WorldWideScience

Sample records for added mass effect

  1. Added mass and effective density of dispersed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of dependences of added mass (AM) coefficients of liquid on concentration of inclusions in dispersion medium available in literature are given. It is shown that in the processes taking place under the action of surface forces effecting dispersion medium (pressure wave propagation, equipment vibrations), AM of liquid grows with the increase of concentration of inclusions. When dispersion medium moves under the action of body forces AM of liquid decreases with the increase of concentration of inclusions. The examples of calculations of effective density of dispersion media with the use of considered concentration dependences of AM coefficient are given. The comparison with experimental results is conducted

  2. Higgs Mechanism and the Added-Mass Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaswami, Govind S

    2014-01-01

    In the Higgs mechanism, mediators of the weak force acquire masses by interacting with the Higgs condensate, leading to a vector boson mass matrix. On the other hand, a rigid body accelerated through an inviscid, incompressible and irrotational fluid feels an opposing force linearly related to its acceleration, via an added-mass tensor. We uncover a striking physical analogy between the two effects and propose a dictionary relating them. The correspondence turns the gauge Lie algebra into the flow domain, and encodes the pattern of gauge symmetry breaking in the shape of an associated body. The new viewpoint is illustrated with numerous examples, and raises interesting questions, notably on the fluid analogs of the broken symmetry and Higgs particle.

  3. Meson effective mass in the isospin medium in hard-wall AdS/QCD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, Shahin [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey); Baku State University, Institute for Physical Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-02-15

    We study a mass splitting of the light vector, axial-vector, and pseudoscalar mesons in the isospin medium in the framework of the hard-wall model. We write an effective mass definition for the interacting gauge fields and scalar field introduced in gauge field theory in the bulk of AdS space-time. Relying on holographic duality we obtain a formula for the effective mass of a boundary meson in terms of derivative operator over the extra bulk coordinate. The effective mass found in this way coincides with the one obtained from finding of poles of the two-point correlation function. In order to avoid introducing distinguished infrared boundaries in the quantization formula for the different mesons from the same isotriplet we introduce extra action terms at this boundary, which reduces distinguished values of this boundary to the same value. Profile function solutions and effective mass expressions were found for the in-medium ρ, a{sub 1}, an π mesons. (orig.)

  4. Meson effective mass in the isospin medium in hard-wall AdS/QCD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a mass splitting of the light vector, axial-vector, and pseudoscalar mesons in the isospin medium in the framework of the hard-wall model. We write an effective mass definition for the interacting gauge fields and scalar field introduced in gauge field theory in the bulk of AdS space-time. Relying on holographic duality we obtain a formula for the effective mass of a boundary meson in terms of derivative operator over the extra bulk coordinate. The effective mass found in this way coincides with the one obtained from finding of poles of the two-point correlation function. In order to avoid introducing distinguished infrared boundaries in the quantization formula for the different mesons from the same isotriplet we introduce extra action terms at this boundary, which reduces distinguished values of this boundary to the same value. Profile function solutions and effective mass expressions were found for the in-medium ρ, a1, an π mesons. (orig.)

  5. CFD modeling of liquid-solid fluidization: Effect of drag correlation and added mass force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao yan Huang

    2011-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been widely used to study the hydrodynamics of gas-solid fluidization; however,its applications in liquid-solid fluidization are relatively rare.In this study,CFD simulations of a liquid-solid fluidized bed are carried out,focusing on the effect of drag correlation and added mass force on the hydrodynamics of liquid-solid fluidization.It is shown that drag correlation has a significant effect on the simulation results and the correlation proposed by Beetstra et al.(2007) gives the best agreement with experimental data.We further show that the added mass force does play an important role in CFD simulation of liquid-solid fluidization,and therefore should not be ignored in CFD simulations.

  6. Experimental investigation of added mass effects on a Francis turbine runner in still water

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, C.G.; Egusquiza, Eduard; Escaler, Xavier; Liang, Q W; Avellan, François

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical design of hydraulic turbines is conditioned by the dynamic response of the runner that is usually estimated by a computational model. Nevertheless, the runner has complex boundary conditions that are difficult to include in the computational model. One of these boundary conditions is the water in which the runner is submerged. The effect of the added mass and damping of water can modify considerably the natural frequencies of the runner. An experimental investigation in a reduc...

  7. Added Mass Effect and an Extended Unsteady Blade ElementModel of Insect Hovering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingyao Yan; Shanan Zhu; Zhongdi Su; Hongjun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    During the insect flight,the force peak at the start of each stroke contributes a lot to the total aerodynamic force.Yet how this force is generated is still controversial.Two current explanations to this are wake capture and Added Mass Effect (AME)mechanisms.To study the AME,we present an extended unsteady blade element model which takes both the added mass of fluid and rotational effect of the wing into account.Simulation results show a high force peak at the start of each stroke and are quite similar to the measured forces on the physical wing model.We found that although the Added Mass Force (AMF) of the medium contributes a lot to this force peak,the wake capture effect further augments this force and may play a more important role in delayed mode.Furthermore,we also found that there might be an unknown mechanism which may augment the AME during acceleration period at the start of each stroke,and diminish the AME during deceleration at the end of each stroke.

  8. Experimental investigation of added mass effects on a Francis turbine runner in still water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C. G.; Egusquiza, E.; Escaler, X.; Liang, Q. W.; Avellan, F.

    2006-07-01

    The mechanical design of hydraulic turbines is conditioned by the dynamic response of the runner that is usually estimated by a computational model. Nevertheless, the runner has complex boundary conditions that are difficult to include in the computational model. One of these boundary conditions is the water in which the runner is submerged. The effect of the added mass and damping of water can modify considerably the natural frequencies of the runner. An experimental investigation in a reduced scale model of a turbine runner, using modal analysis, was carried out. Several impact tests with the runner freely suspended in air and in water were done. The response was measured with accelerometers located in different positions of the runner. From the modal analysis, the natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode-shapes were determined. The same mode-shapes obtained in air were obtained in water but with lower natural frequencies and higher damping ratios in water. The difference in the natural frequencies is shown to be dependant basically on the added mass effect of the water and not on its added damping. This difference also depends on the geometry of the mode, presenting different values for different mode-shapes. Using nondimensional values, the reduction in the natural frequencies can be extrapolated to other Francis runners presenting similar geometrical characteristics.

  9. Effect of added mass on the interaction of bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenteva, Olga; Prakash, Jai; Nir, Avinoam

    2016-02-01

    Equal size air bubbles that are entrapped by a Taylor vortex of the secondary flow in a Couette device, thereby defying buoyancy, slowly form a stable ordered ring with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We present two models of the process dynamics based on force balance on a bubble in the presence of other bubbles positioned on the same streamline in a simple shear flow. The forces taken into account are the viscous resistance, the added mass force, and the inertia-induced repulsing force between two bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow obtained in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)]. The first model of the process assumes that each bubble interacts solely with its nearest neighbors. The second model takes into account pairwise interactions among all the bubbles in the ring. The performed dynamic simulations were compared to the experimental results reported in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)] and to the results of quasistationary models (ignoring the added mass effect) suggested in that paper. It is demonstrated that taking into account the effect of added mass, the models describe the major effect of the bubbles' ordering, provide good estimation of the relaxation time, and also predict nonmonotonic behavior of the separation distance between the bubbles, which exhibit over- and undershooting of equilibrium separations. The latter effects were observed in experiments, but are not predicted by the quasistationary models. PMID:26986411

  10. A stable second-order scheme for fluid-structure interaction with strong added-mass effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Jaiman, Rajeev K.; Gurugubelli, Pardha S.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present a stable second-order time accurate scheme for solving fluid-structure interaction problems. The scheme uses so-called Combined Field with Explicit Interface (CFEI) advancing formulation based on the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach with finite element procedure. Although loosely-coupled partitioned schemes are often popular choices for simulating FSI problems, these schemes may suffer from inherent instability at low structure to fluid density ratios. We show that our second-order scheme is stable for any mass density ratio and hence is able to handle strong added-mass effects. Energy-based stability proof relies heavily on the connections among extrapolation formula, trapezoidal scheme for second-order equation, and backward difference method for first-order equation. Numerical accuracy and stability of the scheme is assessed with the aid of two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction problems of increasing complexity. We confirm second-order temporal accuracy by numerical experiments on an elastic semi-circular cylinder problem. We verify the accuracy of coupled solutions with respect to the benchmark solutions of a cylinder-elastic bar and the Navier-Stokes flow system. To study the stability of the proposed scheme for strong added-mass effects, we present new results using the combined field formulation for flexible flapping motion of a thin-membrane structure with low mass ratio and strong added-mass effects in a uniform axial flow. Using a systematic series of fluid-structure simulations, a detailed analysis of the coupled response as a function of mass ratio for the case of very low bending rigidity has been presented.

  11. Magnetic Mass in 4D AdS Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Araneda, Rene; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    We provide a fully-covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in 4D anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action, and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti) self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  12. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  13. The effect of Ad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2010-01-01

    There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.

  14. Drag cancellation by added-mass pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgio-Serchi, F

    2016-01-01

    A submerged body subject to a sudden shape-change experiences large forces due to the variation of added-mass energy. While this phenomenon has been studied for single actuation events, application to sustained propulsion requires studying \\textit{periodic} shape-change. We do so in this work by investigating a spring-mass oscillator submerged in quiescent fluid subject to periodic changes in its volume. We develop an analytical model to investigate the relationship between added-mass variation and viscous damping and demonstrate its range of application with fully coupled fluid-solid Navier-Stokes simulations at large Stokes number. Our results demonstrate that the recovery of added-mass kinetic energy can be used to completely cancel the viscous damping of the fluid, driving the onset of sustained oscillations with amplitudes as large as four times the average body radius $r_0$. A quasi-linear relationship is found to link the terminal amplitude of the oscillations $X$, to the extent of size change $a$, wit...

  15. Added mass and critical mass in vortex induced vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Efstathios

    2015-11-01

    The critical mass phenomenon is the observation that a circular cylinder suspended freely in a fluid stream without a mechanical restoring force exhibits significant vortex induced vibration if its mass is below some value whereas insignificant vibration occurs if the mass is above this value. While the phenomenon is known, its origin remains largely unknown. Furthermore, there are several outstanding questions regarding this phenomenon which cannot be explained on the basis of the existing theoretical framework. In this work, a new formulation of the added mass in the context of potential flow is presented. This leads to a new expression for the potential force, which is more complex than the classical one, that is subsequently employed in simplified form in order to analytically model the flow-structure interaction by decomposing the fluid force into potential and vortex components via the equation of cylinder motion. It is found that the model predicts a significant increase in the amplitude response of a freely suspended cylinder in sharp contrast to predictions using the classical formulation of the added mass. Finally, the model equations are employed to exemplify the phenomenology of the critical mass in real flows.

  16. Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30 degrees of yaw.

  17. Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. This paper summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30{sup o} of yaw.

  18. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wade C.; Lewis, Charlotte R.; Openshaw, Anna P.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration.

  19. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wade C.; Lewis, Charlotte R.; Openshaw, Anna P.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration.

  20. Generalized added masses computation for fluid structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper a description of a method to simulate the dynamic effect of a fluid between two structures by means of an added mass and an added stiffness. The method is based on a potential theory which assumes the fluid is inviscid and incompressible (the case of compressibility is discussed); a solution of the corresponding field equation is given as a superposition of elementary conditions (i.e. applicable to elementary boundary conditions). Consequently the pressure and displacements of the fluid on the boundary are given as a function of the series coefficients; the ''work lost'' (i.e. the work done by the pressures on the difference between actual and estimated displacements) is minimized, in this way the expansion coefficients are related to the displacements on the boundaries. Virtual work procedures are then used to compute added masses. The particular case of a free surface (with gravity effects) is discussed, it is shown how the effect can be modelled by means of an added stiffness term. Some examples relative to vibrations in reservoirs are given and discussed. (orig.)

  1. Kinetic energy and added mass of hydrodynamically interacting gas bubbles in liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, J.B.W.

    1988-01-01

    By averaging the basic equations on microscale, expressions are derived for the effective added mass density and the kinetic energy density of a mixture of liquid and gas bubbles. Due to hydrodynamic interaction between the bubbles there appears to be a difference between the effective added mass de

  2. Computation of the Added Masses of an Unconventional Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Naoufel Azouz; Said Chaabani; Jean Lerbet; Azgal Abichou

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling of an unmanned airship. We are studying a quadrotor flying wing. The modelling of this airship includes an aerodynamic study. A special focus is done on the computation of the added masses. Considering that the velocity potential of the air surrounding the airship obeys the Laplace's equation, the added masses matrix will be determined by means of the velocity potential flow theory. Typically, when the shape of the careen is quite different from that of an elli...

  3. Calculation of the added mass of a liquid tank's bulkheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junkai; Lin, Zhe; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Lihua

    2014-03-01

    The added mass coefficient and the water level index formulas for the same-phase and anti-phase vibration of rectangular liquid tanks' bulkheads were derived based on dry mode theory. Three fluid-structure interaction numerical methods including Fluid FEM and Fluid BEM were used in this case. The comparison of numerical and theoretical results by the present method shows that ANSYS/Fluid80 is more credible, the NASTRAN/Virtual Mass Method is more suitable for engineering calculations and results of the same-phase vibration by the present method is more accurate.

  4. Computation of the Added Masses of an Unconventional Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoufel Azouz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modelling of an unmanned airship. We are studying a quadrotor flying wing. The modelling of this airship includes an aerodynamic study. A special focus is done on the computation of the added masses. Considering that the velocity potential of the air surrounding the airship obeys the Laplace's equation, the added masses matrix will be determined by means of the velocity potential flow theory. Typically, when the shape of the careen is quite different from that of an ellipsoid, designers in preprocessing prefer to avoid complications arising from mathematical analysis of the velocity potential. They use either complete numerical studies, or geometric approximation methods, although these methods can give relatively large differences compared to experimental measurements performed on the airship at the time of its completion. We tried to develop here as far as possible the mathematical analysis of the velocity potential flow of this unconventional shape using certain assumptions. The shape of the careen is assumed to be an elliptic cone. To retrieve the velocity potential shapes, we use the spheroconal coordinates. This leads to the Lamé's equations. The whole system of equations governing the interaction air-structure, including the boundary conditions, is solved in an analytical setting.

  5. Progresses on the computation of added masses for fluid structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of coupled vibrations of fluids and structures is analyzed, in the case of irrotational incompressible fluid fields the effect is modelled as an added mass matrix. The Modified Boundary Elements technique is used; a particular case (cylindrical reservois with sloshing) and the general case are examined. (orig.)

  6. Added mass computation for impellers in nuclear power pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a method has been developed for determining the hydrodynamic mass of the impeller stage of the rotor which accounts for the three dimensional geometry of the impellers and the effects of the fluid velocity. By using this method, more accurate calculations of resonant frequencies of the rotor and hence the seal forces can be made. In comparison with previous approaches, two main features are included: an accurate representation of the shape of the impeller and the pump geometry and the effects of the velocity of the fluid. In order to provide the method with the capability to treat geometrical details in three dimensions, a finite element technique is used. Details such as the shape of the impeller and the pump housing and the full three dimensional character of the flow can therefore be treated. Results have been obtained for a prototypical centrifugal nuclear-pump. The hydrodynamic masses which are obtained are significantly larger than predicted by commonly-used formulas based on the mass of the entrained fluid or computed by the Fritz formulas. Furthermore, the magnitude of the hydrodynamic mass has been found to depend strongly on the velocity of the working fluid, which indicates that its effects on critical frequencies will depend on the operational speed of the pump

  7. International Trade Effects of Value Added Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Krugman; Martin Feldstein

    1989-01-01

    The actual value added tax systems used in many countries differ significantly from the completely general VAT that has been the focus of most economic analyses. In practice, VAT systems exempt broad classes of consumer goods and services. This has important implications for the effect of the VAT on international trade. A value added tax is sometimes advocated as a way of improving a country's international competitiveness because GATT rules permit the tax to be levied on imports and rebated ...

  8. Added mass induced by an uncompressible ideal and still fluid on a structure a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We first recall the most important definitions about the fluid/structure interaction. We also define some non-dimensional numbers in order to analyze the physical effects in the fluid we have to take into account: viscosity, compressibility, gravity, inertial effect. Then, in the first part called ''Calculation of the added mass: Models'', we explain the equations which allow us to find the added mass on one structure. After that, we deal with the dynamical behaviour of tube bundles immersed in a fluid. We present a two dimensional modelling. Therefore, the fluid structure interaction only takes place in the planes perpendicular to the tube axis. The added mass matrix of the fluid on the whole tubes is built for every kind of cross-section. But we also focus our attention on the special case of circular cross-section. Lastly, when the number of the tubes in the bundle is huge, the direct calculation of the global added mass matrix is impossible: we must use a method of homogenization to describe the global dynamical behaviour of the tube bundles. In particular, the eigenfrequencies of such homogenized medium are determined. We especially focus our attention on the square nuclear fuel bundles immersed in a confined fluid. In the second part called ''Numerical methods used for the fluid structure interaction'', we first tackle the integral methods. However, in these methods, some theoretical and numerical difficulties arise and this fact makes the advantage of a little number of degrees of freedom far less interesting. This leads us to consider the finite element methods. It allows us to determine the added mass matrix of the fluid on the structure expressed with the nodal interpolation functions used by the FE methods. We then propose a discretization of the equations of the movement of tube bundles immersed in a fluid, with or without homogenization. At last, we compare the efficiency of the integral methods to the FE methods. (author). figs., tabs., 54 refs

  9. Study of micro piezoelectric vibration generator with added mass and capacitance suitable for broadband vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qing, E-mail: hqng@163.com; Mao, Xinhua, E-mail: 30400414@qq.com; Chu, Dongliang, E-mail: 569256386@qq.com [School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This study proposes an optimized frequency adjustment method that uses a micro-cantilever beam-based piezoelectric vibration generator based on a combination of added mass and capacitance. The most important concept of the proposed method is that the frequency adjustment process is divided into two steps: the first is a rough adjustment step that changes the size of the mass added at the end of cantilever to adjust the frequency in a large-scale and discontinuous manner; the second step is a continuous but short-range frequency adjustment via the adjustable added capacitance. Experimental results show that when the initial natural frequency of a micro piezoelectric vibration generator is 69.8 Hz, then this natural frequency can be adjusted to any value in the range from 54.2 Hz to 42.1 Hz using the combination of the added mass and the capacitance. This method simply and effectively matches a piezoelectric vibration generator’s natural frequency to the vibration source frequency.

  10. Study of micro piezoelectric vibration generator with added mass and capacitance suitable for broadband vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an optimized frequency adjustment method that uses a micro-cantilever beam-based piezoelectric vibration generator based on a combination of added mass and capacitance. The most important concept of the proposed method is that the frequency adjustment process is divided into two steps: the first is a rough adjustment step that changes the size of the mass added at the end of cantilever to adjust the frequency in a large-scale and discontinuous manner; the second step is a continuous but short-range frequency adjustment via the adjustable added capacitance. Experimental results show that when the initial natural frequency of a micro piezoelectric vibration generator is 69.8 Hz, then this natural frequency can be adjusted to any value in the range from 54.2 Hz to 42.1 Hz using the combination of the added mass and the capacitance. This method simply and effectively matches a piezoelectric vibration generator’s natural frequency to the vibration source frequency.

  11. Study of micro piezoelectric vibration generator with added mass and capacitance suitable for broadband vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes an optimized frequency adjustment method that uses a micro-cantilever beam-based piezoelectric vibration generator based on a combination of added mass and capacitance. The most important concept of the proposed method is that the frequency adjustment process is divided into two steps: the first is a rough adjustment step that changes the size of the mass added at the end of cantilever to adjust the frequency in a large-scale and discontinuous manner; the second step is a continuous but short-range frequency adjustment via the adjustable added capacitance. Experimental results show that when the initial natural frequency of a micro piezoelectric vibration generator is 69.8 Hz, then this natural frequency can be adjusted to any value in the range from 54.2 Hz to 42.1 Hz using the combination of the added mass and the capacitance. This method simply and effectively matches a piezoelectric vibration generator’s natural frequency to the vibration source frequency

  12. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. The Added-Worker Effect: A Reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Shelly J. Lundberg

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the added worker effect is interpreted as a response to uncertain returns to labour supply offers by members of a household. A model of household labour supply is developed In which each member's current labour force status affects the job search and participation decisions of the other and thus the probabilities of observed transitions between the states of employment, unemployment, and non-participation. The determinants of actual household transitions are then investigated u...

  14. Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed. PMID:19817565

  15. Resistive thrust production can be as crucial as added mass mechanisms for inertial undulatory swimmers

    CERN Document Server

    Piñeirua, Miguel; Thiria, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address a crucial point regarding the description of moderate to high Reynolds numbers aquatic swimmers. For decades, swimming animals have been classified in two different families of propulsive mechanisms based on the Reynolds number: the "resistive" swimmers, using local friction to produce the necessary thrust force for locomotion at low Reynolds number and the "reactive" swimmers, lying in the high Reynolds range, and using added mass acceleration (described by perfect fluid theory). However, inertial swimmers are also systems that dissipate energy, due to their finite size, therefore involving strong resistive contributions, even for high Reynolds numbers. Using a complete model for the hydrodynamic forces, involving both reactive and resistive contributions, we revisit here the physical mechanisms responsible for the thrust production of such swimmers. We show, for instance, that the resistive part of the force balance is as crucial as added mass effects in the modeling of the thrust ...

  16. Investigation of dynamic characteristics of shells with holes and added mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seregin Sergey Valer’evich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin cylindrical shells are widely used in construction, engineering and other industries. In case of designing a reservoir for the isothermal storage of liquefied gases such cases are inevitable, when housing requires various technical holes. A point wise added mass can appear into practice in the form of suspended spotlights, radar, architectural inclusions in buildings and structures of various purposes. It is known, that the dynamic asymmetry as an initial irregular geometric shape, including holes, and the added mass leads to specific effects in shells. In the paper the impact of a cut on the frequency and form of its own vibrations of thin circular cylindrical shells is theoretically examined with the help of the equations of linear shallow shell theory. For modal equations with Nav’e boundary conditions, we used the Bubnov - Galerkin method. The authors have expressed a formula for finding the lowest of the split-frequency vibrations of a shell with a cutout. It is stated, that in case of an appropriate choice of added mass value the lower frequencies are comparable with the case of vibrations of a shell with a hole. By numerical and experimental modeling and finite element method in the environment of MSC "Nastran" oscillation frequencies a shell supporting a concentrated mass and a shell with a cutout were compared. It is shown, that the results of the dynamic analysis of shells with holes with a suitable choice of the attached mass values are comparable with the results of the analysis of shells carrying a point mass. It was concluded that the edges in the holes, significantly affect the reduction in the lowest frequency, and need to be strengthened.

  17. Added mass matrix estimation of beams partially immersed in water using measured dynamic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fushun; Li, Huajun; Qin, Hongde; Liang, Bingchen

    2014-09-01

    An added mass matrix estimation method for beams partially immersed in water is proposed that employs dynamic responses, which are measured when the structure is in water and in air. Discrepancies such as mass and stiffness matrices between the finite element model (FEM) and real structure could be separated from the added mass of water by a series of correction factors, which means that the mass and stiffness of the FEM and the added mass of water could be estimated simultaneously. Compared with traditional methods, the estimated added mass correction factors of our approach will not be limited to be constant when FEM or the environment of the structure changed, meaning that the proposed method could reflect the influence of changes such as water depth, current, and so on. The greatest improvement is that the proposed method could estimate added mass of water without involving any water-related assumptions because all water influences are reflected in measured dynamic responses of the structure in water. A five degrees-of-freedom (dofs) mass-spring system is used to study the performance of the proposed scheme. The numerical results indicate that mass, stiffness, and added mass correction factors could be estimated accurately when noise-free measurements are used. Even when the first two modes are measured under the 5 percent corruption level, the added mass could be estimated properly. A steel cantilever beam with a rectangular section in a water tank at Ocean University of China was also employed to study the added mass influence on modal parameter identification and to investigate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrated that the first two modal frequencies and mode shapes of the updated model match well with the measured values by combining the estimated added mass in the initial FEM.

  18. Independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance during quiet standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Kerry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human balance during quiet standing is influenced by adding mass to the body with a backpack, with symmetrically-applied loads to the trunk, or with obesity. Adding mass to the body increases both the weight and inertia of the body, which theoretically could provide counteracting effects on body dynamics and balance. Understanding the independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance may provide additional insight into human balance that could lead to novel advancements in balance training and rehabilitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance during quiet standing. Methods Sixteen normal-weight young adult participants stood as still as possible on a custom-built backboard apparatus under four experimental conditions: baseline, added inertia only, added weight only, and added inertia and weight. Results Adding inertia by itself had no measurable effect on center of pressure movement or backboard movement. Adding weight by itself increased center of pressure movement (indicated greater effort by the postural control system to stand as still as possible and backboard movement (indicating a poorer ability of the body to stand as still as possible. Adding inertia and weight at the same time increased center of pressure movement but did not increase backboard movement compared to the baseline condition. Conclusions Adding inertia and adding weight had different effects on balance. Adding inertia by itself had no effect on balance. Adding weight by itself had a negative effect on balance. When adding inertia and weight at the same time, the added inertia appeared to lessen (but did not eliminate the negative effect of adding weight on balance. These results improve our fundamental understanding of how added mass influences human balance.

  19. Sakharov's induced gravity on the AdS background. SM scale as inverse mass parameter of Schwinger-DeWitt expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Altshuler, Boris L

    2015-01-01

    One-loop quantum effective action W of scalar field 'living' on the AdS background of Randall-Sundrum model is defined by now popular way which excludes bulk UV divergencies; thus induced Planck mass is given not by UV regularization parameter like in Sakharov's pioneer work but by the AdS curvature scale. 'Auxiliary mass' method proposed in the paper permits to build the Schwinger-DeWitt expansion of action W. Inverse squared mass parameter of this expansion is determined by the location of the 'visible' brane of RS-model. Obtained expression for the induced vacuum energy density coincides with independently calculated VEV of the stress-energy tensor - in contrast with earlier results of some authors. It is demonstrated that naive equating of values of induced Planck mass and vacuum energy density to those ones of the RS-model determines otherwise arbitrary constants of the model. The Principle of Quantum Self-Consistency is proposed which unifies symbolically Sakharov's approach and bootstrap's "no elementa...

  20. Free flexural radial vibrations of a thin circular cylindrical shell bearing added mass

    OpenAIRE

    Seregin Sergey Valer’evich

    2014-01-01

    The author comes up with a refined mathematical model contemplating that added mass facilitates interaction between coupled flexural and radial vibrations in the linear setting. The author has identified a higher splitting of the flexural frequency spectrum due to the presence of the added mass and the wave generation parameters that characterize the relative length and thickness of the shell. Within the framework of the shallow-shell theory, the influence of the small concentrated mass onto ...

  1. Definition of Mass for Asymptotically AdS space-times for Gravities Coupled to Matter Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We give a general definition of mass for gravities coupled to matter fields. We study the gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field with weakened boundary conditions, with the masses calculated by the Hamiltonian formula and Wald's formula. We show that the masses calculated by these two formulas are equivalent to each other in this case, but are non-integrable. We then discuss the illness of this non-integrable mass and its failure to give interpretation to the entropy of some special solutions. We also show that Wald's formula cannot give the right mass for RN-AdS black holes. To solve these problems we introduce a not conserved scalar charge and develop a new definition for mass based on Wald's formula. The new definition is similar in spirit to both Wald's formula and the Hamiltonian formula, with the difference that we require the variation of the mass to have no contribution from the variation of the matter charges. This new definition is also valid for gravities coupled to matter fields with other ch...

  2. Feasibility study of a wearable exoskeleton for children: is the gait altered by adding masses on lower limbs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rossi

    Full Text Available We are designing a pediatric exoskeletal ankle robot (pediatric Anklebot to promote gait habilitation in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. Few studies have evaluated how much or whether the unilateral loading of a wearable exoskeleton may have the unwanted effect of altering significantly the gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding masses up to 2.5 kg, the estimated overall added mass of the mentioned device, at the knee level alters the gait kinematics. Ten healthy children and eight children with CP, with light or mild gait impairment, walked wearing a knee brace with several masses. Gait parameters and lower-limb joint kinematics were analyzed with an optoelectronic system under six conditions: without brace (natural gait and with masses placed at the knee level (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA tests were conducted in order to find noteworthy differences among the trial conditions and between loaded and unloaded legs. No statistically significant differences in gait parameters for both healthy children and children with CP were observed in the five "with added mass" conditions. We found significant differences among "natural gait" and "with added masses" conditions in knee flexion and hip extension angles for healthy children and in knee flexion angle for children with CP. This result can be interpreted as an effect of the mechanical constraint induced by the knee brace rather than the effect associated with load increase. The study demonstrates that the mechanical constraint induced by the brace has a measurable effect on the gait of healthy children and children with CP and that the added mass up to 2.5 kg does not alter the lower limb kinematics. This suggests that wearable devices weighing 25 N or less will not noticeably modify the gait patterns of the population examined here.

  3. A guide to gauging ad effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashill, J

    1987-09-01

    Techniques that have proven successful in private industry can help hospital executives increase their accountability for advertising expenditures. Among these techniques are: The random telephone survey, which can be used to measure whether the hospital's awareness level among the public has increased as the result of a particular ad; The focus group, which assists the hospital in evaluating how it is perceived in relation to other hospitals in its market; The pretest, to determine which ads to eliminate from a campaign and which ones to refine; Educational seminars and direct-response ads; Reliable baseline data on patients and services for use in comparing figures before and after an ad has been used. Above all, careful planning is required to enable the marketing staff to determine what it wishes to accomplish through advertising and to set measurable goals that reflect its expectations for each component of a campaign. PMID:10283482

  4. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Smit; P.C. Neijens; R. Heath

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a differentia

  5. Mass Transfer Enhancement of Gas Absorption by Adding the Dispersed Organic Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 许天行; 李文秀; 纪智玲; 许光荣

    2011-01-01

    Mass transfer enhancement of gas absorption by adding a dispersed organic phase has been studied in this work. Various dispersed organic phases (heptanol, octanol, isoamyl alcohol, heptane, octane, and isooctane) were tested respectively in the experiment. According to the theoretical model and experimental data, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient and enhancement factor were obtained under different dispersed organic phase volume fraction and stirring speed. The experimental results indicate that gas-liquid mass transfer is enhanced at different level by adding a dispersed organic phase. The best performance of enhancement were achieved with the dispersed organic phase volumetric fraction of 5% and under an intermediate stirring speed of 670 r·min^-1. Among the organic phases tested in the experiment, alcohols show better performance, which gave 20% higher enhance-ment of overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient than adding alkanes.

  6. Testing quantum gravity effects through Dyonic charged AdS black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, J.; Pourhassan, B.; Rostami, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider dyonic charged AdS black hole which is holographic dual of a van der Waals fluid. We use logarithmic corrected entropy and study thermodynamics of the black hole and show that holographic picture is still valid. Critical behaviors and stability also discussed. Logarithmic corrections arises due to thermal fluctuations which are important when size of black hole be small. So, thermal fluctuations interpreted as quantum effect. It means that we can see quantum effect ...

  7. Variation of Added Mass and Its Application to the Calculation of Amplitude Response for A Circular Cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, analyzed are the variation of added mass for a circular cylinder in the lock-in (synchronization) range of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and the relationship between added mass and natural frequency. A theoretical minimum value of the added mass coefficient for a circular cylinder at lock-in is given. Developed are semi-empirical formulas for the added mass of a circular cylinder at lock-in as a function of flow speed and mass ratio. A comparison between experiments and numerical simulations shows that the semi-empirical formulas describing the variation of the added mass for a circular cylinder at lock-in are better than the ideal added mass. In addition, computation models such as the wake oscillator model using the present formulas can predict the amplitude response of a circular cylinder at lock-in more accurately than those using the ideal added mass.

  8. Effects of dark energy on P–V criticality of charged AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter, we investigate the effects of dark energy on P–V criticality of charged AdS black holes by considering the case of the RN-AdS black holes surrounded by quintessence. By treating the cosmological constant as thermodynamic pressure, we study its thermodynamics in the extended phase space. It is shown that quintessence dark energy does not affect the existence of small/large black hole phase transition. For the case ωq=−2/3 we derive analytic expressions of critical physical quantities, while for cases ωq≠−2/3 we appeal to numerical method for help. It is shown that quintessence dark energy affects the critical physical quantities near the critical point. Critical exponents are also calculated. They are exactly the same as those obtained before for arbitrary other AdS black holes, which implies that quintessence dark energy does not change the critical exponents

  9. The Use of Stereotypes in Mass Media Advertising: Blacks in Magazine, Newspaper and Television Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, James D.; Bennett, Rex

    A brief review of the literature on the use of black stereotypes in mass media advertising, and the results of a current study in this area are presented. Data were gathered by analysis of 1,536 ads in six general interest magazines and 4,371 ads in the New York Times over a one month period, and 368 television commercials on three networks over a…

  10. A Note on Physical Mass and the Thermodynamics of AdS-Kerr Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Brett

    2015-01-01

    As with any black hole, asymptotically anti-de Sitter Kerr black holes are described by a small number of parameters, including a "mass parameter" $M$ that reduces to the AdS-Schwarzschild mass in the limit of vanishing angular momentum. In sharp contrast to the asymptotically flat case, the horizon area of such a black hole increases with the angular momentum parameter $a$ if one fixes $M$; this appears to mean that the Penrose process in this case would violate the Second Law of black hole thermodynamics. We show that the correct procedure is to fix not $M$ but rather the "physical" mass $E=M/(1-a^2/L^2)^2$; this is motivated by the First Law. For then the horizon area decreases with $a$. We recommend that $E$ always be used as the mass: for example, in attempts to "over-spin" AdS-Kerr black holes.

  11. The effectiveness of banner ads on blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Beerli Palacio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to measure the advertising effectiveness of two formats of on-line advertisements, namely, large-button advertisements and contextual advertisements, and to determine the factors which, on the basis of the reviewed literature, influence advertising effectiveness. The context of application is blog type web pages, which, despite the significant increase in their use, have not received attention in the field of the advertising research. The results reflect that there are differences in the advertising effectiveness of the two formats and that the factors that influence are attitude to the blog, involvement with the product advertised and the length of the visit to the blog.

  12. Free flexural radial vibrations of a thin circular cylindrical shell bearing added mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seregin Sergey Valer’evich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author comes up with a refined mathematical model contemplating that added mass facilitates interaction between coupled flexural and radial vibrations in the linear setting. The author has identified a higher splitting of the flexural frequency spectrum due to the presence of the added mass and the wave generation parameters that characterize the relative length and thickness of the shell. Within the framework of the shallow-shell theory, the influence of the small concentrated mass onto natural dynamic properties of the shell is exposed to research. The refined mathematical model was employed to identify that the added mass binds the coupled flexural shape of the circular cylindrical shell and facilitates interaction between low-frequency flexural vibrations and high-frequency radial vibrations. Moreover, radial vibrations act as a supplementary inertial link between coupled flexural shapes. Due to the availability of the exciting load, non-resonant areas, identified through the application of the traditional mathematical model, can be resonant in essence. The findings of this research must be considered in the course of the assessment of the dynamic strength of any shell structures designed. This refined finite-dimensional model, capable of recognizing radial vibrations, has generated the results that comply with numerical analyses and experimental data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Therefore, dynamic problems that have already been resolved may need refinement.

  13. Frequency Shifts of Micro and Nano Cantilever Beam Resonators Due to Added Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-03-21

    We present analytical and numerical techniques to accurately calculate the shifts in the natural frequencies of electrically actuated micro and nano (carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) cantilever beams implemented as resonant sensors for mass detection of biological entities, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) cells. The beams are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams, including the nonlinear electrostatic forces and the added biological cells, which are modeled as discrete point masses. The frequency shifts due to the added masses of the cells are calculated for the fundamental and higher-order modes of vibrations. Analytical expressions of the natural frequency shifts under a direct current (DC) voltage and an added mass have been developed using perturbation techniques and the Galerkin approximation. Numerical techniques are also used to calculate the frequency shifts and compared with the analytical technique. We found that a hybrid approach that relies on the analytical perturbation expression and the Galerkin procedure for calculating accurately the static behavior presents the most computationally efficient approach. We found that using higher-order modes of vibration of micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) beams or miniaturizing the sizes of the beams to nanoscale leads to significant improved frequency shifts, and thus increased sensitivities. © 2016 by ASME.

  14. Testing quantum gravity effects through Dyonic charged AdS black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, J; Rostami, M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider dyonic charged AdS black hole which is holographic dual of a van der Waals fluid. We use logarithmic corrected entropy and study thermodynamics of the black hole and show that holographic picture is still valid. Critical behaviors and stability also discussed. Logarithmic corrections arises due to thermal fluctuations which are important when size of black hole be small. So, thermal fluctuations interpreted as quantum effect. It means that we can see quantum effect of a black hole which is a gravitational system. Hence, one can use result of this paper to compare with that of van der Waals fluid in the lab and see quantum gravity effects.

  15. Calculation of the Added Mass of a Liquid Tank’s Bulkheads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junkai Zhu; Zhe Lin; Qiang Liu; Lihua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The added mass coefficient and the water level index formulas for the same-phase and anti-phase vibration of rectangular liquid tanks’ bulkheads were derived based on dry mode theory. Three fluid-structure interaction numerical methods including Fluid FEM and Fluid BEM were used in this case. The comparison of numerical and theoretical results by the present method shows that ANSYS/Fluid80 is more credible, the NASTRAN/Virtual Mass Method is more suitable for engineering calculations and results of the same-phase vibration by the present method is more accurate.

  16. Investigation of dynamic characteristics of shells with holes and added mass

    OpenAIRE

    Seregin Sergey Valer’evich

    2014-01-01

    Thin cylindrical shells are widely used in construction, engineering and other industries. In case of designing a reservoir for the isothermal storage of liquefied gases such cases are inevitable, when housing requires various technical holes. A point wise added mass can appear into practice in the form of suspended spotlights, radar, architectural inclusions in buildings and structures of various purposes. It is known, that the dynamic asymmetry as an initial irregular geometric shape, inclu...

  17. Bulk quantum effects for de Sitter branes in AdS(5)

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, I G; Santiago-Germán, W; Sasaki, M; Moss, Ian G.; Naylor, Wade; Santiago-Germ\\`{a}n, Wenceslao; Sasaki, Misao

    2003-01-01

    We investigate some issues regarding quantum corrections for de Sitter branes in a bulk AdS(5) spacetime. The one-loop effective action for a Majorana spinor field is evaluated and compared with the scalar field result. We also evaluate the cocycle function for various boundary conditions, finding that the quantum corrections naturally induce higher order curvature terms in the original action and, in general, it is not possible to eliminate the cocycle function by renormalisation. In the one brane limit care must be taken on how one extracts physical results. The effective potential is found to be zero on the conformally related cylinder. However, using the actual metric, the contribution from the cocycle function is non-zero and must be included. Subtleties with any zero modes are also discussed.

  18. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW AND ADDED MASS INDUCED BY VIBRATION OF STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Li; LI Shu-juan; TANG Guo-an

    2005-01-01

    The fluid flow induced by light-density, low-stiffness structures was treated as inviscid, incompressible irrotational and steady plane flow. On the basis of the dipole configuration method, a singularity distribution method of distributing sources/sinks and dipoles on interfaces of the structure and fluid was developed to solve the problem of fluid flow induced by the vibration of common structures, such as columns and columns with fins,deduce the expression of kinetic energy of the fluid flow, and obtain the added mass finally.The calculational instances with analytical solutions prove the reliability of this method.

  19. The effect of magnesium added at C60/Rubrene heterointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Wei; Chu, Yu-Ya; Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2013-12-01

    This study examines the effect of adding magnesium (Mg) at C60/rubrene heterointerfaces by using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy. The heterointerface was obtained by depositing C60 on a 4-Å Mg/rubrene surface. The photoemission spectra showed that the added Mg preferentially interacts with and transfers negative charges to C60. The interfacial dipole potential was significantly enlarged, as was the separation between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C60 and the highest occupied molecular orbital of rubrene. The results demonstrate that the addition of Mg should be an effective method for improving the efficiency of light- and current-generating devices.

  20. Boundary integral equation method for added mass in arrays of cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic behavior of a group of cylinders in fluid, such as heat exchanger tubes and nuclear fuel assemblies, is strongly influenced by the surrounding fluid. Although, the added mass of such clusters of cylinders has been studied by many researchers with various analytical methods and numerical methods, no attempt has been made so far to analyze these problems by the Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM). This paper presents a BIEM model simulating the added mass arising when clusters of cylinders vibrate in an inviscid and incompressible fluid. In this model, perturbed fluid pressure is described by a two- dimensional Laplace equation. The primary advantage of this approach compared with other numerical methods, e.g., the finite element method (FEM), is that the integration and discretization of the model are only needed on boundary rather than in whole domain. Therefore, the proposed approach is much more economical than the finite element method. Various numerical examples are subsequently presented in this paper to illustrate the methodology and to demonstrate its accuracy

  1. Mass generation with Gauss-Bonnet term No van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity in AdS space

    CERN Document Server

    Myung, Y S

    2000-01-01

    We prove that in anti de Sitter space, there is no van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity in the graviton propagator. Here we obtain the mass term of $M^2\\propto \\Lambda^2$ from the Gauss-Bonnet term, which is a ghost-free one. The condition that the massless limit is smooth is automatically satisfied for this case.

  2. The Effect of Increasing Mass upon Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Hagan, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if increasing body mass while maintaining bodyweight would affect ground reaction forces and joint kinetics during walking and running. It was hypothesized that performing gait with increased mass while maintaining body weight would result in greater ground reaction forces, and would affect the net joint torques and work at the ankle, knee and hip when compared to gait with normal mass and bodyweight. Vertical ground reaction force was measured for ten subjects (5M/5F) during walking (1.34 m/s) and running (3.13 m/s) on a treadmill. Subjects completed one minute of locomotion at normal mass and bodyweight and at four added mass (AM) conditions (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of body mass) in random order. Three-dimensional joint position data were collected via videography. Walking and running were analyzed separately. The addition of mass resulted in several effects. Peak impact forces and loading rates increased during walking, but decreased during running. Peak propulsive forces decreased during walking and did not change during running. Stride time increased and hip extensor angular impulse and positive work increased as mass was added for both styles of locomotion. Work increased at a greater rate during running than walking. The adaptations to additional mass that occur during walking are different than during running. Increasing mass during exercise in microgravity may be beneficial to increasing ground reaction forces during walking and strengthening hip musculature during both walking and running. Future study in true microgravity is required to determine if the adaptations found would be similar in a weightless environment.

  3. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif;

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome...... of the study was 24-h renal calcium excretion that is considered a proxy measure of the amount of calcium absorbed from the intestine. We studied 125 healthy men and women, aged 34 (25-45) years on two separate days. On each day, a light breakfast was served together with 500 ml of semi-skimmed milk to which...... not depend on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Chymosin added to milk increases renal calcium excretion in the hours following intake without affecting plasma levels of calcium or calciotropic hormones. The effect most likely represents enhanced intestinal calcium absorption shortly after intake. Further...

  4. Analytical study of the frequency shifts of micro and nano clamped–clamped beam resonators due to an added mass

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-03-18

    We present analytical formulations to calculate the induced resonance frequency shifts of electrically actuated clamped–clamped micro and nano (Carbon nanotube) beams due to an added mass. Based on the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, we investigate the linear dynamic responses of the beams added masses, which are modeled as discrete point masses. Analytical expressions based on perturbation techniques and a one-mode Galerkin approximation are developed to calculate accurately the frequency shifts under a DC voltage as a function of the added mass and position. The analytical results are compared to numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem. Results are shown for the fundamental as well as the higher-order modes of the beams. The results indicate a significant increase in the frequency shift, and hence the sensitivity of detection, when scaling down to nano scale and using higher-order modes. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  5. Added effect of heat wave on mortality in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Hye Ah; Lim, Youn Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-05-01

    A heat wave could increase mortality owing to high temperature. However, little is known about the added (duration) effect of heat wave from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and different effect sizes depending on the definition of heat waves and models. A distributed lag non-linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the added effect of heat wave on mortality after adjusting for long-term and intra-seasonal trends and apparent temperature. We evaluated the cumulative relative risk of the added wave effect on mortality on lag days 0-30. The models were constructed using nine definitions of heat wave and two relationships (cubic spline and linear threshold model) between temperature and mortality to leave out the high temperature effect. Further, we performed sensitivity analysis to evaluate the changes in the effect of heat wave on mortality according to the different degrees of freedom for time trend and cubic spline of temperature. We found that heat wave had the added effect from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and it was considerable in the aspect of cumulative risk because of the lagged influence. When heat wave was defined with a threshold of 98th percentile temperature and ≥2, 3, and 4 consecutive days, mortality increased by 14.8 % (7.5-22.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI)), 18.1 % (10.8-26.0, 95 % CI), 18.1 % (10.7-25.9, 95 % CI), respectively, in cubic spline model. When it came to the definitions of 90th and 95th percentile, the risk increase in mortality declined to 3.7-5.8 % and 8.6-11.3 %, respectively. This effect was robust to the flexibility of the model for temperature and time trend, while the definitions of a heat wave were critical in estimating its relationship with mortality. This finding could help deepen our understanding and quantifying of the relationship between heat wave and mortality and select an appropriate definition of heat wave and temperature model in the future

  6. Light Quark Mass Effects in Bottom Quark Mass Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent results for charm quark mass effects in perturbative bottom quark mass determinations from $\\Upsilon$ mesons are reviewed. The connection between the behavior of light quark mass corrections and the infrared sensitivity of some bottom quark mass definitions is examined in some detail.

  7. Conformal Transformations, Rotating String and Effects of angular velocity on Accelerating Quark-Antiquark pair in $AdS_3$

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Jafar; Razavi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In order to study quark and anti-quark interaction, one should consider all effects of the medium in motion of the pair. Because the pair, is not produced at rest in QGP. So the velocity of the pair, has some effects on its interactions that should be taken into account. In this paper we apply some conformal transformations for a rotat- ing string dual to a rotating heavy quark in $AdS_3$ which construct an accelerating string dual to an accelerating quark and anti-quark pair. So, we can have...

  8. Added mass induced by an uncompressible ideal and still fluid on a structure a bibliography; Prise en compte d`un fluide parfait incompressible au repos comme masse ajoutee sur une structure. Synthese bibliographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.

    1994-02-01

    We first recall the most important definitions about the fluid/structure interaction. We also define some non-dimensional numbers in order to analyze the physical effects in the fluid we have to take into account: viscosity, compressibility, gravity, inertial effect. Then, in the first part called ``Calculation of the added mass: Models``, we explain the equations which allow us to find the added mass on one structure. After that, we deal with the dynamical behaviour of tube bundles immersed in a fluid. We present a two dimensional modelling. Therefore, the fluid structure interaction only takes place in the planes perpendicular to the tube axis. The added mass matrix of the fluid on the whole tubes is built for every kind of cross-section. But we also focus our attention on the special case of circular cross-section. Lastly, when the number of the tubes in the bundle is huge, the direct calculation of the global added mass matrix is impossible: we must use a method of homogenization to describe the global dynamical behaviour of the tube bundles. In particular, the eigenfrequencies of such homogenized medium are determined. We especially focus our attention on the square nuclear fuel bundles immersed in a confined fluid. In the second part called ``Numerical methods used for the fluid structure interaction``, we first tackle the integral methods. However, in these methods, some theoretical and numerical difficulties arise and this fact makes the advantage of a little number of degrees of freedom far less interesting. This leads us to consider the finite element methods. It allows us to determine the added mass matrix of the fluid on the structure expressed with the nodal interpolation functions used by the FE methods. We then propose a discretization of the equations of the movement of tube bundles immersed in a fluid, with or without homogenization. At last, we compare the efficiency of the integral methods to the FE methods. (author). figs., tabs., 54 refs.

  9. Cost-effective advertising through TV and newspaper "banner" ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Krauss, Katie; Medeiros, Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Banner ads, small strip ads in newspapers used to specifically promote an information piece, were introduced into one newspaper in the Connecticut market in 1999 by Yale-New Haven Hospital (YNHH). Based on their success, the concept was expanded to six additional newspapers in late 2000 and to TV in the summer of 2001. Between 2000-2002, even as the overall marketing/advertising budget declined 30%, switching advertising dollars from image/display ads to banner ads resulted in consumer awareness of YNHH increasing from 29% to 42%. Perception of YNHH as "the advanced medicine" hospital grew from 22% to 40% during the same period. The specific strategic and operational actions generated since the implementation of the program are detailed and the advantages and disadvantages of this banner advertising approach are discussed. Banner ads may offer an alternative approach for organizations to advertise their products and programs.

  10. The Effective Mass of a Ball in the Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, J.; Pantaleone, J.

    2010-01-01

    The air surrounding a projectile affects the projectile's motion in three very different ways: the drag force, the buoyant force, and the added mass. The added mass is an increase in the projectile's inertia from the motion of the air around it. Here we experimentally measure the added mass of a spherical projectile in air. The results agree well…

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Box, Jason E.; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Colgan, William; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie Louise; Nuth, Christopher; Schomacker, Anders; Andresen, Camilla S.; Willerslev, Eske; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2015-01-01

    The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available. The on

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Box, Jason E.; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Colgan, William; van den Broeke, Michiel; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise; Nuth, Christopher; Schomacker, Anders; Andresen, Camilla S.; Willerslev, Eske; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2015-12-01

    The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available. The only previous estimates of change during the twentieth century are based on empirical modelling and energy balance modelling. Consequently, no observation-based estimates of the contribution from the GIS to the global-mean sea level budget before 1990 are included in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Here we calculate spatial ice mass loss around the entire GIS from 1900 to the present using aerial imagery from the 1980s. This allows accurate high-resolution mapping of geomorphic features related to the maximum extent of the GIS during the Little Ice Age at the end of the nineteenth century. We estimate the total ice mass loss and its spatial distribution for three periods: 1900-1983 (75.1 ± 29.4 gigatonnes per year), 1983-2003 (73.8 ± 40.5 gigatonnes per year), and 2003-2010 (186.4 ± 18.9 gigatonnes per year). Furthermore, using two surface mass balance models we partition the mass balance into a term for surface mass balance (that is, total precipitation minus total sublimation minus runoff) and a dynamic term. We find that many areas currently undergoing change are identical to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the twentieth century. We also reveal that the surface mass balance term shows a considerable decrease since 2003, whereas the dynamic term is constant over the past 110 years. Overall, our observation-based findings show that during the twentieth century the GIS contributed at least 25.0 ± 9.4 millimetres of global-mean sea level rise. Our result will help to close the twentieth-century sea level budget, which remains crucial for evaluating the reliability of models used to

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Korsgaard, Niels J; Bjørk, Anders A; Khan, Shfaqat A; Box, Jason E; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K; Bamber, Jonathan L; Colgan, William; van den Broeke, Michiel; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise; Nuth, Christopher; Schomacker, Anders; Andresen, Camilla S; Willerslev, Eske; Kjær, Kurt H

    2015-12-17

    The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available. The only previous estimates of change during the twentieth century are based on empirical modelling and energy balance modelling. Consequently, no observation-based estimates of the contribution from the GIS to the global-mean sea level budget before 1990 are included in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Here we calculate spatial ice mass loss around the entire GIS from 1900 to the present using aerial imagery from the 1980s. This allows accurate high-resolution mapping of geomorphic features related to the maximum extent of the GIS during the Little Ice Age at the end of the nineteenth century. We estimate the total ice mass loss and its spatial distribution for three periods: 1900-1983 (75.1 ± 29.4 gigatonnes per year), 1983-2003 (73.8 ± 40.5 gigatonnes per year), and 2003-2010 (186.4 ± 18.9 gigatonnes per year). Furthermore, using two surface mass balance models we partition the mass balance into a term for surface mass balance (that is, total precipitation minus total sublimation minus runoff) and a dynamic term. We find that many areas currently undergoing change are identical to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the twentieth century. We also reveal that the surface mass balance term shows a considerable decrease since 2003, whereas the dynamic term is constant over the past 110 years. Overall, our observation-based findings show that during the twentieth century the GIS contributed at least 25.0 ± 9.4 millimetres of global-mean sea level rise. Our result will help to close the twentieth-century sea level budget, which remains crucial for evaluating the reliability of models used to

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Korsgaard, Niels J; Bjørk, Anders A; Khan, Shfaqat A; Box, Jason E; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K; Bamber, Jonathan L; Colgan, William; van den Broeke, Michiel; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise; Nuth, Christopher; Schomacker, Anders; Andresen, Camilla S; Willerslev, Eske; Kjær, Kurt H

    2015-12-17

    The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available. The only previous estimates of change during the twentieth century are based on empirical modelling and energy balance modelling. Consequently, no observation-based estimates of the contribution from the GIS to the global-mean sea level budget before 1990 are included in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Here we calculate spatial ice mass loss around the entire GIS from 1900 to the present using aerial imagery from the 1980s. This allows accurate high-resolution mapping of geomorphic features related to the maximum extent of the GIS during the Little Ice Age at the end of the nineteenth century. We estimate the total ice mass loss and its spatial distribution for three periods: 1900-1983 (75.1 ± 29.4 gigatonnes per year), 1983-2003 (73.8 ± 40.5 gigatonnes per year), and 2003-2010 (186.4 ± 18.9 gigatonnes per year). Furthermore, using two surface mass balance models we partition the mass balance into a term for surface mass balance (that is, total precipitation minus total sublimation minus runoff) and a dynamic term. We find that many areas currently undergoing change are identical to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the twentieth century. We also reveal that the surface mass balance term shows a considerable decrease since 2003, whereas the dynamic term is constant over the past 110 years. Overall, our observation-based findings show that during the twentieth century the GIS contributed at least 25.0 ± 9.4 millimetres of global-mean sea level rise. Our result will help to close the twentieth-century sea level budget, which remains crucial for evaluating the reliability of models used to

  15. Schwinger Effect in (A)dS and Charged Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2015-01-01

    In an (Anti-) de Sitter space and a charged black hole the Schwinger effect is either enhanced by the Hawking radiation or suppressed by the negative curvature. We use the contour integral method to calculate the production of charged pairs in the global (A)dS space. The charge emission from near-extremal black hole is found from the AdS geometry near the horizon and interpreted as the Schwinger effect in a Rindler space with the surface gravity for the acceleration as well as the Schwinger effect in AdS space.

  16. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Bjørk, Anders A;

    2015-01-01

    The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available....... The only previous estimates of change during the twentieth century are based on empirical modelling and energy balance modelling. Consequently, no observation-based estimates of the contribution from the GIS to the global-mean sea level budget before 1990 are included in the Fifth Assessment Report...... of the nineteenth century. We estimate the total ice mass loss and its spatial distribution for three periods: 1900-1983 (75.1 ± 29.4 gigatonnes per year), 1983-2003 (73.8 ± 40.5 gigatonnes per year), and 2003-2010 (186.4 ± 18.9 gigatonnes per year). Furthermore, using two surface mass balance models we partition...

  17. Conformal Transformations, Rotating String and Effects of angular velocity on Accelerating Quark-Antiquark pair in $AdS_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    In order to study quark and anti-quark interaction, one should consider all effects of the medium in motion of the pair. Because the pair, is not produced at rest in QGP. So the velocity of the pair, has some effects on its interactions that should be taken into account. In this paper we apply some conformal transformations for a rotat- ing string dual to a rotating heavy quark in $AdS_3$ which construct an accelerating string dual to an accelerating quark and anti-quark pair. So, we can have a comparison between when pair has angular velocity or not. Then we can study effects of angular velocity on the accelerating quark and anti-quark which are constructed by performing special con- formal transformations, conformal SO(2,2) transformation and particular $SL(2;R)_L$ and $SL(2;R)_R$ transformation. The accelerating quark and anti-quark show different behavior with increasing in angular velocity. With useful numerical solutions we show that quark and anti-quark can deccelerate to achieve each other or accelera...

  18. Virtual mass effect in dynamic micromechanical mass sensing in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiker, P.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2016-06-01

    Weighing individual micro- or nanoscale particles in solution using dynamic micromechanical sensors is quite challenging: viscous losses dramatically degrade the sensor's performance by both broadening the resonance peak and increasing the effective total mass of the resonator by the dragged liquid. While the virtual mass of the resonator was discussed frequently, little attention has been paid to the virtual mass of particles attached to the resonator's surface and its impact on the accuracy of mass sensing. By means of the in situ detection of a polystyrene microbead in water using a bridge-based microresonator, we demonstrate that the virtual mass of the bead significantly affects the observed frequency shift. In fact, 55 % of the frequency shift was caused by the virtual mass of the adsorbed bead, predicted by Stoke's theory. Based on the observed shift in the resonator's quality factor during particle adsorption, we confirm this significant effect of the virtual mass. Thus, a quantitative analysis of the mass of a single adsorbed particle is strongly diminished if dynamic micromechanical sensors are operated in a liquid environment.

  19. The effect of added dimensionality on perceived image value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnand, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Texture is an important element of the world around us. It can convey information about the object at hand. Although embossing has been used in a limited way, to enhance the appearance of greeting cards and book covers for example, texture is something that printed material traditionally lacks. Recently, techniques have been developed that allow the incorporation of texture in printed material. Prints made using such processes are similar to traditional 2D prints but have added texture such that a reproduction of an oil painting can have the texture of oil paint on canvas or a picture of a lizard can actually have the texture of lizard skin. It seems intuitive that the added dimensionality would add to the perceived quality of the image, but to what degree? To examine the question of the impact of a third dimension on the perceived quality of printed images, a survey was conducted asking participants to determine the relative worth of sets of print products. Pairs of print products were created, where one print of each pair was 2D and the other was the same image with added texture. Using these print pairs, thirty people from the Rochester Institute of Technology community were surveyed. The participants were shown seven pairs of print products and asked to rate the relative value of each pair by apportioning a specified amount of money between the two items according to their perception of what each item was worth. The results indicated that the addition of a third dimension or texture to the printed images gave a clear boost to the perceived worth of the printed products. The rating results were 50% higher for the 3D products than the 2D products, with the participants apportioning approximately 60% of each dollar to the 3D product and 40% to the 2D product. About 80% of the time participants felt that the 3D items had at least some added value over their 2D counterparts, about 15% of the time, they felt the products were essentially equivalent in value and 4% of

  20. A Structured Approach to Solve the Inverse Eigenvalue Problem for a Beam with Added Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Mir Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determining the eigenvalues of a vibrational system having multiple lumped attachments has been investigated extensively. However, most of the research conducted in this field focuses on determining the natural frequencies of the combined system assuming that the characteristics of the combined vibrational system are known (forward problem. A problem of great interest from the point of view of engineering design is the ability to impose certain frequencies on the vibrational system or to avoid certain frequencies by modifying the characteristics of the vibrational system (inverse problem. In this paper, a method to impose two natural frequencies on a dynamical system consisting of an Euler-Bernoulli beam and carrying a single mass attachment is evaluated.

  1. Effect of Modifying Prosthetic Socket Base Materials by Adding Nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The curing process of prosthetic socket base materials requires attention owing to a series of associated problems that are yet to be addressed and solved. However, to date, few relevant studies have been reported. In this paper, nanodiamonds modified with a silane coupling agent were dispersed into a prosthetic socket base material, and the performance of the modified base materials was investigated. Adding a predetermined amount of nanodiamonds to the prosthetic socket base material increased the glass transition temperature, improved the mechanical properties of the cured base material, and reduced the influence of the volatile gas formed during the curing process on the environment. With increasing nanodiamond contents, the glass transition temperature increased and the mechanical properties improved slightly. Owing to the high thermal conductivity of the nanodiamonds, the localized heat, as a result of the curing process, could be dissipated and released. Thus, adding nanodiamonds led to a more uniform temperature field forming in the curing system. This improved the curing process and reduced the formation of volatile monomers, thereby decreasing the adverse impact of the generated volatile gases on the environment. All of these provide a potential strategy for modifying prosthetic socket base materials.

  2. The added worker effect and the discouraged worker effect for married women in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates both the added worker effect (the labour supply responses of women to their partners' job losses) and the discouraged worker effect (workers withdrawing from the labour market because of failed searches) for married women in Australia, with the emphasis on the former. We focus on the partners’ involuntary job loss experiences, and analyse women's labour market activities in the periods before and after their partners’ job loss. By estimating fixed effects labour supply...

  3. Mass Effect on Axial Charge Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Er-dong

    2016-01-01

    We studied effect of finite quark mass on the dynamics of axial charge using the D3/D7 model in holography. The mass term in axial anomaly equation affects both the fluctuation (generation) and dissipation of axial charge. We studied the dependence of the effect on quark mass and external magnetic field. For axial charge generation, we calculated the mass diffusion rate, which characterizes the helicity flipping rate. The rate is a non-monotonous function of mass and can be significantly enhanced by the magnetic field. The diffusive behavior is also related to a divergent susceptibility of axial charge. For axial charge dissipation, we found that in the long time limit, the mass term dissipates all the charge effectively generated by parallel electric and magnetic fields. The result is consistent with a relaxation time approximation. The rate of dissipation through mass term is a monotonous increasing function of both quark mass and magnetic field.

  4. Evaluation of the added mass for a spheroid-type unmanned underwater vehicle by vertical planar motion mechanism test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Keon; Joung, Tae-Hwan; Cheon, Se-Jong; Jang, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Hee

    2011-09-01

    This paper shows added mass and inertia can be acquired from the pure heaving motion and pure pitching motion respectively. A Vertical Planar Motion Mechanism (VPMM) test for the spheroid-type Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) was compared with a theoretical calculation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis in this paper. The VPMM test has been carried out at a towing tank with specially manufactured equipment. The linear equations of motion on the vertical plane were considered for theoretical calculation, and CFD results were obtained by commercial CFD package. The VPMM test results show good agreement with theoretical calculations and the CFD results, so that the applicability of the VPMM equipment for an underwater vehicle can be verified with a sufficient accuracy.

  5. A generalized dilaton gauge field for the rho meson mass spectrum in the soft-wall AdS/QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Petousis, Vlasios

    2012-01-01

    Meson spectroscopy within the frame of the soft-wall AdS/QCD, became one of the most interesting topics of particle physics in the last six years. In this work we attempt a generalized parametric analysis of the background dilaton gauge field. Aim of this work is that using a positive z-depended dilaton gauge field and setting the appropriate parameters on it, we are able to reproduce the full vector meson mass spectrum. Also the correct Regge trajectories can be reproduced without problems with massless modes in the vector sector. To reinforce the results, we compare the proposed parametric model with the experimental data. This comparison, returns in some cases an error less than 1%.

  6. Development of measurement system for radiation effect on A/D converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement system for radiation effects on analog-to-digital (A/D) converter based on histogram method was developed. Testing principle, system composition, control flow and systemic function were described. Total dose effects experiment of 12 bit AD574AJD using the system was carried out on 60Co source to verify its effectivity. The results show that the static parameters and functional parameters gained by the system can accurately reflect the damage effect of the devices under test. So the system is a well test bench for radiation effects on A/D converter. (authors)

  7. The effect of nanoparticles added to heated micropolar fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nering, Konrad; Rup, Kazimierz

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of momentum, angular momentum and heat transfer during the unsteady natural convection in micropolar nanofluids. Presented phenomena are modelled in the vicinity of a vertical plate and heat flux which rises suddenly at a given moment, using the boundary layer concept. Differential equations of angular momentum conservation are used according to the theory of micropolar fluids developed by Eringen. Finite difference method is used to solve the equations for conservation of mass, energy, momentum and angular momentum. Selected nanofluids treated as single phase fluids contain small particles with diameter size d = 10 nm and d = 38.4 nm. In particular, two ethylene glycol based nanofluids and one water-based nanofluid are analysed. Volume fraction of these solutions is 6%. First ethylene glycol solution contain Al2 O3 nanoparticles (d = 38.4 nm), and the second ethylene glycol solution contained Cu nanoparticles (d = 10 nm). Water based nanofluid contain Al2 O3 nanoparticles (d = 38.4 nm). As a result of solving conservation equations, unsteady velocity field (U, V), temperature (T), microrotation component normal to (x, y) plane (N), velocity gradient ∂U/∂Y and temperature gradient ∂T/∂Y are obtained. These results are compared to theoretical and experimental results presented in literature. At the end of this paper, heat transfer enhancement for analysed nanofluids is estimated.

  8. Progressing towards more quantitative analytical pyrolysis of soil organic matter using molecular beam mass spectroscopy of whole soils and added standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddix, Michelle L.; Magrini-Bair, Kim; Evans, Robert J.; Conant, Richard T.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Morris, Sherri J.; Calderón, Francisco; Paul, Eldor A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is extremely complex. It is composed of hundreds of different organic substances and it has been difficult to quantify these diverse substances in a dynamic-ecosystem functioning standpoint. Analytical pyrolysis has been used to compare chemical differences between soils, but its ability to measure the absolute amount of a specific compound in the soil is still in question. Our objective was to assess whether utilizing pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectroscopy (py-MBMS) to define the signature of known reference compounds (adenine, indole, palmitic acid, etc.) and biological samples (chitin, fungi, cellulose, etc.) separately and when added to whole soils it was possible to make py-MBMS more quantitative. Reference compounds, spanning a wide variety of compound categories, and biological samples, expected to be present in SOM, were added to three soils from Colorado, Ohio, and Massachusetts that have varying total C, % clay, and clay type. Py-MBMS, a rapid analysis technique originally developed to analyze complex biomolecules, flash pyrolyzes soil organic matter to form products that are often considered characteristic of the original molecular structure. Samples were pyrolyzed at 550 degrees C by py-MBMS. All samples were weighed and %C and %N determined both before and after pyrolysis to evaluate mass loss, C loss, and N loss for the samples.An average relationship of r2 = 0.76 (P = 0.005) was found for the amount of cellulose added to soil at 25, 50, and 100% of soil C relative to the ion intensity of select mass/charge of the compound.There was a relationship of r2 = 0.93 (P < 0.001) for the amount of indole added to soil at 25, 50, and 100% of soil C and the ion intensity of the associated mass variables (mass/charge). Comparing spectra of pure compounds with the spectra of the compounds added to soil and isolated clay showed that interference could occur based on soil type and compound with the Massachusetts soil with high C (55

  9. Mass Fractionation Laws, Mass-Independent Effects, and Isotopic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Schauble, Edwin A.

    2016-06-01

    Isotopic variations usually follow mass-dependent fractionation, meaning that the relative variations in isotopic ratios scale with the difference in mass of the isotopes involved (e.g., δ17O ≈ 0.5×δ18O). In detail, however, the mass dependence of isotopic variations is not always the same, and different natural processes can define distinct slopes in three-isotope diagrams. These variations are subtle, but improvements in analytical capabilities now allow precise measurement of these effects and make it possible to draw inferences about the natural processes that caused them (e.g., reaction kinetics versus equilibrium isotope exchange). Some elements, in some sample types, do not conform to the regularities of mass-dependent fractionation. Oxygen and sulfur display a rich phenomenology of mass-independent fractionation, documented in the laboratory, in the rock record, and in the modern atmosphere. Oxygen in meteorites shows isotopic variations that follow a slope-one line (δ17O ≈ δ18O) whose origin may be associated with CO photodissociation. Sulfur mass-independent fractionation in ancient sediments provides the tightest constraint on the oxygen partial pressure in the Archean and the timing of Earth's surface oxygenation. Heavier elements also show departures from mass fractionation that can be ascribed to exotic effects associated with chemical reactions such as magnetic effects (e.g., Hg) or the nuclear field shift effect (e.g., U or Tl). Some isotopic variations in meteorites and their constituents cannot be related to the terrestrial composition by any known process, including radiogenic, nucleogenic, and cosmogenic effects. Those variations have a nucleosynthetic origin, reflecting the fact that the products of stellar nucleosynthesis were not fully homogenized when the Solar System formed. Those anomalies are found at all scales, from nanometer-sized presolar grains to bulk terrestrial planets. They can be used to learn about stellar

  10. The effect of mobility on local service discovery in the Ahoy ad-hoc network system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goering, Patrick; Heijenk, Geert; Haverkort, Boudewijn; Haarman, Robbert

    2007-01-01

    Ahoy, a protocol to perform local service discovery in ad-hoc networks is described in this paper. The protocol has been implemented in a discreteevent simulator to study its performance in case of a multihop mobile ad-hoc network. Especially the effect of mobility on the network load and the probab

  11. Effectiveness of added natural antioxidants in sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapiste, Guillermo H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of α- and δ-tocopherol, citric acid, ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate was investigated in sunflower oil containing naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of natural antioxidants in sunflower oil was monitored by the accelerated oxidative stability test Rancimat and oxidation development during storage under different conditions. Samples in storage experiments were periodically removed and analyzed for peroxide value, p-anisidine value, total content and distribution of polar compounds, and residual naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of each antioxidant was strongly dependent on temperature and the testing method. While ascorbic acid appears to be the most effective antioxidant according to the Rancimat oxidative stability index, δ-tocopherol shows improved performance when considering storage experiments.Se investigó la actividad antioxidante de α-tocoferol, δ-tocoferol, ácido cítrico y palmitato de ascorbilo en aceite de girasol con su conteniendo natural de tocoferol. La efectividad de los mismos fue analizada a través de la medida de la estabilidad oxidativa en Rancimat y el seguimiento de la oxidación con el almacenamiento a diferentes temperaturas. Las muestras extraídas periódicamente de la estufa fueron sometidas a los siguientes análisis: índice de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidina, contenido y distribución de compuestos polares y contenido residual de tocoferol natural. La efectividad de cada antioxidante resultó fuertemente dependiente de la temperatura y método de ensayo. Mientras el ácido ascórbico resultó ser el antioxidante más efectivo según el índice de estabilidad oxidativa medido en el equipo Rancimat, el δ-tocoferol fue el antioxidante más efectivo en las experiencias de almacenamiento.

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation on gelatine films added with antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on the gelatin films in presence of antioxidant. Gelatin solutions of glycerine and poly vinil alcohol, with and without the addition were prepared until the complete homogenization. The films were irradiated with 20 and 40 kGy in a electron accelerator, in the presence of air and at the room temperature. The use of ionizing radiation and the addition of antioxidant changed the properties of the film. The result of water absorption test revealed that with increasing of radiation dose occurred a reduction in the absorption, suggesting that happen a reticulation

  13. Comparison on ads or not? Influence of Referent on Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Sheng Horng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how consumers distinguish different products and how to achieve advertising effectiveness. An experiment of 2(high/low ideal brandsx2(with/without comparisons=4 mixed designs was conducted to verify the advertising effect influenced by the present of comparisons on ads with respect to high/low ideal brands. 50 subjects per design and 200 effective samples were evaluated under descriptive statistics and two-way ANOVA test. The study concludes: the present of comparisons on ads ameliorates Brand Attitude and Advertising Attitude regardless of high/low ideal brand. However, Purchase Intention was not significantly influenced by comparisons on ads.

  14. Effects of adding illegal storeys to structural systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kahraman; A Saatci; S Misir

    2006-10-01

    Earthquakes in Turkey are frequently occurring disasters, causing much loss of life and property. It is tragic indeed that earthquakes should share the agenda with amnesty laws for illegal buildings. Illegal buildings are those constructed without authorization, legal bureaucratic sanction and, in most cases, without normal engineering control and checks. Buildings may become illegal for a variety of reasons. The very prospect of a waiver bill for illegal buildings spurs further illegal construction. The status of illegal buildings may legally change in time. What is an illegal building today may well be legal tomorrow under these circumstances. The present study deals with two different kinds of building: one is the framed building and the other has shear-wall frame. The capacity ratios, storey drifts and natural periods for the legally approved buildings and the effects of illegal or legal additional floors on these values are compared. It is determined that these buildings with illegal storeys should be strengthened and retrofitted by providing cast in-situ reinforced concrete shear walls.

  15. The effect of Value Added Tax change on health care services

    OpenAIRE

    Ylämö, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of value added tax (VAT) change on certain health care services. VAT is a consumption tax which is added on the value of goods and services. The Finnish Tax Administration changed the value added tax (VAT) on Health care services and personnel renting (Terveydenhuollon työvoiman luovutus) to 0% instead of the previous 24% on 19 December 2013. Based on the same decision, VAT on some services such as aesthetic surgery rose from 0% to 24%. Th...

  16. The mass estimation of volatile emission during 1199-1200 AD eruption of Baitoushan volcano and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭正府; 刘嘉麒; 隋淑珍; 刘强; 贺怀宇; 倪云燕

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of the study of volcanic products during 1199-1200AD eruption of Baitou Mountain (Baitoushan), the released volatile content was estimated by comparing Cl, F, S, H2O concentrations of undegassed glass inclusions with those of degassed matrix glasses. The calculations show that volatile yields, released from the melt, are 109.88×106 ton of HCl, 196.80×106 ton of HF, 1477.84×106 ton of H2O, 23.14×106 ton of SO2, which could have formed 35.43×106 ton of H2SO4 aerosol in the atmosphere. They could have substantial effect on paleoclimate and paleo-environment.

  17. The effect of directional inertias added to pelvis and ankle on gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, J.H.; Van Asseldonk, E.H.F.; Van der Kooij, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Gait training robots should display a minimum added inertia in order to allow normal walking. The effect of inertias in specific directions is yet unknown. We set up two experiments to assess the effect of inertia in anteroposterior (AP) direction to the ankle and AP and mediolateral (ML)

  18. A small effect of adding antiviral agents in treating patients with severe Bell palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.L. van der; Rovers, M.M.; Ru, J.A. de; Heijden, G.J. van der

    2012-01-01

    In this evidence-based case report, the authors studied the following clinical question: What is the effect of adding antiviral agents to corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with severe or complete Bell palsy? The search yielded 250 original research articles. The 6 randomized trials of the

  19. Comparing the Effects of Four Instructional Treatments on EFL Students' Achievement in Writing Classified Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The current study set out to compare the effect of traditional and non-traditional instructional treatments; i.e. explicit, implicit, task-based and no-instruction approaches on students' abilities to learn how to write classified ads. 72 junior students who have all taken a course in Reading Journalistic Texts at the Payame-Noor University…

  20. The Effect of Summer on Value-Added Assessments of Teacher and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palardy, Gregory J.; Peng, Luyao

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of including the summer period on value-added assessments (VAA) of teacher and school performance at the early grades. The results indicate that 40-62% of the variance in VAA estimates originates from the summer period, depending on the outcome (i.e., reading or math achievement gains). Furthermore, when summer is…

  1. Beyond Traditional School Value-Added Models: A Multilevel Analysis of Complex School Effects in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Patricio; Pampaka, Maria; Olsen, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    School value-added studies have largely demonstrated the effects of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the schools and the pupils on performance in standardised tests. Traditionally, these studies have assessed the variation coming only from the schools and the pupils. However, recent studies have shown that the analysis of academic…

  2. Fermion mass mixing and vacuum triviality in the renormalization group procedure for effective particles

    CERN Document Server

    Glazek, Stanislaw D

    2013-01-01

    Renormalization group procedure for effective particles is applied to the model quantum theory of free fermions to which one adds an interaction in the form of a mass mixing term. If one used a standard approach based on the instant form of dynamics, the theory would suffer from a generic vacuum problem caused by a divergent production of virtual quanta out of a bare vacuum and it would require an adjustment of its degrees of freedom to the added interaction term before quantization, considered a means of avoiding the quantum vacuum problem. In the effective particle approach, the quantum vacuum problem is dealt with instead by using the front form of dynamics, where the pair production is excluded by momentum conservation. The corresponding Hamiltonian includes mass parameters through constraint equations while the required quantum field operators are constructed independently of all mass parameters, including the parameters that appear in the added mass mixing interaction term. Then the masses and states of...

  3. THE EFFECT OF ADDED WHOLE OAT FLOUR ON SOME DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Nicolae POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of the addition of whole oat flour on dough farinographical parameters. In this regard, the successive amounts of 10 to 50% of whole oat flour were added to wheat flour type 550. For each experimental variants were performed farinographical analyzes. According to our results, the optimal proportion of whole oat flour that can be added to wheat flour, without adversely affecting technological parameters of dough, was 20%. At this amount, dough parameters: Development time (DT, Stability (ST and Farinograph Quality Number registered the best values.

  4. Mass Media Effect on Gender Identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓越

    2012-01-01

      Under the mass media effect, media both enable and constrain the audience to shape their gender identity. The purpose of this article is to review and consider the role media plays in the process of construction of contemporary gendered identities; especially the relationship among men, masculinity and media

  5. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy...

  6. The Added Worker Effect Differentiated by Gender and Partnership Status: Evidence from Involuntary Job Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Triebe, Doreen

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the added worker effect (AWE), which refers to the increase of labor supply of individuals in response to a sudden financial shock in family income, that is, unemployment of their partner. While previous empirical studies focus on married women's response to those shocks, I explicitly analyze the spillover effects of unemployment on both women and men and I also differentiate according to their partnership status (marriage vs. cohabitation). My aim is to evaluate whether i...

  7. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunMei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L−1·d−1 of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%–62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%–56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5–9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production.

  8. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%-62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%-56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5-9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production.

  9. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%-62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%-56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5-9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production. PMID:26137469

  10. Does Student Sorting Invalidate Value-Added Models of Teacher Effectiveness? An Extended Analysis of the Rothstein Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Cory Koedel; Julian Betts

    2011-01-01

    Value-added modeling continues to gain traction as a tool for measuring teacher performance. However, recent research questions the validity of the value-added approach by showing that it does not mitigate student-teacher sorting bias (its presumed primary benefit). Our study explores this critique in more detail. Although we find that estimated teacher effects from some value-added models are severely biased, we also show that a sufficiently complex value-added model that evaluates teachers ...

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of rosemary and ginger extract added to Karadi yearling lamb patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem H. Saleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of adding natural extracts (rosemary and ginger on the oxidative rancidity and microbial growth in lamb patties. Lamb patties were blended with 0.05%, 0.075% and 0.100% rosemary extract and 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% ginger extract and untreated (control group at 4°C for seven days. The results revealed that lipid oxidation of lamb patties started to increase after four days of refrigeration and increase rapidly to reach the maximum after seven days of storage. Extract of rosemary and ginger apparently retarded significantly (P<0.01 oxidative rancidity of lamb patties. TBA (Thiobarbituric acid values demonstrated that level of 0.05% rosemary extract and 0.50% ginger extract added to lamb patties were more effective compared with other concentrations of each of rosemary or ginger added to patties. Total plate count, psychrophilic count and coliform decreased significantly (P<0.01 with the addition of both extracts during storage. It was concluded that adding of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial extract (rosemary, ginger led to retarded oxidative rancidity and microbial growth during refrigerated storage of lamb patties.

  12. From the Komar Mass and Entropic Force Scenarios to the Einstein Field Equations on the Ads Brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradpour, H.; Sheykhi, A.

    2016-02-01

    By bearing the Komar's definition for the mass, together with the entropic origin of gravity in mind, we find the Einstein field equations in ( n + 1)-dimensional spacetime. Then, by reflecting the (4 + 1)-dimensional Einstein equations on the (3 + 1)-hypersurface, we get the Einstein equations onto the 3-brane. The corresponding energy conditions are also addressed. Since the higher dimensional considerations modify the Einstein field equations in the (3 + 1)-dimensions and thus the energy-momentum tensor, we get a relation for the Komar mass on the brane. In addition, the strongness of this relation compared with existing definition for the Komar mass on the brane is addressed.

  13. The potential impact of adding ivermectin to a mass treatment intervention to reduce malaria transmission: a modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slater, H.C.; Walker, P.G.; Bousema, T.; Okell, L.C.; Ghani, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ivermectin (IVM), used alongside mass treatment strategies with an artemisinin combination therapy, has been suggested as a possible tool for reducing malaria transmission. Mosquitoes ingesting a bloodmeal containing IVM have increased mortality, reducing the probability that the parasit

  14. The Effect of QBO on the Total Mass Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saǧır, Selçuk; Atıcı, Ramazan

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) measured at 10 hPa altitude and total mass density (TMD) values obtained from NRLMSIS-00 model for 90 km altitude of ionosphere known as Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region is statistically investigated. For this study, multiple-regression model is used. To see the effect on TMD of QBO directions, Dummy variables are also added to model. In the result of calculations, it is observed that QBO is effected on TMD. It is determined that 69% of variations at TMD can be explainable by QBO. It is determined that the explainable ratio is at the rate of 5%. Also, it is seen that an increase/a decrease of 1 meter per second at QBO give rise to an increase/a decrease of 7,2x10-4 g/cm3 at TMD.

  15. Time Rate Gradient Effects and Negative Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksch, Edmond

    2008-03-01

    The Harvard tower Experiment and tests with accurate atomic clocks show that a clock at a high elevation indicates more elapsed time than a clock at a low elevation, both clocks properly measuring time at their locations. This fact mandates that Newton's first law of motion be rewritten to cite impulse balance rather than force balance. Time rate gradient effects explain how the weight of a precisely vertical and precisely uniform electric field or a precisely vertical and precisely uniform magnetic field is supported in a precisely unidirectional gravitational field. Time rate gradient effects also explain how the weight of a unidirectional gravitational field is reacted. It is confirmed that the mass density of the gravitational field is negative. http://www.TimeRateGradient.com; http://www.Negative-Mass.com; http://www.EinsteinsElevator.com

  16. Damping effects in Penning trap mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    George, S; Kowalska, M; Dworschak, M; Neidherr, D; Blaum, K; Schweikhard, L; Ramirez, E M; Breitenfeldt, M; Kretzschmar, M; Herfurth, F; Schwarz, S; Herlert, A

    2011-01-01

    Collisions of ions with residual gas atoms in a Penning trap can have a strong influence on the trajectories of the ions, depending on the atom species and the gas pressure. We report on investigations of damping effects in time-of-flight ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry with the Penning trap mass spectrometers ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) and SHIPTRAP at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany). The work focuses on the interconversion of the magnetron and cyclotron motional modes, in particular the modification of the resonance profiles for quadrupolar excitation due to the damping effect of the residual gas. Extensive experiments have been performed with standard and Ramsey excitation schemes. The results are in good agreement with predictions obtained by analytical continuation of the formulae for the undamped case.

  17. Effects of added ZnTCP on mechanical and biological properties of apatite cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, K.; Suzuki, K. [Okayama Univ. Dental School (Japan). Dept. of Biomaterials; Miyamoto, Y.; Toh, T.; Yuasa, T.; Nagayama, M. [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). First Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Ito, A. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, MITT, Ibaragi (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Effects of added Zn doped {beta}-tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) on mechanical and biological properties of apatite cement (AC) was studied. Powder X-ray diffractometer revealed that ZnTCP shows no reactivity with AC. The mechanical strength of AC decreased increasing amounts of added ZnTCP. We observed no effect on the setting time of AC when the amount of ZnTCP was 10% or less. Proliferation of the osteoblastic cells was significantly increased on the surface of AC containing 5% ZnTCP when compared with that containing no ZnTCP. In contrast, proliferation of the cells decreased on the surface of AC containing 10% ZnTCP when compared with that free from ZnTCP; indicating cytotoxity. We concluded therefore, that addition of ZnTCP to AC might be useful to enhance the osteoconductivity of AC when release of Zn{sup 2+} can be carefully regulated. (orig.)

  18. REBOUNDx: A library for adding additional effects to N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Rein, Hanno; Shi, Pengshuai

    2016-05-01

    Many astrophysical applications involve additional perturbations beyond point-source gravity. We have recently developed REBOUNDx, a library for adding such effects in numerical simulations with the open-source N-body package REBOUND. Various implementations have different numerical properties that in general depend on the underlying integrator employed. In particular, I will discuss adding velocity-dependent/dissipative effects to widely used symplectic integrators, and how one can estimate the introduced numerical errors using the operator-splitting formalism traditionally applied to symplectic integrators. Finally, I will demonstrate how to use the code, and how the Python wrapper we have developed for REBOUND/REBOUNDx makes it easy to interactively leverage powerful analysis, visualization and parallelization libraries.

  19. The effect of magnesium added at C{sub 60}/Rubrene heterointerfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Wei; Chu, Yu-Ya [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan (China); Wei, Ching-Hsuan [Department of Material Science, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Pi, Tun-Wen [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-28

    This study examines the effect of adding magnesium (Mg) at C{sub 60}/rubrene heterointerfaces by using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy. The heterointerface was obtained by depositing C{sub 60} on a 4-Å Mg/rubrene surface. The photoemission spectra showed that the added Mg preferentially interacts with and transfers negative charges to C{sub 60}. The interfacial dipole potential was significantly enlarged, as was the separation between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C{sub 60} and the highest occupied molecular orbital of rubrene. The results demonstrate that the addition of Mg should be an effective method for improving the efficiency of light- and current-generating devices.

  20. Participation of Married Women in the Labour Market and the 'Added Worker Effect' in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto-Rodríguez, Juan; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, César

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate labour participation equations for married women for eleven European countries, using data from the European Community Household Panel corresponding to the years 1994, 1995 and 1996. The main objective of our study is to test whether the 'added worker effect' holds. From our results it can be concluded that the labour market participation of the married woman basically depends on her personal and family characteristics, her non-wage income and her potential earnings...

  1. The added worker effect of married women in Greece during the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Giannakopoulos, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the wife’s labour supply responses to their husband’s job loss during the economic crisis in Greece. Using data from the Labour Force Survey (2007-2014) we explicitly identify the labour market transitions of both spouses within the household. We found that women whose husbands involuntarily separated from their jobs have increased their participation into the labour market, confirming the theoretical predictions of the added worker effect. However, this result is not ...

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of rosemary and ginger extract added to Karadi yearling lamb patties

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem H. Saleh; Jalal E. Alkass; Ibrahim A. Baker

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of adding natural extracts (rosemary and ginger) on the oxidative rancidity and microbial growth in lamb patties. Lamb patties were blended with 0.05%, 0.075% and 0.100% rosemary extract and 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% ginger extract and untreated (control) group at 4°C for seven days. The results revealed that lipid oxidation of lamb patties started t...

  3. Free Vibrations of a Cantilevered SWCNT with Distributed Mass in the Presence of Nonlocal Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. De Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hamilton principle is applied to deduce the free vibration frequencies of a cantilever single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT in the presence of an added mass, which can be distributed along an arbitrary part of the span. The nonlocal elasticity theory by Eringen has been employed, in order to take into account the nanoscale effects. An exact formulation leads to the equations of motion, which can be solved to give the frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes. Moreover, two approximate semianalytical methods are also illustrated, which can provide quick parametric relationships. From a more practical point of view, the problem of detecting the mass of the attached particle has been solved by calculating the relative frequency shift due to the presence of the added mass: from it, the mass value can be easily deduced. The paper ends with some numerical examples, in which the nonlocal effects are thoroughly investigated.

  4. The effects of involvement and ad type on attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Yam; Torres, Ivonne M

    2009-01-01

    This article examines consumers' attitudes toward Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs that are influenced by the use different types of DTC ads and product involvement. Our findings suggest that product involvement and the type of DTC ad are significant predictors of consumers' attitudinal responses toward DTC advertising. High involvement consumers have more favorable attitudes toward the drug's price, DTC ad and brand name, and a higher intention to ask a doctor about the advertised drug than low involvement consumers. In contrast to Informational and Reminder DTC ads, Persuasive ads have more favorable effects on consumers' reactions to DTC prescription drug advertising.

  5. From the Komar Mass and Entropic Force Scenarios to the Einstein Field Equations on the Ads Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Moradpour, H

    2016-01-01

    By bearing the Komar's definition for the mass, together with the entropic origin of gravity in mind, we find the Einstein field equations in $(n+1$)-dimensional spacetime. Then, by reflecting the ($4+1$)-dimensional Einstein equations on the ($3+1$)-hypersurface, we get the Einstein equations onto the $3$-brane. The corresponding energy conditions are also addressed. Since the higher dimensional considerations modify the Einstein field equations in the ($3+1$)-dimensions and thus the energy-momentum tensor, we get a relation for the Komar mass on the brane. In addition, the strongness of this relation compared with existing definition for the Komar mass on the brane is addressed.

  6. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements

    OpenAIRE

    ChunMei Liu; HaiRong Yuan; DeXun Zou; YanPing Liu; BaoNing Zhu; XiuJin Li

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L−1·d−1 of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioc...

  7. a European Global Navigation Satellite System — the German Market and Value Adding Chain Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollerthun, A.; Wieser, M.

    2002-03-01

    Since Europe is considering to establish a "market-driven" European Global Navigation Satellite System, the German Center of Aerospace initiated a market research to justify a German investment in such a European project. The market research performed included the following market segments: aviation, railway, road traffic, shipping, surveying, farming, military, space applications, leisure, and sport. In these market segments, the forementioned inputs were determined for satellite navigation hardware (receivers) as well as satellite navigation services. The forecast period was from year 2007 to 2017. For the considered period, the market amounts to a total of DM 83.0 billion (approx. US $50 billion), whereas the satellite navigation equipment market makes up DM 39.8 billion, and charges for value-added-services amount to DM 43.2 billion. On closer examination road traffic can be identified as the dominant market share, both in the receiver-market and service-market. With a share of 96% for receivers and 73% for services the significance of the road traffic segment becomes obvious. The second part of this paper investigates the effects the market potential has on the Value-Adding-Chain. Therefore, all participants in the Value-Adding-Chain are identified, using industrial cost structure models the employment effect is analyzed, and possible tax revenues for the state are examined.

  8. Multipath Routing Protocol for Effective Local Route Recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Srivatsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks, frequent mobility during the transmission of data causes route failure which results in route rediscovery. In this, we propose multipath routing protocol for effective local route recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. In this protocol, each source and destination pair establishes multiple paths in the single route discovery and they are cached in their route caches. Approach: The cached routes are sorted on the basis of their bandwidth availability. In case of route failure in the primary route, a recovery node which is an overhearing neighbor, detects it and establishes a local recovery path with maximum bandwidth from its route cache. Results: By simulation results, we show that the proposed approach improves network performance. Conclusion: The proposed route recovery management technique prevents the frequent collision and degradation in the network performance.

  9. The Dynamic Effect of Oil Rent on Industrial Value Added: a SVAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhri Issaoui; Talel Boufateh; Ghassen El Montasser

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamic effect of oil rents on industrial added value in a sample of countries with different levels of development. Using a SVAR model, we tested the effect of a real shock and a nominal shock on the variables of the model. The main obtained results are three. First, we confirmed that the Dutch disease (DD) problem is a short-term phenomenon that takes place each time there is a shock on oil rents. Second, the ephemeral nature of the phenomenon confirms the neoclassica...

  10. The effective cross section for double parton scattering within a holographic AdS/QCD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Traini, Marco; Rinaldi, Matteo; Vento, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    A first attempt to apply the AdS/QCD framework for a bottom-up approach to the evaluation of the effective cross section for double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions is presented. The main goal is the analytic evaluation of the dependence of the effective cross section on the longitudinal momenta of the involved partons, obtained within the holographic Soft-Wall model. If measured in high-energy processes at hadron colliders, this momentum dependence could open a new window on 2-parton correlations in a proton.

  11. Mass relocation through soil exhaustion: Transformation of habitation patterns in the southern Netherlands (1000 BC-500 AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluiving, Sjoerd; Bekkema, Marijke; Roymans, Nico; van Mourik, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Long-term archaeological data gathering in the southern Netherlands may deliver an unprecedented regional comparison that could be exemplary for the Pleistocene sand areas of the Northwest European Plain. On a micro-scale level, it has become clear that Bronze Age (2000-800 BC) and Iron Age (800-12 BC) farmers intensively used the landscape, resulting in a relatively dense distribution pattern of settlements all over the ridges and planes of the cover sand landscape. However, this agricultural use of the landscape related to the "celtic field" system led to a process of soil degradation by increased acidification during which Umbric Podzols gradually transformed into Carbic Podzols that could no longer be used as farmland. According to established "models," this process of "secondary podzolization" particularly affected those sections of the landscape that were dominated by dry sandy soils with a low loam content (loam = clay and silt, between c. 10% and 20%). In the Late Iron Age (250-12 BC), the changing soil conditions resulted in a dramatic shift in the habitation pattern that clearly manifests itself in the Roman period (12 BC-410 AD); on the local scale, the habitation moved from the degenerated soils to nearby areas with better soil conditions (higher loam content), which became more densely inhabited now than in the Bronze Age/Early Iron Age (2000-500 BC). The introduction of new land management (in the later Iron Age, and also by Romans) could also have been important for soil degradation. The areas where the Roman period settlements concentrated became also the areas where we can find the early medieval habitation (447-751 AD) and where the Plaggic Anthrosols started to develop in the late medieval period (1270-1500 AD). This poster is based on the analysis of soil properties. Measured loam values of soil samples (n=181) in Veldhoven, southern Netherlands, are in agreement with the described model that the plaggen cover is located on soils containing high

  12. Effect of hydration status and fluid availability on ad-libitum energy intake of a semi-solid breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, Robert A; Horina, Anja; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis J

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of hydration status and fluid availability on appetite and energy intake. Sixteen males completed four 24 h trials, visiting the laboratory overnight fasted on two consecutive days. Standardised foods were provided during the 24 h and on day two an ad-libitum semi-solid porridge breakfast was provided. Water intake during the 24 h (0 or 40 mL⋅kg(-1)) and fluid provision during the ad-libitum breakfast were manipulated so subjects were euhydrated with (EU-F) and without fluid (EU-NF) available at breakfast; and hypohydrated with (HYPO-F) and without fluid (HYPO-NF) available at breakfast. Blood samples (0 and 24 h), urine samples (0-24 h) and subjective responses (0, 24 and 24.5 h) were collected. HYPO trials decreased body mass by ~1.8%. Serum and urine osmolality increased and plasma volume decreased during HYPO trials (P semi-solid breakfast, at least in healthy young males. PMID:25953599

  13. Plasmonic Effect in Au-Added TiO2-Based Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hong, Le; Cat, Do Tran; Chi, Le Ha; Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Van Hung, Tran; Tai, Ly Ngoc; Long, Pham Duy

    2016-10-01

    TiO2 nano thin films have been fabricated on fluoride tin oxide (FTO) film electrodes by hydrothermal synthesis at temperatures of 80°C, 120°C, 150°C, and 200°C for different synthesis times of 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h in 2.5 mol, 5 mol, and 7.5 mol NaOH solution. X-ray diffraction patterns and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images were recorded for all the film samples, and the results confirmed that TiO2 anatase phase was generally formed in nanowire form. The influence of synthesis temperature, processing time, and NaOH content on the structure and morphology of the TiO2 material was studied. Au nanoparticles with size of around 2 × 10-8 m were added into the TiO2 thin films by thermal evaporation in vacuum combined with thermal annealing. Based on photocurrent-voltage ( I- V) characteristics measured under irradiation with visible light, the short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and efficiency of solar cells with FTO/Au-added TiO2/(I-/I2-) electrolyte/Pt configuration were evaluated. The short-circuit current and efficiency of the Au-added solar cell were greatly improved, which is supposed to be related to a contribution of the surface plasmon resonance effect.

  14. THE EFFECT OF W ON THE REPASSIVATION BEHAVIOR OF Ni-ADDED STAINLESS STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.X. Pan; K. Y. Kim

    2005-01-01

    The effect of W on the repassivation behavior of Ni-added stainless steels was investigated with respect to the repassivation rate and the SCC susceptibility. It was found that more stable passive film was formed on the W-modified stainless steels than that of steels without W-modification, and the repassivation rate was faster for W-modified stainless steels in acidic chloride solution (0.5M H2SO4+3.5% Cl-). In neutral chloride solution (1M MgCl2), there were no significant differences on both passivation properties and the repassivation rates for duplex stainless steels,while W-modified austenite stainless steel showed faster repassivation rate. The SCC tests verified that W-modified Ni-added stainless steels exhibited better SCC resistance than steels without W in chloride solution. Moreover, W-modification in higher Ni-added stainless steels exhibited more remarkable SCC resistance than steels with lower Ni content in chloride solution.

  15. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  16. Effects of stochastic food deprivation on energy budget, body mass and activity in Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun ZHAO, Jing CAO, Ye TIAN, Rui-Rui WANG, Gui-Ying WANG

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available When small animals are faced with an unpredictable food supply, they can adapt by altering different components of their energy budget such as energy intake, metabolic rate, rate of non-shivering thermogenesis (NST or behaviour. The present study examined the effect of stochastic food deprivation (FD on body mass, food intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR, NST and behaviour in male Swiss mice. During a period of 4 weeks’ FD, animals were fed ad libitum for a randomly assigned 4 days each week, but were deprived of food for the other 3 days. The results showed that body mass significantly dropped on FD days compared to controls. Food intake of FD mice increased significantly on ad libitum days, ensuring cumulative food intake, final body mass, fat mass, RMR and NST did not differ significantly from controls. Moreover, gastrointestinal tract mass increased in FD mice, but digestibility decreased. In general, activity was higher on deprived days, and feeding behaviour was higher on ad libitum days suggesting that Swiss mice are able to compensate for stochastic FD primarily by increasing food intake on ad libitum days, and not by reducing energy expenditure related to RMR or NST [Current Zoology 55(4: 249–257, 2009].

  17. Effects of added elastic tubes on open-chain knee extensor strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mónica de Oliveira; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Gomes, Lara Elena; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; La Torre, Marcelo; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2013-06-01

    Attaching elastic tubes (ETs) to resistance training machines can affect the exercise load profile. The purpose of this study was to assess the training effects of added ETs, which were strategically attached to provide additional loads only during the deceleration phase of the knee extension exercise. Twenty-two healthy participants, assigned to either an experimental group (with ETs) or a control group (without ETs), participated in a 12-week strength-training program using a knee extension exercise machine. The acceleration effects were quantified and a method of attaching the ETs to the knee extension machine was developed. The effects of the added ETs were analysed by testing dynamic and isometric maximum contractions at four knee flexion angles (10 degrees, 30 degrees, 50 degrees, and 80 degrees). Analyses of covariance with the initial values as the covariate were used to examine the ETeffects. A greater increase in isometric maximum strength was found in the experimental group than in the control group at knee flexion angles of 10 degrees [effect size (ES) = 2.25] and 30 degrees (ES = 1.18). No significant difference in the dynamic maximum strength was found between the groups. The use of ETs increased strength at smaller knee flexion angles with quadriceps that were relatively short. PMID:23898691

  18. Media context and advertising effectiveness: The role of context appreciation and context-ad similarity

    OpenAIRE

    P. DE PELSMACKER; M. GEUENS; P. ANCKAERT

    2002-01-01

    Humorous, warm and rational television and print advertisements are tested in similar television and print contexts. The impact of ad style/context style congruency and context appreciation on the attitude towards the ad and on recall was studied. Results showed that low involvement individuals perceived ads embedded in a congruent context as clearer and more likable. High involvement individuals perceived ads embedded in a contrasting context as having a higher likeability and clarity. Ads s...

  19. Performance effects of “added cultural distance” in the path of international expansion: the case of German multinational enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hutzschenreuter; Johannes C Voll

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on the performance impact of “added cultural distance” in the multinational enterprise's (MNE's) expansion path. Our research focuses on the ability of MNEs to handle complexity associated with added cultural distance in international expansion, and on the effect this may have on profitability. We hypothesise that firms that make expansion moves involving a high level of added cultural distance per unit of time, and those that expand in culturally distant ...

  20. Coriolis-effect in mass flow metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims at a detailed description of the physical background for the so called Coriolis mass flow meter. It presents essentially an analysis of the (free) vibration modes of a fluid conveying straight pipe segment. Due to the inertial effects of the flowing fluid, mainly the Coriolis force, these modes deviate in shape (and in frequency) from those appearing in the absence of fluid motion. The effect of fluid inertia may, therefore, be exploited for the purpose of flow measurement. The analysis is performed under a simplifying approximation: The pipe is considered as a beam, the fluid as a moving string. This approximation leaves the fluid with only one degree of freedom, connected with its mean velocity, and eliminates an infinity of degrees of freedom of the pipe. Yet it keeps the essential features of the phenomenon. The equations describing the vibrations are derived variationally, with the constraint of a common vibration amplitude of both fluid and pipe. The Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint gives the interaction force between pipe and fluid. The modes are determined by a perturbation procedure, wherein the small (perturbation) parameter is related to the fluid velocity. The analysis shows, as main result, how the time delay between the vibrations of two appropriately chosen points of the pipe may serve to determine the mass flow rate of the fluid. Other aspects of the problem, like the precise role of the Coriolis force, are considered. The possible improvement of the used approximation is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Towards an Effective Intrusion Response Engine Combined with Intrusion Detection in Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective intrusion response engine combined with intrusion detection in ad hoc networks. The intrusion response engine is composed of a secure communication module, a local and a global response module. Its function is based on an innovative tree-based key agreement protocol while the intrusion detection engine is based on a class of neural networks called eSOM. The proposed intrusion response model and the tree-based protocol, it is based on, are analyzed concerning key secrecy while the intrusion detection engine is evaluated for MANET under different traffic conditions and mobility patterns. The results show a high detection rate for packet dropping attacks.

  2. Effect of adding celecoxib to a single dose of gabapentin on postoperative pain relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Choubsaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, several studies with conflicting results have been done on the role of gabapentin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pre-emptive analgesia to control postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding low doses of celecoxib to gabapentin on increasing the analgesic effect and patients’ satisfaction. Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 130 patients with ASA I, II class were divided in two groups as they were the candidates for elective inguinal hernia surgery with spinal anesthesia. Before the surgery, the control group (G received 300 mg oral dose of gabapentin and the study group (GC received 100 mg celecoxib in addition to the above dose. Severity of patients’ pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS. By the same token, the amount of painkillers usedwas measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The results suggested a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of pain level 4, 6 and 24 hours after surgery (P<0.05. Adding low-dose of celeoxib to gabapentin before the surgery and the combination of these two drugs caused further reduction of pain 4, 6 and 24 h after the surgery in comparison to the administration of gabapentin alone. Conclusion: Adding 100 mg celecoxib to 300 mg gabapentin resulted in a reduction of pain level 24 h after elective surgery of inguinal hernia in patients of control group (P<0.05. However, in terms of using painkillers (analgesics, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.

  3. DoS Attack Effect Assessment Method in Mobile Ad Hoc Network%移动Ad Hoc网络DoS攻击效果评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 马涛

    2012-01-01

    为了有效评估移动Ad Hoc网络中的DoS攻击效果,文章结合网络安全属性和攻击属性两方面建立了评估指标体系,在此基础上,提出了基于变权灰色模糊的攻击效果评估模型,并给出了量化评估的方法和步骤.最后利用该方法对DoS攻击进行了仿真评估分析,量化评估结果能够较好地反映不同攻击方式的效果.%In order to assess DoS attack effect on Mobile Ad Hoc Network, an attack effect assessment index system was set up considering two aspects of security attribute and attack attribute of network. Based on the system, the changing-weight, grey-fuzzy security assessment model was built up. Then the method and procedure of quantitative assessment was given. Finally,DoS attack was simulated and analyzed ,the result showed the effects of different attack ways.

  4. SPIZ: An Effective Service Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noh Donggeon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs require special care in the handling of service advertisement and discovery (Ad/D. In this paper, we propose a noble service Ad/D technique for MANETs. Our scheme avoids redundant flooding and reduces the system overhead by integrating Ad/D with routing layer. It also tracks changing conditions, such as traffic and service popularity levels. Based on a variable zone radius, we have combined push-based Ad/D with a pull-based Ad/D strategy.

  5. SPIZ: An Effective Service Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeon Noh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs require special care in the handling of service advertisement and discovery (Ad/D. In this paper, we propose a noble service Ad/D technique for MANETs. Our scheme avoids redundant flooding and reduces the system overhead by integrating Ad/D with routing layer. It also tracks changing conditions, such as traffic and service popularity levels. Based on a variable zone radius, we have combined push-based Ad/D with a pull-based Ad/D strategy.

  6. Coriolis-effect in mass flow metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszillier, H.; Durst, F.

    The physical background for the so-called Coriolis mass flow meter is described. The vibration modes of a fluid conveying straight pipe segment are analyzed. These modes deviate in shape from those appearing in the absence of fluid motion. The effect of fluid inertia may be exploited for the purpose of flow measurement. The analysis is performed under a simplifying approximation: the pipe is considered as a beam, the fluid as a moving string. The equations describing the vibrations are derived variationally, with the constraint of a common vibration amplitude of both fluid and pipe. The Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint gives the interaction force between pipe and fluid. The modes are determined by a perturbation procedure. The analysis shows how the time delay between the vibrations of two appropriately chosen points of the pipe may serve to determine the mass flow rate of the fluid. The precise role of the Coriolis force is considered. The improvements of the used approximation are discussed.

  7. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (pexercise condition (pexercise condition (pExercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  8. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (pexercise condition (pexercise condition (pExercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. PMID:24971700

  9. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONGHong-Shi; FENGHong-Tao; SUNWei-Min; DINGXiao-Ping; PINGJia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  10. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; FENG Hong-Tao; SUN Wei-Min; DING Xiao-Ping; PING Jia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson-Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  11. Effects of L-Carnitine Added to Erythropoietin in Anemic Chronic Renal Failure Patients on Hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Taheri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic renal disease (C.R.D is a pathophysiological process due to progressive and irreversible decrease in number and function of nephrons in the kidney. Anemia is one of the most important complications in CRD patients. Anemia is caused mainly due to diminished production of erythropoietin (EPO, which is treated by weekly injection of the EPO. L-carnitine added to EPO can increase the efficacy of EPO. Methods: Present study, from March 2003 until September 2004 (18 months, evaluates the effects of L-carnitine added to EPO in 30 patients at Shaheed Rahnemon hemodialysis center of Yazd. Each patient was administered one oral table (250 mg of L-carnitine, twice a day along with EPO for 90 days. EPO was in the form of injection 2000 iu/sc after dialysis.(three times per week. One questionnaire was completed for each patient, which included demographic characteristics, type of disease, duration of the hemodialysis, Hb and Hct levels, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels. Hb ,Hct and transferrin saturations were measured on days 1, 45 and 90. Results were analyzed by paired t test and analysis of variance. Results: Results of this study showed that the mean Hb levels and Hct were significantly raised up to 1.1 mg/dl (P.value<0.001 and 2.7% (P.Value<0.001, respectively. In addition, significant decrease of 5.75% in transferrin (P.Value< 0.001 and 121ng/ml in ferritin levels (P.Value< 0.001 was observed. Efficacy of EPO plus L-carnitine was affected only by duration of hemodialysis and not by age, sex or causes of CRD. Conclusion: L-carnitine added to EPO increases the efficacy of EPO after 3 months.

  12. Matrix Effects in Biological Mass Spectrometry Imaging: Identification and Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Stevens, Susan; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Laskin, Julia

    2014-07-21

    Matrix effects in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) may affect the observed molecular distribution in chemical and biological systems. In this study, we introduce an experimental approach that efficiently compensates for matrix effects in nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) MSI without introducing any complexity into the experimental protocol. We demonstrate compensation for matrix effects in nano-DESI MSI of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in normal and ischemic mouse brain tissue by doping the nano-DESI solvent with PC standards. Specifically, we use mouse brain tissue of a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model with an ischemic region localized to one hemisphere of the brain. Due to similar suppression in ionization of endogenous PC molecules extracted from the tissue and PC standards added to the solvent, matrix effects are eliminated by normalizing the intensity of the sodium and potassium adducts of endogenous PC to the intensity of the corresponding adduct of the PC standard. This approach efficiently compensates for signal variations resulting from differences in the local concentrations of sodium and potassium in tissue sections and from the complexity of the extracted analyte mixture derived from local variations in molecular composition.

  13. Terrestrial effects of a Solar proton event at AD 774-775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A major increase in 14C at AD 774-775 has been detected in data from tree ring studies. Such an increase implies an increase in high energy radiation produced by astrophysical events such as nearby supernovae or gamma-ray bursts, or extreme Solar energetic particle events. Determining which type of event may have caused this measured increase would help to characterize the rates of such events. Work by several groups to date has indicated that a Solar event is the most likely culprit. I will review this work and then discuss results of modeling the effects of such an event on Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. The intensity of modeled effects is found to vary depending on assumed event parameters, especially properties of the proton spectrum.

  14. Health-related ad information and health motivation effects on product evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    in ads. Three types of healthrelated ad elements are distinguished: functional claims, process claims and health imagery. These elements were combined in mock ads and an online experiment was run to test the study hypotheses. Results show that health imagery has the largest impact on consumers' product...

  15. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  16. The effect of adding epinephrine to combination of sufentanil and bupivacaine in spinal analgesia during labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Golfam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal analgesia is one of the effective and rapid methods for labor. It is not commonly used because of short duration of analgesia and motor block, which limits mother's force in labor progression. We attempted to prolong duration and quality of analgesia by adding Epinephrine.Methods: In this quasi-experimental study 90 pregnant women gravid II and III who referred to Motazedi and Imam Reza Educational & Medical Centers were recruited and divided into two groups of case and control (45 subjects in each group. The case group received spinal analgesia using Sufentanil and Bupivacaine, and Epinephrine while the control group received Sufentanil and Bupivacaine. Data including feeling of pain, motor block, duration of analgesia, fetal heart rate, nausea and vomiting, blood pressure was collected and analyzed using chi-square and t test. Results: duration of analgesia and vomiting were significantly increased in the case group. (p=0.001, p=0.01 respectively. Hemodynamic status in mothers and Apgar score of neonates were not significantly different between two groups.Conclusion: It seems that adding Epinephrine to Sufentanil and Bupivacaine could increase analgesia duration without altering in sensory level although could increase nausea and vomiting its recommended in labor analgesia.

  17. Effect of Anions on Adsorbability and Extractability of Lead Added in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAI-MAN; ZHENGCHUN-RONG; 等

    1991-01-01

    The effect of accompanying anions on the adsorbability and extractability of Pb added in soils was studied by using bach equilibria and incubation-extraction mothods.Pb concentration ranged between 0.48-2.41 mM in the adsorption experiment,and Pb added to soil from 2.14 to 19.31mM Pb/kg with an incubation time of 2-16 weeks in the incubation-extraction test in which 1M NH4OAc(pH 7) was taken as an extraction agent,and the Pb compounds used are PbCl2,Pb(NO3)2 and Pb(OAc)2.The values of pH50 for Pb retention and the parameters,b and k values,of Langmuir equation were used to distinguish the difference of adsorbability and extractability of Pb affected by anions,respectively.Judging from the results of either pH50 value or b value,the influences of Cl- and NO3- on the adsorbability and extractability of Pb in soils were similar but quite different from those of OAc-.The relative loading capacities of soils to Pb calculated according to the extraction rate showed that the values of Pb(OAc)2 were higher than those of PbCl2 and Pb(NO3)2.

  18. Effects of Experimental Negative Affect Manipulations on Ad Lib Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Bryan W.; Carpenter, Mathew J.; Correa, John B.; Wray, Jennifer M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Froeliger, Brett; Drobes, David J.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To quantify the effect of negative affect (NA), when manipulated experimentally, upon smoking as measured within laboratory paradigms. Quantitative meta-analyses tested the effects of NA vs. neutral conditions on 1) latency to smoke and 2) number of puffs taken. Methods Twelve experimental studies tested the influence of NA induction, relative to a neutral control condition (N = 1,190; range = 24–235). Those providing relevant data contributed to separate random effects meta-analyses to examine the effects of NA on two primary smoking measures: 1) latency to smoke (nine studies) and 2) number of puffs taken during ad lib smoking (eleven studies). Hedge’s g was calculated for all studies through the use of post-NA cue responses relative to post-neutral cue responses. This effect size estimate is similar to Cohen’s d, but corrects for small sample size bias. Results NA reliably decreased latency to smoke (g = −.14; CI = −.23 to −.04; p = .007) and increased number of puffs taken (g = .14; CI = .02 to .25; p = .02). There was considerable variability across studies for both outcomes (I2 = 51% and 65% for latency and consumption, respectively). Potential publication bias was indicated for both outcomes, and adjusted effect sizes were smaller and no longer statistically significant. Conclusions In experimental laboratory studies of smokers, negative affect appears to reduce latency to smoking and increase number of puffs taken but this could be due to publication bias. PMID:25641624

  19. Effects of Beliefs and Concerns on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising and Their Ad Clicking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Mir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and user acceptance globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, many businesses advertise their products on SNSs. The current study aims to assess the effects of SNSs consumers/users’ beliefs and concerns of social network advertising (SNA on their attitudes toward SNA and SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. Data was collected from a sample of 397 university students of Pakistan. Results show the beliefs of SNA as informative and entertaining have positive effects on user attitudes toward SNA and their ad-clicking behavior. Similarly, user concern of SNA as irritating has negative effects on both their attitudes toward SNA and ad-clicking behavior. Good for economy is an important socioeconomic belief which affects user attitudes toward SNA positively. The overall results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic aspects of SNA make SNS banner ads effective.

  20. Zinc isotope discrimination effect in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) has recently been used for isotope ratio analysis. The isotope discrimination effect in the mass spectrometer is a primary factor contributing to loss of precision and accuracy in isotope ratio analysis. The discrimination effect of zinc isotopes was investigated by comparing the results obtained using a quadrupole type ICPMS with those obtained using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer

  1. Effect of velocity and added resistance on selected coordination and force parameters in front crawl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Brazier, Tim; Button, Chris; Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier

    2011-10-01

    The effect of (a) increasing velocity and (b) added resistance was examined on the stroke (stroke length, stroke rate [SR]), coordination (index of coordination [IdC], propulsive phases), and force (impulse and peaks) parameters of 7 national-level front crawl swimmers (17.14 ± 2.73 years of swimming; 57.67 ± 1.62 seconds in the 100-m freestyle). The additional resistance was provided by a specially designed parachute. Parachute swimming (PA) and free-swimming (F) conditions were compared at 5 velocities per condition. Video footage was used to calculate the stroke and coordination parameters, and sensors allowed the determination of force parameters. The results showed that (a) an increase in velocity (V) led to increases in SR, IdC, propulsive phase duration, and peak propulsive force (p resistance, that is, "parachute training," can be used for specific strength training purposes as long as swimming is performed near maximum velocity. PMID:21912344

  2. The Survival Processing Effect with Intentional Learning of Ad Hoc Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Savchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that memory is adapted to remember information when it is processed in a survival context. This study investigates how procedural changes in Marinho (2012 study might have led to her failure to replicate the survival mnemonic advantage. In two between-subjects design experiments, participants were instructed to learn words from ad hoc categories and to rate their relevance to a survival or a control scenario. No survival advantage was obtained in either experiment. The Adjusted Ratio of Clustering (ARC scores revealed that including the category labels made the participants rely more on the category structure of the list. Various procedural aspects of the conducted experiments are discussed as possible reasons underlying the absence of the survival effect.

  3. Effective route maintenance and restoration schemes in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung-Seok; Ko, In-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a location-based hybrid routing protocol to improve data packet delivery and to reduce control message overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. In mobile environments, where nodes move continuously at a high speed, it is generally difficult to maintain and restore route paths. Therefore, this study suggests a new flooding mechanism to control route paths. The essence of the proposed scheme is its effective tracking of the destination's location based on the beacon messages of the main route nodes. Through experiments based on an NS-2 simulator, the proposed scheme shows improvements in the data packet delivery ratio and reduces the amount of routing control message overhead compared with existing routing protocols such as AODV, LAR, ZRP and AODV-DFR. PMID:22315570

  4. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. Objective: To investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8-11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic...... markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods: For two consecutive three-month periods this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured...... simultaneously for seven consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short and long sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured...

  5. Magnetic instability in AdS/CFT : Schwinger effect and Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian of Supersymmetric QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji; Sonoda, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    To reveal the Schwinger effect for quarks, i.e., pair creation process of quarks and antiquarks, we derive the vacuum decay rate at strong coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence. Magnetic fields, in addition to the electric field responsible for the pair creation, causes prominent effects on the rate, and is important also in experiments such as RHIC/LHC heavy ion collisions. In this paper, through the gravity dual we obtain the full Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian of N=2 supersymmetric QCD and study the Schwinger mechanism with not only a constant electric field but also a constant magnetic field as external fields. We determine the quark mass and temperature dependence of the Lagrangian. In sharp contrast with the zero magnetic field case, we find that the imaginary part, and thus the vacuum decay rate, diverges in the massless zero-temperature limit. This may be related to a strong instability of the QCD vacuum in strong magnetic fields. The real part of the Lagrangian serves as a generating function for non-li...

  6. Nucleon effective masses in field theories of dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Prakash, M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    We point out some generic trends of effective masses in commonly used field-theoretical descriptions of stellar matter in which several species of strongly interacting particles of dissimilar masses may be present. (orig.)

  7. Effect of adding inorganic, organic and microbial fertilizers on seed germination and seedling growth of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a comparison made on the effect of adding inorganic, organic and microbial fertilizers in soil on the germination of seeds of 4 sunflower varieties viz., Hysun-33, Hysun-38, Helico-250 and SA-278 it was found that manure and triple phosphate had good effect as compared to the control series. Inoculation of microbial fertiliser (VAM-fungal spores) had no effect for 6 days and the percentage of germination of seeds was equal to the control series. On the emergence of seedlings there was a better seedling growth in VAM-fungi inoculated plants as compared to organic manure and inorganic triple phosphate fertilisers. Addition of 300 mg/kg of manure and triple phosphate showed better increase in growth and fresh and dry weights over the control. Addition of 500 mg/kg of manure and triple phosphate in soil showed lodging of seedlings. Inoculation of 500 spores/kg in soil showed remarkable effect on the growth of seedlings after 15 days and there was no lodging of seedlings. The increase in growth was due to the establishment of symbiotic association between the VAM-fungi in roots of sunflower plants which was evident under microscope. (author)

  8. Ad libitum feeding following ovariectomy in female Beagle dogs: effect on maintenance energy requirement and on blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeusette, I; Detilleux, J; Cuvelier, C; Istasse, L; Diez, M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the effect of ovariectomy on daily energy requirement in Beagle dogs, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of ad libitum feeding with a high energy diet on energy consumption, body weight gain and blood metabolites in these spayed dogs. Four young adult female Beagle dogs were used. Ovariectomy induced a significant decrease of daily energy requirement in dogs. Ad libitum feeding, initiated 6 months after spaying, induced a significant increase in consumption in spayed dogs. This overconsumption was greatest during the first month of ad libitum feeding but continued for the entire 4 months of this period. When fed ad libitum, dogs gained excess body weight without significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin, at short term. These data suggest that energy intake should be strictly controlled to avoid excess weight gain in spayed dogs. PMID:15059235

  9. Effect of blocking mass on characteristics of beam lateral vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lateral vibration equation is established by setting up two separate co-coordinate systems of the mass-beam system, and the non-dimensional coefficients implying the position and mass radio of the mass in the system are presented in the paper. The effect on the vibration frequencies of changing the position and the mass radio in the system is numerically discussed, and the modes of the system with different mass radio and position are considered. The result shows that the frequencies decrease as increasing the mass radio, but the frequencies fluctuate with position changing, and there exists some positions that the frequencies do not vary after the mass radio increases except the first frequency, also that the effects on the vibration characteristic as increasing the mass radio can be decreased by modulating the position of the mass. (authors)

  10. Mass and Isospin Effects in Multifragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Sfienti, C; Aumann, T; Bacri, C O; Barczyk, T; Bassini, R; Boiano, C; Botvina, A S; Boudard, A; Brzychczyk, J; Chbihi, A; Cibor, J; Czech, B; De Napoli, M; Ducret, J E; Emling, H; Frankland, J; Hellström, M; Henzlova, D; Kezzar, K; Imme, G; Iori, I; Johansson, H; Lafriakh, A; Lefèvre, A; Le Gentil, E; Leifels, Y; Lynch, W G; Lühning, J; Lukasik, J; Lynen, U; Majka, Z; Mocko, M; Müller, W F J; Mykulyak, A; Orth, H; Otte, A N; Palit, R; Pullia, A; Raciti, G; Rapisarda, E; Sann, H; Schwarz, C; Simon, H; Sokolov, A; Sümmerer, K; Trautmann, W; Tsang, M B; Verde, G; Volant, C; Wallace, M; Weick, H; Wiechula, J; Wieloch, A; Zwieglinski, B

    2004-01-01

    A systematic study of isospin effects in the breakup of projectile spectators at relativistic energies has been performed with the ALADiN spectrometer at the GSI laboratory (Darmstadt). Four different projectiles 197Au, 124La, 124Sn and 107Sn, all with an incident energy of 600 AMeV, have been used, thus allowing a study of various combinations of masses and N/Z ratios in the entrance channel. The measurement of the momentum vector and of the charge of all projectile fragments with Z>1 entering the acceptance of the ALADiN magnet has been performed with the high efficiency and resolution achieved with the TP-MUSIC IV detector. The Rise and Fall behavior of the mean multiplicity of IMFs as a function of Zbound and its dependence on the isotopic composition has been determined for the studied systems. Other observables investigated so far include mean N/Z values of the emitted light fragments and neutron multiplicities. Qualitative agreement has been obtained between the observed gross properties and the predic...

  11. Mass and Isospin Effects in Multifragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfienti, C.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bacri, C. O.; Barczyk, T.; Bassini, R.; Boiano, C.; Botvina, A. S.; Boudard, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Chbihi, A.; Cibor, J.; Czech, B.; De Napoli, M.; Ducret, J.-E.; Emling, H.; Frankland, J.; Hellström, M.; Henzlova, D.; Kezzar, K.; Immé, G.; Iori, I.; Johansson, H.; Lafriakh, A.; Le Fèvre, A.; Le Gentil, E.; Leifels, Y.; Lynch, W. G.; Lühning, J.; Łukasik, J.; Lynen, U.; Majka, Z.; Mocko, M.; Müller, W. F. J.; Mykulyak, A.; Orth, H.; Otte, A. N.; Palit, R.; Pullia, A.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Sann, H.; Schwarz, C.; Simon, H.; Sokolov, A.; Sümmerer, K.; Trautmann, W.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Volant, C.; Wallace, M.; Weick, H.; Wiechula, J.; Wieloch, A.; Zwieglinski, B.

    2005-03-01

    A systematic study of isospin effects in the breakup of projectile spectators at relativistic energies has been performed with the ALADiN spectrometer at the GSI laboratory (Darmstadt). Four different projectiles 197Au, 124La, 124Sn and 107Sn, all with an incident energy of 600 AMeV, have been used, thus allowing a study of various combinations of masses and N/Z ratios in the entrance channel. The measurement of the momentum vector and of the charge of all projectile fragments with Z > 1 entering the acceptance of the ALADiN magnet has been performed with the high efficiency and resolution achieved with the TP-MUSIC IV detector. The Rise and Fall behavior of the mean multiplicity of IMFs as a function of Zbound and its dependence on the isotopic composition has been determined for the studied systems. Other observables investigated so far include mean N/Z values of the emitted light fragments and neutron multiplicities. Qualitative agreement has been obtained between the observed gross properties and the predictions of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model.

  12. WITHDRAWN The analgesic effect of paracetamol when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, M; Saricaoglu, F; Canbay, O; Dal, D; Uzumcigil, A; Leblebicioglu, G; Aypar, U

    2011-10-21

    Ahead of Print article withdrawn by publisher AIM: Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) is frequently used in patients who will undergo upper extremity surgical operations for its ease of use, rapid effectiveness and short hospitalization period. Different drug combinations have been used to overcome some systemic adverse effects and to increase the postoperative analgesic effectiveness. In our study, we evaluated the effects of paracetamol (Perfalgan) when added to lidocaine for IVRA, looking specifically at tourniquet pain and postoperative pain. METHODS: Ninety patients undergoing elective hand surgery with IVRA were randomly assigned to three groups to receive either IV saline and C-IVRA with 0.5% lidocaine 3 mg/kg (control group, N=30), IV saline and IVRA with 0.5% lidocaine and 20 mL paracetamol (10 mg/cc) (P-IVRA group, N=30) or IV paracetamol and IVRA with 0.5% lidocaine (L-IV group, N=30). The following were measured: 1) sensory and motor block onset and recovery time, 2) tourniquet pain after tourniquet application and at 10, 20 and 30 min after tourniquet deflation, 3) the visual analog scale (VAS) scores of tourniquet pain at 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h postoperatively, 4) the time to first analgesic requirement, 5) total analgesic consumption in 24 h and 6) side effects. RESULTS: Sensory and motor block onset and recovery times were similar in both groups. VAS scores of tourniquet pain were lower in group P-IRVA at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h, postoperatively (PPerfalgan as an adjunct to lidocaine improves postoperative analgesia in IVRA without adverse effects. PMID:19935636

  13. Hairy AdS Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Anabalon, Andres; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for planar hairy black holes within these theories.

  14. The effect of adding hyoscine to vaginal misoprostol on abortion induction success rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehranian A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Intravaginal misoprostol has been shown to be an effective agent for cervical ripening and induction of labor. The aim of present study was to assess the effects of adding hyoscine to vaginal misoprostol on its success rate. "n"nMethods: In a clinical trial, 74 women who were referred to undergo legal induction of labor during first pregnancy trimester in Arash Hospital, in Tehran, Iran, between March 2006 and March 2007 were enrolled, and were randomly divided in to two groups of misoprostol (400 µg/4h, vaginal (n=37 or misoprostol (400 µg/4h, vaginal plus hyoscine (20 mg IV (n=37. Their complications including nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, need for analgesics, diarrhea, vaginal bleeding, decline in hemoglobin more than 3 g/dl, need for blood transfusion and failure of treatment according to the failure of induction of labor or cervical opening in 24 hours after starting treatment and the total duration of hospitalization were compared between groups. "n"nResults: There were no significant differences between groups regarding the rate of side effects like nausea, abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. In misoprostol plus hyoscine group, the success rate in abortion was significantly higher (40

  15. Capacity Scaling of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Effect of Finite Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Si-Hyeon

    2010-01-01

    We study the capacity scaling of wireless ad hoc networks considering the effect of finite wavelength. $n$ source--destination pairs are assumed to be randomly placed in areas of 1 (dense network) and $n$ (extended network). \\"{O}zg\\"{u}r \\emph{et al.} showed that the linear capacity scaling is possible for the dense network and the extended network with path-loss exponent equal to 2, which is achieved by hierarchical cooperation (HC). However, such a linear capacity scaling was shown to violate the physical limit on degrees of freedom by Franceschetti \\emph{et al}. The cause of the contradiction is the idealized channel model used in the analysis of the HC, in which the channel correlation due to the finite wavelength is ignored. In this paper, we use a channel model that captures the channel correlation correctly, modify the HC accordingly, and analyze its throughput scaling in terms of both $n$ and the wavelength. Our result shows exactly how the throughput scaling of HC is degraded due to the effect of fi...

  16. Economic Effects of Investment Support of Adding Value to Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mezera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The reason for this contribution is need for analysis and evaluation of the support of adding value to food products in framework of the Rural Development Programme (sub-measure I.1.3.1 in the context of the preparation of new documents for the new programming period 2014 - 2020. Application of research results is the first step to modification of rules for the RDP granting aid for the programming period 2014 - 2020 in order to be efficient and targeted at food industry in the new conditions. From a methodological point of view the solution is based on counterfactual analysis and identifies the main effects for the food industry using economic indicators. Results show that the supported businesses consolidated their economic position to a certain extent. The investment support has positive impact on financial stability because participants had smaller decrease of profitability than nonparticipants in the period 2007 - 2010. The investment support increases labour productivity. But due to the higher depreciation, as the consequence of investments in fixed assets, the overall effects on economic results are slightly reduced.The author gratefully acknowledge the support of the Ministry of Agriculture – the support came from the institutional support of the Institute of Agricultural Economics and Information (internal research project no. 1262 – “Economic performance of the Czech food processing sector with focus on small and medium enterprises in the context of the measures Rural Development Programme”.

  17. Projection effects in coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršnak, B.; Sudar, D.; Ruždjak, D.; Žic, T.

    2007-07-01

    Context: Basic observational parameters of a coronal mass ejection (CME) are its speed and angular width. Measurements of the CME speed and angular width are severely influenced by projection effects. Aims: The goal of this paper is to investigate a statistical relationship between the plane-of-sky speeds of CMEs and the direction of their propagation, hopefully providing an estimate of the true speeds of CMEs. Methods: We analyze the correlation between the plane-of-sky velocity and the position of the CME source region, employing several non-halo CME samples. The samples are formed applying various restrictions to avoid crosstalk of relevant parameters. For example, we select only CMEs observed to radial distances larger than 10 solar radii; we omit CMEs showing a considerable acceleration in the considered distance range and treat CMEs of different angular widths separately. Finally, we combine these restriction criteria, up to the limits beyond which the statistical significance of the results becomes ambiguous. Results: A distinct anti-correlation is found between the angular width of CMEs and their source-region position, clearly showing an increasing trend towards the disc center. Similarly, all of the considered subsamples show a correlation between the CME projected speed and the distance of the source region from the disc center. On average, velocities of non-halo limb-CMEs are 1.5-2 times higher than in the case of non-halo CMEs launched from regions located close to the disc center. Conclusions: Unfortunately, the established empirical relationships provide only a rough estimate of the velocity correction as a function of the source-region location. To a certain degree, the results can be explained in terms of CME cone models, but only after taking crosstalk of various parameters and observational artifacts into account.

  18. Information feedback and mass media effects in cultural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Mario G. Cosenza; Klemm, Konstantin; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of different forms of information feedback associated with mass media on an agent-agent based model of the dynamics of cultural dissemination. In addition to some processes previously considered, we also examine a model of local mass media influence in cultural dynamics. Two mechanisms of information feedback are investigated: (i) direct mass media influence, where local or global mass media act as an additional element in the network of interactions of each agent, and (i...

  19. AdS braneworld with Backreaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bilic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    We review the tachyon model derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the AdS5 bulk. The bulk geometry is based on the Randall-Sundrum II model extended to include the radion. The effective tachyon Lagrangian is modified due to the back-reaction of the brane on the bulk geometry.

  20. Dependence of Quark Effective Mass on Gluon Propagators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-Rong; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on Dyson-Schwinger Equations (DSEs) in the "rainbow" approximation, the dependence of quark effective mass on gluon propagator is investigated by use of three different phenomenological gluon propagators with two parameters, the strength parameter x and range parameter △. Our theoretical calculations for the quark effective mass Mf(p2), defined by the self-energy functions Af(p2) and Bf(p2) of the DSEs, show that the dynamically running quark effective mass is strongly dependent on gluon propagator. Therefore, because gluon propagator is completely unknown,the quark effective mass cannot be exactly determined theoretically.

  1. Investigating the Effects of Adding Fentanyl to Bupivacaine in Spinal Anesthesia of Opium-addicted Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Satari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinal anesthesia in opium-addicted patients can be associated with many complications. Hence, this study aimed to investigate sensory and motor block characteristics, duration of postoperative analgesia, hemodynamic and side effects by adding Fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal Anesthesia of opium-addicted patients. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 60 American society of Anesthesiology (ASA class I and II opium-addicted patients under spinal anesthesia in lower abdominal and lower limb operations were randomly classified into two groups of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl. Clinical symptoms, side effects, the duration of sensory and motor block, initiation of analgesia requirement and sensory block were assessed. Results: The study results indicated no significant difference between bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl groups in regard with demographic, side effects, blood pressure and heart rate, though a significant difference was observed in respiratory rate 5min, 10min, 45min, 75min and 90 min after block. Duration of sensory (100.33 to 138.83 and motor block (93.43 to 107.66 and , initiation of analgesia requirement (165.33 to 187.76 was significantly longer in bupivacaine-fentanyl, though initiation of sensory block (8.83 to 4.93 was significantly longer in bupivacaine. Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia increases the duration of sensory and motor block and initiation of analgesia requirement in opium-addicted patients and also decreases initiation of sensory block in these patients.

  2. Theoretical re-evaluations of the black hole mass-bulge mass relation - I. Effect of seed black hole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakata, Hikari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Makiya, Ryu; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Enoki, Motohiro; Oogi, Taira; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the effect of varying the mass of a seed black hole on the resulting black hole mass-bulge mass relation at z ˜ 0, using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. We constrain our model by requiring that the observed properties of galaxies at z ˜ 0 are reproduced. In keeping with previous semi-analytic models, we place a seed black hole immediately after a galaxy forms. When the mass of the seed is set at 105 M⊙, we find that the model results become inconsistent with recent observational results of the black hole mass-bulge mass relation for dwarf galaxies. In particular, the model predicts that bulges with ˜109 M⊙ harbour larger black holes than observed. On the other hand, when we employ seed black holes of 103 M⊙ or select their mass randomly within a 103-5 M⊙ range, the resulting relation is consistent with observation estimates, including the observed dispersion. We find that, to obtain stronger constraints on the mass of seed black holes, observations of less massive bulges at z ˜ 0 are a more powerful comparison than the relations at higher redshifts.

  3. Protection from radiation injury by elemental diet: does added glutamine change the effect?

    OpenAIRE

    McArdle, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    The feeding of a protein hydrolysate based 'elemental' diet supplemented with added glutamine did not provide superior protection to the small intestine of dogs subjected to therapeutic pelvic irradiation. Comparison of diets with and without the added glutamine showed significant protection of the intestine from radiation injury. Both histological examination and electron microscopy showed lack of tissue injury with both diets. The activity of the free radical generating enzymes, scavengers,...

  4. Evaluation of the effect of added fentanyl to hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Jafari-Javid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potentiating the effect of the intrathecal local anesthetics by intrathecal injection of opiods for intra-abdominal surgeries is known. The objective of this study is to investigate the pain-relieving effects of intrathecal fentanyl to bupivacaine in elective caesarean surgery.Materials and Method: In a double blind clinical trial 60 patients candidate for elective cesarean section. They were studied in two groups. Cases in the control group received 12.5 mg of bupivacaine and in the study group received 8 mg of bupivacaine and 20 µg fentanyl. The parameters taken into consideration were hemodynamic stability, visceral pain, nausea and vomiting, intraoperative shivering, the amount of intraoperative administered dose of fentanyl and ephedrine and postoperative pain. Results: The average blood pressure changes after 5, 10, 20, 60 minutes were lower in the study group. Shivering and ephedrine dose during operation were lower in study group and statistically significant respectively (p=0.01, p=0.001, respectively. Duration of analgesia after operation increased from (115.5±7.5 min in control group to (138.5±9.9 min in study group, but the quality of analgesia during peritoneal manipulation did not change. Pulse rate and vomiting during operation were not statistically different between two groups.Conclusion: Reduction of local anesthetic dose with adding fentanyl may cause hemodynamic stability, increasing the postoperative pain-free time, decrease shivering and vasopressor consumption in spinal anesthesia and reduction of the amount of blood pressure drop during elective cesarean surgery

  5. Music and Moral Judgment: The Effect of Background Music on the Evaluation of Ads Promoting Unethical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Naomi; Hoftman, Moran; Geyer, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Background music is often used in ads as a means of persuasion. Previous research has studied the effect of music in advertising using neutral or uncontroversial products. The aim of the studies reported here was to examine the effect of music on the perception of products promoting unethical behavior. Each of the series of three studies described…

  6. How effective are active videogames among the young and the old? Adding meta-analyses to two recent systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Crutzen, R.; Shirong, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Two recent systematic reviews have surveyed the existing evidence for the effectiveness of active videogames in children/adolescents and in elderly people. In the present study, effect sizes were added to these systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were performed. Materials and Methods: A

  7. Nucleon effective mass and the A dependence of structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, C.A.; Santangelo, E.M.; Vucetich, H.

    1984-10-08

    The nucleon effective mass was successfully used, as the only free parameter, to adjust the ratio R(A) of structure functions measured in a nucleus of mass number A and in the deuteron, for each A value in the SLAC set of experimental data. The resulting A dependence of the effective mass, being linear in A/sup -1/3/, is consistent with the behavior expected from nuclear structure considerations. The extrapolated value of the effective mass for nuclear matter agrees with previous estimations.

  8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of some natural plant extracts added to lamb patties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, Hayam M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural plants are considered an important target to investigate in order to provide a new source of natural antioxidants and/or antimicrobial agents. The optimum concentrations of some natural plant (jojoba, jatropha, ginseng and ginger extracts were determined and added to lamb patties. Some chemical and microbial characteristics of the prepared patties during storage for 9 days at 4°C were evaluated. Both the addition of these extracts and storage time had a significant effect on the patties throughout the storage period. The effectiveness of the tested natural extracts can be listed in the following order of decreasing Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values: ginseng > jatropha > jojoba > ginger. Aerobic plate count, mould and yeast counts decreased significantly with addition of the extracts during the storage period. Also, the addition of the extracts was significantly effective in reducing histamine, tyramine and putrescine formation during the storage period. Compared to control patties, the addition of these natural extracts was effective as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for improving the properties of lamb patties.

    Las plantas naturales están consideradas como un importante producto donde buscar y encontrar nuevas fuentes de antioxidantes naturales y/o agentes antimicrobianos. La concentración óptima de algunos extractos de plantas naturales (jojoba, jatropha, ginseng y jengibre fueron determinado y añadidas a pasteles de cordero. Algunas características químicas y microbiológicas de los pasteles preparados y almacenados durante 9 días a 4°C fueron evaluados. Tanto la adición de estos extractos como el tiempo de almacenamiento tuvieron un efecto significativo en los pasteles en el periodo de almacenamiento. La efectividad de los extractos naturales ensayados puede ser enumerada en el siguiente orden decreciente de valores de substancias reactivas con el ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS: ginseng

  9. Evaluation of correction method for mass discrimination effect in multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes advances in isotopic measurements that have been made with an inductively coupled plasma source magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) and presents results of new experiments aimed at further evaluating the instrumental capability as well as the correction technique for the mass discrimination effects. The ability to correct for the mass discrimination effect using a second element of similar mass and very high sensitivity for elements that are otherwise difficult to ionize gives this instrument major advantages over other conventional techniques for isotopic measurements. The isotopic data obtained by MC-ICP-MS clearly demonstrate potential as a new technique to produce precise and reproducible isotopic data for the elements that are difficult to measure by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). (author)

  10. Flavour breaking effects of Wilson twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the flavour breaking effects appearing in the Wilson twisted mass formulation of lattice QCD. In this quenched study, we focus on the mass splitting between the neutral and the charged pion, determining the neutral pion mass with a stochastic noise method to evaluate the disconnected contributions. We find that these disconnected contributions are significant. Using the Osterwalder-Seiler interpretation of the connected piece of the neutral pion correlator, we compute the corresponding neutral pion mass to study with more precision the scaling behaviour of the mass splitting

  11. The Mass Media's Negative Effects on Society

    OpenAIRE

    "西尾, メリー"; "ニシオ, メリー"; Mary Ress Nishio

    1995-01-01

    "Evidence presented indicates that there are a number of ways in which the various mass media have been exerting a negative influence on society. Strong evidence exists which demonstrates a link between the viewing of violence or crime and the imitation of this behavior. A link has also been established between media viewing and suicide, domestic violence, delinquency, and use of the media by convicts for acquiring crime techniques. A number of homicides have been connected with direct imitat...

  12. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  13. Energy Band Model Based on Effective Mass Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Ariel, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an alternative method of deriving the energy band model using a definition of the effective mass and experimentally observed dependence of mass on energy. We use the model of the particle effective mass and extend it to anti-particles and particles with zero rest mass. As an example, we assume an often observed linear dependence of mass on energy and derive a generalized non-parabolic energy-momentum relation. The resulting non-parabolicity leads to velocity saturation at high particle energies. We apply the energy band model to free relativistic particles and carriers in solid state materials and obtain commonly used dispersion relations and experimentally confirmed effective masses. We apply the model to zero rest mass particles in graphene and propose using the definition of the effective mass for photons. Therefore, it appears that the new energy band model based on the effective mass approximation can be applied to the description of relativistic particles and carriers in sol...

  14. Gravitational waves and mass ejecta from binary neutron star mergers: Effect of the mass-ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Tim; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Bruegmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    We present new (3+1)D numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) merger and postmerger phase. We focus on a previously inaccessible region of the binary parameter space spanning the binary's mass-ratio $q\\sim1.00-1.75$ for different total masses and equations of state, and up to $q\\sim2$ for a stiff BNS system. We study the mass-ratio effect on the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic emission associated to dynamical mass ejecta. We compute waveforms, spectra, and spectrograms of the GW strain including all the multipoles up to $l=4$. The mass-ratio has a specific imprint on the GW multipoles in the late-inspiral-merger signal, and it affects qualitatively the spectra of the merger remnant. The multipole effect is also studied by considering the dependency of the GW spectrograms on the source's sky location. Unequal mass BNSs produce more ejecta than equal mass systems with ejecta masses and kinetic energies depending almost linearly on $q$. We estimate luminosi...

  15. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in an analog to digital converter /AD571/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Perret, J.; Evans, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation is concerned with the study of the total-dose degradation mechanisms in an IIL analog to digital (A/D) converter. The A/D converter is a 10 digit device having nine separate functional units on the chip which encompass several hundred transistors and circuit elements. It was the objective of the described research to find the radiation sensitive elements by a systematic search of the devices on the LSI chip. The employed technique using a scanning electron microscope to determine the functional blocks of an integrated circuit which are sensitive to ionizing radiation and then progressively zeroing in on the soft components within those blocks, proved extremely successful on the AD571. Four functional blocks were found to be sensitive to radiation, including the Voltage Reference, DAC, IIL Clock, and IIL SAR.

  16. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, ...

  17. Integrability and non-perturbative effects in the AdS/CFT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, C; Gómez, César; Hernández, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    We present a non-perturbative resummation of the asymptotic strong-coupling expansion for the dressing phase factor of the AdS_5xS^5 string S-matrix. The non-perturbative resummation provides a general form for the coefficients in the weak-coupling expansion, in agreement with crossing symmetry and transcendentality. The ambiguities of the non-perturbative prescription are discussed together with the similarities with the non-perturbative definition of the c=1 matrix model.

  18. Effect of Marangoni Convection on Mass Transfer in Liquid Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Liming; ZENG Aiwu; YU Kuo Tsung

    2006-01-01

    Marangoni convection and its influence on the mass transfer in the liquid phase were investigated.Marangoni convection was visualized using laser Schlieren technique.Orderly polygonal convection patterns and random interfacial turbulence were observed.The effect of Marangoni convection on the mass transfer rate was studied by desorbing ethanol from aqueous solution in the falling film.The experimental results show that Marangoni convection can speed up the surface renewal and enhance the mass transfer rate in the liquid phase.The liquid mass transfer coefficient can be enhanced by as much as 3 folds.The corresponding empirical correlations are given in terms of the mass transfer enhancement factor.Furthermore,in considering the Marangoni effect,the conventional mass transfer correlation was modified.The differences between the values predicted by the correlation and the experimental data are within ± 8.2% and the average difference is 4.2%.

  19. How Effective Are Active Videogames Among the Young and the Old? Adding Meta-analyses to Two Recent Systematic Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Crutzen, R.; Shirong, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Two recent systematic reviews have surveyed the existing evidence for the effectiveness of active videogames in children/adolescents and in elderly people. In the present study, effect sizes were added to these systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were performed. Materials and Methods: All reviewed studies were considered for inclusion in the meta-analyses, but only studies were included that investigated the effectiveness of active videogames, used an experimental design, and use...

  20. The Effect of Freezing and Hydrocolloids on the Physical Parameters of Strawberry Mass-Based Desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boča Sigita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of freezing, thickening and storage on the physical properties of the strawberry desserts made with addition of various hydrocolloids. The strawberry cultivars ‘Polka’, ‘Honeoye’, and ‘Senga Sengana’ harvested in Latvia were used in the study. The strawberries were processed in a blender for obtaining a homogenous mass. The strawberry mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at -18 °C. Both fresh and frozen strawberry mass samples with added gelatine, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were whisked until obtaining dessert. For determination of the optimum hydrocolloid amount, sensory evaluation was done using a five-point hedonic scale. Moisture, soluble solids content, density, and pH of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Consistency of the dessert during its storage was evaluated using a texture analyser TA.XT.plus. The results of sensory evaluation allow concluding that in order to provide the most acceptable consistency, colour, and taste of strawberry dessert, the optimum quantity of carboxymethyl cellulose and xanthan gum to be added is 0.6% and that of gelatine is 6%. During freezing, the soluble solids content and pH level decreased in the strawberry mass, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased these values. The moisture content in strawberry puree, in its turn, as a result of freezing increased under the influence of syneresis, but added hydrocolloids, on the contrary, decreased this influence. Also the viscosity and consistency of the strawberry puree prepared from the researched cultivars decreased under the influence of freezing, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased both the values, making the strawberry dessert firmer. The research suggests that strawberry dessert with gelatine had the most pronounced changes during storage, but strawberry dessert with added xanthan

  1. Effects of Globalization on Mass Media in the World

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Kheeshadeh

    2012-01-01

    In this article we will discuss about globalization its history and mass media and its history then effects of mass media on all over the world. Specifically we will discuss the impact of globalization on three countries like Bangladesh, India, and Southafrica. The entire positive and the negative impacts of Globalization on media will be discussed here. Kinds of mass media and rate of the freedom of press will also be discussed. Some points of democracy are also being discussed under the glo...

  2. Status Report for Experiment AD-4/ACE Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, M H; Angelopoulos, Angelo; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; Currell, Fred; De Marco, John; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Kavanagh, Joy; Iwamoto, Kei; Jäkel, Oliver; Kantemiris, Ioannis; Knudsen, Helge; Kovacevic, Sandra; McBride, Bill; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen; Ratib, Osman; Schettino, Giuseppe; Timson, David; Singers-Sørensen, Brita; Solberg, Timothy; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Status report for experiment AD-4/ACE showing recent progress in RBE measurements for V79 Chinese Hamster cells irradiated with antiprotons. Also discussed are initial test experiments using the H2AX assay to study DNA damage to cells and initial experiments using liquid ionization chambers.

  3. A comparison of the effects of added saliva, α-amylase and water on texture perception in semisolids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.; Bilt, A. van der; Weenen, H.; Bosman, F.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of adding saliva or a saliva-related fluid (α-amylase solution and water) to custard prior to ingestion on the sensory ratings of odour, flavour and lip-tooth-, mouth- and after-feel sensations was investigated. Saliva had previously been collected from the subjects and each subject recei

  4. Hyaluronan with dextran added to therapeutic lung surfactants improves effectiveness in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Karen W; Taeusch, H William; Clements, John A

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants in current clinical use are largely ineffective in treating acute lung injury (ALI)/ acute respiratory distress syndrome. In part, this ineffectiveness is due to inactivation of surfactant by serum leakage into the alveoli. Previously, we reported that adding hyaluronan and some nonionic polymers to synthetic lipids combined with native SP-B and SP-C enhanced surface activity. In this study, we first tested two therapeutic lung surfactants and then retested after adding hyaluronan, polyethylene glycol or dextran alone or in two-polymer combinations including hyaluronan in the absence or presence of serum. Surface activities were measured in a modified bubble surfactometer. Results indicate that the inhibition threshold (defined as the amount of serum required to produce a minimum surface tension above 10 mN/m after 5 minutes of cycling) was 35 times higher with hyaluronan plus dextran added to Infasurf than with Infasurf alone, and better than all other mixtures tested. The threshold for Survanta with hyaluronan plus polyethylene glycol was 7 times higher than Survanta alone. We next tested selected surfactant mixtures in an animal model that mimicked ALI. All measurements of lung function showed significant improvement (P ≤ .05) with hyaluronan, or with hyaluronan and dextran added to Infasurf compared to Infasurf alone. Also, for these two groups, lung function was still improving at the end of the experiment. We conclude that certain polymers added to clinical surfactants can greatly increase resistance to inactivation in vitro, while in vivo, both Infasurf mixtures containing hyaluronan tended to normalize measures of lung function unlike other mixtures tested. PMID:23638643

  5. Gravitational mass-shift effect in the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2012-02-01

    The gravitational mass-shift effect is investigated in the framework of the standard model with the energy cutoff regularization both for stationary and nonstationary backgrounds at the one-loop level. The problem of singularity of the effective potential of the Higgs field on the horizon of a black hole, which was reported earlier, is resolved. The equations characterizing the properties of a vacuum state are derived and solved in a certain approximation for the Schwarzschild black hole. The gravitational mass-shift effect is completely described in this case. The behavior of masses of the massive particles of the standard model depends on the value of the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime. If the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime is less than 263.6 GeV then a mass of any massive particle approaching a gravitating object grows. If the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime is greater than or equal to 278.2 GeV, the masses of all the massive particles decrease in a strong gravitational field. The Higgs boson masses lying between these two values prove to lead to instability, at least at the one-loop level, and so they are excluded. It turns out that the vacuum possesses the same properties as an ultrarelativistic fluid in a certain approximation. The expression for the entropy and enthalpy densities and the pressure of this fluid are obtained. The sound speed in this fluid is also derived.

  6. Effect of adding 8 milligrams ondansetron to lidocaine for Bier's block on post-operative pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Adineh-Mehr, Leili

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ondansetron has analgesic properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic effect of 8 mg ondansetron when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). Materials and Methods: Ninety patients undergoing hand surgery were randomly allocated to the three groups to receive 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 mL (Group L, n = 30) or 8 mg ondansetron plus 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 mL (group LO, n = 30) or 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 mL plus 8 mg ondansetron intravenously (Group IO, n = 30). Tourniquet pain and analgesic use were recorded before and after the tourniquet application. Results: The sensory and motor block onset times were significantly shorter in Group LO compared with Group L and Group IO (4.2 ± 1.7 vs. 5.2 ± 0.8 and 5.1 ± 1.2 respectively, P < 0.05; 4.5 ± 1.4 vs. 5.8 ± 1.5 and 5.7 ± 1.4 respectively, P < 0.05). The sensory and motor block recovery times were significantly longer in Group LO compared with Group L and Group IO (6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 4.1 ± 1.3 and 4.5 ± 0.9 respectively, P < 0.05; 6.7 ± 1.4 vs. 4.4 ± 0.9 and 4.7 ± 0.7 respectively, P < 0.05). Post-operative VAS scores were significantly less in Group LO compared with Group L and Group IO till 24 h after tourniquet deflation (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The addition of 8 mg ondansetron to lidocaine for IVRA reduced intraoperative and post-operative analgesic use till 24 h. PMID:24516852

  7. Wormholes in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan; Maoz, Liat

    2004-01-01

    We construct a few Euclidean supergravity solutions with multiple boundaries. We consider examples where the corresponding boundary field theory is well defined on each boundary. We point out that these configurations are puzzling from the AdS/CFT point of view. A proper understanding of the AdS/CFT dictionary for these cases might yield some information about the physics of closed universes.

  8. Excited-State Effective Masses in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Fleming, Saul Cohen, Huey-Wen Lin

    2009-10-01

    We apply black-box methods, i.e. where the performance of the method does not depend upon initial guesses, to extract excited-state energies from Euclidean-time hadron correlation functions. In particular, we extend the widely used effective-mass method to incorporate multiple correlation functions and produce effective mass estimates for multiple excited states. In general, these excited-state effective masses will be determined by finding the roots of some polynomial. We demonstrate the method using sample lattice data to determine excited-state energies of the nucleon and compare the results to other energy-level finding techniques.

  9. Mass effect of injected dose in small rodent imaging by SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, M.-P. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States) and Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: kunghf@sunmac.spect.upenn.edu

    2005-10-01

    This paper discusses the effect of mass (chemical quantity) of injected dose on positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Commonly, PET or SPECT imaging study uses a 'no-carrier added' dose, which contains a small amount of radioactive imaging agent (in picogram to microgram). For small animal (rodent) imaging studies, specifically targeting binding sites or biological processes, the mass (chemical quantity) in the dose may significantly modify the binding, pharmacokinetics and, ultimately, the imaging outcome. Due to differences in size and other physiological factors between humans and rodents, there is a dramatic divergence of mass effect between small animal and human imaging study. In small animal imaging studies, the mass, or effective dose (ED{sub 50}), a dose required for 50% of receptor or binding site occupancy, is usually not directly related to binding potential (B {sub max}/K {sub d}) (measured by in vitro binding assay). It is likely that dynamic interplays between specific and nonspecific binding in blood circulation, transient lung retention, kidney excretion, liver-gallbladder flow, soft tissue retention as well as metabolism could each play a significant role in determining the concentration of the tracer in the target regions. When using small animal imaging for studying drug occupancy (either by a pretreatment, coinjection or chasing dose), the mass effects on imaging outcome are important factors for consideration.

  10. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  11. Space Weather Effects of Coronal Mass Ejection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. N. Iyer; R. M. Jadav; A. K. Jadeja; P. K. Manoharan; Som Sharma; Hari Om Vats

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes the space weather effects of a major CME which was accompanied by extremely violent events on the Sun. The signatures of the event in the interplanetary medium (IPM) sensed by Ooty Radio Telescope, the solar observations by LASCO coronagraph onboard SOHO, GOES X-ray measurements, satellite measurements of the interplanetary parameters, GPS based ionospheric measurements, the geomagnetic storm parameter Dst and ground based ionosonde data are used in the study to understand the space weather effects in the different regions of the solar-terrestrial environment. The effects of this event are compared and possible explanations attempted.

  12. PATRIMONIAL RESOURCES’ MANAGEMENT AND EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Burja“1 Decembrie 1918†University of Alba Iulia; Camelia Burja“1 Decembrie 1918†University of Alba Iulia

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The core elements of one firm’s existence as the patrimonial situation andperformance, are related in a great measure by the business strategy adopted, the economicenvironment in which it is operating and the way of resources’ management. An efficientmanagement of all patrimonial resources can assure the obtaining of the superior financial resultsand of a higher value added. The principal goal of the paper is the presentation of the correlationbetween the patrimonial elements’ rotat...

  13. SEASONALITY AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MASS VACCINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L.; Dimitrov, Dobromir T.

    2016-01-01

    Many infectious diseases have seasonal outbreaks, which may be driven by cyclical environmental conditions (e.g., an annual rainy season) or human behavior (e.g., school calendars or seasonal migration). If a pathogen is only transmissible for a limited period of time each year, then seasonal outbreaks could infect fewer individuals than expected given the pathogen’s in-season transmissibility. Influenza, with its short serial interval and long season, probably spreads throughout a population until a substantial fraction of susceptible individuals are infected. Dengue, with a long serial interval and shorter season, may be constrained by its short transmission season rather than the depletion of susceptibles. Using mathematical modeling, we show that mass vaccination is most efficient, in terms of infections prevented per vaccine administered, at high levels of coverage for pathogens that have relatively long epidemic seasons, like influenza, and at low levels of coverage for pathogens with short epidemic seasons, like dengue. Therefore, the length of a pathogen’s epidemic season may need to be considered when evaluating the costs and benefits of vaccination programs. PMID:27105983

  14. Labor force participation of married women in Turkey: Is there an added or a discouraged worker effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Karaoglan, Deniz; Okten, Cagla

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes married women's labor supply responses to their husbands' job loss (added worker effect) and worsening of unemployment conditions (discouraged worker effect). We find that married women whose husbands are unemployed or underemployed are more likely to participate in the labor force and work more hours using yearly cross-sectional data from Turkey for the 2000-2010 period. We also construct two year panels based on questions on previous year's labor market outcomes. Panel...

  15. Superradiant instability in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of superradiance in the context of asymptotically global AdS spacetimes is investigated with particular accent on its effect on the stability of the systems under consideration. To this end, the concept of an asymptotically AdS spacetime is explained, together with its implications on the boundary conditions at $\\mathcal{I}$, as well as the Newman-Penrose-Teukolsky formalism, whereby the Teukolsky master equation in a most general form for Kerr-AdS is given. Furthermore, work done in the cases of RN-AdS and Kerr-AdS is laid out in a concise manner, putting emphasis on the important steps taken in determining the endpoint of the superradiant instability in the two configurations. For the former this turns out to be a black hole with reduced charge and a static charged scalar condensate around it, whereas for the latter two of the more probable outcomes are presented, both of which imply a violation of one of the cosmic censorships.

  16. An Effective Approach for Mobile ad hoc Network via I-Watchdog Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Lal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.

  17. Gravitational mass-shift effect in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kazinski, P O

    2011-01-01

    A gravitational mass-shift effect is investigated in the framework of the Standard Model with the physical regularization both for stationary and non-stationary backgrounds at a one-loop level. The problem of a singularity of the effective potential of the Higgs field on the horizon of a black hole, which was reported earlier, is resolved. The equations characterizing the properties of a vacuum state are derived and solved in a certain approximation for the Schwarzschild black hole. The gravitational mass-shift effect is completely described in this case. A behavior of the masses of massive particles of the Standard Model depends on the value of the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime. If the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime is less than 263.6 GeV, the masses of all the massive particles grow, when they approach a gravitating object. If the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime is greater than or equal to 278.2 GeV, the the masses of all the massive particles decrease in a strong gravitational field. The ...

  18. On the nucleon effective mass role to the high energy proton spallation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, B. M.; Pinheiro, A. R. C.; Gonçalves, M.; Duarte, S. B.; Cabral, R. G.

    2016-04-01

    We explore the effect of the nucleon effective mass to the dynamic evolution of the rapid phase of proton-nucleus spallation reactions. The analysis of the relaxation time for the non-equilibrium phase is studied by variations in the effective mass parameter. We determine the final excitation energy of the hot residual nucleus at the end of cascade phase and the de-excitation of the nuclear system is carried out considering the competition of particle evaporation and fission processes. It was shown that the excitation energy depends of the hot compound residual nucleus at the end of the rapid phase on the changing effective mass. The multiplicity of particles was also analyzed in cascade and evaporation phase of the reaction. The use of nucleon effective mass during cascade phase can be considered as an effect of the many-body nuclear interactions not included explicitly in a treatment to the nucleon-nucleon interaction inside the nucleus. This procedure represents a more realistic scenario to obtain the neutron multiplicity generated in this reaction, which is a benchmark for the calculation of the neutronic in the ADS reactors.

  19. Radiation Effect on Mhd Heat and Mass Transfer Flow over a Shrinking Sheet with Mass Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    patkar ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical analysis has been carried out to study the effects radiation and heat source/sink on the steady two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of heat and mass transfer past a shrinking sheet with wall mass suction. In the dynamic system, a uniform magnetic field acts normal to the plane of flow. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into self-similar equations are solved by employing finite difference using the quasilinearization technique. From the analysis it is found that the velocity inside the boundary layer increases with increase of wall mass suction and magnetic field and accordingly the thickness of the momentum boundary layer decreases. The temperature decreases with Hartmann number, Prandtl number, and heat sink parameter and the temperature increases with heat source parameter, radiation parameter. The concentration decreases with an increase of Hartmann number, mass suction parameter, Schmidt number, chemical reaction parameter.

  20. Predicting Mass Media Effects: A Cognitive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Thomas F.

    In this theoretical working paper, an attempt is made to pull together the two areas of cognitive information processing and emotional arousal, in order to provide a fuller framework for examining media effects. The development of a cognitive-behavioral index is proposed as a research tool resulting from this merger of areas, as are a number of…

  1. Effects of Added Salts on Surface Tension and Aggregation of Crown Ether Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Maki; Fujio, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Two crown ether surfactants, dodecanoyloxymethyl- (C11Φ6) and octanoyloxymethyl-18-crown-6 (C7Φ6), were synthesized and the surface tension dependence on surfactant concentration of their aqueous solutions was measured both in the absence and presence of alkali chlorides to confirm the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is highest for the added cation that have an ionic diameter comparable to the hole size of the crown ether ring and that several break points on the surface tension vs. concentration curves occur for these crown ether surfactants. For C11Φ6 and C7Φ6, in the absence of salt, the surface tension vs. concentration curves had two break points. Using the solubilization of a water-insoluble dye as an indicator, we found that the break point at the higher concentration (m0) for C7Φ6 was due to micelle formation. Two break points were also observed for the aqueous solution of C11Φ6 in the presence of NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl salts at concentrations of 0.22 mol kg(-1) and for C7Φ6 with 0.22 mol kg(-1) KCl added. The CMC (m0) was found to be the highest for solutions containing K(+) salts because K(+) has an ionic diameter comparable to the hole size of 18-crown-6 ring. Furthermore, the CMC decreased as the ionic diameters of the added cations deviated from the hole size. The molecular areas at two break points, estimated by the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, except for that at the break point at mI of C7Φ6, were very small for an adsorbed monolayer. Further investigation is required to elucidate the reason for the break point at mI. PMID:26666275

  2. Charm structure functions and gluon shadowing effects with the AdS/CFT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Min; Hou, Zhao-Yu; Liu, Jia-Fu; Sun, Xian-Jing

    2012-08-01

    By means of the UGD function extracted from an AdS/CFT inspired saturation model, the charm and bottom structure functions are studied in fixed-order perturbation theory. It is shown that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the recent HERA data. Then, this UGD function is also used to investigate net-kaon rapidity distribution in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies and the theoretical results fit well to the BRAHMS data. In the end of this paper, we give the predicted results for nuclear charm structure function at very small x where the popular shadowing parameterizations are invalid.

  3. Charm structure functions and gluon shadowing effects with the AdS/CFT model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Min; HOU Zhao-Yu; LIU Jia-Fu; SUN Xian-Jing

    2012-01-01

    By means of the UGD function extracted from an AdS/CFT inspired saturation model,the charm and bottom structure functions are studied in fixed-order perturbation theory.It is shown that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the recent HERA data.Then,this UGD function is also used to investigate net-kaon rapidity distribution in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies and the theoretical results fit well to the BRAHMS data.In the end of this paper,we give the predicted results for nuclear charm structure function at very small x where the popular shadowing parameterizations are invalid.

  4. Effective Performance Evaluation of On-Demand Routing Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Sethi, Sangita Pal, Ashima Rout

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To solveSpectrum decision and route selectionproblemwhich have vital role in cognitive radio adhoc network (CRAHN,many researchersdeveloped different methodology how efficientlyselect the proper route between source anddestination. In this paperit has beenanalysed theefficiency and routing load ofon-demand routingprotocolbased onad hoc on-demand distance vector(AODV routing protocolfor CRAHN. It observedthat the overall performanceof routing protocol inCRAHNis better at less numbers of secondary users(SUs presents in the Cognitive radio ad hocnetwork.

  5. Sensitivity of $\\beta$-decay rates to the radial dependence of the nucleon effective mass

    CERN Document Server

    Severyukhin, A P; Borzov, I N; Van Giai, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the sensitivity of $\\beta$-decay rates in 78 Ni and 100,132 Sn to a correction term in Skyrme energy-density functionals (EDF) which modifies the radial shape of the nucleon effective mass. This correction is added on top of several Skyrme parametrizations which are selected from their effective mass properties and predictions about the stability properties of 132 Sn. The impact of the correction on high-energy collective modes is shown to be moderate. From the comparison of the effects induced by the surface-peaked effective mass in the three doubly magic nuclei, it is found that 132 Sn is largely impacted by the correction, while 78 Ni and 100 Sn are only moderately affected. We conclude that $\\beta$-decay rates in these nuclei can be used as a test of different parts of the nuclear EDF: 78 Ni and 100 Sn are mostly sensitive to the particle-hole interaction through the B(GT) values, while 132 Sn is sensitive to the radial shape of the effective mass. Possible improvements of these different parts...

  6. Effect of Target Configuration on the Neutronic Performance of the Gas-Cooled ADS

    CERN Document Server

    Biss, K; Shetty, N; Nabbi, R

    2013-01-01

    With the utilization of nuclear energy transuranic elements like Pu, Am and Cm are produced causing high, long term radioactivity and radio toxicity, respectively. To reduce the radiological impact on the environment and to the repository Partitioning and Transmutation is considered as an efficient way. In this respect comprehensive research works are performed at different research institutes worldwide. The results show that the transmutation of TRU is achieved with fast neutrons due to the higher fission probability. Based on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) those neutrons are used in a particular system, in which mainly liquid metal eutectic (lead bismuth) is used as coolant. The neutronic performance of an ADS system based on gas cooling was studied in this work by using the simulation tool MCNPX. The usage of the Monte-Carlo method in MCNPX allows the simulation of the physical processes in a 3D-model of the core. In dependence of the spallation target material and design several parameters like the mult...

  7. Physical Design of Critical Experiment Facility for Verifying Characteristics and Effects of Coupling Between Reactor and Spallation Target of ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Sheng-gui; ZHOU; Qi; LI; Yan

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of studying and verifying characteristics and effects of coupling between reactor and spallation target of ADS,based on the critical experimental facility design criteria and the availableexperiment condition,physical design of a critical experiment facility with lead coolant is completed,using critical calculation code MONK-9A.The contents of physical designs mainly include nuclear fuel,array of fuel rods,neutron source

  8. Effect of mass asymmetry on the mass dependence of balance energy

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of the mass asymmetry on the balance energy (Ebal) by studying asymmetric reactions throughout the periodic table and over entire colliding geometry. Our results, which are almost independent of the system size and as well as of the colliding geometries indicate a sizeable effect of the asymmetry of the reaction on the balance energy.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Adding Bedaquiline to Drug Regimens for the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfson, Lara J; Walker, Anna; Hettle, Robert; Lu, Xiaoyan; Kambili, Chrispin; Murungi, Andrew; Knerer, Gerhart

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to a background regimen (BR) of drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods A cohort-based Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR) versus BR alone (BR) in the treatment of MDR-TB, over a 10-year time horizon. A National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services perspective was considered. Cost-effectiveness ...

  10. Chasing the effects of Pre-analytical Confounders - a Multicentre Study on CSF-AD biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Leitao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers-Aβ42, Tau and pTau–have been recently incorporated in the revised criteria for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, their widespread clinical application lacks standardization. Pre-analytical sample handling and storage play an important role in the reliable measurement of these biomarkers across laboratories. In this study, we aim to surpass the efforts from previous studies, by employing a multicentre approach to assess the impact of less studied CSF pre-analytical confounders in AD-biomarkers quantification. Four different centres participated in this study and followed the same established protocol. CSF samples were analysed for three biomarkers (Aβ42, Tau and pTau and tested for different spinning conditions (temperature: Room temperature (RT vs. 4oC; speed: 500g vs. 2000g vs. 3000g, storage volume variations (25%, 50% and 75% of tube total volume as well as freezing-thaw cycles (up to 5 cyles. The influence of sample routine parameters, inter-centre variability and relative value of each biomarker (reported as normal/abnormal, was analysed. Centrifugation conditions did not influence biomarkers levels, except for samples with a high CSF total protein content, where either non centrifugation or centrifugation at RT, compared to 4ºC, led to higher Aβ42 levels. Reducing CSF storage volume from 75% to 50% of total tube capacity, decreased Aβ42 concentration (within analytical CV of the assay, whereas no change in Tau or pTau was observed. Moreover, the concentration of Tau and pTau appears to be stable up to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, whereas Aβ42 levels decrease if CSF is freeze-thawed more than 3 times. This systematic study reinforces the need for CSF centrifugation at 4ºC prior to storage and highlights the influence of storage conditions in Aβ42 levels. This study contributes to the establishment of harmonized standard operating procedures that will help reducing inter-lab variability of CSF-AD

  11. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma. PMID:25466091

  12. Chasing the Effects of Pre-Analytical Confounders - A Multicenter Study on CSF-AD Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitão, Maria João; Baldeiras, Inês; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers - Aβ42, Tau, and phosphorylated Tau (pTau) - have been recently incorporated in the revised criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, their widespread clinical application lacks standardization. Pre-analytical sample handling and storage....... METHODS: Four different centers participated in this study and followed the same established protocol. CSF samples were analyzed for three biomarkers (Aβ42, Tau, and pTau) and tested for different spinning conditions [temperature: room temperature (RT) vs. 4°C; speed: 500 vs. 2000 vs. 3000 g], storage...... of the assay), whereas no change in Tau or pTau was observed. Moreover, the concentration of Tau and pTau appears to be stable up to five freeze-thaw cycles, whereas Aβ42 levels decrease if CSF is freeze-thawed more than three times. CONCLUSION: This systematic study reinforces the need for CSF centrifugation...

  13. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H;

    2012-01-01

    activity which could be beneficial for individuals with low back pain. In opposition, the lower rectus abdominis activity and higher rectus femoris activity observed in machine warrant caution for individuals with lumbar pain. Importantly, both men and women, younger and elderly, and individuals......BACKGROUND: Swiss ball training is recommended as a low intensity modality to improve joint position, posture, balance, and neural feedback. However, proper training intensity is difficult to obtain during Swiss ball exercises whereas strengthening exercises on machines usually are performed...... crunches in training machine (27±3.7 vs 65±3.8% nEMG respectively, Ppain did not significantly influence the findings. CONCLUSION: Crunches on a Swiss ball with added elastic resistance induces high rectus abdominis activity accompanied by low hip flexor...

  14. Twistor methods for AdS$_5$

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Tim; Williams, Jack

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS$_5$ is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  15. Effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider in detail the effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments. It is shown that in the presence of an intermediate-range non-gravitational force, the dominant contributions to both the sign and magnitude of the Eoetvoes anomaly may come from nearby masses and not from the earth as a whole. This observation has important implications in the design and interpretation of future experiments, and in the formulation of unified theories incorporating new intermediate-range forces

  16. Effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.; Fischbach, E.

    1986-05-26

    We consider in detail the effects of local mass anomalies in Eoetvoes-like experiments. It is shown that in the presence of an intermediate-range non-gravitational force, the dominant contributions to both the sign and magnitude of the Eoetvoes anomaly may come from nearby masses and not from the earth as a whole. This observation has important implications in the design and interpretation of future experiments, and in the formulation of unified theories incorporating new intermediate-range forces.

  17. Fermions Tunnelling from Black String and Kerr AdS Black Hole with Consideration of Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-hua; Zhang, Li-mei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, using the Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz, we discuss the tunnelling of fermions when effects of quantum gravity are taken into account. We investigate two cases, black string and Kerr AdS black hole. For black string, the uncharged and un-rotating case, we find that the correction of Hawking temperature is only affected by the mass of emitted fermions and the quantum gravitational corrections slow down the increases of the temperature, which naturally leads to remnants left in the evaporation. For another case, the Kerr AdS black hole, we find that the quantum gravitational corrections are not only determined by the mass of the emitted fermions but also affected by the rotating properties of the AdS black hole. So with consideration of the quantum gravity corrections, an offset around the standard temperature always exists.

  18. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation.

  19. The Analgesic Effect of Obturator Nerve Block Added to a Femoral Triangle Block After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Charlotte; Børglum, Jens; Jensen, Jan Mick;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with severe pain, and effective analgesia is essential for the quality of postoperative care and ambulation. The analgesic effects of adding an obturator nerve block (ONB) to a femoral triangle block (FTB) after TKA have not...... been tested previously. We hypothesized that combined ONB and FTB will reduce opioid consumption and pain compared with those of a single FTB or local infiltration analgesia (LIA). METHODS: Seventy-eight patients were randomized to combined ONB and FTB, single FTB, or LIA after primary unilateral TKA...

  20. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-10-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  1. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-08-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  2. Effect of transglutaminase on quality characteristics of a value-added product tilapia wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia Guerra; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; Lázaro, César Aquiles; da Silva Canto, Anna Carolina Vilhena Cruz; Lima, Bruno Reis Carneiro da Costa; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the physico-chemical, instrumental color and texture, and sensory qualities of restructured tilapia steaks elaborated with small sized (non-commercial) tilapia fillets and different levels of microbial transglutaminase (MTG). Four concentrations of MTG were used: CON (0 % MTG), T1 (0.1 % MTG), T2 (0.5 % MTG), and T3 (0.8 % MTG). In addition, bacterial content and pH shifts were also evaluated during 90 days of frozen storage. The different levels of MTG did not affect (P > 0.05) either the proximate composition of the restructured tilapia steaks or the bacterial growth during the frozen storage. MTG improved (P salty taste, succulence and tenderness) attributes; strongly contributing to greater overall acceptance. Therefore, restructured tilapia steaks manufactured with MTG are potentially valued-added products with good consumer acceptance and better purchase-intention than steaks formulated with 0 % MTG. PMID:25892758

  3. Black Hole Formation in AdS Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Deppe, Nils; Frey, Andrew R; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    AdS spacetime has been shown numerically to be unstable against a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. In arXiv:1410.1869, the authors presented a preliminary study of the effects on stability of changing the local dynamics by adding a Gauss-Bonnet term to the Einstein action. Here we provide further details as well as new results with improved numerical methods. In particular, we elucidate new structure in Choptuik scaling plots. We also provide evidence of chaotic behavior at the transition between immediate horizon formation and horizon formation after the matter pulse reflects from the AdS conformal boundary. Finally, we present data suggesting the formation of naked singularities in spacetimes with ADM mass below the algebraic bound for black hole formation.

  4. Polaron Energy and Effective Mass in Parabolic Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-Ping; LIANG Xi-Xia

    2005-01-01

    @@ The energy and effective mass of a polaron in a parabolic quantum well are studied theoretically by using LLP-like transformations and a variational approach. Numerical results are presented for the polaron energy and effective mass in the GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As parabolic quantum well. The results show that the energy and the effective mass of the polaron both have their maxima in the finite parabolic quantum well but decrease monotonously in the infinite parabolic quantum well with the increasing well width. It is verified that the bulk longitudinal optical phonon mode approximation is an adequate formulation for the electron-phonon coupling in parabolic quantum well structures.

  5. Evaporation of large black holes in AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AdS/CFT correspondence offers a new perspective on the long-standing black hole information paradox. However, to be able to use the available gauge/gravity machinery one is forced to consider so-called 'large' black holes in AdS, and these objects are thermodynamically stable - they do not evaporate. We describe a simple toy model that allows large AdS black holes to decay, by coupling the emitted radiation to an external scalar field propagating in an auxiliary space. This effectively changes the properties of the boundary of AdS, making it partly absorbing. We demonstrate that the evaporation process never ceases by explicitly presenting (a) the transmission coefficient for a wave scattering from the bulk into auxiliary space and (b) the greybody factor for a black 3-brane in an AdS background. Therefore, the model provides an interesting framework to address the information paradox using AdS/CFT techniques.

  6. Quark Mass Correction to Chiral Separation Effect and Pseudoscalar Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Er-dong

    2016-01-01

    We derived an analytic structure of the quark mass correction to chiral separation effect (CSE) in small mass regime. We confirmed this structure by a D3/D7 holographic model study in a finite density, finite magnetic field background. The quark mass correction to CSE can be related to correlators of pseudo-scalar condensate, quark number density and quark condensate in static limit. We found scaling relations of these correlators with spatial momentum in the small momentum regime. They characterize medium responses to electric field, inhomogeneous quark mass and chiral shift. Beyond the small momentum regime, we found existence of normalizable mode, which possibly leads to formation of spiral phase. The normalizable mode exists beyond a critical magnetic field, whose magnitude decreases with quark chemical potential.

  7. Internal Structure of Charged AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  8. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  9. Introduction to lattice gaugefixing and effective quark and gluon masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the status of quark and gluon propagators in quenched, gaugefixed lattice QCD. In Landau gauge we find that the effective quark mass in the chiral limit is Mq ∼ 350(40)MeV. Quark and gluon propagators, the slope of the quark dispersion relation, and effective masses all appear to depend on gauge. A link-chain picture of lattice gaugefixing in the color N → ∞ and strong coupling limit, where the system becomes almost solvable, supports the gauge variance of these numerical results

  10. Terrestrial effects of possible astrophysical sources of an AD 774-775 increase in 14C production

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C; Arkenberg, Keith R; Snyder, Brock R

    2013-01-01

    We examine possible sources of a substantial increase in tree ring 14C measurements for the years AD 774-775. Contrary to claims regarding a coronal mass ejection (CME), the required CME energy is not several orders of magnitude greater than known solar events. We consider solar proton events (SPEs) with three different fluences and two different spectra. The data may be explained by an event with fluence about one order of magnitude beyond the October 1989 SPE. Two hard spectrum cases considered here result in moderate ozone depletion, so no mass extinction is implied, though we do predict increases in erythema and damage to plants from enhanced solar UV. We are able to rule out an event with a very soft spectrum that causes severe ozone depletion and subsequent biological impacts. Nitrate enhancements are consistent with their apparent absence in ice core data. The modern technological implications of such an event may be extreme, and considering recent confirmation of superflares on solar-type stars, this ...

  11. The Effect of Routing Attacks on Mobile Ad Hoc Network%路由攻击对移动Ad Hoc网络的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁华; 耿鹏

    2009-01-01

    典型的移动Ad Hoc网络路由协议,如AODV等均没有考虑其安全性,面对恶意节点的攻击时,表现得非常脆弱.以拒绝服务攻击为例,对运用AODV路由协议的网络平均端对端时延、丢包率、包到达率、路由负荷等性能指标进行模拟和分析.结果表明,当网络中存在此类攻击行为时,各项性能恶化严重.因此,需要设计一种有效的安全机制,通过模拟试验来检验其对抑制攻击的有效性,并应用于AODV以外的其他路由协议之上,以增强其可移植性.

  12. Effects of adding bentonite to different substrates on vegetative growth and yield of snap beans (Phaseulus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aghdak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of adding a superabsorbent (bentonite to different substrates on the vegetative growth and yield of snap beans, two randomized complete block design experiments with 4 replications were conducted at Greenhouse of Isfahan University of Technology. In the first experiment, 9 treatments including rice hull, saw dust, sand and their combinations, with 10 and 20% superabsorbent (v/v were used. The results showed that the highest stem length, number of nodes and leaves, shoot fresh weight and pod number were observed using rice hull (90%+superabsorbent (10%. The lowest vegetative growth was related to treatments containing sand and superabsorbent. Increasing superabsorbent from 10 to 20% reduced vegetative growth parameters in most cases. Based on the results of the first experiment, sand treatment was deleted and in the second experiment rice hull, saw dust, perlite and their combinations with 5 and 10% superabsorbent were used. The results showed that the highest plant height, number of nodes and leaves, plant dry weight, branch number and yield were obtained in perlite (95%+superabsorbent (5% and pure perlite. Adding 5 and 10% superabsorbent to rice hull and saw dust caused a significant increase in the vegetative growth. This increase was higher for 10% superabsorbent compared to 5% superabsorbent. Finally, the results showed that adding 10% superabsorbent to rice hull and saw dust increased vegetative growth and yield, while it decreased the loss of nutrient solution.

  13. Effect of Boron on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hot-Rolled Nb-ADDED Hsla H-Section Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Cui, Guotao; Sun, Tao; Guo, Weimin; Zhao, Xiuling; Gao, Junqing; Dong, Changxing

    In our research, boron was added into the Nb-added high strength low alloy (HSLA) H-section steels. The contents of boron added were 4ppm, 8ppm and 11ppm, respectively. The mechanical properties of H-section steels with/without boron were examined by using uniaxial tensile test and Charpy impact test (V-notch). The morphologies of the microstructure and the fracture surfaces of the impact specimens were observed by metalloscope, stereomicroscope and electron probe. The experimental results indicate that boron gives a significant increase in impact toughness, especially in low temperature impact toughness, though it leads to an unremarkable increase in strength and plasticity. For instance, the absorbed energy at -40°C reaches up to 126J from 15J by 8ppm boron addition, and the ductile-brittle transition temperature declines by 20°C. It is shown that boron has a beneficial effect on grain refinement. The fracture mechanism is transited from cleavage fracture to dimple fracture due to boron addition.

  14. Effect of resin polymer obstacles on performance of TCP/IP/IEEE 802.11g AD-HOC networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marquez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe primary research aims to develop a mathematical model that evaluates the effect of obstacles polymer resin type on performance of TCP/IP/IEEE 802.11g ad-hoc mode, so for the purpose of establishing the relationship between the polymer resin obstacles diameter and the performance of a wireless ad-hoc network, to transmit data via FTP. The explanatory type of research is experimental design. The types of polymer resin selected were evaluated according to its economic aspect, use and availability. 7 assessments were developed test, the first scenario is the control, which has no barriers of polymer resin, 3 to the polymer PVC resin and 3 to the polymer resin foam. Results comply with the proposed objectives, we developed a mathematical model using the linear regression method of least squares completions. According to the scatter plots and the study sample correlation coefficient obtained, the behavior of wireless network performance in a TCP/IP/IEEE 802.11g ad-hoc mode with obstacles of a polymer resin, is given by the following equation for PVC y = 0.072x + 0.786, for the following polyurethane foam y =-0.020x + 0.747. PVC was concluded that mainly affects the performance of such networks of polyurethane foam.Keywords: Performance, FTP, PVC, Polyurethane foam, 802.11g, Least squares

  15. rAd-p53对人肝癌细胞放射敏感性影响的实验研究%Experimental study of the effects of rAd-p53 on theradiosensitivity of human hepatocellular carcionoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶振超; 邱俊; 钱立庭; 王明明; 吴爱东; 闫冰

    2012-01-01

    To observe the effect and difference of rAd-p53 on the radiosensitivity for human hepatocellular carcionoma( HCC ). Methods Two HCC cell lines with different p53 genetic statuses, PLC/PRF/5( MT p53 ) and HepG2( WT p53 ) were infected with recombinant adenovirus carrying wild-type( WT ) p53 gene( rAd-p53 ) and Ad-EGFP, and cell survival was evaluated by MTT; Radiosensitivity was evaluated by clonogenic assay. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry. Results 48 h after infection efficiency of 15MOI values of rAd-p53 to PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 cells, and cell survival rates of PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 cells were( 7. 30 ± 1. 78 )% and ( 11.51 ±1. 53 )%. The transduction efficiency was gradually increased with the infection time or virus dosage in-creased( P <0. 01 ). SER value of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 were 1. 24 and 1. 52 by clonogenic assay,cell apoptosis was( 22. 19 ± 1. 04 )% and( 30. 36 ±2. 74 )% respectively and the effects of rAd-p53 group was stronger than oth-ers( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion rAd-p53 can significantly inhibit proliferation, induce cell apoptosis and increase radiosensitivity of HCC, but the aforesaid efficacy of rAd-p53 in PLC/PRF/5 cells( MT p53 ) is stronger than that in HepG2 cells( WT P53 ).%目的 探讨重组p53腺病毒(rAd-p53)对不同p53基因型的肝癌细胞放射敏感性的影响及差异.方法 用rAd-p53、Ad-EGFP(构建方式及载体的结构与rAd-p53完全相同,仅目的 基因不同的腺病毒),分别感染人肝癌细胞HepG2(p53野生型)和人肝癌细胞PLC/PRF/5(p53突变型),MTT法检测细胞存活率;不同剂量X射线照射克隆形成率检测细胞放射敏感性,流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡.结果 15MOI rAd-p53感染48 h后,2种细胞生长抑制率分别为(7.30±1.78)%、(11.51±1.53)%,并且随着病毒滴度或感染时间的增加,生长抑制效应亦逐渐增强(P<0.01); HepG2和PLC/PRF/5细胞放射增敏比(SER值)分别为1.24和1.52;细胞凋亡率分别为(22.19±1.04)%、(30.36±2.74)%;均明显高于空白组和Ad

  16. COMPARISON OF TIME-OF-FLIGHT AND DOUBLE FOCUSING MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR REACHING TENTATIVE IDENTIFICATIONS FOR UNANTICIPATED COMPOUNDS ADDED TO DRINKING WATER BY TERRORISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local monitoring of post-treatment drinking water using bench-top mass spectrometers could identify target compounds in a mass spectral library. However, a terrorist might seek to incite greater hysteria by injecting or infusing a mixture of unanticipated compounds of unknown tox...

  17. Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial effect of room curing polymethylmethacrylate material adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial effect of room curing polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) material adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent and to detect the changes of its mechanical property. Methods: Nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent was added to the room curing PMMA material in the range of 0.5% -3.0% at an interval of 0.5% by ball milling specimen. Antibacterial rates of the specimens were detected by film method. Bending strength, impact strength, and wear resistance of the specimens were respectively detected on electronic universal testing machine, impact test machine and friction and wear test machine. Results: The antibacterial rates of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans were more than 50% when antibiotics content was 1.0% . The antibacterial rates of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans were more than 90% when the antibiotics content was 2.5% . The three mechanical properties were increased compared with control group when the antibacterial agents were in the range of 1.0% -1.5% . Then the three mechanical properties were decreased with the increasing of antimicrobial concentration. When the antibiotics content was 2.0% , the wear resistance had significant difference compared with control group (P<0.05); when the antibiotics content was 2.5% , the bending strength and impact strength had significant difference compared with control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of room curing PMMA adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent is ideal. The antibacterial rate is increased gradually with the increasing content of antibacterial agents. There is no significant effect on the mechanical properties of room curing PMMA material, but the antibacterial effects are satisfied when the content of antibacterial agents is 2.0% . (authors)

  18. Effect of Ad-p16 Combined with CDDP or As2O3 on Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱朝辉; 邢诗安; 林晨

    2003-01-01

    Summary: To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of combined use of p16-expressing adenovirus and chemotherapeutic agents CDDP or As2O3 on human bladder cancer cell line E J, the human bladder cancer cell line EJ were transfected with adenovirus-mediated p16 gene (Ad-p16), with administration of cisplatin (CDDP) or arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The cell growth, morphological changes, cell cycle, apoptosis and molecular changes were measured using cell counting, reverse microscopy, flow cytometry, cloning formation, immunocytochemical assays and in vivo therapy experiments to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of such combined regimen. Ad-p16 transfer and CDDP or As2O3 administration to EJ cells could exert substantially stronger therapeutic effects than the single agent treatment. Especially in in vivo experiments, combined administration of p16 and CDDP or As2O3 induced almost tumor diminish compared to the partial tumor diminish induced by single agent. Moreover,delivery of Ad-p16, or administration of minimal-dose CDDP or As2O3 or combined regimen could induce massive apoptosis of EJ cell. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that administration of CDDP or As2O3 remarkably arrested EJ cell in G1 prior to apoptotic cell death. When treated with combined regimen, cells were arrested in G1 to a greater extent prior to apoptotic cell death. It is concluded that after introduction into EJ cell, Ad-p16 shows enhanced therapeutic efficacy for EJ cell when used in combination with CDDP or As2O3.

  19. Do Sex and Violence Sell? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Sexual and Violent Media and Ad Content on Memory, Attitudes, and Buying Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads. PMID:26191956

  20. Constraints on nucleon effective mass splitting with heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new version of the improved quantum molecular dynamics model has been developed to include standard Skyrme interactions. Four commonly used Skyrme parameter sets, SLy4, SkI2, SkM* and Gs are adopted in the transport model code to calculate the isospin diffusion observables as well as single and double ratios of transverse emitted nucleons. While isospin diffusion observables are sensitive to the symmetry energy term, they are not very sensitive to the nucleon effective mass splitting parameters in the interactions. Our calculations show that the high energy neutrons and protons and their ratios from reactions at different incident energies provide a robust observable to study the momentum dependence of the symmetry potential which leads to the effective mass splitting. However the sensitivity of effective mass splitting effect on the double n/p yield ratios decreases with increasing beam energy, even though high energy protons and neutrons are produced more abundantly at high beam energy. Our calculations show that the optimum incident energy to study nucleon effective masses is between 100–200 MeV per nucleon.

  1. Effective mass sensing using optomechanically induced transparency in microresonator system

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yong-Pan; Cao, Cong; Mi, Si-Chen; Yang, Daquan; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and weighing the individual nanoparticles is an important approach to study the behavior and properties of single particles. Here we illustrate an effective mass sensing scheme using optomechanical resonator system. Based on the optomechanically induced transparency phenomenon, a Stokes field reference approach is used to sense the mass of the particle on the microresonator. The field intensity of the transmission field will be changed by the effect of the particle which avoids the limits of decay induced spectral width in the resonance shift detection. Exploiting the perturbation method, we theoretically evaluated the dynamical behavior of the system, and achieved the femtogram level mass sensing without the need for high cavity Q-value, and strong coupling strength in the optomechanically system.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Adding Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy to an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Among Patients With Mild Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woo, Christopher Y; Strandberg, Erika J; Schmiegelow, Michelle D;

    2015-01-01

    . INTERVENTION: CRT-D or ICD alone. OUTCOME MEASURES: Life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS: Use of CRT-D increased life expectancy (9.8 years versus 8.8 years), QALYs (8.6 years versus 7.6 years), and costs ($286......, shorter CRT-D battery life, and older age also made the cost-effectiveness of CRT-D less favorable. LIMITATIONS: The estimated mortality reduction for CRT-D was largely based on a single trial. Data on patients with NYHA class I symptoms were limited. The cost-effectiveness of CRT-D in patients with NYHA......BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with mild heart failure. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of adding CRT to an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D) compared with implantable cardioverter...

  3. Suspensions of polymer-grafted nanoparticles with added polymers — Structure and effective pair-interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, Sivasurender; Saw, Shibu; Kandar, A. K.; Dasgupta, C; Sprung, M.; Basu, Jaydeep

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of combined experimental and theoretical (molecular dynamics simulations and integral equation theory) studies of the structure and effective interactions of suspensions of polymer grafted nanoparticles (PGNPs) in the presence of linear polymers. Due to the absence of systematic experimental and theoretical studies of PGNPs, it is widely believed that the structure and effective interactions in such binary mixtures would be very similar to those of an analogous soft col...

  4. Effects of Adding Essential Oil to the Diet of Weaned Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immune Response and Intestinal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet s...

  5. Game-Review: Trilogie Mass Effect 1, 2 und 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl Stingeder hat als Spieletester die Science Fiction Trilogie Mass Effect (1,2 und 3 rezensiert. Er berichtet von der inneren Vielfalt und dem spannenden Gameplay. Tauchen Sie ein in eine Welt, die ihnen eine lange Spielzeit garantiert und genießen Sie die Pracht dieser Kunstwerke.

  6. Resonance Effects in Magnetically Driven Mass-Spring Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Resonance effects are among the most intriguing phenomena in physics and engineering. The classical case of a mass-spring oscillator driven at its resonant frequency is one of the earliest examples that students encounter. Perhaps the most commonly depicted method of driving the vibrating system is mechanical. An alternative approach presented in…

  7. Mass-Defect Effect in the Hellings-Nordtvedt Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀菊; 王永久

    2002-01-01

    In the Hellings Nordtvedt theory, we obtain some expressions of the mass-defect effect for a kind of charged celestial body. This is meaningful to calculate the energy radiation in the process of forming this kind of celestial body in astrophysics.

  8. Intracranial hypertension secondary to a skull lesion without mass effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlin, Yonatan; Benifla, Mony; Kesler, Anat; Cohen, Avi; Shelef, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    We report and discuss five patients with intracranial hypertension due to a skull lesion reducing cerebral sinus patency with a compressive, non-thrombotic mechanism. We illustrate the importance of a high level of suspicion for this condition in patients presenting with headache, papilledema and increased intracranial pressure in the absence of focal signs or radiological evidence of mass effect. PMID:27283387

  9. Intertwining operator method and supersymmetry for effective mass Schroedinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzko, A.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); JIPENP, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)], E-mail: suzko@cv.jinr.ru; Schulze-Halberg, A. [Mathematics Department, University of Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima 28045 (Mexico)], E-mail: xbat@ucol.mx

    2008-09-08

    By application of the intertwining operator method to Schroedinger equations with position-dependent (effective) mass, we construct Darboux transformations, establish the supersymmetry factorization technique and show equivalence of both formalisms. Our findings prove equivalence of the intertwining technique and the method of point transformations.

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  12. Effective Gravitational Theories in String Theory and the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Vigand

    We consider various aspects of effective gravitational theories, including supergravity, within the framework of the blackfold approach. The thesis is naturally split into three parts. In the first part of the thesis, we explore the blackfold approach and explain how it is possible to write down...... an effective theory for higher dimensional extended black holes in a uid/elastic perturbative derivative expansion. Moreover, we show that the approach is quite universal and can be extended to various supergravities. Finally, we consider a new generalization of the method, which allows us to treat (SUGRA......) probe branes in uxed dilatonic backgrounds. In the second part, we construct and analyze thermal spinning giant gravitons in IIB/M-theory. The analysis employs the thermal brane probe method based on the blackfold approach. In addition to heating up the solution, and examining the effects from having...

  13. Cost effectiveness of adding budesonide/formoterol to tiotropium in COPD in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Bjermer, Leif;

    2013-01-01

    Assess the cost effectiveness of budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FORM) Turbuhaler(®)+tiotropium (TIO) HandiHaler(®) vs. placebo (PBO)+TIO in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) eligible for inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting β2-agonists (ICS/LABA).......Assess the cost effectiveness of budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FORM) Turbuhaler(®)+tiotropium (TIO) HandiHaler(®) vs. placebo (PBO)+TIO in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) eligible for inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting β2-agonists (ICS/LABA)....

  14. Assessing the Value-Added Effects of Literacy Collaborative Professional Development on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Gina; Bryk, Anthony S.; Dexter, Emily R.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a school-wide reform model that relies primarily on the one-on-one coaching of teachers as a lever for improving student literacy learning. Kindergarten through second-grade students in 17 schools were assessed twice annually with DIBELS and Terra…

  15. Transfer Effects of Adding Seductive Details to Case-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates the efficacy of the case-based instructional method for teacher education when seductive details (i.e. interesting but extraneous details) are included or removed. Aspiring teachers (n = 108) learned about principles of writing effective feedback in a text-based lesson without a description of a classroom case (C…

  16. Adding liraglutide to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: onset of treatment effects over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallwitz, B; Vaag, A; Falahati, A;

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the onset of treatment effects over time observed for liraglutide in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). METHODS: This analysis included patients from three phase 3, 26-week, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trials. Prior to randomisation, patients underwent...

  17. An Analysis of Transducer Mass Loading Effect Inshaker Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Karle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modal Analysis has been a developing science in the experimental evaluation of the dynamic properties of the structures. Frequency Response Function (FRF is one of the major steps in modal analysis. Measured frequency response functions (FRFs are used to extract modal parameters. It is also known that the accuracy and the reliability of various analyses using the measured FRFs depend strongly on the quality of measured data. It is well known that the quality of measured frequency response functions (FRFs is adversely affected by many factors, most significant sources being noise and systematic errors like mass loading effects of transducers. A transducer mounted on a vibrating system changes the dynamics of the structure due to the addition of extra mass and introduces errors into measured FRFs. One problem with this is the production of unrealistic results, which cause the measured resonant frequencies to be less than the correct values. These errors also lead to incorrect prediction of modal parameters. In many situations, the mass loading effect is ignored in the analytical and experimental process, based on a usual assumption that the transducer mass is negligible compared to that of the structure under test. However, when light-weighted structures are investigated, this effect can be significant.

  18. Precise effective masses from density functional perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gillet, Y.; Poncé, S.; Martin, A.; Torrent, M.; Gonze, X.

    2016-05-01

    The knowledge of effective masses is a key ingredient to analyze numerous properties of semiconductors, like carrier mobilities, (magneto)transport properties, or band extrema characteristics yielding carrier densities and density of states. Currently, these masses are usually calculated using finite-difference estimation of density functional theory (DFT) electronic band curvatures. However, finite differences require an additional convergence study and are prone to numerical noise. Moreover, the concept of effective mass breaks down at degenerate band extrema. We assess the former limitation by developing a method that allows to obtain the Hessian of DFT bands directly, using density functional perturbation theory. Then, we solve the latter issue by adapting the concept of "transport equivalent effective mass" to the k .p ̂ framework. The numerical noise inherent to finite-difference methods is thus eliminated, along with the associated convergence study. The resulting method is therefore more general, more robust, and simpler to use, which makes it especially appropriate for high-throughput computing. After validating the developed techniques, we apply them to the study of silicon, graphane, and arsenic. The formalism is implemented into the abinit software and supports the norm-conserving pseudopotential approach, the projector augmented-wave method, and the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling. The derived expressions also apply to the ultrasoft pseudopotential method.

  19. The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Mu, Huiling;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. METHODS: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) men (n.......23 ± 0.11 in LF (P diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared...... to the CTR diet. The LF diet was generally more satisfactory and the MUFA diet seemed more difficult to follow....

  20. Effects of adding ribavirin to interferon to treat chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Evidence shows that a combination therapy of ribavirin plus interferon clears hepatitis C virus from the blood in about 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, but the effects on clinical outcomes are unclear. We evaluated the beneficial and harmful effects of ribavirin plus interferon...... vs interferon alone for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Randomized trials were included irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status. Trials were identified through the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE...... events. Previous antiviral therapy (treatment-naive patients, relapsers, or nonresponders), patient characteristics, treatment regimen, methodological quality, and duration of follow-up were extracted. We included 72 trials with a total of 9991 enrolled patients. Treatment with ribavirin plus interferon...

  1. This Ad is for You: Targeting and the Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Youth Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Eamon

    2016-02-01

    Endogenous targeting of alcohol advertisements presents a challenge for empirically identifying a causal effect of advertising on drinking. Drinkers prefer a particular media; firms recognize this and target alcohol advertising at these media. This paper overcomes this challenge by utilizing novel data with detailed individual measures of media viewing and alcohol consumption and three separate empirical techniques, which represent significant improvements over previous methods. First, controls for the average audience characteristics of the media an individual views account for attributes of magazines and television programs alcohol firms may consider when deciding where to target advertising. A second specification directly controls for each television program and magazine a person views. The third method exploits variation in advertising exposure due to a 2003 change in an industry-wide rule that governs where firms may advertise. Although the unconditional correlation between advertising and drinking by youth (ages 18-24) is strong, models that include simple controls for targeting imply, at most, a modest advertising effect. Although the coefficients are estimated less precisely, estimates with models including more rigorous controls for targeting indicate no significant effect of advertising on youth drinking.

  2. This Ad is for You: Targeting and the Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Youth Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Eamon

    2016-02-01

    Endogenous targeting of alcohol advertisements presents a challenge for empirically identifying a causal effect of advertising on drinking. Drinkers prefer a particular media; firms recognize this and target alcohol advertising at these media. This paper overcomes this challenge by utilizing novel data with detailed individual measures of media viewing and alcohol consumption and three separate empirical techniques, which represent significant improvements over previous methods. First, controls for the average audience characteristics of the media an individual views account for attributes of magazines and television programs alcohol firms may consider when deciding where to target advertising. A second specification directly controls for each television program and magazine a person views. The third method exploits variation in advertising exposure due to a 2003 change in an industry-wide rule that governs where firms may advertise. Although the unconditional correlation between advertising and drinking by youth (ages 18-24) is strong, models that include simple controls for targeting imply, at most, a modest advertising effect. Although the coefficients are estimated less precisely, estimates with models including more rigorous controls for targeting indicate no significant effect of advertising on youth drinking. PMID:25580931

  3. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  4. Gravitational and mass distribution effects on stationary superwinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añorve-Zeferino, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    Here, we model the effect of non-uniform dynamical mass distributions and their associated gravitational fields on the stationary galactic superwind solution. We do this by considering an analogue injection of mass and energy from stellar winds and SNe. We consider both compact dark-matter and baryonic haloes that does not extend further from the galaxies optical radii Ropt as well as extended gravitationally interacting ones. We consider halo profiles that emulate the results of recent cosmological simulations and coincide also with observational estimations from galaxy surveys. This allows us to compare the analytical superwind solution with outflows from different kinds of galaxies. We give analytical formulae that establish when an outflow is possible and also characterize distinct flow regimes and enrichment scenarios. We also constraint the parameter space by giving approximate limits above which gravitation, self-gravitation and radiative cooling can inhibit the stationary flow. We obtain analytical expressions for the free superwind hydrodynamical profiles. We find that the existence or inhibition of the superwind solution highly depends on the steepness and concentration of the dynamical mass and the mass and energy injection rates. We compare our results with observational data and a recent numerical work. We put our results in the context of the mass-metallicity relationship to discuss observational evidence related to the selective loss of metals from the least massive galaxies and also discuss the case of massive galaxies.

  5. Gravitational and mass distribution effects on stationary superwinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añorve-Zeferino, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we model the effect of non-uniform dynamical mass distributions and their associated gravitational fields on the stationary galactic superwind solution. We do this by considering an analogue injection of mass and energy from stellar winds and SNe. We consider both compact dark-matter and baryonic haloes that does not extend further from the galaxies optical radii Ropt as well as extended gravitationally-interacting ones. We consider halo profiles that emulate the results of recent cosmological simulations and coincide also with observational estimations from galaxy surveys. This allows to compare the analytical superwind solution with outflows from different kinds of galaxies. We give analytical formulae that establish when an outflow is possible and also characterize distinct flow regimes and enrichment scenarios. We also constraint the parameter space by giving approximate limits above which gravitation, self-gravitation and radiative cooling can inhibit the stationary flow. We obtain analytical expressions for the free superwind hydrodynamical profiles. We find that the existence or inhibition of the superwind solution highly depends on the steepness and concentration of the dynamical mass and the mass and energy injection rates. We compare our results with observational data and a recent numerical work. We put our results in the context of the mass-metallicity relationship to discuss observational evidence related to the selective loss of metals from the least massive galaxies and also discuss the case of massive galaxies.

  6. Effective Kaon Mass in Baryonic Matter and Kaon Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Yabu, H; Myhrer, F; Kubodera, K; Yabu, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinji

    1993-01-01

    The effective kaon mass in dense baryonic matter is calculated based on PCAC, current algebra and the Weinberg smoothness hypothesis. The off-shell behavior of the K-N scattering amplitudes is treated consistently with PCAC, and the effects of the subthreshold K-N resonances are also included. The effective kaon mass is found to depend crucially on the K-N sigma term. Since the current estimates of K-N Sigma term are very uncertain, we discuss various scenarios treating K-N Sigma term as an input parameter; for certain values of K-N Sigma a collective mode of a hyperon-particle-nucleon-hole state appears at high densities, possibly leading to kaon condensation.

  7. Randall-Sundrum with AdS(7)

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, R; Bao, Ruoyu; Lykken, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    In the same sense that AdS_5 warped geometries arise naturally from Type IIB string theory with stacks of D3 branes, AdS_7 warped geometries arise naturally from M theory with stacks of M5 branes. We compactify two spatial dimensions of AdS_7 to get AdS_5 x \\Sigma^2, where \\Sigma^2 is e.g. a torus T^2 or a sphere S^2. The metric for \\Sigma inherits the same warp factor as appears in the AdS_5. Bulk fields generically have both Kaluza-Klein and winding modes associated with \\Sigma. In the effective 5d action these will contribute exotic new excitations. We analyze the 5d spectrum in detail for the case of a bulk scalar or a graviton in AdS_5 x T^2, in a setup which mimics the first Randall-Sundrum model. The results display several novel features, some of which might be observed in experiments at the LHC. For example, we obtain TeV scale string winding states without lowering the string scale. This is due to the double warping which is a generic feature of winding states along compactified AdS directions. Expe...

  8. Adding analysis of urban heat island effect in GIS system and applying them in urban planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUShuli; LUJun; CHENJing; WUJianming

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the application of GIS in urban planning has attracted the attention of more and more urban planning designers, and a new problem— urban heat island has arose in urban planning .The main aim of the paper is to find ways to connect urban heat environment with GIS system, and to simulate different island effect of different urban planning by using CFD. Then find a reasonable way for ecological urban planning .Of course, we firstly introduce the relation between the City Heat Island Effect and urban planning, then enumerate a practical experiment of Chongqing University. Because of people''s requirement of the better living environment and the ecological development of the whole city even the whole globe, we should synthesize and analyze the practical information, which base on the natural factors such as earth surface environment, climate, rainfall amount and wind field, and with these artificial factors such as population, politics and cultures, then design the optimum project of urban planning.

  9. Effects of adding nitroprusside on arsenic stressed response of Pistia stratiotes L. under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnese, Fernanda S; Oliveira, Juraci A; Gusman, Grasielle S; Leão, Gabriela A; Silveira, Neidiquele M; Silva, Paulo M; Ribeiro, Cléberson; Cambraia, José

    2014-01-01

    Effect of nitric oxide (NO) in mitigating stress induced by arsenic (As) was assessed in Pistia stratiotes, with NO supplied as sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Plants were exposed to four treatments: control, SNP (0.1 mg L(-1)), As (1.5 mg L(-1)), As + SNP (1.5 and 0.1 mg L(-1)), for seven days (analyses of growth, absorption of As and mineral nutrients) and for 24 h (analyses of concentration of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), antioxidant capacity and photosynthesis). P. stratiotes accumulated high concentrations of As and this accumulation wasn't affected by the addition of SNP, but the tolerance index of the plant to As increased. SNP attenuated effects of As on the absorption of mineral nutrients (Ca, Fe, Mn, and Mg), but not for phosphorus, and maintained concentrations of ROIs to normal levels, probably due to the increase in antioxidant capacity. The As damaged the photosynthesis by the decrease in pigment contents and by disturbance the photochemical (loss of PSII efficiency and increases in non-photochemical quenching coefficient) and biochemical (reductions in carbon assimilation, increase in the C(i)/C(a) and phi(PSII)/phi(CO2) ratios) steps. The addition of SNP restored these parameters to normal levels. Thus, NO was able to increasing the resistance of P. stratiotes to As.

  10. Impact of Heat Wave Definitions on the Added Effect of Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentan Dong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat waves are associated with increased mortality, however, few studies have examined the added effect of heat waves. Moreover, there is limited evidence for the influence of different heat wave definitions (HWs on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, the capital of China. The aim of this study was to find the best HW definitions for cardiovascular mortality, and we examined the effect modification by an individual characteristic on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, a typical northern city in China. We applied a Poisson generalized additive approach to estimate the differences in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves (using 12 HWs compared with non-heat-wave days in Beijing from 2006 to 2009. We also validated the model fit by checking the residuals to ensure that the autocorrelation was successfully removed. In addition, the effect modifications by individual characteristics were explored in different HWs. Our results showed that the associations between heat waves and cardiovascular mortality differed from different HWs. HWs using the 93th percentile of the daily average temperature (27.7 °C and a duration ≥5 days had the greatest risk, with an increase of 18% (95% confidence interval (CI: 6%, 31% in the overall population, 24% (95% CI: 10%, 39% in an older group (ages ≥65 years, and 22% (95% CI: 3%, 44% in a female group. The added effect of heat waves was apparent after 5 consecutive heat wave days for the overall population and the older group. Females and the elderly were at higher risk than males and younger subjects (ages <65 years. Our findings suggest that heat wave definitions play a significant role in the relationship between heat wave and cardiovascular mortality. Using a suitable definition may have implications for designing local heat early warning systems and protecting the susceptible populations during heat waves.

  11. Effect of hydrogen addition on the deposition of titanium nitride thin films in nitrogen added argon magnetron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, P.; Bhuyan, H.; Diaz-Droguett, D. E.; Guzman, F.; Mändl, S.; Saikia, B. K.; Favre, M.; Maze, J. R.; Wyndham, E.

    2016-06-01

    The properties and performance of thin films deposited by plasma assisted processes are closely related to their manufacturing techniques and processes. The objective of the current study is to investigate the modification of plasma parameters occurring during hydrogen addition in N2  +  Ar magnetron plasma used for titanium nitride thin film deposition, and to correlate the measured properties of the deposited thin film with the bulk plasma parameters of the magnetron discharge. From the Langmuir probe measurements, it was observed that the addition of hydrogen led to a decrease of electron density from 8.6 to 6.2  ×  (1014 m‑3) and a corresponding increase of electron temperature from 6.30 to 6.74 eV. The optical emission spectroscopy study reveals that with addition of hydrogen, the density of argon ions decreases. The various positive ion species involving hydrogen are found to increase with increase of hydrogen partial pressure in the chamber. The thin films deposited were characterized using standard surface diagnostic tools such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Although it was possible to deposit thin films of titanium nitride with hydrogen addition in nitrogen added argon magnetron plasma, the quality of the thin films deteriorates with higher hydrogen partial pressures.

  12. QCD One-Loop Effective Coupling Constant and Quark Mass Given in a Mass-Dependent Renormalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Jun-Chen; SHAN Lian-You; CAO Ying-Hui

    2001-01-01

    The QCD one-loop renormalization is restudied in a mass-dependent subtraction scheme in which the quark mass is not set to vanish and the renormalization point is chosen to be an arbitrary time-like momentum. The correctness of the subtraction is ensured by the Ward identities which are respected in all the processes of subtraction.By considering the mass effect, the effective coupling constant and the effective quark masses derived by solving the renormalization group equations are given in improved expressions which are different from the previous results.PACS numbers: 11.10.Gh, 11.10.Hi, 12.38.-t, 12.38.Bx

  13. Haemodynamic effects of intrathecal dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine intraoperatively and for postoperative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Shah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: For lower abdomen and lower limb surgery, spinal anaesthesia is most common modality used in routine. This study was conducted on 50 ASA 1 and 2 planned for lower limb and lower abdomen surgery. Methods: 50 patients of ASA 1 and 2 scheduled for lower limb and lower abdominal surgery were selected. Each patient received 4 milliliter volume of 0.75% isobaric ropivacaine + 5 microgram dexmedetomidine. At the intervals of 1 minute, 2 minute, 5 minute, 10 minute, 20 minute, 30 minute and 1 hour, 2 hour and 3 hour reading of pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded. Postoperatively, pain scores were recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale. Results: There were no significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure after induction. The combination of ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine provided better postoperative analgesia and reduced requirement of diclofenac injection in first 24 hour. Conclusions: The patients showed excellent hemodynamic stability and postoperative analgesia to ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine. Thus it is a safe modality for lower limb and lower abdomen surgery as far as haemodynamic effects and postoperative analgesia is concerned. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 26-29

  14. EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR REDUCING THE FLOODING IN ROUTING MECHANISM FOR MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REKA.R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MANET is infrastructure less network and the routing protocol in MANET is not designed specifically with dynamic, self-starting behaviour required for wireless networks. Each and every node in MANET acts as a forward and receiver node. Performance of most of the protocols is not encouraging in a highly dynamic interconnection topology. In this paper, a reliable broadcast approach for MANET is proposed, which improves the transmission rate. The MANET is considered with asymmetric characteristics, where the source and forwarding nodes have different properties. In addition, there exists a non-forwarding node, which is a downstream node and never forwards a packet. The status of each node is dynamically changes and thus the topology of the network also dynamic. In this work, the number of redundant transmission is minimized by creating less number of forwarding nodes. The forwarded packet is considered as acknowledgements and the non-forwarding nodes explicitly send the acknowledgements to the source. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in NS2 environment. Since the proposed approach reduces the flooding, we have considered functionality of the proposed approach with AODV variants. The effect of network density on the overhead and collision rate is considered for performance evaluation. The performance is compared with the AODV variants foundthat the proposed approach outperforms all the variants.

  15. Situated learning theory: adding rate and complexity effects via Kauffman's NK model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; McKelvey, Bill

    2004-01-01

    For many firms, producing information, knowledge, and enhancing learning capability have become the primary basis of competitive advantage. A review of organizational learning theory identifies two approaches: (1) those that treat symbolic information processing as fundamental to learning, and (2) those that view the situated nature of cognition as fundamental. After noting that the former is inadequate because it focuses primarily on behavioral and cognitive aspects of individual learning, this paper argues the importance of studying learning as interactions among people in the context of their environment. It contributes to organizational learning in three ways. First, it argues that situated learning theory is to be preferred over traditional behavioral and cognitive learning theories, because it treats organizations as complex adaptive systems rather than mere information processors. Second, it adds rate and nonlinear learning effects. Third, following model-centered epistemology, it uses an agent-based computational model, in particular a "humanized" version of Kauffman's NK model, to study the situated nature of learning. Using simulation results, we test eight hypotheses extending situated learning theory in new directions. The paper ends with a discussion of possible extensions of the current study to better address key issues in situated learning.

  16. The effect of quantity of added eggs on whole meal pasta quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the convenience of different chemical and rheological methods for determining the quality of two spelt cultivars for pasta making and the influence of egg quantity on whole meal pasta quality. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit has been calculated to show significant differences between different samples. Score analysis is being useful tool for accessing the effect of eggs to spelt pasta quality, and this analysis proved that though lower scores (0.270 for rheological characteristics experienced with cultivar Eco, the addition of eggs is positively contributing to the spelt pasta quality yielding the best score for pasta (0.75, contrary to the cultivar Austria attributed with superior rheology scores. Whole meal spelt is characterised by lower Ca, but higher Fe and Mn content in comparison to bread wheat. In comparison with common pasta, spelt is a suitable raw material for a new product with improved functional properties at the market.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31055

  17. Liquid-liquid electro-organo-synthetic processes in a carbon nanofibre membrane microreactor: Triple phase boundary effects in the absence of intentionally added electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, John D.; Ahn, Sunyhik D.; Taylor, James E.; Bull, Steven D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Bulman-Page, Philip C. [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Marken, Frank, E-mail: F.Marken@bath.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-30

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Amphiphilic carbon nanofiber membrane employed in electro-synthesis. > Triple phase boundary process within a carbon membrane. > Electrochemical deuteration in a liquid|liquid micro-reactor system. > Triple phase boundary reaction zone effects in electro-synthesis. - Abstract: An amphiphilic carbon nanofibre membrane electrode (ca. 50 nm fibre diameter, 50-100 {mu}m membrane thickness) is employed as an active working electrode and separator between an aqueous electrolyte phase (with reference and counter electrode) and an immiscible organic acetonitrile phase (containing only the redox active material). Potential control is achieved with a reference and counter electrode located in the aqueous electrolyte phase, but the electrolysis is conducted in the organic acetonitrile phase in the absence of intentionally added supporting electrolyte. For the one-electron oxidation of n-butylferrocene coupled to perchlorate anion transfer from aqueous to organic phase effective electrolysis is demonstrated with an apparent mass transfer coefficient of m = 4 x 10{sup -5} m s{sup -1} and electrolysis of typically 1 mg n-butylferrocene in a 100 {mu}L volume. For the two-electron reduction of tetraethyl-ethylenetetracarboxylate the apparent mass transfer coefficient m = 4 x 10{sup -6} m s{sup -1} is lower due to a less extended triple phase boundary reaction zone in the carbon nanofibre membrane. Nevertheless, effective electrolysis of up to 6 mg tetraethyl-ethylenetetracarboxylate in a 100 {mu}L volume is demonstrated. Deuterated products are formed in the presence of D{sub 2}O electrolyte media. The triple phase boundary dominated mechanism and future microreactor design improvements are discussed.

  18. Comparison of clinical effects of prilocaine, dexamethasone added to prilocaine and levobupivacaine on brachial plexus block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine whether the addition of 8mg dexamethasone to axillary brachial plexus block would prolong the duration of sensory and motor block in patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. Methods: The prospective, randomised, double-blinded study was conducted at the Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical School, Turkey, from October 2008 to December 2009. It comprised 45 American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade I and II patients under elective surgery of the hand and forearm. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: 5 mg/kg of 2% prilocaine was applied to Group 1; 5 mg/kg of 2% prilocaine +8mg of dexamethasone (2ml) was applied to Group 2; and 1.5 mg/kg 0.5% levobupivacaine was applied to Group 3. Sensory and motor block onset time as well as the duration of motor and sensory block of those were monitored and recorded. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 45 patients, 27 (60%) were men and 18 (40%) were women. There was no significant difference among the groups in terms of demographic data. Based on the duration of motor and sensory block, similar periods of time in Group 1 and Group 2 were noted, whereas this period was statistically different and significantly longer in Group 3 (p<0.001). There were no complications encountered. Conclusion: The addition of dexamethasone to prilocaine prolonged the duration of sensory and motor block. It could be used as an effective adjuvant agent. Levobupivacain could be a more appropriate local anaesthetic in post-operative analgesia and prolonged surgical procedures. (author)

  19. Preparation of PLA or PLGA Microspheres with Estradiol the Effects of THF—adding on the Properties of MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUXin-teng; ZHUFeng; PANWei-san; ZHANGRu-hua

    2003-01-01

    Aim: polylactic acid(PLA) or polylactide-co-glycolide(PLGA) was used as biodegradable and biocompatible carriers to achieve sustained release of estradial-PLGA/PLA-Microspheres(E2-PLGA/PLA-MS).THF was added in the organic phase to study its effects on the properties of MS.Methods:MS were formed by an emulsification-solvent extraction method with mixture of ethyl acetate(EtoAc) and tetraphydrofuran(THF) as the organic solvents,and then the properties and in vitro drug release behavior were examined.Results:The results indicated that the drug loading efficiency decreased when THF added.but when the ratio of EtoAc was more than 50%,there was no obvious effcet of THF ration,but the particle size increased accordingly.The carriers' properties and the drug contents were the main factors influencing the in vitro drug release.Conclusions:By controlling the technology and formulation,we can get sustained-release E2 biodegradable microsperes with proper particle size,drug content and low burst-release,although THF with readily solubility in water was used in the organic phase.

  20. Effects of adding water on seasonal variation of soil nitrogen availability under sandy grasslands in semi-arid region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiao-xing; YU Zhan-yuan; QIAN Wei; XU Da-yong; AI Gui-yan

    2007-01-01

    Water is usally thought of a limiting factor for the restoration of semi-arid ecosystem. In the growing season of 2006, a study was conducted to determine the effects of modeling precipitation on seasonal patterns in concentrations of soil-available nitrogen and to describe the seasonal patterns in soil nitrogen availability and seasonal variation in the rates of net nitrogen mineralization of topsoil at Daqinggou ecological station in Keerqin sand lands, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Manipulation of water (80 mm) was designed to be added to experiment plots of sandy grasslands in dry season. Water addition (W) treatment and control (CK) treatment were separately taken in six replications and randomly assigned in 12 plots (4 m×4 m for each) with 2-m buffers betweens. Results showed that the content of soil inorganic nitrogen and net nitrogen mineralization rate were not affected by adding water in sandy grassland of Keerqin sand lands. Net nitrogen mineralization rates ranged from 0.5 μg·g-1·month-1 to 4 μg·g-1·month-1. The highest values of soil inorganic nitrogen and net nitrogen mineralization occurred on October 15 in control plots. The seasonal changes of soil inorganic nitrogen contents exhibited "V" shape pattern that was related to seasonal patterns of soil ammonium-N (ascending trend) and nitrate-N transformation (descending trend).

  1. Evaluation of the "added value" of SIMS: A mass spectrometric and spectroscopic study of an unusual Naples yellow oil paint reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Katrien; Hoogland, Frank; Boon, Jaap J.; Peggie, David; Higgitt, Catherine

    2009-07-01

    Naples yellow-containing oil paints aged under natural and artificial conditions were investigated as model systems to evaluate the potential of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) when used in combination with other mass spectrometric and spectroscopic analytical methods. Although the advantage of SIMS is the simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic components and their spatial distribution, the methodology has limitations in compound sensitivity and shows bias towards certain constituents. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) shows dicarboxylic fatty acids to be main components in the paint, but SIMS detects these compounds poorly. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) shows a broad range of glyceryl derivatives of mono- and dicarboxylic fatty acids (mono-, di- and triglyceride derivatives), while SIMS only detects the mono- and diglycerides of the monocarboxylic acids. Compared to SIMS, direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry (DTMS) offers greater insight into how the various constituents are incorporated into the paint film, but SIMS data supports the information provided by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) on metal soap formation. The surface sensitivity of SIMS is an advantage for probing paint constituent distributions and was exploited to examine variations in the composition of the top and bottom of a paint film, and the spatial correlation between metal and fatty acid composition in metal soap aggregates. Disadvantages of SIMS are the low yields and matrix dependency of the organic species in the paint matrix. Application of an ultra-thin gold coating overcomes this, and enhances the organic secondary ion yields leading to more accurate spatial distribution.

  2. Effects of Syn-Pandemic Reforestation on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide From 1500 to 1700 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

    2005-12-01

    Recent analysis of paleoclimate proxies suggests that biomass burning by humans during the past eight millennia produced quantities of CO2 sufficient to counteract the effects of decreasing insolation driven by orbital variations and thus prevented ice sheet expansion. Correlation between periods of declining population and biomass burning, such as implied by the synchroneity of the American pandemics and decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 16th-18th centuries, provides an important test of the extent to which pre-industrial anthropogenic activity affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas budget. Numerous studies have attributed the ~5 ppm decline of atmospheric CO2 concentration, as well as the synchronous ~0.1 per mil increase of the δ13C of atmospheric CO2 between 1500 and 1700 A.D., to the effects of Little Ice Age cooling. However, this interpretation is not supported by recent multiproxy-based surface temperature reconstructions, which demonstrate a diminutive global temperature anomaly of ~0.1 C that was unlikely to have independently produced the distinct effect observed in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Alternatively, it is possible that a decline in CO2 concentration driven by massive reforestation produced cooling as a by-product. The timing and magnitude of changes in both the concentration and carbon-isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 recorded by globally distributed climate proxies from the tropics (sponges), temperate latitudes (tree rings), and polar regions (ice cores) are compatible with fixation of >10 Gt C due to reforestation. Reforestation, which explains pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 variations between 1500 and 1700 A.D. in a manner more consistent with the global surface temperature record than explanations requiring substantial cooling, presumably occurred on lands that were cultivated and seasonally burned, then subsequently abandoned, by indigenous Americans who perished in pandemics during European conquest. The

  3. Exploring Systematic Effects in the Mass-Metallicity-SFR Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, O. G.; Dalcanton, J.; Skillman, E.; Conroy, C.

    2016-06-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass-metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of the correlation between metallicity and SFR may be used along with chemical evolution models to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows), but the observed strength of this correlation varies widely among studies using both single-fiber and IFU spectroscopy. We analyze possible sources of systematic error that could affect the observed strength of this correlation, including choice of metallicity calibration. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity and SFR using a new set of theoretically calibrated abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. (2013) for ~150,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using any of these new strong emission line abundance diagnostics yields a relatively weak correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass, in contrast to the stronger correlation found by some previous studies using other metallicity diagnostics. We also consider other possible sources of bias that can affect the metallicity correlation with SFR, including uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. Finally, we present preliminary results from current work investigating the effect of the choice of binning technique on derivations of direct method metallicities for stacked galaxy spectra and the subsequent impact on the correlation between metallicity and SFR. The large uncertainty in the true strength of the relation between mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  4. Terrorist Innovations in Weapons of Mass Effect, Phase II

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Mohammed M.; Rasmussen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public display, distribution unlimited "On October 6-7, 2011, experts gathered for a workshop at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland to discuss the factors that both facilitate and hinder terrorist innovations. This workshop is part of a two-year Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) sponsored research project that aims to shed light on the preconditions, causes, and predictive indicators associated with terrorist innovation in weapons of mass effect (WMEs). Organized joi...

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation of carnosine on mitochondrial dysfunction, amyloid pathology, and cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Corona

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenic road map leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD is still not completely understood; however, a large body of studies in the last few years supports the idea that beside the classic hallmarks of the disease, namely the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ and neurofibrillary tangles, other factors significantly contribute to the initiation and the progression of the disease. Among them, mitochondria failure, an unbalanced neuronal redox state, and the dyshomeostasis of endogenous metals like copper, iron, and zinc have all been reported to play an important role in exacerbating AD pathology. Given these factors, the endogenous peptide carnosine may be potentially beneficial in the treatment of AD because of its free-radical scavenger and metal chelating properties. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we explored the effect of L-carnosine supplementation in the 3xTg-AD mouse, an animal model of AD that shows both Aβ- and tau-dependent pathology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that carnosine supplementation in 3xTg-AD mice promotes a strong reduction in the hippocampal intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ and completely rescues AD and aging-related mitochondrial dysfunctions. No effects were found on tau pathology and we only observed a trend toward the amelioration of cognitive deficits. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that carnosine can be part of a combined therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD.

  6. Phonon effects on the double mass differences in magic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, E. E.; Baldo, M.; Gnezdilov, N. V.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Odd-even double mass differences (DMDs) of magic nuclei are found within an approach starting from the free N N interaction, accounting for particle-phonon coupling (PC) effects. We consider three PC effects: the phonon-induced effective interaction, the renormalization of the "ends" due to the pole PC contribution to the nucleon mass operator, and the change of the single-particle energies. The perturbation theory in gL2, where gL is the vertex of the creation of the L -multipole phonon, is used for PC calculations. PC corrections to single-particle energies are found with an approximate accounting for the tadpole diagram. Results for magic Ca,4840, Ni,7856, Sn,132100, and 208Pb nuclei are presented. For the lighter part of this set of nuclei, from 40Ca to 56Ni, the cases divide approximately in half, between those where the PC corrections to DMD values are in good agreement with the data and the ones with the opposite result. In the major part of the cases of worsening description of DMD, a poor applicability of the perturbation theory for the induced interaction is the most probable reason of the phenomenon. For intermediate nuclei, 78Ni and 100Sn, there are no sufficiently accurate data on masses of nuclei necessary for finding DMD values. Finally, for heavier nuclei, 132Sn and 208Pb, PC corrections always result in better agreement with experiment.

  7. Shape coexistence and center-of-mass effects in N=Z medium mass nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovici, A; Faessler, A

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented concerning shape coexistence and shape transition at low and intermediate spins in the N=Z nuclei sup 7 sup 2 Kr, sup 7 sup 6 Sr and sup 8 sup 0 Zr obtained within the complex version of the Excited Vampir variational approach. The effects of possible contaminations due to the center-of-mass motion are discussed using a rough method to eliminate them at least approximately. The results indicate maximum influence on the observables depending on band mixing. Detailed illustration of the effects on the oblate-prolate mixing and the electromagnetic properties, as well as the alignments and particle occupations of the 0g sub 9 sub / sub 2 spherical orbital is presented for the sup 7 sup 2 Kr nucleus.

  8. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Metsaev, R R

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS fi...

  9. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  10. Effect of added water, sodium erythorbate and storage time on the functional properties of prerigor beef preblends in a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakar, A; Reagan, J O; Carpenter, J A; Miller, M F

    1989-01-01

    Singular and combined effects of added water, sodium erythorbate and storage time on salt soluble protein extractability, bacteriological and chemical characteristics of preblended hot-boned beef were evaluated. Waterholding and gel forming capacities of preblended hot-boned beef containing either 0, 10 or 20% added water were determined. Significant interactions between added water level and storage time on microbial counts and between sodium erythorbate level and storage time on thiobarbituric acid values and residual nitrite levels were noted. The presence of sodium erythorbate resulted in a more (P 0·05) microbial counts. Salt-soluble protein extractability was not affected (P > 0·05) by added water, but more protein could be extracted with increasing storage time. A trend existed to suggest that the presence of added water in the meat preblends slightly improved the gel formation and waterholding capacities.

  11. Effects of adding different surfactants on antibiotic resistance genes and intI1 during chicken manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic composting is usually employed to treat livestock manure. In this study, a bio-surfactant (rhamnolipid, RL) and chemical surfactant (Tween 80, Tw) were added to chicken manure during composting and their effects were determined on the variations in ARGs and intI1. After composting, the reductions in the RAs of ARGs and intI1 with the addition of Tw (1-4.7logs) were generally greater than that with the addition of RL (0.8-3.7logs) and the control (CK) (0.3-2.6logs), and the enrichment of ARGs was higher with CK (0.9-1.8logs). The ARG profiles were affected significantly by temperature and the water-soluble carbon contents. RL and Tw effectively reduced the concentrations of bio-available Cu and Zn, thereby hindering the co-selection of ARGs by heavy metals. The effects of RL and Tw on ARGs and intI1 indicate that the addition of Tw was slightly more effective than RL after composting. PMID:27526207

  12. The Effective Temperatures, Radii and Masses of Dwarf Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chulhee

    1996-02-01

    Using the flux values determined with the infrared flux method (IRFM) developed by Blackwell and Lynas-Gray (1993), we derived the empirical relationship between flux (F v ) and (V — K) colour appropriate to Dwarf Cepheids. For three Dwarf Cepheids CY Aqr, YZ Boo and SZ Lyn where both VK photometry and radial velocities were available from the literature, effective temperatures were determined using the intrinsic Strömgren indices, model atmosphere grids for (V — K) and the relation between temperature and (V — K) colour. Then, by applying the infrared surface brightness method, radii and distances and hence masses and absolute magnitudes were estimated with effective temperatures determined by three different methods. It was found that the average mass of these variables is about 0.5 solar mass and this result supports the hypothesis that Dwarf Cepheids are pre-white dwarf objects. It was also confirmed that the temperatures determined with the IRFM are most successful in the application of the surface brightness method to the radius estimation of Dwarf Cepheids.

  13. Thermodynamics of Einstein-Proca AdS Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Pope, C N

    2014-01-01

    We study static spherically-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Proca equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that the theory admits solutions describing both black holes and also solitons in an asymptotically AdS background. Interesting subtleties can arise in the computation of the mass of the solutions and also in the derivation of the first law of thermodynamics. We make use of holographic renormalisation in order to calculate the mass, even in cases where the solutions have a rather slow approach to the asymptotic AdS geometry. By using the procedure developed by Wald, we derive the first law of thermodynamics for the black hole and soliton solutions. This includes a non-trivial contribution associated with the Proca "charge." The solutions cannot be found analytically, and so we make use of numerical integration techniques to demonstrate their existence.

  14. Heavy-quark mass effects in Higgs plus jets production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Vryonidou, E.; Wiesemann, M.

    2016-08-01

    We study the production of a Standard Model Higgs boson in the gluon-fusion channel at the 13 TeV LHC. Our results are accurate to the next-to-leading order in QCD, bar for the lack of some two-loop amplitudes, for up to two extra jets and are matched to the P ythia8 Monte Carlo. We address the impact, at the level of inclusive rates and of differential distributions, of the merging of samples characterised by different final-state multiplicities, and of the effects induced by top and bottom masses through heavy-quark loop diagrams. We find that both the merging and the heavy-quark masses must be included in the calculation in order to realistically predict observables of experimental interest.

  15. Cost-Effective Mass Production of Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Nielsen, Søren Andreas; Fejerskov, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    No recognized procedures exist for the Mono Bucket Foundation design, which is an obstruction for mass customization/production and industrialization in relation to certifying authorities. This paper presents the outcome of on-going research and development program that provides solution for inno......No recognized procedures exist for the Mono Bucket Foundation design, which is an obstruction for mass customization/production and industrialization in relation to certifying authorities. This paper presents the outcome of on-going research and development program that provides solution...... for innovative and cost-effective design of Mono Bucket foundations. Established approach merges wind and wave load models, soil/structure interaction topics, structural optimization and installation/fabrication aspects, into software package with ability to perform optimal design of the individual foundations...

  16. Gravitational and mass distribution effects on stationary superwinds

    CERN Document Server

    Añorve-Zeferino, Gabriel Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Here, we model the effect of non-uniform dynamical mass distributions and their associated gravitational fields on the stationary galactic superwind solution. We do this by considering an analogue injection of mass and energy from stellar winds and SNe. We consider both compact dark-matter and baryonic haloes that does not extend further from the galaxies optical radii $R_{\\rm opt}$ as well as extended gravitationally-interacting ones. We consider halo profiles that emulate the results of recent cosmological simulations and coincide also with observational estimations from galaxy surveys. This allows to compare the analytical superwind solution with outflows from different kinds of galaxies. We give analytical formulae that establish when an outflow is possible and also characterize distinct flow regimes and enrichment scenarios. We also constraint the parameter space by giving approximate limits above which gravitation, self-gravitation and radiative cooling can inhibit the stationary flow. We obtain analyti...

  17. Finding the Effective Mass and Spring Constant of a Force Probe from Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nathaniel R.; Gill, Tom; Eyerly, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Force probes are versatile tools in the physics lab, but their internal workings can introduce artifacts when measuring rapidly changing forces. The Dual-Range Force Sensor by Vernier (Fig. 1) uses strain gage technology to measure force, based on the bending of a beam. Strain gages along the length of the beam change resistance as the beam bends (Fig. 2). The elasticity of the beam leads to oscillations that persist after being excited by an impulsive force. How quickly the force probe freely returns to zero is thus related to the rigidity of the beam and the total mass attached to it. By varying the added mass and measuring the resulting frequency of the probe's internal free oscillations, the effective mass and spring constant of the probe's moveable parts can be found. Weighing of the probe parts and conducting a Hooke's law experiment provide static verification of these parameters. Study of the force sensor's behavior helps students to learn about damped harmonic motion, mathematical modeling, and the limitations of measuring devices.

  18. N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We construct the most general N=2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma-model in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space in terms of N=1 chiral superfields. The target space is shown to be a non-compact hyperkahler manifold restricted to possess a special Killing vector field. A remarkable property of the sigma-model constructed is that the algebra of OSp(2|4) transformations is closed off the mass shell.

  19. Elicitation, an Effective Strategy for the Biotechnological Production of Bioactive High-Added Value Compounds in Plant Cell Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ramirez-Estrada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant in vitro cultures represent an attractive and cost-effective alternative to classical approaches to plant secondary metabolite (PSM production (the “Plant Cell Factory” concept. Among other advantages, they constitute the only sustainable and eco-friendly system to obtain complex chemical structures biosynthesized by rare or endangered plant species that resist domestication. For successful results, the biotechnological production of PSM requires an optimized system, for which elicitation has proved one of the most effective strategies. In plant cell cultures, an elicitor can be defined as a compound introduced in small concentrations to a living system to promote the biosynthesis of the target metabolite. Traditionally, elicitors have been classified in two types, abiotic or biotic, according to their chemical nature and exogenous or endogenous origin, and notably include yeast extract, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, vanadyl sulphate and chitosan. In this review, we summarize the enhancing effects of elicitors on the production of high-added value plant compounds such as taxanes, ginsenosides, aryltetralin lignans and other types of polyphenols, focusing particularly on the use of a new generation of elicitors such as coronatine and cyclodextrins.

  20. Effective electron mass in low-dimensional semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Sitangshu [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Nano Scale Device Research Lab.; Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad [National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura West (India). Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Provides a treatment of the effective electron mass in nanodevices. Explains changes of the band structure of optoelectronic semiconductors by intense electric fields and light waves. Gives insight into the electronic behavior in doped semiconductors and their nanostructures. Supports tuition by 200 open problems and questions. This book deals with the Effective Electron Mass (EEM) in low dimensional semiconductors. The materials considered are quantum confined non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, GaP, Ge, PtSb2, zero-gap, stressed, Bismuth, carbon nanotubes, GaSb, IV-VI, Te, II-V, Bi2Te3, Sb, III-V, II-VI, IV-VI semiconductors and quantized III-V, II-VI, IV-VI and HgTe/CdTe superlattices with graded interfaces and effective mass superlattices. The presence of intense electric field and the light waves change the band structure of optoelectronic semiconductors in fundamental ways, which have also been incorporated in the study of the EEM in quantized structures of optoelectronic compounds that control the studies of the quantum effect devices under strong fields. The importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under strong electric field and external photo excitation has also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the EEM and the EEM in heavily doped semiconductors and their nanostructures is discussed. This book contains 200 open research problems which form the integral part of the text and are useful for both Ph. D aspirants and researchers in the fields of solid-state sciences, materials science, nanoscience and technology and allied fields in addition to the graduate courses in modern semiconductor nanostructures. The book is written for post graduate students, researchers and engineers, professionals in the fields of solid state sciences, materials science, nanoscience and technology, nanostructured materials and condensed matter physics.

  1. Effect of adding ball-milled achenes to must on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in fruit wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pao-Ju; Chen, Shaun

    2016-03-01

    This study reports the utilization of ball-milled achenes in fermentation to increase the levels of ellagic acid and total phenol content, as well as to enhance the antioxidant capacity of strawberry wine. Achenes were micronized using ball-milling process, and then added to strawberry must prior to fermentation. The effects of the addition of ball-milled achenes on the ellagic acid and total phenol content in strawberry wine were determined, and the free radical scavenging and iron chelation activities were also analyzed. Quality attributes and acceptance were studied in comparison with a leading commercial strawberry wine for market application. The particle sizes of achenes were reduced from 1.1 mm to 400 nm after 30 min of ball-milling, and this led to an increase in the amount of extracted ellagic acid from 550.72 to 915.24 μg/g. The addition of ball-milled achenes to must led to a 19.72 % and 52.37 % increase in ellagic acid and total phenol content in strawberry wine, respectively. The increase in bioactive compounds resulted in increases of 54.09 %, 51.49 % and 56.97 % in ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging, and ferrous ion chelating activities, respectively. Although the commercial strawberry wine showed greater aroma intensity, no significant differences in overall quality and acceptance among the conventional process, added ball-milled achenes and the leading commercial strawberry wines were found. This study demonstrates that supplementation of ball-milled achenes in fermentation can be beneficial in increasing the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidative capacity, indicating a good market potential. PMID:27570280

  2. Effects of added plasmin on the formation and rheological properties of rennet-induced skim milk gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M; Lucey, J A

    2002-05-01

    Elevated plasmin enzyme activity has been suggested as a likely cause of impaired functional properties that occur in milk from cows either in their late-lactational period or that are experiencing mastitis. However, there are conflicting reports on the impact of plasmin on rennet coagulation properties of milk. The effects of added plasmin on the rheological properties, at small and large deformation, of rennet-induced gels were investigated. The microstructure of rennet-induced gels was studied, using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Porcine plasmin was added to reconstituted milk, and samples were incubated at 37 degrees C for between 0.5 to 8 h. The hydrolysis reaction was terminated using soybean trypsin inhibitor. The extent of degradation of caseins was determined with SDS-PAGE. The extent of breakdown of alpha(s)- and beta-caseins increased with incubation time with plasmin. Storage modulus of rennet gels decreased linearly with increasing degradation of caseins. There was an increase in the loss tangent parameter of the gels with increasing casein degradation, indicating a more liquid-like gel character. Gelation time decreased until approximately 3 h of incubation with plasmin (when the amounts of intact alpha(s)- and beta-caseins were approximately 46 and 50%, respectively); thereafter, gelation time increased considerably. Yield stress of rennet-induced gels decreased with increasing casein breakdown. When the level of casein hydrolysis was high (rennet-induced gels was drastically altered. Even when there were low levels of casein hydrolysis, the rheological properties of rennet gels were altered, which could have negative impacts on cheese yield and texture. PMID:12086040

  3. The Effect of the Remnant Mass in Estimating Stellar Mass of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Ikkoh

    2013-01-01

    The definition of the galactic stellar mass estimated from the spectral energy distribution is ambiguous in the literature; whether the stellar mass includes the mass of the stellar remnants, i.e. white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, is not well described. The remnant mass fraction in the total (living+remnant) stellar mass of a simple stellar population monotonically increases with the age of the population, and the initial mass function and metallicity affect the increasing rate. Since galaxies are composed of a number of stellar populations, the remnant mass fraction may depend on the total stellar mass of galaxies in a complex way. As a result, the shape of the stellar mass function of galaxies may change, depending on the definition of the stellar mass. In order to explore this issue, we ran a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, and then, we have found that the remnant mass fraction indeed correlates with the total stellar mass of galaxies. However, this correlation is weak and the remnant f...

  4. Online Ad Assignment with an Ad Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Wolfgang; Henzinger, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Ad exchanges are becoming an increasingly popular way to sell advertisement slots on the internet. An ad exchange is basically a spot market for ad impressions. A publisher who has already signed contracts reserving advertisement impressions on his pages can choose between assigning a new ad impression for a new page view to a contracted advertiser or to sell it at an ad exchange. This leads to an online revenue maximization problem for the publisher. Given a new impression to sell decide whe...

  5. Eating ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    in the context of the 'ad libitum meal'. The analytical interest is thus what kind of eaters and bodies are enacted in the meal test and what ideas of prevention and treatment are embedded in their standards. Drawing from ongoing empirical work among Danish obesity researchers performing scientific meal tests I...... ask what make up food stuff and eaters in the meal tests? More specifically I explore a scientific testing of changes in taste preferences before and after weight-loss surgery using an ad libitum buffet with a selection of different foods and another testing the effect of exercise on appetite also...

  6. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Heinze, Martin; Megrelidze, Luka

    2016-01-01

    We analyze dynamics of the AdS$_{N+1}$ particle realized on the coset SO$(2,N)/$SO$(1,N)$. Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$. We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO$(N)$ covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum level. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of ${\\frak so}(2,N)$ for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss a SO$(N)$ covariant supersymmetric extensions of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS$_2$ and AdS$_3$ given by recent works.

  7. Effective field theory for vibrations in odd-mass nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, E A Coello

    2016-01-01

    Heavy even-even nuclei exhibit low-energy collective excitations that are separated in scale from the microscopic (fermion) degrees of freedom. This separation of scale allows us to approach nuclear vibrations within an effective field theory (EFT). In odd-mass nuclei collective and single-particle properties compete at low energies, and this makes their description more challenging. In this article we describe odd-mass nuclei with ground-state spin $I=\\sfrac{1}{2}$ by means of an EFT that couples a fermion to the collective degrees of freedom of an even-even core. The EFT relates observables such as energy levels, electric quadrupole ($E2$) transition strengths, and magnetic dipole ($M1$) moments of the odd-mass nucleus to those of its even-even neighbor, and allows us to quantify theoretical uncertainties. For isotopes of rhodium and silver the theoretical description is consistent with data within experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Several testable predictions are made.

  8. Does Student Sorting Invalidate Value-Added Models of Teacher Effectiveness? An Extended Analysis of the Rothstein Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedel, Cory; Betts, Julian R.

    2011-01-01

    Value-added modeling continues to gain traction as a tool for measuring teacher performance. However, recent research questions the validity of the value-added approach by showing that it does not mitigate student-teacher sorting bias (its presumed primary benefit). Our study explores this critique in more detail. Although we find that estimated…

  9. Deletion mutants of region E1 a of AD12 E1 plasmids: Effect on oncogenic transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.L.; Jochemsen, A.G.; Bernards, R.A.; Schrier, P.I.; Ormondt, H. van; Eb, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids containing the El region of Ad12 DNA can transform certain rodent cells into oncogenic cells. To study the role of the Ela subregion in the process of oncogenic transformation, Ad12 region El mutants carrying deletions in the Ela region were constructed. Deletion mutants pR7 and pR8 affect

  10. Effective Electron Mass in Low-Dimensional Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Sitangshu

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with the Effective Electron Mass (EEM) in low dimensional semiconductors. The materials considered are quantum confined non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, GaP, Ge, PtSb2, zero-gap, stressed, Bismuth, carbon nanotubes, GaSb, IV-VI, Te, II-V, Bi2Te3, Sb, III-V, II-VI, IV-VI semiconductors and quantized III-V, II-VI, IV-VI and HgTe/CdTe superlattices with graded interfaces and effective mass superlattices. The presence of intense electric field and the light waves change the band structure of optoelectronic semiconductors in fundamental ways, which have also been incorporated in the study of the EEM in quantized structures of optoelectronic compounds that control the studies of the quantum effect devices under strong fields. The importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under strong electric field and external photo excitation has also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the EEM and the EEM in heavily doped sem...

  11. Amorphous Photonic Lattices: Band Gaps, Effective Mass and Suppressed Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Rechtsman, Mikael; Dreisow, Felix; Heinrich, Matthias; Keil, Robert; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    We present, theoretically and experimentally, amorphous photonic lattices exhibiting a band-gap yet completely lacking Bragg diffraction: 2D waveguides distributed randomly according to a liquid-like model responsible for the absence of Bragg peaks as opposed to ordered lattices containing disorder, which always exhibit Bragg peaks. In amorphous lattices the bands are comprised of localized states, but we find that defect states residing in the gap are more localized than the Anderson localization length. Finally, we show how the concept of effective mass carries over to amorphous lattices.

  12. Violence and mass media: are laws and regulations effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In Germany, there are several laws and legal and administrative regulations restricting presentation and propagation of violence in mass media. They have proven to be partly effective. Whilst control and supervision of public media is feasible, the containment of what is distributed over the internet proves to be very difficult. It is well recognized that laws and regulations can be only one part of protection for children and youngsters; school, kindergarten and above all the parents must be educated and held responsible for creating media competence in children and adolescents. PMID:17890154

  13. The effect of extrusion on the functional components and in vitro lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato pulp added corn extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyali, Bade; Sensoy, Ilkay; Karakaya, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The effect of processing on functional ingredients and their in vitro bioaccessibility should be investigated to develop better food products. Tomato pulp was added as a functional ingredient to extrudates. The effects of extrusion on the functional properties of the extrudates and the in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene were investigated. Two different temperature sets were applied during extrusion: 80 °C, 90 °C, 100 °C and 130 °C and 80 °C, 100 °C, 130 °C and 160 °C. Screw speed and feed rate were kept constant at 225 rpm and 36 ± 1 g min(-1), respectively. The feed moisture content was adjusted to 30 ± 1% by mixing the tomato pulp to the corn grit. Antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content decreased after the extrusion process. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the lycopene content decreased after the extrusion process when feed and extrudates were compared. In vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene for the extruded samples with 160 °C last zone treatment temperature was higher than the feed and extruded samples with 130 °C last zone treatment temperature. The results indicate that extrusion affects the food matrix and the release of functional components. PMID:26674172

  14. Analysis of effectiveness of spectrum of energy and image quality evaluation by aluminium filter in the added compound filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Dignostic Radiology, Seoul National University hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Ansan College, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study analysed the effectiveness of aluminium(Al) filter in the added compound filtration for the removal of characteristic radiation by energy spectrum and image evaluation. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mm copper with and without 1 mm Al were evaluated. The energy spectrum was measured using the GATE and evaluated separately by each energy. Image quality was evaluated by PSNR, MAE, MSE, CNR, SNR and qualitative analysis was performed by seven items for resolution and contrast from chest x-ray criteria of National Cancer Screening and Cardiovascular evaluation table. In the analysis of the quality of the energy per photon spectrum with the exception of a low energy region, without Al were superior in all area. PSNR MAE, MSE, CNR, SNR and qualitative analysis were the same or slightly better. PSNR was over 30 dB and all significant and the p>0.05 in the T-test of qualitative analysis. The energy spectrum and image quality have little difference between before and after use of Al filter. Therefore, it is effective to use the Al filter for the radiation dose management with the compensation capability of DR system.

  15. Hedonic and utilitarian Ad attributes in relation to advertising effectiveness - The role of consumer involvement and the context of tablet devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, Sarianne

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Previous marketing research on the relationship between consumer involvement and hedonic and utilitarian dimension has mostly concentrated on products and brands, rather than advertising attributes. Furthermore, advertising effectiveness has often been assessed from a single perspective, such as attitude toward the ad. Therefore this thesis is focused on the relationship between consumer involvement and hedonic and utilitarian ad attributes, and on how these are li...

  16. Effect of added Punica granatum peel fruits and Nigella sativa seeds on immunology and performance of suckling buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G3. Concentration of creatinine was relatively less in the treated groups G2 and G3 than G1. Group 3 possessed greater IgG content than that in G2 and G3 serum. Addition of Pg-p and NS in ration limited the number of calves having symptoms of diarrhoea due to increased level of antibodies and antibacterial effect. The effect of Pgp and NS in decreasing the number of diseased calves may be due to increase the level of antibodies and anti bacterial effect. The action of tannins against bacteria and yeasts can be established by a relation between their molecular structure and their toxicity, astringent properties or other mechanisms. Digestibility of DM, CF and EE were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in G3 compared with G1 and G2. The improved nutrients digestibility with added NS seeds might be due to the role of medical plant as inhibitors of gram positive bacteria and improved ruminal fermentation by increasing bacterial activity, which in turn increases digestibility. The Present results are revealing dietary supplementation of Pg-p in starter of buffalo calves was successful in improving growth rate of the animal. Moreover, Pg-p reduced the number of cases affected by microorganisms into the half number. Those effects were augmented by adding NS seeds in G3 as evidenced by improved immunity in treated animals hence achievement of better growth performance. (author)

  17. The Effects of Partial Ionization on Prominence Mass Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpen, J. T.; Olson, K.; DeVore, C. R.; Martinez Gomez, D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the prominence mass has been an open question since this cool plasma suspended in the hot corona was first discovered. We have known for a long time that the mass must come from the chromosphere, but it is unclear whether this mass is lifted bodily through magnetic levitation, injected by reconnection-driven upflows, or driven from the chromosphere by evaporation and then condensed. One evaporation-condensation scenario, the thermal nonequilibrium (TNE) model, is the most fully developed, quantitative model for the prominence plasma to date. In the TNE scenario, localized heating concentrated at the coronal loop footpoints produces chromospheric evaporation, filling the flux tube with hot, dense plasma that subsequently collapses radiatively to form cool condensations. Thus far this model has been successful in explaining the key properties of the long, persistent threads and small, highly dynamic, transient blobs in prominences, the damping of large-amplitude field-aligned prominence oscillations, the appearance of horn-shaped features above the cool prominence in EUV images of coronal cavities, and coronal rain in the ambient corona. To date, all studies of TNE have assumed that the plasma is fully ionized, which is appropriate for the hot coronal gas but unrealistic for the cool plasma below ~30,000 K. The energetics, dynamics, and evolutionary time scales of the TNE process are expected to be altered when the effects of ionization and recombination are considered. We have modified ARGOS, our 1D hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement, to include an equation of state that accounts for the effects of partial ionization of the plasma over a wide range of temperatures and densities. We will discuss the results of these simulations and their comparison with our previous studies of TNE in typical filament-supporting flux tubes. This work was partially supported by NASA's LWS Strategic Capability program.

  18. Mass transfer effects in hygroscopic measurements of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA has been widely utilized to measure the hygroscopicity of laboratory-generated and atmospheric submicrometer particles. An important concern in investigating the hygroscopicity of the particles is if the particles have attained equilibrium state in the measurements. We present a literature survey to investigate the mass transfer effects in hygroscopicity measurements. In most TDMA studies, a residence time in the order of seconds is used for humidification (or dehumidification. NaCl and (NH42SO4 particles are usually used to verify the equilibrium measurements during this residence time, which is presumed to be sufficient for other particles. There have been observations that not all types of submicrometer particles, including atmospheric particles, attain their equilibrium sizes within this time scale. We recommend that experimentation with different residence times be conducted and that the residence time should be explicitly stated in future TDMA measurements. Mass transfer effects may also exist in the measurements of other properties related to the water uptake of atmospheric particles such as relative humidity dependent light scattering coefficients and cloud condensation nuclei activity.

  19. The Vector Meson Mass in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Jonathan M M

    2014-01-01

    A brief overview of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) as a non-Abelian gauge field theory, including symmetries and formalism of interest, will precede a focused discussion on the use of an Effective Field Theory (EFT) as a low energy perturbative expansion technique. Regularization schemes involved in Chiral Perturbation Theory (\\c{hi}PT) will be reviewed and compared with EFT. Lattices will be discussed as a useful procedure for studying large mass particles. An Effective Field Theory will be formulated, and the self energy of the \\r{ho} meson for a Finite-Range Regulated (FRR) theory will be calculated. This will be performed in both full QCD and the simpler quenched approximation (QQCD). Finite-volume artefacts, due to the finite box size on the lattice, will be quantified. Currently known lattice results will be used to calculate the \\r{ho} meson mass, and the possibility of unquenching will be explored. The aim of the research was to determine whether a stable unquenching procedure for the \\r{ho} meson could...

  20. Understanding and improving the Effective Mass for LHC searches

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    A handy and extensively used kinematic variable in LHC analyses, especially for golden SUSY signals of multijets plus missing energy, is the Effective Mass, M_eff = sum_j |p_T^j|+ |p_T^miss|. Empirically, the value of M_eff at which the histogram of events has a maximum is correlated with the SUSY spectrum, M_eff|_max ~ 80% M_susy, where M_susy is essentially the sum of the masses of the SUSY particles initially created. In this paper we explain the reason for such strong correlation, pointing out the cases where the correlation is not good. Besides, we propose a new variable, the Effective Transverse Energy, E_T^eff, which shows an even better and more direct correlation E_T^eff|_max ~ M_susy, and is independent of the procedure followed to identify the jets. E_T^eff and M_eff are complementary variables, rather than competitors; and plotting histograms in both can be useful to cross-check the results, allowing a better and more robust identification of M_susy. The extension of this procedure to other scenar...

  1. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Evnin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  2. Lattice Effective Field Theory for Medium-Mass Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lähde, Timo A; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    We extend Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory (NLEFT) to the regime of medium-mass nuclei, and describe a method which allows us to greatly decrease the uncertainties due to extrapolation at large Euclidean time. We present results for the ground states of alpha nuclei from $^4$He to $^{28}$Si, calculated up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in the EFT expansion. We discuss systematic errors associated with the momentum-cutoff scale and the truncation of the EFT expansion. While the long-term objectives of NLEFT are a decrease in the lattice spacing and the inclusion of higher-order contributions, we show that the missing physics at NNLO can be approximated by an effective four-nucleon interaction.

  3. Effect of adding Matrix Metallo proteinase inhibitors on the degree of conversion of monomers to polymer an experimental bonding agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: In spite of the achievements in the field of dental adhesives, we are facing challenges with dentine bonding resistance, strength and stability. According to recent studies the role of MMP inhibitors in association with bonding,s persistence and leakage reduction and restoration,s persistence is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of doxycycline as a MMP inhibitor on the degree of conversion (DC of an experimental dental adhesive. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, a new dental adhesive blend was prepared by mixing doxycycline monohydrate (in concentrations of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 wt.% with monomers. The monomers were composed of 12% Bis-GMA and 10% TMPTMA, 28% HEMA, and 50% Ethanol by weight for all groups. Comphorquinone and amines were chosen as photo initiator system. Degree of conversion of all adhesives was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. "nResults: The results showed that addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 weight percent doxycycline did not significantly reduce the DC of the adhesives compared to 0.0% control group (p>0.05%. "nConclusion: According to the results of this study, adding doxycycline to the adhesives did not adversely affect the DC.

  4. Effect of added citrus fibre and spice essential oils on quality characteristics and shelf-life of mortadella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of adding orange dietary fibre (1%), rosemary essential oil (0.02%) or thyme essential oil (0.02%) and the storage conditions on the quality characteristics and the shelf-life of mortadella, a bologna-type sausage. The moisture, fat, ash content and colour coordinates lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were affected by the fibre content. The treatments analysed lowered the levels of residual nitrite (57.56% and 57.61%) and the extent of lipid oxidation, while analysis of the samples revealed the presence of the flavonoids, hesperidin and narirutin. No enterobacteria or psychotropic bacteria were found in any of the treatments. The treated samples stored in vacuum packaging showed the lowest aerobic and lactic acid bacteria counts. Sensorially, the most appreciated sample was the one containing orange dietary fibre and rosemary essential oil, stored in vacuum packaging. Orange dietary fibre and spice essential oils could find a use in the food industry to improve the shelf-life of meat products.

  5. The calcite/water interface II. Effect of added lattice ions on the charge properties and adsorption of sodium polyacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Rasmus; Merta, Juha; Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2008-10-15

    The origin of the surface potential of calcium carbonate in aqueous dispersions and the dissolution of calcite in systems containing excess Ca(2+) and CO(3)(2-) have been the subjects of this study. In addition, stabilization of calcite particles with an anionic polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate (NaPA)) and the effect on surface potential and dissolution of calcite have been studied. Preferential dissolution of either Ca(2+) or CO(3)(2-) from the surface, which is governed by the partial pressure of CO(2) in solution and the pH of the solution, mainly determines the surface potential. Both lattice ions (Ca(2+) and CO(3)(2-)) adsorb onto the surface and thus alter the surface potential. NaPA adsorbs strongly onto the calcite surface regardless of background electrolyte concentration, and reverses the surface potential to negative values. Chelation of the surface due to NaPA can be partly prevented by adding Ca(2+) to the dispersion. PMID:18675424

  6. The Effects of Adding Elements of Zinc and Magnesium on Ag-Cu Eutectic Alloy for Warming Acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il Song; Kim, Keun Sik; Lee, Min Ho

    2013-01-01

    The warming acupuncture for hyperthermia therapy is made of STS304. However, its needle point cannot be reached to a desirable temperature due to heat loss caused by low thermal conductivity, and the quantification of stimulation condition and the effective standard establishment of warming acupuncture are required as a heat source. Accordingly, in this study, after Ag-Cu alloys with different composition ratios were casted and then mixed with additives to improve their physical and mechanical properties, the thermal conductivity and biocompatibility of the alloy specimens were evaluated for selecting suitable material. Ag-Cu binary alloys and ternary alloys added 5 wt% Zn or 2 wt% Mg were casted and then cold drawn to manufacture needles for acupuncture, and their physical properties, thermal conductivity, and biocompatibility were evaluated for their potential use in warming acupuncture. The results of this study showed that the physical and mechanical properties of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by additives and that the thermal conductivity, machinability, and biocompatibility of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by Mg addition. PMID:24078827

  7. Effect of sintering temperatures on the elastic properties of Mn (1%) added MgCuZn ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline samples of Mn (1%) added MgCuZn ferrites were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. Samples were sintered at different temperatures in the range of 975–1175 °C for 10 h. The longitudinal wave velocity (Vl) and shear wave velocity (Vs) were measured using ultrasonic pulse transition technique. The values of Vl and Vs were increased with an increase in sintering temperature. Using these values of velocities; longitudinal modulus, rigidity modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were calculated. The values of elastic moduli were increased with an increase in sintering temperature. Poisson's ratio was constant for all the samples. The elastic moduli of samples were corrected to zero porosity using well-known models. Debye temperature and average sound velocity were calculated. Debye temperature and average sound velocity were increased with an increase in sintering temperature. A linear relationship between Debye temperature and average sound velocity was observed. These results suggest that sintering condition has a prominent effect on the elastic properties. - Highlights: • The bulk density increases and porosity decreases with an increase in sintering temperature. • The elastic moduli of samples increase with an increase in sintering temperature. • Poisson's ratio is constant for all the samples. • A linear relationship between average sound velocity and Debye temperature is observed

  8. Effects of Adding Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes on Performance of Polyvinyl Acetate and Urea-Formaldehyde Adhesives in Tropical Timber Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs functionalized with hydroxyl groups (MWCNTs-OH have been incorporated into polyvinyl acetate (PVAc and urea-formaldehyde (UF adhesives utilized in tropical wood gluing. The Raman spectroscopy, the atomic force microscopy (AFM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to describe the MWCNTs-OH. The adhesives were evaluated in three concentrations of MWCNTs-OH: 0% (control, 0.05%, and 0.1%. The evaluation included color, the distribution of MWCNTs-OH by TEM and AFM, thermal stability and viscosity of the adhesives, and shear strength (SS of the glue line for nine tropical woods. AFM and TEM confirmed interaction of MWCNTs-OH with adhesives. The viscosity of the PVAc adhesive increases with added MWCNTs-OH. The incorporation of MWCNTs-OH in PVAc and UF resin produces wood adhesives with less brightness, less yellowness, and increased redness. The nanotubes in the adhesive improved the thermal stability of the composites and increased the entropy factor and energy of activation in the kinetic decomposition of the resin. In relation to SS, MWCNTs-OH in any of the two concentrations had no significant effect on SS in dry condition in half of the species studied glued with PVAc adhesive, whereas, for UF-adhesive, the SS and percentage of wood failure improved in most of the 9 species studied.

  9. Effect of added nickel nitrate on the physical, thermal and morphological characteristics of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nataraj, S.K.; Kim, B.H.; Yun, J.H.; Lee, D.H.; Aminabhavi, T.M. [Carbon Materials Lab, Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering/Alan G. MacDiarmid Energy Research Institute (AMERI), Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, K.S. [Carbon Materials Lab, Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering/Alan G. MacDiarmid Energy Research Institute (AMERI), Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ksyang@chonnam.ac.kr

    2009-05-25

    Porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with enhanced physical, thermal and morphological properties are desirable in many areas like catalyst support in fuel cells and supercapacitors as electrode material. This research addresses the effect of added nickel nitrate in 1, 3 and 5 wt% into polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor solution to produce CNF webs using electrospinning method. Based on the quantitative data obtained from field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, we can notice that CNFs were formed with diameters in the size range of 100-300 nm after carbonization at 1000 deg. C. Fiber diameter of the random CNFs was decreased by increasing the nickel nitrate contents along with dramatic improvements in porosity and specific surface areas. This study indicated that the optimal nickel nitrate concentration of 5 wt% has produced CNFs with enhanced physical and thermo-chemical properties. The high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) showed an increase in intensity of 0 0 2 peak of the CNFs due to the catalytic function of nickel oxide in the carbonized web and these observations are in agreement with the thermal gravimetric data.

  10. The Effects of Adding Elements of Zinc and Magnesium on Ag-Cu Eutectic Alloy for Warming Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kyoung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The warming acupuncture for hyperthermia therapy is made of STS304. However, its needle point cannot be reached to a desirable temperature due to heat loss caused by low thermal conductivity, and the quantification of stimulation condition and the effective standard establishment of warming acupuncture are required as a heat source. Accordingly, in this study, after Ag-Cu alloys with different composition ratios were casted and then mixed with additives to improve their physical and mechanical properties, the thermal conductivity and biocompatibility of the alloy specimens were evaluated for selecting suitable material. Ag-Cu binary alloys and ternary alloys added 5 wt% Zn or 2 wt% Mg were casted and then cold drawn to manufacture needles for acupuncture, and their physical properties, thermal conductivity, and biocompatibility were evaluated for their potential use in warming acupuncture. The results of this study showed that the physical and mechanical properties of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by additives and that the thermal conductivity, machinability, and biocompatibility of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by Mg addition.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to drug regimens for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J Wolfson

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to a background regimen (BR of drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in the United Kingdom (UK.A cohort-based Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR versus BR alone (BR in the treatment of MDR-TB, over a 10-year time horizon. A National Health Service (NHS and personal social services perspective was considered. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Data were sourced from a phase II, placebo-controlled trial, NHS reference costs, and the literature; the US list price of bedaquiline was used and converted to pounds (£18,800. Costs and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3.5% per annum. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted.The total discounted cost per patient (pp on BBR was £106,487, compared with £117,922 for BR. The total discounted QALYs pp were 5.16 for BBR and 4.01 for BR. The addition of bedaquiline to a BR resulted in a cost-saving of £11,434 and an additional 1.14 QALYs pp over a 10-year period, and is therefore considered to be the dominant (less costly and more effective strategy over BR. BBR remained dominant in the majority of sensitivity analyses, with a 81% probability of being dominant versus BR in the probabilistic analysis.In the UK, bedaquiline is likely to be cost-effective and cost-saving, compared with the current MDR-TB standard of care under a range of scenarios. Cost-savings over a 10-year period were realized from reductions in length of hospitalization, which offset the bedaquiline drug costs. The cost-benefit conclusions held after several sensitivity analyses, thus validating assumptions made, and suggesting that the results would hold even if the actual price of bedaquiline in the UK were higher than in the US.

  12. Mass Loss: Its Effect on the Evolution and Fate of High-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of massive star evolution is in flux, due to recent upheavals in our view of mass loss, and observations of a high binary fraction among O-type stars. Mass-loss rates for standard metallicity-dependent winds of hot stars are now thought to be lower by a factor of 2-3 compared to rates adopted in modern stellar evolution models, due to the influence of clumping. Weaker line-driven winds shift the burden of H-envelope removal elsewhere, so that the dominant modes of mass loss are the winds, pulsations, and eruptions of evolved supergiants, as well as binary mass transfer. Studies of stripped-envelope supernovae, in particular, require binary mass transfer. Dramatic examples of eruptive mass loss are seen in Type IIn supernovae, which have massive shells ejected just a few years before core collapse. The shifting emphasis from steady winds to episodic mass loss is a major change for low-metallicity regions, since eruptions and binary mass transfer are less sensitive to metallicity. We encounter...

  13. Polarised black holes in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  14. The effect of adding CO2 to hypoxic inspired gas on cerebral blood flow velocity and breathing during incremental exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Lin Fan

    Full Text Available Hypoxia increases the ventilatory response to exercise, which leads to hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia and subsequent reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF. We studied the effects of adding CO2 to a hypoxic inspired gas on CBF during heavy exercise in an altitude naïve population. We hypothesized that augmented inspired CO2 and hypoxia would exert synergistic effects on increasing CBF during exercise, which would improve exercise capacity compared to hypocapnic hypoxia. We also examined the responsiveness of CO2 and O2 chemoreception on the regulation ventilation ([Formula: see text]E during incremental exercise. We measured middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv; index of CBF, [Formula: see text]E, end-tidal PCO2, respiratory compensation threshold (RC and ventilatory response to exercise ([Formula: see text]E slope in ten healthy men during incremental cycling to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.10 with and without augmenting the fraction of inspired CO2 (FICO2. During exercise in normoxia, augmenting FICO2 elevated MCAv throughout exercise and lowered both RC onset and[Formula: see text]E slope below RC (P0.05. The [Formula: see text]E slope above RC was unchanged with either hypoxia or augmented FICO2 (P>0.05. We found augmenting FICO2 increased CBF during sub-maximal exercise in normoxia, but not in hypoxia, indicating that the 'normal' cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia is blunted during exercise in hypoxia, possibly due to an exhaustion of cerebral vasodilatory reserve. This finding may explain the lack of improvement of exercise capacity in hypoxia with augmented CO2. Our data further indicate that, during exercise below RC, chemoreception is responsive, while above RC the ventilatory response to CO2 is blunted.

  15. Defensive effect of lansoprazole in dementia of AD type in mice exposed to streptozotocin and cholesterol enriched diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder K Sodhi

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v, and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS. Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.

  16. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen;

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits....

  17. Are School Factors Important for Measuring Teacher Effectiveness? A Multilevel Technique to Predict Student Gains through a Value-Added Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Bidya Raj; Swan, Bonnie; Hynes, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of teacher quality, represented by teacher level characteristics, on mathematics gain scores employing multilevel (or three-level hierarchical linear model, HLM, based) unconditional and conditional value-added model (VAM). We found the significant effects of teacher's mathematics content certification, teacher…

  18. Therapeutic effect of AdCMVCD/5-FC system and metabolism of 5-FC in the treatment of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安训; 黄洪章; 李苏

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect and metabolism of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC ) in human tongue squamous carcinoma cells after treatment with adenovirus-medi ated cytosine deaminase (AdCMVCD)/5-FC system. Methods Human tongue squamous carcinoma cells (Tca8113 cell line) and its xenografts in BALB/c nude mice were treated with AdCMVCD/5-FC system. The killing effect in vitro and bystander effect were detected by microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay . Tumor inhibition effect and histopathological changes were observed in vivo. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to determine the metabolism of 5-FC in vitro and in vivo. Results AdCMVCD/5-FC system had strong killing effect and bystander effect on Tca8113 cells. Both condition media and cell extracts showed two peaks identified as 5- FC and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by HPLC and a time-dependent generation of 5-FU and concomitant time-dependent decreases of 5-FC. Compared to the control groups, mice treated with AdCMVCD/5-FC system demonstrated significant tumor regr ession (P<0.001); the tumor doubling time prolonged and inhibition rate was 92.62%. There were substantial tumor necrotic areas and infiltrative lymphocy tes around necrotic areas in the AdCMVCD/5-FC treated group under light microscope. There was a significantly low concentration of 5-FC and high concentratio n of 5-FU in tumor tissue, but only 5-FC was found in blood. Conclusion AdCMVCD/5-FC suicide gene system had significant in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effect on human tongue squamous cell carcinomadue to convert 5-FC into 5-F U.

  19. Effective QED Actions Representations, Gauge Invariance, Anomalies and Mass Expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, Stanley D; Seminara, D

    1998-01-01

    We analyze and give explicit representations for the effective abelian vector gauge field actions generated by charged fermions with particular attention to the thermal regime in odd dimensions, where spectral asymmetry can be present. We show, through $\\zeta-$function regularization, that both small and large gauge invariances are preserved at any temperature and for any number of fermions at the usual price of anomalies: helicity/parity invariance will be lost in even/odd dimensions, and in the latter even at zero mass. Gauge invariance dictates a very general ``Fourier'' representation of the action in terms of the holonomies that carry the novel, large gauge invariant, information. We show that large (unlike small) transformations and hence their Ward identities, are not perturbative order-preserving, and clarify the role of (properly redefined) Chern-Simons terms in this context. From a powerful representation of the action in terms of massless heat kernels, we are able to obtain rigorous gauge invariant...

  20. The anti-migratory effects of FKBPL and its peptide derivative, AD-01: regulation of CD44 and the cytoskeletal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Yakkundi

    Full Text Available FK506 binding protein-like (FKBPL and its peptide derivatives exert potent anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo and control tumour growth in xenograft models, when administered exogenously. However, the role of endogenous FKBPL in angiogenesis is not well characterised. Here we investigated the molecular effects of the endogenous protein and its peptide derivative, AD-01, leading to their anti-migratory activity. Inhibition of secreted FKBPL using a blocking antibody or siRNA-mediated knockdown of FKBPL accelerated the migration of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1. Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 tumour cells stably overexpressing FKBPL inhibited tumour vascular development in vivo suggesting that FKBPL secreted from tumour cells could inhibit angiogenesis. Whilst FKBPL and AD-01 target CD44, the nature of this interaction is not known and here we have further interrogated this aspect. We have demonstrated that FKBPL and AD-01 bind to the CD44 receptor and inhibit tumour cell migration in a CD44 dependant manner; CD44 knockdown abrogated AD-01 binding as well as its anti-migratory activity. Interestingly, FKBPL overexpression and knockdown or treatment with AD-01, regulated CD44 expression, suggesting a co-regulatory pathway for these two proteins. Downstream of CD44, alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, indicated by intense cortical actin staining and a lack of cell spreading and communication were observed following treatment with AD-01, explaining the anti-migratory phenotype. Concomitantly, AD-01 inhibited Rac-1 activity, up-regulated RhoA and the actin binding proteins, profilin and vinculin. Thus the anti-angiogenic protein, FKBPL, and AD-01, offer a promising and alternative approach for targeting both CD44 positive tumours and vasculature networks.

  1. Effects of a dietary added formaldehyde-propionic acid blend on feed enterobacteria counts and on growing pig performance and fecal formaldehyde excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Maicon Sbardella; Danilo do Prado Perina; Carla de Andrade; Flavio Alves Longo; Valdomiro Shigueru Miyada

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a dietary added formaldehyde-propionic acid blend on feed enterobacteria counts and on growing pig performance and fecal formaldehyde excretion. Forty pigs (34.2±1.8kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with four treatments, five replications per treatment and two animals per experimental unit (pen). The treatments were: 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0g of blend kg-1 of feed. No effects (P>0.05) of dietary added blend...

  2. Efeito de adjuvantes adicionados à calda herbicida contendo glyphosate Effect of adjuvants added to herbicide spray containing glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Vargas

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Tentativas de aumentar a fitotoxicidade do herbicida glyphosate através da adição de ácido e/ ou de sulfato de amônio à calda tem sido promissoras. A adição dessas substâncias otimiza as propriedades químicas da calda herbicida, superando efeitos negativos do pH elevado e de ions nela presentes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar o efeito da adição de ácido sulfúrico e/ou de sulfato de amônio à calda herbicida, sobre a eficiência do glyphosate misturado em diluente com alto pH e teores elevados de sais. Os tratamentos envolveram cinco doses de glyphosate (variáveis de 180 a 540 g/ha i.a. diluídas em água destilada e, mais glyphosate a 270 g/ha misturado às águas minera is Fonte Azul e Fonte Ijuí em presença de ácido sulfúrico (0,5 1/ha e/ou sulfato de amônio (2 ,5 kg/h a . A fitotoxicidade foi avaliada aos 7, 17 e 27 dias após as aplicações do herbicida sobre a aveia preta. Os resultados demonstraram que a aveia-preta é muito suscetível à ação de glyphosate, mesmo aplicado a 270 g/ha, independente da água utilizada ou da adição de adjuvantes e, que a adição de ácido sulfúrico e/ou de sulfato de amônio à calda não alterou a atividade do herbicida.Attempts to increase phytotoxicity of glyphosat e her bic ide through addition of acid and/or of ammonium sulphate to the spray solution have been promising. Addition of these substances optimize chemical properties of the herbicide spray, overcoming negative effects of high pH and of íons present in it. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sulphuric acid and/or of ammonium sulphate addition to herbicide spray, on the efficiency of glyphosate mixed in diluents with high pH and high salts content. Glyphosate treatments consisted of five rates (variables from 180 to 540 g/ha a.e., diluted in distilled water, and also glyph osate at 270 g/h a a. e. mix ed in the mineral waters Fonte Azul and Fonte Ijuí. To this herbicide rate

  3. Effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A prospective, randomised, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant A Biradar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different additives have been used to prolong brachial plexus block. We performed a prospective, randomised, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block as this is the most common type of brachial block performed in our institute. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologist′s physical status I and II patients undergoing elective hand, forearm and elbow surgery under brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of normal saline (group C, n=30 or 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg (group D, n=30. The block was performed using a nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade were assessed. The sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves were evaluated and recorded at 5, 10, 20, 120 min, and at every 30 min thereafter. Results: Two patients were excluded from the study because of block failure. The onset of sensory and motor blockade (13.4±2.8 vs. 16.0±2.3 min and 16.0±2.7 vs. 18.7±2.8 min, respectively were significantly more rapid in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. The duration of sensory and motor blockade (326±58.6 vs. 159±20.1 and 290.6±52.7 vs. 135.5±20.3 min, respectively were significantly longer in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline in supraclavicular brachial plexus block speeds the onset and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.

  4. Effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany S Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Different adjuvants have been used to improve the quality and increase the duration of local anesthetics during various nerve block techniques. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on the quality and duration of transversus abdominis plane (TAP block. Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective open abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive TAP block using 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL saline 0.9% (control group, n=30 or 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL dexamethasone "8 mg" (dexamethasone group, n=30. The primary outcome was postoperative pain, as evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS for pain scoring at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively, whereas the secondary outcomes were time to first analgesia (TFA, morphine consumption and the occurrence of nausea, vomiting or somnolence. Results: The pain VAS score was significantly lower at the postoperative 2 h (4.9 vs. 28.1, P=0.01, 4 h (12.2 vs. 31.1, P=0.01 and 12 h (15.7 vs. 25.4, P=0.02. Furthermore, TFA was significantly longer in the dexamethasone group (459.8 vs. 325.4 min, P=0.002, with lesser morphine requirements in the postoperative 48 h (4.9 vs. 21.2 mg, P=0.003 and lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (6 vs. 14, P=0.03. No complications attributed to the block were recorded. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine in TAP block prolonged the duration of the block and decreased the incidence of nausea and vomiting.

  5. Analysis of DDoS Attack Effect and Protection Scheme in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramratan Ahirwal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink is network without infrastructure. Detecting malicious nodes in an open ad-hoc network in whichparticipating nodes have no previous security associations presents a number of challenges not faced by traditional wired networks. Traffic monitoring in wired networks is usually performed at switches,routers and gateways, but an ad-hoc network does not have these types of network elements where the Intrusion Detection System (IDS can collect and analyse audit data for the entire network. A number ofneighbour-monitoring, trust-building, and cluster-based voting schemes have been proposed in the research to enable the detection and reporting of malicious activity in ad-hoc networks. The resourcesconsumed by ad-hoc network member nodes to monitor, detect, report, and diagnose malicious activity, however, may be greater than simply rerouting packets through a different available path. In this paperwe are trying to protect our network from distributed denial of service attack (DDOS, In this paper we present method for determining intrusion or misbehave in MANET using intrusion detection system and protect the network from distributed denial of service (DDOS and analysis the result on the bases of actual TCP flow monitoring, routing load ,packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay in normal , DDOS attack and IDS time .

  6. Adding disk effects to N-body simulations with REBOUNDx: Application to overstability of resonances in exoplanet pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Rein, Hanno; Chen, Alice; bennett, morgan

    2015-12-01

    Mean-motion resonances (MMRs) are typically stable configurations for pairs of planets. Given that planets should migrate relative to one another in their natal disk, one might expect to have found most planets locked in such MMRs. The fact that most Kepler planets are not observed in MMRs therefore requires an explanation. Goldreich and Schlichting (2014) recently argued that, in fact, due to interactions with the protoplanetary disk, planets below a threshold mass should break out of the strongest MMRs, i.e., the MMRs become overstable.While follow-up work has studied the robustness of this result to varying orbital architectures, we focus on the specific numerical implementation of the disk effects, which translates into differing physical interpretations of the planet-disk interactions. We will present how these physical choices affect the parameter space in which overstability sets in, and how certain choices can generate spurious results. We will then extend our results to general cases of broad applicability, and summarize the merits and pitfalls of these different numerical implementations of perturbations from the protoplanetary disk, particularly in tightly packed systems.We have packaged these numerical implementations into REBOUNDx, an open-source C and Python package for incorporating planet-disk interactions, as well as additional effects (like post-newtonian corrections), into N-body simulations using REBOUND. We will give a brief demo that highlights its ease of installation and use, as well as its synergy with Python's powerful plotting and scientific analysis libraries.

  7. Effects of Coronal Mass Ejections on Distant Coronal Streamers

    CERN Document Server

    Filippov, B; Srivastava, A K; Martsenyuk, O

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a large coronal mass ejection (CME) on a solar coronal streamer located roughly 90 degrees from the main direction of the CME propagation observed on January 2, 2012 by the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph are analyzed. Radial coronal streamers undergo some bending when CMEs pass through the corona, even at large angular distances from the streamers. The phenomenon resembles a bending wave traveling along the streamer. Some researchers interpret these phenomena as the effects of traveling shocks generated by rapid CMEs, while others suggest they are waves excited inside the streamers by external impacts. The analysis presented here did not find convincing arguments in favor of either of these interpretations. It is concluded that the streamer behavior results from the effect of the magnetic field of a moving magnetic rope associated with the coronal ejection. The motion of the large-scale magnetic rope away from the Sun changes the surrounding magnetic field lines in the corona, and these changes resembl...

  8. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  9. Nonclassical properties and purity of a qubit system in photon-added squeezed thermal states with time-dependent coupling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, K.; Abdel-Khalek, S.

    2016-10-01

    The degree of purity and nonclassical properties for a two-level system interacting with a photon-added squeezed thermal field (PASTF) are described in terms of the physical parameters involved in the whole system state with and without time-dependent coupling effect. Specially, we investigate the influence of the squeezed parameter and photon-added number on the behavior of the linear entropy and the Mandel's parameter. We find that for each value of the photon-added number, there exist critical value of the squeezed parameter for which the linear entropy is maximal and the statistical properties get farther from the trivial case. Moreover, we show that the presence of the time-dependent coupling effect may increase the periodicity time and lead to quench oscillations of the Mandel's parameter during the evolution. Finally, we exploit an interesting relationship between the linear entropy and the Mandel's parameter in terms of the physical parameters.

  10. Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…

  11. Understanding Ligand Effects in Gold Clusters using Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2016-06-16

    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because “each-atom-counts” toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted that may be compared with the results of high-level theoretical calculations. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well

  12. The Effect of Body fat Mass and Fat Free Mass on Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity seems to be associated to migraine headache. Increase in body fat, especially in gluteofemoral region, elevates adiponectin and leptin secretion which in turn impair inflammatory processes that could be contributing to migraine risk. This study was designed to assess the relationship between body composition and risk of migraine for the first time.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1510 middle-aged women who were visited in a weight reduction clinicof university were recruited. Migraine was diagnosedwith HIS criteria. Body composition parameters including total fat mass (FATM, total fat free mass (FFM, truncal fat mass (TFATM, and truncal fat free mass (TFFM was assessed using bioelectric impedance. We further assessed cardiovascular risk factors and smoking as confounding factors. To determine the real association between different variables and risk of migraine, the associations were adjusted by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results: Elevation in fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, FFM, TFFM, and waist-to-hip ratio increased the risk of migraine. When the associations were adjusted for other factors, only the association between migraine and FFM remained statistically significant.Conclusion: Lower FFM increased the risk of migraine in overweight and obese individuals. In the other words, higher fat free mass could be a protective factor for migraine.

  13. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile.

  14. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  15. Are School Factors Important for Measuring Teacher Effectiveness? A Multilevel Technique to Predict Student Gains through a Value-Added Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bidya Raj Subedi; Bonnie Swan; Hynes, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of teacher quality, represented by teacher level characteristics, on mathematics gain scores employing a three-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) through value-added model (VAM) approach. The analysis investigated significant predictors at student, teacher, and school levels for predicting students' gain scores and also estimated d-type effect sizes at teacher and school levels. We found the significant effects of teacher's mathematics content certificati...

  16. Disentangling location-based advertising : the effects of location congruency and medium type on consumers' ad attention and brand choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Paul; Bernritter, Stefan; van 't Riet, Jonathan; Huhn, Arief Ernst; van Woudenberg, Thabo; Muller, Barbara; Janssen, Loes

    2015-01-01

    Research on location-based advertising (LBA) suggests that the merits of LBA lie in the fact that consumers can be targeted with location-congruent ads on their personal mobile devices. However, LBA consists of two underlying constructs: a mobile (vs. point-of-sales) advertising medium and location

  17. The effect of climate variability on pollen productivity, AD 1975-2000, recorded in a Sphagnum peat hummock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjögren, P.; van Leeuwen, J.F.N.; van der Knaap, W.O.; van der Borg, K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollen accumulation rates and pollen percentages from a Sphagnum peat hummock in the Jura Mountains were used to determine past pollen deposition. Post-bomb calibrated radiocarbon dates allowed estimations of annual variability in pollen productivity AD 1975-2000. Percentages of abundant taxa were m

  18. Intramedium Interaction and the Third-Person Effect: How Partisans Respond to YouTube Ads and Comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Aaron S; Park, Chang Sup; Lyons, Benjamin A; Kang, Cheeyoun Stephanie; Iyer, Narayanan

    2015-07-01

    As digital media technologies have evolved and become more powerful, the prevalence of mixed-media content-that is, content that mixes multiple media such as text and video-has increased considerably. Perhaps nowhere is this more apparent than YouTube, now the Web's third most trafficked site. YouTube provides for video sharing in an environment otherwise dominated by textual titles, descriptions, and comments. As such, it is an ideal venue in which to examine the impact of intramedium interaction on message evaluation. This study uses a survey experiment to test first-person and third-person evaluations of campaign ads from the Obama and Romney campaigns, and the comments posted about them on YouTube, using two real ads and one set of fake comments. Findings suggest that partisan perceptions of the manipulated ads transfer to the constant comments, and that the contextual cue of the YouTube environment reciprocally impacts partisan evaluation of the ads themselves.

  19. Intramedium Interaction and the Third-Person Effect: How Partisans Respond to YouTube Ads and Comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Aaron S; Park, Chang Sup; Lyons, Benjamin A; Kang, Cheeyoun Stephanie; Iyer, Narayanan

    2015-07-01

    As digital media technologies have evolved and become more powerful, the prevalence of mixed-media content-that is, content that mixes multiple media such as text and video-has increased considerably. Perhaps nowhere is this more apparent than YouTube, now the Web's third most trafficked site. YouTube provides for video sharing in an environment otherwise dominated by textual titles, descriptions, and comments. As such, it is an ideal venue in which to examine the impact of intramedium interaction on message evaluation. This study uses a survey experiment to test first-person and third-person evaluations of campaign ads from the Obama and Romney campaigns, and the comments posted about them on YouTube, using two real ads and one set of fake comments. Findings suggest that partisan perceptions of the manipulated ads transfer to the constant comments, and that the contextual cue of the YouTube environment reciprocally impacts partisan evaluation of the ads themselves. PMID:26167840

  20. Sugar-added beverages consumption among kindergarten children of Crete: effects on nutritional status and risk of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbokos Manolis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the intake of sugar-added beverages such as soft drinks and commercially available fruit juices in kindergarten children, and to examine its association with obesity indices, physical activity levels and dietary habits. Methods A total of 856 children aged 4–7 years living in Crete, Greece in 2004–5 were included in this cross-sectional study. Nutrient and food intake was assessed with the use of 3-day weighed food records. Body measurements were used in order to assess BMI and waist circumference, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was calculated with the use of a questionnaire. Results Approximately 59.8% of all children consumed sugar-added beverages on a daily basis. High intake of sugar-added beverages (> 250 g/day was associated with low intakes of calcium (p 250 g/day had higher BMI levels and two times greater risk of being overweight and/or obese (OR:2.35, p = 0.023. Conclusion High intake of sugar-added beverages in kindergarten children is associated with poor eating habits and inadequate nutrient intake, as well as increased risk for developing childhood obesity.

  1. Effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs to the diet of young pigs on growth performance, intestinal cytokines, and circulating acute phase proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs on growth performance, intestinal cytokine expression, markers of inflammation, abundance of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), and the expression of genes that control intestinal growth was evaluated in weanling pigs. Pigs (n = 120; 5.2 kg and 24 d of age) wer...

  2. Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Dokkum, W. van; Bouley, C.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in adult male volunteers the effect of a new fermented milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind two-way cross over trial with two treatment periods of thr

  3. Instructional and Organizational Effectiveness in Selected PREPS-Identified Value Added and PREPS-Identified Value Subtracted Elementary Schools in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jimmy Dale

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals, teachers, and support staff at 3 PREPS-identified value added and three PREPS-identified value subtracted elementary schools in Mississippi to determine if there were "effective schools" practices in the areas of instructional and organizational systems that were unique to either group. The…

  4. Effects of a lactoperoxidase system and lactoferrin, added to a milk replacer diet, on severity of diarrhoea, intestinal morphology and microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, P. van; Oosting, S.J.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the combination of a lactoperoxidase system (LP-s) and lactoferrin (LF) added to a milk replacer diet on severity of diarrhoea, the morphology of the small intestinal mucosa, and the microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

  5. Effect of a lactoperoxydase system and lactoferrin, added to a milk replacer diet, on severity of diarrhoea, intestinal morphology and microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.; Oosting, S.J.; Mouwen, J.M.V.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the combination of a lactoperoxidase system (LP-s) and lactoferrin (LF) added to a milk replacer diet on severity of diarrhoea, the morphology of the small intestinal mucosa, and the microbiology of digesta and faeces in young calves

  6. Effect of maize silage supplementation to grass silage harvested at different maturity stages on ad libitum intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to determine ad libitum intake of fresh ration, dry matter (DM and the organic matter (OM of grass silage from the primary growth harvested at different maturity stages in interaction with maize silage (33 % and 67 %, DM based in g kg-1 of the metabolic body weight (M0.75. Grass silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. that was dominant grass in the sward (late vegetative, internode elongation, flowering. The study consisted of ten feeding treatments with 10 whether Charolais sheep in incomplete changeover design. Dry matter content of I, II and III cutting term was 396, 408 i 463 g kg-1 of the fresh sample, respectively, while crude protein (CP content was 119.6, 98.0 and 93.0 g kg-1 of DM respectively. Dry mater and starch concentration in maize silage was 264 g kg-1 of fresh sample and 211 g kg-1 of DM respectively. Inclusion of 67 % of maize silage in the grass silage of the and grass silage of the II cutting term based ration significantely increased (P<0.05 fresh ration ad libitum intake, while with the III cutting term of grass silage both levels of the maize silage (33 % vs. 67 % significantely increased (P<0.05 fresh ration ad libitum intake. Inclusion of maize silage to grass silage of the I, II or III cutting term based ration (33 % vs. 67 % did not have a significant influence on DM or OM ad libitum intake. It was concluded that a positive response of maize silage inclusion in the grass silage based diet is dependent on the quality of both, the maize silage (DM and starch concentration and the grass silage (maturity stage at harvesting. The maize silage was probably of lower quailty then required for improved ad libitum DM and OM intake of the grass silage based ration.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of bee venom phospholipase A2 in the 3xTg AD mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Minsook; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Chanju; Yoon, Moon Sik; Yu, A. Ram; Kim, Jin Su; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Shim, Insop; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a severe neuroinflammatory disease. CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) modulate various inflammatory diseases via suppressing Th cell activation. There are increasing evidences that Tregs have beneficial roles in neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we found the population of Treg cells was significantly increased by bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) treatment in vivo and in vitro. Methods To examine the effects of bvPLA2 on AD, bvPLA2 was admini...

  8. Research of Force Effects During Mass-dynamic Interaction in Vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Samokhvalov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of the experimental research of rotating mass force effects in vacuum having a variable quadrupole moment on solids. During the research the values of forces, exciting repulsion of solids from rotating mass were measured.

  9. Induction of ovulation in Xenopus without hCG injection: the effect of adding steroids into the aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashina Yu-ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is widely used in studies of oogenesis, meiotic cell cycle and early embryonic development. However, in order to perform such studies, eggs are normally collected after the injection of hCG into the dorsal lymph sac of fully-grown female frogs following pre-injection of PMSF. Although this protocol is established and used as standard laboratory approach, there are some concerns over whether the injections could cause the transmission of deleterious microorganisms. Moreover, these injection protocols require a competent skilled worker to carry out the procedure efficiently. Methods Recently, we established a novel method to induce fish ovulation by simply adding the natural maturation-inducing hormone of teleosts, 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-DHP, into the surrounding water. In the present study, we demonstrate how we can induce ovulation in frogs using the same methodology. Results In frogs, progesterone was effective in the induction of oocyte maturation in vitro. We then examined the ability of progesterone to induce ovulation in frogs. However treatment of frogs with progesterone alone only occasionally induced ovulation in vivo. The number of oocytes and the frequency of ovulation were significantly lower than that induced by hCG-injection. Thus, conditions were improved by using a combination of progesterone with estradiol and by pre-treating frogs with low concentrations of progesterone or estradiol. Finally, we established an efficient means of inducing ovulation in frogs which involved pre-treatment of frogs with salt solution followed by a mixture of estradiol and progesterone at high concentration. The frequency and numbers of oocytes obtained were identical to those resulting from PMSG-hCG induction. Fertilization rate of eggs ovulated by the new treatment method was comparable to eggs obtained by hCG-injection and juveniles developed normally

  10. Effect of adding macro and micro minerals in pig feces fed diets with different levels of probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Alcides Robles Huaynate

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the effect of diets with different doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of probiotic on daily fecal production (DFP and level of macro and micro minerals in feces of nursing (1st and 2nd initial phases and growing pigs and during total period. The DFP, as percentage of body weight, was different (P0.05 among treatments, with exception of calcium and sodium excretion at 1st initial phase and calcium, zinc and nickel during total period. The addition of a poliprobiotic to diets do not affect fecal production of nursing and growing pigs. However, the presence of microorganisms, added (levels of 200 and 300 ppm in diets for nursing and growing pigs reduced fecal excretion of calcium, zinc and nickel.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dietas contendo diferentes doses (0, 100, 200 e 300 ppm de probiótico sobre a produção diária de fezes (PDF e teor de macro e microminerais nas fezes de suínos, nas fases de creche e de crescimento e no período total. A PDF, como porcentagem do peso vivo, somente apresentou diferença estatística (P0,05 entre tratamentos, a exceção de cálcio e sódio na fase inicial 1 e cálcio, zinco e níquel no período total. A adição de um poliprobiótico às dietas, não afetou a produção de fezes dos suínos nas fases de creche e de crescimento. Entretanto, a presença de microrganismos, adicionados (níveis de 200 e 300 ppm às dietas reduziu a excreção fecal de cálcio, zinco e níquel.

  11. Fake gaps in AdS_3/CFT_2

    CERN Document Server

    Belin, Alexandre; Hung, Ling-Yan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss properties of interpolating geometries in three dimensional gravity in the presence of a chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which introduces an unbalance between left and right central charges, is protected under RG flows. For this simple reason it is impossible to gap a system with such an anomaly. Our goal is to discuss how holography captures this basic and robust feature. We demonstrate the absence of a mass gap by analysing the linearized spectrum and holographic entanglement entropy of these backgrounds in the context of AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$.

  12. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoshan

    1995-07-07

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the {open_quotes}Fassel{close_quotes} TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids.

  13. The effectiveness of moving masses in reducing the roll motion of floating vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, N.; Mousavizadegan, S.H.; Bakhtiarinejad, F.

    2010-01-01

    mass with one or more springs and dampers. The movement of the mass produces an inertia force and moment to absorb wave excited motions. In this study the effectiveness of moving masses in vessels with large roll motion is investigated. A rolling vessel equipped with a moving mass can be modeled as a...... equation of movement of the mass in both frequency-domainand time-domain by analytical and numerical approaches. The computation shows that with an optimum passive control, amoving mass with maximum 2% of the displacement of the ship is an effective device in roll minimization and enhance the vessel...

  14. Eternal Black Holes in AdS

    OpenAIRE

    Maldacena, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a dual non-perturbative description for maximally extended Schwarzschild Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes. The description involves two copies of the conformal field theory associated to the AdS spacetime and an initial entangled state. In this context we also discuss a version of the information loss paradox and its resolution.

  15. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  16. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  17. Isotopic bias effects in resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) is developing into a useful method for isotope ratio measurements with high selectivity and sensitivity of the technique for a large number of elements. The sensitivity of the technique relies on a number of experimental factors. Of primary importance is the proper coupling of the tunable laser output with the atomization source, which is most often a thermal filament. Use of pulsed thermal atomization can also improve efficiency. An increase in temporal efficiency can be achieved by using a continuous wave (CW) laser coupled to a continuous atomization source. CW lasers, in general, therefore must be tightly focused to saturate the ionization step in a resonance ionization process. However, this results in a lowered efficiency due to geometrical factors. The accuracy of isotope ratio measurements is also influenced by the choice of laser system for RIMS. The combination of isotope shifts and the analyte element with the spectral output of the laser will result in wavelength-dependant bias effects which must be controlled to obtain optimum analytical results. This problem has been studied and the results for both pulsed and CW lasers are given. (author)

  18. Effect of pretreatment and drying methods on quality of value-added dried aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) shreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, V K; Nema, Prabhat K; Rathore, S S

    2011-02-01

    Value added dried Indian gooseberry (aonla) shreds were prepared using aonla fruits of cv. 'NA-7'. Two blanching methods (hot water and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) at 0.1%) and two drying methods (solar and hot air oven drying) were tried for the production of aonla shreds. Common salt, black salt and ginger juice were mixed for enhancing sensory quality of the product. The best product was obtained with KMS blanching and drying in solar dryer with added common salt at 3%. The most acceptable product had ascorbic acid content 298.3 mg/100 g, tannin 2.4%, acidity 2.6%, reducing sugar 3.0%, non-reducing sugar 21.0% and total sugar 24.0%. The recovery was 8.0-8.5%.

  19. Effect of pretreatment and drying methods on quality of value-added dried aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) shreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, V K; Nema, Prabhat K; Rathore, S S

    2011-02-01

    Value added dried Indian gooseberry (aonla) shreds were prepared using aonla fruits of cv. 'NA-7'. Two blanching methods (hot water and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) at 0.1%) and two drying methods (solar and hot air oven drying) were tried for the production of aonla shreds. Common salt, black salt and ginger juice were mixed for enhancing sensory quality of the product. The best product was obtained with KMS blanching and drying in solar dryer with added common salt at 3%. The most acceptable product had ascorbic acid content 298.3 mg/100 g, tannin 2.4%, acidity 2.6%, reducing sugar 3.0%, non-reducing sugar 21.0% and total sugar 24.0%. The recovery was 8.0-8.5%. PMID:23572715

  20. Effect of maize silage supplementation to grass silage harvested at different maturity stages on ad libitum intake

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Vranić; Mladen Knežević; Goran Perčulija; Ivana Matić; Damir Turčin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to determine ad libitum intake of fresh ration, dry matter (DM) and the organic matter (OM) of grass silage from the primary growth harvested at different maturity stages in interaction with maize silage (33 % and 67 %, DM based) in g kg-1 of the metabolic body weight (M0.75). Grass silage was harvested in three maturity stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) that was dominant grass in the sward (late vegetative, internode elongation, flowering)....

  1. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Lisa; Pisinger Charlotta; Lau Cathrine; Ovesen Lars; Ladelund Steen; Kristoffersen Lis; Toft Ulla; Borch-Johnsen Knut; Jørgensen Torben

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301), two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; grou...

  2. Effects of medial temporal lobe degeneration on brain perfusion in amnestic MCI of AD type: deafferentation and functional compensation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [CNRS - Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, UMR-5549, Toulouse (France); Didic, Mira; Poncet, Michel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Felician, Olivier [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Centre Saint-Charles, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative, UMR CNRS 6149, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J. [Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France)

    2009-07-15

    Cortical atrophy is correlated with the progression of neuropathological lesions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to determine which local and remote functional changes result from MTL volume loss at the predementia stage. We studied the relationship between entorhinal and hippocampal MR volumes and whole-brain SPECT perfusion via a voxel-based correlative analysis in 19 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment with a memory profile suggestive of early AD. Right MTL volumes were positively correlated with remote posterior perfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex, and negatively correlated with remote anterior perfusion of the right medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was no local correlation between volumes and perfusion within the MTL. These findings provide further insight into functional changes that result from MTL volume loss during the predementia stage of AD. The positive correlation between MTL volumes and posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect the deafferentation of a temporocingulate network due to mediotemporal degeneration. The paradoxical negative correlation between MTL volumes and prefrontal perfusion may result from recruitment of an alternative anterior temporofrontal network. It remains to be investigated how the ''net sum'' of this perfusion modulation affects memory and other cognitive domains through a possible compensatory perspective. (orig.)

  3. Are School Factors Important for Measuring Teacher Effectiveness? A Multilevel Technique to Predict Student Gains through a Value-Added Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidya Raj Subedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of teacher quality, represented by teacher level characteristics, on mathematics gain scores employing a three-level hierarchical linear model (HLM through value-added model (VAM approach. The analysis investigated significant predictors at student, teacher, and school levels for predicting students' gain scores and also estimated d-type effect sizes at teacher and school levels. We found the significant effects of teacher's mathematics content certification, teacher experience, and the interaction effects of mathematics content certification with student level predictors. Although school poverty significantly predicted students' gain scores, the school level effect was relatively small.

  4. Nucleon effective mass in symmetric nuclear matter from the extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Sheng-Xin; ZUO Wei; U. Lombardo

    2012-01-01

    We have calculated the nucleon effective mass in symmetric nuclear matter within the framework of the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone (BBG) theory,which has been extended to include both the contributions from the ground-state correlation effect and the three-body force (TBF) rearrangement effect.The effective mass is predicted by including the ground-state correlation effect and the TBF rearrangement effect,and we discuss the momentum dependence and the density dependence of the effective mass.It is shown that the effect of ground state correlations plays an important role at low densities,while the TBF-induced rearrangement effect becomes predominant at high densities.

  5. Investigation of MA Content Effect on Kinetic Parameter in ADS Core%MA 含量对 ADS 堆芯动力学参数的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗润; 宋洪兵; 赵福宇

    2016-01-01

    The effective delayed neutron fraction (βef ),mean neutron generation time (Λ)and reactivity feedback coefficient (α)are the most important parameters in nuclear reactor kinetics.In this study,Monte Carlo method was applied to calculate the kinetic parameters of accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS)cores,and the effect of mi-nor actinides (MA)content on these parameters was analyzed.The different contents of MA in the fuel were investigated to determine its effect on the kinetic parameters.The results show that when the content of MA reaches 5% in the fuel,theβef andΛ decrease by about 18% and 31%,respectively.With the increase of MA content from 0% to 5%,the average value of Doppler feedback coefficientαD varies from -0.56 pcm/K to-0.36 pcm/K,and the average value of coolant feedback coefficient αC varies from-2.1 1 pcm/K to -1.73 pcm/K.%有效缓发中子份额(βef )、平均中子代时间(Λ)和反应性反馈系数(α)是核反应堆动力学中至关重要的参数。本文采用蒙特卡罗方法计算了加速器驱动的次临界系统(ADS)堆芯的动力学参数,并分析了次锕系核素(MA)装载量对这些参数的影响。通过在燃料中添加不同含量的 MA,来研究其对 ADS堆芯动力学参数的影响。结果表明,当 MA 在燃料中的含量从0%增加到5%时,βef 和Λ的值分别降低了18%和31%,多普勒反馈系数平均值αD 由-0.56 pcm/K 变化到-0.36 pcm/K,冷却剂反馈系数平均值αC 由-2.11 pcm/K变化到-1.73 pcm/K。

  6. The effect of retinyl palmitate added to iron-fortified maize porridge on erythrocyte incorporation of iron in African children with vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Lena; Adou, Pierre; Zeder, Christophe; Walczyk, Thomas; Hurrell, Richard

    2003-08-01

    Retinyl palmitate added to Fe-fortified maize bread has been reported to enhance Fe absorption in adult Venezuelan subjects but not in Western Europeans. It is not known to what extent these results were influenced by differences in vitamin A status of the study subjects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of retinyl palmitate added to Fe-fortified maize porridge on erythrocyte incorporation of Fe in children with vitamin A deficiency, before and after vitamin A supplementation. Erythrocyte incorporation of Fe-stable isotopes was measured 14 d after intake of maize porridge (2.0 mg Fe added as ferrous sulfate) with and without added retinyl palmitate (3.5 micromol; 3300 IU). The study was repeated 3 weeks after vitamin A supplementation (intake of a single dose of 210 micromol retinyl palmitate; 'vitamin A capsule'). Vitamin A status was evaluated by the modified relative dose-response (MRDR) technique. Retinyl palmitate added to the test meal reduced the geometric mean erythrocyte incorporation of Fe at baseline from 4.0 to 2.6 % (P=0.008, n 13; paired t test). At 3 weeks after vitamin A supplementation, geometric mean erythrocyte incorporation was 1.9 and 2.3 % respectively from the test meal with and without added retinyl palmitate (P=0.283). Mean dehydroretinol:retinol molar ratios were 0.156 and 0.125 before and after intake of the single dose of 210 micromol retinyl palmitate; 'vitamin A capsule' (P=0.15). In conclusion, retinyl palmitate added to the labelled test meals significantly decreased erythrocyte incorporation of Fe in children with vitamin A deficiency at baseline but had no statistically significant effect 3 weeks after vitamin A supplementation. The difference in response to retinyl palmitate added to Fe-fortified maize porridge on erythrocyte incorporation of Fe before and after intake of the vitamin A capsule indicates, indirectly, changes in vitamin A status not measurable by the MRDR technique. The lack of

  7. Whole body exposure to 2.4 GHz WIFI signals: effects on cognitive impairment in adult triple transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaceur, Sana; Banasr, Sihem; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation aimed at evaluating the effects of long-term exposure to WIFI type radiofrequency (RF) signals (2.40 GHz), two hours per day during one month at a Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 1.60 W/kg. The effects of RF exposure were studied on wildtype mice and triple transgenic mice (3xTg-AD) destined to develop Alzheimer's-like cognitive impairment. Mice were divided into four groups: two sham groups (WT, TG; n=7) and two exposed groups (WTS, TGS; n=7). The cognitive interference task used in this study was designed from an analogous human cognitive interference task including the Flex field activity system test, the two-compartment box test and the Barnes maze test. Our data demonstrate for the first time that RF improves cognitive behavior of 3xTg-AD mice. We conclude that RF exposure may represent an effective memory-enhancing approach in Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Whole body exposure to 2.4 GHz WIFI signals: effects on cognitive impairment in adult triple transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaceur, Sana; Banasr, Sihem; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation aimed at evaluating the effects of long-term exposure to WIFI type radiofrequency (RF) signals (2.40 GHz), two hours per day during one month at a Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 1.60 W/kg. The effects of RF exposure were studied on wildtype mice and triple transgenic mice (3xTg-AD) destined to develop Alzheimer's-like cognitive impairment. Mice were divided into four groups: two sham groups (WT, TG; n=7) and two exposed groups (WTS, TGS; n=7). The cognitive interference task used in this study was designed from an analogous human cognitive interference task including the Flex field activity system test, the two-compartment box test and the Barnes maze test. Our data demonstrate for the first time that RF improves cognitive behavior of 3xTg-AD mice. We conclude that RF exposure may represent an effective memory-enhancing approach in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23195115

  9. Effects of the Mass Transfer Process in Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Betancourt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the models used to study the behavior of the mass loss processes associated with petroleum spills on water and to compare those models with experimental data. The processes of mass transfer studied in this work are evaporating, dissolution, vertical dispersion, emulsification and the changes of properties associated with these. The comparison of the estimations with the field data allowed determining the utility and the degree of adjustment of the expressions.

  10. Tidal Effects of Passing Planets and Mass Extinctions

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D; Fargion, Daniele; Dar, Arnon

    1998-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that many planetary-mass objects may be present in the outer solar system between the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud. Gravitational perturbations may occasionally bring them into the inner solar system. Their passage near Earth could have generated gigantic tidal waves, large volcanic eruptions, sea regressions, large meteoritic impacts and drastic changes in global climate. They could have caused the major biological mass extinctions in the past 600 My as documented in the geological records.

  11. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  12. Uncertainties and Systematic Effects on the estimate of stellar masses in high z galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Salimbeni, S; Giallongo, E; Grazian, A; Menci, N; Pentericci, L; Santini, P

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the uncertainties and the systematic effects that exist in the estimates of the stellar masses of high redshift galaxies, using broad band photometry, and how they affect the deduced galaxy stellar mass function. We use at this purpose the latest version of the GOODS-MUSIC catalog. In particular, we discuss the impact of different synthetic models, of the assumed initial mass function and of the selection band. Using Charlot & Bruzual 2007 and Maraston 2005 models we find masses lower than those obtained from Bruzual & Charlot 2003 models. In addition, we find a slight trend as a function of the mass itself comparing these two mass determinations with that from Bruzual & Charlot 2003 models. As consequence, the derived galaxy stellar mass functions show diverse shapes, and their slope depends on the assumed models. Despite these differences, the overall results and scenario remains unchanged. The masses obtained with the assumption of the Chabrier initial mass function are in average 0....

  13. Instability corners in AdS space

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrakopoulos, Fotios V; Lippert, Matthew; Yang, I-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether arbitrarily small perturbations in global AdS space are generically unstable and collapse into black holes on the time scale set by gravitational interactions. We argue that current evidence, combined with our analysis, strongly suggests that a set of nonzero measure in the space of initial conditions does not collapse on this time scale. On the other hand, existing results do not provide an equally strong indication whether the unstable solutions also form a set of nonzero measure. We perform an analysis in position space to address this puzzle, and our formalism allows us to directly address the vanishing-amplitude limit. We show that gravitational self-interaction leads to tidal deformations which are equally likely to focus or defocus energy, and we sketch the phase diagram accordingly. We also clarify the connection between gravitational evolution in global AdS and holographic thermalization.

  14. Mass transfer intensification of nanofluid single drops with effect of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saien, Javad; Zardoshti, Mahdi [Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The hydrodynamics and mass transfer of organic nanofluid single drops in liquid-liquid extraction process were investigated within temperature range of 20 to 40 .deg. C. Nanofluid drops of toluene+acetic acid, containing surface modified magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) with concentration within the range of (0.0005-0.005) wt%, were conducted in aqueous continuous phase. The rate of solute mass transfer was generally enhanced with NPs until about 0.002wt%, and small drops benefited more. The enhancement reached 184.1% with 0.002 wt% of NPs at 40 .deg. C; however, adding more NPs led to the mass transfer to either remain constant or face a reduction, depending on the applied temperature. The mass transfer coefficient was nicely reproduced using a developed correlation for enhancement factor of molecular diffusivity as a function of Reynolds and Schmidt numbers.

  15. An improved AFS phase for AdS3 string integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    We propose a number of modifications to the classical term in the dressing phase for integrable strings in AdS3 x S3 x S3 x S1, and check these against existing perturbative calculations, crossing symmetry, and the semiclassical limit of the Bethe equations. The principal change is that the phase for different masses should start with a term Q_1 Q_2, like the one-loop AdS3 dressing phase, rather than Q_2 Q_3 as for the original AdS5 AFS phase.

  16. AdS solutions through transgression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gauntlett, J.P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). The Institute for Mathematical Sciences; Kim, Nakwoo [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Physics and Research Inst. of Basic Science

    2008-07-15

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS{sub 3} solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS{sub 2} solutions of D=11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or ''transgression'' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial. (orig.)

  17. Baryons in AdS/QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, D K; Yee, H U; Hong, Deog Ki; Inami, Takeo; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2007-01-01

    We construct a holographic model for baryons in the context of AdS/QCD and study the spin-1/2 nucleon spectra and its couplings to mesons, taking fully account of the effects from the chiral symmetry breaking. A pair of 5D spinors is introduced to represent both left and right chiralities. Our model contains two adjustable parameters, the infrared cutoff and the Yukawa coupling of bulk spinors to bulk scalars, corresponding to the order parameter of chiral symmetry. Taking the lowest-lying nucleon mass as an input, we calculate the mass spectrum of excited nucleons and the nucleon couplings to pions. The excited nucleons show a parity-doubling pattern with smaller pion-nucleon couplings.

  18. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29% the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS, fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05 for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05 in fugitive CH4 emissions.

  19. Effects of mass transfer between Martian satellites on surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Michael; Nimmo, Francis; Udrea, Bogdan

    2016-03-01

    Impacts on planetary bodies can lead to both prompt secondary craters and projectiles that reimpact the target body or nearby companions after an extended period, producing so-called "sesquinary" craters. Here we examine sesquinary cratering on the moons of Mars. We model the impact that formed Voltaire, the largest crater on the surface of Deimos, and explore the orbital evolution of resulting high-velocity ejecta across 500 years using four-body physics and particle tracking. The bulk of mass transfer to Phobos occurs in the first 102 years after impact, while reaccretion of ejecta to Deimos is predicted to continue out to a 104 year timescale (cf. Soter, S. [1971]. Studies of the Terrestrial Planets. Cornell University). Relative orbital geometry between Phobos and Deimos plays a significant role; depending on the relative true longitude, mass transfer between the moons can change by a factor of five. Of the ejecta with a velocity range capable of reaching Phobos, 25-42% by mass reaccretes to Deimos and 12-21% impacts Phobos. Ejecta mass transferred to Mars is caused by Deimos material. However the high-velocity ejecta mass reaccreted to Deimos from a Voltaire-sized impact is comparable to the expected background mass accumulated on Deimos between Voltaire-size events. Considering that the high-velocity ejecta contains only 0.5% of the total mass sent into orbit, sesquinary ejecta from a Voltaire-sized impact could feasibly resurface large parts of the Moon, erasing the previous geological record. Dating the surface of Deimos may be more challenging than previously suspected.

  20. Developing crash modification functions to assess safety effects of adding bike lanes for urban arterials with different roadway and socio-economic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Lee, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although many researchers have estimated crash modification factors (CMFs) for specific treatments (or countermeasures), there is a lack of studies that explored the heterogeneous effects of roadway characteristics on crash frequency among treated sites. Generally, the CMF estimated by before-after studies represents overall safety effects of the treatment in a fixed value. However, as each treated site has different roadway characteristics, there is a need to assess the variation of CMFs among the treated sites with different roadway characteristics through crash modification functions (CMFunctions). The main objective of this research is to determine relationships between the safety effects of adding a bike lane and the roadway characteristics through (1) evaluation of CMFs for adding a bike lane using observational before-after with empirical Bayes (EB) and cross-sectional methods, and (2) development of simple and full CMFunctions which are describe the CMF in a function of roadway characteristics of the sites. Data was collected for urban arterials in Florida, and the Florida-specific full SPFs were developed. Moreover, socio-economic parameters were collected and included in CMFunctions and SPFs (1) to capture the effects of the variables that represent volume of bicyclists and (2) to identify general relationship between the CMFs and these characteristics. In order to achieve better performance of CMFunctions, data mining techniques were used. The results of both before-after and cross-sectional methods show that adding a bike lane on urban arterials has positive safety effects (i.e., CMFbike crashes. It was found that adding a bike lane is more effective in reducing bike crashes than all crashes. It was also found that the CMFs vary across the sites with different roadway characteristics. In particular, annual average daily traffic (AADT), number of lanes, AADT per lane, median width, bike lane width, and lane width are significant characteristics that

  1. One loop gauge couplings in AdS5

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Ian-Woo

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the full 1-loop corrections to the low energy coupling of bulk gauge boson in a slice of AdS5 which are induced by generic 5-dimensional scalar, Dirac fermion, and vector fields with arbitrary Z_2 times Z_2' orbifold boundary conditions. In supersymmetric limit, our results correctly reproduce the results obtained by an independent method based on 4-dimensional effective supergravity. This provides a nontrivial check of our results and assures the regularization scheme-independen...

  2. Mellin amplitudes for $AdS_5\\times S^5$

    CERN Document Server

    Rastelli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the calculation of holographic correlation functions in IIB supergravity on $AdS_5\\times S^5$. Results for four-point functions simplify drastically when expressed in Mellin space. We conjecture a compact formula for the four-point functions of one-half BPS singe-trace operators of arbitrary weight. Our methods rely on general consistency conditions and eschew detailed knowledge of the supergravity effective action.

  3. The Effect of Beam Intensity on Temperature Distribution in ADS Windowless Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Spallation Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spallation target is the component coupling the accelerator and the reactor and is regarded as the “heart” of the accelerator driven system (ADS. Heavy liquid metal lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is served as core coolant and spallation material to carry away heat deposition of spallation reaction and produce high flux neutron. So it is very important to study the heat transfer process in the target. In this paper, the steady-state flow pattern has been numerically obtained and taken as the input for the nuclear physics calculation, and then the distribution of the extreme large power density of the heat load is imported back to the computational fluid dynamics as the source term in the energy equation. Through the coupling, the transient and steady-state temperature distribution in the windowless spallation target is obtained and analyzed based on the flow process and heat transfer. Comparison of the temperature distribution with the different beam intensity shows that its shape is the same as broken wing of the butterfly. Nevertheless, the maximum temperature as well as the temperature gradient is different. The results play an important role and can be applied to the further design and optimization of the ADS windowless spallation target.

  4. Comparative study of effects of bone marrow cell vs. Ad5-HGF administration via non infarct-related artery injection in myocardial infarction in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liansheng Wang; Jun Huang; Zhijian Yang; Wei Wang; Dongchao Ma; Shunlin Xu; Yuqing Zhang; Fang Zhou; Bo Chen; Kejiang Cao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of transplanting bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) or adenovirus5-hepatocyte growth factor(Ad5-HGF) via non-infarct-related artery injection in swine myocardial infarction models. Methods :BMMSCs were obtained from swine bone marrow and expanded in vitro to a purity of >50%. A myocardial infarction(MI) was created by ligating the distal left anterior descending artery in swine. Either BM-MSCs (5 × 106/ml) or Ad5-HGF (4 × 109 pfu) were transfused via the right coronary artery (non-infarcted artery) four weeks after MI. Gate-controled cardiac perfusion imaging was performed at the end of four and seven weeks after LAD ligation, to evaluate heart function and cardiac perfusion. Morphologic and histologic characteristics of the hearts were also studied. Results: (1)The gate-controlled cardiac perfusion imaging showed that the improvement in LVEF was greater in both treatment groups than in control group at the 4th weeks. (2)In both treatment groups, capillary density was significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion:BM-MSCs or Ad5-HGF transplantation via non-infarcted artery administration can stimulate angiogenesis and improve heart function, but there was no difference in therapeutic efficacy between BM-MSCs and Ad5-HGF.

  5. The effect of added pollutant along a river on the pollutant concentration described by one –dimensional advection diffusion equation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Fadl Alla Dimian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions are obtained, by using Laplace transformation method , for one dimensional advection –diffusion equation with variable coefficients in a longitudinal finite initially pollutant concentration free domain . Two cases for the boundary conditions, are studied . The first is the case of uniform continuous input condition and the second is the case of input condition of increasing nature .By writing the equations in the dimensionless form , the five physical parameters controlling the pollutant concentration is reduced to only two dimensionless parameters the dimensionless added pollutant concentration R1 and the dimensionless dispersion R2 .It is found that some physical parameters in the dimensional form have the same effect on the concentration of the pollutant, while other physical parameters have opposite effect. It is shown that the dimensionless concentration pollutant increases, as the dimensionless added pollutant increases along the river. But the concentration decreases , as the dimensionless dispersion increases. The details are demonstrated in graphs.

  6. Employment and taxes in Latin America: An empirical study of the effects of payroll, corporate income and value-added taxes on labor outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically explores the effects of payroll taxes, value-added taxes and corporate income taxes on a variety of labor market outcomes such as participation, employment, informality, and wages. The results are based on nationallevel data of labor variables for 15 Latin American countries, and indicate that the effects of each tax are markedly different and may depend on several aspects of labor and tax institutions. Payroll taxes reduce employment and increase labor costs when their benefits are not valued by workers, but otherwise may increase labor participation and not raise labor costs. Value-added taxes increase informality and reduce skilled labor demand. In contrast, corporate income taxes may help reduce informality, especially among low education workers, but when tax enforcement capabilities are strong they may reduce labor participation and employment of medium- and high-education workers.

  7. RGE Effects on neutrino masses in partial split supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cadiz, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We show that the running of the Higgs-gaugino-higgsino couplings present in Partial Split Supersymmetry can severely affect the neutrino masses generated through Bilinear R-parity Violation. We find a working scenario where the predicted neutrino observables satisfy the experimental constraints when the running is neglected. After including the running, we show that already with a split supersymmetric scale of 10000 GeV the atmospheric mass leaves the allowed experimental window, and that the solar mass leaves it even earlier, with a split supersymmetric scale of 1000 GeV. This shows that the correct prediction of neutrino observables in these models necessitates the inclusion of the running of these couplings.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrovskaya, Rita U; Vakhitova, Yulia V; Kuzmina, Uliyana Sh; Salimgareeva, Milyausha Kh; Zainullina, Liana F; Gudasheva, Tatiana A; Vakhitov, Vener A; Seredenin, Sergey B

    2014-01-01

    Background Noopept (N-phenyl-acetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) was constructed as a dipeptide analog of the standard cognition enhancer, piracetam. Our previous experiments have demonstrated the cognition restoring effect of noopept in several animal models of Alzheimer disease (AD). Noopept was also shown to prevent ionic disbalance, excitotoxicity, free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines accumulation, and neurotrophine deficit typical for different kinds of brain damages, including A...

  9. Study the Effect of Value-Added of Services Sector on Forecasting of Electricity Demand in Services Sector due to Price Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Mahdi Mostafavi; Saeed Shoauri; Seyyed Mohammad Seyyed Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Electrical energy is as one of the important effective factors on economic growth and development. In recent decades, numerous studies in different countries to estimate and forecast electricity demand in different parts of the economy have been made. In this paper, using the method ARDL, estimation and forecasting of electricity demand in the services sector of Iran are determined for the time period from 1983 to 2012. Estimated equations show that the added value of the services sector and ...

  10. An effective method for enhancing metal-ions' selectivity of ionic liquid-based extraction system: Adding water-soluble complexing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao Qi; Peng, Bo; Chen, Ji; Li, De Qian; Luo, Fang

    2008-01-15

    Selective extraction-separation of yttrium(III) from heavy lanthanides into 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(8)mim][PF(6)]) containing Cyanex 923 was achieved by adding a water-soluble complexing agent (EDTA) to aqueous phase. The simple and environmentally benign complexing method was proved to be an effective strategy for enhancing the selectivity of [C(n)mim][PF(6)]/[Tf(2)N]-based extraction system without increasing the loss of [C(n)mim](+).

  11. Effects of nonzero neutrino masses on black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the consequences of nonzero neutrino masses for black holes evaporating by the emission of Hawking radiation. We find that the evolution of small, hot, black holes may be unaffected (if neutrinos are Majorana particles) or may show an increase in neutrino luminosity and a decrease in lifetime by up to a factor of 1.85 (if neutrinos are Dirac particles). However, for sufficiently large (e.g., stellar mass) black holes, neutrino emission is largely or entirely suppressed, resulting in a decrease in emitted power and an increase in lifetime by up to a factor of 7.5

  12. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...

  13. Refined holographic entanglement entropy for the AdS solitons and AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss–Bonnet term. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy, the so-called renormalized entanglement entropy which is independent of the choices of UV cutoff. Our main results are: (i) the renormalized entanglement entropies of the AdSd+1 soliton for d=4,5 are neither monotonically decreasing along the RG flow nor positive-definite, especially around the deconfinement/confinement phase transition; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS5 soliton even with Gauss–Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the renormalized entanglement entropy obeys an expected volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover even with Gauss–Bonnet correction; (iv) based on AdS/MERA conjecture, we postulate that the IR fixed-point state for the non-extremal AdS soliton is a trivial product state

  14. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz;

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  15. ADS National Programmes: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German R&D programme for ADS development is related to the partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. This programme is implemented mainly by the three national research centres belonging to the Helmholtz Association, i.e. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in cooperation with the Technical University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR). The main purpose of this R&D programme is the prospect to manage the high level radioactive waste such as to reduce the burden on a final repository. P&T does not eliminate the need for a final repository whatever the strategy, but it allows the reduction of the radio-toxicity associated with radioactive waste, the increase of the repository capacity as a consequence of the reduction of masses to be stored and their associated residual heat load. Different fuel cycle scenarios to implement P&T can be envisaged. These scenarios have been evaluated to identify the impact of P&T on the characteristics, number and deployment pace of the installations of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fuel fabrication, storage etc). Almost all activities conducted in the R&D programme are embedded in European and international projects and initiatives. In the following more details on the relevant components of the R&D programme are summarized

  16. Effects of cadmium in herbage on the apparent absorption of elements by sheep in comparison with inorganic cadmium added to their diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meta-analysis of existing scientific literature recently suggested that Cd is absorbed more efficiently by sheep if it is in the organic form in grass, than if it is added as an inorganic supplement to the diet. We tested this experimentally by feeding sheep grass from contaminated soil, compared with uncontaminated grass and with Cd added to the diet. To produce contaminated herbage, Cd nitrate was added to soil in 11 lysimeters sown with perennial ryegrass, with a further 11 lysimeters receiving no Cd to produce uncontaminated herbage. In the Cd-treated lysimeters, soil had increased exchangeable K, Mg, and Ca, leachate had increased K, Mg, Ca, Na, and P, grass had increased Cd and reduced Mg, Na, P, Mn, Fe, Cr, Al, and Ni, and there was some reduction in grass yield compared with untreated lysimeters. Grass from Cd-treated or untreated lysimeters was fed to groups of 12 ewes for 2 days, with Cd intake equated by adding Cd nitrate to the concentrate feed of ewes receiving the uncontaminated grass. The apparent absorption of Cd, Zn, Mo, Cr, and Al was increased for ewes receiving Cd-enriched grass, and apparent absorption of Cu was reduced, compared to those receiving supplementary inorganic Cd. Most of the unabsorbed Cd was excreted in feces within 4 days of feeding. The ewes consuming Cd in grass had increased B concentrations in their urine, possibly due to adverse effects of Cd on kidney function. Finally, the ewes were offered a choice of the two herbages and they ate significantly more of the uncontaminated grass. It is concluded that the apparent absorption of Cd and other heavy metals by sheep in a short-term experiment was greater when Cd was in the grass than when the Cd was added in in an inorganic form and that sheep partially avoided herbage with a high Cd concentration

  17. Cost Effective Routing Protocols Based on Two Hop Neighborhood Information (2NI in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Anuradha Banerjee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are collections of mobile nodes communicating with each other using wireless media without any fixed infrastructure. During both route discovery and traversal of route-reply packets from destination to source, broadcast of packets is required which incurs huge message cost. The present article deals with the message cost reduction during transmission of route-reply from destination to source. Also the redundancy that is visible within the 2-hop neighborhood of a node is minimized during broadcasting of route-reply. This improves the average lifetime of network nodes by decreasing the possibility of network partition. The scheme of 2NI can be used with any reactive routing protocol in MANETs.

  18. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that `boosted' AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately `renormalized' at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where $T_{thermal}\\ll T_E$.

  19. Smoothed Transitions in Higher Spin AdS Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shamik; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander; Shenker, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS_3 and AdS_4. Two dimensional CFTs with W_N symmetry are considered in the lambda=0 (k --> infinity) limit, where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order one; the usual Hawking-Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T^3, where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking-Page phase transition at large level k.

  20. AdS Field Theory from Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam

    2012-01-01

    We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/N' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well-approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin ...

  1. The Joint Effects of Body Mass Index and MAOA Gene Polymorphism on Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the joint effects of the body mass index and the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms. In two independent Chinese samples, we measured adolescents' depressive symptoms and body mass index and collected their DNA. The results indicated that the main effects of the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms were significant. However, the main effects of body mass index and the interaction of the MAOA gene polymorphism and body mass index on depressive symptoms were not significant. By using Chinese adolescents, this study confirmed that the MAOA gene polymorphism directly influenced adolescents' depressive symptoms. PMID:26207137

  2. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ("Ad lib") larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ("Ration") larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V(total) (Control, "C"), 109 ppm (Low, "L"), and 363 ppm (High, "H"). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at alpha=0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited.

  3. Impact parameter dependence of isospin effects on the mass dependence of balance energy

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Sakshi; Sood, Aman D.

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom on the balance energy as well as its mass dependence throughout the mass range 48-270 for two sets of isobaric systems with N/Z = 1 and 1.4 using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. Our fndings reveal the dominance of Coulomb repulsion in isospin effects on balance energy as well as its mass dependence throughout the range of the colliding geometry.

  4. Winding Strings in AdS_3

    CERN Document Server

    Minces, P; Minces, Pablo; Nunez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Correlation functions of one-unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present a formalism which allows to explicitly find the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes of states in w=1 sectors. We give a precise prescription to solve this system of linear differential equations in cases that are relevant to obtain three and four point functions involving spectral flowed string states. We specifically compute three point functions with two and three one-unit spectral flowed operators and also discuss four point functions.

  5. Effects of Adding Vindoline and MeJA on Production of Vincristine and Vinblastine, and Transcription of their Biosynthetic Genes in the Cultured CMCs of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjin; Yang, Jiazeng; Zi, Jiachen; Zhu, Jianhua; Song, Liyan; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-12-01

    Vincristine and vinblastine were found by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) in Catharanthus roseuscambial meristem cells (CMCs) jointly treated with 0.25 mM vindoline and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), suggesting that C. roseus CMCs contain a complete set of the enzymes which are in response to convert vindoline into vincristine and vinblastine. Based on the facts that the transcript levels of vindoline-biosynthetic genes (STR, SGD and D4H) were up-regulated instead of being down-regulated by adding itself to the culture, and that the transcriptional factor ORCA3 was up-regulated simultaneously, we further confirmed that the transcription of STR, SGD, D4H was manipulated by ORCA3. PMID:26882673

  6. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  7. Colloquy: Information Processing: A More Inclusive Paradigm for the Study of Mass Media Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhagen, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the information-processing paradigm can both revitalize so-called strong-effects theories in mass media research and make them more inclusive. Discusses how the four previous studies in this issue show the use of simple solutions to problems that have plagued mass-media-effects research and call out for further inclusion of discussions…

  8. Charged Kaon Mass Measurement using the Cherenkov Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, N; Abrams, R J; Akgun, U; Aydin, G; Baker, W; Barnes, P D; Bergfeld, T; Beverly, L; Bujak, A; Carey, D; Dukes, C; Duru, F; Feldman, G J; Godley, A; Gülmez, E; Günaydın, Y O; Gustafson, H R; Gutay, L; Hartouni, E; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Heffner, M; Johnstone, C; Kaplan, D; Kamaev, O; Kilmer, J; Klay, J; Kostin, M; Lange, D; Ling, J; Longo, M J; Lu, L C; Materniak, C; Messier, M D; Meyer, H; Miller, D E; Mishra, S R; Nelson, K; Nigmanov, T; Norman, A; Onel, Y; Paley, J M; Park, H K; Penzo, A; Peterson, R J; Raja, R; Rajaram, D; Ratnikov, D; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H; Seun, S; Solomey, N; Soltz, R; Swallow, E; Schmitt, R; Subbarao, P; Torun, Y; Tope, T E; Wilson, K; Wright, D; Wu, K

    2009-01-01

    The two most recent and precise measurements of the charged kaon mass use X-rays from kaonic atoms and report uncertainties of 14 ppm and 22 ppm yet differ from each other by 122 ppm. We describe the possibility of an independent mass measurement using the measurement of Cherenkov light from a narrow-band beam of kaons, pions, and protons. This technique was demonstrated using data taken opportunistically by the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory which recorded beams of protons, kaons, and pions ranging in momentum from +37 GeV/c to +63 GeV/c. The measured value is 491.3 +/- 1.7 MeV/c^2, which is within 1.4 sigma of the world average. An improvement of two orders of magnitude in precision would make this technique useful for resolving the ambiguity in the X-ray data and may be achievable in a dedicated experiment.

  9. Current Self-Oscillations in Negative Effective Mass Terahertz Oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊诚

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically study current self-oscillations and spatiotemporal current patterns in quantum-well negativeeffective mass (NEM) p+ pp+ diodes by considering scattering contributions from impurity, acoustic phonons andoptic phonons. It is indicated that both the applied bias and the doping concentration strongly influence thepatterns and self-oscillating frequencies. The NEM p+pp+ diode presented here may be used as an electricallytunable terahertz source.

  10. Temperature and density effects on the nucleon mass splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, H R; Fanchiotti, H; Garc, C A

    1996-01-01

    The finite temperature and finite density dependence of the neu\\-tron-proton mass difference is analysed in a purely hadronic framework where the \\rho-\\omega mixing is crucial for this isospin symmetry breakdown. The problem is handled within Thermo Field Dynamics. The present results, consistent with partial chiral and charge symmetry restoration, improve the experimental data fit for the energy difference between mirror nuclei.

  11. Temperature and density effects on the nucleon mass splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, H.R.; Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata C.C. 67, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    1996-04-01

    The finite temperature and finite density dependence of the neutron-proton mass difference is analyzed in a purely hadronic framework where the {rho}-{omega} mixing is crucial for this isospin symmetry breakdown. The problem is handled within thermofield dynamics. The present results, consistent with partial chiral and charge symmetry restoration, improve the experimental data fit for the energy difference between mirror nuclei. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. CONSORT: Effects of adding adefovirdipivoxil to peginterferon alfa-2a at different time points on HBeAg-positivepatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ka; Cao, Hong; Liang, Jiayi; Shu, Xin; Sun, Haixia; Li, Gang; Xu, Qihuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of the addition of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (started at different time points) to pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-INF-α2a) and PEG-INF-α2a monotherapy. This prospective, randomized study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of PEG-INF-α2a and ADV at different time points.120 patients were randomized into groups that received PEG-INF-α2a as monotherapy (group A) or in combination with ADV started at week 0 (group B), 12 (group C), or 24 (group D). All patients were followed for 48 weeks. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed. Methods: Patients in group a received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a by subcutaneous injection once weekly for 48 weeks. Patients in the ADV add-on group received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a subcutaneously once weekly and received 10 mg of ADV administered once daily for 48 weeks. HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, and hepatitis B e antibody levels were determined. Responses were determined at week 12 (ADV add-on), the end of treatment for PEG-INF-α2a (48weeks) and ADV (EOT) and at the end of 96 weeks of follow-up (EOF). Results: The rate of HBV DNA loss were higher in the combination groups than group A at the week 12, week 48, the EOT and EOF (P 0.05). The alanineaminotransferase (ALT) normalization rate was higher in the combination group than group A only at the EOT (P = 0.007). By the EOF, the patients with ADV added at week 12 achieved higher rates of HBV DNA loss (71.9%), HBeAg seroconversion (50.0%), HBsAg loss (15.6%), and ALT normalization (78.1%). Conclusions: PEG-INF-α2a plus ADV combination therapy is safe and superior to PEG-INF-α2amonotherapyfor decreasing serum HBV DNA and normalizing the ALT level but has no significant impact on the rate of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss. Adding ADV at week 12 may be an optimal combination strategy. PMID:27495085

  13. The Pop-Up Ads are Among Us: The Invasion of this Game Placement and its Effects on Consumer Technology with the Aid Eye Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin De La Martinière Petroll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Companies are investing exponentially in inserting their products and brands in television shows called placement. This empirical article tests the effects of pop-up ad prominence and congruence type of placement on visual attention, memory, attitudes and brand purchase intention by the consumer. From an exploratory and another causal study done in an American university and with the help of Eye Tracking technology, it was found that the prominence significantly impacts the consumer's attention, but no significant effects for the other constructs. 

  14. The AdS/QCD Correspondence and Exclusive Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Deur, Alexandre; /Jefferson Lab

    2010-08-25

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS}(q) and its {beta}-function which agrees with the effective coupling {alpha}{sub ga} extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable {zeta}, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties as well as decay constants, form factors, deeply virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. One thus obtains a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level with dimensional counting for hard exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer. As specific examples we discuss the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors in the space-like and time-like regions. We also review the phenomenology of exclusive processes including some anomalous empirical results.

  15. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohno, Eriko, E-mail: tohno@tmch.or.jp [Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, 1-2, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Umemoto, Takeshi, E-mail: umemoto@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Sasaki, Kyoko, E-mail: kdon@za.cyberhome.ne.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Morishima, Isamu, E-mail: morishima@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Ueno, Ei, E-mail: e-ueno@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening.

  16. Critical Values of Porosity in Rice Cultures of Isaria fumosorosea by Adding Water Hyacinth: Effect on Conidial Yields and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel-Cuapio, Alejandro; Figueroa-Montero, Arturo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Viniegra-González, Gustavo; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Loera, Octavio

    2015-09-01

    Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea are used to control insect pests in crops. Commercially available mycoinsecticides manufactured with this fungus are produced on a large scale via solid-state cultures (SSC). In order to favour gaseous exchange in SCC, texturizers can be added to increase porosity fraction (ε). This work presents results of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a novel texturizer. A mixture of parboiled rice (PR), with a ε = 0.23, was used as a substrate, which was then mixed with water hyacinth (WH amendment) as a texturizer at different proportions affecting ε. Strains CNRCB1 and ARSEF3302 of I. fumosorosea yielded 1.6 (1.49-1.71) × 10(9) and 7.3 (7.02-7.58) × 10(9) conidia per gram of initial dry rice after 8 days, at ε values of 0.34 and 0.36, respectively. Improvement of conidial yields corresponded to 1.33 and 1.55 times, respectively, compared to rice alone using WH amendment in the mixtures PR:WH (%) at 90-10 and 80-20. In addition, infectivity against Galleria mellonella larvae was maintained. This is the first report of the use of water hyacinth as a texturizer in SSC, affecting ε, which is proposed a key parameter in conidia production by I. fumosorosea, without affecting conidial infectivity. PMID:26184013

  17. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening

  18. No van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov Discontinuity for Supergravity in AdS Space

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A

    2001-01-01

    Adding explicit mass terms for the spin 2 and spin 3/2 field of N=1 anti-de Sitter supergravity, the limit M --> 0 for these mass terms is smooth: there is no van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov mass discontinuity in the propagators when the cosmological constant is non-vanishing.

  19. AdS sub 3 gravity and conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Behrndt, K; Gaida, I

    1999-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of AdS sub 3 gravity, the BTZ black hole and the associated conformal field theories (CFTs). In particular we focus on the non-extreme six-dimensional string solution with background metric AdS sub 3 x S sup 3 near the horizon. In addition we introduce momentum modes along the string, corresponding to a BTZ black hole, and a Taub-NUT soliton in the transverse Euclidean space. We show that the AdS sub 3 space-time of this configuration has the spatial geometry of an annulus with a Liouville model at the outer boundary and a two-dimensional black hole at the inner boundary. These CFTs provide the dynamical degrees of freedom of the three-dimensional effective model and, together with the CFT corresponding to S sup 3 , provide a statistical interpretation of the corresponding Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We test the proposed exact black hole entropy, which should hold to all orders in alpha', by an independent field theoretical analysis including higher-order curvature corrections. ...

  20. Semiclassical Method to Schr(o)dinger Equation with Position-Dependent Effective Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gang; XUAN Pei-Cai; CHEN Zi-Dong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, two novel semiclassical methods including the standard and supersymmetric WKB quantization conditions are suggested to discuss the Schrodinger equation with position-dependent effective mass. From a proper coordinate transformation, the formalism of the Schrodinger equation with position-dependent effective mass is mapped into isospectral one with constant mass and therefore for a given mass distribution and physical potential function the bound state energy spectrum can be determined easily by above method associated with a simple integral formula. It is shown that our method can give the analytical results for some exactly-solvable quantum systems.

  1. Half BPS states in AdS5 x Yp,q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a class of solutions of IIB supergravity which are asymptotically AdS5 x Yp,q. They have an R x SO(4) x SU(2) x U(1) isometry and preserve half of the 8 supercharges of the background geometry. They are described by a set of second order differential equations that we have found and analysed in a previous paper, where we studied 1/8 BPS states in the maximally supersymmetric AdS5 x S5 background. These geometries correspond to certain chiral primary operators of the N = 1 superconformal quiver theories, dual to IIB theory on AdS5 x Yp,q. We also show how to recover the AdS5 x Yp,q backgrounds by suitably doubling the number of preserved supersymmetries. We then solve the differential equations perturbatively in a large AdS5 radius expansion, imposing asymptotic AdS5 x Yp,q boundary conditions. We compute the global baryonic and mesonic charges, including the R-charge. As for the computation of the mass, i.e. the conformal dimension Δ of the dual field theory operators, which is notoriously subtle in asymptotically AdS backgrounds, we adopt the general formalism due to Wald and collaborators, which gives a finite result, and verify the relation Δ = 3R/2, demanded by the N = 1 superconformal algebra

  2. Direct effect of increased hemodynamic load on cardiac mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korecky, B; Masika, M

    1991-04-01

    The hearts of rats were transplanted into the abdomens of recipients of the same inbred strain by attaching the stumps of aorta and pulmonary artery end to side to the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava, respectively, of the recipient. The transplant functions as a denervated "nonworking" Langendorff heart; the recipient in situ heart serves as a normal control. One week after surgery, an onset of atrophy is observed in the transplanted heart, which stabilizes after 2 weeks; the in situ heart grows normally. Using this model, we increased the load of the left ventricle (LV) in the transplant by inserting a permanent polyethylene cannula into its aortic orifice during surgery to induce valvular incompetence and/or stenosis (TPE group). This resulted in significantly increased LV systolic pressure (115 +/- 5 versus 95 +/- 3 mm Hg) and a significantly increased rate-pressure product (34.7 +/- 1.7 versus 24.4 +/- 1.4 mm Hg.min-1 x 10(3) as compared with rats with control transplants (TC group). The LV mass in the TPE group decreased to only 85 +/- 4.8% of the mass of the corresponding in situ recipient heart as compared with 59 +/- 2.6% in the TC group (p less than 0.001). In three cases in the TPE group with highest overload, we observed about 20% larger LV mass in transplanted hearts as compared with the corresponding recipient in situ hearts. These results indicate that the increased load significantly attenuated the atrophy observed in LV of the isotransplants. This attenuation could be correlated with the increment of load as indicated by higher peak LV pressures and higher rate-pressure products. PMID:2009614

  3. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... the relevance of the basic concept and provides an important example of how Value Adding Management can be implemented and added value measured. Originality/value: The study develops a concept of Value Adding Management, which is new in FM literature. It is expected to increase the awareness of the impacts...

  4. Cost-Effective Mass Production of Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren A.; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Gres, Szymon

    foundations where mass production is needed. The project is planed for a duration of 3 years and is supported by Innovation Fund Denmark and has the following partners: DTU Wind Energy, FORCE Technology, LIC Engineering, AAU Civil and M-tech. The € 4 mill. project involves more than 25 researchers, Ph......Today, the basis for design and manufacturing of offshore foundations is inherited from oil and gas industry where the small repeatability in manufacturing is the case and the cost implications are different. The total opposite is the case when considering offshore Wind Turbine Generator...

  5. Mass shell smearing effects in top pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Kuksa, V I; Vlasenko, D E

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production and decay are considered in the framework of the smeared-mass unstable particles model. The results for total and differential cross sections in vicinity of $t\\bar{t}$ threshold are in good agreement with the previous ones in the literature. The strategy of calculations of the higher order corrections in the framework of the model is discussed. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations compared to the standard perturbative one and can serve as a convenient tool for fast and precise preliminary analysis of processes involving intermediate time-like top quark exchanges in the near-threshold region.

  6. The effect of adding gender item to Berlin Questionnaire in determining obstructive sleep apnea in sleep clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Yuceege

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: We aimed to validate the Turkish version of Berlin Questionnaire (BQ and developped a BQ-gender (BQ-G form by adding gender component. We aimed to compare the two forms in defining patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in sleep clinics. Methods: Four hundred and eighty five consecutive patients, refered to our sleep clinic for snoring, witnessed apnea and/or excessive daytime sleepiness were enrolled to the study. All patients underwent in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG. Patients with sleep efficiency less than 40% and total sleep time less than 4 hours, chronic anxiolitic/sedative drug usage, respiratory tract infection within past two weeks were excluded from the study. All the patients fulfilled BQ. The test and retest for BQ were applied in 15-day interval in 30 patients. Results: Totally 433 patients were enrolled to the study (285 male, 148 female.The mean age of the patients was 47,5 ± 10.5 (21-79. 180 patients (41.6% had apnea-hypopnea index (AHI ≤ 15, while 253 patients (58,4% had AHI > 15. The κ value was 48–94 and the the truth value was 69-94% for the test-retest procedure. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV, positive predictive value (PPV, and area under the curve AUC were 84.2%, 31.7%, 48.7%, 63.4%, and 0.579 in order for BQ and 79.9 %, 51.7%, 63.2% , 69.6%, and 0.652 for BQ-G. Conclusion: The results showed that BQ-G is relatively better than BQ in determining moderate to severe OSA in sleep clinics where most of the patients are sleep apneic but both of the tests were found to have insufficient validities in defining moderate to severe OSA in sleep clinics.

  7. Effect of added proteinases and level of starter culture on the formation of biogenic amines in raw milk Manchego cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, E; Tomillo, J; Núñez, M

    1999-11-15

    The influence of two proteinases (Bacillus subtilis neutral proteinase and Micrococcus sp. cysteine proteinase) and two starter culture levels (0.1% and 1%) on biogenic amine formation has been studied in raw ewes' milk Manchego cheese. Amino acid decarboxylating micro-organisms were determined on tyrosine enriched selective media. Biogenic amines were analysed by capillary electrophoresis in citrate buffer at pH 3.6. Addition of proteinases and level of starter culture did not influence the population of micro-organisms with amino acid decarboxylating activity, which represented on average 1% of the bacterial population in 30-day-old cheeses. Tyramine and histamine were detected in all batches of cheese from day 30. Concentrations of tyramine and histamine were higher in cheeses made from milk with neutral proteinase (up to 356 and 284 mg kg(-1), respectively, after 90 days) than in cheeses made from milk with cysteine proteinase (up to 269 and 189 mg kg(-1), respectively) or with no proteinase added (up to 305 and 226 mg kg(-1), respectively). Formation of tyramine and histamine was also favoured in cheeses made with 1% starter culture with respect to cheeses made with only 0.1% starter culture, probably due to the higher pH values of the former cheeses. After 90 days of ripening, concentrations of 10-20 mg kg(-1) phenylethylamine were observed in 9 of the 12 batches, and levels < 10 mg kg(-1) tryptamine were only detected in 3 batches, with no significant relationship between the concentration of these amines and proteinase addition or level of starter culture. PMID:10733250

  8. Acute effects of different dietary polysaccharides added in milk on food intake, postprandial appetite and glycemic responses in healthy young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Ishtiaq, Saima; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Imran, Ali

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we compared the postprandial glycemic and satiety responses of different dietary polysaccharides when added in milk (2% M.F.). The objective of this study was to evaluate different polysaccharides against postprandial glucose, appetite responses and food intake at subsequent meal. In a repeated measures design, 30 females (18-30 years) consumed 250 ml milk 2% M.F. (control), or milk with carrageenan (2.5 g), guar gum (2.5 g) and alginate (2.5 g), followed by an ad libitum pizza meal after 120 min. Alginate and guar gum addition resulted in lower caloric intake at subsequent pizza meal. The post-treatment (0-120 min) glucose and average appetite were suppressed by alginate and guar gum (p < 0.0001), with more pronounced effect of guar gum. However, alginate resulted in lower blood glucose (p < 0.0001) compared with control and carrageenan during post-treatment. Alginate and guar gum added beverages would be beneficial in short-term regulation of postprandial glycemia and satiety. PMID:27352777

  9. Two gravitational shock waves on the AdS3 brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gravitational shock wave is a solution to Einstein equations describing the gravitational field of a massless particle. We obtain such a geometry for a particle moving on a AdS3 brane embedded in a AdS4 bulk (the lower dimensional version of the ''locally localized gravity'' model of Karch and Randall). In order to do this, we use two different techniques. First, we solve directly Einstein equations sourced by a massless particle. Then we boost to the speed of light the AdS3 brane black hole solution of Emparan et al. while sending its mass parameter to zero. Surprisingly, we obtain two different results. We discuss the origin of these two different solutions both in the bulk and in the CFT picture. As a by-product, we derive the expression for the shock wave associated to a transversally accelerating particle in AdS4

  10. KINETICS OF HYDROLYSIS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION OF 1-BENZOYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE - THE ROLE OF PAIRWISE AND TRIPLET GIBBS ENERGY INTERACTION PARAMETERS IN DESCRIBING THE EFFECTS OF ADDED SALTS AND ADDED ALCOHOLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOORDMAN, WH; BLOKZIJL, W; ENGBERTS, JBF; BLANDAMER, MJ

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient-pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic-data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  11. Kinetics of hydrolysis in aqueous solution of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole; the role of pairwise and triplet Gibbs energy interaction parameters in describing the effects of added salts and added alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, Wouter H.; Blokzijl, Wilfried; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Blandamer, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic data are reported for the spontaneous hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions at ambient pressure and 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions containing added ethanol, propanol and sodium chloride. Kinetic data are also reported for the same reaction in aqueous mixtures of sodium c

  12. Supersymmetric 3D model for gravity with $SU(2)$ gauge symmetry, mass generation and effective cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Pedro D; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio; Zanelli, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    A Chern--Simons system in $2+1$ dimensions invariant under local Lorentz rotations, $SU(2)$ gauge transformations, and local $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetry transformations is proposed. The field content is that of $(2+1)$-gravity plus an $SU(2)$ gauge field, a spin-1/2 fermion charged with respect to $SU(2)$ and a trivial free abelian gauge field. A peculiarity of the model is the absence of gravitini, although it includes gravity and supersymmetry. Likewise, no gauginos are present. All the parameters involved in the system are either protected by gauge invariance or emerge as integration constants. An effective mass and effective cosmological constant emerge by spontaneus breaking of local scaling invariance. The vacuum sector is defined by configurations with locally flat Lorentz and $SU(2)$ connections sporting nontrivial global charges. Three-dimensional Lorentz-flat geometries are spacetimes of locally constant negative --or zero--, Riemann curvature, which include Minkowski space, AdS$_3$, BTZ black hol...

  13. Small Current Quark Mass Effects on Dressed-Quark Propagator in an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; WU Xiao-Hua; SUN Wei-Min; ZHAO En-Guang; WANG Fan

    2003-01-01

    A method for obtaining the smallcurrent quark mass dependence of the dressed quark propagator froman effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Within this approach the small current quark mass effects ondressed-quark propagator have been studied. A comparison with previous results is given.

  14. The effect of dynamical quark mass on the calculation of a strange quark star's structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholam Hossein Bordbar; Babak Ziaei

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the dynamical behavior of strange quark matter components,in particular the effects of density dependent quark mass on the equation of state of strange quark matter.The dynamical masses of quarks are computed within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model,then we perform strange quark matter calculations employing the MIT bag model with these dynamical masses.For the sake of comparing dynamical mass interaction with QCD quark-quark interaction,we consider the one-gluon-exchange term as the effective interaction between quarks for the MIT bag model.Our dynamical approach illustrates an improvement in the obtained equation of state values.We also investigate the structure of the strange quark star using TolmanOppenheimer-Volkoff equations for all applied models.Our results show that dynamical mass interaction leads to lower values for gravitational mass.

  15. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaknia Ari

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified protein bars containing soy or whey protein (33 g protein/day, 9 weeks, n = 9 for each protein treatment group. Training used workouts with fairly low repetition numbers per set. A control group from the class (N = 9 did the training, but did not consume either type protein bar. Results Both the soy and whey treatment groups showed a gain in lean body mass, but the training-only group did not. The whey and training only groups, but not the soy group, showed a potentially deleterious post-training effect on two antioxidant-related related parameters. Conclusions Soy and whey protein bar products both promoted exercise training-induced lean body mass gain, but the soy had the added benefit of preserving two aspects of antioxidant function.

  16. Mixed phase effects on high-mass twin stars

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Castillo, D E

    2014-01-01

    Recently it has been found that a certain class of hybrid star equations of state with a large latent heat (strong first order phase transition obtained by a Maxwell construction) between stiff hadronic hadronic and stiff quark matter phases allows for the appearance of a third family of compact stars (including "twins") at high mass of $\\sim 2 M_\\odot$. We investigate how robust this high-mass twin phenomenon is against a smoothing of the transition which would occur, e.g., due to pasta structures in the mixed phase. To this end we propose a simple construction of a pasta-like equation of state with a parameter that quantifies the degree of smoothing of the transition and could eventually be related to the surface tension of the pasta structures. It is interesting to note that the range of energy densities for the transition as well as the pressure at the onset of the transition of this class of hybrid star matter at zero temperature corresponds well to values of the same quantities found in finite temperatu...

  17. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  18. Mass spectrometric analysis of isotope effects in bioconversion of benzene to cyclohexanone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, In-Hyun; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Young-Mo; Yang, In-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2006-06-01

    Pseudomonas veronii strain PH-03 has been shown to convert benzene to cyclohexanone through phenol. Mass spectrometry results revealed that unusual isotopic effects have been occurred in the transformation product, cyclohexanone. The isotopic composition was strongly depends on the compound specific hydrogen or oxygen source. The exchange of labile deuterium atoms has been investigated through electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric analysis of biotransformation products enabled the proposal of a corresponding bioconversion pathway.

  19. ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF GAS–LIQUID INTERFACIAL DISTURBANCE ON MASS TRANSFER PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    HONDA WU; TSAIR-WANG CHUNG

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the mass transfer phenomena for water vapor absorbed by triethylene glycol (TEG) solution and to elucidate effect of interfacial disturbance on absorption performance, the interfacial phenomena for water drop instilling on the surface of TEG solution and mass transfer process were observed and operated in this study. Besides liquid and gas flow rates, the interfacial disturbance can also affect the mass transfer performance in the absorption system with continuous liquid pha...

  20. Cytarabine added to interferon improves the cost-effectiveness of initial therapy for patients with early chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J R; Guilhot, J; Giles, F J; Aoki, N; Wirt, D P; Guilhot, F

    2001-03-01

    The French Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Study Group prospective randomized study results indicate that the addition of cytarabine to alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) increases the rate of major cytogenetic response and prolongs survival in patients with early chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The French group study design permitted a single crossover to include or discontinue cytarabine or interferon. Endpoints were overall survival, complete hematologic remission (CHR) at six months, and major cytogenetic response at 12 months. We modified a published Markov model that compared IFN-alpha alone to IFN-alpha plus cytarabine and included the possibility of crossover as in the French study. The model permits allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT), and follows cytogenetic response and acceleration of CML through death. Treatment response, toxicity, and survival are drawn from the French Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Study Group population of 810 patients on an intention-to-treat model. Survivals are extended to 62 months based on currently available follow-up. Costs from a United States oncology specialty institution, and state utilities from previous research and a quality-adjusted Time Without Symptoms or Toxicity analysis of the subject study were discounted at 3% per annum. At the median cohort age of 50, cytarabine offers 21 months of added median survival to IFN-alpha, which itself is superior to conventional chemotherapy by 21 months. Cost-effectiveness estimates for cytarabine added to IFN-alpha range from $7,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) to $35,000 per QALY, under all plausible assumptions superior to IFN-alpha alone. The model is sensitive to the quality of life on therapy, as well as to remission rate with additive cytarabine, although the cost-effectiveness calculations are robust over the entire range of clinical assumptions. Based on data from the French study, cytarabine added to IFN-alpha substantially improves the cost-effectiveness

  1. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice.

  2. Effects of added Cd on Cd uptake by oilseed rape and pai-tsai co-cropping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study whether the decrease of Cd in the rhizosphere of Zhongyouza I, one breed of oilseed rapes (Brassica junica) that can hyperaccumulate cadmium from the soil, can improve the living condition of less Cd-tolerant plant pai-tsai (Brassia chinensis) with their roots permitted to intermingle and develop coincident rhizosphere. The extent of rhizosphere interactions between Zhongyouza Ⅰ and pai-tsai was controlled by different root barriers, or without barrier. The results show that in the 10 and 20 mg/kg Cd treated soils, pai-tsai gets higher shoot mass and less Cd accumulation in its shoot than in the barrier treatments or in the mono cultures, when its roots are permitted to intermingle with those of Zhongyouza Ⅰ. Meanwhile, soil decontamination rates of Zhongyouza Ⅰ are not affected much by co-cropping with pai-tsai, they are 80.0% and 91.8% of that in the mono cultures of Zhongyouza Ⅰ, respectively. However, the co-cropping method in meliorating the living condition ofpai-tsai is not obvious when Cd concentration in soil reaches 40 mg/kg, and soil decontamination rate decreases to 0.14, which is 58.3% of that in the mono culture. These results indicate that the oilseed rape Zhongyouza Ⅰ may alleviate Cd toxicity of surrounding less-tolerant species, and its ability of phytoremediation is not affected much at the same time, especially in the middle polluted soil.

  3. The Effect of Spatial Gradients in Stellar Mass-to-Light Ratio on Black Hole Mass Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Greene, Jenny E; Lauer, Tod R; Gebhardt, Karl

    2013-01-01

    We have tested the effect of spatial gradients in stellar mass-to-light ratio (Y) on measurements of black hole masses (MBH) derived from stellar orbit superposition models. Such models construct a static gravitational potential for a galaxy and its central black hole, but typically assume spatially uniform Y. We have modeled three giant elliptical galaxies with gradients alpha = d(log Y)/d(log r) from -0.2 to +0.1. Color and line strength gradients suggest mildly negative alpha in these galaxies. Introducing a negative (positive) gradient in Y increases (decreases) the enclosed stellar mass near the center of the galaxy and leads to systematically smaller (larger) MBH measurements. For models with alpha = -0.2, the best-fit values of MBH are 28%, 27%, and 17% lower than the constant-Y case, in NGC 3842, NGC 6086, and NGC 7768, respectively. For alpha = +0.1, MBH are 14%, 22%, and 17% higher than the constant-Y case for the three respective galaxies. For NGC 3842 and NGC 6086, this bias is comparable to the s...

  4. Optimizing the band gap of effective mass negativity in acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. T.; Huang, H. H.; Sun, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    A dual-resonator microstructure design is proposed for acoustic metamaterials to achieve broadband effective mass negativity. We demonstrate the advantage of acoustic wave attenuation over a wider frequency spectrum as compared to the narrow band gap of a single-resonator design. We explicitly confirm the effect of negative effective mass density by analysis of wave propagation using finite element simulations. Examples of practical application like vibration isolation and blast wave mitigation are presented and discussed.

  5. Effect of low-dose (100 krad) gamma radiation on the microflora of vacuum-packaged ground pork with and without added sodium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survival and growth of naturally occurring or inoculated bacteria were studied in refrigerated (5 degree C), vacuum-packaged ground pork irradiated at 100 krad (1kGy). Numbers of naturally occurring mesophiles, psychrotrophs and anaerobes or facultative anaerobes were reduced (P5 CFU/g) meat. Added sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) (0.4%) contributed two additional days to inoculated, irradiated pork shelf-life but had not effect on the naturally occurring microflora. Lipid oxidation did not increase (P>0.05) due to irradiation and was unaffected by phosphates

  6. Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet: the McDougall Program cohort

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, John; Thomas, Laurie E; McDougall, Craig; Moloney, Gavin; Saul, Bradley; Finnell, John S; Richardson, Kelly; Petersen, Katelin Mae

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic evidence, reinforced by clinical and laboratory studies, shows that the rich Western diet is the major underlying cause of death and disability (e.g, from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) in Western industrialized societies. The objective of this study is to document the effects that eating a low-fat (≤10% of calories), high-carbohydrate (~80% of calories), moderate-sodium, purely plant-based diet ad libitum for 7 days can have on the biomarkers of cardiova...

  7. Area products for ${\\cal H}^{\\pm}$ in AdS space

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We derive the thermodynamic products particularly area (or entropy) products of ${\\cal H}^{\\pm}$ for certain class of black holes in AdS space. We show by explicit calculations that more complicated function of event horizon area and Cauchy horizon area is indeed mass-independent. This mass-independent quantities indicate that they could turn out to be an "universal" quantity provided that they depends only on the quantized angular momentum, quantized charges, and cosmological constant. Furthermore, these area (or entropy) product relations for several class of black holes in AdS space gives us strong indication to understanding the nature of non-extremal black hole entropy (both inner and outer) at the microscopic level. Moreover, we compute the famous \\emph{Penrose inequality} for these class of black holes in AdS space. Local thermodynamic stability has been discussed for these black holes and under certain condition these black holes displayed second order phase transition.

  8. Electron self-energy and effective mass in a single heterostructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花修坤; 吴银忠; 李振亚

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electron self-energy and effective mass in a single heterostructure using Greenfunction method. Numerical calculations of the electron self-energy and effective mass for GaAs/AlAs heterostructure are performed. The results show that the self-energy (effective mass) of electrons, which incorporate the energy of electron coupling to interface-optical phonons and half of the three-dimensional longitudinal optical phonons, increase (decrease) monotonically from that of interface polaron to that of the 3D bulk polaron with increasing the distance between the positions of the electron and interface.

  9. Effect of the smaller mass-squared difference for the long base-line neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Okamura, N

    2004-01-01

    Usually, neutrino oscillation experiments are analyzed within the two-flavor framework which is governed by 1 mass-squared difference and 1 mixing angle. But there are 6 parameters,2 mass-squared differences, 3 mixing angles, and 1 CP phase within the three-flavor framework.In this article,we estimate the effect from the smaller mass-squared difference,the other mixing angles, and the CP phase, which we call three-flavor effect, for the determination of the mass-squared difference and the mixing angle from the nu_mu's survival and transition probability with the two-flavor analysis.It is found that the mass-squared difference from the two-flavor analysis is slightly shifted from the larger mass-squared difference by the three-flavor effect.The order of magnitude of the three-flavor effect for the mass-squared difference is comparable with that of the expected error for the mass-squared difference of the two-flavor analysis in the future long base-line neutrino oscillation experiments.The CP phase dependence o...

  10. Remarks on Exact Solvability of Quantum Systems with Spatially Varying Effective Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.G(o)nül; M.Ko(c)ak

    2005-01-01

    @@ Within the frame of a novel treatment we make a complete mathematical analysis of exactly solvable onedimensional quantum systems with non-constant mass, involving their ordering ambiguities. This work extends the results recently reported in the literature and clarifies the relation between physically acceptable effective mass Hamiltonians.

  11. Effect of Non Unitarity on Neutrino Mass Hierarchy determination at DUNE, NO$\

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Debajyoti; Roy, Samiran

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass ordering is one of the principal unknowns in the neutrino sector. Long baseline neutrino experiments have the potential of resolving this issue as they are sensitive to large matter effects. The superbeam experiment DUNE is one of the most promising candidates to study the neutrino mass hierarchy, along with NO$\

  12. Quark mass corrections to the perturbative thrust and its effect on the determination of s

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunanda Banerjee; Rahul Basu

    2002-09-01

    We consider the effects of quark masses to the perturbative thrust in +- annihilation. In particular we show that perturbative power corrections resulting from non-zero quark masses considerably alters the size of the non-perturbative power corrections and consequently, significantly changes the fitted value of s.

  13. Historical Earthquake Scenarios and Effects on the Ancient City of İstanbul (A.D. 478 - 1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Murat; Elitez, İrem; Özmen, Aybars; Yaltırak, Cenk

    2016-04-01

    Active fault mapping is one of the most important subject in the active tectonic studies. The consistency of the active fault maps with the reality is curial for the settlements and socio-economic conditions. The Marmara region is one of the precious area where the longest duration settlement and civilization are observed along a fault system. The Marmara Sea and its surrounding area are unique on the earth which has the remarkable history of 1500 years in non-instrumental period. Because, İstanbul was the capital city of both Byzantium and Ottoman Empire and the historical records of İstanbul are reliable for this environment such as A.D. 1509 earthquake known as 'little apocalypse'. Although the active faults of the Marmara Sea have studied and mapped by many researchers, there are only three different main fault model suggested for the Marmara Sea. These are single fault model (Le Pichon et al., 2001), pull-apart model (Armijo et al., 2005) and horsetail model (Yaltırak, 2002; 2015). Yaltırak (2015) grouped the 38 destructive historical earthquakes according to their felt area for these three fault models in the Marmara region. In this study we have modelled the Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI) of historical buildings and cross checked with damages on the related structure in order to investigate the consistency of fault pattern with historical earthquakes. In this study three-stage evaluation has been made. In the first stage, three models that differ from each other were prepared on a database in commercial ArcGIS software. Mw values were calculated for each segment according to their lengths, seismogenic depths and 18 mm/yr accumulation by using the equation of Kanamori (1977). In the second stage, the 1:25000-scale geological map of the ancient city of İstanbul was revised according to Vs30 data of the İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The exact location of the historical constructions in the İstanbul have been plotted by using non

  14. Thermal Fluctuations in a Charged AdS Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Pourhassan, B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a charged AdS black hole. This will be done by analyzing the corrections to black hole thermodynamics due to these thermal fluctuations. We will demonstrate that the entropy of this black hole get corrected by logarithmic term. We will also calculate other corrections to other important thermodynamic quantities for this black hole. Finally, we will use the corrected value of the specific heat to analyze the phase transition in this system.

  15. Duality invariance of s≥32 fermions in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that in D=4 AdS, s≥3/2 partially massless (PM fermions retain the duality invariances of their flat space massless counterparts. They have tuned ratios m2/M2≠0 that turn them into sums of effectively massless unconstrained helicity ±(s,⋯,32 excitations, shorn of the lowest (non-dual helicity ±12-rung and — more generally — of succeeding higher rung as well. Each helicity mode is separately duality invariant, like its flat space counterpart.

  16. Strings on AdS2 and the high-energy limit of noncritical M-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horava, Petr; Horava, Petr; Keeler, Cynthia A.

    2007-04-16

    Abstract. Noncritical M-theory in 2+1 dimensions has been defined as a double-scaling limit of a nonrelativistic Fermi liquid on a flat two-dimensional plane. Here we study this noncritical M-theory in the limit of high energies, analogous to the alpha' --> infinity limit of string theory. In the related case of two-dimensional Type 0A strings, it has been argued that the conformal alpha' --> infinity limit leads to AdS_2 with a propagating fermion whose mass is set by the value of the RR flux. Here we provide evidence that in the high-energy limit, the natural ground state of noncritical M-theory similarly describes the AdS_2 x S1 spacetime, with a massless propagating fermion. We argue that the spacetime effective theory in this background is captured by a topological higher-spin extension of conformal Chern-Simons gravity in 2+1 dimensions, consistently coupled to a massless Dirac field. Intriguingly, the two-dimensional plane populated by the original nonrelativistic fermions is essentially the twistor space associated with the symmetry group of the AdS_2 x S1 spacetime; thus, at least in the high-energy limit, noncritical M-theory can be nonperturbatively described as a"Fermi liquid on twistor space.''

  17. Pairing Effect on Spectral Statistics of Even and Odd Mass Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sabri, H; Fouladi, J; Fouladi, N; Jafarizadeh, M A

    2013-01-01

    The interplay of pairing is explored for the spectral statistics of nuclear systems with emphasis on the nearest neighbor spacing distributions by employing the kernel density and maximum likelihood estimation techniques. Different sequences prepared by all the available empirical data for low-lying energy levels of even and odd-mass nuclei in the 34 < A < 206 mass region. A deviation to more regular dynamics is apparent for even-mass nuclei in compare to odd-mass ones, and there are suggestions of effects due to unclosed proton shells on more chaotic dynamics.

  18. Facing temptation in the bar: counteracting the effects of self-control failure on young adults' ad libitum alcohol intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Cladder-Micus, M.B.; Pouwels, J.L.; Hennig, M.; Schuurmans, A.T.; Hermans, R.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The self-control strength model suggests that exertion of self-control leads to poorer subsequent self-control performance. Failure of self-control has been suggested as an important underlying mechanism of excessive drinking. This study tested the effects of self-control failure

  19. Entanglement Temperature and Perturbed AdS$_3$ Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    In analogy to the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entanglement entropy $\\delta S$ of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy, $\\delta E$, of the subsystem divided by an effective entanglement temperature, $T_E$. Extending this analogy, we study entanglement entropy when the subsystem is perturbed by applying an external field, expressed as a coupling to a local marginal operator in the CFT. We show that the resulting entropy change is associated with a change in the entanglement temperature itself, leading to an equation analogous to the Clausius relation. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature, $\\delta T_E(x)$ of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. Using the AdS$_3$ minimal surface as a probe, we can construct bulk metric perturbations from an exact numerical computation of the entanglement temperature in a two dimensional $c=1$ boundary theory deformed by a marginal perturbati...

  20. Main-Sequence Effective Temperatures from a Revised Mass-Luminosity Relation Based on Accurate Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Eker, Z; Soydugan, E; Bilir, S; Gokce, E Yaz; Steer, I; Tuysuz, M; Senyuz, T; Demircan, O

    2015-01-01

    The mass-luminosity (M-L), mass-radius (M-R) and mass-effective temperature ($M-T_{eff}$) diagrams for a subset of galactic nearby main-sequence stars with masses and radii accurate to $\\leq 3\\%$ and luminosities accurate to $\\leq 30\\%$ (268 stars) has led to a putative discovery. Four distinct mass domains have been identified, which we have tentatively associated with low, intermediate, high, and very high mass main-sequence stars, but which nevertheless are clearly separated by three distinct break points at 1.05, 2.4, and 7$M_{\\odot}$ within the mass range studied of $0.38-32M_{\\odot}$. Further, a revised mass-luminosity relation (MLR) is found based on linear fits for each of the mass domains identified. The revised, mass-domain based MLRs, which are classical ($L \\propto M^{\\alpha}$), are shown to be preferable to a single linear, quadratic or cubic equation representing as an alternative MLR. Stellar radius evolution within the main-sequence for stars with $M>1M_{\\odot}$ is clearly evident on the M-R d...