irrespective of treadmill mode, subjects rated walking with the VR as more similar to overground walking. In the context of clinical gait analysis, the effects of VR are too small to be relevant and are outweighed by the gains of adding a VR, such as a more stimulating experience and possibility of augmenting it by real-time feedback. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of mineral adsorbents added to broilers diet on breast meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Đorđe G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these investigations was to determine the influence of mineral adsorbents “Minazel” and “Minazel Plus” added into broiler diet, on the carcass quality and nutritional, technological and sensory properties of breast meat. The examination was done on Cobb 500 provenience divided into 4 groups: control group C (fed without addition of mineral adsorbent, experimental group E I (0.5% of Minazel, experimental group E II (0.2% of Minazel Plus, experimental group E III (0.3% of Minazel Plus. The results showed that the broilers fed with the addition of mineral adsorbents, had a higher (P < 0.01 mass of chilled carcass “ready to grill“ and breast mass, than the broilers of the control group. Based on the parameters and criteria for defining the quality of chicken breast meat (pHu and L* it can be concluded that meat of all groups had in average "normal" quality. According to the results of sensory analyzed roasted breast meat, meat of experimental groups had preferable smell and tenderness. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46012

  2. Maternal and neonatal effects of adding morphine to low‑dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-25

    Jul 25, 2013 ... morphine to low‑dose bupivacaine epidural anesthesia on labor and neonatal outcomes, and maternal side effects. ... A total of 120 pregnant women were randomized into two groups with 60 .... a body mass index (BMI) >30, intrauterine growth ... BMI, satisfaction from analgesia following the first dose,.

  3. A Study On Effect Of Added Neutralisers On Starter Culture Growth In Fermented Milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanna.M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dairy starter culture is referred to carefully selection of desirable microorganisms. Those are intentionally added to milk during conversion into cheese dahi yoghurt and other fermented dairy products to bring about specific changes in the appearance body and texture flavor and desired organoleptic characteristics of the final product. The quality of milk itself has an important bearing on the growth of starter organisms. The mastitis milk has abnormal in composition and such milk with high salt concentration does not support the growth of starter culture that leads to production of poor quality of fermented dairy products with week body.. The presence of certain neutralizing substances performed in milk has found to interfere with growth of starters. There was a definite lag in the growth of the starter organisms as well as acid development when neutralizers were added to raw milk samples. This may be due to the bacteriostatic effect of added neutralizers. But discrepancy was seen to the greatest extent in the case of neutralized mastitis and highly advanced lactation milks and to a lesser degree on the early lactation milk obtained on the 4th and 5th days.

  4. A small effect of adding antiviral agents in treating patients with severe Bell palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Erwin L; Rovers, Maroeska M; de Ru, J Alexander; van der Heijden, Geert J

    2012-03-01

    In this evidence-based case report, the authors studied the following clinical question: What is the effect of adding antiviral agents to corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with severe or complete Bell palsy? The search yielded 250 original research articles. The 6 randomized trials of these that could be used all reported low-quality data for answering the clinical question; apart from apparent flaws, they did not primarily include patients with severe or complete Bell palsy. Complete functional facial nerve recovery was seen in 75% of the patients receiving prednisolone only and in 83% with additional antiviral treatment. The pooled risk difference of 7% (95% confidence interval, -1% to 15%) results in a number needed to treat of 14 (ie, slightly favors adding an antiviral agent). The authors conclude that although a strong recommendation for adding antiviral agents to corticosteroids to further improve the recovery of patients with severe Bell palsy is precluded by the lack of robust evidence, it should be discussed with the patient.

  5. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  6. Effects of adding whole body vibration to squat training on isometric force/time characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Hugh S; Cramer, Joel T; Bemben, Debra A; Shehab, Randa L; Anderson, Mark A; Bemben, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    Resistance training interventions aimed at increasing lower-body power and rates of force development have produced varying results. Recent studies have suggested that whole-body low-frequency vibration (WBLFV) may elicit an acute postactivation potentiation response, leading to acute improvements in power and force development. Potentially, the use of WBLFV between sets of resistance training rather than during training itself may lead to increased recruitment and synchronization of high-threshold motor units, minimize fatigue potential, and facilitate the chronic adaptation to resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of applying TriPlaner, WBLFV, prior to and then intermittently between sets of Smith machine squats on short-term adaptations in explosive isometric force expression. Thirty recreationally resistance trained men aged 18-30 were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: resistance training only (SQT, n = 11), resistance plus whole-body vibration (SQTV, n = 13), or active control (CON, n = 6). An isometric squat test was performed prior to and following a 6-week periodized Smith machine squat program. Whole-body low-frequency vibration was applied 180 seconds prior to the first work set (50 Hz, 2-4 mm, 30 seconds) and intermittently (50 Hz, 4-6 mm, 3 x 10 seconds, 60 seconds between exposures) within a 240-second interset rest period. Subjects were instructed to assume a quarter squat posture while positioning their feet directly under their center of mass, which was modified using a handheld goniometer to a knee angle of 135 +/- 5 degrees . Instructions were given to subjects to apply force as fast and as hard as possible for 3.5 seconds. Isometric force (N) and rates of force development (N.s(-1)) were recorded from the onset of contraction (F(0)) to time points corresponding to 30, 50, 80, 100, 150, and 250 milliseconds, as well as the peak isometric rate of force development (PISORFD), and rate of force development to

  7. The Effect of Working Condition on Math Teacher Effectiveness: Value-Added Scores and Student Satisfaction in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yincheng; Singh, Kusum

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand how math teachers' effectiveness as measured by value-added scores and student satisfaction with teaching is influenced by school's working conditions. The data for the study were derived from 2009 to 2010 Teacher Working Condition Survey and Student Perception Survey in Measures of Effective…

  8. Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, S.R. de; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Goncalves, M.; Paiva, E. de

    2002-01-01

    The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The Pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade processes of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is taken into account accordingly. (author)

  9. Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, S.R. de; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Goncalves, M.; Paiva, E. de

    2002-05-01

    The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade process of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is accordingly taken into account. (author)

  10. Effects of heavy metals and phenol on the operation of sequencing batch reactor added activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ji Hun; Park, Chul Hwan; Lee, Jin Won [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sang Yong [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (Korea); Park, Jin Yong [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Hallym University (Korea); Lee, Yong Myun [Osung Envi-Tech Company (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The process of sequencing batch reactor(SBR) added the activated carbon were studied. To investigate the influence of the activated carbon on the treatment of organic materials and the effects of heavy metals on the process, three different kinds of granular activated carbons(GAC) were tested. Teh decrease of SCOD(soluble chemical oxygen demand) was measured at the different concentrations of the activated carbon. Synergistic effects of GAC on the biological activity in the SBR were confirmed from the data comparing adsorbed loadings with apparent loadings. When SBR was operated with GAC, the efficiency of wastewater treatment increased 16%. By comparing the adsorbed amount of SCOD estimated from Freundlich isotherm and the decrease of apparent loading, biological synergistic effect was confirmed. The inhibition of SBR performance from heavy metals or toxic chemicals could be reduced when GAC was added into the SBR process. Pb, Cd, Cr, and phenol were tested as typical inhibitors. When 10mg/L inhibitor was introduced into the SBR process which includes 500 mg/L GAC, the efficiency was increased as 32.6%, 27.2%, 22.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. 22 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Effective Dose Calculation Program (EDCP) for the usage of NORM-added consumer product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Do Hyeon; Lee, Jaekook; Min, Chul Hee

    2018-04-09

    The aim of this study is to develop the Effective Dose Calculation Program (EDCP) for the usage of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) added consumer products. The EDCP was developed based on a database of effective dose conversion coefficient and the Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) program to incorporate a Graphic User Interface (GUI) for ease of use. To validate EDCP, the effective dose calculated with EDCP by manually determining the source region by using the GUI and that by using the reference mathematical algorithm were compared for pillow, waist supporter, eye-patch and sleeping mattress. The results show that the annual effective dose calculated with EDCP was almost identical to that calculated using the reference mathematical algorithm in most of the assessment cases. With the assumption of the gamma energy of 1 MeV and activity of 1 MBq, the annual effective doses of pillow, waist supporter, sleeping mattress, and eye-patch determined using the reference algorithm were 3.444 mSv year -1 , 2.770 mSv year -1 , 4.629 mSv year -1 , and 3.567 mSv year -1 , respectively, while those calculated using EDCP were 3.561 mSv year -1 , 2.630 mSv year -1 , 4.740 mSv year -1 , and 3.780 mSv year -1 , respectively. The differences in the annual effective doses were less than 5%, despite the different calculation methods employed. The EDCP can therefore be effectively used for radiation protection management in the context of the usage of NORM-added consumer products. Additionally, EDCP can be used by members of the public through the GUI for various studies in the field of radiation protection, thus facilitating easy access to the program. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of Citalopram on Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease – The CitAD Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Drye, Lea T.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Agitation is common, persistent, and associated with adverse consequences for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pharmacological treatment options, including antipsychotics are not satisfactory. Objective The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of citalopram for agitation in patients with AD. Key secondary objectives examined effects of citalopram on function, caregiver distress, safety, cognitive safety, and tolerability. Design, Setting and Participants The Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease Study (CitAD) was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial that enrolled 186 patients with probable AD and clinically significant agitation from eight academic centers in the US and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. Interventions Participants (n=186) were randomized to receive a psychosocial intervention plus either citalopram (n=94) or placebo (n=92) for 9 weeks. Dose began at 10 mg/d with planned titration to 30 mg/d over 3 weeks based on response and tolerability. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, agitation subscale (NBRS-A) and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) Other outcomes were the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), activities of daily living (ADLs), caregiver distress, cognitive safety (MMSE), and adverse events. Results Participants on citalopram showed significant improvement compared to placebo on both primary outcome measures. NBRS-A estimated treatment difference at week 9 (citalopram minus placebo) was −0.93 [95% CI: −1.80 to −0.06], p = 0.036. mADCS-CGIC results showed 40% of citalopram participants having moderate or marked improvement from baseline compared to 26% on placebo, with estimated treatment effect (odds ratio of being at or better than a given CGIC category) of 2.13 [95% CI 1.23 to 3.69], p = 0

  13. Effect of adding celecoxib to a single dose of gabapentin on postoperative pain relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Choubsaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, several studies with conflicting results have been done on the role of gabapentin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pre-emptive analgesia to control postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding low doses of celecoxib to gabapentin on increasing the analgesic effect and patients’ satisfaction. Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 130 patients with ASA I, II class were divided in two groups as they were the candidates for elective inguinal hernia surgery with spinal anesthesia. Before the surgery, the control group (G received 300 mg oral dose of gabapentin and the study group (GC received 100 mg celecoxib in addition to the above dose. Severity of patients’ pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS. By the same token, the amount of painkillers usedwas measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The results suggested a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of pain level 4, 6 and 24 hours after surgery (P<0.05. Adding low-dose of celeoxib to gabapentin before the surgery and the combination of these two drugs caused further reduction of pain 4, 6 and 24 h after the surgery in comparison to the administration of gabapentin alone. Conclusion: Adding 100 mg celecoxib to 300 mg gabapentin resulted in a reduction of pain level 24 h after elective surgery of inguinal hernia in patients of control group (P<0.05. However, in terms of using painkillers (analgesics, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.

  14. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (pexercise condition (pexercise condition (pExercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of added dietary cobalt on metabolism and distribution of radioactive selenium and stable minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ryssen, J.B.J.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Neathery, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Retention of 75 Se following a single oral dose and stable Co, Cu, Zn, and Mg were determined in tissues of calves fed a diet containing 0, 10, or 40 ppm supplemental Co for 21 d. Concentrations of 75 Se in tissue were numerically higher with 10 ppm Co than with the other two diets, but the effect was significant only in small intestine tissues of calves fed 40 ppm Co. Dietary Co did not affect fecal 75 Se. Average total fecal 75 Se excretion was 53, 48, and 51% of the dose over 6 d in calves fed 0, 10, and 40 ppm added Co. Concentrations of Co in tissues increased with increased supplementation. Dietary Co did not significantly affect growth, feed intake, tissue Zn, tissue Cu, blood hemoglobin, packed cell volume, plasma alkaline phosphatase, or plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. Magnesium in heart and skeletal muscle was increased in calves fed 40 ppm Co. Although high amounts of added dietary Co had some influence on metabolism of Se, the magnitude and extent of the effects appeared to be too small to be of practical concern

  16. Effects of mass defect in atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    We consider some implications of the mass defect on the frequency of atomic transitions. We have found that some well-known frequency shifts (such as gravitational and quadratic Doppler shifts) can be interpreted as consequences of the mass defect, i.e., without the need for the concept of time dilation used in special and general relativity theories. Moreover, we show that the inclusion of the mass defect leads to previously unknown shifts for clocks based on trapped ions..

  17. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  18. How Effective Are Active Videogames Among the Young and the Old? Adding Meta-analyses to Two Recent Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Riet, Jonathan; Crutzen, Rik; Lu, Amy Shirong

    2014-10-01

    Two recent systematic reviews have surveyed the existing evidence for the effectiveness of active videogames in children/adolescents and in elderly people. In the present study, effect sizes were added to these systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were performed. All reviewed studies were considered for inclusion in the meta-analyses, but only studies were included that investigated the effectiveness of active videogames, used an experimental design, and used actual health outcomes as the outcome measures (body mass index for children/adolescents [k=5] and functional balance for the elderly [k=6]). The average effect of active videogames in children and adolescents was small and nonsignificant: Hedges' g=0.20 (95 percent confidence interval, -0.08 to 0.48). Limited heterogeneity was observed, and no moderator analyses were performed. For the effect of active videogames on functional balance in the elderly, the analyses revealed a medium-sized and significant effect of g=0.68 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.13-1.24). For the elderly studies, substantial heterogeneity was observed. Moderator analyses showed that there were no significant effects of using a no-treatment control group versus an alternative treatment control group or of using games that were especially created for health-promotion purposes versus off-the-shelf games. Also, intervention duration and frequency, sample size, study quality, and dropout did not significantly moderate the effect of active videogames. The results of these meta-analyses provide preliminary evidence that active videogames can have positive effects on relevant outcome measures in children/adolescents and elderly individuals.

  19. Effect of added ingredients on water status and physico-chemical properties of tomato sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantom, Agoura; Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Vittadini, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Different ingredients (guar, xanthan, carboxy methyl cellulose, locust bean gums, potato fiber, milk, potato and soy proteins) were added to tomato sauce to investigate their effect on its physico-chemical properties. The products were characterized in terms of colour, rheological properties (Bostwick consistency, flow behavior and consistency coefficient), water status (water activity, moisture content) and molecular mobility by 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Water activity was significantly decreased only by the addition of potato fiber. Xanthan, locust bean, guar and carboxy methyl cellulose significantly enhanced Bostwick consistency and consistency coefficient. Type of ingredient and concentration significantly affected 1 H NMR mobility indicators. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that only 1 H NMR mobility parameters were able to differentiate the effect of milk protein, xanthan and potato fiber on tomato sauce properties. The information collected in this work provides information to intelligently modulate tomato sauce attributes and tailor its properties for specific applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Adding Swedish Massage to Occupational Therapy on Muscle Tone of Spastic Cerebral Palsied Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sajedi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive disorder in body posture and movement, due to different etiologies. Different medical and rehabilitation interventions include massage have been used in these children. This study has been done to determine the effect of adding massage to occupational therapy on muscle tone of children with spastic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: This study was a double blind clinical trial. The children were recruited from clinics of University of Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences. The individuals were divided to intervention and control groups. The routine rehabilitation techniques were done in 3 months in both groups. The intervention group received massage for 30 minutes before rehabilitation. Muscle tonicity was evaluated at the beginning of the study and 3 months later by Ashworth test. The data analysis was done by parametric (t test, paired t test and nonparametric (Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon tests. Results: Thirteen subjects of case (intervention group and 14 subjects of control group were studied. The average age in case group and control group was 49.5, and 42.1 months respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in Tonicity of upper and lower limbs, trunk and neck between intervention group and control group (P>0/05. Conclusion: In general based on the results of this study, adding massage to occupational therapy had no effect on tonicity of spastic cerebral palsied children. Regarding to some effects of massage mentioned in different articles on physical abilities of children with C.P. as well as executive limitations in this research, it is not possible to reject the effects of homeopathy on physical abilities of children with C.P.

  1. Effects of added uranium on the triboluminescent properties of europium dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenot, Ross S.; Hollerman, William A.; Bhat, Kamala N.; Aggarwal, Mohan D.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of a material to emit light upon fracture is known as triboluminescence. One of the few materials that emits triboluminescence in daylight is europium dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (EuD 4 TEA). It has been shown that this material is 106% brighter than ZnS:Mn when excited by low speed impacts. In 2011, the authors of this paper found that replacing the traditional europium chloride with europium nitrate and changing the carrier solvent could both significantly affect the triboluminescent emission yield. While these changes provided a significant increase in yield, the emission was still not sufficient to be observed in bright daylight. In order to enhance the effect, a series of materials were added to the EuD 4 TEA to study the effects of “doping” on the triboluminescence yield. Results from this research showed that doping from a small number of materials, such as uranyl acetate, increased emission yield. This paper discusses the research that was completed on effects of the addition of uranyl acetate to EuD 4 TEA could increase the triboluminmescent emission yield. Results show that the added uranium does indeed increase emission yield when it is first synthesized. However, radiation emitted by the uranium also was found to damage the doped EuD 4 TEA, thus reducing the emitted triboluminescence over a period of time. - Highlights: ► Uranium doped europium dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (EuD 4 TEA) was synthesized. ► Effects of uranium was studied for low velocity ( 4 TEA was determined.

  2. Nucleon effective masses in field theories of dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Reddy, S; Prakash, M [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    We point out some generic trends of effective masses in commonly used field-theoretical descriptions of stellar matter in which several species of strongly interacting particles of dissimilar masses may be present. (orig.)

  3. Nucleon effective masses in field theories of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Prakash, M.

    1998-01-01

    We point out some generic trends of effective masses in commonly used field-theoretical descriptions of stellar matter in which several species of strongly interacting particles of dissimilar masses may be present. (orig.)

  4. Effect of adding bulking materials over the composting process of municipal solid biowastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biowastes (BW, the main raw materials for the composting installations in developing countries, are characterized for containing uncooked food wastes (FW, high moisture content, low porosity, acidic pH, and low C/N ratios which affects the overall composting process (CP. In this study, we evaluated the effect of adding sugarcane bagasse (SCB and star grass (SG (Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg. as bulking materials (BM over the quality of the substrate, progress of the process, and quality of the obtained product. In this sense, two pilot-scale experiments were performed. The first one contained a substrate formed by 78% BW and 22% SCB (pile A. The second experiment contained a substrate formed by 66% BW and 34% SG (pile B. For each experiment, control treatments (piles A' and B' respectively were performed by using 100% BW without BM. The results showed that in both cases the adding of BM improved substrate quality (pH, moisture, and total organic C content [TOC], speeding up the starting step (2-3 d and reducing the duration of the thermophilic phase of CP (3 d. However, the physico-chemical properties of both BM increased cooling and maturation phases duration (between 15 and 20 d. Obtained products quality was improved in terms of higher TOC, cation-exchange capacity, bulk density, and higher water holding capacity. Application of obtained products A and B could improve some soil properties like major nutrient, water retention, and increasing the organic matter.

  5. Double impact of sterilizing pathogens: added value of increased life expectancy on pest control effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Luděk; Maxin, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Sterilizing pathogens are commonly assumed not to affect longevity of infected individuals, and if they do then negatively. Examples abound, however, of species in which the absence of reproduction actually increases life expectancy. This happens because by decreasing the energy outlay on reproduction individuals with lowered reproduction can live longer. Alternatively, fertile individuals are more susceptible to predators or parasitoids if the latter can capitalize on mating signals of the former. Here we develop and analyze an SI epidemiological model to explore whether and to what extent does such a life expectancy prolongation due to sterilizing pathogens affect host dynamics. In particular, we are interested in an added value of increased life expectancy on the possibility of successful pest control, that is, the effect of increased lifespan and hence increased potential of the infected individuals to spread the disease on pest control effectiveness. We show that although the parameter range in which we observe an effect of increased lifespan of the sterilized individuals is not large, the effect itself can be significant. In particular, the increase in pest control effectiveness can be very dramatic when disease transmission efficiency is close to birth rate, mortality rate of susceptibles is relatively high (i.e., the species is relatively short-lived), and sterilization efficiency is relatively high. Our results thus characterize pathogens that are promising candidates for an effective pest control and that might possibly be engineered if not occurring naturally.

  6. Mass and Isospin Effects in Multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfienti, C.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.

    2005-01-01

    A systematic study of isospin effects in the breakup of projectile spectators at relativistic energies has been performed with the ALADiN spectrometer at the GSI laboratory (Darmstadt). Four different projectiles 197 Au, 124 La, 124 Sn and 107 Sn, all with an incident energy of 600 AMeV, have been used, thus allowing a study of various combinations of masses and N/Z ratios in the entrance channel. The measurement of the momentum vector and of the charge of all projectile fragments with Z > 1 entering the acceptance of the ALADiN magnet has been performed with the high efficiency and resolution achieved with the TP-MUSIC IV detector. The Rise and Fall behavior of the mean multiplicity of IMFs as a function of Z bound and its dependence on the isotopic composition has been determined for the studied systems. Other observables investigated so far include mean N/Z values of the emitted light fragments and neutron multiplicities. Qualitative agreement has been obtained between the observed gross properties and the predictions of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model

  7. Enthalpy and the mechanics of AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie; Ray, Sourya

    2009-01-01

    We present geometric derivations of the Smarr formula for static AdS black holes and an expanded first law that includes variations in the cosmological constant. These two results are further related by a scaling argument based on Euler's theorem. The key new ingredient in the constructions is a two-form potential for the static Killing field. Surface integrals of the Killing potential determine the coefficient of the variation of Λ in the first law. This coefficient is proportional to a finite, effective volume for the region outside the AdS black hole horizon, which can also be interpreted as minus the volume excluded from a spatial slice by the black hole horizon. This effective volume also contributes to the Smarr formula. Since Λ is naturally thought of as a pressure, the new term in the first law has the form of effective volume times change in pressure that arises in the variation of the enthalpy in classical thermodynamics. This and related arguments suggest that the mass of an AdS black hole should be interpreted as the enthalpy of the spacetime.

  8. Study of C/N Ratio Effect on Biogas Production of Carica Solid Waste by SS-AD Method And LS-AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Bakti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as an alternative source to replace fossil fuels. Recently, the use of energy has become an important issue because the oil sources and natural gas are depleting. Utilization of carica waste to produce biogas can reduce the consumption of commercial energy sources such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood. Biogas is produced by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobic bacterial activity in anaerobic digester. In this study we studied the influence of LS-AD and SS-AD methods, the effect of C / N ratio on biogas yield obtained and kinetics of biogas production reaction. The study was conducted by making a total solid variation of 7%, 9%, 11%, 13%, 19%, 21%, 23% and C/N ratio 25 and 30. The study started with carica waste collection process and examination of the total composition of solids and water content. Thereafter, calculation and determination of variation of C / N ratio by mixing the substrate with inoculum and urea into the reactor. Observe the volume of biogas produced every two-day intervals. The highest biogas production rate of 1.7825 ml/g TS day was obtained from carica solid waste variable by liquid state anaerobic disgestion and C/N 25.

  9. Mass defect effects in atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Valeriy; Taichenachev, Alexey

    2018-03-01

    We consider some implications of the mass defect on the frequency of atomic transitions. We have found that some well-known frequency shifts (the gravitational shift and motion-induced shifts such as quadratic Doppler and micromotion shifts) can be interpreted as consequences of the mass defect in quantum atomic physics, i.e. without the need for the concept of time dilation used in special and general relativity theories. Moreover, we show that the inclusion of the mass defect leads to previously unknown shifts for clocks based on trapped ions.

  10. Effect of adding wood vinegar on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Liu, Bingjie; Wang, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Wood vinegar, a liquid by-product that was obtained from the condensed vapor generated during the biomass pyrolysis, had been reported as plant growth promotor, but the impact on the plant seeds was still not clear. Thus, we investigated the effects of wood vinegar on the germination and seedling growth of cucumber seeds through the germination experiments. The results showed that the different diluted wood vinegar addition showed no significant difference in the germination rates of cucumber seeds compared to those of the CK treatment (P > 0.05). However, the added wood vinegar at the 10000-time dilution significantly increased the root length and dry biomass of cucumber by 20.9 % and 5.92 %, respectively (P < 0.05). Therefore, the wood vinegar at an optimal time of dilution could be used a promising soaking agent for the seeds germination, and further enhance crop yields.

  11. The Survival Processing Effect with Intentional Learning of Ad Hoc Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Savchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that memory is adapted to remember information when it is processed in a survival context. This study investigates how procedural changes in Marinho (2012 study might have led to her failure to replicate the survival mnemonic advantage. In two between-subjects design experiments, participants were instructed to learn words from ad hoc categories and to rate their relevance to a survival or a control scenario. No survival advantage was obtained in either experiment. The Adjusted Ratio of Clustering (ARC scores revealed that including the category labels made the participants rely more on the category structure of the list. Various procedural aspects of the conducted experiments are discussed as possible reasons underlying the absence of the survival effect.

  12. Does it really matter that people zip through ads? Testing the effectiveness of simultaneous presentation advertising in an IDTV environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoonjae; Kwon, Kyonghee H; Lee, Sungjoon

    2010-04-01

    In an IDTV environment, which facilitates self-scheduling, skipping advertisements by zipping is an emerging ad-avoidance behavior. This study explores whether an alternative ad format, called simultaneous presentation advertising (SPA), may overcome the limitations of classical sequential advertising (CSA) in controlling zipping behavior and increasing the effectiveness of ads. The experiment revealed that SPA is more effective than CSA in reducing zipping and increasing recall, but SPA was more intrusive and produced a negative product image. There was no difference regarding cognitive avoidance. This work discusses the implications of these findings in the interactive media environment.

  13. Phosphorene nanoribbons: Passivation effect on bandgap and effective mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Li-Chun; Song, Xian-Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Ling; Liu, Rui-Ping; Li, Xiu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation and fluorination can passivate the metallic edge states of zPNRs. • The bandgap of each type of zPNRs decreases as the ribbon's width increases duo to the quantum confinement effect. • Two local configurations of passivated atoms can coexist in nanoribbons and affect the bandgap of narrow nanoribbons. • New passivation configuration can effectively reduce the effective mass of electrons. - Abstract: The edge passivation effect of phosphorene nanoribbons is systematically investigated using density functional theory. Hydrogen and fluorine atoms passivate the metallic edge states of nanoribbons and can open a bandgap up to 2.25 eV. The two configurations of passivated atoms can exist at two edges and affect the bandgap of narrow nanoribbons. The bandgap of each type of zPNRs decreases as the ribbon's width increases, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect. The new configuration, named C b , can effectively reduce the effective mass of electrons, which benefits the future design of phosphorene-based electronic devices

  14. Phosphorene nanoribbons: Passivation effect on bandgap and effective mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li-Chun, E-mail: xulichun@tyut.edu.cn; Song, Xian-Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Ling; Liu, Rui-Ping; Li, Xiu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation and fluorination can passivate the metallic edge states of zPNRs. • The bandgap of each type of zPNRs decreases as the ribbon's width increases duo to the quantum confinement effect. • Two local configurations of passivated atoms can coexist in nanoribbons and affect the bandgap of narrow nanoribbons. • New passivation configuration can effectively reduce the effective mass of electrons. - Abstract: The edge passivation effect of phosphorene nanoribbons is systematically investigated using density functional theory. Hydrogen and fluorine atoms passivate the metallic edge states of nanoribbons and can open a bandgap up to 2.25 eV. The two configurations of passivated atoms can exist at two edges and affect the bandgap of narrow nanoribbons. The bandgap of each type of zPNRs decreases as the ribbon's width increases, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect. The new configuration, named C{sub b}, can effectively reduce the effective mass of electrons, which benefits the future design of phosphorene-based electronic devices.

  15. Hairy AdS solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  16. Hairy AdS solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru.astefanesei@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-11-10

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  17. Change of the Extractability of Cadmium Added to Different Soils: Aging Effect and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA is known to be a chelating agent and has been widely used for estimating the total extractable metals in soil. The effect of aging on EDTA-extractable cadmium (Cd was investigated in five different soils at three Cd concentrations incubated for 180 days. The EDTA-extractable Cd rapidly decreased after incubated during 30–60 days, followed by slow processes, and for 90 days the EDTA-extractable Cd tended to be stable. The decrease in EDTA-extractable Cd may be due to precipitation/nucleation processes, diffusion of Cd into the micropores/mesopores, and occlusion within organic matter in soils. A semi-mechanistic model to predict the extractability of Cd during incubation, based on processes of Cd precipitation/nucleation, diffusion, and occlusion within organic matter, was developed and calibrated. The results showed that the processes of micropore/mesopore diffusion were predominant processes affecting the extractability of Cd added to soils, and were slow. However, the proportions of the processes of precipitation/nucleation and occlusion within organic matter to the non-EDTA-extractable Cd added to soils were only 0.03–21.0% and 0.41–6.95%, respectively. The measured EDTA-extractable Cd from incubated soils were in good agreement with those predicted by the semi-mechanistic model (R2 = 0.829. The results also indicated that soil pH, organic matter, and incubation time were the most important factors affecting Cd aging.

  18. Effective mass approximation for tunneling states with dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong; Wu Xiang.

    1987-08-01

    The dissipative tunneling in an asymmetric double-well potential is studied at low temperature. With effective mass approximation, the dissipation can be replaced by a temperature-dependent effective mass. The effective mass increases with decreasing temperature and becomes infinite at T=0. The partition function of the system is derived, which has the same form as that of a non-dissipative tunneling system. Some possible applications in glasses and heavy fermion system are also discussed. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  19. Information feedback and mass media effects in cultural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Avella, J. C.; Cosenza, M. G.; Klemm, K.; Eguiluz, V. M.; Miguel, M. San

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of different forms of information feedback associated with mass media on an agent-agent based model of the dynamics of cultural dissemination. In addition to some processes previously considered, we also examine a model of local mass media influence in cultural dynamics. Two mechanisms of information feedback are investigated: (i) direct mass media influence, where local or global mass media act as an additional element in the network of interactions of each agent, and (i...

  20. The effect of adding hyoscine to vaginal misoprostol on abortion induction success rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehranian A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Intravaginal misoprostol has been shown to be an effective agent for cervical ripening and induction of labor. The aim of present study was to assess the effects of adding hyoscine to vaginal misoprostol on its success rate. "n"nMethods: In a clinical trial, 74 women who were referred to undergo legal induction of labor during first pregnancy trimester in Arash Hospital, in Tehran, Iran, between March 2006 and March 2007 were enrolled, and were randomly divided in to two groups of misoprostol (400 µg/4h, vaginal (n=37 or misoprostol (400 µg/4h, vaginal plus hyoscine (20 mg IV (n=37. Their complications including nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, need for analgesics, diarrhea, vaginal bleeding, decline in hemoglobin more than 3 g/dl, need for blood transfusion and failure of treatment according to the failure of induction of labor or cervical opening in 24 hours after starting treatment and the total duration of hospitalization were compared between groups. "n"nResults: There were no significant differences between groups regarding the rate of side effects like nausea, abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. In misoprostol plus hyoscine group, the success rate in abortion was significantly higher (40

  1. Assessing the effect of adding interactive modeling to the geoscience curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A.; Marshall, J.; Cardenas, M.

    2013-12-01

    Technology and computer models enhance the learning experience when appropriately utilized. Moreover, learning is significantly improved when effective visualization is combined with models of processes allowing for inquiry-based problem solving. Still, hands-on experiences in real scenarios result in better contextualization of related problems compared to virtual laboratories. Therefore, the role of scientific visualization, technology, and computer modeling is to enhance, not displace, the learning experience by supplementing real-world problem solving and experiences, although in some circumstances, they can adequately serve to take the place of reality. The key to improving scientific education is to embrace an inquiry-based approach that favorably uses technology. This study will attempt to evaluate the effect of adding interactive modeling to the geological sciences curriculum. An assessment tool, designed to assess student understanding of physical hydrology, was used to evaluate a curriculum intervention based on student learning with a data- and modeling-driven approach using COMSOL Multiphysics software. This intervention was implemented in an upper division and graduate physical hydrology course in fall 2012. Students enrolled in the course in fall 2011 served as the control group. Interactive modeling was added to the curriculum in fall 2012 to replace the analogous mathematical modeling done by hand in fall 2011. Pre- and post-test results were used to assess and report its effectiveness. Student interviews were also used to probe student reactions to both the experimental and control curricula. The pre- and post-tests asked students to describe the significant processes in the hydrological cycle and describe the laws governing these processes. Their ability to apply their knowledge in a real-world problem was also assessed. Since the pre- and post-test data failed to meet the assumption of normality, a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was run to

  2. The Evaluation of Damage Effects on MgO Added Concrete with Slag Cement Exposed to Calcium Chloride Deicing Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Hong-Gi; Kim, Jun-Hyeong

    2018-01-01

    Concrete systems exposed to deicers are damaged in physical and chemical ways. In mitigating the damage from CaCl2 deicers, the usage of ground slag cement and MgO are investigated. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and slag cement are used in different proportions as the binding material, and MgO in doses of 0%, 5%, 7%, and 10% are added to the systems. After 28 days of water-curing, the specimens are immersed in 30% CaCl2 solution by mass for 180 days. Compressive strength test, carbonation test, chloride penetration test, chloride content test, XRD analysis, and SEM-EDAX analysis are conducted to evaluate the damage effects of the deicing solution. Up to 28 days, plain specimens with increasing MgO show a decrease in compressive strength, an increase in carbonation resistance, and a decrease in chloride penetration resistance, whereas the S30- and S50- specimens show a slight increase in compressive strength, an increase in carbonation resistance, and a slight increase in chloride penetration resistance. After 180 days of immersion in deicing solution, specimens with MgO retain their compressive strength longer and show improved durability. Furthermore, the addition of MgO to concrete systems with slag cement induces the formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) phases. PMID:29758008

  3. The Evaluation of Damage Effects on MgO Added Concrete with Slag Cement Exposed to Calcium Chloride Deicing Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Hong-Gi; Kim, Jun-Hyeong; Ryou, Jae-Suk

    2018-05-14

    Concrete systems exposed to deicers are damaged in physical and chemical ways. In mitigating the damage from CaCl₂ deicers, the usage of ground slag cement and MgO are investigated. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and slag cement are used in different proportions as the binding material, and MgO in doses of 0%, 5%, 7%, and 10% are added to the systems. After 28 days of water-curing, the specimens are immersed in 30% CaCl₂ solution by mass for 180 days. Compressive strength test, carbonation test, chloride penetration test, chloride content test, XRD analysis, and SEM-EDAX analysis are conducted to evaluate the damage effects of the deicing solution. Up to 28 days, plain specimens with increasing MgO show a decrease in compressive strength, an increase in carbonation resistance, and a decrease in chloride penetration resistance, whereas the S30- and S50- specimens show a slight increase in compressive strength, an increase in carbonation resistance, and a slight increase in chloride penetration resistance. After 180 days of immersion in deicing solution, specimens with MgO retain their compressive strength longer and show improved durability. Furthermore, the addition of MgO to concrete systems with slag cement induces the formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) phases.

  4. Effects of Ad libitum Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Dieting in Middle-Age Male Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Alexander J; Killen, Lauren G; Smith, Ashton F; Waldman, Hunter S; Seltmann, Christie L; Hollingsworth, Angela; O'Neal, Eric K

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a 3-wk ad libitum, low-carbohydrate (fat (~70% of calories) (LCHF) diet on markers of endurance performance in middle-age, recreationally competitive male runners. All subjects (n = 8) after their normal high-carbohydrate (HC) diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed five 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological variables, metabolic variables, and perceptual responses were recorded. After 20 min of rest, participants completed a 5-km time trial on a road course. Subjects then consumed an LCHF diet for 3 wk and returned for repeat testing. Body mass and seven-site skinfold thickness sum decreased by approximately 2.5 kg (P vs 37.3°C ± 0.2°C) in the HC diet but did not differ at any other time with LCHF diet. Heart rate and perceptual measures did not display any consistent differences between treatments excluding thirst sensation for LCHF diet. RER and carbohydrate oxidation declined significantly, whereas fat oxidation increased after LCHF diet for every pace (P fat oxidation from LCHF diet potentially negate expected performance decrement from reduced carbohydrate use late in exercise for nonelite runners. An acute decrease in training capacity is expected; however, if performance improvement is not exhibited after 3 wk, diet cessation is suggested for negative responders.

  5. Maternal and neonatal effects of adding morphine to low-dose bupivacaine for epidural labor analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostbil, A; Celik, M; Alici, H A; Erdem, A F; Aksoy, M; Ahiskalioglu, A

    2014-01-01

    Labor is one of the most painful experiences a woman may face during her lifetime. One of the most effective methods used for eliminating this pain is epidural analgesia. The aim of this study to determine the impact of adding morphine to low-dose bupivacaine epidural anesthesia on labor and neonatal outcomes, and maternal side effects. This is a prospective randomized double-blind study comparing two regimens of anesthetic agents used for epidural anesthesia in labor. A total of 120 pregnant women were randomized into two groups with 60 subjects in each study arm. A catheter was inserted, and 0.1% bupivacaine + 2 μg/mL fentanyl in 15 mL saline were given to Group bupivacaine-fentanyl (Group BF), while 0.0625% bupivacaine + 2 μg/ml fentanyl + 2 mg morphine in 15 mL saline were given to Group bupivacaine-fentanyl-morphine (Group BFM) with no test dosing from the needle. No morphine was added to the subsequent epidural injections in Group BFM. The total dose of bupivacaine was significantly lower in Group BFM relative to Group BF (P = 0.0001). The visual analogu scalescores at 15, 30, and 45 min were significantly lower in Group BF compared to thosein Group BFM (P = 0.0001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively). The second stage of labor was significantly shorter in Group BFM relative to Group BF (P = 0.027 and P = 0.003, respectively). The satisfaction with analgesia following the first dose was higher in the nonmorphine group (P = 0.0001). However, maternal postpartum satisfaction was similar in both groups. Either nausea or vomiting was recorded in eight patients in Group BFM. We believe that epidural analgesia comprised of a low-dose local anaesthetic and 2 mg morphine provides a painless labor that significantly reducesthe use of local anesthetic without changing the efficiency of the analgesic, ensuring the mother's satisfaction without leading to an adverse effect on the mother or foetus, while mildly (but significantly) shortening the second stage of

  6. Thermal effects on the photon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshyn, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    It is shown that processes of O(αGsub(F)) in which the photon interacts indirectly with the thermal neutrino background dominate electric screening at low temperature. The photon electric mass still comes out to be much smaller than the present experimental limit

  7. The effect of adding phosphogypsum to cracking soil on plant growth and radionuclides accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.

    1999-11-01

    Many studies have reported the positive effects of phosphogypsum applications on physical and chemical properties of agriculture soils and on plant yield. Hence, there is some concern that application of phosphogypsum may result in plant uptake of radionuclides. phosphogypsum, which has radioactivity of 430 Bq/Kg,was mixed with salty-loam soil, at different rates (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 t/ha), to monitor the effects of mixing phosphogypsum on the cracking, chemical properties of the soil, wheat yield, efficiency of water use, and radionuclides accumulation. The experiments were conducted in two seasons (1997 and 1998) in two sites.The results show that mixing phosphogypsum with the soil increased the Ce, SO 4 , Mg, Ca and P available in the saturated extracts, and decreased the cracking of the soil by 17 - 45%. Also adding phosphogypsum increased grain yield (by 23 - 45%) and water use efficiency. The radioactivity of shoots and grain of wheat were below the detection level (0.1 Bq/Kg/dry weight). (author)

  8. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  9. Consumer Perception of Online Advertising - The Effects of Animation, Ad Characteristics, Repetition and Task Relevancy on Attention and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kuisma, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Prior advertising research on advertising perception models has mainly focused on effects that occur after consumers have been exposed to advertising stimuli. Little research has examined how consumers are exposed to advertising and the quality of visual attention during advertising exposure. This doctoral dissertation examines how consumers allocate their visual attention to online ads and how consumers memorize ads in different viewing conditions. More precisely, the dissertation focuses on...

  10. Effect of grain mobility on ionic conductivity of Ceria added YSZ electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Alka; Omar, Shobit; Balani, Kantesh

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to develop novel electrolyte materials, the present work explores the effect of grain boundary mobility on ionic conductivity of CeO 2 -YSZ electrolyte. For cubic zirconia in general, the higher the grain boundary mobility, the lower the activation energy for oxide ion migration and judicious doping can be an effective method for mobility control. The two main directions for fabricating 8 mol. % YSZs (8YSZ) with 0,5 and 10 wt % CeO 2 are being followed: (i) co doping by conventional sintering (CS, 1400 ℃, 4h holding, ∼98 % theoretical density), and (ii) nano composite approach by spark plasma sintering (SPS, 1200 ℃, 5 min holding, ∼96 % theoretical density). Phase analysis by XRD, indicates that CeO 2 forms the complete solid solution with YSZ when synthesized by CS and both solid solution and composite formation (seen as isolated ceria rich zones in YSZ matrix by EDS analysis via TEM) by SPS. The grain boundary mobility for CS samples of pure and 10%CeO 2 added YSZ are 6.69 x 10 -18 to 10.35 X 10 -18 m 3 /N/s respectively. While for SPS sintered samples of pure and 10% CeO 2 added YSZ the grain boundary mobility comes out to be ∼0.032 X 10 -18 to 0.039 X 10 18 m 3 /N/s respectively. Grain mobility does not show any marginal change with increasing ceria content, elicit that the defect concentration is nearly constant in 8YSZ and is insensitive to ceria content. Remarkable increase of grain mobility in the SPS samples is attributed to rapid grain coarsening in the nano-grains limited to shorter sintering times. As expected, grain mobility for longer-times average out the transient phase and lower the net grain mobility such as in CS samples. The enhanced mobility in CeO 2 -YSZ SPS sintered electrolytes must be due to lower cation migration energy (activation energy for oxide ion migration), promoting enhanced ionic conductivity. (author)

  11. The Cost-Effectiveness of Replacing the Bottom Quartile of Novice Teachers through Value-Added Teacher Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.; Ritter, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted of Gordon, Kane, and Staiger's (2006) proposal to raise student achievement by identifying and replacing the bottom quartile of novice teachers, using value-added assessment of teacher performance. The cost effectiveness of this proposal was compared to the cost effectiveness of voucher programs, charter…

  12. Effect of lumped mass and support stiffness on pipe seismic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.S.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In performing pipe stress analysis, generic support stiffness values are typically used to predict the response of the piping systems. Consistent design of every support to match the generic stiffness value is difficult. The difference between the actual and generic stiffness may affect the results of pipe stresses and support reactions. The objective of this study is to develop an acceptance criteria for the actual support stiffness and to avoid unnecessary reanalysis. The support mass in the restraint direction and mass within the pipe span can also affect the piping system behavior and this study will discuss this mass effect as well. Added mass and change in support stiffness will cause the piping system to shift frequency

  13. Effect of adding cofactors to exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on preingestive hydrolysis, in vitro digestibility, and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Ma, Z X; Gonzalez, C F; Adesogan, A T

    2015-07-01

    Our objectives were to examine if adding metal ion cofactors (COF) to exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) would increase the beneficial effects of the EFE on the preingestive hydrolysis and in vitro digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage. In experiment 1, 5 COF (Mn(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) were screened to select the best candidates for synergistically enhancing release of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) from bermudagrass haylage by 5 EFE. The 5 EFE (1A, 2A, 11C, 13D, and 15D) were sourced from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae and they were the most effective of 12 EFE at increasing the neutral detergent fiber digestibility of bermudagrass haylage in a previous trial. Adding 1mM of each of the COF to EFE 2A or 11C synergistically increased release of WSC from bermudagrass haylage, as did adding (1mM) Fe(2+) to 1A, Mn(2+), Co(2+), or Fe(2+) to 13D, or Co(2+)or Fe(2+) to 15D. The greatest release of WSC responses were obtained by adding Mn(2+) to 11C (38%) or by adding Fe(2+) to 2A or 13D (10 and 21.9%, respectively). In experiment 2, the effect of increasing the COF dose on in vitro digestibility and fermentation of bermudagrass haylage was examined using the best EFE-COF combinations from experiment 1. Effects of adding increasing doses of these COF on EFE-mediated changes in vitro digestibility depended on the COF-EFE combination. Adding 10mM Mn(2+) alone to bermudagrass haylage increased DMD and NDFD by 2.7 and 6.3% and adding 11C alone increased these measures by 6.6 and 15.5%, respectively. However, adding 10mM Mn(2+) with 11C resulted in 3.5 and 8.1% increases in DMD and NDFD, respectively, beyond the increases caused by adding 11C alone. Adding Fe(2+) to 2A had no effects on EFE-mediated digestibility responses, but 2A prevented adverse effects of adding Fe(2+) alone on DMD and NDFD. In contrast, adding Fe(2+) to 13D reduced the increases in DMD and NDFD caused by adding the EFE alone. This study shows that adding COF

  14. The effect of types of banner ad, Web localization, and customer involvement on Internet users' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jengchung Victor; Ross, William H; Yen, David C; Akhapon, Lerdsuwankij

    2009-02-01

    In this study, three characteristics of Web sites were varied: types of banner ad, Web localization, and involvement in purchasing a product. The dependent variable was attitude toward the site. In laboratory experiments conducted in Thailand and Taiwan, participants browsed versions of a Web site containing different types of banner ads and products. As a within-participants factor, each participant browsed both a standardized English-language Web site and a localized Web site. Results showed that animated (rather than static) banner ads, localized versions (rather than a standardized version) of Web sites, and high (rather than low) product involvement led to favorable attitudes toward the site.

  15. Modelling baryonic effects on galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-06-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  16. Modelling Baryonic Effects on Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  17. Investigating the Effects of Adding Fentanyl to Bupivacaine in Spinal Anesthesia of Opium-addicted Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Satari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinal anesthesia in opium-addicted patients can be associated with many complications. Hence, this study aimed to investigate sensory and motor block characteristics, duration of postoperative analgesia, hemodynamic and side effects by adding Fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal Anesthesia of opium-addicted patients. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 60 American society of Anesthesiology (ASA class I and II opium-addicted patients under spinal anesthesia in lower abdominal and lower limb operations were randomly classified into two groups of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl. Clinical symptoms, side effects, the duration of sensory and motor block, initiation of analgesia requirement and sensory block were assessed. Results: The study results indicated no significant difference between bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl groups in regard with demographic, side effects, blood pressure and heart rate, though a significant difference was observed in respiratory rate 5min, 10min, 45min, 75min and 90 min after block. Duration of sensory (100.33 to 138.83 and motor block (93.43 to 107.66 and , initiation of analgesia requirement (165.33 to 187.76 was significantly longer in bupivacaine-fentanyl, though initiation of sensory block (8.83 to 4.93 was significantly longer in bupivacaine. Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia increases the duration of sensory and motor block and initiation of analgesia requirement in opium-addicted patients and also decreases initiation of sensory block in these patients.

  18. The effect of DAD timeout period on address autoconfiguration in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutanga, MB

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of manual management mechanisms in wireless ad-hoc networks means that automatic configuration of IP addresses and other related network parameters are very crucial. Many IP address autoconfiguration mechanisms have been proposed in literature...

  19. Effects of AdR-siPTEN on learning capability, memory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... protein expression of a phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), ... disease (AD) and refers to a step-wise deterioration in cognitive ..... Pappas BA, de la Torre JC, Davidson CM (1996).Chronic ...

  20. Effects of Aspartame on alcohol fermentation in Aspartame-added bread processing

    OpenAIRE

    岡村, 徳光; 浜岡, 瑠美; 竹野, 智美; 奥田, 展子; 大杉, 匡弘; Tokumitsu, Okamura; Rumi, Hamaoka; Tomomi, Takeno; Nobuko, Okuda; Masahiro, Ohsugi

    2001-01-01

    The addition of aspartame to white bread dough affected the gas production due to baker's yeast. After 3 hours of incubation, the total gas production of 3% aspartame-added dough decreased about 0.4 times that of standard dough. Gas production decreased with increasing concentrations of aspartame. On the other hand, the expansion of aspartame-added dough increased with increasing concentration of aspartame. The dough containing 3% aspartame expanded the same as standard dough. The ratio of in...

  1. Perceived Effectiveness of Antismoking Ads and Association with Quit Attempts Among Smokers: Evidence from the Tips From Former Smokers Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Duke, Jennifer; Shafer, Paul; Patel, Deesha; Rodes, Robert; Beistle, Diane

    2017-08-01

    Measures of perceived effectiveness (PE) of ads have been validated to predict changes in cognitive precursors of quit attempts, but a relationship between PE and actual quit attempts has not been shown in population-based studies. We analyzed smokers' PE ratings of ads from the national Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign to (1) establish the validity of PE in predicting quit attempts in a large, nationally representative sample of smokers; (2) identify behavioral and demographic correlates of PE among respondents; and (3) examine whether PE is influenced by matching the race/ethnicity of ad participants with that of the ad viewer. We used survey data from two waves (baseline and follow-up) of a longitudinal online cohort of adult U.S. cigarette smokers. Respondents were shown one or more of 14 Tips campaign ads and were asked to assess each ad in terms of PE. We used multivariate models to estimate the association between baseline PE and prospective quit attempts; cross-sectional associations between PE and various respondent characteristics, including race/ethnicity, desire to quit, and health conditions; and the association between race/ethnicity of respondents and Tips ad participants. Higher PE at baseline was associated with increased odds of a quit attempt at follow-up. Higher PE scores were associated with non-Hispanic black race, Hispanic ethnicity, higher desire to quit, presence of a chronic health condition, and presence of a mental health condition. There was no relationship between PE scores and matched race/ethnicity of the respondent and Tips ad participants. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between PE scores for antismoking ads and prospective quit attempts in a large, nationally representative sample of smokers. Our findings also provide strong evidence that racial/ethnic minority subpopulations, including non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, react more favorably to Tips campaign ads irrespective of race/ethnicity of

  2. Music and Moral Judgment: The Effect of Background Music on the Evaluation of Ads Promoting Unethical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Naomi; Hoftman, Moran; Geyer, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Background music is often used in ads as a means of persuasion. Previous research has studied the effect of music in advertising using neutral or uncontroversial products. The aim of the studies reported here was to examine the effect of music on the perception of products promoting unethical behavior. Each of the series of three studies described…

  3. How effective are active videogames among the young and the old? Adding meta-analyses to two recent systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Crutzen, R.M.M.; Lu, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Two recent systematic reviews have surveyed the existing evidence for the effectiveness of active videogames in children/adolescents and in elderly people. In the present study, effect sizes were added to these systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were performed. Materials and Methods:

  4. The kinetic energy operator for distance-dependent effective nuclear masses: Derivation for a triatomic molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoma, Mykhaylo; Jaquet, Ralph

    2017-09-21

    The kinetic energy operator for triatomic molecules with coordinate or distance-dependent nuclear masses has been derived. By combination of the chain rule method and the analysis of infinitesimal variations of molecular coordinates, a simple and general technique for the construction of the kinetic energy operator has been proposed. The asymptotic properties of the Hamiltonian have been investigated with respect to the ratio of the electron and proton mass. We have demonstrated that an ad hoc introduction of distance (and direction) dependent nuclear masses in Cartesian coordinates preserves the total rotational invariance of the problem. With the help of Wigner rotation functions, an effective Hamiltonian for nuclear motion can be derived. In the derivation, we have focused on the effective trinuclear Hamiltonian. All necessary matrix elements are given in closed analytical form. Preliminary results for the influence of non-adiabaticity on vibrational band origins are presented for H 3 + .

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of some natural plant extracts added to lamb patties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, Hayam M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural plants are considered an important target to investigate in order to provide a new source of natural antioxidants and/or antimicrobial agents. The optimum concentrations of some natural plant (jojoba, jatropha, ginseng and ginger extracts were determined and added to lamb patties. Some chemical and microbial characteristics of the prepared patties during storage for 9 days at 4°C were evaluated. Both the addition of these extracts and storage time had a significant effect on the patties throughout the storage period. The effectiveness of the tested natural extracts can be listed in the following order of decreasing Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values: ginseng > jatropha > jojoba > ginger. Aerobic plate count, mould and yeast counts decreased significantly with addition of the extracts during the storage period. Also, the addition of the extracts was significantly effective in reducing histamine, tyramine and putrescine formation during the storage period. Compared to control patties, the addition of these natural extracts was effective as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for improving the properties of lamb patties.

    Las plantas naturales están consideradas como un importante producto donde buscar y encontrar nuevas fuentes de antioxidantes naturales y/o agentes antimicrobianos. La concentración óptima de algunos extractos de plantas naturales (jojoba, jatropha, ginseng y jengibre fueron determinado y añadidas a pasteles de cordero. Algunas características químicas y microbiológicas de los pasteles preparados y almacenados durante 9 días a 4°C fueron evaluados. Tanto la adición de estos extractos como el tiempo de almacenamiento tuvieron un efecto significativo en los pasteles en el periodo de almacenamiento. La efectividad de los extractos naturales ensayados puede ser enumerada en el siguiente orden decreciente de valores de substancias reactivas con el ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS: ginseng

  6. Target mass effects in polarized deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccione, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a computation of nucleon mass corrections to nucleon structure functions for polarized deep-inelastic scattering. We perform a fit to existing data including mass corrections at first order in m 2 /Q 2 and we study the effect of these corrections on physically interesting quantities. We conclude that mass corrections are generally small, and compatible with current estimates of higher twist uncertainties, when available. (orig.)

  7. Effect of adding Cr on magnetic properties and metallic behavior in MnTe film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.H.; Geng, D.Y.; Gong, W.J.; Li, J.; Li, Y.B.; Zhang, Z.D.

    2012-01-01

    Mn 1−x Cr x Te films with x = 0, 0.02, and 0.05 was synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and crystallize in hexagonal NiAs-type structure. The spin glass behavior predicted before by Monte Carlo calculation is observed in the MnTe film. This behavior is destroyed by adding Cr in the MnTe film. The temperature dependence of magnetization shows a sharp rise at around 66 K, due to the magneto-elastic coupling. Metallic behavior is observed in the MnTe film in the temperature range 120–220 K, which is ascribed to the magnetic ordering. The metallic behavior disappears with adding Cr, because adding Cr ions destroys the magnetic ordering which is mediated by the sp–d exchange interaction between the Cr ions. - Highlights: ► Mn 1−x Cr x Te films with NiAs-type structure was prepared by pulsed laser deposition. ► The spin glass behavior was observed in MnTe film at low temperature. ► The spin glass behavior was destroyed by adding Cr. ► The temperature dependence of magnetization showed a sharp rise at around 66 K. ► Metallic behavior was observed in MnTe film, which disappeared by adding Cr.

  8. Plant litter functional diversity effects on litter mass loss depend on the macro-detritivore community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoine, Guillaume; Thakur, Madhav P; Friese, Julia; Nock, Charles; Hönig, Lydia; Haase, Josephine; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms driving litter diversity effects on decomposition is needed to predict how biodiversity losses affect this crucial ecosystem process. In a microcosm study, we investigated the effects of litter functional diversity and two major groups of soil macro-detritivores on the mass loss of tree leaf litter mixtures. Furthermore, we tested the effects of litter trait community means and dissimilarity on litter mass loss for seven traits relevant to decomposition. We expected macro-detritivore effects on litter mass loss to be most pronounced in litter mixtures of high functional diversity. We used 24 leaf mixtures differing in functional diversity, which were composed of litter from four species from a pool of 16 common European tree species. Earthworms, isopods, or a combination of both were added to each litter combination for two months. Litter mass loss was significantly higher in the presence of earthworms than in that of isopods, whereas no synergistic effects of macro-detritivore mixtures were found. The effect of functional diversity of the litter material was highest in the presence of both macro-detritivore groups, supporting the notion that litter diversity effects are most pronounced in the presence of different detritivore species. Species-specific litter mass loss was explained by nutrient content, secondary compound concentration, and structural components. Moreover, dissimilarity in N concentrations increased litter mass loss, probably because detritivores having access to nutritionally diverse food sources. Furthermore, strong competition between the two macro-detritivores for soil surface litter resulted in a decrease of survival of both macro-detritivores. These results show that the effects of litter functional diversity on decomposition are contingent upon the macro-detritivore community and composition. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of litter trait diversity effects and their interaction with

  9. Comparison of the effect of lidocaine adding dexketoprofen and paracetamol in intravenous regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Ali; Eroglu, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of dexketoprofen and paracetamol added to the lidocaine in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia in terms of hemodynamic effects, motor and sensorial block onset times, intraoperative VAS values, and analgesia requirements. The files of 73 patients between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA I-II risk group who underwent hand and forearm surgery were analyzed and 60 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group D (n = 20), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 50 mg/2 mL dexketoprofen trometamol; Group P (n = 20), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 3 mg/kg paracetamol; Group K (n = 20), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine. Demographic data, motor and sensorial block times, heart rate, mean blood pressure, VAS values, and intraoperative and postoperative analgesia requirements were recorded. Sensorial and motor block onset durations of Group K were significantly longer than other groups. Motor block termination duration was found to be significantly longer in Group D than in Group K. VAS values of Group K were found higher than other groups. There was no significant difference in VAS values between Group D and Group P. Analgesia requirement was found to be significantly more in Group K than in Group P. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rates and mean arterial pressures. We concluded that the addition of 3 mg/kg paracetamol and 50 mg dexketoprofen to lidocaine as adjuvant in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia applied for hand and/or forearm surgery created a significant difference clinically.

  10. Comparison of the Effect of Lidocaine Adding Dexketoprofen and Paracetamol in Intravenous Regional Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akdogan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Comparison of dexketoprofen and paracetamol added to the lidocaine in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia in terms of hemodynamic effects, motor and sensorial block onset times, intraoperative VAS values, and analgesia requirements. Method. The files of 73 patients between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA I-II risk group who underwent hand and forearm surgery were analyzed and 60 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group D (n=20, 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 50 mg/2 mL dexketoprofen trometamol; Group P (n=20, 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 3 mg/kg paracetamol; Group K (n=20, 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine. Demographic data, motor and sensorial block times, heart rate, mean blood pressure, VAS values, and intraoperative and postoperative analgesia requirements were recorded. Results. Sensorial and motor block onset durations of Group K were significantly longer than other groups. Motor block termination duration was found to be significantly longer in Group D than in Group K. VAS values of Group K were found higher than other groups. There was no significant difference in VAS values between Group D and Group P. Analgesia requirement was found to be significantly more in Group K than in Group P. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rates and mean arterial pressures. Conclusion. We concluded that the addition of 3 mg/kg paracetamol and 50 mg dexketoprofen to lidocaine as adjuvant in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia applied for hand and/or forearm surgery created a significant difference clinically.

  11. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  12. The Effect of Freezing and Hydrocolloids on the Physical Parameters of Strawberry Mass-Based Desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boča Sigita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of freezing, thickening and storage on the physical properties of the strawberry desserts made with addition of various hydrocolloids. The strawberry cultivars ‘Polka’, ‘Honeoye’, and ‘Senga Sengana’ harvested in Latvia were used in the study. The strawberries were processed in a blender for obtaining a homogenous mass. The strawberry mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at -18 °C. Both fresh and frozen strawberry mass samples with added gelatine, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were whisked until obtaining dessert. For determination of the optimum hydrocolloid amount, sensory evaluation was done using a five-point hedonic scale. Moisture, soluble solids content, density, and pH of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Consistency of the dessert during its storage was evaluated using a texture analyser TA.XT.plus. The results of sensory evaluation allow concluding that in order to provide the most acceptable consistency, colour, and taste of strawberry dessert, the optimum quantity of carboxymethyl cellulose and xanthan gum to be added is 0.6% and that of gelatine is 6%. During freezing, the soluble solids content and pH level decreased in the strawberry mass, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased these values. The moisture content in strawberry puree, in its turn, as a result of freezing increased under the influence of syneresis, but added hydrocolloids, on the contrary, decreased this influence. Also the viscosity and consistency of the strawberry puree prepared from the researched cultivars decreased under the influence of freezing, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased both the values, making the strawberry dessert firmer. The research suggests that strawberry dessert with gelatine had the most pronounced changes during storage, but strawberry dessert with added xanthan

  13. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in an analog to digital converter /AD571/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Perret, J.; Evans, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation is concerned with the study of the total-dose degradation mechanisms in an IIL analog to digital (A/D) converter. The A/D converter is a 10 digit device having nine separate functional units on the chip which encompass several hundred transistors and circuit elements. It was the objective of the described research to find the radiation sensitive elements by a systematic search of the devices on the LSI chip. The employed technique using a scanning electron microscope to determine the functional blocks of an integrated circuit which are sensitive to ionizing radiation and then progressively zeroing in on the soft components within those blocks, proved extremely successful on the AD571. Four functional blocks were found to be sensitive to radiation, including the Voltage Reference, DAC, IIL Clock, and IIL SAR.

  14. Mass terms in effective theories of high density quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T.

    2002-04-01

    We study the structure of mass terms in the effective theory for quasiparticles in QCD at high baryon density. To next-to-leading order in the 1/pF expansion we find two types of mass terms: chirality conserving two-fermion operators and chirality violating four-fermion operators. In the effective chiral theory for Goldstone modes in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase the former terms correspond to effective chemical potentials, while the latter lead to Lorentz invariant mass terms. We compute the masses of Goldstone bosons in the CFL phase, confirming earlier results by Son and Stephanov as well as Bedaque and Schäfer. We show that to leading order in the coupling constant g there is no antiparticle gap contribution to the mass of Goldstone modes, and that our results are independent of the choice of gauge.

  15. The Effect of Red Pepper Waste Added to Compost on Selenium Content of Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kalyoncu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selenium levels of P.citrinopileatus added different rates of red pepper waste to compost as a source of selenium were determined. For this purpose, six different compost groups were prepared and inoculated with P.citrinopileatus mycelia. Selenium levels of harvested mushrooms were analysed. In conclusion, 0.338 µg/g selenium were determined in one gram dry mushroom that red pepper waste added to compost at 5%. Mycelia growth and selenium accumulation were negatively affected by higher rates of red pepper waste.

  16. Effectiveness and safety of 1-year ad libitum consumption of a high-catechin beverage under nutritional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Takeshi; Shoji, Kentaro; Takase, Hideto; Hibi, Masanobu; Hase, Tadashi; Meguro, Shinichi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Kambe, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    It has been reported that a continuous intake of a catechin beverage will reduce body fat. Traditionally, improvement of eating and exercise habits has been the basis for prevention and reduction of obesity. In this study, we conducted a trial involving human subjects who ingested a catechin beverage for 1 year under nutritional guidance. This study was conducted based on a comprehensive cohort design using a catechin beverage (containing 588 mg of tea catechins) and a control beverage (containing 126 mg of tea catechins). At both the start and the end of the trial, the subjects underwent an annual health check and computer tomography for measurement of their abdominal fat. In addition, a food intake survey was conducted and all subjects were provided nutritional guidance by a registered dietitian every 3 months. Data were analyzed using per protocol samples of 134 subjects (catechin group, n = 77; control group, n = 57). Body weight and body mass index were reduced significantly in the catechin group compared to the control group. Changes in body weight during the study period were -1.1 kg in the catechin group and 0.2 kg in the control group. In the catechin group, the visceral fat areas at the start of the trial were significantly correlated with the magnitude of fat reduction at the end of the trial. Under the guidance of a registered dietitian, subjects in the catechin group who showed a reduction in their fat-derived energy percentage during the test period tended to reduce more body weight than those with an increase in this percentage, although no difference in total energy intake was noted between the two groups. One-year ad libitum consumption of a catechin beverage posed no health risks and resulted in a reduction in body weight. An overall improvement in dietary habits might enhance the weight-reduction effect of the beverage.

  17. Natural Higgs mass in supersymmetry from nondecoupling effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Murayama, Hitoshi; Ruderman, Joshua T; Tobioka, Kohsaku

    2014-05-16

    The Higgs mass implies fine-tuning for minimal theories of weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Nondecoupling effects can boost the Higgs mass when new states interact with the Higgs boson, but new sources of SUSY breaking that accompany such extensions threaten naturalness. We show that two singlets with a Dirac mass can increase the Higgs mass while maintaining naturalness in the presence of large SUSY breaking in the singlet sector. We explore the modified Higgs phenomenology of this scenario, which we call the "Dirac next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model."

  18. Virtual mass effects in two-phase flow. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Drew, D.A.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1978-03-01

    The effect of virtual mass on phase separation during the acceleration of a two-phase mixture was studied. Virtual mass can be regarded as an induced inertia on the dispersed phase which is accelerating relative to the continuous phase, and it was found that the virtual mass acceleration is objective, implying an invariance with respect to reference frame. An objective form of the virtual acceleration was derived and required parameters were determined for limiting cases. Analyses determined that experiments on single bubble nozzle/diffuser flow cannot readily discriminate between various virtual mass acceleration models

  19. The type of caloric sweetener added to water influences weight gain, fat mass, and reproduction in growing Sprague-Dawley female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Heather R; Tsanzi, Embedzayi; Gigliotti, Joseph; Morgan, Keri; Tou, Janet C

    2009-06-01

    Caloric sweetened beverages have been suggested to be a major dietary contributor to weight gain, particularly among adolescents. Dietary recommendations are for moderating intakes of added sugars; however, the question remains whether certain types of sugars should be limited. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drinking different caloric sweetened beverages on the development of adiposity, metabolic, and endocrine disorders. Young (age 28 days) female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8-9 rats/group) were randomly assigned to drink either deionized distilled water (ddH2O) or ddH2O sweetened with 13% (w/v) glucose, sucrose, fructose or high fructose corn syrup 55 (HFCS-55) for 8 weeks. Rats drinking caloric sweetened solutions failed to completely compensate for liquid calories ingested by reducing their consumption of solid food. This resulted in greater total energy intake compared to the ddH2O control; however, there was no significant difference in total energy intake between rats drinking sucrose, fructose or HFCS-55. Of the different caloric sweeteners, only rats drinking HFCS-55 had greater (P glucose solution. This may have occurred because drinking HFCS-55 solution promoted a faster body weight gain. Adiposity induced by caloric sweetened water was not accompanied by metabolic disorders indicated by the absence of dyslipidemia and no differences in fasting serum glucose, insulin or C-peptide among the treatment groups. However, rats drinking HFCS-55 showed lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged estrus. Based on this study, the type of caloric sweetener added to beverages should be considered when making dietary recommendation for reducing excess body weight and related health risk.

  20. The Effect of Macroeconomic Variables on Value-Added Agriculture: Approach of Vector Autoregresive Bayesian Model (BVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pishbahar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are different ideas and opinions about the effects of macroeconomic variables on real and nominal variables. To answer the question of whether changes in macroeconomic variables as a political tool is useful over a business cycle, understanding the effect of macroeconomic variables on economic growth is important. In the present study, the Bayesian Vector autoregresive model and seasonality data for the years between 1991 and 2013 was used to determine the impact of monetary policy on value-added agriculture. Predicts of Vector autoregresive model are usually divertaed due to a lot of parameters in the model. Bayesian vector autoregresive model estimates more reliable predictions due to reducing the number of included parametrs and considering the former models. Compared to the Vector Autoregressive model, the coefficients are estimated more accurately. Based on the results of RMSE in this study, previous function Nrmal-Vyshart was identified as a suitable previous disteribution. According to the results of the impulse response function, the sudden effects of shocks in macroeconomic variables on the value added in agriculture and domestic venture capital are stable. The effects on the exchange rates, tax revenues and monetary will bemoderated after 7, 5 and 4periods. Monetary policy shocks ,in the first half of the year, increased the value added of agriculture, while in the second half of the year had a depressing effect on the value added.

  1. Chasing the Effects of Pre-Analytical Confounders - A Multicenter Study on CSF-AD Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitão, Maria João; Baldeiras, Inês; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers - Aβ42, Tau, and phosphorylated Tau (pTau) - have been recently incorporated in the revised criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, their widespread clinical application lacks standardization. Pre-analytical sample handling and storage...

  2. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... residual oil added to feed mixture on the biochemical traits of thigh muscles in .... The basal diet (Soybean + corn); T2 = basal diet + 0% RRO + 50 mg/kg ZnO; T3 = basal ... fatty acids, using gas chromatography (AOAC, 1999).

  3. Effect of ADS-B Characteristics on Airborne Conflict Detection and Resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langejan, T.P.; Sunil, E.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Most Free-Flight concepts rely on self-separation by means of airborne Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) algorithms. A key enabling technology for airborne CD&R is the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, which is used for direct state information exchange

  4. Warning: you are being primed! The effect of a warning on the impact of subliminal ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, T.; Karremans, J.C.; Bernritter, S.F.; Stroebe, W.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    As it has been demonstrated that subliminal advertising can affect consumers’ decisions - if the ad is goal relevant - the question rises whether consumers are able to shield themselves from subliminal influences. In the present research it was examined whether warning people of the presence of

  5. Warning: You are being primed! The effect of a warning on the impact of subliminal ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, T.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Bernritter, S.F.; Stroebe, W.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    As it has been demonstrated that subliminal advertising can affect consumers' decisions – if the ad is goal relevant – the question rises whether consumers are able to shield themselves from subliminal influences. In the present research it was examined whether warning people of the presence of

  6. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    crunches in training machine (27±3.7 vs 65±3.8% nEMG respectively, Pinfluence the findings. CONCLUSION: Crunches on a Swiss ball with added elastic resistance induces high rectus abdominis activity accompanied by low hip flexor...

  7. How Do Value-Added Indicators Compare to Other Measures of Teacher Effectiveness? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent drive to revamp teacher evaluation and accountability, measures of a teacher's value added have played the starring role. But the star of the show is not always the best actor, nor can the star succeed without a strong supporting cast. In assessing teacher performance, observations of classroom practice, portfolios of teachers' work,…

  8. A comparison of the effects of added saliva, α-amylase and water on texture perception in semisolids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.; Bilt, A. van der; Weenen, H.; Bosman, F.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of adding saliva or a saliva-related fluid (α-amylase solution and water) to custard prior to ingestion on the sensory ratings of odour, flavour and lip-tooth-, mouth- and after-feel sensations was investigated. Saliva had previously been collected from the subjects and each subject

  9. Effect of adding gefitinib to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor negative early breast cancer in a randomized phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, M.; Ingvar, C.; Jorgensen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has shown both anti-proliferative and anti-tumoral activity in breast cancer. This study was designed to determine the effect of adding gefitinib to neoadjuvant epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC) on tumor response rates. ...

  10. Effect of adding gefitinib to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor negative early breast cancer in a randomized phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Mogens; Ingvar, Christian; Jörgensen, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has shown both anti-proliferative and anti-tumoral activity in breast cancer. This study was designed to determine the effect of adding gefitinib to neoadjuvant epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC) on tumor response rates...

  11. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  12. Effects of BMI, Fat Mass, and Lean Mass on Asthma in Childhood: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A. John; Evans, David M.; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R.; Lewis, Sarah; Palmer, Tom M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI) and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV) estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs). 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-valuesBMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16–2.07) per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19–3.03) than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89–2.11) though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31). The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11–1.79) per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23–4.11) per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects. Conclusions Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24983943

  13. Many-body theory of effective mass in degenerate semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, G. S.; Shadangi, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    We derive the many-body theory of the effective mass in the effective mass representation (EMR). In the EMR, we need to solve the equation of motion of an electron in the presence of electron-electron interactions, where the wavefunction is expanded over a complete set of Luttinger-Kohn wavefunctions. We use the Luttinger-Ward thermodynamic potential and the Green’s function perturbation to derive an expression for the band effective mass by taking into account the electron-electron interactions. Both quasi-particle and the correlation contributions are considered. We show that had we considered only the quasi-particle contribution, we would have missed important cancellations. Thus the correlated motion of electrons has important effects in the renormalization of the effective mass. Considering the exchange self-energy in the band model, we derive a tractable expression for the band effective mass. We apply the theory to n-type degenerate semiconductors, PbTe and SnTe, and analyze the impact of the theory on the anisotropic effective mass of the conduction bands in these systems.

  14. Influence of impurities on the polaron effective mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.A.T. de.

    1975-01-01

    Using the Green Function formalism, it is verified the Rodriguez's model for the effective mass of the polaron at finite temperature in the presence of 'traps'. Some aspects of this model were discussed. (M.W.O.) [pt

  15. Experimental study on interaction between a positive mass and a negative effective mass through a mass–spring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the interaction between a positive mass and a negative effective mass through a three-mass chain connected with elastic springs, a pair of masses is designed to have an effective negative mass, and it interacts with the third positive one as if an equivalent two-mass chain. The dynamics of the equivalent two-mass chain shows that the two bodies may be self-accelerated in same direction when the effective mass becomes negative, the experiment is also conducted to demonstrate this type of motion. We further show that the energy principle (Hamilton’s principle is applicable if the energy of the negative mass unit is properly characterized. The result may be relevant to composite with cells of effective negative mass, their interaction with matrix may lead to more richer unexpected macroscopic responses.

  16. Effective dose evaluation of NORM-added consumer products using Monte Carlo simulations and the ICRP computational human phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Cheol; Yoo, Do Hyeon; Testa, Mauro; Shin, Wook-Geun; Choi, Hyun Joon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Min, Chul Hee

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) added consumer products. Using the Monte Carlo method, the radioactive products were simulated with ICRP reference phantom and the organ doses were calculated with the usage scenario. Finally, the annual effective doses were evaluated as lower than the public dose limit of 1mSv y(-1) for 44 products. It was demonstrated that NORM-added consumer products could be quantitatively assessed for the safety regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of aluminium added filter on mean glandular dose using mammography machine in MINT Medical Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various thickness of aluminium added filter on mean glandular dose in mammography is investigated for a standard breast phantom, 4.2 cm Perspex. A mammography machine in Medical Physics Laboratory MINT, Bennett Model DMF-150 is used to provide radiation in various kV range under clinical condition. The mean glandular dose on the phantom were measured based on technique recommended by AAPM protocol (1990) report no 29. The mean glandular dose was found reducing with increasing thickness of added filter. A more detail results of this study is presented in this paper. (Author)

  18. Effect of citalopram on agitation in Alzheimer disease: the CitAD randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsteinsson, Anton P; Drye, Lea T; Pollock, Bruce G; Devanand, D P; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L; Mintzer, Jacobo E; Munro, Cynthia A; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V; Rosenberg, Paul B; Schneider, Lon S; Shade, David M; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2014-02-19

    Agitation is common, persistent, and associated with adverse consequences for patients with Alzheimer disease. Pharmacological treatment options, including antipsychotics are not satisfactory. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of citalopram for agitation in patients with Alzheimer disease. Key secondary objectives examined effects of citalopram on function, caregiver distress, safety, cognitive safety, and tolerability. The Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer Disease Study (CitAD) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial that enrolled 186 patients with probable Alzheimer disease and clinically significant agitation from 8 academic centers in the United States and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. Participants (n = 186) were randomized to receive a psychosocial intervention plus either citalopram (n = 94) or placebo (n = 92) for 9 weeks. Dosage began at 10 mg per day with planned titration to 30 mg per day over 3 weeks based on response and tolerability. Primary outcome measures were based on scores from the 18-point Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A) and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC). Other outcomes were based on scores from the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), ability to complete activities of daily living (ADLs), caregiver distress, cognitive safety (based on scores from the 30-point Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE]), and adverse events. Participants who received citalopram showed significant improvement compared with those who received placebo on both primary outcome measures. The NBRS-A estimated treatment difference at week 9 (citalopram minus placebo) was -0.93 (95% CI, -1.80 to -0.06), P = .04. Results from the mADCS-CGIC showed 40% of citalopram participants having moderate or marked improvement from baseline compared with 26% of placebo

  19. Equidistant structure and effective nucleon mass in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1981-11-01

    The effective nucleon mass of the Equidistant Multi-Layer Structure (EMULS) is discussed self-consistently. In the density region where the Fermi gas state in nuclear matter is unstable against the density fluctuation, the EMULS gives lower binding energy. It is, however, shown that such a structure with an ordinary nucleon mass collapses due to too strong attraction. We point out that such a collapse can be avoided by taking account of an effective nucleon mass affected by the localization of nucleons. (author)

  20. The effects of adding waste plastic fibers on some properties of roller compacted concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Adil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to produce of roller compacted concrete (RCC improved by adding waste plastic fibers (WPFs resulting from cutting the PET beverage bottles was recorded in this study. The method which is used for production of RCC is an approved design method for ACI committee (5R-207,1980[1]. WPF was added by volumetric percentages ranging between (0.5 to 2 % and reference concrete mix was produced for comparison reason. Many tests were conducted on the models produced by rolling compacted concrete like compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, dry density, water absorption and ultrasonic pulse velocity. The analysis of the results showed that the use of plastic waste fibers (1% had led to improvement in the properties of each of the compressive strength and flexural strength compared with reference concrete. Results also showed that the addition of these, fibers increase water absorption and reduce the speed of Ultrasonic pulse velocity.

  1. On the nucleon effective mass role to the high energy proton spallation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, B.M., E-mail: biank_ce@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinheiro, A.R.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Acre, BR 364 km 04, 69920-900 Rio Branco, AC (Brazil); Gonçalves, M. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua General Severiano 90, 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, R.G. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    We explore the effect of the nucleon effective mass to the dynamic evolution of the rapid phase of proton–nucleus spallation reactions. The analysis of the relaxation time for the non-equilibrium phase is studied by variations in the effective mass parameter. We determine the final excitation energy of the hot residual nucleus at the end of cascade phase and the de-excitation of the nuclear system is carried out considering the competition of particle evaporation and fission processes. It was shown that the excitation energy depends of the hot compound residual nucleus at the end of the rapid phase on the changing effective mass. The multiplicity of particles was also analyzed in cascade and evaporation phase of the reaction. The use of nucleon effective mass during cascade phase can be considered as an effect of the many-body nuclear interactions not included explicitly in a treatment to the nucleon–nucleon interaction inside the nucleus. This procedure represents a more realistic scenario to obtain the neutron multiplicity generated in this reaction, which is a benchmark for the calculation of the neutronic in the ADS reactors.

  2. Different effects of silica added internal or external on in vitro dissolution of indomethacin hot-melt extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yulong; Yuan, Meng; Deng, Yueyang; Ke, Xue; Ci, Tianyuan

    2017-12-20

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect on the dissolution behavior when silica was added in different ways. The solid dispersion was prepared by hot-melt extrusion (HME) using indomethacin (IND) as a model drug and Kollidon VA64 as a carrier. In order to change the dissolution behavior, the silica was added during or after the HME respectively, to obtain the corresponding silica internal-added solid dispersion (InSD) and silica external-added solid dispersion (ExSD). According to the results, the internal-added silicon dioxide could reduce the dissolution rate from 66.91%/h to 24.12%/h and the water infiltration rate from 0.37mm/h to 0.16mm/h in the phosphate buffer solution (PBS) of pH 6.8, so the formulation of InSD had a significant sustained release effect. But the infiltration rate of the ExSD was increased to 13.22mm/h when silica was added external, and the density of VA64 in the powder was decreased from 541.87mg/cm3 to 141.87mg/cm3, leading to a weak resistance to the external force, and the powder was easy to be dispersed after wetted by water so that the formulation of ExSD had a relatively higher dissolution rate. This phenomenon was more visible when the phosphate buffer solution was changed to pH 5.6 in which the API was more difficult to be dissolved. Accordingly, different addition ways of aerosil would change release behavior of the HME preparation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. “Value Added Taxes, Chain Effects and Informality”, Second Version

    OpenAIRE

    Aureo de Paula; Jose A. Scheinkman

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates determinants of informal economic activity. We present an equilibrium model of informality and test its implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. A novel theoretical contribution in this model is the role of value added taxes in transmitting informality. It predicts that the informality of a firm is correlated to the informality of f...

  4. An Effective Approach for Mobile ad hoc Network via I-Watchdog Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Lal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.

  5. The effects of audit value added on audit survival: Evidence from CPAs of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerungrat Sudsomboon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to investigate the relationship between antecedents and consequences of audit value added (AVA. AVA is performance of the auditors who work with dedication and commitment to quality work and usefulness for user. AVA composes three dimensions as well as audit best practice, audit continuous learning, and professional ethic awareness. The results from the questionnaire survey of 135 CPAs in Thailand. The findings identified that only two dimensions of AVA has positive relationship with all consequences as well as audit continuous learning and professional ethic awareness. Which the consequences of this study are financial information transparency, stakeholder acceptance, and audit survival. In addition, the finding shows the relationship between antecedence and audit value added are positive significant. Which the antecedence of this study are Stakeholder pressure, audit regulation change, and business environment climate. Surprisingly, have not significant the relationship between audit best practice that dimensions of audit value added and consequences. The summary of this paper not only provides theoretical and managerial contributions but also suggestions and directions of the future research are elaborate.

  6. Calculating Cluster Masses via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Ashley; Landry, D.; Bonamente, M.; Joy, M.; Bulbul, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Culverhouse, T. L.; Gralla, M.; Greer, C.; Hawkins, D.; Lamb, J. W.; Leitch, E. M.; Marrone, D. P.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Muchovej, S.; Plagge, T.; Woody, D.

    2012-05-01

    Accurate measurements of the total mass of galaxy clusters are key for measuring the cluster mass function and therefore investigating the evolution of the universe. We apply two new methods to measure cluster masses for five galaxy clusters contained within the Brightest Cluster Sample (BCS), an X-ray luminous statistically complete sample of 35 clusters at z=0.15-0.30. These methods distinctively use only observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, for which the brightness is redshift independent. At the low redshifts of the BCS, X-ray observations can easily be used to determine cluster masses, providing convenient calibrators for our SZ mass calculations. These clusters have been observed with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA), an interferometer that is part of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) that has been optimized for accurate measurement of the SZ effect in clusters of galaxies at 30 GHz. One method implements a scaling relation that relates the integrated pressure, Y, as determined by the SZ observations to the mass of the cluster calculated via optical weak lensing. The second method makes use of the Virial theorem to determine the mass given the integrated pressure of the cluster. We find that masses calculated utilizing these methods within a radius r500 are consistent with X-ray masses, calculated by manipulating the surface brightness and temperature data within the same radius, thus concluding that these are viable methods for the determination of cluster masses via the SZ effect. We present preliminary results of our analysis for five galaxy clusters.

  7. Effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino. Inverted mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We study the effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrinos in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (m 3 1 2 ) as well as the normal mass hierarchy (m 1 2 3 ). Numerical analysis using realistic supernova and presupernova models allows us to investigate quantitatively the possibility to probe neutrino oscillation parameters. We show that information about the mass hierarchy can be obtained if θ 13 is rather large (sin 2 2θ 13 > 10 -3 ) and that θ 13 can be probed effectively by SuperKamiokande if the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted. Errors due to the uncertainty in the original neutrino spectra and the Earth effect are also discussed. (author)

  8. Effective mass and damping of submerged structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    A number of structures important for safety in nuclear power plants are submerged in water. These include spent fuel storage racks, main pressure relief valve lines, and internal structures in the reactor vessel. Dynamic analyses of such structures must include the force and damping effects of water. A wide variety of modeling assumptions are being used in design analyses, and currently there are no uniform positions by which to judge the adequacy of the assumptions . A study was caried out to establish a technical basis for evaluating the assymptions and to recommend suitable methods to describe the effects of the water. The results of the study were based on information published in the literature or conveyed by industrial firms. A survey of 32 firms and 49 technical references was carried out. Heavy emphasis was placed on validating the results with available experimental data. The information collected apply generally to idealized structures such as single isolated members, arrays of members and coaxial cylinders. The results of the study are categorized with respect to such idealized structures, and the applicability to actual reactor structures was discussed through observations and recommendations. (orig.)

  9. Effective mass and damping of submerged structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Various structures important for safety in nuclear power plants must remain functioning in the event of an earthquake or other dynamic phenomenon. Some of these important structures, such as spent-fuel storage racks, main pressure-relief valve lines, and internal structures in the reactor vessel, are submerged in water. Dynamic analysis must include the force and damping effects of water. This report provides a technical basis for evaluating the wide variety of modeling assumptions currently used in design analysis. Current design analysis techniques and information in the literature form the basis of our conclusions and recommendations. We surveyed 32 industrial firms and reviewed 49 technical references. We compare various theories with published experimental results wherever possible. Our findings generally pertain to idealized structures, such as single isolated members, arrays of members, and coaxial cylinders. We relate these findings to the actual reactor structures through observations and recommendations. Whenever possible we recommend a definite way to evaluate the effect of hydrodynamic forces on these structures

  10. Intra-Household Coping Mechanisms in Hard Times : the Added Worker Effect in the 2001 Argentine Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Martinoty , Laurine

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that the added worker effect (AWE) plays an important role in coping against aggregate shocks, even in cases where the discouragement effect prevails at a macroeconomic scale. Using an Argentine panel dataset between 2000-2002, we instrument the endogenous variation in the labor market outcomes of household heads using the collapse of the Convertibility era as a natural experiment, and measure its causal impact on their spouses' labor supply decisions. Within this framework, ...

  11. Nonlinear realization of supersymmetric AdS space isometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.

    2006-01-01

    The isometries of AdS 5 space and supersymmetric AdS 5 xS 1 space are nonlinearly realized on four-dimensional Minkowski space. The resultant effective actions in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone modes are constructed. The dilatonic mode governing the motion of the Minkowski space probe brane into the covolume of supersymmetric AdS 5 space is found to be unstable and the bulk of the AdS 5 space is unable to sustain the brane. No such instability appears in the nonsupersymmetric case

  12. Potential effects of fat mass and fat-free mass on energy intake in different states of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R James; Hopkins, M; Finlayson, G S; Duarte, C; Gibbons, C; Blundell, J E

    2018-05-01

    Recently models have attempted to integrate the functional relationships of fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) with the control of human energy intake (EI). Cross-sectional evidence suggests that at or close to EB, FFM is positively related to hunger and EI, whereas FM either shows a weak negative or no association with ad libitum EI. Further analysis suggests that the effects of FFM and FM on EI may be mediated by resting metabolic rate (RMR). These studies suggest that energy turnover is associated with EI and the largest determinant of energy requirements in most humans is FFM. During chronic positive EBs both FM and FFM expand (but disproportionately so), increasing energy demands. There is little evidence that an expanding FM exerts strong negative feedback on longer term EI. However, during chronic negative EBs FM, FFM and RMR all decrease but appetite increases. Some studies suggest that proportionate loss of FFM during weight loss predicts subsequent weight regain. Taken together these lines of evidence suggest that changes in the size and functional integrity of FFM may influence appetite and EI. Increases in FFM associated with either weight gain or high levels of exercise may 'pull' EI upwards but energy deficits that decrease FFM may exert a distinct drive on appetite. The current paper discusses how FM and FFM relationships influence appetite regulation, and how size, structure and functional integrity of FFM may drive EI in humans (i) at EB (ii) during positive EB and (iii) during negative EB.

  13. Effect of Three Days Storage of Coated Spermatozoa at Cooling and Adding Seminal Plasma on Ram Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Vaferi

    2016-08-01

    auto-destructive activity of seminal plasma was decreased which may be reduced by coating spermatozoa for less than 5 min during collection with the commercial diluent supplemented with egg yolk. The detrimental effect of lipid efflux induced by seminal plasma may be abolished by decreasing the time of the contact between seminal plasma and sperm. The objective of this study was to determine whether coating method, as a collection method, can improve fertility of ram spermatozoa after 72 h storage. Materials and Methods Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seminal plasma on coated spermatozoa fertility by using 111 ewes, aged between 1 and 3 years. Semen from four mature, healthy and fertile Thaleshi rams, aged between 2 and 5 years, were used for AI. The animals were housed at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Education Research and Practice Farm, University of Guilan, South of Rasht (it is located at 37° 12´ North latitude and 49° 39´ East longitude and fed daily with alfalfa hay and 0.5 kg of concentrate, and provided salt lick and water ad libitum. Semen was collected throughout the breeding season (August, 2011 by using an artificial vagina. Ejaculates from each ram were collected in a tube containing 5 ml of coating medium (269 mM Tris (Hydroxymethy1 aminomethane, 52 mM D-Fructose, 89 mM Citric Acid, 2000 IU/ml penicillin G and 0.4 mg/ml streptomycin pH=7.0 at72 h before insemination. Two or three consecutive ejaculates fromeach ram were collected. The ejaculates were placed in a water bath (35○C immediately after collection. Semen quality was assessed, and to be accepted as a donor, and the ejaculation of each ram ejaculation had to fulfill the following demands concerning semen quality: volume ≥ 0.5 ml, macroscopic good visual mass activity (sperm motility ≥ 75%, sperm concentration ≥ 3 × 109⁄ml and normal sperm morphology ≥ 90%. Coated ejaculates were centrifuged for 10 min at 700 × g at room temperature and the supernatant

  14. Effect of mass asymmetry on the mass dependence of balance energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of the mass asymmetry on the balance energy (E bal ) by studying asymmetric reactions throughout the periodic table and over entire colliding geometry. Our results, which are almost independent of the system size and as well as of the colliding geometries indicate a sizeable effect of the asymmetry of the reaction on the balance energy.

  15. Effects of added antibiotics on the basic properties of anti-washout-type fast-setting calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, M; Miyamoto, Y; Ishikawa, K; Nagayama, M; Kon, M; Asaoka, K; Suzuki, K

    1998-02-01

    The effect of added antibiotics on the basic properties of anti-washout-type fast-setting calcium phosphate cement (aw-FSCPC) was investigated in a preliminary evaluation of aw-FSCPC containing drugs. Flomoxef sodium was employed as the antibiotic and was incorporated into the powder-phase aw-FSCPC at up to 10%. The setting time, consistency, wet diametral tensile strength (DTS) value, and porosity were measured for aw-FSCPC containing various amounts of flomoxef sodium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also conducted for the identification of products. To evaluate the drug-release profile, set aw-FSCPC was immersed in saline and the released flomoxef sodium was determined at regular intervals. The spread area of the cement paste as an index of consistency of the cement increased progressively with the addition of flomoxef sodium, and it doubled when the aw-FSCPC contained 8% flomoxef sodium. In contrast, the wet DTS value decreased with increase in flomoxef sodium content. Bulk density measurement and scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the set mass was more porous with the amount of flomoxef sodium contained in the aw-FSCPC. The XRD analysis revealed that formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) from aw-FSCPC was reduced even after 24 h, when the aw-FSCPC contained flomoxef sodium at > or = 6%. Therefore, the decrease of wet DTS value was thought to be partly the result of the increased porosity and inhibition of HAP formation in aw-FSCPC containing large amounts of flomoxef sodium. The flomoxef sodium release from aw-FSCPC showed the typical profile observed in a skeleton-type drug delivery system (DDS). The rate of drug release from aw-FSCPC can be controlled by changing the concentration of sodium alginate. Although flomoxef sodium addition has certain disadvantageous effects on the basic properties of aw-FSCPC, we conclude that aw-FSCPC is a good candidate for potential use as a DDS carrier that may be useful in surgical operations.

  16. Effective dose evaluation of NORM-added consumer products using Monte Carlo simulations and the ICRP computational human phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Cheol; Yoo, Do Hyeon; Testa, Mauro; Shin, Wook-Geun; Choi, Hyun Joon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Min, Chul Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) added consumer products. Using the Monte Carlo method, the radioactive products were simulated with ICRP reference phantom and the organ doses were calculated with the usage scenario. Finally, the annual effective doses were evaluated as lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y"−"1 for 44 products. It was demonstrated that NORM-added consumer products could be quantitatively assessed for the safety regulation. - Highlights: • Consumer products considered that NORM would be included should be regulated. • 44 products were collected and its gamma activities were measured with HPGe detector. • Through Monte Carlo simulation, organ equivalent doses and effective doses on human phantom were calculated. • All annual effective doses for the products were evaluated as lower than dose limit for the public.

  17. Is effective mass in combat sports punching above its weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenetsky, Seth; Nates, Roy J; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2015-04-01

    The segmental and muscular complexity of the human body can result in challenges when examining the kinetics of impacts. To better understand this complexity, combat sports literature has selected effective mass as a measure of an athlete's inertial contribution to the momentum transfer during the impact of strikes. This measure helps to clarify the analysis of striking kinetics in combat sports. This paper will review: (1) effective mass as a concept and its usage as a measure of impact intensity in combat sports, (2) the neuromuscular pattern known as "double peak muscle activation" which has been theorized to help enhance initial hand velocity upon impact and joint stiffening during impact, (3) the methods and equations used to calculate effective mass, and (4) practitioner recommendations based on the literature. We will argue in this manuscript that the act of punching presents unique challenges to the current understanding of effective mass due to additional force application during impact. This review will improve the understanding of effective mass and its roles in effective striking serving to underpin future research into performance enhancement in striking based combat sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  19. Effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.; Fischbach, E.

    1986-01-01

    We consider in detail the effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments. It is shown that in the presence of an intermediate-range non-gravitational force, the dominant contributions to both the sign and magnitude of the Eoetvoes anomaly may come from nearby masses and not from the earth as a whole. This observation has important implications in the design and interpretation of future experiments, and in the formulation of unified theories incorporating new intermediate-range forces

  20. Effect of Target Configuration on the Neutronic Performance of the Gas-Cooled ADS

    CERN Document Server

    Biss, K; Shetty, N; Nabbi, R

    2013-01-01

    With the utilization of nuclear energy transuranic elements like Pu, Am and Cm are produced causing high, long term radioactivity and radio toxicity, respectively. To reduce the radiological impact on the environment and to the repository Partitioning and Transmutation is considered as an efficient way. In this respect comprehensive research works are performed at different research institutes worldwide. The results show that the transmutation of TRU is achieved with fast neutrons due to the higher fission probability. Based on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) those neutrons are used in a particular system, in which mainly liquid metal eutectic (lead bismuth) is used as coolant. The neutronic performance of an ADS system based on gas cooling was studied in this work by using the simulation tool MCNPX. The usage of the Monte-Carlo method in MCNPX allows the simulation of the physical processes in a 3D-model of the core. In dependence of the spallation target material and design several parameters like the mult...

  1. Effect of adding support structures for overhanging part on fatigue strength in selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajima, Yuka; Takaichi, Atsushi; Nakamoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Takahiro; Kittikundecha, Nuttaphon; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Nomura, Naoyuki; Kawasaki, Akira; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hanawa, Takao; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2018-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technology was recently introduced to fabricate dental prostheses. However, the fatigue strength of clasps in removable partial dentures prepared by SLM still requires improvement. In this study, we attempted to improve the fatigue strength of clasps by adding support structures for overhanging parts, which can generally be manufactured at an angle to be self-supporting. The results show that the fatigue strength of the supported specimens was more than twice that of unsupported specimens. Electron back-scattered diffraction analysis revealed that the supported specimens exhibited lower kernel average misorientation values than the unsupported specimens, which suggested that the support structure reduced the residual strain during the SLM process and helped to prevent micro-cracks led by thermal distortion. In addition, the supported specimens cooled more rapidly, thereby forming a finer grain size compared to that of the unsupported specimens, which contributed to improving the fatigue strength. The results of this study suggest that the fatigue strength of overhanging parts can be improved by intentionally adding support structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on the effect of different concentration of Spirulina platensis paste added into dried noodle to its quality characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, T. W.; Ma'ruf, W. F.; Widayat; Wibowo, B. A.; Hadiyanto

    2017-02-01

    High nutritional content of microalgae S. platensis is very good for human health especially for its protein and β-carotene. These compounds can be used for improving quality of food from nutritional point of view. This study was designed to observe the effect of different concentration of S. platensis paste to dried noodle quality based on physical, chemical and sensory perspectives. Material used in this study was S. platensis powder obtained from CV Neoalgae, Sukoharjo. The best treatment observed from preliminary study was then used for further study and compared to control treatment (without added S. platensis paste). The dried noodle resulted was then analyzed for elasticity, chemical (β-carotene, water, protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate) and sensory (hedonic). Parametric data obtained were analyzed using t-Test while non-parametric data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis followed by Multiple Comparison test. The study showed that dried noodle added with 9% S. platensis paste give significant effect (P<0.05) on elasticity; β-carotene, water, protein, ash, fat and carbohydrate and also sensory (hedonic). Dried noodle without added S. platensis paste has lower in β-carotene and protein compared to that of added S. platensis paste with the value of 0.06 mg/100 gr and 17.51 mg/100gr (β-carotene) and 8.88% and 38.6% (protein), respectively. Those, chemical composition of dried noodle added with S. platensis comply with Indonesian National Standard in term of protein, water, and ash content with sensory of 7.26 ≤ μ ≤ 7.63. Addition of S. platensis can significantly increase the nutritional of dried noodle especially protein (by 4 times) and β-carotene.

  3. Effects of Added Lipids on Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance in Oiled Common Murres ( Uria aalge ) and Western Grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ) Fed Four Formulations of a Critical Care Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Klasing, Kirk C

    2017-06-01

    Nutritional support is a primary therapy administered to oiled animals during responses to oil spills, but data informing nutritional decision-making during events are limited. In this study, 44 common murres ( Uria aalge ) and 6 Western grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ), naturally oiled by oceanic seeps off the coast of Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties, CA, USA, were assigned to 1 of 4 groups fed diets with varying levels (6.8% [no added oil], 11%, and 20%) and types (salmon, corn) of oil added to a partially purified basal diet. Birds used in the study ranged from extremely emaciated to thin body condition (62%-80% wild bird mean body mass). Acid-insoluble ash was used as an indigestible dietary marker to quantify nitrogen retention, apparent nitrogen digestibility, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, energy digestibility, fat retention, fat digestibility, and estimated fat excretion. Fat excretion is important in these species because once birds have been cleaned they are at risk of plumage recontamination from excreted fat during care. Lower fat diets resulted in lower fat excretion but higher nitrogen retention, higher apparent nitrogen digestibility, and higher apparent metabolizable energy. Decreases in nitrogen retention were significantly related to increases in fat excretion. Regardless of diet, energy digestibility significantly declined with declines in body mass, suggesting severity of emaciation reduced a birds' ability to extract energy from food. Energy digestibility was highest in the 11% (low) salmon oil diet; hence, this diet had the highest effective energy content despite a lower gross kcal/kg diet. Diets fed during oil spills historically have had high fat concentrations to provide maximum caloric support. Results of this study suggest that lower fat diets may be more efficacious for nutritionally depleted seabirds. This study provides valuable data to guide clinical decision making regarding nutritional support during oil

  4. Photon structure functions with heavy particle mass effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Tsuneo, E-mail: uematsu@scphys.kyoto-u.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Maskawa Institute for Science and Culture, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    In the framework of the perturbative QCD we investigate heavy particle mass effects on the unpolarized and polarized photon structure functions, F{sub 2}{sup γ} and g{sub 1}{sup γ}, respectively. We present our basic formalism to treat heavy particle mass effects to NLO in perturbative QCD. We also study heavy quark effects on the QCD sum rule for the first moment of g{sub 1}{sup γ}, which is related to axial anomaly. The photon structure function in supersymmetric QCD is also briefly discussed.

  5. EFFECTS OF MAIZE GRAIN ADDED IN A DIET BASED ON ALFALFA HAYLAGE ON THE RATION QUALITY IN WETHER SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of interactions between alfalfa haylage (AH and maize grain (MG (5 vs. 10 g d-1 kg-1 body weight on ad libitum intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. The AH and MG contained 534.7 and 915.1g DM kg-1 fresh sample respectively, while crude protein (CP concentration was 141 and 106.0 g kg-1DM. Adding of MG (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in linear increase in diet DM intake (g kg-1 M0,75, linear decrease in water intake (P<0.01 and linear increase in diet DM digestibility (P<0,001. A positive associative response of MG supplementation to AH based ration was observed for DM intake (P<0.001 and DM digestibility (P<0.001. No improvements in DM intake were recorded with 10 g MG added kg-1 body weight d-1 in comparison with 5 g MG added kg-1 body weight d-1.

  6. Size effect of added LaB6 particles on optical properties of LaB6/Polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yifei; Zhang Lin; Hu Lijie; Wang Wei; Min Guanghui

    2011-01-01

    Modified LaB 6 particles with sizes ranging from 50 nm to 400 nm were added into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix in order to investigate the effect of added LaB 6 particles on optical properties of LaB 6 /PMMA composites. Method of in-situ polymerization was applied to prepare PMMA from raw material—methyl methacrylate (MMA), a process during which LaB 6 particles were dispersed in MMA. Ultraviolet–visible–near infrared (UV–vis–NIR) absorption spectrum was used to study optical properties of the as-prepared materials. The difference in particle size could apparently affect the composites' absorption of visible light around wavelength of 600 nm. Added LaB 6 particles with size of about 70 nm resulted in the best optical properties among these groups of composites. - Graphical abstract: 70 nm LaB 6 particles resulted in the best performance on absorption of VIS and NIR, which could not be apparently achieved by LaB 6 particles beyond nano-scale. Highlights: ► LaB 6 /PMMA composites were prepared using the method of in-situ polymerization. ► LaB 6 particles added in MMA prolonged the time needed for its pre-polymerization. ► Nanosized LaB 6 particles could obviously absorb much NIR but little VIS.

  7. Chasing the effects of Pre-analytical Confounders - a Multicentre Study on CSF-AD biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Leitao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers-Aβ42, Tau and pTau–have been recently incorporated in the revised criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, their widespread clinical application lacks standardization. Pre-analytical sample handling and storage play an important role in the reliable measurement of these biomarkers across laboratories. In this study, we aim to surpass the efforts from previous studies, by employing a multicentre approach to assess the impact of less studied CSF pre-analytical confounders in AD-biomarkers quantification. Four different centres participated in this study and followed the same established protocol. CSF samples were analysed for three biomarkers (Aβ42, Tau and pTau and tested for different spinning conditions (temperature: Room temperature (RT vs. 4oC; speed: 500g vs. 2000g vs. 3000g, storage volume variations (25%, 50% and 75% of tube total volume as well as freezing-thaw cycles (up to 5 cyles. The influence of sample routine parameters, inter-centre variability and relative value of each biomarker (reported as normal/abnormal, was analysed. Centrifugation conditions did not influence biomarkers levels, except for samples with a high CSF total protein content, where either non centrifugation or centrifugation at RT, compared to 4ºC, led to higher Aβ42 levels. Reducing CSF storage volume from 75% to 50% of total tube capacity, decreased Aβ42 concentration (within analytical CV of the assay, whereas no change in Tau or pTau was observed. Moreover, the concentration of Tau and pTau appears to be stable up to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, whereas Aβ42 levels decrease if CSF is freeze-thawed more than 3 times. This systematic study reinforces the need for CSF centrifugation at 4ºC prior to storage and highlights the influence of storage conditions in Aβ42 levels. This study contributes to the establishment of harmonized standard operating procedures that will help reducing inter-lab variability of CSF-AD

  8. Differential effects of adding and removing components of a context on the generalization of conditional freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felisa; Quinn, Jennifer J; Fanselow, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Rats were conditioned across 2 consecutive days where a single unsignaled footshock was presented in the presence of specific contextual cues. Rats were tested with contexts that had additional stimulus components either added or subtracted. Using freezing as a measure of conditioning, removal but not addition of a cue from the training context produced significant generalization decrement. The results are discussed in relation to the R. A. Rescorla and A. R. Wagner (1972), J. M. Pearce (1994), and A. R. Wagner and S. E. Brandon (2001) accounts of generalization. Although the present data are most consistent with elemental models such as Rescorla and Wagner, a slight modification of the Wagner-Brandon replaced-elements model that can account for differences in the pattern of generalization obtained with contexts and discrete conditional stimuli is proposed.

  9. The effect of storage on the colour of paprika powders with added oleoresin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural food colours is preferred to that of arti­ficial dyestuffs for modern alimentary purposes. Paprika is a spice plant grown and consumed in considerable quantities worldwide and also used as a natural food colour, so the colouring power of powders is very important. The colour of paprika powder is highly relevant too because the consumer concludes its colouring power based on its colour. The colouring power of paprika powders is directly determined by the quality and quantity of the colouring agent of paprika. The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is suitable to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour and the characteristics of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian, and Hungarian paprika. Colour measurements were performed with a HunterLab MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The colour agent content and the colour coordinates of samples were measured throughout 9 months. The decrease of colour agent con­tent varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The quantity of added oleoresin did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly.

  10. Potentially beneficial spill-related effects of chemicals routinely added to crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Maharaj, S.

    1993-01-01

    Amoco Trinidad Oil Company produces 60,000 bbl/d of oil from the Trinidadian offshore. The oil is pipelined ashore where it is processed and returned offshore to a buoy mooring for transport up Trinidad's east coast. Amoco Trinidad has developed comprehensive oil spill contingency plans, starting from computer models of spill scenarios. The models used initially assumed that the oils would emulsify quickly and the spills would become highly viscous and persistent, reaching the shoreline in 15-24 h. Such behavior would render ineffective the use of dispersants as a spill countermeasure. Studies showed a poor potential capability of physical recovery systems for spills off the Trinidad east coast due to high sea states, strong winds, and other factors. These results led to questioning of the spill model's assumptions, and laboratory tests were conducted to study the actual behavior of the crude oils. It was found that the oil was difficult to emulsify and highly prone to breakup and dispersion. These surprising results were explained by the presence of surfactants added during processing. A revised modelling exercise showed that if the surfactants stay with the oil, spills up to 100,000 bbl will dissipate in 15 h or less at average wind conditions. To guard against the possibility that the surfactants may not stay with the spilled oil, and to help accelerate dispersion of oil spills, Amoco Trinidad has developed a dispersant-use capacity for its spill contingency plan. It is suggested that additives normally added to crude oils during production and processing in other areas may also be providing spill cleanup benefits similar to those found in the Trinidad case. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. Effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup similar in palatability and on salt preference after consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2010-11-01

    Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity of tomato soup on ad libitum intake (satiation), while controlling for palatability on an individual basis. Forty-eight subjects consumed both a low-salt (LS) and high-salt (HS) soup ad libitum from a self-refilling bowl. The results showed no difference between LS and HS soup in ad libitum intake, eating rate, changes in appetite ratings, and changes in hedonic ratings after intake. After intake of HS soup, LS soup was perceived as more bland than before intake of HS soup. After intake of LS soup, HS soup was perceived as more salt intense than before intake of LS soup. In conclusion, this study found no effect of salt intensity on satiation of tomato soups that were similar in palatability. During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption.

  12. Neutrino Majorana masses from string theory instanton effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, Luis E.; Uranga, Angel M.

    2007-01-01

    Finding a plausible origin for right-handed neutrino Majorana masses in semirealistic compactifications of string theory remains one of the most difficult problems in string phenomenology. We argue that right-handed neutrino Majorana masses are induced by non-perturbative instanton effects in certain classes of string compactifications in which the U(1) B-L gauge boson has a Stueckelberg mass. The induced operators are of the form e -U ν R ν R where U is a closed string modulus whose imaginary part transforms appropriately under B-L. This mass term may be quite large since this is not a gauge instanton and Re U is not directly related to SM gauge couplings. Thus the size of the induced right-handed neutrino masses could be a few orders of magnitude below the string scale, as phenomenologically required. It is also argued that this origin for neutrino masses would predict the existence of R-parity in SUSY versions of the SM. Finally we comment on other phenomenological applications of similar instanton effects, like the generation of a μ-term, or of Yukawa couplings forbidden in perturbation theory

  13. Schrödinger equations with indefinite effective mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znojil, Miloslav; Lévai, Géza

    2012-01-01

    The consistency of the concept of quantum (quasi)particles possessing effective mass which is both position- and excitation-dependent is analyzed via simplified models. It is shown that the system may be stable even when the effective mass m=m(x,E) itself acquires negative values in a limited range of coordinates x and energies E. -- Highlights: ► The new concept of the locally negative effective mass introduced and studied. ► Tests presented via a few exactly solvable toy models. ► Manifest energy dependence found to guarantee the stability of the system. ► The emergence of anomalous states found related to the decrease of the energy threshold. ► Most of the toy-model properties (localization, nodal number growth) found generic.

  14. Quark mass correction to chiral separation effect and pseudoscalar condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Er-dong [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics China, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Shu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University,No 2 University Road, Zhuhai 519082 (China)

    2017-01-25

    We derived an analytic structure of the quark mass correction to chiral separation effect (CSE) in small mass regime. We confirmed this structure by a D3/D7 holographic model study in a finite density, finite magnetic field background. The quark mass correction to CSE can be related to correlators of pseudo-scalar condensate, quark number density and quark condensate in static limit. We found scaling relations of these correlators with spatial momentum in the small momentum regime. They characterize medium responses to electric field, inhomogeneous quark mass and chiral shift. Beyond the small momentum regime, we found existence of normalizable mode, which possibly leads to formation of spiral phase. The normalizable mode exists beyond a critical magnetic field, whose magnitude decreases with quark chemical potential.

  15. Effects of Proof Mass Geometry on Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafiz Alameh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric energy harvesters have proven to have the potential to be a power source in a wide range of applications. As the harvester dimensions scale down, the resonance frequencies of these devices increase drastically. Proof masses are essential in micro-scale devices in order to decrease the resonance frequency and increase the strain along the beam to increase the output power. In this work, the effects of proof mass geometry on piezoelectric energy harvesters are studied. Different geometrical dimension ratios have significant impact on the resonance frequency, e.g., beam to mass lengths, and beam to mass widths. A piezoelectric energy harvester has been fabricated and tested operating at a frequency of about 4 kHz within the audible range. The responses of various prototypes were studied, and an optimized T-shaped piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design is presented for improved performance.

  16. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    .03;0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001;0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23;1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4;2.6) mmHg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2;2.0) energy %, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6;12.7) % (all P≤0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep...

  17. Hawking Radiation-Quasinormal Modes Correspondence for Large AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Quan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the nonstrictly thermal character of the Hawking radiation spectrum generates a natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and black hole quasinormal modes. This main issue has been analyzed in the framework of Schwarzschild black holes, Kerr black holes, and nonextremal Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. In this paper, by introducing the effective temperature, we reanalyze the nonstrictly thermal character of large AdS black holes. The results show that the effective mass corresponding to the effective temperature is approximatively the average one in any dimension. And the other effective quantities can also be obtained. Based on the known forms of frequency in quasinormal modes, we reanalyze the asymptotic frequencies of the large AdS black hole in three and five dimensions. Then we get the formulas of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the horizon’s area quantization with functions of the quantum “overtone” number n.

  18. The effect of signal leakage and glacial isostatic rebound on GRACE-derived ice mass changes in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Adalgeirsdottir, Gudfinna

    2017-01-01

    Monthly gravity field models from the GRACE satellite mission are widely used to determine ice mass changes of large ice sheets as well as smaller glaciers and ice caps. Here, we investigate in detail the ice mass changes of the Icelandic ice caps as derived from GRACE data. The small size...... of the Icelandic ice caps, their location close to other rapidly changing ice covered areas and the low viscosity of the mantle below Iceland make this especially challenging. The mass balance of the ice caps is well constrained by field mass balance measurements, making this area ideal for such investigations. We...... the Little Ice Age (∼ 1890 AD). To minimize the signal that leaks towards Iceland from Greenland, we employ an independent mass change estimate of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from satellite laser altimetry. We also estimate the effect of post Little Ice Age glacial isostatic adjustment, from knowledge...

  19. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  20. AdS gravity and the scalar glueball spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vento, Vicente [Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia y Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-09-15

    The scalar glueball spectrum has attracted much attention since the formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics. Different approaches give very different results for the glueball masses. We revisit the problem from the perspective of the AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)

  1. Effect of KOH added to ethylene glycol electrolyte on the self-organization of anodic ZrO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozana, Monna; Soaid, Nurul Izza; Lockman, Zainovia; Kawamura, Go; Kian, Tan Wai; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2016-01-01

    ZrO 2 nanotube arrays were formed by anodizing zirconium sheet in ethylene glycol (EG) and EG added to it KOH (EG/KOH) electrolytes. The effect of KOH addition into EG electrolyte to the morphology of nanotubes and their crystallinity was investigated. It was observed that the tubes with diameter of ∼80 nm were formed in EG electrolyte with <0.1 vol % water, but the wall smoothness is rather poor. When KOH was added into EG, the wall smoothness of the nanotubes improve, but the diameter of tubes is smaller (∼40 nm). Despite smoother wall and small tube diameter, the degradation of methyl orange (MO) on the tubes made in EG/KOH is less compared to the tubes made in EG only. This could be due to the less tetragonal ZrO 2 presence in the tubes made in EG/KOH.

  2. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  3. Enhancing elderly health examination effectiveness by adding physical function evaluations and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Ming; Chang, Ching-I; Yu, Wen-Ruey; Yang, Winnie; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Ching-Yu

    This study aimed to assess the benefit of adding physical function evaluations and interventions to routine elderly health examination. This is a Quasi-experimental controlled trial. 404 elderly adults (aged 70 and over) scoring 3-6 on the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale Chinese In-Person Interview Version (CSHA-CFS) in a 2012 annual elderly health examination were enrolled. Both the control and experimental groups received the routine annual health examination with the latter further provided with functional evaluations, exercise instruction, and nutrition education. 112 (84.8%) persons in the experiment group and 267 (98.2%) in the control group completed the study. CSHA-CFS performance of the experimental group was more likely to improve (odds ratio=9.50, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.62-19.56) and less likely to deteriorate (OR=0.04, 95% CI=0.01-0.31) one year after intervention. Within the experimental group, Fried Frailty Index improvement percentage surpassed the deterioration percentage (29.5% vs. 0.9%, pPhysical Performance Battery increased from 10.0±1.6 to 11.6±0.9 (pexamination appeared to benefit the health of adults aged 70 years and older. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-10-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  5. Effect of rotation on convective mass transfer in rotating channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharoah, J.G.; Djilali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Laminar flow and mass transfer in rotating channels is investigated in the context of centrifugal membrane separation. The effect of orientation with respect to the rotational axis is examined for rectangular channels of aspect ratio 3 and the Rossby number is varied from 0.3 to 20.9. Both Ro and the channel orientation are found to have a significant effect on the flow. Mass transfer calculations corresponding to reverse osmosis desalination are carried out at various operating pressures and all rotating cases exhibit significant process enhancements at relatively low rotation rates. Finally, while it is common in the membrane literature to correlate mass transfer performance with membrane shear rates this is shown not to be valid in the cases presented herein. (author)

  6. Effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino: inverted mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We study the effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (m 3 1 2 ). This is an extended study of our previous study where all analyses are performed with normal mass hierarchy (m 1 2 3 ). Numerical analysis using a realistic supernova and presupernova model allow us to discuss quantitatively a possibility to probe neutrino oscillation parameters. We show that we can break partly the degeneracy of the solar neutrino problem (LMA or SMA) and probe the magnitude of θ 13 to some extent by the ratios of high-energy events and low-energy events at SuperKamiokande and SNO and the presence of the Earth effects. Further, if the magnitude of θ 13 is known roughly, we can identify the mass hierarchy

  7. Effects of ad libitum and restricted diets in different feeding regimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WJ

    Bomb Calorimeter and starch according to the AOAC (1984) procedure. ... the Perkin Elmer Atomic Spectrophotometer-2380 (Giron, 1973). ..... changes in ingredients, making it difficult to distinguish ingredient effects from energy effects.

  8. Effects of adding chymosin to milk on calcium homeostasis: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; Jensen, L.T.; Mosekilde, Leif

    2015-01-01

    either chymosin or similar placebo was added. Compared with placebo, chymosin did not affect 24-h urinary calcium, calcium/creatinine ratio, plasma parathyroid hormone, calcitonin or ionized calcium levels. However, during the first 4 h after intake of milk with chymosin, urinary calcium-creatinine ratio...... was significantly increased (17%) compared with placebo. Stratification by daily calcium intake showed effect of chymosin in participant with a habitual intake above the median (>1,050 mg/day) in whom both urinary calcium and calcium/creatinine ratio were significantly increased compared with placebo. Effects did...

  9. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itkin, Igor; Oz, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  10. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  11. Bubbling AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose Francisco

    2005-01-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T 2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS 3 x S 3 , the pp-wave and the multi-center string. 'Bubbling', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T 2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane. (author)

  12. Degradation effects ad Si-depth profiling in photoresists using ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijzendoorn, L.J. van; Schellekens, J.P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of silicon-containing vapour with a photoresist layer, as used in dry developable lithographic processes, was studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Degradation of the polymer layer was observed, but the total amount of incorporated Si was found to be constant during the measurement. Si-depth profiles were found to be independent of dose and in agreement with profiles obtained with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The detection of hydrogen by elastic recoil detection (ERD) was used to study the degradation in detail. The decrease in hydrogen countrate from a layer of polystyrene on Si in combination with the shift of the Si-substrate edge in the corresponding RBS spectra was used for a model description. Only one degradation cross-section for hydrogen and one for carbon, both independent of beam current and dose, were required for a successful fit of the experimental data. (orig.)

  13. Black hole formation in AdS Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppe, Nils [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science andDepartment of Physics, Cornell University,122 Sciences Drive, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kolly, Allison [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University,805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montréal, Québec H3A 0B9 (Canada); Frey, Andrew R.; Kunstatter, Gabor [Department of Physics and Winnipeg Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Winnipeg,515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9 (Canada)

    2016-10-17

    AdS spacetime has been shown numerically to be unstable against a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. In http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.071102, the authors presented a preliminary study of the effects on stability of changing the local dynamics by adding a Gauss-Bonnet term to the Einstein action. Here we provide further details as well as new results with improved numerical methods. In particular, we elucidate new structure in Choptuik scaling plots. We also provide evidence of chaotic behavior at the transition between immediate horizon formation and horizon formation after the matter pulse reflects from the AdS conformal boundary. Finally, we present data suggesting the formation of naked singularities in spacetimes with ADM mass below the algebraic bound for black hole formation.

  14. Evaporation of large black holes in AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Jorge V

    2010-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence offers a new perspective on the long-standing black hole information paradox. However, to be able to use the available gauge/gravity machinery one is forced to consider so-called 'large' black holes in AdS, and these objects are thermodynamically stable - they do not evaporate. We describe a simple toy model that allows large AdS black holes to decay, by coupling the emitted radiation to an external scalar field propagating in an auxiliary space. This effectively changes the properties of the boundary of AdS, making it partly absorbing. We demonstrate that the evaporation process never ceases by explicitly presenting (a) the transmission coefficient for a wave scattering from the bulk into auxiliary space and (b) the greybody factor for a black 3-brane in an AdS background. Therefore, the model provides an interesting framework to address the information paradox using AdS/CFT techniques.

  15. Cascading effects of mass mortality events in Arctic marine communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langangen, Øystein; Ohlberger, Jan; Stige, Leif C; Durant, Joël M; Ravagnan, Elisa; Stenseth, Nils C; Hjermann, Dag Ø

    2017-01-01

    Mass mortality events caused by pulse anthropogenic or environmental perturbations (e.g., extreme weather, toxic spills or epizootics) severely reduce the abundance of a population in a short time. The frequency and impact of these events are likely to increase across the globe. Studies on how such events may affect ecological communities of interacting species are scarce. By combining a multispecies Gompertz model with a Bayesian state-space framework, we quantify community-level effects of a mass mortality event in a single species. We present a case study on a community of fish and zooplankton in the Barents Sea to illustrate how a mass mortality event of different intensities affecting the lower trophic level (krill) may propagate to higher trophic levels (capelin and cod). This approach is especially valuable for assessing community-level effects of potential anthropogenic-driven mass mortality events, owing to the ability to account for uncertainty in the assessed impact due to uncertainty about the ecological dynamics. We hence quantify how the assessed impact of a mass mortality event depends on the degree of precaution considered. We suggest that this approach can be useful for assessing the possible detrimental outcomes of toxic spills, for example oil spills, in relatively simple communities such as often found in the Arctic, a region under increasing influence of human activities due to increased land and sea use. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cherenkov detectors and a new effective-mass spectrometer method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, - (2006), s. 854-855 ISSN 0969-806X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Cherenkov radiation * spectrometer * effective mass method Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2006

  17. SU(2)-breaking effects for meson masses in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramon, A.; Casulleras, J.

    1989-01-01

    The quenched approximation of lattice QCD for Wilson fermions is used to calculate isospin breaking effects in the pseudoscalar- and vector-meson nonets. Mass differences inside the K and K * isodoublets and mixing phenomena for π 0 -η and ρ-ω are found to agree with the experimental data. A new and specific method of analysis is proposed and successfully tested. (orig.)

  18. Variable viscosity effects on mixed convection heat and mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    the effects of viscous dissipation and variable viscosity on the flow of heat and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite vertical porous plate in the ..... been solved by Gauss-. Seidel iteration method and numerical values are carried out after executing the computer program for it. In order to prove.

  19. Variable viscosity effects on mixed convection heat and mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis is carried out to study the viscous dissipation and variable viscosity effects on the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite vertical porous plate in the presence of chemical reaction. The governing boundary layer equations are written into a dimensionless form by similarity ...

  20. Game-Review: Trilogie Mass Effect 1, 2 und 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl Stingeder hat als Spieletester die Science Fiction Trilogie Mass Effect (1,2 und 3 rezensiert. Er berichtet von der inneren Vielfalt und dem spannenden Gameplay. Tauchen Sie ein in eine Welt, die ihnen eine lange Spielzeit garantiert und genießen Sie die Pracht dieser Kunstwerke.

  1. Impurity levels: corrections to the effective mass approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentosela, F.

    1977-07-01

    Some rigorous results concerning the effective mass approximation used for the calculation of the impurity levels in semiconductors are presented. Each energy level is expressed as an asymptotic series in the inverse of the dielectric constant K, in the case where the impurity potential is 1/μ

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  3. Effect Of Adding Sago Flour In Yoghurt Based On Viscosity, Overrun, Melting Rate And Total Solid Of Yoghurt Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Ayu Wijayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the best concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt based on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. The experiment was designed by Completely Randomized Design (CRD using four treatments were 0 %, 2 %, 4 %, 6 % from volume of fresh milk and four replication. The data were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Result of this research showed that concentration of adding sago flour in yoghurt gave highly significant difference effect (P<0.01 on viscosity, overrun, melting rate and total solid of yoghurt ice cream. It can be concluded that the adding of sago flour 2% in yoghurt gave the best result with the viscosity was 1750.75 cP, overrun was 25.14%, melting rate was 39.13 minutes/50 g, total solid was 36.20% and gave the best quality of yoghurt ice cream.

  4. 77 FR 19033 - Effect of Adding References to HS 6104.32 To Correct the U.S.-Korea FTA Product-Specific Rules of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. Korea FTA-103-026] Effect of Adding References to HS 6104.32 To Correct the U.S.- Korea FTA Product-Specific Rules of Origin AGENCY: United States... investigation No. Korea FTA-103-026, Effect of Adding References to HS 6104.32 To Correct the U.S.-Korea FTA...

  5. AdS5 black holes with fermionic hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.; Sabra, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of new Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) objects in AdS 5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS 5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS 5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1

  6. Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial effect of room curing polymethylmethacrylate material adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Chunli; Wang Xiaorong; Zhang Citong; Sun Shiqun; Yang Yun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial effect of room curing polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) material adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent and to detect the changes of its mechanical property. Methods: Nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent was added to the room curing PMMA material in the range of 0.5% -3.0% at an interval of 0.5% by ball milling specimen. Antibacterial rates of the specimens were detected by film method. Bending strength, impact strength, and wear resistance of the specimens were respectively detected on electronic universal testing machine, impact test machine and friction and wear test machine. Results: The antibacterial rates of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans were more than 50% when antibiotics content was 1.0% . The antibacterial rates of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans were more than 90% when the antibiotics content was 2.5% . The three mechanical properties were increased compared with control group when the antibacterial agents were in the range of 1.0% -1.5% . Then the three mechanical properties were decreased with the increasing of antimicrobial concentration. When the antibiotics content was 2.0% , the wear resistance had significant difference compared with control group (P<0.05); when the antibiotics content was 2.5% , the bending strength and impact strength had significant difference compared with control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of room curing PMMA adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent is ideal. The antibacterial rate is increased gradually with the increasing content of antibacterial agents. There is no significant effect on the mechanical properties of room curing PMMA material, but the antibacterial effects are satisfied when the content of antibacterial agents is 2.0% . (authors)

  7. Effect on Fasting Serum Glucose Levels of Adding Ezetimibe to Statins in Patients With Nondiabetic Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Catapano, Alberico L; Farnier, Michel; Foody, Joanne; Tomassini, Joanne E; Jensen, Erin; Polis, Adam B; Hanson, Mary E; Musliner, Thomas A; Tershakovec, Andrew M

    2016-12-15

    Statin therapy is associated with a slightly increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance in patients without diabetes. Ezetimibe combined with statins may be considered for high-risk patients who do not achieve optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering on statin monotherapy or who are statin intolerant. Changes in fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels during ezetimibe, ezetimibe/statin, and statin treatments were assessed using data pooled from clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemic patients, who were or were not receiving statin therapy. Study types included first-line trials in statin-naive/wash-out patients and second-line add-on and uptitration studies in patients on stable statin therapy. Similar analyses of FSG changes were performed separately for each study type in patients who were nondiabetic at baseline. Across all study types and treatments, mean FSG increases from baseline were small (0.5 to 3.7 mg/dl with ezetimibe/statin; 0.2 to 4.6 mg/dl with statins) and decreased over time; between-treatment differences (0.3 to 1.4 mg/dl) were nonsignificant for all comparisons. Proportions of patients with elevated FSG ≥126 mg/dl during therapy were low and similar for all treatments in the overall cohort (1.2% to 4.3%). Elevations were highest (3.3% to 25.7%) among patients with baseline factors characteristic of metabolic syndrome and prediabetes, including higher FSG, body mass index, and triglyceride levels, and numerically lower baseline high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; however, these factors were not related to FSG increases. Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B were not significantly correlated with FSG increases. In conclusion, statin therapy was associated with small FSG increases, and the addition of ezetimibe did not further increase FSG levels beyond those of

  8. Effective Instruction for Persisting Dyslexia in Upper Grades: Adding Hope Stories and Computer Coding to Explicit Literacy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert; Tanimoto, Steve; Lyman, Ruby Dawn; Geselowitz, Kira; Begay, Kristin Kawena; Nielsen, Kathleen; Nagy, William; Abbott, Robert; Raskind, Marshall; Berninger, Virginia

    2018-05-01

    Children in grades 4 to 6 ( N =14) who despite early intervention had persisting dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling) were assessed before and after computerized reading and writing instruction aimed at subword, word, and syntax skills shown in four prior studies to be effective for treating dyslexia. During the 12 two-hour sessions once a week after school they first completed HAWK Letters in Motion© for manuscript and cursive handwriting, HAWK Words in Motion© for phonological, orthographic, and morphological coding for word reading and spelling, and HAWK Minds in Motion© for sentence reading comprehension and written sentence composing. A reading comprehension activity in which sentences were presented one word at a time or one added word at a time was introduced. Next, to instill hope they could overcome their struggles with reading and spelling, they read and discussed stories about struggles of Buckminister Fuller who overcame early disabilities to make important contributions to society. Finally, they engaged in the new Kokopelli's World (KW)©, blocks-based online lessons, to learn computer coding in introductory programming by creating stories in sentence blocks (Tanimoto and Thompson 2016). Participants improved significantly in hallmark word decoding and spelling deficits of dyslexia, three syntax skills (oral construction, listening comprehension, and written composing), reading comprehension (with decoding as covariate), handwriting, orthographic and morphological coding, orthographic loop, and inhibition (focused attention). They answered more reading comprehension questions correctly when they had read sentences presented one word at a time (eliminating both regressions out and regressions in during saccades) than when presented one added word at a time (eliminating only regressions out during saccades). Indicators of improved self-efficacy that they could learn to read and write were observed. Reminders to pay attention and stay on task

  9. Mass-Accretion effects on white dwarf interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, R.; Hernanz, M.; Isern, J.; Labay, J.; Mochkovitch, R.

    1986-01-01

    There is observational evidence of the presence of young neutron stars in old binary systems. A likely explanation is that those neutron stars were produced in the collapse of old C+O white dwarfs. Old white dwarfs being cold and at least partially solid, accretion-induced mass growth should finally lead in a number of cases, to their collapse rather than to their explosion. We show in detail how mass accretion on initially solid white dwarfs can leave central solid cores when dynamical instability sets in. We also study the different effects of the existence of such cores on the outcome of the competition between thermonuclear explosion and gravitational collapse

  10. Hadron Mass Effects: Kaons at HERMES vs. COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero Teran, Juan V. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Accardi, Alberto [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Experimental data for integrated kaon multiplicities taken at HERMES and COMPASS measurements look incompatible with each other. In this talk, we investigate the effects of hadron masses calculated at leading-order and leading twist at the kinematics of these two experiments. We present evidence that Hadron Mass Corrections can fully reconcile the data for the K+/K- multiplicity ratio, and can also sizeably reduce the apparent large discrepancy in the case of K++K- data. Residual differences in the shape of the latter one remains to be understood.

  11. Adding effect sizes to a systematic review on interventions for promoting physical activity among European teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crutzen Rik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary adds effect sizes to the recently published systematic review by De Meester and colleagues and provides a more detailed insight into the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity among European teenagers. The main findings based on this evidence were: (1 school-based interventions generally lead to short term improvement in physical activity levels, but there were large differences between interventions with regard to effect sizes; (2 a multi-component approach (including environmental components generally resulted in larger effect sizes, thereby providing evidence for the assumption that a multi-component approach should produce synergistic results; and (3 if an intervention aimed to affect more health behaviours besides physical activity, then the intervention appeared to be less effective in favour of physical activity.

  12. Earth Effects and Mass Hierarchy with Supernova Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb

    2009-01-01

    Collective neutrino flavor transformations take place deep inside a supernova if the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted, even for extremely small values of θ 13 . We show that the presence (or absence) of Earth matter effects in antineutrino signal is directly related to the absence (or presence) of these collective effects, when the mixing angle θ 13 is small. Thus a neutrino signal from a galactic supernova may enable us to distinguish between the hierarchies even for small values of θ 13 .

  13. FEEDBACK EFFECTS ON LOW-MASS STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Charles E.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Fisher, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    Protostellar feedback, both radiation and bipolar outflows, dramatically affects the fragmentation and mass accretion from star-forming cores. We use ORION, an adaptive mesh refinement gravito-radiation-hydrodynamics code, to simulate low-mass star formation in a turbulent molecular cloud in the presence of protostellar feedback. We present results of the first simulations of a star-forming cluster that include both radiative transfer and protostellar outflows. We run four simulations to isolate the individual effects of radiation feedback and outflow feedback as well as the combination of the two. We find that outflows reduce protostellar masses and accretion rates each by a factor of three and therefore reduce protostellar luminosities by an order of magnitude. This means that, while radiation feedback suppresses fragmentation, outflows render protostellar radiation largely irrelevant for low-mass star formation above a mass scale of 0.05 M ☉ . We find initial fragmentation of our cloud at half the global Jeans length, around 0.1 pc. With insufficient protostellar radiation to stop it, these 0.1 pc cores fragment repeatedly, forming typically 10 stars each. The accretion rate in these stars scales with mass as predicted from core accretion models that include both thermal and turbulent motions; the accretion rate does not appear to be consistent with either competitive accretion or accretion from an isothermal sphere. We find that protostellar outflows do not significantly affect the overall cloud dynamics, in the absence of magnetic fields, due to their small opening angles and poor coupling to the dense gas. The outflows reduce the mass from the cores by 2/3, giving a core to star efficiency, ε core ≅ 1/3. The simulations are also able to reproduce many observation of local star-forming regions. Our simulation with radiation and outflows reproduces the observed protostellar luminosity function. All of the simulations can reproduce observed core mass

  14. Hadron Mass Effects for Kaon Production on deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Juan

    2017-09-01

    The spin-independent cross section for semi-inclusive lepton-nucleon scattering are derived in the framework of collinear factorization, including the effects of the target and produced hadron masses at small momentum transfer squared Q2. At leading order, the cross section factorizes into products of parton distributions and fragmentation functions evaluated in terms of new, mass-dependent scaling variables. This talk focuses on Kaon production at HERMES and COMPASS kinematics. In particular, hadron mass corrections for integrated kaon multiplicities measured by the two collaborations are shown to sizeably reduce the apparent large discrepancy between the results for both experiments. This work was supported by the DOE contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177, under which Jefferson Science Associates, LLC operates Jefferson Lab, and by the DOE Contract No. DE-SC008791.

  15. Mass transfer effects on vertical oscillating plate with heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical solution of unsteady viscous incompressible flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate with uniform heat flux and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. The temperature from the plate to the fluid at an uniform rate and the mass is diffused uniformly. The dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity and concentration are studied for different parameters like phase angle chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number Schmidt number and time are studied. The so­lutions are valid only for small values of time t. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt or chemical reaction parameter.

  16. ASYMMETRIC EFFECTS OF ADDED VERSUS DELETED FEATURE OF STIMULUS ON RECOGNITION MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    内野, 八潮; 箱田, 裕司

    2000-01-01

    This article reviewed a number of studies which revealed superiority of addition over deletion. Such an asymmetric effect was found in picture recognitioa memory, discrimination learning, proofreading for misspellings and so on. However, few studies have controlled typicality of original stimulus or the effect of addition and deletion on typicality of changed stimulus. Therefore this article focussed particularly on the studies in which addition and deletion applied to original stimulus was d...

  17. Do Sex and Violence Sell? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Sexual and Violent Media and Ad Content on Memory, Attitudes, and Buying Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Effect of Body Mass on Outdoor Adult Human Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Spencer, Jessica R; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2017-09-01

    Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6.0), TBS ≥12.5, advanced decomposition (TBS ≥19.0), TBS ≥23.0, and skeletonization (TBS ≥27.0). Results indicate no significant correlation between body mass and KADD at any TBS threshold. Body mass accounted for up to 24.0% of variation in decomposition rate depending on stage, and minor differences in decomposition pattern were observed. Body mass likely has a minimal impact on postmortem interval estimation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. New Mechanisms to Explain the Effects of Added Lactose Fines on the Dispersion Performance of Adhesive Mixtures for Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmeijer, Floris; Lexmond, Anne J.; van den Noort, Maarten; Hagedoorn, Paul; Hickey, Anthony J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; de Boer, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    Fine excipient particles or ‘fines’ have been shown to improve the dispersion performance of carrier-based formulations for dry powder inhalation. Mechanistic formulation studies have focussed mainly on explaining this positive effect. Previous studies have shown that higher drug contents may cause a decrease in dispersion performance, and there is no reason why this should not be true for fines with a similar shape, size and cohesiveness as drug particles. Therefore, the effects on drug detachment of ‘fine lactose fines’ (FLF, X50 = 1.95 µm) with a similar size and shape as micronised budesonide were studied and compared to those of ‘coarse lactose fines’ (CLF, X50 = 3.94 µm). Furthermore, interactions with the inhalation flow rate, the drug content and the mixing order were taken into account. The observed effects of FLF are comparable to drug content effects in that the detached drug fraction was decreased at low drug content and low flow rates but increased at higher flow rates. At high drug content the effects of added FLF were negligible. In contrast, CLF resulted in higher detached drug fractions at all flow rates and drug contents. The results from this study suggest that the effects of fines may be explained by two new mechanisms in addition to those previously proposed. Firstly, fines below a certain size may increase the effectiveness of press-on forces or cause the formation of strongly coherent fine particle networks on the carrier surface containing the drug particles. Secondly, when coarse enough, fines may prevent the formation of, or disrupt such fine particle networks, possibly through a lowering of their tensile strength. It is recommended that future mechanistic studies are based on the recognition that added fines may have any effect on dispersion performance, which is determined by the formulation and dispersion conditions. PMID:24489969

  20. The Effect of Adding Different Types of Natural Fibers on Mechanical Properties and Impact Resistance of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmed Fadhil; Mohanad Yaseen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of natural fibers: sisal and palm fibers on the different properties of concrete have been investigated through a number of tests. The properties investigated include compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and impact resistance of concrete. Sisal fiber has been used at three percentages of total mixture volume (0.6, 1.20 and 1.8%, respectively), while the palm fiber has been added in (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5%, respectiv...

  1. Effect of adding unconventional raw materials on the technological properties of rice fresh pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg da Silva Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop fettuccini type rice fresh pasta by cold extrusion. To produce the pasta, a 2² Central Composite Rotational Design was used, in which the effects of the addition of pre-gelatinized rice flour - PGRF (0-60% and modified egg albumin - MEA (0-10% were studied. The dependent variables were the results of the cooking test and of the instrumental texture. The optimum cooking time for all of the formulations of rice fresh pasta was 3 minutes. MEA had a greater effect on increasing the weight of the pasta when compared to that of PGRF. It was found that with the addition of PGRF increase in loss of solids in cooking water, whereas MEA exerted the opposite effect on this parameter. Moreover, the maximum value of MEA (10% had an optimum effect on pasta firmness, while PGRF had a negative effect on this parameter. The maximum values of PGRF and MEA reduced the stickiness of the pasta. Based on these results and on the parameters considered as most important, the rice pasta with the best technological characteristics was that with the maximum levels of MEA (10% and no addition of PGRF (0%. This product was submitted to sensory and microbiological analyses, with good results.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  3. Effects of adding ribavirin to interferon to treat chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Evidence shows that a combination therapy of ribavirin plus interferon clears hepatitis C virus from the blood in about 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, but the effects on clinical outcomes are unclear. We evaluated the beneficial and harmful effects of ribavirin plus interferon...... vs interferon alone for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Randomized trials were included irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status. Trials were identified through the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE....... In conclusion, the effect of ribavirin plus interferon on viral clearance may lead to reduced mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. However, combination therapy is associated with increased risk for adverse events....

  4. Effect of adding phosphogypsum to the soil on the growth, yields, radionuclides, trace elements and fluorine accumulation in some crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Sharabi, N. E.; Kanacri, S.

    2001-12-01

    large quantities of phosphogypsum, a by-product of phosphate fertilizer industry, are stacked close to urban areas in Syria. This may pose negative impacts on the environment. Many studies have reported positive effects of phosphogypsum application on nutrient levels, physical and chemical properties of agricultural soils. There are some concerns that the application of phosphogypsum to agricultural lands may result in the uptake by plant of radionuclides, fluorine and trace elements. Phosphogypsum, which has a radioactivity of 430 Bq/Kg, was mixed with silty loam soil, at different rates (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 t/ha), the experiments were carried out using chick pea, maize cotton and spinach. The results showed that adding phosphogypsum to the soil, at a rate ranging between 10 and 40 t/ha, increased the infiltration rate, electrical conductivity and concentration of available S, Mg, Ca, P. It also increased significantly the yields of studied crops. The radioactivities in the shoot systems and grains yields of crops grown on these soil-phosphogypsum mixtures were below detection level. In addition, phosphogypsum application did not cause accumulation of trace elements in soil or plants. The fluorine concentrations in plants increased but remained less than the allowable level (30 ppm). Therefor, adding phosphogypsum to agricultural soils (at a rate of 10-20 t/ha) can be considered an-effective way of improving soil properties, crop productivity and represents a way of phosphogypsum utilization which reduces its negative effects on the environment. (authors)

  5. Effect of fat mass and lean mass on bone mineral density in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namwongprom S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirianong Namwongprom,1 Sattaya Rojanasthien,2 Ampica Mangklabruks,3 Supasil Soontrapa,4 Chanpen Wongboontan,5 Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul61Clinical Epidemiology Program and Department of Radiology, 2Department of Orthopaedics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 4Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1579 healthy Thai women aged 40–90 years. Total body, lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck BMD and body composition were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. To evaluate the associations between fat mass and lean mass and various measures of BMD, multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the regression coefficients for fat mass and lean mass, first in separate equations and then with both fat mass and lean mass in the same equation.Results: Among the study population, 1448 subjects (91.7% were postmenopausal and 131 (8.3% were perimenopausal. In postmenopausal women, after controlling for age, height, and duration of menopause, both fat mass and lean mass were positively correlated with BMD when they were analyzed independently of each other. When included in the same equation, both fat mass and lean mass continued to show a positive effect, but lean mass had a significantly greater impact on BMD than fat mass at all regions except for total body. Lean mass but not fat mass had a positive effect on BMD at all skeletal sites except the lumbar spine, after controlling for age and height in perimenopausal

  6. AdS5 magnetized solutions in minimal gauged supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Blázquez-Salcedo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We construct a generalization of the AdS charged rotating black holes with two equal magnitude angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In addition to the mass, electric charge and angular momentum, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. In contrast with the known cases, these new black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit which describes a one parameter family of spinning charged solitons. All configurations reported in this work approach asymptotically an AdS5 spacetime in global coordinates and are free of pathologies.

  7. Effect of added purple-fleshed sweet potato and cassava flour on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a simplex centroid mixture design method, biscuits were formulated from composite flour developed according to a 10-point design matrix. The effect of flour variation on physical properties (weight, spread and colour) and sensory attributes (colour, aroma, texture and taste) of the formulations were evaluated.

  8. SSP Plus at 36 Months: Effects of Adding Employment Services to Financial Work Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Michalopoulos, Charles

    A study examined effects of the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) Plus program. A small group of long-term income assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick was offered an earnings supplement and employment services (SSP Plus); a second group was offered the regular SSP earnings supplement only; and a third group was offered neither supplement nor…

  9. Creative Media Use Increases Online Sharing of Your Ad (but Seems Less Effective for Your Brand)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelen, J.; Seiler, R.V.J.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Eisend, M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown beneficial advertising effects of creative media use (i.e., creatively choosing a novel medium to implicitly communicate a message) in comparison with traditional media use. Because of the increasing importance of marketing initiatives through social media, the authors

  10. Effect of blasting on the strength of a rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, L

    1964-01-01

    Although the fact that blasting concussions tend to loosen a rock mass has always been known, the enormous reduction in strength associated with such loosening is not generally recognized. Recent investigations of the effect of blasting on a rock mass have shown that even slight loosening may markedly reduce the strength. This factor introduces a new slant on modern blasting methods, some of which will have to be considered more critically. The sensitivity of the mass to impacts depends on stress concentrations at the end of joints (Kerbspannungen) and on tensile stresses developed in the immediate vicinity of a joint, even in regions where the field stresses are not tensile. Thus, the sensitivity depends on the shape and orientation of the joints and particularly on the degree of separation of the individual joint families. The orientation of the joint families to the strains produced by blasting is just as important as the reduction in overall strength arising from the drop in friction due to the effects of the ''knocking out'' process (Foppl) on the joint body complex. Concussions may critically increase the degree of separation of the joint network thus reducing the tensile and shear strengths of the rock mass. (19 refs.)

  11. MASS TRANSFER KINETICS AND EFFECTIVE DIFFUSIVITIES DURING COCOA ROASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. BAGHDADI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current studies investigated the effects of temperature and moisture addition on the mass transfer kinetics of cocoa nibs during roasting. Experiments were carried out by roasting 500 gm of cocoa nibs inside an air ventilated oven at three temperature levels (120°C, 140°C and 160°C under medium air flowrate for one hour. Two types of samples were prepared namely the raw and soaked nib samples. The soaked nib samples were prepared by soaking the raw nibs in 200 ml of water at room temperature for 5 and 10 hours. Mathematical modelling was carried out to model the mass transfer process using semi-empirical models. Modelling showed that both Page and two-term models were able to give close fitting between the experimental and predicted values. Effective diffusivity values were estimated in the order of magnitude of 10-5 m2/s for the mass transfer process. Results obtained from these studies fill the current knowledge gap on the mass transfer kinetics of cocoa roasting.

  12. Mass-independent isotope effects in chemical exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kazushige

    2000-01-01

    Isotope effects of some elements in chemical exchange reaction were investigated by use of liquid-liquid extraction, liquid membrane or chromatographic separation. Cyclic polyether was used for every method. All polyethers used in a series of the studies were made clear that they distinguished the isotopes not only by their nuclear masses but also by their nuclear sizes and shapes. Chromium isotopes, for example, were recognized to have enrichment factors being proportional to δ 2 > which is a parameter to show field shift or the nuclear size and shape of the isotope. It follows that the chromium isotopes are separated not by their masses but by their field shift effects. Nuclear spin also played a great role to separate odd mass number isotopes from even mass number isotopes in even atomic number elements. Contribution of the nuclear spin (I=3/2) of 53 Cr to total enrichment factor, ε 53/52 = -0.00028, for 53 Cr to 52 Cr was observed to be, ε spin = -0.0025. (author)

  13. Effect of blasting on the strength of a rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, L.

    1964-01-01

    Although the fact that blasting concussions tend to loosen a rock mass has always been known, the enormous reduction in strength associated with such loosening is not generally recognized. Recent investigations of the effect of blasting on a rock mass have shown that even slight loosening may markedly reduce the strength. This factor introduces a new slant on modern blasting methods, some of which will have to be considered more critically. The sensitivity of the mass to impacts depends on stress concentrations at the end of joints (Kerbspannungen) and on tensile stresses developed in the immediate vicinity of a joint, even in regions where the field stresses are not tensile. Thus, the sensitivity depends on the shape and orientation of the joints and particularly on the degree of separation of the individual joint families. The orientation of the joint families to the strains produced by blasting is just as important as the reduction in overall strength arising from the drop in friction due to the effects of the ''knocking out'' process (Foppl) on the joint body complex. Concussions may critically increase the degree of separation of the joint network thus reducing the tensile and shear strengths of the rock mass. (19 refs.)

  14. Tuning The Properties of Quantum Dots Via The Effective Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R. A.; Sinha, Abhinav; Pathak, Praveen

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we revisit effective mass theory (EMT) for a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) and employ the BenDaniel-Duke (BDD) boundary condition. In effective mass theory mass m i inside the dot of radius R is different from the mass m o outside the dot. That gives us a crucial factor in determining the electronic spectrum namely β = m i /m 0 . We show both by numerical calculations and asymptotic analysis that the ground state energy and the surface charge density, ρ(r) can be large. We also show that the dependence of the ground state energy on the radius of the well is infraquadratic. We demonstrate that the significance of BDD condition is pronounced at large R. We also study the dependence of excited state on the radius as well as the difference between energy states. Both exhibit an infra quadratic behavior with radius. The energy difference is important in study of absorption and emission spectra. We find that the BDD condition substantially alters the energy difference. Hence the interpretation of experimental result may need to be reexamined.

  15. Effects of added dibutyl phosphate on the luminescent properties of europium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenot, Ross S.; Bhat, Kamala N.; Owens, Constance A.; Hollerman, William A.; Aggarwal, Mohan D.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2003, the authors have been pushing the boundaries on a special type of functional material, i.e., a material that gives off light when it is stressed, strained, and/or fractured. This unique class of materials has been proposed for the active element of impact sensors, earthquake detectors, and stress sensors. However, in order for this concept to go from the lab to real world applications, the light emission from these functional materials must be bright such that inexpensive light detectors can be used. One of the brightest materials found thus far is europium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (EuD 4 TEA). This material has an emission so bright that it can be observed in daylight. In 2013, the authors discovered that the addition of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) increased the light emission two fold. As a result, a search for similar compounds was conducted to determine if the emission can be increased further. This paper explores the effects of dibutyl phosphate (DBP) on EuD 4 TEA. The effects of DBP on the triboluminescence, photoluminescence, and crystal structure of EuD 4 TEA will be determined. This paper will show that DBP has an even greater effect on the properties of EuD 4 TEA than DMMP. - Highlights: • Synthesized europium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium. • Six fold increase in the light yield was detected. • Effects of dibutyl phosphate on the triboluminescence on EuD 4 TEA were determined. • Effects of dibutyl phosphate on the photoluminescence of EuD 4 TEA were determined

  16. Effects of added dibutyl phosphate on the luminescent properties of europium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontenot, Ross S., E-mail: rsfontenot@hotmail.com [Alabama A and M University, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics, P.O. Box 1268, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 44210, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Bhat, Kamala N.; Owens, Constance A. [Alabama A and M University, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics, P.O. Box 1268, Normal, AL 35762 (United States); Hollerman, William A. [University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 44210, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Aggarwal, Mohan D. [Alabama A and M University, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics, P.O. Box 1268, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Since 2003, the authors have been pushing the boundaries on a special type of functional material, i.e., a material that gives off light when it is stressed, strained, and/or fractured. This unique class of materials has been proposed for the active element of impact sensors, earthquake detectors, and stress sensors. However, in order for this concept to go from the lab to real world applications, the light emission from these functional materials must be bright such that inexpensive light detectors can be used. One of the brightest materials found thus far is europium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (EuD{sub 4}TEA). This material has an emission so bright that it can be observed in daylight. In 2013, the authors discovered that the addition of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) increased the light emission two fold. As a result, a search for similar compounds was conducted to determine if the emission can be increased further. This paper explores the effects of dibutyl phosphate (DBP) on EuD{sub 4}TEA. The effects of DBP on the triboluminescence, photoluminescence, and crystal structure of EuD{sub 4}TEA will be determined. This paper will show that DBP has an even greater effect on the properties of EuD{sub 4}TEA than DMMP. - Highlights: • Synthesized europium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium. • Six fold increase in the light yield was detected. • Effects of dibutyl phosphate on the triboluminescence on EuD{sub 4}TEA were determined. • Effects of dibutyl phosphate on the photoluminescence of EuD{sub 4}TEA were determined.

  17. Estimated effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G; Li, Winny; Yau, Brandon; Persaud, Nav

    2017-02-27

    Canada's universal health care system does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. We sought to estimate the effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada. We used administrative and market research data to estimate the 2015 shares of the volume and cost of prescriptions filled in the community setting that were for 117 drugs on a model list of essential medicines for Canada. We compared prices of these essential medicines in Canada with prices in the United States, Sweden and New Zealand. We estimated the cost of adding universal public drug coverage of these essential medicines based on anticipated effects on medication use and pricing. The 117 essential medicines on the model list accounted for 44% of all prescriptions and 30% of total prescription drug expenditures in 2015. Average prices of generic essential medicines were 47% lower in the US, 60% lower in Sweden and 84% lower in New Zealand; brand-name drugs were priced 43% lower in the US. Estimated savings from universal public coverage of these essential medicines was $4.27 billion per year (range $2.72 billion to $5.83 billion; 28% reduction) for patients and private drug plan sponsors, at an incremental government cost of $1.23 billion per year (range $373 million to $1.98 billion; 11% reduction). Our analysis showed that adding universal public coverage of essential medicines to the existing public drug plans in Canada could address most of Canadians' pharmaceutical needs and save billions of dollars annually. Doing so may be a pragmatic step forward while more comprehensive pharmacare reforms are planned. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  18. Kinematic effects of inertia and friction added by a robotic knee exoskeleton after prolonged walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, C; Tucker, M R; Lambercy, O; Gassert, R

    2017-07-01

    The capabilities of robotic gait assistive devices are ever increasing; however, their adoption outside of the lab is still limited. A critical barrier for the functionality of these devices are the still unknown mechanical properties of the human leg during dynamic conditions such as walking. We built a robotic knee exoskeleton to address this problem. Here, we present the effects of our device on the walking pattern of four subjects. We assessed the effects after a short period of acclimation as well as after a 1.5h walking protocol. We found that the knee exoskeleton decreased (towards extension) the peak hip extension and peak knee flexion of the leg with the exoskeleton, while minimally affecting the non-exoskeleton leg. Comparatively smaller changes occurred after prolonged walking. These results suggest that walking patterns attained after a few minutes of acclimation with a knee exoskeleton are stable for at least a couple of hours.

  19. The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M.; Mu, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. Methods: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) men (n =...

  20. This Ad is for You: Targeting and the Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Youth Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Eamon

    2016-02-01

    Endogenous targeting of alcohol advertisements presents a challenge for empirically identifying a causal effect of advertising on drinking. Drinkers prefer a particular media; firms recognize this and target alcohol advertising at these media. This paper overcomes this challenge by utilizing novel data with detailed individual measures of media viewing and alcohol consumption and three separate empirical techniques, which represent significant improvements over previous methods. First, controls for the average audience characteristics of the media an individual views account for attributes of magazines and television programs alcohol firms may consider when deciding where to target advertising. A second specification directly controls for each television program and magazine a person views. The third method exploits variation in advertising exposure due to a 2003 change in an industry-wide rule that governs where firms may advertise. Although the unconditional correlation between advertising and drinking by youth (ages 18-24) is strong, models that include simple controls for targeting imply, at most, a modest advertising effect. Although the coefficients are estimated less precisely, estimates with models including more rigorous controls for targeting indicate no significant effect of advertising on youth drinking. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Mass independent isotope effects and their observations in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiemens, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    In 1983, Thiemens and Heidenreich reported the first chemically produced mass independent isotope effect. A significant feature of the fractionation was that it identically produced the isotopic relation observed in the calcium-aluminum inclusions in the Allende meteorite. This δ 17 O=δ 18 O composition had previously been thought to represent a nucleosynthetic component as no chemical process was capable of producing a mass independent isotopic composition. It now appears nearly certain that the meteoritic oxygen isotopic anomalies were produced by chemical, rather than nuclear, processes. Since oxygen is the major element in stony planets this represents a major event in the formation of the solar system. In a recent review (Thiemens, 1999), it has been shown that mass independent isotopic compositions are pervasive in the Earth's atmosphere. Molecules which have been demonstrated to possess mass independent isotopic compositions include: O 2 , O 3 , CO 2 , CO, and N 2 O. In each case, the specific nature of the mass independent isotopic composition has provided details of their atmospheric chemistry that could not have been obtained by any other measurement technique. Most recently, solid materials have been observed to possess mass independent isotopic composition. In this paper, these observations are briefly discussed. These solid reservoirs include: 1) carbonates and sulphates from Mars, 2) terrestrial aerosol sulphate, 3) sulphides and sulphates from the Earth, ranging in time from 3.8 to 2.2 billion years before present, 4) sulphates from the Namibian desert and 5) the Antartic Dry Valleys. The information obtained from these measurements is extraordinarily wide ranging, extending from understanding the history of Martian atmosphereregolith interaction to the evolution of the oxygen in the Earth's earliest atmosphere. As was the case for gas phase species, this information and insight could not have been obtained by any other measurement technique

  2. Differentiation of mass-forming focal pancreatitis from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: value of characterizing dynamic enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced MR images by adding signal intensity color mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mimi [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hanyang Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Young Kon; Cha, Dong Ik [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyunga [Samsung Medical Center, Biostatics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Research Institute for Future Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the value of dynamic enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced MR images by adding signal intensity colour mapping (SICM) to differentiate mass-forming focal pancreatitis (MFFP) from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Forty-one clinicopathologically proven MFFPs and 144 surgically confirmed PDACs were enrolled. Laboratory and MR imaging parameters were used to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. In particular, enhancement patterns on MR images adding SICM were evaluated. By using classification tree analysis (CTA), we determined the predictors for the differentiation of MFFP from PDAC. In the CTA, with all parameters except enhancement pattern on SICM images, ductal obstruction grade and T1 hypointensity grade of the pancreatic lesion were the first and second splitting predictor for differentiation of MFFP from PDAC, in order. By adding an enhancement pattern on the SICM images to CTA, the enhancement pattern was the only splitting predictor to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. The CTA model including enhancement pattern on SICM images has sensitivity of 78.0 %, specificity of 99.3 %, and accuracy of 94.6 % for differentiating MFFP from PDAC. The characterization of enhancement pattern for pancreatic lesions on contrast-enhanced MR images adding SICM would be helpful to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. (orig.)

  3. Effect of mechanical activation of fly ash added to Moroccan Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ez-zaki H.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of grinding fly ash on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of fly ash blended CPJ45 cement. The addition of the fly ash particles to the grinder leads respectively to the breakage of the particles and to reduce the agglomeration effect in the balls of cement grinder. Fly ash milling was found to improve particles fineness, and increase the silica and alumina content in the cement. Furthermore, milled fly ash blended cements show higher compressive strength compared to unmilled fly ash blended cements, due to improved fly ash reactivity through their mechanical activation.

  4. Effects of adding lanthanum to Ni/ZrO2 catalysts on ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profeti, Luciene Paula Roberto; Habitzheuter, Filipe; Assaf, Elisabete Moreira

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic performance of Ni/ZrO 2 catalysts loaded with different lanthanum content for steam reforming of ethanol was investigated. Catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, temperature programmed reduction, and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. Results showed that lanthanum addition led to an increase in the degree of reduction of both NiO and nickel surface species interacting with the support, due to the higher dispersion effect. The best catalytic performance at 450 deg C was found for the Ni/12LZ catalyst, which exhibited an effluent gaseous mixture with the highest H 2 yield. (author)

  5. Gamma radiation effects on an amine antioxidant added in an ethylene-propylene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelli, P.; Baccaro, S.; Casadio, C.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the gamma radiation induced effects on samples of an ethylene-propylene copolymer antioxidant free with samples loaded with an antioxidant characterised by the presence of an -NH functional group. The employed techniques were Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Stable radicals R-NO degree sign due to the interaction of free radicals produced in the irradiated polymer with the antioxidant have been observed by ESR at room temperature. The time evolution of the ESR signals following the irradiation was examined at different doses. The amount of antioxidant not involved in the oxidation reactions has been determined using HPLC

  6. Gamma radiolysis of 3-methylpentane. Effect of added olefins on the formation of C12-olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laet, M. de; Tilquin, B.

    1991-01-01

    Contributions of congruent (parent derived) olefins to the formation of unsaturated heavy products (C 12 H 24 ) are investigated. Effects of dose or of olefinic additives on the G yield values are studied by capillary gas chromatography. The dose dependence is explained by transfer of positive charge to congruent olefins (C 6 H 12 ) even though their concentrations build up linearly with dose. γ Irradiation of 3-methylpentane containing pentenes or butenes (0.2-2 mol %) provides good examples of transfer of energy, however the results are unexpected. C-H scission in the radiolysis of solid 3-methylpentane is also reviewed. (author)

  7. Effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction to a Pilates exercise program: an assessor-masked randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Luiza; de Jarmy Di Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin; Rodrigues, Claudinei Alves; Stüpp, Liliana; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC) to a Pilates exercise program in sedentary nulliparous women. Fifty-seven healthy nulliparous and physically inactive women were randomized to a Pilates exercise program (PEP) with or without PFMC. Forty-eight women concluded this study (24 participants for each group). Each woman was evaluated before and after the PEP, by a physiotherapist and an urogynecologist (UG). Neither of the professionals was revealed to them. This physiotherapist measured their pelvic floor muscle strength by using both a perineometer (Peritron) and vaginal palpation (Oxford Scale). The UG, who performed 3D perineal ultrasound examinations, collected their data and evaluated the results for pubovisceral muscle thickness and the levator hiatus area (LA). Both professionals were blinded to the group allocation. The protocol for both groups consisted of 24 bi-weekly 1-h individual sessions of Pilates exercises, developed by another physiotherapist who specializes in PFM rehabilitation and the Pilates technique. The PEP+ PFMC group showed significantly greater strength improvements than the PEP group when comparing the Oxford scale, vaginal pressure and pubovisceral muscle thickness during contraction measurements at baseline and post-treatment. Our findings suggest that adding a voluntary PFMC to a Pilates exercise program is more effective than Pilates alone in improving PFM strength in sedentary nulliparous women.

  8. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S; Rippe, James M

    2015-10-23

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20-60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  9. Effective photon mass from black-hole formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Emelyanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We compute the value of effective photon mass mγ at one-loop level in QED in the background of small (1010 g≲M≪1016 g spherically symmetric black hole in asymptotically flat spacetime. This effect is associated with the modification of electron/positron propagator in presence of event horizon. Physical manifestations of black-hole environment are compared with those of hot neutral plasma. We estimate the distance to the nearest black hole from the upper bound on mγ obtained in the Coulomb-law test. We also find that corrections to electron mass me and fine structure constant α at one-loop level in QED are negligible in the weak gravity regime.

  10. FCNC Effects in a Minimal Theory of Fermion Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Pokorski, Stefan; Ziegler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As a minimal theory of fermion masses we extend the SM by heavy vectorlike fermions, with flavor-anarchical Yukawa couplings, that mix with chiral fermions such that small SM Yukawa couplings arise from small mixing angles. This model can be regarded as an effective description of the fermionic sector of a large class of existing flavor models and thus might serve as a useful reference frame for a further understanding of flavor hierarchies in the SM. Already such a minimal framework gives rise to FCNC effects through exchange of massive SM bosons whose couplings to the light fermions get modified by the mixing. We derive general formulae for these corrections and discuss the bounds on the heavy fermion masses. Particularly stringent bounds, in a few TeV range, come from the corrections to the Z couplings.

  11. EFFECT OF XYLANASE ADDED TO A RYE-BASED DIET ON NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Heger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of enzyme xylanase derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum supplemented to a rye-based diet on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and non-starch polysaccharides constituting sugars was studied. Enzymes supplementation at 200 mg.kg−1 increased (P˂0.05 the digestibility of total amino acids from 67.1 to 70.8. When the dietary concentration of enzyme increased from 0 to 100 mg.kg-1, the ileal digestibility of the NSP constituents gradually increased as well. No further increase was observed with the supplementation level of 200 mg.kg-1. The improvement in the digestibility of arabinose and xylose (685%, P˂0.05 was much higher in comparison with remaining sugars (110%, P˂0.05. The apparent ileal digestibility of galactose was positively influenced by xylanase but it remained negative in all dietary treatments, presumably due to the high concentration of galactose in endogenous secretions. It is concluded that xylanase effectively degrades non-starch polysaccharides in upper digestive tract and marginally improves amino acid availability in young pigs.

  12. An effective dose assessment technique with NORM added consumer products using skin-point source on computational human phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Do Hyeon; Shin, Wook-Geun; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Hyun Joon; Testa, Mauro; Lee, Jae Kook; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Min, Chul Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the assessment technique of the effective dose by calculating the organ equivalent dose with a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and a computational human phantom for the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) added consumer products. In this study, we suggests the method determining the MC source term based on the skin-point source enabling the convenient and conservative modeling of the various type of the products. To validate the skin-point source method, the organ equivalent doses were compared with that by the product modeling source of the realistic shape for the pillow, waist supporter, sleeping mattress etc. Our results show that according to the source location, the organ equivalent doses were observed as the similar tendency for both source determining methods, however, it was observed that the annual effective dose with the skin-point source was conservative than that with the modeling source with the maximum 3.3 times higher dose. With the assumption of the gamma energy of 1 MeV and product activity of 1 Bq g"−"1, the annual effective doses of the pillow, waist supporter and sleeping mattress with skin-point source was 3.09E-16 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, 1.45E-15 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, and 2,82E-16 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, respectively, while the product modeling source showed 9.22E-17 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, 9.29E-16 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, and 8.83E-17 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, respectively. In conclusion, it was demonstrated in this study that the skin-point source method could be employed to efficiently evaluate the annual effective dose due to the usage of the NORM added consumer products. - Highlights: • We evaluate the exposure dose from the usage of NORM added consumer products. • We suggest the method determining the MC source term based on the skin-point source. • To validate the skin-point source, the organ equivalent doses were compared with that the modeling source. • The skin-point source could

  13. Effects of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training session on strength and athletic performance in team-handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Navarro, Angel; Tous-Fajardo, Julio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training (EOT) session in several athletic performance's tests, 18 team-handball players were assigned either to an EOT (n = 11) or a Control (n = 7) group. Both groups continued to perform the same habitual strength training, but the EOT group added one session/week during a 7-week training programme consisting of four sets of eight repetitions for the bilateral half-squat and unilateral lunge exercises. The test battery included handball throwing velocity, maximum dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 m sprint, triple hop for distance, and eccentric/concentric power in both the half-squat and lunge exercises. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Both groups improved their 1RM in the half squat, 20 m sprint time, and CMJ performance to a similar extent, but the EOT group showed a beneficial effect for both right [(42/58/0), possibly positive] and left [(99/1/0), very likely positive] triple hop for distance performance. In addition, the EOT group showed greater power output improvements in both eccentric and concentric phases of the half-squat (difference in percent of change ranging from 6.5% to 22.0%) and lunge exercises (difference in per cent of change ranging from 13.1% to 24.9%). Nevertheless, no group showed changes in handball throwing velocity. Selected variables related to team-handball performance (i.e. functional jumping performance, power output) can be improved by adding a single EOT session per week, highlighting the usefulness of this low-volume/high-intensity training when aiming at optimizing dynamic athletic performance.

  14. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-02-01

    Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval -54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; Pfasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (Pfasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (Pfasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone-acylated ghrelin during the afternoon relative to lunch consumed after breakfast.

  15. Holographic description of AdS2 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Alejandra; Larsen, Finn; Grumiller, Daniel; McNees, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We develop the holographic renormalization of AdS 2 gravity systematically. We find that a bulk Maxwell term necessitates a boundary mass term for the gauge field and verify that this unusual term is invariant under gauge transformations that preserve the boundary conditions. We determine the energy-momentum tensor and the central charge, recovering recent results by Hartman and Strominger. We show that our expressions are consistent with dimensional reduction of the AdS 3 energy-momentum tensor and the Brown-Henneaux central charge. As an application of our results we interpret the entropy of AdS 2 black holes as the ground state entropy of a dual CFT.

  16. New supersymmetric AdS4 type II vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsimpis, D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the supersymmetric AdS 4 x w M 6 backgrounds of type IIA/IIB supergravity constructed in[1]. In type IIA the supersymmetry is N=2, and the six-dimensional internal space is locally an S 2 bundle over a four-dimensional Kaehler-Einstein base; in IIB the internal space is the direct product of a circle and a five-dimensional squashed Sasaki-Einstein manifold. These backgrounds do not contain any sources, all fluxes (including the Romans mass in IIA) are generally non-zero, and the dilaton and warp factor are non-constant. The IIA solutions include the massive deformations of the IIA reduction of the eleven-dimensional AdS 4 x Y p,q solutions, and had been predicted to exist on the basis of the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Effect of Adding Different Vegetable Oils to Quail Diets On Some Blood Parameters and Immune System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Wakwak, M.; Sabek, E.M.; Elaroussi, M.A.; El-Gendy, H.M.; Hammad, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    A total number of 1400 one-day old Japanese quail birds were used in this study, the birds were divided into seven equal groups, six treated while the 7 t h served as the control. The diet of the six treated groups was supplemented with 8 % of either one of the following tested oils: soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), corn (CO), cottonseed (CSO), olive (OO) or palm (PO). At the end of the 4 t hand 8 t h weeks of age blood samples were collected for blood picture, proteins and cortisol determination. Antibody titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and NewCastle disease virus (NDV) were determined at 7 and 8 weeks of age respectively. The results showed significant increase in relative lymphoid organ weights, RBCs, WBCs, Hb and PCV, total protein, globulin and cortisol hormone in treated groups compared to the control. The immunological parameters showed a significant increase in (HA) and (HI) against (SRBCs) and (NDV), respectively, in all treated groups compared to the control group. The present results confirm the beneficial effects of dietary oil supplementation to quail birds and in particular olive oil.

  18. Effect of Transdermal Tulobuterol Added to Inhaled Corticosteroids in Asthma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Tamura

    2005-01-01

    Methods: A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, multicenter trial was conducted. Male and female patients with a diagnosis of asthma requiring inhaled short-acting β2-agonists despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids took tulobuterol tape (1 mg or 2 mg and corresponding placebo tapes for 4 weeks. Results: Mean morning peak expiratory flows (PEF in the 1 and 2 mg/day groups were significantly increased from the baseline value by 23.8 and 35.9 L/min at week 4, respectively. The increase in mean morning PEF in the 2 mg/day group was significantly higher than that in the 1 mg/day group. The mean evening PEF was significantly increased in both treatment groups compared with baseline values. Although the increase in mean evening PEF in the 2 mg/day group was greater than that in the 1 mg/day group, the difference between groups was statistically significant only at week 1. The safety profiles of the two treatments were similar. Conclusions: In patients with persistent asthma who require inhaled short-acting β2-agonists while receiving inhaled corticosteroids, transdermal tulobuterol significantly improved PEF in a dose-dependent manner, i.e., greater effect with 2 mg than with 1 mg per day.

  19. The effect of quantity of added eggs on whole meal pasta quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the convenience of different chemical and rheological methods for determining the quality of two spelt cultivars for pasta making and the influence of egg quantity on whole meal pasta quality. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit has been calculated to show significant differences between different samples. Score analysis is being useful tool for accessing the effect of eggs to spelt pasta quality, and this analysis proved that though lower scores (0.270 for rheological characteristics experienced with cultivar Eco, the addition of eggs is positively contributing to the spelt pasta quality yielding the best score for pasta (0.75, contrary to the cultivar Austria attributed with superior rheology scores. Whole meal spelt is characterised by lower Ca, but higher Fe and Mn content in comparison to bread wheat. In comparison with common pasta, spelt is a suitable raw material for a new product with improved functional properties at the market.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31055

  20. Situated learning theory: adding rate and complexity effects via Kauffman's NK model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; McKelvey, Bill

    2004-01-01

    For many firms, producing information, knowledge, and enhancing learning capability have become the primary basis of competitive advantage. A review of organizational learning theory identifies two approaches: (1) those that treat symbolic information processing as fundamental to learning, and (2) those that view the situated nature of cognition as fundamental. After noting that the former is inadequate because it focuses primarily on behavioral and cognitive aspects of individual learning, this paper argues the importance of studying learning as interactions among people in the context of their environment. It contributes to organizational learning in three ways. First, it argues that situated learning theory is to be preferred over traditional behavioral and cognitive learning theories, because it treats organizations as complex adaptive systems rather than mere information processors. Second, it adds rate and nonlinear learning effects. Third, following model-centered epistemology, it uses an agent-based computational model, in particular a "humanized" version of Kauffman's NK model, to study the situated nature of learning. Using simulation results, we test eight hypotheses extending situated learning theory in new directions. The paper ends with a discussion of possible extensions of the current study to better address key issues in situated learning.

  1. The Effect of adding pore formers on the microstructure of NiO-YSZ ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.S.; Santos, F.S.; Medeiros, L.M.; Yoshito, W.K.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.

    2011-01-01

    The ceramic composite of nickel oxide (NiO) with zirconium stabilized with 8 mol% yttria (8-YSZ) is the most employed material for use as anode for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The nickel oxide in the composite is reduced to metallic nickel and this result in a 15% of porosity although the porosity needed to a proper function of an anode is about 30%, demanding the use of a pore former. In this work, NiO-YSZ composite powders were synthesized by a combustion process with urea as fuel, and the effect of the addition of carbon black and corn and rice starch as pore former were investigated. Powders were pressed as cylindrical pellets, sintered at 1350 °C for 60 minutes and density were measured by an immersion method and microstructure were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that ceramic composite has homogeneous microstructure and pores have different morphology and size depending on the kind of the pore former employed. (author)

  2. The effective potential in the presence of several mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.A.; Di Clemente, V.; Quiros, M.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the problem of improving the effective potential in mass independent schemes, as e.g. the MS-bar or DR-bar renormalization scheme, in the presence of an arbitrary number of fields with PHI-dependent masses M i(PHI c ) . We use the decoupling theorem at the scales μ i M i (PHI c ) such that the matching between the effective (low energy) and complete (high energy) one-loop theories contains no thresholds. We find that for any value of PHI c , there is a convenient scale μ * ≡ min i M i (PHI c ), at which the loop expansion has the best behaviour and the effective potential has the least μ-dependence. Furthermore, at this scale the effective potential coincides with the (improved) tree-level one in the effective field theory. The decoupling method is explicitly illustrated with a simple Higgs-Yukawa model, along with its relationship with other decoupling prescriptions and with proposed multi-scale renormalization approaches. The procedure leads to a nice suppression of potentially large logarithms and can be easily adapted to include higher-loop effects, which is explicitly shown at the two-loop level

  3. Comparison of clinical effects of prilocaine, dexamethasone added to prilocaine and levobupivacaine on brachial plexus block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritas, A.; Sabuncu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the addition of 8mg dexamethasone to axillary brachial plexus block would prolong the duration of sensory and motor block in patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. Methods: The prospective, randomised, double-blinded study was conducted at the Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical School, Turkey, from October 2008 to December 2009. It comprised 45 American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade I and II patients under elective surgery of the hand and forearm. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: 5 mg/kg of 2% prilocaine was applied to Group 1; 5 mg/kg of 2% prilocaine +8mg of dexamethasone (2ml) was applied to Group 2; and 1.5 mg/kg 0.5% levobupivacaine was applied to Group 3. Sensory and motor block onset time as well as the duration of motor and sensory block of those were monitored and recorded. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 45 patients, 27 (60%) were men and 18 (40%) were women. There was no significant difference among the groups in terms of demographic data. Based on the duration of motor and sensory block, similar periods of time in Group 1 and Group 2 were noted, whereas this period was statistically different and significantly longer in Group 3 (p<0.001). There were no complications encountered. Conclusion: The addition of dexamethasone to prilocaine prolonged the duration of sensory and motor block. It could be used as an effective adjuvant agent. Levobupivacain could be a more appropriate local anaesthetic in post-operative analgesia and prolonged surgical procedures. (author)

  4. Effect of adding Black seeds, Nigella Sativa, in growing lambs diets on their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen growing male lambs, four months old, were randomly divided into two equal groups, nine in each. Animals of each group were fed on one of the two tested diets. The first group fed on the basal diet as a control, while the other one fed the basal diet supplemented daily with 5 grams/head of black seeds. Wheat straw and concentrate feed mixture (CFM) were used at the ratio of 30:70, respectively. Lambs were weighed at the beginning of the experimental period then at three weeks intervals till the end of the experiment, which lasted for 118 days. At the end of experimental period, four animals from each group were used to evaluate the digestibility and nutritive values of the two experimental diets. Rumen liquor samples were taken from three animals of each group. Blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein of each animal in the morning before feeding once each three weeks. The results showed that lambs fed diet supplemented with Black seed had significant higher digestibility values for CP, EE and NFE than those fed control diet. The percentage of apparent nitrogen utilization showed similar trend. In addition, the total VFAs was also affected by supplementation while the values of ph and ammonia-N were not affected by treatment diet. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (Kg DMI/Kg gain) were better for treated group than control group. Significant differences were found also in total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, total cholesterol, triglycerides and T3 values. These Results indicated that Black seeds could be successfully used in formulating the concentrate feed mixture of growing lambs up to 5 grams/head without any negative effects on their performance and health

  5. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzannah K Helps

    Full Text Available Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR, auditory white noise (WN can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability.Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25; normal- (N = 29 and sub-attentive (N = 36 children (aged 8 to 10 years. Two non-executive function (EF tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations.There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group.The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  6. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Suzannah K; Bamford, Susan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Söderlund, Göran B W

    2014-01-01

    Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), auditory white noise (WN) can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA) model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability. Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25); normal- (N = 29) and sub-attentive (N = 36) children (aged 8 to 10 years). Two non-executive function (EF) tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task) and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task) were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations. There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group. The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  7. Liquid-liquid electro-organo-synthetic processes in a carbon nanofibre membrane microreactor: Triple phase boundary effects in the absence of intentionally added electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, John D.; Ahn, Sunyhik D.; Taylor, James E.; Bull, Steven D.; Bulman-Page, Philip C.; Marken, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Amphiphilic carbon nanofiber membrane employed in electro-synthesis. → Triple phase boundary process within a carbon membrane. → Electrochemical deuteration in a liquid|liquid micro-reactor system. → Triple phase boundary reaction zone effects in electro-synthesis. - Abstract: An amphiphilic carbon nanofibre membrane electrode (ca. 50 nm fibre diameter, 50-100 μm membrane thickness) is employed as an active working electrode and separator between an aqueous electrolyte phase (with reference and counter electrode) and an immiscible organic acetonitrile phase (containing only the redox active material). Potential control is achieved with a reference and counter electrode located in the aqueous electrolyte phase, but the electrolysis is conducted in the organic acetonitrile phase in the absence of intentionally added supporting electrolyte. For the one-electron oxidation of n-butylferrocene coupled to perchlorate anion transfer from aqueous to organic phase effective electrolysis is demonstrated with an apparent mass transfer coefficient of m = 4 x 10 -5 m s -1 and electrolysis of typically 1 mg n-butylferrocene in a 100 μL volume. For the two-electron reduction of tetraethyl-ethylenetetracarboxylate the apparent mass transfer coefficient m = 4 x 10 -6 m s -1 is lower due to a less extended triple phase boundary reaction zone in the carbon nanofibre membrane. Nevertheless, effective electrolysis of up to 6 mg tetraethyl-ethylenetetracarboxylate in a 100 μL volume is demonstrated. Deuterated products are formed in the presence of D 2 O electrolyte media. The triple phase boundary dominated mechanism and future microreactor design improvements are discussed.

  8. Effect of double pinning mechanism in BSO-added GdBa2Cu3O7-x thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J. Y.; Jeon, H. K.; Kang, B. [Dept. of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. M.; Kang, W. N. [Dept. of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We investigated the effect of self-assembled BSO nano-defects as pinning centers in BSO-added GdBCO films when the thicknesses of films were varied. 3.5 vol. % BSO-added GdBCO films with varying thicknesses from 200 nm to 1000 nm were deposited on SrTiO3 (STO) substrate by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process. For the films with thicknesses of 400 nm and 600 nm, ‘anomaly shoulders’ in Jc - H characteristic curves were observed near the matching field. The anomaly shoulders appeared in the field dependence of Jc may be attributed to the existence of double pinning mechanisms in thin films. The fit to the pinning force density as a function of reduced field h (H/Hirr) using the Dew-Hughes’ scaling law shows that both the 400 nm- and the 600 nm-thick films have double pinning mechanisms while the other films have a single pinning mechanism. These results indicate that the self-assembled property of BSO result in different role as pinning centers with different thickness.

  9. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metsaev, R.R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS field evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of short mixed-symmetry conformal field. We speculate on string theory interpretation of a model which involves short low-spin conformal fields and long higher-spin conformal fields.

  11. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2013)152, in agreement with the results of Castro and Song http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.1948. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS 2 ×S 2 or conformally AdS 2 ×S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide

  12. Effect of Sodium Selenate on Hippocampal Proteome of 3×Tg-AD Mice-Exploring the Antioxidant Dogma of Selenium against Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Zhang, Kaoyuan; Jin, Na; Zhao, Yuxi; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jiazuan; Shen, Liming

    2018-04-19

    Selenium (Se), an antioxidant trace element, is an important nutrient for maintaining brain functions and is reported to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies. The present study has been designed to elucidate the protein changes in hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice after supplementing sodium selenate as an inorganic source of selenium. By using iTRAQ proteomics technology, 113 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) are found in AD/WT mice with 37 upregulated and 76 downregulated proteins. Similarly, in selenate-treated 3×Tg-AD (ADSe/AD) mice, 115 DEPs are found with 98 upregulated and 17 downregulated proteins. The third group of mice (ADSe/WT) showed 75 DEPs with 46 upregulated and 29 downregulated proteins. Among these results, 42 proteins (40 downregulated and 2 upregulated) in the diseased group showed reverse expression when treated with selenate. These DEPs are analyzed with different bioinformatics tools and are found associated with various AD pathologies and pathways. Based on their functions, selenate-reversed proteins are classified as structural proteins, metabolic proteins, calcium regulating proteins, synaptic proteins, signaling proteins, stress related proteins, and transport proteins. Six altered AD associated proteins are successfully validated by Western blot analysis. This study shows that sodium selenate has a profound effect on the hippocampus of the triple transgenic AD mice. This might be established as an effective therapeutic agent after further investigation.

  13. The analgesic effect of dexketoprofen when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtlu, S; Hanci, V; Kargi, E; Erdoğan, G; Köksal, B G; Gül, Ş; Okyay, R D; Ayoğlu, H; Turan, I Ö

    2011-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of dexketoprofen as an adjunct to lidocaine in intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) or as a supplemental intravenous (i.v.) analgesic. Patients scheduled for elective hand or forearm soft-tissue surgery were randomly divided into three groups. All 45 patients received 0.5% lidocaine as IVRA. Dexketoprofen was given either i.v. or added into the IVRA solution and the control group received an equal volume of saline both i.v. and as part of the IVRA. The times of sensory and motor block onset, recovery time and postoperative analgesic consumption were recorded. Compared with controls, the addition of dexketoprofen to the IVRA solution resulted in more rapid onset of sensory and motor block, longer recovery time, decreased intra- and postoperative pain scores and decreased paracetamol use. It is concluded that coadministration of dexketoprofen with lidocaine in IVRA improves anaesthetic block and decreases postoperative analgesic requirements.

  14. Effect of adding Te to layered GaSe crystals to increase the van der Waals bonding force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Tadao; Zhao, Shu; Sato, Yohei; Oyama, Yutaka

    2017-10-01

    The interplanar binding strength of layered GaSe1-xTex crystals was directly measured using a tensile testing machine. The GaSe1-xTex crystals were grown by a low temperature liquid phase solution method under a controlled Se vapor pressure. The stoichiometry-controlled GaSe1-xTex crystal has the ɛ-polytype structure of GaSe, where the Te atoms are substituted for some of the Se atoms in the GaSe crystal. The effect of adding Te on the bonding strength between the GaSe layers was determined from direct measurements of the van der Waals bonding energy. The bonding energy was increased from 0.023 × 106 N/m2 for GaSe to 0.16 × 106 N/m2 for GaSe1-xTex (x = 0.106).

  15. Effects of adding butyric acid to PN on gut-associated lymphoid tissue and mucosal immunoglobulin A levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Satoshi; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Omata, Jiro; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Noguchi, Midori; Saitoh, Daizoh; Koyama, Isamu

    2011-07-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) causes intestinal mucosal atrophy, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) atrophy and dysfunction, leading to impaired mucosal immunity and increased susceptibility to infectious complications. Therefore, new PN formulations are needed to maintain mucosal immunity. Short-chain fatty acids have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on the intestinal mucosa. We examined the effects of adding butyric acid to PN on GALT lymphocyte numbers, phenotypes, mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels, and intestinal morphology in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice (n = 103) were randomized to receive either standard PN (S-PN), butyric acid-supplemented PN (Bu-PN), or ad libitum chow (control) groups. The mice were fed these respective diets for 5 days. In experiment 1, cells were isolated from Peyer's patches (PPs) to determine lymphocyte numbers and phenotypes (αβTCR(+), γδTCR(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), B220(+) cells). IgA levels in small intestinal washings were also measured. In experiment 2, IgA levels in respiratory tract (bronchoalveolar and nasal) washings were measured. In experiment 3, small intestinal morphology was evaluated. Lymphocyte yields from PPs and small intestinal, bronchoalveolar, and nasal washing IgA levels were all significantly lower in the S-PN group than in the control group. Bu-PN moderately, but significantly, restored PP lymphocyte numbers, as well as intestinal and bronchoalveolar IgA levels, as compared with S-PN. Villous height and crypt depth in the small intestine were significantly decreased in the S-PN group vs the control group, however Bu-PN restored intestinal morphology. A new PN formula containing butyric acid is feasible and would ameliorate PN-induced impairment of mucosal immunity.

  16. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  17. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  18. Effect of a medical food on body mass index and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease: secondary analyses from a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, P.J.G.H.; Verhey, F.R.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.; Twisk, J.W.; Swinkels, S.H.; Scheltens, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of a medical food (Souvenaid) on body mass index (BMI) and functional abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design/setting/participants/intervention /measurements: These analyses were performed on data from a 12-week, double-blind,

  19. Effect of a medical food on body mass index and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease: secondary analyses from a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, P.J.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Scheltens, P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of a medical food (Souvenaid) on body mass index (BMI) and functional abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTION /MEASUREMENTS: These analyses were performed on data from a 12-week, double-blind,

  20. Computer simulation of cascade damage in iron: PKA mass effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, A.; Bacon, D.J.; Barashev, A.; Osetsky, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Results are presented from an extensive series of computer simulations of the damage created by displacement cascades in alpha-iron. The objective has been to determine for the first time the effect of the mass of the primary knock-on atom (PKA) on defect number, defect clustering and cluster morphology. Cascades with PKA energy in the range 5 to 20 keV have been simulated by molecular dynamics for temperature up to 600 K using an interatomic potential for iron for which the energy difference between the dumbbell interstitial and the crowdion is close to the value from ab initio calculation (Ackland et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2004). At least 30 cascades have been simulated for each condition in order to generate reasonable statistics. The influence of PKA species on damage has been investigated in two ways. In one, the PKA atom was treated as an Fe atom as far as its interaction with other atoms was concerned, but its atomic weight (in amu) was either 12 (C), 56 (Fe) or 209 (Bi). Pairs of Bi PKAs have also been used to mimic heavy molecular ion irradiation. In the other approach, the short-range pair part of the interatomic potential was changed from Fe-Fe to that for Bi-Fe, either with or without a change of PKA mass, in order to study the influence of high-energy collisions on the cascade outcome. It is found that PKA mass is more influential than the interatomic potential between the PKA and Fe atoms. At low cascade energy (5-10 keV), increasing PKA mass leads to a decrease in number of interstitials and vacancies. At high energy (20 keV), the main effect of increasing mass is to increase the probability of creation of interstitial and vacancy clusters in the form of 1/2 and dislocation loops. The simulation results are consistent with experimental TEM observations of damage in irradiated iron. (authors)

  1. Effective Lagrangian approach to the fermion mass problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.S.; Volkas, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    An effective theory is proposed, combining the standard gauge group SU(3) C direct-product SU(2) L direct-product U(1) Y with a horizontal discrete symmetry. By assigning appropriate charges under this discrete symmetry to the various fermion fields and to (at least) two Higgs doublets, the broad spread of the fermion mass and mixing angle spectrum can be explained as a result of suppressed, non-renormalizable terms. A particular model is constructed which achieves the above while simultaneously suppressing neutral Higgs-induced flavour-changing processes. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Analysis of DDoS Attack Effect and Protection Scheme in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Ramratan Ahirwal; Leeladhar Mahour

    2012-01-01

    In Wireless mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink is network without infrastructure. Detecting malicious nodes in an open ad-hoc network in whichparticipating nodes have no previous security associations presents a number of challenges not faced by traditional wired networks. Traffic monitoring in wired networks is usually performed at switches,routers and gateways, but an ad-hoc network does not have these types of network elements where the...

  3. Isotope effects in mass-spectrometry; Les effets isotopiques en spectrometrie de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leicknam, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de physico-chimie, service des isotopes stables, section de spectrometrie de masse

    1967-05-01

    In the first part, a review is made of the work concerning the influence of isotopic substitution on the stabilities of ionised molecules and the bond-breaking probabilities; metastable transitions are also affected by this substitution. A model based on the Franck-Condon principle accounts for the experimentally observed isotopic effects for diatomic molecules; to a certain extent it is possible to generalise the calculation for the case of isotopic molecules of carbon dioxide gas. For deuterated polyatomic molecules there exist a {pi} effect making it possible to compare the relative stabilities of the X-H and X-D bonds, and a {gamma} effect which characterizes the different behaviours of the X-H bond in a normal molecule and in its partially deuterated homologue. Usually there is a very marked {pi} effect (e.g. the C-D bonds are more difficult to break than the homologous C-H bonds) and a {gamma} effect, the partial deuteration of a molecule leading in general to an increase in the probability of breakage of a given bond. An interpretation of {pi} and {gamma} effects based on Rosenstock near-equilibrium theory accounts for the observed phenomena, qualitatively at least, in the case of propane and acetylene. In the second part are gathered together results concerning isotopic effects produced during the formation of rearranged ions. The existence of cyclic transition ions has made it possible for Mc Lafferty to explain the existence of these ions in the mass spectrum; isotopic substitution leads to a modification of the rearrangement mechanism, the bonding forces being no longer the same. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie, on rassemble les travaux concernant l'influence de la substitution isotopique sur les stabilites des molecules ionisees et les probabilites de rupture des liaisons; les transitions metastables sont egalement modifiees par cette substitution. Un modele base sur le principe de Franck-Condon rend compte des effets isotopiques

  4. Probing quark mass effects in low-energy hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditsche, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Since quarks are confined inside hadrons, their properties as well as their contributions to hadronic observables can be assessed by indirect methods only. As the strength of the strong interaction increases with the spatial distance, the treatment of quantum chromodynamics at low energies in general requires non-perturbative methods like dispersion relations or lattice gauge theory. Based on the fact that the light quark masses are very small with respect to the typical hadronic mass scales for mesons and baryons, furthermore effective field theories can be constructed to describe low-energy properties and dynamics of hadrons perturbatively. The present work is concerned with two particularly interesting hadronic processes that are closely related to the light quark masses. Although distinct theoretical frameworks utilizing different calculational techniques are applied, in both cases the investigations at hand are prerequisites for high-precision analyses of the respective quark-mass effects. In the first part of this thesis, we investigate higher-order isospin-breaking effects in η→3π decays, namely η→π 0 π + π - and η→3π 0 , in chiral perturbation theory. By evaluating the second-order mixed strong and electromagnetic isospin-breaking corrections, we confirm the picture that the electromagnetic contributions are small. Therefore, η→3π is perfectly suited to extract isospin-breaking ratios of light quark masses via comparing theoretical predictions with experimental results. Since for an accurate determination a detailed description of the Dalitz plot distributions is necessary, we study the different effects of higher-order isospin breaking in η→3π on a more general basis. In particular, we investigate corrections to isospin relations between both decay channels at the level of Dalitz plot parameters, showing that the branching ratio of the two partial decay widths entails sizeable uncertainties. In the second part, we develop a dispersive

  5. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Burrell, Kirsty; Mynott, Georgina; Creese, Mark; Skidmore, Nicola; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence. We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake. Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean ± SD: 9.3 ± 1.3 MJ; energy balance) or 25% [2.3 ± 0.3 MJ; energy restriction (ER)] of energy requirements. On day 2, a standardized breakfast was consumed, with plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids determined for 4 h. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at lunch and dinner with subjective appetite and resting metabolism assessed throughout. On day 3, ad libitum energy intake was assessed at breakfast and by weighed food records. Energy intake was 7% greater on day 2 (P 0.145). During ER, postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin were lower (P < 0.05), whereas glucose (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001) were higher. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 7-36 (P = 0.784) and insulin (P = 0.06) concentrations were not significantly different between trials. Energy expenditure was lower during ER in the morning (P < 0.01). In lean young adults, 24-h SER transiently elevated subjective appetite and marginally increased energy intake, but hormonal appetite markers did not respond in a manner indicative of hyperphagia. These results suggest that intermittent SER might be useful to attenuate energy intake and control body weight in this population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov.uk as NCT02696772. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. THE EFFECT OF ADDING SPECIFIC HIP STRENGTHENING EXERCISES TO CONVENTIONAL KNEE EXERCISES IN PATIENTS WITH PATELLO FEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Monika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral pain Syndrome is an over use injury and one of the commonest problems seen in adolescents who are physically active. Till date no study has been done comparing the effect of adding specific hip strengthening exercises (gluteus medius, gluteus maximus & lateral rotators to conventional exercises in patients with Patello femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS while minimizing the effect of minimizing the activation of tensor fascia lata (TFL. Methods: 30 subjects were randomly allocated using convenience random sampling into 2 Groups Group A and Group B with 15 subjects in each group. Readings were taken for Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, Manual Muscle Testing (MMT for hip abductors, extensors and external rotators muscles quadriceps and hamstrings, and Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS on baseline and at the end of 4th week. Results: Analysis of the data collected for NPRS, AKPS and MMT of Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Hip Abductors and Hip External Rotators of 30 subjects was done by statistical analysis tests using STATA and software version 11.2. Although improvement was seen in both the groups but group B improved better compared to group A. Conclusion: Group B treatment protocol i.e. Hip specific strengthening (gluteus medius and gluteus maximus in addition to conventional treatment in patients with patello-femoral pain syndrome, was found to be effective in reducing pain, improving functional status and increasing muscle strength than Group A treatment protocol i.e. Knee strengthening and stretching.

  7. Immediate effects of adding mental practice to physical practice on the gait of individuals with Parkinson's disease: Randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Lorenna Marques de Melo; de Oliveira, Daniel Antunes; de Macêdo Ferreira, Louise Gabriella Lopes; de Brito Pinto, Hyanne Yasmim; Spaniol, Ana Paula; de Lucena Trigueiro, Larissa Coutinho; Ribeiro, Tatiana Souza; de Sousa, Angélica Vieira Cavalcanti; Piemonte, Maria Elisa Pimentel; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Mental practice has shown benefits in the rehabilitation of neurological patients, however, there is no evidence of immediate effects on gait of individuals with Parkinson's disease. Determine the effects of mental practice activity added to physical practice on the gait of individuals with Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (IPD). 20 patients classified with stage 2 and 3, according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale were randomized into 2 groups. The experimental group (N = 10) was submitted to a single session of mental practice and physical practice gait protocol and the control group (N = 10) only to physical practice. The primary outcomes were stride length and total stance and swing time. Secondary outcomes were hip range of motion, velocity and mobility. Subjects were reassessed 10 minutes, 1 day and 7 days after the end of the session. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. An intragroup difference was observed in velocity, stride length, hip range of motion, and mobility, as well as total stance and swing time. These results were also observed on follow-ups. Mental practice did not have a greater effect on the gait of individuals with IPD than physical practice, after a single session.

  8. The effects of adding different forms of nitrogen for 14 years on the vegetation composition at Whim Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Netty; Levy, Peter; Sheppard, Lucy; Leith, Ian; Leeson, Sarah; Jones, Matt; Dise, Nancy; Sutton, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The effects of adding different forms of nitrogen for 14 years on the vegetation composition at Whim Bog Netty van Dijk, Peter Levy, Lucy Sheppard, Ian Leith, Sarah Leeson, Matt Jones, Nancy Dise, Mark Sutton Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, UK Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is a major plant nutrient which historically was in short supply in most semi-natural ecosystems. However, as a consequence of an increased use of N fertilisers and more intensive farming methods, atmospheric Nr -deposition and atmospheric ammonia (NH3) concentrations have increased dramatically during the last century. This has a significant effect on semi-natural systems, with some sensitive species disappearing altogether in the vicinity of elevated atmospheric N input. Whether one form of nitrogen has more effect on vegetation changes than the other is less well studied. To get more evidence for this, a field experiment at an ombrotrophic bog, Whim (Scottish Borders). This globally unique experiment was set up in 2002 where different forms and doses of N have been applied systematically. Nitrogen was applied as ammonia (NH3) gas to investigate effects of dry deposition and atmospheric concentrations along a gradient away from a free-air released fumigation line source. Wet deposition is added in the form of NH4Cl and NaNO3, respectively, using a rainwater collection and spraying system, at concentrations ranging from 8 to 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Both systems are automated and coupled to meteorological conditions. Within the first three years, the vegetation composition in the dry deposition system changed dramatically with an almost complete loss of Calluna vulgaris, Sphagnum capillifolium and Cladonia Portentosa close to the fumigation line. Further away from the fumigation line the changes were smaller and slower to materialise. In later years the changes in vegetation composition were slowing down. Now, after 14 years of ammonia application, we are analysing the data along the

  9. Evaluation of errors for mass-spectrometric analysis with surface-ionization type mass-spectrometer (statistical evaluation of mass-discrimination effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The surface-ionization type mass-spectrometer is widely used as an apparatus for quality assurance, accountability and safeguarding of nuclear materials, and for this analysis it has become an important factor to statistically evaluate an analytical error which consists of a random error and a systematic error. The major factor of this systematic error was the mass-discrimination effect. In this paper, various assays for evaluating the factor of variation on the mass-discrimination effect were studied and the data obtained were statistically evaluated. As a result of these analyses, it was proved that the factor of variation on the mass-discrimination effect was not attributed to the acid concentration of sample, sample size on the filament and supplied voltage for a multiplier, but mainly to the filament temperature during the mass-spectrometric analysis. The mass-discrimination effect values β which were usually calculated from the measured data of uranium, plutonium or boron isotopic standard sample were not so significant dependently of the difference of U-235, Pu-239 or B-10 isotopic abundance. Furthermore, in the case of U and Pu, measurement conditions and the mass range of these isotopes were almost similar, and these values β were not statistically significant between U and Pu. On the other hand, the value β for boron was about a third of the value β for U or Pu, but compared with the coefficient of the correction on the mass-discrimination effect for the difference of mass-number, ΔM, these coefficient values were almost the same among U, Pu, and B.As for the isotopic analysis error of U, Pu, Nd and B, it was proved that the isotopic abundance of these elements and the isotopic analysis error were in a relationship of quadratic curves on a logarithmic-logarithmic scale

  10. Wheelchair Mobility Performance enhancement by Changing Wheelchair Properties; What is the Effect of Grip, Seat Height and Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, Rienk M A; de Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; Bregman, Daan J J; Veeger, Dirk Jan H E J

    2018-02-12

    The purpose of this study was to provide insight in the effect of wheelchair settings on wheelchair mobility performance. Twenty elite wheelchair basketball athletes of low (n=10) and high classification (n=10), were tested in a wheelchair basketball directed field test. Athletes performed the test in their own wheelchair, which was modified for five additional conditions regarding seat height (high - low), mass (central - distributed) and grip. The previously developed, inertial sensor based wheelchair mobility performance monitor 1 was used to extract wheelchair kinematics in all conditions. Adding mass showed most effect on wheelchair mobility performance, with a reduced average acceleration across all activities. Once distributed, additional mass also reduced maximal rotational speed and rotational acceleration. Elevating seat height had effect on several performance aspects in sprinting and turning, whereas lowering seat height influenced performance minimally. Increased rim grip did not alter performance. No differences in response were evident between low and high classified athletes. The wheelchair mobility performance monitor showed sensitive to detect performance differences due to the small changes in wheelchair configuration made. Distributed additional mass had the most effect on wheelchair mobility performance, whereas additional grip had the least effect of conditions tested. Performance effects appear similar for both low and high classified athletes. Athletes, coaches and wheelchair experts are provided with insight in the performance effect of key wheelchair settings, and they are offered a proven sensitive method to apply in sports practice, in their search for the best wheelchair-athlete combination.

  11. Mass transfer effects in hygroscopic measurements of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA has been widely utilized to measure the hygroscopicity of laboratory-generated and atmospheric submicrometer particles. An important concern in investigating the hygroscopicity of the particles is if the particles have attained equilibrium state in the measurements. We present a literature survey to investigate the mass transfer effects in hygroscopicity measurements. In most TDMA studies, a residence time in the order of seconds is used for humidification (or dehumidification. NaCl and (NH42SO4 particles are usually used to verify the equilibrium measurements during this residence time, which is presumed to be sufficient for other particles. There have been observations that not all types of submicrometer particles, including atmospheric particles, attain their equilibrium sizes within this time scale. We recommend that experimentation with different residence times be conducted and that the residence time should be explicitly stated in future TDMA measurements. Mass transfer effects may also exist in the measurements of other properties related to the water uptake of atmospheric particles such as relative humidity dependent light scattering coefficients and cloud condensation nuclei activity.

  12. Deletion mutants of region E1 a of AD12 E1 plasmids: Effect on oncogenic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.L.; Jochemsen, A.G.; Bernards, R.A.; Schrier, P.I.; Ormondt, H. van; Eb, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids containing the El region of Ad12 DNA can transform certain rodent cells into oncogenic cells. To study the role of the Ela subregion in the process of oncogenic transformation, Ad12 region El mutants carrying deletions in the Ela region were constructed. Deletion mutants pR7 and pR8 affect

  13. THE EFFECTS OF INTRATHECAL NEOSTIGMINE ADDED TO BUPIVACAINE ON POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIC REQUIREMENT IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LOWER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayalha, Hamid; Mousavi, Zinat; Sadat Barikani, Ameneh; Yaghoobi, Siamak; Khezri, Marzieh Beigom

    2015-06-01

    Several additives have been suggested to enhance analgesic effect of local anesthetic agents to decrease the adverse effects of them and increase the degree of satisfaction. We designed this randomized double-blind controlled study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of the neostigmine added to bupivacaine using spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery. Sixty patients 18-80 yr old American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II, scheduled for femur surgery under spinal anesthesia, were recruited in a prospective, double-blinded, randomized way. The patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups of 30 each. The neostigmine group (group N) received bupivacaine 20 mg combined with 25 µg neostigmine, and the placebo group (group C) received bupivacaine 20 mg combined with 0.5ml distilled water (intrathecally) 5 minutes prior to surgery. The time to the first analgesic request, analgesic requirement in the first 12 hours after surgery, the duration of sensory and motor blockade, the incidence of adverse effects such as nausea,vomiting,hypotension, ephedrine requirements, bradycardia, and hypoxemia were recorded. Patients receiving neostigmine had a significantly prolonged duration of motor block (C95% CI 30.27 to 87.65; P < 0.001) and sensory block (C95% CI 101.04 to 224.64; P < 0.001) compared to the control group. The difference of the mean time to the first analgesic request was also significantly longer in neostigmine group (C95% CI 83.139 to 208.526; P < 0.001). The total analgesic consumption during the first 12 hours after surgery was devoid of any significant difference between groups N and C (p = 0.41).The two groups were not significantly different in terms of intraoperative and postoperative side effects. Intrathecal neostigmine 25 µg with bupivacaine caused a prolonged time to the first analgesic request and its use was not associated with any side effects.

  14. The effects of added sulphur amino acids, threonine and an ideal amino acid ratio on nitrogen metabolism in mature, overweight dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaty, Robin E; de Godoy, Maria R C; McLeod, Kyle R; Harmon, David L

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of added essential amino acids in conjunction with a dietary lysine/MJ of 0.72 on nitrogen (N) metabolism in dogs. Treatments were; a control diet, a diet that provided an ideal amino acid profile (IAA), a diet with added total sulphur amino acids (TSAA), and a diet with added TSAA and threonine (TT). Diets were fed to eight overweight, mature, female hounds using a replicated 4 x 4 Latin Square design. Food intake was similar across treatments, however, food N intake was higher (p dogs formulated to provide a 0.72 g lysine/MJ ME ratio.

  15. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  16. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  17. Effects of different doses of tramadol added to levobupivacaine in continuous wound infusion for postoperative pain treatment following cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Perihan; Çağlar, Gamze S; Yilmaz, Hakan; Kazbek, Baturay K; Gursoy, Asli Yarci; Kiseli, Mine; Tüzüner, Filiz

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different doses of tramadol added to levobupivacaine as continuous wound infusion, on VAS scores following cesarean section. The study was conducted in an University Hospital and was approved by the Local Ethical Committee. Sixty-five ASA I-II parturients, between 18 and 45 years were enrolled. The participants were randomized to three groups. Group T1 (n = 21) was given the study solution consisting of levobupivacaine 0.25% + tramadol 1 mg/kg. Group T2 (n = 21) was given levobupivacaine 0.25% + tramadol 2 mg/kg and Group L (n = 21) was given levobupivacaine 0.25%, subcutaneously, alone. Each patient who delivered by cesarean section was applied a triple orifice epidural catheter above rectus fascia for continious wound infiltration. VAS at rest and with 20 degrees leg lift, time to first additional analgesic, total additional analgesic consumption, side effects, and sedation scores were recorded. There were no statistically significant differences among groups, concerning VAS scores at rest and VAS scores at leg lift. Total amount of additional analgesics and sedation scores were also similar for three groups. Different doses of tramadol as adjunct to local anesthetics in continuous wound infiltration following cesarean section do not seem to provide superior analgesia.

  18. Anesthetic effects of adding intrathecal neostigmine or magnesium sulphate to bupivacaine in patients under lower extremities surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamid Reza Faiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regional anesthesia is widely used to perform different surgical procedures including those performed on the extremities. In this study, the anesthetic effects of adding intrathecal neostigmine or magnesium sulphate to bupivacaine in patients under lower extremities surgeries were assessed. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 90 patients, candidate for lower extremities surgeries in a training hospital, were recruited. The patients with ASA class I and II aging from 20 to 65 years between 2009 and 2010 were evaluated. The selected patients were randomly assigned to receive either bupivacaine alone (Group A, n=30, or bupivacaine plus magnesium sulphate 50% (Group B, n=30, or bupivacaine plus neostigmine (Group C, n=30. Then sensory and motor onset and complete block and the time of recovery were measured. Results: The sensory block onset time were 3.03 ± 0.981 in group A, 3.90 ± 2.71 in group B and 3.7 ± 1.08 in group C and knee flexion time were not significantly different among the three groups (P > 0.05, whereas the time to complete motor block was significantly longer in group C and motor recovery time were significantly different between groups (P=0.001. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, it may be concluded that magnesium sulphate is a safe and effective adjuvant for increasing the onset time of motor block.

  19. Effect of Adding Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Cake and Wetting and Drying Cycles on Pre-Compaction Stress of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nemati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The compaction of soil by agricultural equipment has become a matter of increasing concern because compaction of arable lands may reduce crop growth and yield, and it also has environmental impacts. In nature, soils could be compacted due to its own weights, external loads and internal forces as a result of wetting and drying processes. Soil compaction in sugarcane fields usually occurs due to mechanized harvesting operations by using heavy machinery in wet soils. Adding plant residues to the soil can improve soil structure. To improve soil physical quality of sugarcane fields, it might be suggested to add the bagasse and filter cake, which are the by-products of the sugar industry, to the soils. When a soil has been compacted by field traffic or has settled owing to natural forces, a threshold stress is believed to exist such that loadings inducing lower than the threshold cause little additional compaction, whilst loadings inducing greater stresses than the threshold cause much additional compaction. This threshold is called pre-compaction stress (σpc. The σpc is considered as an index of soil compactibility, the maximum pressure a soil has experienced in the past (i.e. soil management history, and the maximum major principal stress a soil can resist without major plastic deformation and compaction. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of wetting and drying cycles, soil water content, residues type and percent on stress at compaction threshold (σpc. Materials and Methods In this research, the effect of adding sugarcane residues (i.e., bagasse and filter cake with two different rates (1 and 2% on pre-compaction stress (σpc in a silty clay loam soil which was prepared at two relative water contents of 0.9PL (PL= plastic limit, moist and 1.1PL (wet with or without wetting and drying cycles. This study was conducted using a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three

  20. Effects of confinement on rock mass modulus: A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vazaios

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the influence of the applied confining stress on the rock mass modulus of moderately jointed rocks (well interlocked undisturbed rock mass with blocks formed by three or less intersecting joints. A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM approach is employed to determine the mechanical properties of the rock mass. In this approach, the intact body of rock is represented by the discrete element method (DEM-Voronoi grains with the ability of simulating the initiation and propagation of microcracks within the intact part of the model. The geometry of the pre-existing joints is generated by employing discrete fracture network (DFN modelling based on field joint data collected from the Brockville Tunnel using LiDAR scanning. The geometrical characteristics of the simulated joints at a representative sample size are first validated against the field data, and then used to measure the rock quality designation (RQD, joint spacing, areal fracture intensity (P21, and block volumes. These geometrical quantities are used to quantitatively determine a representative range of the geological strength index (GSI. The results show that estimating the GSI using the RQD tends to make a closer estimate of the degree of blockiness that leads to GSI values corresponding to those obtained from direct visual observations of the rock mass conditions in the field. The use of joint spacing and block volume in order to quantify the GSI value range for the studied rock mass suggests a lower range compared to that evaluated in situ. Based on numerical modelling results and laboratory data of rock testing reported in the literature, a semi-empirical equation is proposed that relates the rock mass modulus to confinement as a function of the areal fracture intensity and joint stiffness. Keywords: Synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM, Discrete fracture network (DFN, Rock mass modulus, Geological strength index (GSI, Confinement

  1. An additional memory effect in mass spectrometry for BF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Kiichi; Satooka, Sakae

    1978-01-01

    It is considered that the memory effect appears in a metallic gas inlet of a mass spectrometer for measurement with samples of BF 3 is classified into two kinds, one is essential memory effect which is caused by an action between the surface of metal and BF 3 , and the other is additional memory effect which is caused by viscous liquid produced by reaction among water, BF 3 and metals. The additional memory effect is caused by stain on the inner surface of the gas inlet. Air is introduced into the sample bottle joint at each time for change of sample bottle. Moisture in the air is adsorbed on inner surfaces of the joint and piping made of metal, and combined with BF 3 which is introduced, and then viscous compound is produced by dissolution of the metal into the compound made from H 2 O and BF 3 . The vapour pressure of the viscous compound is not sufficient low, and so the compound propagates from the sample bottle joint to the whole of the gas inlet at each time of opening and closing of valves of the gas inlet. The coated film of the viscous compound with adsorption and release of Bf 3 is a cause of the additional memory effect. If the stain of the inner surface of the gas inlet grows up, the additional memory effect becomes more intense compared with the essential memory effect, and the measured values are not converged. To remove the additional memory effect, it is desirable to introduce the sample BF 3 after the moisture intruded into the piping by the exchange of sample bottles is removed sufficiently by introduction of F 2 or ClF 3 . (auth.)

  2. Which Type of Sedentary Behavior Intervention is More Effective at Reducing Body Mass Index in Children? A Meta-Analytic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yue; Liao, Jingjing; Durand, Casey P.; Dunton, Genevieve F

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is emerging as an independent risk factor for pediatric obesity. Some evidence suggests that limiting sedentary behavior alone could be effective in reducing body mass index (BMI) in children. However, whether adding physical activity and diet-focused components to sedentary behavior reduction interventions could lead to an additive effect is unclear. This meta-analysis aims to assess the overall effect size of sedentary behavior interventions on BMI reduction, and to compa...

  3. Deconvoluting the memory effect in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation; effect of leaving group and added chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Jensen, Thomas; Hoppe, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of product distributions in the Tsuji-Trost reaction indicates that several instances of reported memory effects can be attributed to slow interconversion of the initially formed syn- and anti-[Pd(eta3-allyl)] complexes. Addition of chloride triggers a true memory effect, in which...... the allylic terminus originally bearing the leaving group has a higher reactivity. The latter effect, termed regioretention, can be rationalized by ionization from a palladium complex bearing a chloride ion, forming an unsymmetrically substituted [Pd(eta3-allyl)] complex. DFT calculations verify...

  4. An experimental therapeutics test of whether adding dissonance-induction activities improves the effectiveness of a selective obesity and eating disorder prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, E; Rohde, P; Shaw, H; Gau, J M

    2018-03-01

    Compare the Healthy Weight obesity and eating disorder prevention program, which promotes participant-driven gradual lifestyle changes to bring energy intake and expenditure into balance, to a new intervention, Project Health, which adds activities to create cognitive dissonance about unhealthy eating, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess body fat, and an obesity education video-control condition. College students at risk for both outcomes because of weight concerns (N=364, 72% female) were randomized to condition, completing pretest, posttest, and 6, 12 and 24-month follow-up assessments. Project Health participants showed significantly smaller increases in measured body mass index (BMI) through 2-year follow-up than both Healthy Weight participants and controls (both d=-0.18), and significantly lower onset of overweight/obesity over 2-year follow-up than Healthy Weight participants and controls (13 vs 21% and 22%). Healthy Weight and Project Health participants showed significantly greater eating disorder symptom reductions than controls through 2-year follow-up. Healthy Weight and Project Health participants showed marginally lower eating disorder onset over follow-up than controls (3 and 3% vs 8% respectively). The reduced increases in BMI and future overweight/obesity onset for Project Health relative to both an active matched intervention and a minimal intervention control condition are noteworthy, especially given the short 6-h intervention duration. The reduction in eating disorder symptoms for Healthy Weight and Project Health relative to controls was also encouraging. Results suggest that adding dissonance-induction activities increased weight loss effects. Yet, effects for both were generally small and the eating disorder onset prevention effects were only marginal, potentially because intervention groups included both sexes, which reduced eating disorder incidence and sensitivity.

  5. Stress steroids as accelerators of Alzheimer's disease. : Effects of chronically elevated levels of allopregnanolone in transgenic AD models.

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia are devastating con­ditions not only for the affected patients but also for their families.  The economical costs for the society are tremendous. Mid-life psychological stress, psychosocial stress and post-traumatic stress disorder cause cognitive dysfunction and lead to increased risk for dementia. However, the mecha­nisms behind stress-induced AD and dementia are not known. AD is char­acterized by solid amyloid plaques in the CNS. However, ov...

  6. Mass-dependent and non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone photolysis: Resolving theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Amanda S.; Boering, Kristie A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the anomalous 17 O and 18 O isotope effects in the three-body ozone formation reaction O+O 2 +M, isotope effects in the destruction of ozone by photolysis may also play a role in determining the isotopic composition of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. While previous experiments on ozone photolysis at 254 nm were interpreted as evidence for preferential loss of light ozone that is anomalous (or 'non-mass-dependent'), recent semiempirical theoretical calculations predicted a preferential loss of heavy ozone at that wavelength that is mass dependent. Through photochemical modeling results presented here, we resolve this apparent contradiction between experiment and theory. Specifically, we show that the formation of ozone during the UV photolysis experiments is not negligible, as had been assumed, and that the well-known non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone formation can account for the non-mass-dependent enrichment of the heavy isotopologs of ozone observed in the experiment. Thus, no unusual non-mass-dependent fractionation in ozone photolysis must be invoked to explain the experimental results. Furthermore, we show that theoretical predictions of a mass-dependent preferential loss of the heavy isotopologs of ozone during UV photolysis are not inconsistent with the experimental data, particularly if mass-dependent isotope effects in the chemical loss reactions of ozone during the photolysis experiments or experimental artifacts enrich the remaining ozone in 17 O and 18 O. Before the calculated fractionation factors can be quantitatively evaluated, however, further investigation of possible mass-dependent isotope effects in the reactions of ozone with O( 1 D), O( 3 P), O 2 ( 1 Δ), and O 2 ( 1 Σ) is needed through experiments we suggest here

  7. Cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandrik O

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Olena Mandrik,1 Isaac Corro Ramos,2 Saskia Knies,1,3 Maiwenn Al,1,2 Johan L Severens1,2 1Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2Institute of Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 3National Health Care Institute, Diemen, the Netherlands Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness, from a health care perspective, of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide scheme (FCR versus FC for treatment-naïve and refractory/relapsed Ukrainian patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A decision-analytic Markov cohort model with three health states and 1-month cycle time was developed and run within a life time horizon. Data from two multinational, prospective, open-label Phase 3 studies were used to assess patients' survival. While utilities were generalized from UK data, local resource utilization and disease-associated treatment, hospitalization, and side effect costs were applied. The alternative scenario was performed to assess the impact of lower life expectancy of the general population in Ukraine on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for treatment-naïve patients. One-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results. The ICER (in US dollars of treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with FCR versus FC is US$8,704 per quality-adjusted life year gained for treatment-naïve patients and US$11,056 for refractory/relapsed patients. When survival data were modified to the lower life expectancy of the general population in Ukraine, the ICER for treatment-naïve patients was higher than US$13,000. This value is higher than three times the current gross domestic product per capita in Ukraine. Sensitivity analyses have shown a high impact of rituximab costs and a moderate impact of differences in utilities on the ICER

  8. Effects of Mycotoxin Sequestering Agents Added Into Feed on Health, Reproduction and Milk Yield of Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hulík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of mycotoxin sequestering agents in feed on health, reproduction and milk yield of dairy cattle were studied in a 5-month long experiment on 300 dairy cows divided into two groups and six subgroups. The experiment was conducted in adding a mycotoxin sequestering agent based on 1,3 and 1,6 β-glucans to standard cattle nutrition (TMR, which was regularly tested for content of important mycotoxins, in order to gain knowledge about possible positive effect of this agent on the health of dairy cattle and about possible avoidance of negative effects of mycotoxins on dairy cattle due to their structural elimination caused by the agent. The experiment’s setting and conditions during it were in all aspects common and comparable within the European Union, the experiment’s results should be therefore seen as relevant. Health, pregnancy rate and milk yield were carefully monitored during the experiment. Indicators of state of health (occurrence of mastitis and somatic cell count in milk did not show any significant differences between test and control groups of dairy cows. The average milk yield of dairy cows which were fed the agent enriched feed (30.2 kg a day was slightly lower in comparison to control groups (31 kg a day, both results with P < 0.001, however, fat content of milk of test groups’ cows (4.02% was considerably higher than that of control groups’ cows (3.79%. The average pregnancy rate of cows which were fed the agent enriched feed also manifested considerable increase in percentage and stability (from 42.95% of control groups’ cows to 62.25% of test groups’ cows, the standard deviation decreased from 21.1% to 14.4% which means smaller differences among pregnancy rate of test groups’ cows, hence higher stability, this increase manifested even long after the cows had been fed regular feed again.

  9. Effect of direct adding oregano essential oil (Origanum syriacum L. on quality and stability of chicken meat patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan AL-HIJAZEEN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluate of Origanum syriacum L. essential oil grown in Jordan, and other comparable antioxidant on TBARS, total carbonyl, color values, and sensory attributes of raw chicken meat was investigated. Six treatments were prepared: (1 control (no additive; (2 100 ppm oregano essential oil (OE; (3 150 ppm OE; (4 300 ppm L-ascorbic acid (E-300; (5 5 and 14 ppm butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA/E-320 for both breast and thigh meat respectively, and 6 150 ppm Sodium nitrite (E-250, were prepared using ground chicken meat. Generally, OE at level of 150 ppm was the most effective decreasing TBARS, and total carbonyl values compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, it showed better color values (L* and a* in term of meat color stability. However, OE and E-250 also showed the highest significant values among the other treatments. Sensory evaluation results showed that adding OE at level of 150 ppm and 100 ppm were the best values maintaining meat storage stability. Therefore, it can be recommended that OE at level of 150 ppm could be an excellent replacement to the synthetic antioxidant in the future of uncured, natural fresh meat products, and raw meat prepared for processing.

  10. Effects of adding bulking agent, inorganic nutrient and microbial inocula on biopile treatment for oil-field drilling waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Yang, Yongqi; Dai, Xiaoli; Chen, Yetong; Deng, Hanmei; Zhou, Huijun; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2016-05-01

    Contamination from oil-field drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem. This study investigated the performance of four bench-scale biopiles in treating drilling waste: 1) direct biopile (DW), 2) biopile plus oil-degrading microbial consortium (DW + M), 3) biopile plus microbial consortium and bulking agents (saw dust) (DW + M + BA), 4) biopile plus microbial consortium, bulking agents, and inorganic nutrients (Urea and K2HPO4) (DW + M + BA + N). Ninety days of biopiling removed 41.0%, 44.0%, 55.7% and 87.4% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the pile "DW", "DW + M", "DW + M + BA", and "DW + M + BA + N" respectively. Addition of inorganic nutrient and bulking agents resulted in a 56.9% and 26.6% increase in TPH removal efficiency respectively. In contrast, inoculation of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms only slightly enhanced the contaminant removal (increased 7.3%). The biopile with stronger contaminant removal also had higher pile temperature and lower pile pH (e.g., in "DW + M + BA + N"). GC-MS analysis shows that biopiling significantly reduced the total number of detected contaminants and changed the chemical composition. Overall, this study shows that biopiling is an effective remediation technology for drilling waste. Adding inorganic nutrients and bulking agents can significantly improve biopile performance while addition of microbial inocula had minimal positive impacts on contaminant removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Adding Elements of Zinc and Magnesium on Ag-Cu Eutectic Alloy for Warming Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kyoung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The warming acupuncture for hyperthermia therapy is made of STS304. However, its needle point cannot be reached to a desirable temperature due to heat loss caused by low thermal conductivity, and the quantification of stimulation condition and the effective standard establishment of warming acupuncture are required as a heat source. Accordingly, in this study, after Ag-Cu alloys with different composition ratios were casted and then mixed with additives to improve their physical and mechanical properties, the thermal conductivity and biocompatibility of the alloy specimens were evaluated for selecting suitable material. Ag-Cu binary alloys and ternary alloys added 5 wt% Zn or 2 wt% Mg were casted and then cold drawn to manufacture needles for acupuncture, and their physical properties, thermal conductivity, and biocompatibility were evaluated for their potential use in warming acupuncture. The results of this study showed that the physical and mechanical properties of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by additives and that the thermal conductivity, machinability, and biocompatibility of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by Mg addition.

  12. The effects of adding elements of zinc and magnesium on ag-cu eutectic alloy for warming acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Kyoung; Park, Il Song; Kim, Keun Sik; Lee, Min Ho

    2013-01-01

    The warming acupuncture for hyperthermia therapy is made of STS304. However, its needle point cannot be reached to a desirable temperature due to heat loss caused by low thermal conductivity, and the quantification of stimulation condition and the effective standard establishment of warming acupuncture are required as a heat source. Accordingly, in this study, after Ag-Cu alloys with different composition ratios were casted and then mixed with additives to improve their physical and mechanical properties, the thermal conductivity and biocompatibility of the alloy specimens were evaluated for selecting suitable material. Ag-Cu binary alloys and ternary alloys added 5 wt% Zn or 2 wt% Mg were casted and then cold drawn to manufacture needles for acupuncture, and their physical properties, thermal conductivity, and biocompatibility were evaluated for their potential use in warming acupuncture. The results of this study showed that the physical and mechanical properties of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by additives and that the thermal conductivity, machinability, and biocompatibility of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by Mg addition.

  13. Effects of adding metals to MoS2 in a ytterbium doped Q-switched fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleque, Abdul; Liu, Liming

    2018-03-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is widely used in lubricants, metallic alloys and in electronic and optical components. It is also used as saturable absorbers (SAs) in lasers (e.g. fiber lasers): a simple deposition of MoS2 on the fiber end can create a saturable absorber without the necessity of extensive alignment of the optical beam. In this article, we study the effects of adding different metals (Cr, Au, and Al) to MoS2 in a ytterbium (Yb)-doped Q-switched fiber laser. Experimental results show that the addition of a thin layer of gold and aluminium can reduce pulse durations to about 5.8 μs and 8.5 μs, respectively, compared with pure MoS2 with pulse duration of 12 μs. Experimental analysis of the combined metal and MoS2 based composite SAs can be useful in fiber laser applications where it may also find applications in medical, three dimensional (3D) active imaging and dental applications.

  14. Effect of adding Matrix Metallo proteinase inhibitors on the degree of conversion of monomers to polymer an experimental bonding agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: In spite of the achievements in the field of dental adhesives, we are facing challenges with dentine bonding resistance, strength and stability. According to recent studies the role of MMP inhibitors in association with bonding,s persistence and leakage reduction and restoration,s persistence is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of doxycycline as a MMP inhibitor on the degree of conversion (DC of an experimental dental adhesive. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, a new dental adhesive blend was prepared by mixing doxycycline monohydrate (in concentrations of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 wt.% with monomers. The monomers were composed of 12% Bis-GMA and 10% TMPTMA, 28% HEMA, and 50% Ethanol by weight for all groups. Comphorquinone and amines were chosen as photo initiator system. Degree of conversion of all adhesives was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. "nResults: The results showed that addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 weight percent doxycycline did not significantly reduce the DC of the adhesives compared to 0.0% control group (p>0.05%. "nConclusion: According to the results of this study, adding doxycycline to the adhesives did not adversely affect the DC.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to drug regimens for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J Wolfson

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to a background regimen (BR of drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in the United Kingdom (UK.A cohort-based Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR versus BR alone (BR in the treatment of MDR-TB, over a 10-year time horizon. A National Health Service (NHS and personal social services perspective was considered. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Data were sourced from a phase II, placebo-controlled trial, NHS reference costs, and the literature; the US list price of bedaquiline was used and converted to pounds (£18,800. Costs and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3.5% per annum. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted.The total discounted cost per patient (pp on BBR was £106,487, compared with £117,922 for BR. The total discounted QALYs pp were 5.16 for BBR and 4.01 for BR. The addition of bedaquiline to a BR resulted in a cost-saving of £11,434 and an additional 1.14 QALYs pp over a 10-year period, and is therefore considered to be the dominant (less costly and more effective strategy over BR. BBR remained dominant in the majority of sensitivity analyses, with a 81% probability of being dominant versus BR in the probabilistic analysis.In the UK, bedaquiline is likely to be cost-effective and cost-saving, compared with the current MDR-TB standard of care under a range of scenarios. Cost-savings over a 10-year period were realized from reductions in length of hospitalization, which offset the bedaquiline drug costs. The cost-benefit conclusions held after several sensitivity analyses, thus validating assumptions made, and suggesting that the results would hold even if the actual price of bedaquiline in the UK were higher than in the US.

  16. The matrix effect in secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, M. P.; Shard, A. G.

    2018-05-01

    Matrix effects in the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of selected elemental systems have been analyzed to investigate the applicability of a mathematical description of the matrix effect, called here the charge transfer (CT) model. This model was originally derived for proton exchange and organic positive secondary ions, to characterise the enhancement or suppression of intensities in organic binary systems. In the systems considered in this paper protons are specifically excluded, which enables an assessment of whether the model applies for electrons as well. The present importance is in organic systems but, here we analyse simpler inorganic systems. Matrix effects in elemental systems cannot involve proton transfer if there are no protons present but may be caused by electron transfer and so electron transfer may also be involved in the matrix effects for organic systems. There are general similarities in both the magnitudes of the ion intensities as well as the matrix effects for both positive and negative secondary ions in both systems and so the CT model may be more widely applicable. Published SIMS analyses of binary elemental mixtures are analyzed. The data of Kim et al., for the Pt/Co system, provide, with good precision, data for such a system. This gives evidence for the applicability of the CT model, where electron, rather than proton, transfer is the matrix enhancing and suppressing mechanism. The published data of Prudon et al., for the important Si/Ge system, provides further evidence for the effects for both positive and negative secondary ions and allows rudimentary rules to be developed for the enhancing and suppressing species.

  17. Cost effectiveness of adding clostridial collagenase ointment to selective debridement in individuals with stage IV pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marissa J; Gilligan, Adrienne M; Waycaster, Curtis R; Schaum, Kathleen; Fife, Caroline E

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness (from a payer's perspective) of adding clostridial collagenase ointment (CCO) to selective debridement compared with selective debridement alone (non-CCO) in the treatment of stage IV pressure ulcers among patients identified from the US Wound Registry. A 3-state Markov model was developed to determine costs and outcomes between the CCO and non-CCO groups over a 2-year time horizon. Outcome data were derived from a retrospective clinical study and included the proportion of pressure ulcers that were closed (epithelialized) over 2 years and the time to wound closure. Transition probabilities for the Markov states were estimated from the clinical study. In the Markov model, the clinical outcome is presented as ulcer-free weeks, which represents the time the wound is in the epithelialized state. Costs for each 4-week cycle were based on frequencies of clinic visits, debridement, and CCO application rates from the clinical study. The final model outputs were cumulative costs (in US dollars), clinical outcome (ulcer-free weeks), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at 2 years. Compared with the non-CCO group, the CCO group incurred lower costs ($11,151 vs $17,596) and greater benefits (33.9 vs 16.8 ulcer-free weeks), resulting in an economically dominant ICER of -$375 per ulcer. Thus, for each additional ulcer-free week that can be gained, there is a concurrent cost savings of $375 if CCO treatment is selected. Over a 2-year period, an additional 17.2 ulcer-free weeks can be gained with concurrent cost savings of $6,445 for each patient. In this Markov model based on real-world data from the US Wound Registry, the addition of CCO to selective debridement in the treatment of pressure ulcers was economically dominant over selective debridement alone, resulting in greater benefit to the patient at lower cost.

  18. Defensive effect of lansoprazole in dementia of AD type in mice exposed to streptozotocin and cholesterol enriched diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder K Sodhi

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v, and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS. Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.

  19. Post Hoc Analyses of Randomized Clinical Trial for the Effect of Clopidogrel Added to Aspirin on Kidney Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeme, Jesse C; Pergola, Pablo E; Scherzer, Rebecca; Shlipak, Michael G; Benavente, Oscar R; Peralta, Carmen A

    2017-07-07

    Despite the high burden of CKD, few specific therapies are available that can halt disease progression. In animal models, clopidogrel has emerged as a potential therapy to preserve kidney function. The effect of clopidogrel on kidney function in humans has not been established. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes Study randomized participants with prior lacunar stroke to treatment with aspirin or aspirin plus clopidogrel. We compared annual eGFR decline and incidence of rapid eGFR decline (≥30% from baseline) using generalized estimating equations and interval-censored proportional hazards regression, respectively. We also stratified our analyses by baseline eGFR, systolic BP target, and time after randomization. At randomization, median age was 62 (interquartile range, 55-71) years old; 36% had a history of diabetes, 90% had hypertension, and the median eGFR was 81 (interquartile range, 65-94) ml/min per 1 m 2 . Persons receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel had an average annual change in kidney function of -1.39 (95% confidence interval, -1.15 to -1.62) ml/min per 1.73 m 2 per year compared with -1.52 (95% confidence interval, -1.30 to -1.74) ml/min per 1.73 m 2 per year among persons receiving aspirin only ( P =0.42). Rapid kidney function decline occurred in 21% of participants receiving clopidogrel plus aspirin compared with 22% of participants receiving aspirin plus placebo (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.10; P =0.42). Findings did not vary by baseline eGFR, time after randomization, or systolic BP target (all P values for interaction were >0.3). We found no effect of clopidogrel added to aspirin compared with aspirin alone on kidney function decline among persons with prior lacunar stroke. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Defensive effect of lansoprazole in dementia of AD type in mice exposed to streptozotocin and cholesterol enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Rupinder K; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors) in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v), and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days)] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.

  1. The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, M; van Baak, M A; Monsheimer, S; Saris, W H M

    2009-03-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are often advocated for weight reduction and weight loss maintenance. The aim was to compare the effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) and low-fat, HP ad libitum diets on weight maintenance after weight loss induced by a very low-calorie diet, and on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy obese subjects. Forty-eight subjects completed the study that consisted of an energy restriction period of 5-6 weeks followed by a weight maintenance period of 12 weeks. During weight maintenance subjects received maltodextrin (HC group) or protein (HP group) (casein (HPC subgroup) or whey (HPW subgroup)) supplements (2 x 25 g per day), respectively and consumed a low-fat diet. Subjects in the HP diet group showed significantly better weight maintenance after weight loss (2.3 kg difference, P=0.04) and fat mass reduction (2.2 kg difference, P=0.02) than subjects in the HC group. Triglyceride (0.6 mM difference, P=0.01) and glucagon (9.6 pg ml(-1) difference, P=0.02) concentrations increased more in the HC diet group, while glucose (0.3 mM difference, P=0.02) concentration increased more in the HP diet group. Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin, HOMAir index, HbA1c, leptin and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the diets. No differences were found between the casein- or whey-supplemented HP groups. These results show that low-fat, high-casein or whey protein weight maintenance diets are more effective for weight control than low-fat, HC diets and do not adversely affect metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in weight-reduced moderately obese subjects without metabolic or cardiovascular complications.

  2. On quantum effects in the dynamics of macroscopic test masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Ebhardt, Helge

    2009-01-01

    This thesis provides theoretically a link between the increase of the sensitivity of gravitational-wave detectors and the possibility of preparing macroscopic quantum states in such detectors. In the first part of this thesis, we theoretically explore the quantum measurement noise of an optical speed meter topology, the Sagnac interferometer, equipped with an additional detuned cavity at the output port. This detuned signal-recycling technique was already investigated when applying it to a Michelson interferometer and is used in the gravitational-wave detector GEO600. Together with the quantum noise analysis of the simple Sagnac interferometer, it is the basis of our study: we optimize the Sagnac interferometer's sensitivity towards the detection of a certain gravitational-wave source in the vicinity of a realistic classical noise environment. Motivated by the fact that the Michelson interferometer, as a position meter, with detuned signal-recycling can transduce the gravitational-wave strain into real mirror motion, we compare the transducer effect in a speed and in a position meter. Furthermore, we theoretically investigate the conditional output squeezing of a cavity which is detuned with respect to its carrier and its subcarrier. Therewith we pursue the theoretical analysis of the ponderomotive squeezer. With the knowledge gained in the first part about the quantum measurement process in laser interferometers, the second part of this thesis comprises a theoretical analysis of the conditonal state in positon and momentum of the interferometer's test masses. We motivate not to obtain the conditional states from a stochastic master equation but with the help of the so-called Wiener filtering method. Using this method, we calculate the most general expression for the conditional covariance matrix of the Gaussian state of a test mass under any linear Markovian measurement process. Then we specify to the interferometry and theoretically show under which circumstances

  3. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits....

  4. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile.

  5. Sexual Orientation as a Peripheral Cue in Advertising: Effects of Models' Sexual Orientation, Argument Strength, and Involvement on Responses to Magazine Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Adrienne Holz

    2017-10-12

    This study examines how sexual orientation of couples featured in magazine advertisements affects heterosexual viewers' responses using the elaboration likelihood model as a framework. A 3 × 2 × 2 × 3 experiment tested effects of sexual orientation, argument strength, involvement, and attitudes toward homosexuality on heterosexuals' attitudes toward the couple, advertisement, brand, and product, purchase intentions, and recall. Results indicate that consumers were accepting of ads with lesbian portrayals. Participants showed more negative attitudes toward gay male portrayals, but attitudes toward heterosexual and lesbian ads were similar. This effect was moderated by participants' attitudes toward homosexuals. Low-involvement consumers showed more negative attitudes toward homosexual portrayals than toward heterosexual portrayals, indicating that sexual orientation may have served as a peripheral cue negatively impacting attitudes toward the couple and ad under low elaboration. These effects were not observed for attitudes toward the brand and product, purchase intentions, or recall.

  6. Stark effect of excitons in corrugated lateral surface superlattices: effect of centre-of-mass quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Sun

    1998-11-01

    The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) of excitons in GaAs/AlAs corrugated lateral surface superlattices (CLSSLs) is calculated. Blue and red shifts in the exciton energies are predicted for the heavy- and light-excitons in the CLSSLs, respectively, comparing with those in the unmodulated quantum well due to the different effective hole masses in the parallel direction. Sensitive dependence of the QCSE on the hole effective mass in the parallel direction is expected because of the ''centre-of-mass'' quantization (CMQ) induced by the periodic corrugated interfaces of the CLSSLs. The effect of the CMQ on the exciton mini-bands and the localization of the excitons in the CLSSLs is discussed. (author)

  7. AdS solutions through transgression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo

    2008-01-01

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or 'transgression' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS 3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial.

  8. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-05-03

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  9. Effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany S Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Different adjuvants have been used to improve the quality and increase the duration of local anesthetics during various nerve block techniques. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on the quality and duration of transversus abdominis plane (TAP block. Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective open abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive TAP block using 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL saline 0.9% (control group, n=30 or 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL dexamethasone "8 mg" (dexamethasone group, n=30. The primary outcome was postoperative pain, as evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS for pain scoring at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively, whereas the secondary outcomes were time to first analgesia (TFA, morphine consumption and the occurrence of nausea, vomiting or somnolence. Results: The pain VAS score was significantly lower at the postoperative 2 h (4.9 vs. 28.1, P=0.01, 4 h (12.2 vs. 31.1, P=0.01 and 12 h (15.7 vs. 25.4, P=0.02. Furthermore, TFA was significantly longer in the dexamethasone group (459.8 vs. 325.4 min, P=0.002, with lesser morphine requirements in the postoperative 48 h (4.9 vs. 21.2 mg, P=0.003 and lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (6 vs. 14, P=0.03. No complications attributed to the block were recorded. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine in TAP block prolonged the duration of the block and decreased the incidence of nausea and vomiting.

  10. Effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A prospective, randomised, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant A Biradar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different additives have been used to prolong brachial plexus block. We performed a prospective, randomised, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block as this is the most common type of brachial block performed in our institute. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologist′s physical status I and II patients undergoing elective hand, forearm and elbow surgery under brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of normal saline (group C, n=30 or 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg (group D, n=30. The block was performed using a nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade were assessed. The sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves were evaluated and recorded at 5, 10, 20, 120 min, and at every 30 min thereafter. Results: Two patients were excluded from the study because of block failure. The onset of sensory and motor blockade (13.4±2.8 vs. 16.0±2.3 min and 16.0±2.7 vs. 18.7±2.8 min, respectively were significantly more rapid in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. The duration of sensory and motor blockade (326±58.6 vs. 159±20.1 and 290.6±52.7 vs. 135.5±20.3 min, respectively were significantly longer in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline in supraclavicular brachial plexus block speeds the onset and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.

  11. Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…

  12. Long-term Ameliorative Effects of the Antidepressant Fluoxetine Exposure on Cognitive Deficits in 3 × TgAD Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Gao, Li-Feng; Sun, Dong-Sheng; Wu, Hao; Wang, Qun; Ke, Dan; Lei, Hao; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is neuroprotective; therefore, it has been applied to treat some neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, chronic fluoxetine exposure has short-term effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the long-term ameliorative effects of fluoxetine exposure on AD have not been reported. In the present study, 6-month-old 3 × TgAD mice were treated with fluoxetine for 15 days, and then the influence of fluoxetine was detected at 20 days after the drug withdrawal. We found that chronic fluoxetine treatment ameliorated cognitive deficits of 3 × TgAD mice and increased the volume of the hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) with increased neuron number and dendritic spine density. Meanwhile, fluoxetine exposure also stimulated the long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal DG. The synaptic-related protein expression increased via activation of the cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway induced by fluoxetine exposure. Lastly, we found that fluoxetine treatment decreased beta-amyloid (Aβ) levels. These results further certified that fluoxetine may be a potent effective drug for AD.

  13. The effect of body mass index on perioperative thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer AB

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayşe Belin Özer,1 Aysun Yildiz Altun,1 Ömer Lütfi Erhan,1 Tuba Çatak,2 Ümit Karatepe,1 İsmail Demirel,1 Gonca Çağlar Toprak3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Firat University Medical School, Elaziğ, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, Bingol State Hospital, Bingöl, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, Elazig Training and Research Hospital, Elaziğ, Turkey Purpose: We evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI on thermoregulation in obese patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery with no premedication were included in the study. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to BMI <24.9, 25–39.9, 40–49.9, and >50. Anesthesia was provided with routine techniques. Tympanic and peripheral temperatures were recorded every 5 minutes starting with the induction of anesthesia. The mean skin temperature (MST, mean body temperature (MBT, vasoconstriction time, and vasoconstriction threshold that triggers core warming were calculated with the following formulas: MST = 0.3 (Tchest + Tarm + 0.2 (Tthigh + Tcalf. MBT was calculated using the equation 0.64Tcore+0.36Tskin, and vasoconstriction was determined by calculating Tforearm-Tfinger. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, duration of operation, and room temperature. Compared to those with BMI <24.9, the tympanic temperature was significantly higher in those with BMI =25–39.9 in the 10th, 15th, 20th, and 50th minutes. In addition, BMI =40–49.9 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 40th, 45th, 50th, and 55th minutes and BMI >50 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 50th, and 55th minutes were less than those with BMI <24.9 (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in terms of MST and MBT. Vasoconstriction occurred later, and that vasoconstriction threshold was

  14. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaoshan.

    1995-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the open-quotes Fasselclose quotes TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids

  15. [Effect of anticancer treatment on leptin level, fat body mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Rybak, Maryna; Muszyńska-Rosłan, Katarzyna; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Solarz, Elzbieta; Wołczynski, Sławomir; Protas, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    Leptin plays an important role in the metabolism of adipose tissue. Considering that malignancy and its treatment cans affect normal development in childhood. We analysed the correlations between serum leptin levels and body composition after anticancer treatment. We studied 33 survivors (24 boys and 9 girls) who before our study, have been treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (n=23) and Hodgkin disease (n=10) after 7.15+/-3.5 years. Sixteen patients with ALL received cranial irradiation (12Gy). We measured body mass index (BM1) fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared these results to the results obtained from reference values (SD score). Leptin levels were measured with the RIA method. 1. Mean leptin levels were higher in girls after puberty (10.93 ng/mL+/-8.9) than in boys (3.73 ng/mL+/-3. 7). In boys no differences were found in leptin levels between T2-4 and T5 stages. In girls the leptin values increased after puberty. Leptin SD score levels were higher in boys during (1.55 +/-1.0) and after puberty (1.46+/-0.75) and in girls - after puberty (1.19 +/-1.51). We did not find any influence of cranial irradiation (12Gy) or various methotrexate doses (5 g/m(2) vs. 19/m(2)) leptin values. 2. No difference in BMI SD score was found within the whole study group. 3. FM did not change ill boys during and after puberty, although FM SD score were higher during puberty (2.98 +/-4.8). In girls FM and FM SD score were higher after puberty. In boys and girls LBM augmented with pubertal development but LBM SD score in boys were lower after puberty (-1.67 +/-1.7) in comparison to puberty (0.2 +/-1.7). No differences were found between LBM SD score in girls during and after puberty. 4. We found a correlation between leptin levels and BMI (r=0.59 p=0.001) and FM (r=0.77 p=0.0001). 5. Relation of FM to LBM in boys remained unchanged, however in girls it increased within pubertal development. l. Anticancer

  16. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and effective quark masses in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miransky, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The ultraviolet asymptotics of the dynamical effective quark mass is determined directly from the equation for the fermion mass function. The indications about the character of the dynamics of the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD are obtained

  17. An AdS3 dual for minimal model CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    We propose a duality between the 2d W N minimal models in the large N't Hooft limit, and a family of higher spin theories on AdS 3 . The 2d conformal field theories (CFTs) can be described as Wess-Zumino-Witten coset models, and include, for N=2, the usual Virasoro unitary series. The dual bulk theory contains, in addition to the massless higher spin fields, two complex scalars (of equal mass). The mass is directly related to the 't Hooft coupling constant of the dual CFT. We give convincing evidence that the spectra of the two theories match precisely for all values of the 't Hooft coupling. We also show that the renormalization group flows in the 2d CFT agree exactly with the usual AdS/CFT prediction of the gravity theory. Our proposal is in many ways analogous to the Klebanov-Polyakov conjecture for an AdS 4 dual for the singlet sector of large N vector models.

  18. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon in Intensive Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Tarsim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield affected by addition of this species. Final  affected by white legged shrimp addition. No adding effects were found on the water quality parameters. The results indicate that, at densities tested, white legged shrimp addition to the intensive farming of tiger shrimp polyculture is viable as species increase crop production Key words: Penaeus vannamei, P. monodon, growth, survival, polyculture

  19. Effect of excavation method on rock mass displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshinori; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    1998-01-01

    Rock mass displacement measurements have been performed to understand rock mass behavior and its dependence on excavation method during drift excavation at the Tono mine. Rock mass displacements of 1.46 mm and 0.67 mm have been measured at one meter (0.33D: blasting, 0.42D: machine, D: width of drift) from the walls of drifts excavated by the drill and blasting method and machine, respectively. Numerical analysis of rock mass displacements with Finite Element Method has been performed assuming an excavation disturbed zone. Measured and analysed rock mass displacements are consistent with each other for the drift excavation by the drill and blasting method. The excavation disturbed zone was narrower for the drift excavated by machine than for the drift excavated by the drill and blasting method. (author)

  20. Device-Level Models Using Multi-Valley Effective Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczewski, Andrew D.; Frees, Adam; Gamble, John King; Gao, Xujiao; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Mitchell, John A.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.; Nielsen, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Continued progress in quantum electronics depends critically on the availability of robust device-level modeling tools that capture a wide range of physics and effective mass theory (EMT) is one means of building such models. Recent developments in multi-valley EMT show quantitative agreement with more detailed atomistic tight-binding calculations of phosphorus donors in silicon (Gamble, et. al., arXiv:1408.3159). Leveraging existing PDE solvers, we are developing a framework in which this multi-valley EMT is coupled to an integrated device-level description of several experimentally active qubit technologies. Device-level simulations of quantum operations will be discussed, as well as the extraction of process matrices at this level of theory. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Sandia National Laboratories Truman Fellowship Program, which is funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of adding indoor residual spraying to case management in Afghan refugee settlements in Northwest Pakistan during a prolonged malaria epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Natasha; Guinness, Lorna; Rowland, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ’ or cost-effective using WHO and comparison thresholds. Conclusions: Adding IRS was cost-effective in this moderate endemicity, low mortality setting. It was more cost-effective when transmission was highest, becoming less so as transmission reduced. Because vivax was three times more common than......Introduction: Financing of malaria control for displaced populations is limited in scope and duration, making cost-effectiveness analyses relevant but difficult. This study analyses cost-effectiveness of adding prevention through targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) to case management in Afghan.......g. cases and DALYs averted) were derived and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for cases prevented and DALYs averted calculated. Population, treatment cost, women’s time, days of productivity lost, case fatality rate, cases prevented, and DALY assumptions were tested in sensitivity analysis...

  2. Disentangling location-based advertising: The effects of location congruency and medium type on consumers' ad attention and brand choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Bernritter, S.F.; Riet, J.P. van 't; Hühn, A.E.; Woudenberg, T.J. van; Müller, B.C.N.; Janssen, L.

    2017-01-01

    Research on location-based advertising (LBA) suggests that the merits of LBA lie in the fact that consumers can be targeted with location-congruent ads on their personal mobile devices. However, LBA consists of two underlying constructs: a mobile (vs. point-of-sales) advertising medium and location

  3. Disentangling location-based advertising: the effects of location congruency and medium type on consumers' ad attention and brand choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Bernritter, S.F.; van't Riet, J.; Hühn, A.E.; van Woudenberg, T.J.; Müller, B.C.N.; Janssen, L.

    2017-01-01

    Research on location-based advertising (LBA) suggests that the merits of LBA lie in the fact that consumers can be targeted with location-congruent ads on their personal mobile devices. However, LBA consists of two underlying constructs: a mobile (vs. point-of-sales) advertising medium and location

  4. Disentangling location-based advertising : the effects of location congruency and medium type on consumers' ad attention and brand choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Paul; Bernritter, Stefan; van 't Riet, Jonathan; Huhn, Arief Ernst; van Woudenberg, Thabo; Muller, Barbara; Janssen, Loes

    2017-01-01

    Research on location-based advertising (LBA) suggests that the merits of LBA lie in the fact that consumers can be targeted with location-congruent ads on their personal mobile devices. However, LBA consists of two underlying constructs: a mobile (vs. point-of-sales) advertising medium and location

  5. Gravitational charges of transverse asymptotically AdS spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Using Killing-Yano symmetries, we construct conserved charges of spacetimes that asymptotically approach to the flat or anti-de Sitter spaces only in certain directions. In D dimensions, this allows one to define gravitational charges (such as mass and angular momenta densities) of p-dimensional branes/solitons or any other extended objects that curve the transverse space into an asymptotically flat or AdS one. Our construction answers the question of what kind of charges the antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors lead to

  6. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  7. AdS. Klein-Gordon equation

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Ll.

    2014-01-01

    I propose a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in the framework of AdS space-time and exhibit a four parameter family of solutions among which there is a two parameter family of time-dependent bound states.

  8. Effect of adding macro and micro minerals in pig feces fed diets with different levels of probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Alcides Robles Huaynate

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the effect of diets with different doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of probiotic on daily fecal production (DFP and level of macro and micro minerals in feces of nursing (1st and 2nd initial phases and growing pigs and during total period. The DFP, as percentage of body weight, was different (P0.05 among treatments, with exception of calcium and sodium excretion at 1st initial phase and calcium, zinc and nickel during total period. The addition of a poliprobiotic to diets do not affect fecal production of nursing and growing pigs. However, the presence of microorganisms, added (levels of 200 and 300 ppm in diets for nursing and growing pigs reduced fecal excretion of calcium, zinc and nickel.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dietas contendo diferentes doses (0, 100, 200 e 300 ppm de probiótico sobre a produção diária de fezes (PDF e teor de macro e microminerais nas fezes de suínos, nas fases de creche e de crescimento e no período total. A PDF, como porcentagem do peso vivo, somente apresentou diferença estatística (P0,05 entre tratamentos, a exceção de cálcio e sódio na fase inicial 1 e cálcio, zinco e níquel no período total. A adição de um poliprobiótico às dietas, não afetou a produção de fezes dos suínos nas fases de creche e de crescimento. Entretanto, a presença de microrganismos, adicionados (níveis de 200 e 300 ppm às dietas reduziu a excreção fecal de cálcio, zinco e níquel.

  9. Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Dokkum, W. van; Bouley, C.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in adult male volunteers the effect of a new fermented milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind two-way cross over trial with two treatment periods of

  10. Moderately thin advertising models are optimal, most of the time: Moderation of the quadratic effect of model body-size on ad attitude by fashion leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, D.M.; Paas, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors hypothesize and find that an advertising model's body size has an inverted U-shaped relationship with ad attitude in the apparel product category, in which moderately thin advertising models are optimal. They assess the moderating effect of consumers' fashion leadership on this quadratic

  11. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8–11-year-old boys

    OpenAIRE

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline; Green, Benjamin; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8–11 year-old boys in a schoolbased setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum....

  12. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Intensive Farming

    OpenAIRE

    . Tarsim

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield af...

  13. Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Caamaño, Maria Del C; Martínez, Guadalupe; Gutiérrez, Jessica; García, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet. A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico. Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks. Changes in weight and body composition. One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects. After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was

  14. Vehicle surge detection and pathway discrimination by pedestrians who are blind: Effect of adding an alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the effect of adding an artificially generated alert sound to a quiet vehicle on its detectability and localizability with 15 visually impaired adults. When starting from a stationary position, the hybrid electric vehicle with an alert sound was significantly more quickly and reliably detected than either the identical vehicle without such added sound or the comparable internal combustion engine vehicle. However, no significant difference was found between the vehicles in respect to how accurately the participants could discriminate the path of a given vehicle (straight vs. right turn). These results suggest that adding an artificial sound to a hybrid electric vehicle may help reduce delay in street crossing initiation by a blind pedestrian, but the benefit of such alert sound may not be obvious in determining whether the vehicle in his near parallel lane proceeds straight through the intersection or turns right in front of him.

  15. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  16. Lorentzian AdS, Wormholes and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Raul E; Silva, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the structure of two point functions for the QFT dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian AdS-wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of 5-dimensional second order Einstein Gauss Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS space times. We revisit the GKPW prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual QFT operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values phi_0^\\pm at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions, along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O^\\pm and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom leaving at each boundary. The AdS_(1+1) geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a ...

  17. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  18. The Effect of the Sasanian-Byzantine Wars (A.D. 603-628 on the Collapse of Sasanian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ghodrat Dizaji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sasanian Empire in the early 7th century AD, due to long years of wars with Byzantine Empire (603-626 AD and its later defeat, lost its military and defensive strength, and went through a political crisis. Before this time, based on numismatic studies, it was revealed that following this defeat, only some provinces of the empire minted coins in the name of the Sasanian emperors, and it shows that other provinces were out of Sasanian’s control. Furthermore, literary sources have illustrated that Arab regions of the Sasanian Empire, after Sasanian’s defeat from Byzantine were out of Sasanian’s rule. The author, in this article has showed that according to archeological and numismatic evidence, Azerbaijan province which was the scene of Sasanian-Byzantine battlefield, received the most damages, and since about 623 AD was out of Sasanian’s control. The fall of the Sasanian hegemony in the provinces, was undoubtedly an important factor in weakening of Sasanian military and financial power and consequently contributed considerably to its defeat by Arab Muslims. This factor had also a significant role in Arabs’ penetration in the provinces which were out of Sasanian rule

  19. Effects of medial temporal lobe degeneration on brain perfusion in amnestic MCI of AD type: deafferentation and functional compensation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedj, Eric; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Didic, Mira; Poncet, Michel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Felician, Olivier; Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Cortical atrophy is correlated with the progression of neuropathological lesions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to determine which local and remote functional changes result from MTL volume loss at the predementia stage. We studied the relationship between entorhinal and hippocampal MR volumes and whole-brain SPECT perfusion via a voxel-based correlative analysis in 19 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment with a memory profile suggestive of early AD. Right MTL volumes were positively correlated with remote posterior perfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex, and negatively correlated with remote anterior perfusion of the right medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was no local correlation between volumes and perfusion within the MTL. These findings provide further insight into functional changes that result from MTL volume loss during the predementia stage of AD. The positive correlation between MTL volumes and posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect the deafferentation of a temporocingulate network due to mediotemporal degeneration. The paradoxical negative correlation between MTL volumes and prefrontal perfusion may result from recruitment of an alternative anterior temporofrontal network. It remains to be investigated how the ''net sum'' of this perfusion modulation affects memory and other cognitive domains through a possible compensatory perspective. (orig.)

  20. Effects of medial temporal lobe degeneration on brain perfusion in amnestic MCI of AD type: deafferentation and functional compensation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [CNRS - Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, UMR-5549, Toulouse (France); Didic, Mira; Poncet, Michel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Felician, Olivier [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Centre Saint-Charles, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative, UMR CNRS 6149, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J. [Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France)

    2009-07-15

    Cortical atrophy is correlated with the progression of neuropathological lesions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to determine which local and remote functional changes result from MTL volume loss at the predementia stage. We studied the relationship between entorhinal and hippocampal MR volumes and whole-brain SPECT perfusion via a voxel-based correlative analysis in 19 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment with a memory profile suggestive of early AD. Right MTL volumes were positively correlated with remote posterior perfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex, and negatively correlated with remote anterior perfusion of the right medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was no local correlation between volumes and perfusion within the MTL. These findings provide further insight into functional changes that result from MTL volume loss during the predementia stage of AD. The positive correlation between MTL volumes and posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect the deafferentation of a temporocingulate network due to mediotemporal degeneration. The paradoxical negative correlation between MTL volumes and prefrontal perfusion may result from recruitment of an alternative anterior temporofrontal network. It remains to be investigated how the ''net sum'' of this perfusion modulation affects memory and other cognitive domains through a possible compensatory perspective. (orig.)

  1. Mass transfer intensification of nanofluid single drops with effect of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saien, Javad; Zardoshti, Mahdi [Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The hydrodynamics and mass transfer of organic nanofluid single drops in liquid-liquid extraction process were investigated within temperature range of 20 to 40 .deg. C. Nanofluid drops of toluene+acetic acid, containing surface modified magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) with concentration within the range of (0.0005-0.005) wt%, were conducted in aqueous continuous phase. The rate of solute mass transfer was generally enhanced with NPs until about 0.002wt%, and small drops benefited more. The enhancement reached 184.1% with 0.002 wt% of NPs at 40 .deg. C; however, adding more NPs led to the mass transfer to either remain constant or face a reduction, depending on the applied temperature. The mass transfer coefficient was nicely reproduced using a developed correlation for enhancement factor of molecular diffusivity as a function of Reynolds and Schmidt numbers.

  2. Study of the matrix specific mass discrimination effects during inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, E.; Quetel, Ch.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sample matrix related effects on mass discrimination during inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) isotope ratio measurements have only been rarely reported. However, they can lead to errors larger than the uncertainty claimed on the ratio results when not properly taken into account or corrected for. These matrix specific affects were experienced during an Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) campaign we carried out for the certification of the Cd amount content in some food digest samples (7% acidity and salts content around 450μg g -1 ). Dilution was not possible for Cd only present at the low ng g -1 level. Up to 1% difference was observed on Cd isotope ratio results between measurements performed directly or after matrix separation. This was a significant difference considering that less than 1.5% relative combined uncertainty was eventually estimated for these IDMS measurements. Similar results could be obtained either way after the implementation of necessary corrections. The direct measurement approach associated to a correction for mass discrimination effects using the food digest sample itself (and the IUPAC table values as reference for the natural Cd isotopic composition) was preferred as it was the easiest. Consequently, the impact of matrix effects on mass discrimination during isotope ratio measurements with two types of ICP- MS (quadrupole and magnetic sector instruments) was studied for 4 elements (Li, Cu, Cd and Tl). Samples of varying salinity (up to 0.25%) and acidity (up to 7%) characteristics were prepared using isotopic certified reference materials of these elements. The long term and short-term stability, respectively reproducibility and repeatability, of the results, as well as the evolution of the difference to certified ratio values were monitored. As expected the 13 investigated isotopic ratios were all sensitive to variations in salt and acid concentrations. Our experiments also showed that simultaneous variation

  3. A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Kobayashi, Miwako

    2015-09-04

    Mass media campaigns have long been used as a tool for promoting public health. In the past decade, the growth of social media has allowed more diverse options for mass media campaigns. This systematic review was conducted to assess newer evidence from quantitative studies on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes, particularly after the paper that Elder et al. published in 2004. This review focused on English language studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns for reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes, with or without enforcement efforts. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013. Studies from the review by Elder et al. were added as well. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, including three studies from the review by Elder et al. Nine of them had concomitant enforcement measures and did not evaluate the impact of media campaigns independently. Studies that evaluated the impact of mass media independently showed reduction more consistently (median -15.1%, range -28.8 to 0%), whereas results of studies that had concomitant enforcement activities were more variable (median -8.6%, range -36.4 to +14.6%). Summary effects calculated from seven studies showed no evidence of media campaigns reducing the risk of alcohol-related injuries or fatalities (RR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.06). Despite additional decade of evidence, reviewed studies were heterogeneous in their approaches; therefore, we could not conclude that media campaigns reduced the risk of alcohol-related injuries or crashes. More studies are needed, including studies evaluating newly emerging media and cost-effectiveness of media campaigns.

  4. Top quark mass measurement and color effects at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, Nataliia

    2018-04-01

    The top quark, the heaviest fundamental particle discovered to date, is one of the most peculiar particles that were discovered so far. It plays a crucial role in consistency checks of the Standard Model and in searches for new physics, e.g., supersymmetry, composite Higgs, and many other exotic models. In this thesis, an important property of the top quark is measured: the mass. This analysis is based on the data recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV in 2016 with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC, and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb -1 . The mass of the top quark is measured using the top quark pair event candidate, which corresponds to events with one muon or electron and at least four jets. The corresponding decay products are used in a kinematic fit to perform the jet quark assignment, increase the fraction of correctly reconstructed top quarks and to improve the mass resolution. Using the ideogram method the top quark mass is measured simultaneously with the jet scale factor (JSF), constrained by the jets arising from the W boson decay. The estimated result is calibrated with samples simulated with a next-to-leading order matrix element generator matched to the parton shower. The top quark mass is measured to be m t =172.25±0.08 (stat+JSF)±0.62 (syst) GeV. The results are tested for possible kinematic dependence by performing measurements of the top quark mass in different phase space regions. The residual data-to-simulation calibration of the energy of the jets is also estimated from dijet events with data collected at center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV in 2015 with the CMS detector corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.1 fb -1 . The corrections are performed using selected back-to-back dijet events by the MPF and dijet balance methods and are found to differ from unity by less then 3% in the barrel region and up to 17% in the endcap and forward regions of the detector. This result was used in the top mass measurement

  5. Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for identification of non intentionally added substances in acrylic adhesives used in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, E; Vera, P; Domeño, C; Alfaro, P; Nerín, C

    2012-04-27

    Acrylic adhesives are used to manufacture multilayer laminates that are used in food packaging to form the geometric shape of the package as well as to stick labels on the packages. Once applied on the packaging adhesives can supply potential migrants that could endanger the packaged food. Adhesives are complex matrices where intentionally and non intentionally added substances are present, but the identification of the migrants is required by law. In this study atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole hyphenated to a time of flight mass spectrometer (APGC-MS/Q-TOF) has been explored for identification of unknowns coming from three different acrylic adhesives. The results are compared to those obtained by conventional GC-MS-Q (quadrupole). Sixteen compounds were identified by GC-MS/Q and five of them were confirmed by APGC-MS/Q-TOF as their molecular ions were found. Moreover, additional three new compounds were identified and their structure was elucidated working with the spectra obtained by APGC-MS/Q-TOF. This finding was very relevant as these compounds were biocides suspected to be allergenic and cytotoxic in humans. Migration studies were carried out using Tenax as solid food simulant and the results showed that the three acrylic adhesives tested in this work were safe for being used in food packaging materials since the migration of compounds previously identified was below the limit established in the current legislation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of recombinant adenovirus encoding human p53 tumor suppressor gene (rAd-p53) on the growth and radiotherapeutic sensitivity of human lymphoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zeyang; Fan Wo; Li Dongqing; Zhu Ran; Wang Yongqing; Wu Jinchang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the inhibitory effect and radiation sensitization of recombinant adenovirus encoding human p53 tumor suppressor gene (rAd-p53) on human lymphoma cell lines. Methods: Human lymphoma cell lines Raji and Daudi were treated with rAd-p53, radiation therapy and combined treatment, respectively. The cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT. The p53 protein expression was detected by Western blotting, and p53 mRNA was detected by BT-PCB. Results: The MTT results showed that the inhibitory effect and radiosensitivity enhancement of rAd-p53 on human lymphoma cell lines were not obvious [Raji: (27.5±4.1)%; Daudi: (28.1±1.6)%]. The results of Western blotting and BT-PCB showed that extrinsic p53 protein and p53 mRNA were expressed to some degree, but not at high-level. In addition, the results didn't demonstrate obvious radiosensitivity enhancement. Conclusions: The role of inhibition and radiosensitivity enhancement of rAd-p53 was not significant on human lymphoma cell lines. (authors)

  7. The interaction effect of body mass index and age on fat-free mass, waist-to-hip ratio, and soft lean mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shahab Jahanlou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that body mass index (BMI does not take into consideration the gender and ethnicity. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the interaction effect of the BMI and age on fat-free mass (FFM, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and soft lean mass (SLM. The secondary purpose was to evaluate the practical significance of the findings by examining effect sizes. Materials and Methods: The study was comparative in nature and employed a factorial design. Due to nonexperimental nature of the investigation, no causal inferences were drawn. The nonprobability sample consisted of 19,356 adults. Analysis of the data included factorial analysis of variance, analysis of simple effects, calculation of mean difference effect sizes, and data transformation. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 was employed for the purpose of data manipulation and analysis. Results: The BMI by age interaction effects on FFM, F (10, 19,338 = 28.26, P < 0.01, on WHR, F (10, 19,338 = 18.46, P < 0.01, and on SLM, F (10, 19,338 = 14.65, P < 0.01, was statistically significant and ordinal in nature. Analysis of the effect sizes, ranging from 0.30 to 1.20, showed that the BMI and age influenced the WHR but their interaction effects on FFM and SLM, ranging from 0.04 to 0.36 and 0.03 to 0.33, respectively, were mainly negligible. Conclusion: Based on the examination of the statistical and practical significance of the results, it is concluded that the BMI and age together can influence the WHR but their interaction effect on the FFM and SLM is questionable.

  8. Supersymmetric AdS3, AdS2 and bubble solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Waldram, Daniel; Kim, Nakwoo

    2007-01-01

    We present new supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity. The former are dual to conformal field theories in two dimensions with N = (0, 2) supersymmetry while the latter are dual to conformal quantum mechanics with two supercharges. Our construction also includes AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity that have non-compact internal spaces which are dual to three-dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories coupled to point-like defects. We also present some new bubble-type solutions, corresponding to BPS states in conformal theories, that preserve four supersymmetries

  9. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  10. Effect of adding herbs (Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium in milk on performance, blood metabolites and fecal microbial population on Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    narges ghahhari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many herbal products (herbs and essential oils are currently used as feed additives by the feed industry in the European Union and elsewhere. These phytogenic substances which increase feed aroma or palatability of feeds are classified as sensory additives by European Council. However, several publications show that some essential oils may have beneficial effects on animal performance and health status because of other properties except their sensory characteristics. These claimed properties are stimulation of digestive secretions; antimicrobial, coccidiostat, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory activities; and antioxidant properties. Most research revealed that supplementing herbal essential oils to diets resulted in reducing blood cholesterol, increasing palatability of feed and stimulating the immune system in poultry, while different results obtained by ruminants because of rumen microbial population and ruminal fermentation conditions. The use of large and repeated quantities of antibiotics in animal feed may cause to eliminate beneficial intestinal microflora and innate immune system and subsequently cause to antibiotic resistance and remains antibiotics in animal products. Recently, many herbal products because having flavoring and antimicrobial properties as introduced as good alternatives for antibiotics. The aim of the present investigation was to study of effect of Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium on the performance of suckling calves, dry matter digestibility, blood parameters and the immune system, the effect on the incidence of diarrhea and fecal microbial population (Escherichia coli, lactobacillus and total aerobic bacteria. Materials and Methods In the present study, extraction of essential oils from three plant species (Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS were analyzed. In order to determine the

  11. The effect of daily consumption of the small fish Amblypharyngodon mola or added vitamin A on iron status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anna Birkmose; Schmidt, Lise K H; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    : Bangladeshi children (n=196), aged 3-7 years, with marginal vitamin A status were randomly allocated to one of three intervention groups served different fish curries: mola curry (experimental group); rui (Labeo rohita) curry with added retinyl palmitate (positive control group); or rui curry (negative...... control group). The intervention meals were served 6 days/week for 9 weeks. The experimental and positive control meals were designed to contain similar amounts of retinol activity equivalents per portion. The mola curry contained four times more iron compared to the rui curries due to different iron...

  12. Effect of four acidifying materials added to a calcareous soil on the availability of phosphorus to ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen Gupta, M B; Cornfield, A H

    1964-12-01

    Ryegrass was grown in a pot test using a calcareous soil (0.36% calcium carbonate) treated with sulfur, ammonium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate at 0.1% sulfur-equivalent, with potassium nitrate added where necessary, including the control, to equalize nitrogen supply. The sulfur treatment was the only one which significantly increased dry matter yields, total phosphorus uptake and top/root ratios in dry matter yields and total phosphorus. The ammonium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate treatments significantly reduced top/root ratios in dry-matter yields and total phosphorus. 6 references, 1 table.

  13. AdS strings with torsion: Noncomplex heterotic compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, Andrew R.; Lippert, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Combining the effects of fluxes and gaugino condensation in heterotic supergravity, we use a ten-dimensional approach to find a new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric AdS 4 compactifications on almost-Hermitian manifolds of SU(3) structure. Computation of the torsion allows a classification of the internal geometry, which for a particular combination of fluxes and condensate, is nearly Kaehler. We argue that all moduli are fixed, and we show that the Kaehler potential and superpotential proposed in the literature yield the correct AdS 4 radius. In the nearly Kaehler case, we are able to solve the H Bianchi identity using a nonstandard embedding. Finally, we point out subtleties in deriving the effective superpotential and understanding the heterotic supergravity in the presence of a gaugino condensate

  14. The effects of phosphorus supplementation on body mass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weaning mass of calves and their average daily growth (ADG) showed significant differences ... exists, because of the difficulty of determining the p intake of ..... intake by the cows. Although it requires additional facilities. (e.g. creep feeding type enclosures for calves and elevated troughs for cows), it would be better to ...

  15. Effect of mass loss on the. beta. Cephei instability strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    In this paper we aim to suggest on a speculative basis that the existence of mass loss by stellar wind in massive stars (M > 10 Msub(sun)) may affect the properties of the ..beta.. Cephei instability strip, and remove some of the difficulties encountered in the interpretation of their pulsation.

  16. Effects of exogenous human insulin dose adjustment on body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glycaemic control by frequent exogenous insulin injections. To maintain fasting ... mass index in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus at Kalafong Hospital ..... The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial cited in the review by Kaufman[2] also .... in obese insulin-resistant children: A randomized clinical trial. Diabetes ...

  17. Optical Spring Effect in Micro-Bubble Resonators and Its Application for the Effective Mass Measurement of Optomechanical Resonant Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenmin Chen; Xiang Wu; Liying Liu; Lei Xu

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel approach for obtaining the effective mass of mechanical vibration mode in micro-bubble resonators (MBRs). To be specific, the effective mass is deduced from the measurement of optical spring effect (OSE) in MBRs. This approach is demonstrated and applied to analyze the effective mass of hollow MBRs and liquid-filled MBRs, respectively. It is found that the liquid-filled MBRs has significantly stronger OSE and a less effective mass than hollow MBRs, both of the...

  18. Adding bevacizumab to single agent chemotherapy for the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: A cost effectiveness analysis of the AURELIA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysham, Weiya Z; Schaffer, Elisabeth M; Coles, Theresa; Roque, Dario R; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kim, Kenneth H

    2017-05-01

    AURELIA, a randomized phase III trial of adding bevacizumab (B) to single agent chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, demonstrated improved progression free survival (PFS) in the B+CT arm compared to CT alone. We aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of adding B to CT in the treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. A decision tree model was constructed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of adding bevacizumab (B) to single agent chemotherapy (CT) based on the arms of the AURELIA trial. Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and progression free survival (PFS) were modeled over fifteen months. Model inputs were extracted from published literature and public sources. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per QALY gained and ICERs per progression free life year saved (PF-LYS) were calculated. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of results. The ICER associated with B+CT is $410,455 per QALY gained and $217,080 per PF-LYS. At a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000/QALY, adding B to single agent CT is not cost effective for this patient population. Even at a WTP threshold of $100,000/QALY, B+CT is not cost effective. These findings are robust to sensitivity analyses. Despite gains in QALY and PFS, the addition of B to single agent CT for treatment of platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer is not cost effective. Benefits, risks, and costs associated with treatment should be taken into consideration when prescribing chemotherapy for this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The AdS/QCD Correspondence and Exclusive Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling α s AdS (q) and its β-function which agrees with the effective coupling α ga extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable ζ, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties as well as decay constants, form factors, deeply virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. One thus obtains a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level with dimensional counting for hard exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer. As specific examples we discuss the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors in the space-like and time-like regions. We also review the phenomenology of exclusive processes including some anomalous empirical results.

  20. Influence of inorganic compounds on the combustion of coal. III. The effect of water of constitution of added compounds, moisture, and mineral matter in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newall, H F

    1939-01-01

    The effects on the combustion rate from excess moisture and the addition of selected inorganic substances to powdered coals were determined. The catalytic effect of 19 known inorganic ash constituents on combustion rates was also examined. Alumina and silica were found to inhibit combustion while ferric oxide accelerated it. Titanium, Ge, and B oxides, along with gypsum and calcium phosphate, decreased the rate of combusion, while Ca, Mg, Mn, and V oxides increased combustion rates. Although several of the ash constituents in coal directly affected combustion rates, the effect of adding them to the coal prior to combustion did not correlate with the effect of the mineral matter already in the coal.

  1. The effect of cold work on grain boundary precipitation and sensitization in nitrogen added type 316L stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Moo Hong; Chun, Byong Sun; Oh, Yong Jun; Ryu, Woo Seog; Hong, Jun Hwa

    1998-01-01

    The precipitation and sensitization behavior of nitrogen added type 316L Stainless Steels (SS) were investigated by using specimens cold worked for 0∼40%. The alloys had a variation in nitrogen content from 0.04 to 0.15%. To quantify the degree of sensitization, Double-Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (DL-EPR) test was performed in a 0.1M H 2 SO 4 + 0.01M KSCN solution at 30 .deg. C. The addition of nitrogen increased sensitization resistance by retarding the onset of M 23 C 6 precipitation and shifted Time-Temperature-Sensitization(TTS) curve to higher temperature and longer time range. Cold work accelerated the M 23 C 6 precipitation and sensitization kinetic due to the increase in dislocation density. However, the acceleration of sensitization was found to depend on the added nitrogen content in the alloys. The alloys with high nitrogen(>0.1%N) content exhibited higher acceleration of the sensitization as a function of the cold work than that with low nitrogen content. From the microstructural analysis, this was found to be attributed to the development of intensive slip bands during cold work and retardation of dislocation annihilation during subsequent aging in the alloys with high nitrogen content

  2. Effects of bilingualism on the age of onset and progression of MCI and AD: evidence from executive function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Binns, Malcolm A; Ossher, Lynn; Freedman, Morris

    2014-03-01

    Previous articles have reported that bilingualism is associated with a substantial delay in the onset of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The present study reports results from 74 MCI patients and 75 AD patients; approximately half of the patients in each group were bilingual. All patients were interviewed to obtain details of their language use, onset of their condition, and lifestyle habits. Patients performed three executive function (EF) tests from the D-KEFS battery (Trails, Color-Word Interference, Verbal Fluency) on 3 occasions over a period of approximately 1 year. Results replicated the finding that bilingual patients are several years older than comparable monolinguals at both age of symptom onset and date of first clinic visit. This result could not be attributed to language group differences in such lifestyle variables as diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, or social activity. On the first testing occasion, performance on the EF tasks was generally comparable between the language groups, contesting arguments that bilinguals wait longer before attending the clinic. Finally, EF performance tended to decline over the 3 sessions, but no differences were found between monolinguals and bilinguals in the rate of decline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Effects of adding Braun jejunojejunostomy to standard Whipple procedure on reduction of afferent loop syndrome - a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaei, Farzad; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Nejatollahi, Seyed Moahammad Reza; Rashidi, Iqbal; Asvadi, Touraj; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Oliaei-Motlagh, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Whipple surgery (pancreaticodeudenectomy) has a high complication rate. We aimed to evaluate whether adding Braun jejunojejunostomy (side-to-side anastomosis of afferent and efferent loops distal to the gastrojejunostomy site) to a standard Whipple procedure would reduce postoperative complications. We conducted a randomized clinical trial comparing patients who underwent standard Whipple surgery (standard group) and patients who underwent standard Whipple surgery with Braun jejunojejunostomy (Braun group). Patients were followed for 1 month after the procedure and postoperative complications were recorded. Our study included 30 patients: 15 in the Braun and 15 in the standard group. In the Braun group, 4 (26.7%) patients experienced 6 complications, whereas in the standard group, 7 (46.7%) patients experienced 11 complications (p = 0.14). Complications in the Braun group were gastrointestinal bleeding and wound infection (n = 1 each) and delayed gastric emptying and pulmonary infection (n = 2 each). Complications in the standard group were death, pancreatic anastomosis leak and biliary anastomosis leak (n = 1 each); gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 2); and afferent loop syndrome and delayed gastric emptying (n = 3 each). There was no significant difference between groups in the subtypes of complications. Our results showed that adding Braun jejunojejunostomy to standard Whipple procedure was associated with lower rates of afferent loop syndrome and delayed gastric emptying. However, more studies are needed to define the role of Braun jejunojejunostomy in this regard. IRCT2014020316473N1 (www.irct.ir).

  4. Uncertainties and Systematic Effects on the estimate of stellar masses in high z galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimbeni, S.; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.; Menci, N.; Pentericci, L.; Santini, P.

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the uncertainties and the systematic effects that exist in the estimates of the stellar masses of high redshift galaxies, using broad band photometry, and how they affect the deduced galaxy stellar mass function. We use at this purpose the latest version of the GOODS-MUSIC catalog. In particular, we discuss the impact of different synthetic models, of the assumed initial mass function and of the selection band. Using Chariot & Bruzual 2007 and Maraston 2005 models we find masses lower than those obtained from Bruzual & Chariot 2003 models. In addition, we find a slight trend as a function of the mass itself comparing these two mass determinations with that from Bruzual & Chariot 2003 models. As consequence, the derived galaxy stellar mass functions show diverse shapes, and their slope depends on the assumed models. Despite these differences, the overall results and scenario is observed in all these cases. The masses obtained with the assumption of the Chabrier initial mass function are in average 0.24 dex lower than those from the Salpeter assumption, at all redshifts, causing a shift of galaxy stellar mass function of the same amount. Finally, using a 4.5 μm-selected sample instead of a Ks-selected one, we add a new population of highly absorbed, dusty galaxies at z~=2-3 of relatively low masses, yielding stronger constraints on the slope of the galaxy stellar mass function at lower masses.

  5. The effect of adding Coping Power Program-Sweden to Parent Management Training-effects and moderators in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Maria; Lochman, John; Högström, Jens; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hellner, Clara; Enebrink, Pia

    2018-04-01

    For children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), Parent Management Training (PMT) is a recommended treatment in addition to child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (child-CBT). There is however a lack of studies investigating the additive effect of group-based child-CBT to PMT for children between 8 and 12 years. The current study investigated the incremental effect of group-based child-CBT, based on the Coping Power Program, when added to the Swedish group-based PMT program KOMET. Outcomes were child behavior problems, child prosocial behavior, parenting skills and the moderating effect of child characteristics. One hundred and twenty children 8-12 years with ODD or Disruptive Behavioral Disorder NOS and their parents were randomized either to combined child-CBT and PMT (n = 63) or to PMT only (n = 57) in Swedish Child- and Adolescent Psychiatric settings. Participants were assessed pre- and post-treatment using semi-structured interviews and child- and parent ratings. After treatment, behavior problems were reduced in both groups. Prosocial behavior were significantly more improved in the combined treatment. Parenting skills were improved in both groups. In moderator analyses, behavior problems and prosocial behavior improved significantly more in the combined treatment compared to PMT only in the group of children with high levels of ODD symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29% the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS, fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05 for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05 in fugitive CH4 emissions.

  7. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-12-09

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions.

  8. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  9. The value of gated myocardial perfusion imaging for the evaluation of early treatment effectiveness of ischemic heart disease using Ad-HGF myocardial injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianlin; Cheng Xu; Li Jianhua; Xu Zhaoqiang; Li Dianfu; Yuan Biao; Zhang Yourong; Cao Kejiang; Huang Jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has multipotent actions mediated by c- Mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (Met) receptor. Preclinical studies in animal models of myocardial ischemia demonstrated that treatment with HGF could benefit myocardial perfusion, cardiac remodeling, angiogenesis and myocardial function. This study used gated 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion imaging (G-MPI) to assess the early treatment effectiveness of adenovirus HGF (Ad-HGF) directly administered in ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients. Methods: Eighteen patients with IHD were divided into 3 groups receiving low dose [5 x 10 8 plaque forming unit (PFU)/site], medium (1.5 x 10 9 PFU/site) and high dose (5 x l0 9 PFU/site) of Ad-HGF. And the Ad-HGF was injected at 10 sites in each patient. Rest G-MPI was performed before and after treatment for myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function measurement. Stata 7.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: (1) After Ad-HGF, myocardial perfusion was improved in 3/6, 5/6 and 6/6 patients in low, medium and high dosage groups. The dosage of AD-HGF was closely correlated with the improvement of myocardial perfusion (χ 2 =4.34, P<0.05). (2) Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly increased [(50.1 ± 6.4)% vs (58.7 ± 5.6)%, t=6.1, P<0.01], end-diastolic volume [EDV, (137.7 ± 33.2) ml vs (123.7 ± 32.7) ml] and end-systolic volume [ESV, (70.2 ± 22.4) ml vs (51.9 ± 14.9) ml] were significantly reduced. (3) The LVEFs were increased in all groups, and the LVEF improvement in the high dosage group [(8.6 ± 5.9)%] was significantly greater than the other two groups [(4.3 ± l.2)%, (6.8 ± 5.7)%]. The difference of post-treatment improvement on LVEF between the low and medium dosage groups was not significant. The dosage of Ad-HGF was closely correlated with the improvement of LVEF (r=0.67, P< 0.01). Conclusion: G-MPI is a reliable method for evaluating the early effectiveness of

  10. Direct and indirect effects of parent stress on child obesity risk and added sugar intake in a sample of Southern California adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Dunton, Genevieve F; Chou, Chih-Ping; Leventhal, Adam M; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2017-12-01

    Research indicates that children are at higher risk for obesity if their parents have been exposed to a larger number of stressors, yet little is known about effects of parents' subjective, perceived experience of stress on children's eating behaviours and adiposity and whether weight-related parenting practices (i.e. parent rules and positive family meal practices) mediate this relationship. The present study evaluated the direct and mediated relationship between parent perceived stress and child waist circumference and parent stress and child consumption of added sugars one year later. Longitudinal panel data. Eleven communities in Southern California, USA. Data were collected over two waves from parent-child dyads (n 599). Most parents were female (81 %) and Hispanic (51 %); children were 11 years old on average (sd 1·53; range 7-15 years) and 31 % received free school lunch. Perceived parent stress was not significantly associated with child waist circumference or consumption of added sugars one year later, and mediating pathways through parenting practices were not significant. However, parent rules were significantly associated with lower child consumption of added sugars (β=-0·14, Pchild consumption of added sugars but not necessarily lead to changes in obesity risk. Parent- and family-based interventions that support development of healthy rules about child eating have the potential to improve child dietary nutrient intake.

  11. Phases, quantum interferences and effective vector meson masses in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyeur, M.

    1996-12-31

    We discuss the prospects for observing the mass of {rho}- and {omega}-mesons around nuclear matter density by studying their coherent photoproduction in nuclear targets and subsequent in-medium decay into e{sup +}e{sup -}pairs. The quantum interference of {rho} and {omega}-mesons in the e{sup +}e{sup -}channel and the interference between Bethe-Heitler pairs and dielectrons from vector meson decays are of particular interest. (author). 21 refs.

  12. Effective Planck Mass and the Scale of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kleban, Matthew; Porrati, Massimo

    2016-01-11

    A recent paper argued that it is not possible to infer the energy scale of inflation from the amplitude of tensor fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background, because the usual connection is substantially altered if there are a large number of universally coupled fields present during inflation, with mass less than the inflationary Hubble scale. We give a simple argument demonstrating that this is incorrect.

  13. Renormalization of effective mass in self-assembled quantum dots due to electron-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinski, A; Korkusinski, M; Hawrylak, P; Wasilewski, Z R; Potemski, M

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic-field dispersion of the multiexcitons related to the p shell of a single quantum dot (QD) is analysed in this work. The reduced cyclotron effective mass of carriers is determined from the energy splitting between the p + - and p − - related multiexcitonic emission lines. The reduced mass in the occupied QD was found to be larger than the mass related to the QD's single particle structure. The apparent increase of the reduced mass with increasing excitonic occupation of the dot is related to the mass renoralization due to electron-electron interactions within a multiexcitonic droplet

  14. Effects of Wheat Flour Dough’s Viscoelastic Level by Adding Glucose Oxidase on its Dynamic Shear Properties whatever the Strain Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Didier Koffi Kouassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of wheat flour dough’s viscoelastic level by adding glucose oxidase (Gox on its rheological properties at dynamic shear strain mode to predict the final product quality. Dough does display a linear viscoelastic domain. Glucose oxidase (Gox was added to dough in order to enhance its viscoelasticity and to take into account the possible effects of this viscoelasticity on the results. Whatever the types of dough strain used G’ increased, tan δ decreased and led to less sticky dough. Wheat flour dough, an increase in G’ with extension may be associated to a strain-hardening phenomenon but the role of dough viscoelasticity is discussed.

  15. Employment and taxes in Latin America: An empirical study of the effects of payroll, corporate income and value-added taxes on labor outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically explores the effects of payroll taxes, value-added taxes and corporate income taxes on a variety of labor market outcomes such as participation, employment, informality, and wages. The results are based on nationallevel data of labor variables for 15 Latin American countries, and indicate that the effects of each tax are markedly different and may depend on several aspects of labor and tax institutions. Payroll taxes reduce employment and increase labor costs when their benefits are not valued by workers, but otherwise may increase labor participation and not raise labor costs. Value-added taxes increase informality and reduce skilled labor demand. In contrast, corporate income taxes may help reduce informality, especially among low education workers, but when tax enforcement capabilities are strong they may reduce labor participation and employment of medium- and high-education workers.

  16. TRIMS: Validating T2 Molecular Effects for Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Trims Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Tritium Recoil-Ion Mass Spectrometer (TRIMS) experiment examines the branching ratio of the molecular tritium (T2) beta decay to the bound state (3HeT+). Measuring this branching ratio helps to validate the current molecular final-state theory applied in neutrino mass experiments such as KATRIN and Project 8. TRIMS consists of a magnet-guided time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a detector located on each end. By measuring the kinetic energy and time-of-flight difference of the ions and beta particles reaching the detectors, we will be able to distinguish molecular ions from atomic ones and hence derive the ratio in question. We will give an update on the apparatus, simulation software, and analysis tools, including efforts to improve the resolution of our detectors and to characterize the stability and uniformity of our field sources. We will also share our commissioning results and prospects for physics data. The TRIMS experiment is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  17. Consequences of the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in an AdS/QCD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngman; Lee, Hyun Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Chiral symmetry is an essential concept in understanding QCD at low energy. We treat the chiral condensate, which measures the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, as a free parameter to investigate the effect of partially restored chiral symmetry on the physical quantities in the framework of an AdS/QCD model. We observe an interesting scaling behavior among the nucleon mass, pion decay constant, and chiral condensate. We propose a phenomenological way to introduce the temperature dependence of a physical quantity in the AdS/QCD model with the thermal AdS metric.

  18. Ad skepticisms: Antecedents and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Engaging customer is the burning issue for companies especially the service sector, either online or offline. Minimizing the customer disengagement is the same like reducing dissatisfaction or churn. Customer disengagement may be caused by many factors, ad skepticism is one of them; ad skepticism has two main antecedents personality variable and consumption/influencing varia-bles. This research explores the relationship of ad skepticism with customer disengagement through personality variables which are cynicism, reactance and self-esteem. The unit of analysis is the telecom and banking industry of Pakistan which is foreseeing an era of virtual currency and both are customer oriented industries. Only offline disengagement is researched and data is collected from the Business centers of telecom and banking branches dealing with virtual curren-cy in Pakistan. Hypothetical model is given after digging the relevant literature; model is tested through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Eight hypotheses were purposed from the connections of model, all hypotheses are accepted except the cynicism posi-tive effect on social ad skepticism. This can be due to commonality of social and charity in Paki-stani society, Muslims consider charity as a pious act and they do not think for cynic behavior in charity or social related works. The results manifest that customers in telecom industry are hav-ing ad skepticism and that is becoming the cause of their disengagement. Further, social ad skep-ticism has more impact on the customer disengagement than the general ad skepticism. While the reactance has more effect on general ad skepticism than other antecedents and cynicism has the lowest impact on social ad skepticism than other antecedents.

  19. Optical Spring Effect in Micro-Bubble Resonators and Its Application for the Effective Mass Measurement of Optomechanical Resonant Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenmin Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a novel approach for obtaining the effective mass of mechanical vibration mode in micro-bubble resonators (MBRs. To be specific, the effective mass is deduced from the measurement of optical spring effect (OSE in MBRs. This approach is demonstrated and applied to analyze the effective mass of hollow MBRs and liquid-filled MBRs, respectively. It is found that the liquid-filled MBRs has significantly stronger OSE and a less effective mass than hollow MBRs, both of the extraordinary behaviors can be beneficial for applications such as mass sensing. Larger OSE from higher order harmonics of the mechanical modes is also observed. Our work paves a way towards the developing of OSE-based high sensitive mass sensor in MBRs.

  20. Optical Spring Effect in Micro-Bubble Resonators and Its Application for the Effective Mass Measurement of Optomechanical Resonant Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenmin; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Liying; Xu, Lei

    2017-09-30

    In this work, we present a novel approach for obtaining the effective mass of mechanical vibration mode in micro-bubble resonators (MBRs). To be specific, the effective mass is deduced from the measurement of optical spring effect (OSE) in MBRs. This approach is demonstrated and applied to analyze the effective mass of hollow MBRs and liquid-filled MBRs, respectively. It is found that the liquid-filled MBRs has significantly stronger OSE and a less effective mass than hollow MBRs, both of the extraordinary behaviors can be beneficial for applications such as mass sensing. Larger OSE from higher order harmonics of the mechanical modes is also observed. Our work paves a way towards the developing of OSE-based high sensitive mass sensor in MBRs.