Sample records for adaptive optics laser

  1. Adaptive optics and laser guide stars at Lick observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    For the past several years LLNL has been developing adaptive optics systems for correction of both atmospheric turbulence effects and thermal distortions in optics for high-power lasers. Our early work focused on adaptive optics for beam control in laser isotope separation and ground-based free electron lasers. We are currently developing innovative adaptive optics and laser systems for sodium laser guide star applications at the University of California`s Lick and Keck Observeratories. This talk will describe our adaptive optics technology and some of its applications in high-resolution imaging and beam control.

  2. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope design with adaptive optics


    Laut, SP; Jones, SM; Olivier, SS; Werner, JS


    A design for a high-resolution scanning instrument is presented for in vivo imaging of the human eye at the cellular scale. This system combines adaptive optics technology with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) to image structures with high lateral (∼2 μm) resolution. In this system, the ocular wavefront aberrations that reduce the resolution of conventional SLOs are detected by a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, and compensated with two deformable mirrors in a closed-loop for dynamic cor...

  3. Piezoelectric deformable mirror for intra-cavity laser adaptive optics.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a deformable mirror to be used in conjunction with diffractive optical elements inside a laser cavity. A prototype piezoelectric unimorph adaptive mirror was developed to correct for time dependent phase...

  4. Optical components of adaptive systems for improving laser beam quality (United States)

    Malakhov, Yuri I.; Atuchin, Victor V.; Kudryashov, Aleksis V.; Starikov, Fedor A.


    The short overview is given of optical equipment developed within the ISTC activity for adaptive systems of new generation allowing for correction of high-power laser beams carrying optical vortices onto the phase surface. They are the kinoform many-level optical elements of new generation, namely, special spiral phase plates and ordered rasters of microlenses, i.e. lenslet arrays, as well as the wide-aperture Hartmann-Shack sensors and bimorph deformable piezoceramics- based mirrors with various grids of control elements.

  5. Optical design of the adaptive optics laser guide star system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The design of an adaptive optics package for the 3 meter Lick telescope is presented. This instrument package includes a 69 actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann type wavefront sensor operating in the visible wavelength; a quadrant detector for the tip-tile sensor and a tip-tilt mirror to stabilize atmospheric first order tip-tile errors. A high speed computer drives the deformable mirror to achieve near diffraction limited imagery. The different optical components and their individual design constraints are described. motorized stages and diagnostics tools are used to operate and maintain alignment throughout observation time from a remote control room. The expected performance are summarized and actual results of astronomical sources are presented.

  6. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in fundus imaging, a review and update


    Zhang, Bing; Li, Ni; Kang, Jie; He, Yi; Chen, Xiao-Ming


    Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) has been a promising technique in funds imaging with growing popularity. This review firstly gives a brief history of adaptive optics (AO) and AO-SLO. Then it compares AO-SLO with conventional imaging methods (fundus fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography) and other AO techniques (adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy and adaptive optics optical coherenc...

  7. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino D


    Full Text Available David Merino, Pablo Loza-Alvarez The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. Keywords: high-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging, AOSLO

  8. Laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory


    Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren; Kupke, Renate; Rudy, Alex


    We present an overview of the adaptive optics system at the Shane telescope (ShaneAO) along with research and development efforts on the technology and algorithms for that will advance AO into wider application for astronomy. Diffraction-limited imaging and spectroscopy from ground based large aperture telescopes will open up the opportunity for unprecedented science advancement. The AO challenges we are targeting are correction down to visible science wavelengths, which demands high-order wa...

  9. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in fundus imaging, a review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO has been a promising technique in funds imaging with growing popularity. This review firstly gives a brief history of adaptive optics (AO and AO-SLO. Then it compares AO-SLO with conventional imaging methods (fundus fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography and other AO techniques (adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy and adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. Furthermore, an update of current research situation in AO-SLO is made based on different fundus structures as photoreceptors (cones and rods, fundus vessels, retinal pigment epithelium layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and lamina cribrosa. Finally, this review indicates possible research directions of AO-SLO in future.

  10. Integration of adaptive optics into highEnergy laser modeling and simulation (United States)


    contain hundreds of actuators with high control bandwidths and low hysteresis, all of which are ideal parameters for accurate reconstruction of higher... Available : // [10] C. Kopp, “ High energy laser directed energy...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS INTEGRATION OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS INTO HIGH ENERGY LASER MODELING AND SIMULATION by Donald Puent

  11. Sky coverage modeling for the whole sky for laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics. (United States)

    Wang, Lianqi; Andersen, David; Ellerbroek, Brent


    The scientific productivity of laser guide star adaptive optics systems strongly depends on the sky coverage, which describes the probability of finding natural guide stars for the tip/tilt wavefront sensor(s) to achieve a certain performance. Knowledge of the sky coverage is also important for astronomers planning their observations. In this paper, we present an efficient method to compute the sky coverage for the laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics system, the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), being designed for the Thirty Meter Telescope project. We show that NFIRAOS can achieve more than 70% sky coverage over most of the accessible sky with the requirement of 191 nm total rms wavefront.

  12. Modeling update for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star dual-conjugate adaptive optics system (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent


    This paper describes the modeling efforts undertaken in the past couple of years to derive wavefront error (WFE) performance estimates for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), which is the facility laser guide star (LGS) dual-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The estimates describe the expected performance of NFIRAOS as a function of seeing on Mauna Kea, zenith angle, and galactic latitude (GL). They have been developed through a combination of integrated AO simulations, side analyses, allocations, lab and lidar experiments.

  13. The Laser Guide Star System for Adaptive Optics at Subaru Telescope (United States)

    Hayano, Y.; Saito, Y.; Ito, M.; Saito, N.; Akagawa, K.; Takazawa, A.; Ito, M.; Wada, S.; Takami, H.; Iye, M.

    We report on the current status of developing the new laser guide star (LGS) system for the Subaru adaptive optics (AO) system. We have three major subsystems: the laser unit, the relay optical fiber and the laser launching telescope. A 4W-class all-solid-state 589nm laser has been developed as a light source for sodium laser guide star. We use two mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers operated at the wavelength of 1064nm and 1319nm to generate sum-frequency conversion into 589nm. The side-LD pumped configuration is used for the mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers. We have carefully considered the thermal lens effect in the cavity to achieve a high beam quality with TEM00; M2 = 1.06. The mode-locked frequency is selected at 143 MHz. We obtained the output powers of 16.5 W and 5.0 W at 1064nm and 1319 nm. Sum frequency generated by mixing two synchronized Nd:YAG mode-locked pulsed beams is precisely tuned to the sodium D2 line by thermal control of the etalon in the 1064nm Nd:YAG laser by observing the maximum fluorescence intensity of heated sodium vapor cell. The maximum output power at 589.159 nm reaches to 4.6 W using a PPMgOSLT crystal as a nonlinear optical crystal. And the output power can be maintained within a stability of +/- 1.2% for more than 3 days without optical damage. We developed a single-mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF) to relay the laser beam from laser clean room, in which the laser unit is located on the Nasmyth platform, to the laser launching telescope mounted behind the secondary mirror of Subaru Telescope. The photonic crystal fiber has solid pure silica core with the mode field diameter of 14 micron, which is relatively larger than that of the conventional step-index type single mode fiber. The length of the PCF is 35m and transmission loss due to the pure silica is 10dB/km at 589nm, which means PCF transmits 92% of the laser beam. We have preliminary achieved 75% throughput in total. Small mode-locked pulse width in time allows us to transmit the high

  14. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in combination with en-face optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felberer, F.


    The human retina is a most important tissue and plays a fundamental role for the vision. Diseases of the eye affect the normal retinal function which, if untreated, may lead to vision loss or ultimately to blindness. Thus, in vivo diagnostic tools that provide detailed information on the retinal status are required in order to improve diagnosis and treatment. In recent years, several new optical imaging methods of the human retina have been developed and now represent the key part in a standard ophthalmic examination process. One of these technologies is optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides images of the retina noninvasively and with a high axial resolution. However, imperfections of the eye's optics cause aberrations of the wavefront of the imaging light, thus limiting the transverse resolution of such systems. Improvements in the resolution of retinal images are necessary to resolve individual cells (e.g. photoreceptors) which may provide new opportunities in retinal diagnostics and therapy control. Adaptive optics (AO), a technology known from astronomy, may be used to increase image resolution. Aberrations of the imaging light are measured and corrected, resulting in an increase of lateral resolution up to the diffraction limit. Within this thesis, AO was combined with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) that enables high resolution imaging of the retina. Measurements on healthy subjects demonstrated the ability of the system to resolve foveal cones (the smallest cone photoreceptors within the retina) and even rod photoreceptors. However, the depth resolution of the system remained limited compared to OCT instruments. Thus, in a second step, the instrument was extended to a combined AO-SLO/OCT system. The OCT system is based on transversal scanning (TS)-OCT which records en-face images of the retina and incorporates a high-speed axial eye tracking device. Together with transverse motion correction based on the AO-SLO images, the system

  15. The ARGOS laser system: green light for ground layer adaptive optics at the LBT (United States)

    Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Gässler, Wolfgang; Esposito, Simone; Barl, Lothar; Borelli, Jose; Daysenroth, Matthias; Gemperlein, Hans; Kulas, Martin; Ziegleder, Julian


    We report on the development of the laser system of ARGOS, the multiple laser guide star adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The system uses a total of six high powered, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers frequency-doubled to a wavelength of 532 nm to generate a set of three guide stars above each of the LBT telescopes. The position of each of the LGS constellations on sky as well as the relative position of the individual laser guide stars within this constellation is controlled by a set of steerable mirrors and a fast tip-tilt mirror within the laser system. The entire opto-mechanical system is housed in two hermetically sealed and thermally controlled enclosures on the SX and DX side of the LBT telescope. The laser beams are propagated through two refractive launch telescopes which focus the beams at an altitude of 12 km, creating a constellation of laser guide stars around a 4 arcminute diameter circle by means of Rayleigh scattering. In addition to the GLAO Rayleigh beacon system, ARGOS has also been designed for a possible future upgrade with a hybrid sodium laser - Rayleigh beacon combination, enabling diffraction limited operation. The ARGOS laser system was successfully installed at the LBT in April 2013. Extensive functional tests have been carried out and have verified the operation of the systems according to specifications. The alignment of the laser system with respect to the launch telescope was carried out during two more runs in June and October 2013, followed by the first propagation of laser light on sky in November 2013.

  16. Adaptive optics for reduced threshold energy in femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in water based eye model (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Krueger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo


    In ophthalmic microsurgery tissue dissection is achieved using femtosecond laser pulses to create an optical breakdown. For vitreo-retinal applications the irradiance distribution in the focal volume is distorted by the anterior components of the eye causing a raised threshold energy for breakdown. In this work, an adaptive optics system enables spatial beam shaping for compensation of aberrations and investigation of wave front influence on optical breakdown. An eye model was designed to allow for aberration correction as well as detection of optical breakdown. The eye model consists of an achromatic lens for modeling the eye's refractive power, a water chamber for modeling the tissue properties, and a PTFE sample for modeling the retina's scattering properties. Aberration correction was performed using a deformable mirror in combination with a Hartmann-Shack-sensor. The influence of an adaptive optics aberration correction on the pulse energy required for photodisruption was investigated using transmission measurements for determination of the breakdown threshold and video imaging of the focal region for study of the gas bubble dynamics. The threshold energy is considerably reduced when correcting for the aberrations of the system and the model eye. Also, a raise in irradiance at constant pulse energy was shown for the aberration corrected case. The reduced pulse energy lowers the potential risk of collateral damage which is especially important for retinal safety. This offers new possibilities for vitreo-retinal surgery using femtosecond laser pulses.

  17. Laser adaptive holographic hydrophone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashko, R V; Kulchin, Yu N; Bezruk, M N; Ermolaev, S A [Institute of Automation and Control Processes, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)


    A new type of a laser hydrophone based on dynamic holograms, formed in a photorefractive crystal, is proposed and studied. It is shown that the use of dynamic holograms makes it unnecessary to use complex optical schemes and systems for electronic stabilisation of the interferometer operating point. This essentially simplifies the scheme of the laser hydrophone preserving its high sensitivity, which offers the possibility to use it under a strong variation of the environment parameters. The laser adaptive holographic hydrophone implemented at present possesses the sensitivity at a level of 3.3 mV Pa{sup -1} in the frequency range from 1 to 30 kHz. (laser hydrophones)

  18. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors (United States)

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones; Steven M.


    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  19. GLAS: engineering a common-user Rayleigh laser guide star for adaptive optics on the William Herschel Telescope (United States)

    Talbot, Gordon; Abrams, Don Carlos; Apostolakos, Nikolaos; Bassom, Richard; Blackburn, Colin; Blanken, Maarten; Cano Infantes, Diego; Chopping, Alan; Dee, Kevin; Dipper, Nigel; Elswijk, Eddy; Enthoven, Bernard; Gregory, Thomas; ter Horst, Rik; Humphreys, Ron; Idserda, Jan; Jolley, Paul; Kuindersma, Sjouke; McDermid, Richard; Morris, Tim; Myers, Richard; Pico, Sergio; Pragt, Johan; Rees, Simon; Rey, Jürg; Reyes, Marcos; Rutten, René; Schoenmaker, Ton; Skvarc, Jure; Tromp, Niels; Tulloch, Simon; Veninga, Auke


    The GLAS (Ground-layer Laser Adaptive-optics System) project is to construct a common-user Rayleigh laser beacon that will work in conjunction with the existing NAOMI adaptive optics system, instruments (near IR imager INGRID, optical integral field spectrograph OASIS, coronagraph OSCA) and infrastructure at the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on La Palma. The laser guide star system will increase sky coverage available to high-order adaptive optics from ~1% to approaching 100% and will be optimized for scientific exploitation of the OASIS integral-field spectrograph at optical wavelengths. Additionally GLAS will be used in on-sky experiments for the application of laser beacons to ELTs. This paper describes the full range of engineering of the project ranging through the laser launch system, wavefront sensors, computer control, mechanisms, diagnostics, CCD detectors and the safety system. GLAS is a fully funded project, with final design completed and all equipment ordered, including the laser. Integration has started on the WHT and first light is expected summer 2006.


    Iida, Yuto; Muraoka, Yuki; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Murakami, Tomoaki; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Arichika, Shigeta; Takahashi, Ayako; Miwa, Yuko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa


    To investigate associations between parafoveal microcirculatory status and foveal pathomorphology in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Ten consecutive patients (10 eyes) with acute retinal vein occlusion were enrolled, 9 eyes of which received intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections. Foveal morphologic changes were examined via optical coherence tomography (OCT), and parafoveal circulatory status was assessed via adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). The mean parafoveal aggregated erythrocyte velocity (AEV) measured by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with retinal vein occlusion was 0.99 ± 0.43 mm/second at baseline, which was significantly lower than that of age-matched healthy subjects (1.41 ± 0.28 mm/second, P = 0.042). The longitudinal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy examinations of each patient showed that parafoveal AEV was strongly inversely correlated with optical coherence tomography-measured central foveal thickness (CFT) over the entire observation period. Using parafoveal AEV and central foveal thickness measurements obtained at the first and second examinations, we investigated associations between differences in parafoveal AEV and central foveal thickness, which were significantly and highly correlated (r = -0.84, P = 0.002). Using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with retinal vein occlusion macular edema, we could quantitatively evaluate the parafoveal AEV. A reduction or an increase in parafoveal AEV may be a clinical marker for the resolution or development/progression of macular edema respectively.

  1. Wavefront error budget development for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star adaptive optics system (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent


    This paper describes the modeling effort undertaken to derive the wavefront error (WFE) budget for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), which is the facility, laser guide star (LGS), dual-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The budget describes the expected performance of NFIRAOS at zenith, and has been decomposed into (i) first-order turbulence compensation terms (120 nm on-axis), (ii) opto-mechanical implementation errors (84 nm), (iii) AO component errors and higher-order effects (74 nm) and (iv) tip/tilt (TT) wavefront errors at 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole (61 nm) with natural guide star (NGS) tip/tilt/focus/astigmatism (TTFA) sensing in J band. A contingency of about 66 nm now exists to meet the observatory requirement document (ORD) total on-axis wavefront error of 187 nm, mainly on account of reduced TT errors due to updated windshake modeling and a low read-noise NGS wavefront sensor (WFS) detector. A detailed breakdown of each of these top-level terms is presented, together with a discussion on its evaluation using a mix of high-order zonal and low-order modal Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Implantable collamer lens and femtosecond laser for myopia: comparison using an adaptive optics visual simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Pérez-Vives


    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare optical and visual quality of implantable collamer lens (ICL implantation and femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (F-LASIK for myopia. Methods: The CRX1 adaptive optics visual simulator (Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France was used to simulate the wavefront aberration pattern after the two surgical procedures for -3-diopter (D and -6-D myopia. Visual acuity at different contrasts and contrast sensitivities at 10, 20, and 25 cycles/degree (cpd were measured for 3-mm and 5-mm pupils. The modulation transfer function (MTF and point spread function (PSF were calculated for 5-mm pupils. Results: F-LASIK MTF was worse than ICL MTF, which was close to diffraction-limited MTF. ICL cases showed less spread out of PSF than F-LASIK cases. ICL cases showed better visual acuity values than F-LASIK cases for all pupils, contrasts, and myopic treatments (p0.05. For -6-D myopia, however, statistically significant differences in contrast sensitivities were found for both pupils for all evaluated spatial frequencies (p<0.05. Contrast sensitivities were better after ICL implantation than after F-LASIK. Conclusions: ICL implantation and F-LASIK provide good optical and visual quality, although the former provides better outcomes of MTF, PSF, visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity, especially for cases with large refractive errors and pupil sizes. These outcomes are related to the F-LASIK producing larger high-order aberrations.

  3. Cone structure imaged with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration. (United States)

    Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Duncan, Jacque L; Syed, Reema; Menghini, Moreno; Roorda, Austin J


    To evaluate cone spacing using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) in eyes with nonneovascular AMD, and to correlate progression of AOSLO-derived cone measures with standard measures of macular structure. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images were obtained over 12 to 21 months from seven patients with AMD including four eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) and four eyes with drusen. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images were overlaid with color, infrared, and autofluorescence fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images to allow direct correlation of cone parameters with macular structure. Cone spacing was measured for each visit in selected regions including areas over drusen (n = 29), at GA margins (n = 14), and regions without drusen or GA (n = 13) and compared with normal, age-similar values. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging revealed continuous cone mosaics up to the GA edge and overlying drusen, although reduced cone reflectivity often resulted in hyporeflective AOSLO signals at these locations. Baseline cone spacing measures were normal in 13/13 unaffected regions, 26/28 drusen regions, and 12/14 GA margin regions. Although standard clinical measures showed progression of GA in all study eyes, cone spacing remained within normal ranges in most drusen regions and all GA margin regions. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy provides adequate resolution for quantitative measurement of cone spacing at the margin of GA and over drusen in eyes with AMD. Although cone spacing was often normal at baseline and remained normal over time, these regions showed focal areas of decreased cone reflectivity. These findings may provide insight into the pathophysiology of AMD progression. ( number, NCT00254605).

  4. Laser-plasma interaction with an adaptive optics wavefront-corrected laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K.


    The propagation of an intense laser beam trough a preformed plasma is of particular interest in order to achieve laser inertial confinement fusion. Experiments carried out with a near-diffraction limited laser beam, producing a single hot spot interacting with the plasma, delivered new results, presented in this Ph.D. dissertation. In particular the first experimental observation of the filament instability confirms the numerous theoretical and numerical studies on the subject. Beam spreading and filament-ion thresholds are studied thanks to near-field and far-field images, with respect to laser intensity, time and space, and plasma transverse velocity. Same diagnostics have been applied to the stimulated Brillouin scattered light, enabling the first observation of the transverse Brillouin activity in the plasma. (author)

  5. Laser Guidestar Satellite for Ground-based Adaptive Optics Imaging of Geosynchronous Satellites and Astronomical Targets (United States)

    Marlow, W. A.; Cahoy, K.; Males, J.; Carlton, A.; Yoon, H.


    Real-time observation and monitoring of geostationary (GEO) satellites with ground-based imaging systems would be an attractive alternative to fielding high cost, long lead, space-based imagers, but ground-based observations are inherently limited by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to help ground telescopes achieve diffraction-limited seeing. AO systems have historically relied on the use of bright natural guide stars or laser guide stars projected on a layer of the upper atmosphere by ground laser systems. There are several challenges with this approach such as the sidereal motion of GEO objects relative to natural guide stars and limitations of ground-based laser guide stars; they cannot be used to correct tip-tilt, they are not point sources, and have finite angular sizes when detected at the receiver. There is a difference between the wavefront error measured using the guide star compared with the target due to cone effect, which also makes it difficult to use a distributed aperture system with a larger baseline to improve resolution. Inspired by previous concepts proposed by A.H. Greenaway, we present using a space-based laser guide starprojected from a satellite orbiting the Earth. We show that a nanosatellite-based guide star system meets the needs for imaging GEO objects using a low power laser even from 36,000 km altitude. Satellite guide star (SGS) systemswould be well above atmospheric turbulence and could provide a small angular size reference source. CubeSatsoffer inexpensive, frequent access to space at a fraction of the cost of traditional systems, and are now being deployed to geostationary orbits and on interplanetary trajectories. The fundamental CubeSat bus unit of 10 cm cubed can be combined in multiple units and offers a common form factor allowing for easy integration as secondary payloads on traditional launches and rapid testing of new technologies on-orbit. We describe a 6U CubeSat SGS measuring 10 cm x 20 cm x

  6. NASA Laser Communications with Adaptive Optics and Linear Mode Photon Counting, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this effort, the Optical Sciences Company (tOSC) and Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) will team to provide NASA with a long range laser communications system for...

  7. Maritime adaptive optics beam control


    Corley, Melissa S.


    The Navy is interested in developing systems for horizontal, near ocean surface, high-energy laser propagation through the atmosphere. Laser propagation in the maritime environment requires adaptive optics control of aberrations caused by atmospheric distortion. In this research, a multichannel transverse adaptive filter is formulated in Matlab's Simulink environment and compared to a complex lattice filter that has previously been implemented in large system simulations. The adaptive fil...

  8. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars (United States)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    Since Galileo's first telescope some 400 years ago, astronomers have been building ever-larger instruments. Yet only within the last two decades has it become possible to realize the potential angular resolutions of large ground-based telescopes, by using adaptive optics (AO) technology to counter the blurring effects of Earth's atmosphere. And only within the past decade have the development of laser guide stars (LGS) extended AO capabilities to observe science targets nearly anywhere in the sky. Improving turbulence simulation strategies and LGS are the two main topics of my research. In the first part of this thesis, I report on the development of a technique for manufacturing phase plates for simulating atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory. The process involves strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of the plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2--1.2 mm at 650 nm measurement wavelength, with a Kolmogorov power law. These plates proved valuable at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, where they have been used in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager, and as part of the calibration system of the on-sky AO testbed named ViLLaGEs (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments). I present a comparison of measurements taken by ViLLaGEs of the power spectrum of a plate and the real sky turbulence. The plate is demonstrated to follow Kolmogorov theory well, while the sky power spectrum does so in a third of the data. This method of fabricating phase plates has been established as an effective and low-cost means of creating simulated turbulence. Due to the demand for such devices, they are now being distributed to other members of the AO community. The second topic of this thesis pertains to understanding and

  9. Design of a Compact, Bimorph Deformable Mirror-Based Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope. (United States)

    He, Yi; Deng, Guohua; Wei, Ling; Li, Xiqi; Yang, Jinsheng; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong


    We have designed, constructed and tested an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) using a bimorph mirror. The simulated AOSLO system achieves diffraction-limited criterion through all the raster scanning fields (6.4 mm pupil, 3° × 3° on pupil). The bimorph mirror-based AOSLO corrected ocular aberrations in model eyes to less than 0.1 μm RMS wavefront error with a closed-loop bandwidth of a few Hz. Facilitated with a bimorph mirror at a stroke of ±15 μm with 35 elements and an aperture of 20 mm, the new AOSLO system has a size only half that of the first-generation AOSLO system. The significant increase in stroke allows for large ocular aberrations such as defocus in the range of ±600° and astigmatism in the range of ±200°, thereby fully exploiting the AO correcting capabilities for diseased human eyes in the future.

  10. An adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bliss, E.S.; Byrd, J.L.; Feldman, M.; Kartz, M.A.; Toeppen, J.S.; Wonterghem, B. Van; Winters, S.E.


    Using adaptive optics the authors have obtained nearly diffraction-limited 5 kJ, 3 nsec output pulses at 1.053 microm from the Beamlet demonstration system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The peak Strehl ratio was improved from 0.009 to 0.50, as estimated from measured wavefront errors. They have also measured the relaxation of the thermally induced aberrations in the main beam line over a period of 4.5 hours. Peak-to-valley aberrations range from 6.8 waves at 1.053 microm within 30 minutes after a full system shot to 3.9 waves after 4.5 hours. The adaptive optics system must have enough range to correct accumulated thermal aberrations from several shots in addition to the immediate shot-induced error. Accumulated wavefront errors in the beam line will affect both the design of the adaptive optics system for NIF and the performance of that system

  11. Increasing the field of view of adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Salas, Matthias; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Pircher, Michael


    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) set-up with two deformable mirrors (DM) is presented. It allows high resolution imaging of the retina on a 4°×4° field of view (FoV), considering a 7 mm pupil diameter at the entrance of the eye. Imaging on such a FoV, which is larger compared to classical AO-SLO instruments, is allowed by the use of the two DMs. The first DM is located in a plane that is conjugated to the pupil of the eye and corrects for aberrations that are constant in the FoV. The second DM is conjugated to a plane that is located ∼0.7 mm anterior to the retina. This DM corrects for anisoplanatism effects within the FoV. The control of the DMs is performed by combining the classical AO technique, using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor, and sensorless AO, which uses a criterion characterizing the image quality. The retinas of four healthy volunteers were imaged in-vivo with the developed instrument. In order to assess the performance of the set-up and to demonstrate the benefits of the 2 DM configuration, the acquired images were compared with images taken in conventional conditions, on a smaller FoV and with only one DM. Moreover, an image of a larger patch of the retina was obtained by stitching of 9 images acquired with a 4°×4° FoV, resulting in a total FoV of 10°×10°. Finally, different retinal layers were imaged by shifting the focal plane.

  12. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ


    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  13. Lowered threshold energy for femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in a water based eye model by aberration correction with adaptive optics. (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Géneaux, Romain; Günther, Axel; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo


    In femtosecond laser ophthalmic surgery tissue dissection is achieved by photodisruption based on laser induced optical breakdown. In order to minimize collateral damage to the eye laser surgery systems should be optimized towards the lowest possible energy threshold for photodisruption. However, optical aberrations of the eye and the laser system distort the irradiance distribution from an ideal profile which causes a rise in breakdown threshold energy even if great care is taken to minimize the aberrations of the system during design and alignment. In this study we used a water chamber with an achromatic focusing lens and a scattering sample as eye model and determined breakdown threshold in single pulse plasma transmission loss measurements. Due to aberrations, the precise lower limit for breakdown threshold irradiance in water is still unknown. Here we show that the threshold energy can be substantially reduced when using adaptive optics to improve the irradiance distribution by spatial beam shaping. We found that for initial aberrations with a root-mean-square wave front error of only one third of the wavelength the threshold energy can still be reduced by a factor of three if the aberrations are corrected to the diffraction limit by adaptive optics. The transmitted pulse energy is reduced by 17% at twice the threshold. Furthermore, the gas bubble motions after breakdown for pulse trains at 5 kilohertz repetition rate show a more transverse direction in the corrected case compared to the more spherical distribution without correction. Our results demonstrate how both applied and transmitted pulse energy could be reduced during ophthalmic surgery when correcting for aberrations. As a consequence, the risk of retinal damage by transmitted energy and the extent of collateral damage to the focal volume could be minimized accordingly when using adaptive optics in fs-laser surgery.

  14. Statistical properties of single-mode fiber coupling of satellite-to-ground laser links partially corrected by adaptive optics. (United States)

    Canuet, Lucien; Védrenne, Nicolas; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Artaud, Geraldine; Rissons, Angelique; Lacan, Jerome


    In the framework of satellite-to-ground laser downlinks, an analytical model describing the variations of the instantaneous coupled flux into a single-mode fiber after correction of the incoming wavefront by partial adaptive optics (AO) is presented. Expressions for the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function as well as for the average fading duration and fading duration distribution of the corrected coupled flux are given. These results are of prime interest for the computation of metrics related to coded transmissions over correlated channels, and they are confronted by end-to-end wave-optics simulations in the case of a geosynchronous satellite (GEO)-to-ground and a low earth orbit satellite (LEO)-to-ground scenario. Eventually, the impact of different AO performances on the aforementioned fading duration distribution is analytically investigated for both scenarios.

  15. High-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. (United States)

    Takayama, Kohei; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Arakawa, Naoko; Oshima, Susumu; Shibata, Naohisa; Hanebuchi, Masaaki; Inoue, Takashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa


    To conduct high-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). AO-SLO images were obtained in 20 normal eyes at multiple locations in the posterior polar area and a circular path with a 3-4-mm diameter around the optic disc. For each eye, images focused on the RNFL were recorded and a montage of AO-SLO images was created. AO-SLO images for all eyes showed many hyperreflective bundles in the RNFL. Hyperreflective bundles above or below the fovea were seen in an arch from the temporal periphery on either side of a horizontal dividing line to the optic disc. The dark lines among the hyperreflective bundles were narrower around the optic disc compared with those in the temporal raphe. The hyperreflective bundles corresponded with the direction of the striations on SLO red-free images. The resolution and contrast of the bundles were much higher in AO-SLO images than in red-free fundus photography or SLO red-free images. The mean hyperreflective bundle width around the optic disc had a double-humped shape; the bundles at the temporal and nasal sides of the optic disc were narrower than those above and below the optic disc (Poptical coherence tomography correlated with the hyperreflective bundle widths on AO-SLO (Pfiber bundles and Müller cell septa. The widths of the nerve fiber bundles appear to be proportional to the RNFL thickness at equivalent distances from the optic disc.

  16. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology]. (United States)

    Saleh, M


    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A Miniaturized Adaptive Optic Device for Optical Telecommunications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To advance the state-of-the-art uplink laser communication technology, new adaptive optic beam compensation techniques are needed for removing various time-varying...

  18. Improved laser-based triangulation sensor with enhanced range and resolution through adaptive optics-based active beam control. (United States)

    Reza, Syed Azer; Khwaja, Tariq Shamim; Mazhar, Mohsin Ali; Niazi, Haris Khan; Nawab, Rahma


    Various existing target ranging techniques are limited in terms of the dynamic range of operation and measurement resolution. These limitations arise as a result of a particular measurement methodology, the finite processing capability of the hardware components deployed within the sensor module, and the medium through which the target is viewed. Generally, improving the sensor range adversely affects its resolution and vice versa. Often, a distance sensor is designed for an optimal range/resolution setting depending on its intended application. Optical triangulation is broadly classified as a spatial-signal-processing-based ranging technique and measures target distance from the location of the reflected spot on a position sensitive detector (PSD). In most triangulation sensors that use lasers as a light source, beam divergence-which severely affects sensor measurement range-is often ignored in calculations. In this paper, we first discuss in detail the limitations to ranging imposed by beam divergence, which, in effect, sets the sensor dynamic range. Next, we show how the resolution of laser-based triangulation sensors is limited by the interpixel pitch of a finite-sized PSD. In this paper, through the use of tunable focus lenses (TFLs), we propose a novel design of a triangulation-based optical rangefinder that improves both the sensor resolution and its dynamic range through adaptive electronic control of beam propagation parameters. We present the theory and operation of the proposed sensor and clearly demonstrate a range and resolution improvement with the use of TFLs. Experimental results in support of our claims are shown to be in strong agreement with theory.

  19. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  20. High-resolution imaging of retinal nerve fiber bundles in glaucoma using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. (United States)

    Takayama, Kohei; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Ueda-Arakawa, Naoko; Yoshida, Sachiko; Akagi, Tadamichi; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Nonaka, Atsushi; Hanebuchi, Masaaki; Inoue, Takashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa


    To detect pathologic changes in retinal nerve fiber bundles in glaucomatous eyes seen on images obtained by adaptive optics (AO) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO SLO). Prospective cross-sectional study. Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients with open-angle glaucoma and 21 normal eyes of 21 volunteer subjects underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, visual field testing using a Humphrey Field Analyzer, fundus photography, red-free SLO imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and imaging with an original prototype AO SLO system. The AO SLO images showed many hyperreflective bundles suggesting nerve fiber bundles. In glaucomatous eyes, the nerve fiber bundles were narrower than in normal eyes, and the nerve fiber layer thickness was correlated with the nerve fiber bundle widths on AO SLO (P fiber layer defect area on fundus photography, the nerve fiber bundles on AO SLO were narrower compared with those in normal eyes (P optic disc, the nerve fiber bundle width was significantly lower, even in areas without nerve fiber layer defect, in eyes with glaucomatous eyes compared with normal eyes (P = .026). The mean deviations of each cluster in visual field testing were correlated with the corresponding nerve fiber bundle widths (P = .017). AO SLO images showed reduced nerve fiber bundle widths both in clinically normal and abnormal areas of glaucomatous eyes, and these abnormalities were associated with visual field defects, suggesting that AO SLO may be useful for detecting early nerve fiber bundle abnormalities associated with loss of visual function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  2. Solar Adaptive Optics. (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R; Marino, Jose

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrsp-2011-2.

  3. Solar tomography adaptive optics. (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang


    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  4. Tip-tilt compensation: Resolution limits for ground-based telescopes using laser guide star adaptive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, S.S.; Max, C.E.; Gavel, D.T.; Brase, J.M.


    The angular resolution of long-exposure images from ground-based telescopes equipped with laser guide star adaptive optics systems is fundamentally limited by the the accuracy with which the tip-tilt aberrations introduced by the atmosphere can be corrected. Assuming that a natural star is used as the tilt reference, the residual error due to tilt anisoplanatism can significantly degrade the long-exposure resolution even if the tilt reference star is separated from the object being imaged by a small angle. Given the observed distribution of stars in the sky, the need to find a tilt reference star quite close to the object restricts the fraction of the sky over which long-exposure images with diffraction limited resolution can be obtained. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive performance analysis of tip-tilt compensation systems that use a natural star as a tilt reference, taking into account properties of the atmosphere and of the Galactic stellar populations, and optimizing over the system operating parameters to determine the fundamental limits to the long-exposure resolution. Their results show that for a ten meter telescope on Mauna Kea, if the image of the tilt reference star is uncorrected, about half the sky can be imaged in the V band with long-exposure resolution less than 60 milli-arc-seconds (mas), while if the image of the tilt reference star is fully corrected, about half the sky can be imaged in the V band with long-exposure resolution less than 16 mas. Furthermore, V band images long-exposure resolution of less than 16 mas may be obtained with a ten meter telescope on Mauna Kea for unresolved objects brighter than magnitude 22 that are fully corrected by a laser guide star adaptive optics system. This level of resolution represents about 70% of the diffraction limit of a ten meter telescope in the V band and is more than a factor of 45 better than the median seeing in the V band on Mauna Kea

  5. Volumetric imaging of rod and cone photoreceptor structure with a combined adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (United States)

    Wells-Gray, Elaine M.; Choi, Stacey S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Finn, Susanna C.; Greiner, Cherry; Werner, John S.; Doble, Nathan


    We have designed and implemented a dual-mode adaptive optics (AO) imaging system that combines spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) for in vivo imaging of the human retina. The system simultaneously acquires SLO frames and OCT B-scans at 60 Hz with an OCT volume acquisition time of 4.2 s. Transverse eye motion measured from the SLO is used to register the OCT B-scans to generate three-dimensional (3-D) volumes. Key optical design considerations include: minimizing system aberrations through the use of off-axis relay telescopes, conjugate pupil plane requirements, and the use of dichroic beam splitters to separate and recombine the OCT and SLO beams around the nonshared horizontal scanning mirrors. To demonstrate system performance, AO-OCT-SLO images and measurements are taken from three normal human subjects ranging in retinal eccentricity from the fovea out to 15-deg temporal and 20-deg superior. Also presented are en face OCT projections generated from the registered 3-D volumes. The ability to acquire high-resolution 3-D images of the human retina in the midperiphery and beyond has clinical importance in diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy.

  6. Optics, light and lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Meschede, Dieter


    Starting from the concepts of classical optics, Optics, Light and Lasers introduces in detail the phenomena of linear and nonlinear light matter interaction, the properties of modern laser sources, and the concepts of quantum optics. Several examples taken from the scope of modern research are provided to emphasize the relevance of optics in current developments within science and technology. The text has been written for newcomers to the topic and benefits from the author's ability to explain difficult sequences and effects in a straightforward and easily comprehensible way. To this second, c

  7. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope using liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator: Performance study with involuntary eye movement (United States)

    Huang, Hongxin; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Inoue, Takashi


    The performance of an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) using a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was investigated. The system achieved high-resolution and high-contrast images of human retinas by dynamic compensation for the aberrations in the eyes. Retinal structures such as photoreceptor cells, blood vessels, and nerve fiber bundles, as well as blood flow, could be observed in vivo. We also investigated involuntary eye movements and ascertained microsaccades and drifts using both the retinal images and the aberrations recorded simultaneously. Furthermore, we measured the interframe displacement of retinal images and found that during eye drift, the displacement has a linear relationship with the residual low-order aberration. The estimated duration and cumulative displacement of the drift were within the ranges estimated by a video tracking technique. The AO-SLO would not only be used for the early detection of eye diseases, but would also offer a new approach for involuntary eye movement research.

  8. Science with Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandner, Wolfgang; ESO Workshop


    The field of Adaptive Optics (AO) for astronomy has matured in recent years, and diffraction-limited image resolution in the near-infrared is now routinely achieved by ground-based 8 to 10m class telescopes. This book presents the proceedings of the ESO Workshop on Science with Adaptive Optics held in the fall of 2003. The book provides an overview on AO instrumentation, data acquisition and reduction strategies, and covers observations of the sun, solar system objects, circumstellar disks, substellar companions, HII regions, starburst environments, late-type stars, the galactic center, active galaxies, and quasars. The contributions present a vivid picture of the multitude of science topics being addressed by AO in observational astronomy.

  9. Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy. (United States)

    Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L


    This review starts with a brief history and description of adaptive optics (AO) technology, followed by a showcase of the latest capabilities of AO systems for imaging the human retina and an extensive review of the literature on where AO is being used clinically. The review concludes with a discussion on future directions and guidance on usage and interpretation of images from AO systems for the eye.

  10. Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy


    Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L.


    This review starts with a brief history and description of adaptive optics (AO) technology, followed by a showcase of the latest capabilities of AO systems for imaging the human retina and an extensive review of the literature on where AO is being used clinically. The review concludes with a discussion on future directions and guidance on usage and interpretation of images from AO systems for the eye.

  11. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.


    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  12. Aurora laser optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.A.; McLeod, J.


    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse high-power krypton fluoride laser system. It is primarily an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale UV laser systems of interest for short-wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and aerial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver to ICF targets a stack of pulses with a duration of 5 ns containing several kilojoules at a wavelength of 248 nm. A program of high-energy density plasma physics investigations is now planned, and a sophisticated target chamber was constructed. The authors describe the design of the optical system for Aurora and report its status. This optical system was designed and is being constructed in two phases. The first phase carries only through the amplifier train and does not include a target chamber or any demultiplexing. Installation should be complete, and some performance results should be available. The second phase provides demultiplexing and carries the laser light to target. The complete design is reported

  13. Center for Adaptive Optics | Software (United States)

    Optics Software The Center for Adaptive Optics acts as a clearing house for distributing Software to Institutes it gives specialists in Adaptive Optics a place to distribute their software. All software is shared on an "as-is" basis and the users should consult with the software authors with any

  14. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.


    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  15. Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine (United States)

    Dainty, Christopher


    pt. 1. Wavefront correctors and control. Liquid crystal lenses for correction of presbyopia (Invited Paper) / Guoqiang Li and Nasser Peyghambarian. Converging and diverging liquid crystal lenses (oral paper) / Andrew X. Kirby, Philip J. W. Hands, and Gordon D. Love. Liquid lens technology for miniature imaging systems: status of the technology, performance of existing products and future trends (invited paper) / Bruno Berge. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer deformable mirrors for high energy laser applications (oral paper) / S. R. Restaino ... [et al.]. Tiny multilayer deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Tatiana Cherezova ... [et al.]. Performance analysis of piezoelectric deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Oleg Soloviev, Mikhail Loktev and Gleb Vdovin. Deformable membrane mirror with high actuator density and distributed control (oral paper) / Roger Hamelinck ... [et al.]. Characterization and closed-loop demonstration of a novel electrostatic membrane mirror using COTS membranes (oral paper) / David Dayton ... [et al.]. Electrostatic micro-deformable mirror based on polymer materials (oral paper) / Frederic Zamkotsian ... [et al.]. Recent progress in CMOS integrated MEMS A0 mirror development (oral paper) / A. Gehner ... [et al.]. Compact large-stroke piston-tip-tilt actuator and mirror (oral paper) / W. Noell ... [et al.]. MEMS deformable mirrors for high performance AO applications (oral paper) / Paul Bierden, Thomas Bifano and Steven Cornelissen. A versatile interferometric test-rig for the investigation and evaluation of ophthalmic AO systems (poster paper) / Steve Gruppetta, Jiang Jian Zhong and Luis Diaz-Santana. Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics (poster paper) / Thomas Farrell and Chris Dainty. Deformable mirrors based on transversal piezoeffect (poster paper) / Gleb Vdovin, Mikhail Loktev and Oleg Soloviev. Low-cost spatial light modulators for ophthalmic applications (poster paper) / Vincente Durán ... [et al.]. Latest MEMS DM developments and the path ahead

  16. Self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer as a laser system diagnostic: Active and adaptive optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.; English, R.E. Jr.; Byrd, J.L.; Salmon, J.T.


    We are incorporating a novel self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer into a large scale laser system as a real time, interactive diagnostic tool for wavefront measurement. The instrument is capable of absolute wavefront measurements accurate to better than λ/10 pv over a wavelength range > 300 nm without readjustment of the optical components. This performance is achieved through the design of both refractive optics and catadioptric collimator to achromatize the Mach-Zehnder reference arm. Other features include polarization insensitivity through the use of low angles of incidence on all beamsplitters as well as an equal path length configuration that allows measurement of either broad-band or closely spaced laser-line sources. Instrument accuracy is periodically monitored in place by means of a thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source that is calibrated off-line with a phase conjugate interferometer. Video interferograms are analyzed using Fourier transform techniques on a computer that includes dedicated array processor. Computer and video networks maintain distributed interferometers under the control of a single analysis computer with multiple user access. 7 refs., 11 figs

  17. Design and optimization of an adaptive optics system for a high-average-power multi-slab laser (HiLASE)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilař, Jan; Slezák, Jiří; Sikocinski, Pawel; Divoký, Martin; Sawicka, Magdalena; Bonora, Stefano; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš; Jelínková, H.


    Roč. 53, č. 15 (2014), 3255-3261 ISSN 1559-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143; OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : adaptive optics * multislab * amplifier * wavefront Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.784, year: 2014

  18. A star-forming shock front in radio galaxy 4C+41.17 resolved with laser-assisted adaptive optics spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbring, Eric, E-mail: [National Research Council Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)


    Near-infrared integral-field spectroscopy of redshifted [O III], Hβ, and optical continuum emission from the z = 3.8 radio galaxy 4C+41.17 is presented, obtained with the laser-guide-star adaptive optics facility on the Gemini North telescope. Employing a specialized dithering technique, a spatial resolution of 0.''10, or 0.7 kpc, is achieved in each spectral element, with a velocity resolution of ∼70 km s{sup –1}. Spectra similar to local starbursts are found for bright knots coincident in archival Hubble Space Telescope ( HST) rest-frame ultraviolet images, which also allows a key line diagnostic to be mapped together with new kinematic information. There emerges a clearer picture of the nebular emission associated with the jet in 8.3 GHz and 15 GHz Very Large Array maps, closely tied to a Lyα-bright shell-shaped structure seen with HST. This supports a previous interpretation of that arc tracing a bow shock, inducing ∼10{sup 10–11} M {sub ☉} star formation regions that comprise the clumpy broadband optical/ultraviolet morphology near the core.

  19. Accuracies Of Optical Processors For Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.


    Paper presents analysis of accuracies and requirements concerning accuracies of optical linear-algebra processors (OLAP's) in adaptive-optics imaging systems. Much faster than digital electronic processor and eliminate some residual distortion. Question whether errors introduced by analog processing of OLAP overcome advantage of greater speed. Paper addresses issue by presenting estimate of accuracy required in general OLAP that yields smaller average residual aberration of wave front than digital electronic processor computing at given speed.

  20. Development of optical surface contouring technique using laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Min Suk; Park, Seung Kyu


    Laser contouring system capable of measuring relief profiles using a line-shaped laser beam with anisotropic magnification optics composed with two cylindrical lenses was developed. The anisotropic magnification optical system allows it to obtain higher resolution in the relief profile measurements. The image processing and 3-D display software are developed to reconstruct 3-D shape. The power supply of laser diode with adaptive current control circuit is designed. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 33 figs.

  1. Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Clark, Natalie


    Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

  2. Optics assembly for high power laser tools (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  3. Problems of Aero-optics and Adaptive Optical Systems: Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shanin


    Full Text Available The analytical review gives the basic concepts of the aero-optics problem arising from the radiation propagation in the region of the boundary layers of a laser installation carrier aircraft. Estimates the radiation wave front distortions at its propagation in the near and far field. Presents main calculation approaches and methods to solve the gas-dynamic and optical problems in propagating laser radiation. Conducts a detailed analysis of the flows and their generating optical aberrations introduced by the aircraft turret (a projection platform of the on-board laser. Considers the effect of various factors (shock wave, difference in wall and flow temperatures on the flow pattern and the optical aberrations. Provides research data on the aero-optics obtained in the flying laboratory directly while in flight. Briefly considers the experimental research methods, diagnostic equipment, and synthesis of results while studying the aero-optics problem. Discusses some methods for mitigating the aerodynamic effects on the light propagation under flight conditions. Presents data about the passive, active, and hybrid effects on the flow in the boundary layers in order to reduce aberrations through improving the flow aerodynamics.The paper considers operation of adaptive optical systems under conditions of aero-optical distortions. Presents the study results concerning the reduction of the aero-optics effect on the characteristics of radiation in far field. Gives some research results regarding the effect on the efficiency of the adaptive system of a laser beam jitter and a time delay in the feedback signal transmission, which occur under application conditions. Provides data on adaptive correction of aero-optical wave fronts of radiation. Considers some application aspects in control systems of the on-board adaptive optics of adaptive filtration as a way to improve the efficiency of adaptive optical systems. The project in mind is to use obtained results

  4. The Performance of the Robo-AO Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System at the Kitt Peak 2.1 m Telescope (United States)

    Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Duev, Dmitry A.; Riddle, Reed; Salama, Maïssa; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ramprakash, A. N.


    Robo-AO is an autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) system recently commissioned at the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope. With the ability to observe every clear night, Robo-AO at the 2.1 m telescope is the first dedicated AO observatory. This paper presents the imaging performance of the AO system in its first 18 months of operations. For a median seeing value of 1.″44, the average Strehl ratio is 4% in the i\\prime band. After post processing, the contrast ratio under sub-arcsecond seeing for a 2≤slant i\\prime ≤slant 16 primary star is five and seven magnitudes at radial offsets of 0.″5 and 1.″0, respectively. The data processing and archiving pipelines run automatically at the end of each night. The first stage of the processing pipeline shifts and adds the rapid frame rate data using techniques optimized for different signal-to-noise ratios. The second “high-contrast” stage of the pipeline is eponymously well suited to finding faint stellar companions. Currently, a range of scientific programs, including the synthetic tracking of near-Earth asteroids, the binarity of stars in young clusters, and weather on solar system planets are being undertaken with Robo-AO.

  5. Design and Adaptation of an Optical System for Slit Lamp Delivery of a CO2 Laser Beam. (United States)


    laser’s efficacy to serve as a photocoagulator. A non-linear barium sodium niobate crystal converted the near infrared radiation (1.064 pm) to green...recommendations. 10 II. Theoretical Development and Predictions Corneal tissue is an excellent absorber of infrared radiation. Therefore, when high power general, that the waist will be formed slightly to one Lde of the focal plane, as shown in Eq (4) (Ref 18:31). f2 (zl-f) 2. = + wW2 (4) (zl-f) 2

  6. Cost Effective, Scalable Optically Pumped Molecular Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholson, Jeff


    An optically pumped, For laser was demonstrated operating at 4.0 micrometers. This is the first demonstration of an HBr laser by direct optical pumping of the 0 right arrow 3 vibrational overtone band at 1.34 micrometers...

  7. Object-oriented Matlab adaptive optics toolbox (United States)

    Conan, R.; Correia, C.


    Object-Oriented Matlab Adaptive Optics (OOMAO) is a Matlab toolbox dedicated to Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. OOMAO is based on a small set of classes representing the source, atmosphere, telescope, wavefront sensor, Deformable Mirror (DM) and an imager of an AO system. This simple set of classes allows simulating Natural Guide Star (NGS) and Laser Guide Star (LGS) Single Conjugate AO (SCAO) and tomography AO systems on telescopes up to the size of the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). The discrete phase screens that make the atmosphere model can be of infinite size, useful for modeling system performance on large time scales. OOMAO comes with its own parametric influence function model to emulate different types of DMs. The cone effect, altitude thickness and intensity profile of LGSs are also reproduced. Both modal and zonal modeling approach are implemented. OOMAO has also an extensive library of theoretical expressions to evaluate the statistical properties of turbulence wavefronts. The main design characteristics of the OOMAO toolbox are object-oriented modularity, vectorized code and transparent parallel computing. OOMAO has been used to simulate and to design the Multi-Object AO prototype Raven at the Subaru telescope and the Laser Tomography AO system of the Giant Magellan Telescope. In this paper, a Laser Tomography AO system on an ELT is simulated with OOMAO. In the first part, we set-up the class parameters and we link the instantiated objects to create the source optical path. Then we build the tomographic reconstructor and write the script for the pseudo-open-loop controller.

  8. Optical pulse generation using fiber lasers and integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.F.; Burkhart, S.C.; VanWonterghem, B.W.


    We have demonstrated an optical pulse forming system using fiber and integrated optics, and have designed a multiple-output system for a proposed fusion laser facility. Our approach is an advancement over previous designs for fusion lasers, and an unusual application of fiber lasers and integrated optics

  9. Design of an optimized adaptive optics system with a photo-controlled deformable mirror

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilař, Jan; Bonora, Stefano; Lucianetti, Antonio; Jelínková, H.; Mocek, Tomáš


    Roč. 28, č. 13 (2016), s. 1422-1425 ISSN 1041-1135 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : adaptive optics * closed loop systems * deformable mirror Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2016

  10. Optical engineering for high power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, M.


    Laser facilities for Inertial Confinement Fusion (I.C.F.) experiments require laser and X ray optics able to withstand short pulse conditions. After a brief recall of high power laser system arrangements and of the characteristics of their optics, the authors will present some X ray optical developments

  11. Electro-optic diffraction grating tuned laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.S.


    An electro-optic diffraction grating tuned laser comprising a laser medium, output mirror, retro-reflective grating and an electro-optic diffraction grating beam deflector positioned between the laser medium and the reflective diffraction grating is described. An optional angle multiplier may be used between the electro-optic diffraction grating and the reflective grating. (auth)

  12. The TMT Adaptive Optics Program (United States)

    Ellerbroek, Brent


    We provide an overview of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) AO program, with an emphasis upon the progress made since the first AO4ELT conference held in 2009. The first light facility AO system for TMT is the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS), which will provide diffraction-limited performance in the J, H, and K bands over 18-30 arc sec diameter fields with 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole. This is accomplished with order 60x60 wavefront sensing and correction, two deformable mirrors conjugate to ranges of 0 and 11.2 km, 6 sodium laser guide stars in an asterism with a diameter of 70 arc sec, and three low order (tip/tilt or tip/tilt focus), infra-red natural guide star (NGS) wavefront sensors deployable within a 2 arc minute diameter patrol field. The first light LGS asterism is generated by the Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF), which initially incorporates 6 20-25W class laser systems mounted to the telescope elevation journal, a mirror-based beam transfer optics system, and a 0.4m diameter laser launch telescope located behind the TMT secondary mirror. Future plans for additional AO capabilities include a mid infra-red AO (MIRAO) system to support science instruments in the 4-20 micron range, a ground-layer AO (GLAO) system for wide-field spectroscopy, a multi-object AO (MOAO) system for multi-object integral field unit spectroscopy, and extreme AO (ExAO) for high contrast imaging. Significant progress has been made in developing the first-light AO architecture since 2009. This includes the adoption of a new NFIRAOS opto-mechanical design consisting of two off-axis parabola (OAP) relays in series, which eliminates field distortion and also significantly simplifies the designs of the LGS wavefront sensors, optical source simulators, and turbulence generator subsystem. The design of the LGSF has also been interated, and has been simplfied by the relocation of the (smaller, gravity invarient) laser systems to the telescope elevation journal

  13. A Status Report on the Thirty Meter Telescope Adaptive Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We provide an update on the recent development of the adaptive optics (AO) systems for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) since mid-2011. The first light AO facility for TMT consists of the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS) and the associated Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF). This order 60 × 60 ...

  14. Advancing High Contrast Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Ammons, M.; Poyneer, L.; GPI Team


    A long-standing challenge has been to directly image faint extrasolar planets adjacent to their host suns, which may be ~1-10 million times brighter than the planet. Several extreme AO systems designed for high-contrast observations have been tested at this point, including SPHERE, Magellan AO, PALM-3000, Project 1640, NICI, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI, Macintosh et al. 2014). The GPI is the world's most advanced high-contrast adaptive optics system on an 8-meter telescope for detecting and characterizing planets outside of our solar system. GPI will detect a previously unstudied population of young analogs to the giant planets of our solar system and help determine how planetary systems form. GPI employs a 44x44 woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor operating at 1 kHz. The controller uses Fourier-based reconstruction and modal gains optimized from system telemetry (Poyneer et al. 2005, 2007). GPI has an apodized Lyot coronal graph to suppress diffraction and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for obtaining planetary spectra. This paper discusses current performance limitations and presents the necessary instrumental modifications and sensitivity calculations for scenarios related to high-contrast observations of non-sidereal targets.

  15. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye (United States)

    Hofer, Heidi; Sredar, Nripun; Queener, Hope; Li, Chaohong; Porter, Jason


    Wavefront sensor noise and fidelity place a fundamental limit on achievable image quality in current adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes. Additionally, the wavefront sensor ‘beacon’ can interfere with visual experiments. We demonstrate real-time (25 Hz), wavefront sensorless adaptive optics imaging in the living human eye with image quality rivaling that of wavefront sensor based control in the same system. A stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm directly optimized the mean intensity in retinal image frames acquired with a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). When imaging through natural, undilated pupils, both control methods resulted in comparable mean image intensities. However, when imaging through dilated pupils, image intensity was generally higher following wavefront sensor-based control. Despite the typically reduced intensity, image contrast was higher, on average, with sensorless control. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging the living human eye and future refinements of this technique may result in even greater optical gains. PMID:21934779

  16. Feedback control of laser welding based on frequency analysis of light emissions and adaptive beam shaping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrňa, Libor; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Jedlička, Petr


    Roč. 39, NOV (2012), s. 784-791 ISSN 1875-3892. [LANE 2012. Laser Assisted Net Shape Engineering /7./ International Conference on Photonic Technologies. Fürth, 12.11.2012-15.12.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser welding * feedback control * frequency analysis * adaptive beam shaping Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  17. Laser-induced damage in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ristau, Detlev


    Dedicated to users and developers of high-powered systems, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials focuses on the research field of laser-induced damage and explores the significant and steady growth of applications for high-power lasers in the academic, industrial, and military arenas. Written by renowned experts in the field, this book concentrates on the major topics of laser-induced damage in optical materials and most specifically addresses research in laser damage that occurs in the bulk and on the surface or the coating of optical components. It considers key issues in the field of hi

  18. Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B.; Thomas, M.


    We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language

  19. Wavefront measurement using computational adaptive optics. (United States)

    South, Fredrick A; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Bower, Andrew J; Xu, Yang; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A


    In many optical imaging applications, it is necessary to correct for aberrations to obtain high quality images. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides access to the amplitude and phase of the backscattered optical field for three-dimensional (3D) imaging samples. Computational adaptive optics (CAO) modifies the phase of the OCT data in the spatial frequency domain to correct optical aberrations without using a deformable mirror, as is commonly done in hardware-based adaptive optics (AO). This provides improvement of image quality throughout the 3D volume, enabling imaging across greater depth ranges and in highly aberrated samples. However, the CAO aberration correction has a complicated relation to the imaging pupil and is not a direct measurement of the pupil aberrations. Here we present new methods for recovering the wavefront aberrations directly from the OCT data without the use of hardware adaptive optics. This enables both computational measurement and correction of optical aberrations.

  20. Springer handbook of lasers and optics

    CERN Document Server


    The Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics provides fast, up-to-date, comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide fields of optics and lasers. It is written for daily use in the office or laboratory and offers explanatory text, data, and references needed for anyone working with lasers and optical instruments. This second edition features numerous updates and additions. Especially four new chapters on Fiber Optics, Integrated Optics, Frequency Combs, and Interferometry reflect the major changes. In addition, chapters Optical Materials and Their Properties, Optical Detectors, Nanooptics, and Optics far Beyond the Diffraction Limit have been thoroughly revised and updated. The now 25 chapters are grouped into four parts which cover basic principles and materials, fabrication and properties of optical components, coherent and incoherent light sources, and, finally, selected applications and special fields such as terahertz photonics, x-ray optics and holography. Each chapter is authored by respected exp...

  1. The Coming of Age of Adaptive Optics (United States)


    How Ground-Based Astronomers Beat the Atmosphere Adaptive Optics (AO) is the new ``wonder-weapon'' in ground-based astronomy. By means of advanced electro-optical devices at their telescopes, astronomers are now able to ``neutralize'' the image-smearing turbulence of the terrestrial atmosphere (seen by the unaided eye as the twinkling of stars) so that much sharper images can be obtained than before. In practice, this is done with computer-controlled, flexible mirrors which refocus the blurred images up to 100 times per second, i.e. at a rate that is faster than the changes in the atmospheric turbulence. This means that finer details in astronomical objects can be studied and also - because of the improved concentration of light in the telescope's focal plane - that fainter objects can be observed. At the moment, Adaptive Optics work best in the infrared part of spectrum, but at some later time it may also significantly improve observations at the shorter wavelengths of visible light. The many-sided aspects of this new technology and its impact on astronomical instrumentation was the subject of a recent AO conference [1] with over 150 participants from about 30 countries, presenting a total of more than 100 papers. The Introduction of AO Techniques into Astronomy The scope of this meeting was the design, fabrication and testing of AO systems, characterisation of the sources of atmospheric disturbance, modelling of compensation systems, individual components, astronomical AO results, non-astronomical applications, laser guide star systems, non-linear optical phase conjugation, performance evaluation, and other areas of this wide and complex field, in which front-line science and high technology come together in a new and powerful symbiosis. One of the specific goals of the meeting was to develop contacts between AO scientists and engineers in the western world and their colleagues in Russia and Asia. For the first time at a conference of this type, nine Russian

  2. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Battu


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified.

  3. Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. (United States)

    Jacob, Julie; Paques, Michel; Krivosic, Valérie; Dupas, Bénédicte; Couturier, Aude; Kulcsar, Caroline; Tadayoni, Ramin; Massin, Pascale; Gaudric, Alain


    To explore the anatomic correlation of the retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. Retrospective nonconsecutive observational case series. A retrospective review of the multimodal imaging charts of 6 patients with focal alteration of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics was performed. Retinal diseases included acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (n = 1), hydroxychloroquine retinopathy (n = 1), and macular telangiectasia type 2 (n = 4). High-resolution retinal images were obtained using a flood-illumination adaptive optics camera. Images were recorded using standard imaging modalities: color and red-free fundus camera photography; infrared reflectance scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. On OCT, in the marginal zone of the lesions, a disappearance of the interdigitation zone was observed, while the ellipsoid zone was preserved. Image recording demonstrated that such attenuation of the interdigitation zone co-localized with the disappearance of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. In 1 case, the restoration of the interdigitation zone paralleled that of the cone mosaic after a 2-month follow-up. Our results suggest that the interdigitation zone could contribute substantially to the reflectance of the cone photoreceptor mosaic. The absence of cones on adaptive optics images does not necessarily mean photoreceptor cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A study of optical design and optimization of laser optics (United States)

    Tsai, C.-M.; Fang, Yi-Chin


    This paper propose a study of optical design of laser beam shaping optics with aspheric surface and application of genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimal results. Nd: YAG 355 waveband laser flat-top optical system, this study employed the Light tools LDS (least damped square) and the GA of artificial intelligence optimization method to determine the optimal aspheric coefficient and obtain the optimal solution. This study applied the aspheric lens with GA for the flattening of laser beams using collimated laser beam light, aspheric lenses in order to achieve best results.

  5. Discovery of a Highly Unequal-mass Binary T Dwarf with Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics: A Coevality Test of Substellar Theoretical Models and Effective Temperatures (United States)

    Liu, Michael C.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Leggett, S. K.


    Highly unequal-mass ratio binaries are rare among field brown dwarfs, with the mass ratio distribution of the known census described by q (4.9±0.7). However, such systems enable a unique test of the joint accuracy of evolutionary and atmospheric models, under the constraint of coevality for the individual components (the "isochrone test"). We carry out this test using two of the most extreme field substellar binaries currently known, the T1 + T6 epsilon Ind Bab binary and a newly discovered 0farcs14 T2.0 + T7.5 binary, 2MASS J12095613-1004008AB, identified with Keck laser guide star adaptive optics. The latter is the most extreme tight binary resolved to date (q ≈ 0.5). Based on the locations of the binary components on the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, current models successfully indicate that these two systems are coeval, with internal age differences of log(age) = -0.8 ± 1.3(-1.0+1.2 -1.3) dex and 0.5+0.4 -0.3(0.3+0.3 -0.4) dex for 2MASS J1209-1004AB and epsilon Ind Bab, respectively, as inferred from the Lyon (Tucson) models. However, the total mass of epsilon Ind Bab derived from the H-R diagram (≈ 80 M Jup using the Lyon models) is strongly discrepant with the reported dynamical mass. This problem, which is independent of the assumed age of the epsilon Ind Bab system, can be explained by a ≈ 50-100 K systematic error in the model atmosphere fitting, indicating slightly warmer temperatures for both components; bringing the mass determinations from the H-R diagram and the visual orbit into consistency leads to an inferred age of ≈ 6 Gyr for epsilon Ind Bab, older than previously assumed. Overall, the two T dwarf binaries studied here, along with recent results from T dwarfs in age and mass benchmark systems, yield evidence for small (≈100 K) errors in the evolutionary models and/or model atmospheres, but not significantly larger. Future parallax, resolved spectroscopy, and dynamical mass measurements for 2MASS J1209-1004AB will enable a more

  6. Phase locking of optically coupled lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glova, A F


    A review of studies of the properties of radiation from optically coupled lasers is presented. The methods for phase locking the fields in optically coupled lasers of different types are considered and the methods for supermode selection and correction of the radiation pattern are discussed. (review)

  7. Laser systems with diamond optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.R.


    High power laser systems with optical elements of diamond having a thermal conductivity of at least 10 W/cm. 0 K at 300 0 K and an optical absorption at the laser beam wavelength of no more than 10 to 20 percent are described. (U.S.)

  8. NIF small optics laser damage test specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L


    The Laser Damage Group is currently conducting tests on small optics samples supplied for initial evaluation of potential NIF suppliers. This document is meant to define the specification of laser-induced damage for small optics and the test methods used to collect the data. A rating system which will be applied for vendor selection is presented

  9. Optical improvement for laser material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, J.; De Keijzer, M.A.; De Kok, C.J.G.M. [ECN Engineering and Services, Petten (Netherlands); Molenaar, R.; Kettelarij, H.


    The use of laser technology enables flexibility and new concepts for example solar cell production but also optical moulds. The reason why laser technology is used in these cases is not the laser system itself but the ability to tailor this type of energy to the demands of the production processes. To ensure the full potential of the laser technology it can be improved by adding optical elements like polarizer, cameras, lenses and sensors. Two of these extra optical elements are presented here. First laser pulse energy attenuation. This is used to increase the controllability of laser processes. And second a new camera optic that enables integrated alignment with respect to features on the product. This last option enables marking on existing features and automated compensation of scanner drift. These camera systems can be used for micro welding of polymers and repair of existing markings in moulds.

  10. Optical fibre laser velocimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrett, Thomas O H; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P


    The applications of optical fibre technology to laser velocimetry are diverse and often critical to their successful implementation, particularly in harsh environments. Applications range from the use of optical fibres for beam delivery and scattered light collection, aiding the miniaturization of instrument probes, to the use of imaging fibre bundles for imaging the flow field in planar velocimetry systems. Optical fibre techniques have also been used in signal processing, for example fibre frequency shifters, and optical fibre devices such as amplifiers and lasers have been exploited. This paper will review the use of optical fibres in point-wise laser velocimetry techniques such as laser Doppler velocimetry and laser transit anemometry, as well as in planar measurement techniques such as particle imaging velocimetry and planar Doppler velocimetry. (topical review)

  11. Optical simulations of laser focusing for optimization of laser betatron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanke, Ladislav; Thakur, Anita; Šmíd, Michal; Gu, Yanjun; Falk, Kateřina


    Roč. 12, May (2017), 1-14, č. článku P05004. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : matter * accelerator modelling and simulations * multi-particle dynamics * single-particle dynamics * Beam Optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  12. 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Wittrock, Ulrich


    This book treats the development and application of adaptive optics for industry and medicine. The contributions describe recently developed components for adaptive-optics systems such as deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, and mirror drivers as well as complete adaptive optical systems and their applications in industry and medicine. Applications range from laser-beam forming and adaptive aberration correction for high-power lasers to retinal imaging in ophthalmology. The contributions are based on presentations made at the 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics in Industry and Medicine which took place in Münster, Germany, in October 2003. This highly successful series of workshops on adaptive optics started in 1997 and continues with the 5th workshop in Beijing in 2005.

  13. Adaptive Tunable Laser Spectrometer for Space Applications (United States)

    Flesch, Gregory; Keymeulen, Didier


    An architecture and process for the rapid prototyping and subsequent development of an adaptive tunable laser absorption spectrometer (TLS) are described. Our digital hardware/firmware/software platform is both reconfigurable at design time as well as autonomously adaptive in real-time for both post-integration and post-launch situations. The design expands the range of viable target environments and enhances tunable laser spectrometer performance in extreme and even unpredictable environments. Through rapid prototyping with a commercial RTOS/FPGA platform, we have implemented a fully operational tunable laser spectrometer (using a highly sensitive second harmonic technique). With this prototype, we have demonstrated autonomous real-time adaptivity in the lab with simulated extreme environments.

  14. Proceedings of the conference on lasers and electro-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This book presents the papers discussed at a conference on the subject of electro-optics and lasers. Some of the topics discussed were: laser fusion and interactions; implosion experiments; tunable integrated Bragg lasers, CO 2 lasers; present status of integrated lasers; DFB lasers; transition metal lasers-solid state lasers, mirror laser resonators, multiquantumwell lasers; fusion laser technology; and dynamics and characteristics of diode lasers

  15. Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics (United States)

    Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai


    Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.

  16. Handbook of optical and laser scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Gerald F


    From its initial publication titled Laser Beam Scanning in 1985 to Handbook of Optical and Laser Scanning, now in its second edition, this reference has kept professionals and students at the forefront of optical scanning technology. Carefully and meticulously updated in each iteration, the book continues to be the most comprehensive scanning resource on the market. It examines the breadth and depth of subtopics in the field from a variety of perspectives. The Second Edition covers: Technologies such as piezoelectric devices Applications of laser scanning such as Ladar (laser radar) Underwater

  17. Optics with an Atom Laser Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Immanuel; Koehl, Michael; Greiner, Markus; Haensch, Theodor W.; Esslinger, Tilman


    We report on the atom optical manipulation of an atom laser beam. Reflection, focusing, and its storage in a resonator are demonstrated. Precise and versatile mechanical control over an atom laser beam propagating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is achieved by optically inducing spin flips between atomic ground states with different magnetic moment. The magnetic force acting on the atoms can thereby be effectively switched on and off. The surface of the atom optical element is determined by the resonance condition for the spin flip in the inhomogeneous magnetic field. More than 98% of the incident atom laser beam is reflected specularly

  18. High-speed optical feeder-link system using adaptive optics (United States)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori; Hayano, Yutaka; Klaus, Werner


    We propose a satellite laser communication system between a ground station and a geostationary satellite, named high- speed optical feeder link system. It is based on the application of (a) high-speed optical devices, which have been developed for ground-based high-speed fiber-optic communications, and (b) the adaptive optics which compensates wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulences using a real time feedback control. A link budget study shows that a system with 10-Gbps bit-rate are available assuming the state-of-the-art device performance of the Er-doped fiber amplifier. We further discuss preliminary measurement results of the atmospheric turbulence at the telescope site in Tokyo, and present current study on the design of the key components for the feeder-link laser transceiver.

  19. Adaptive Optics, LLLFT Interferometry, Astronomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    We propose to build a three telescope Michelson optical interferometer equipped with wavefront compensation technology as a demonstration and test bed for high resolution Deep Space Surveillance (DSS) and Astronomy...

  20. Small Optics Laser Damage Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This specification defines the requirements and procedure for laser damage testing of coatings and bare surfaces designated for small optics in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  1. Laser-based optical detection of explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrino, Paul M; Farrell, Mikella E


    Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives offers a comprehensive review of past, present, and emerging laser-based methods for the detection of a variety of explosives. This book: Considers laser propagation safety and explains standard test material preparation for standoff optical-based detection system evaluation Explores explosives detection using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, reflectometry, and hyperspectral imaging Examines photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence, photothermal methods, cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry, and short-pulse laser-based techniques Describes the detection and recognition of explosives using terahertz-frequency spectroscopic techniques Each chapter is authored by a leading expert on the respective technology, and is structured to supply historical perspective, address current advantages and challenges, and discuss novel research and applications. Readers are left with an in-depth understa...

  2. Liquid lens: advances in adaptive optics (United States)

    Casey, Shawn Patrick


    'Liquid lens' technologies promise significant advancements in machine vision and optical communications systems. Adaptations for machine vision, human vision correction, and optical communications are used to exemplify the versatile nature of this technology. Utilization of liquid lens elements allows the cost effective implementation of optical velocity measurement. The project consists of a custom image processor, camera, and interface. The images are passed into customized pattern recognition and optical character recognition algorithms. A single camera would be used for both speed detection and object recognition.

  3. Applications of lasers and electro-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, B.C.; Low, K.S.; Chen, Y.H.; Harith bin Ahmad; Tou, T.Y.


    Supported by the IRPA Programme on Laser Technology and Applications, many types of lasers have been designed, constructed and applied in various areas of science, medicine and industries. Amongst these lasers constructed were high power carbon dioxide lasers, rare gas halide excimer lasers, solid state Neodymium-YAG lasers, nitrogen lasers, flashlamp pumped dye lasers and nitrogen and excimer laser pumped dye lasers. These lasers and the associated electro-optics system, some with computer controlled, are designed and developed for the following areas of applications: 1. Industrial applications of high power carbon dioxide lasers for making of i.c. components and other materials processing purposes. Prototype operational systems have been developed. 2. Medical applications of lasers for cancer treatment using the technique of photodynamic therapy. A new and more effective treatment protocol has been proposed. 3. Agricultural applications of lasers in palm oil and palm fruit-fluorescence diagnostic studies. Fruit ripeness signature has been developed and palm oil oxidation level were investigated. 4. Development of atmospheric pollution monitoring systems using laser lidar techniques. Laboratory scale systems were developed. 5. Other applications of lasers including laser holographic and interferometric methods for the non destructive testing of materials. The activities of the group (from 1988-1990) have resulted in the submission of a patent for a laser device, publication of many research paper sin local and overseas journals and conference proceedings, completion of 1 Ph.D. dissertation and 6 M. Phil theses. Currently (1991), a total of 3 Ph.D., 6 M. Phil research programmes are involved in this research and development programme

  4. Coupled optical resonance laser locking. (United States)

    Burd, S C; du Toit, P J W; Uys, H


    We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to coupled transitions of ions in the same spectroscopic sample, by detecting only the absorption of the UV laser. Separate signals for locking the different lasers are obtained by modulating each laser at a different frequency and using lock-in detection of a single photodiode signal. Experimentally, we simultaneously lock a 369 nm and a 935 nm laser to the (2)S(1/2) → (2)(P(1/2) and (2)D(3/2) → (3)D([3/2]1/2) transitions, respectively, of Yb(+) ions generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. Stabilized lasers at these frequencies are required for cooling and trapping Yb(+) ions, used in quantum information and in high precision metrology experiments. This technique should be readily applicable to other ion and neutral atom systems requiring multiple stabilized lasers.

  5. Coupled optical resonance laser locking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burd, CC


    Full Text Available We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to coupled transitions of ions in the same spectroscopic sample, by detecting only the absorption of the UV laser. Separate signals for locking the different...

  6. Optical double-locked semiconductor lasers (United States)

    AlMulla, Mohammad


    Self-sustained period-one (P1) nonlinear dynamics of a semiconductor laser are investigated when both optical injection and modulation are applied for stable microwave frequency generation. Locking the P1 oscillation through modulation on the bias current, injection strength, or detuning frequency stabilizes the P1 oscillation. Through the phase noise variance, the different modulation types are compared. It is demonstrated that locking the P1 oscillation through optical modulation on the output of the master laser outperforms bias-current modulation of the slave laser. Master laser modulation shows wider P1-oscillation locking range and lower phase noise variance. The locking characteristics of the P1 oscillation also depend on the operating conditions of the optical injection system

  7. Terahertz adaptive optics with a deformable mirror. (United States)

    Brossard, Mathilde; Sauvage, Jean-François; Perrin, Mathias; Abraham, Emmanuel


    We report on the wavefront correction of a terahertz (THz) beam using adaptive optics, which requires both a wavefront sensor that is able to sense the optical aberrations, as well as a wavefront corrector. The wavefront sensor relies on a direct 2D electro-optic imaging system composed of a ZnTe crystal and a CMOS camera. By measuring the phase variation of the THz electric field in the crystal, we were able to minimize the geometrical aberrations of the beam, thanks to the action of a deformable mirror. This phase control will open the route to THz adaptive optics in order to optimize the THz beam quality for both practical and fundamental applications.

  8. Principles of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R


    Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics is an essential textbook for graduate students studying the interaction of optical fields with atoms. It also serves as an ideal reference text for researchers working in the fields of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics. The book provides a rigorous introduction to the prototypical problems of radiation fields interacting with two- and three-level atomic systems. It examines the interaction of radiation with both atomic vapors and condensed matter systems, the density matrix and the Bloch vector, and applications involving linear absorptio

  9. Aircraft Position Measurement Using Laser Beacon Optics. (United States)


    8217Comparison of Solar Concentrators .’ Solar Energy, Vol. 10, p. 93, 1976. 7. Winston , R., ’Light Collection Within the Framework of Goemetrical Optics ...8217 J. Optical Society of Am., Vol. 60, p. 245, 1970. 8. Welford, W. T., tics of Nonimaging Concentrators . New York, Academic Press, T978. 9. Bracewell...helicopter pilot and the flight engineer on board the YO-3A. This thesis will concentrate on the development of the laser beacon, the detector optics

  10. Custom CCD for adaptive optics applications (United States)

    Downing, Mark; Arsenault, Robin; Baade, Dietrich; Balard, Philippe; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Denney, Sandy; Feautrier, Philippe; Fusco, Thierry; Gach, Jean-Luc; Diaz Garcia, José Javier; Guillaume, Christian; Hubin, Norbert; Jorden, Paul; Kasper, Markus; Meyer, Manfred; Pool, Peter; Reyes, Javier; Skegg, Michael; Stadler, Eric; Suske, Wolfgang; Wheeler, Patrick


    ESO and JRA2 OPTICON have funded e2v technologies to develop a compact packaged Peltier cooled 24 μm square 240x240 pixels split frame transfer 8-output back-illuminated L3Vision CCD3, L3Vision CCD for Adaptive Optic Wave Front Sensor (AO WFS) applications. The device is designed to achieve sub-electron read noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1,500 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e-/pixel/frame. The development has many unique features. To obtain high frame rates, multi-output EMCCD gain registers and metal buttressing of row clock lines are used. The baseline device is built in standard silicon. In addition, a split wafer run has enabled two speculative variants to be built; deep depletion silicon devices to improve red response and devices with an electronic shutter to extend use to Rayleigh and Pulsed Laser Guide Star applications. These are all firsts for L3Vision CCDs. The designs of the CCD and Peltier package have passed their reviews and fabrication has begun. This paper will describe the progress to date, the requirements and the design of the CCD and compact Peltier package, technology trade-offs, schedule and proposed test plan. High readout speed, low noise and compactness (requirement to fit in confined spaces) provide special challenges to ESO's AO variant of its NGC, New General detector Controller to drive this CCD. This paper will describe progress made on the design of the controller to meet these special needs.

  11. Micromirror Arrays for Adaptive Optics; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, E.J.


    The long-range goal of this project is to develop the optical and mechanical design of a micromirror array for adaptive optics that will meet the following criteria: flat mirror surface ((lambda)/20), high fill factor ( and gt; 95%), large stroke (5-10(micro)m), and pixel size(approx)-200(micro)m. This will be accomplished by optimizing the mirror surface and actuators independently and then combining them using bonding technologies that are currently being developed

  12. Optical oscillator-amplifier laser configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, G.L.


    A laser is described that has incorporated therein an oscillator formed by a pair of mirrors, at least one of the mirrors being positioned outside of the envelope. The mirrors are dimensioned and spaced from each other so that the resonator has a relatively low Fresnel number and is operated unstably. The entire surface of one of these mirrors is convex and diffracts a portion of the energy outside of the oscillator region. Also incorporated into the laser is an amplifier region defined by a separate pair of mirrors which receive the energy diffracted from the oscillator region. The second pair of mirrors form an optical system with a high Fresnel number. A filter, modulator or other control for the laser signal may be placed outside the laser envelope in the optical path of the oscillator


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Baranov


    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of optical deflector for management of laser radiation in physiotherapeutic devices. Design features and operation principles of electro-optical, optical-acoustic and mechanical deflectors, giving the possibility to carry out continuous or discrete scanning of a laser beam are shown. Operation mechanism of the mechanical type deflector on the example of domestic laser therapeutic scanners is described in detail. Application possibility in clinical practice for heating technique of the acupuncture points by volumetric scanning of tissues by the radiation of semiconductor lasers on wave lengths equal to 0,67 and 0,85 μm is investigated. Creation justification of the new type deflector is given. Comparison between stable and labile techniques of radiation is carried out. It is shown that more intensive warming up of a skin surface in acupuncture point projection is observed at volumetric scanning, rather than at planar scanning by laser beams. Temperature increase on a skin surface in projection of acupuncture points is detected at radiation in both the visible spectrum range (0,67 μm and the infrared range (0,85 μm. It gives the possibility to apply this scanning method to thermal photo-activation of the point and to extend an existing arsenal of laser reflexology methods. The optical deflector is offered for medical industry, making it possible to carry out volumetric scanning of a laser beam and to facilitate the medical personnel’s work in laser therapy and reflexology consulting rooms.

  14. Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhizheng; Ben Amara, Foued


    Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems presents a novel design of wavefront correctors based on magnetic fluid deformable mirrors (MFDM) as well as corresponding control algorithms. The presented wavefront correctors are characterized by their linear, dynamic response. Various mirror surface shape control algorithms are presented along with experimental evaluations of the performance of the resulting adaptive optics systems. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used in various fields of application to enhance the performance of optical systems, such as imaging, laser, free space optical communication systems, etc. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students, professors, engineers, scientists and researchers working on the design of adaptive optics systems and their various emerging fields of application. Zhizheng Wu is an associate professor at Shanghai University, China. Azhar Iqbal is a research associate at the University of Toronto, Canada. Foue...

  15. The theory of optical black hole lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona-Reyes, José L., E-mail:; Bermudez, David, E-mail:


    The event horizon of black holes and white holes can be achieved in the context of analogue gravity. It was proven for a sonic case that if these two horizons are close to each other their dynamics resemble a laser, a black hole laser, where the analogue of Hawking radiation is trapped and amplified. Optical analogues are also very successful and a similar system can be achieved there. In this work we develop the theory of optical black hole lasers and prove that the amplification is also possible. Then, we study the optical system by determining the forward propagation of modes, obtaining an approximation for the phase difference which governs the amplification, and performing numerical simulations of the pulse propagation of our system. - Highlights: • We develop the conditions to obtain the kinematics of the optical black hole laser. • We prove the amplification of Hawking radiation for the optical case. • We derive the forward propagation of modes and check the result of the backward case. • A model is proposed to calculate the phase difference and the amplification rate. • We perform numerical simulations of a pulse between two solitons forming a cavity.

  16. Adaptive search and detection of laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efendiev, F.A.; Kasimova, F.I.


    Formation of cosmic optical line connected with the solving of difficult problems, among which stand out spatial search task, detection and target tracking. Indeed, the main advantage of systems of the optical diapason, high radiation direction leads to a challenging task of entering in communication, consisting in mutual targeting antenna receiving and transmitting systems. Algorithm detection, obtained by solving the corresponding statistical optimal detection test synthesis tasks detector determines the structure and quality of his work which depend on the average characteristics of the signal and the background radiation of the thermal noise require full priori certainty about the conditions of observation. Algorithm of the optimal detector of laser light modulated on a sub carrier frequency of intensity assumes a priori known intensity and efficiency background radiation and internal noise power photo detector

  17. Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Parametric study of optical emission from two successive laser pulses pro- ... The hot laser-produced plasma radiates various types of emissions ..... lasers. The qualitative agreement of this analysis with our observations confirms.

  18. Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges. (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Pengfei; Si, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu


    In this manuscript, we present a new design for an adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by using piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricated a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap's deviation and resonance frequency of the device were measured. Experimental results show that this new AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. As a result, the fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, which makes the new structure ideal for tip-tilt controlling in a high-power fiber laser system.

  19. Electro-Optical Laser Technology. Curriculum Utilization. Final Report. (United States)

    Nawn, John H.

    This report describes a program to prepare students for employment as laser technicians and laser operators and to ensure that they have the necessary skills required by the industry. The objectives are to prepare a curriculum and syllabus for an associate degree program in Electro-Optical Laser Technology. The 2-year Electro-Optical Laser program…

  20. Optical inhomogeneity developing in flashlamp photolysis lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, B V; Borovkov, V V; Brodskii, A Ya; Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arevian, V A; Sukhanov, L V


    The paper discusses the dynamics of optical inhomogenity developing in the active medium of a high-power flashlamp-pumped photolysis laser in inverse population storage, fast inversion suppression, and free-running lasing regimes. A chemical component of the refractive index was found in a C3F7I photolysis experiment, along with the anomalous growth of a gas refractive index.

  1. Adaption of optical Fresnel transform to optical Wigner transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Cuihong; Fan Hongyi


    Enlightened by the algorithmic isomorphism between the rotation of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and the αth fractional Fourier transform, we show that the optical Fresnel transform performed on the input through an ABCD system makes the output naturally adapting to the associated Wigner transform, i.e. there exists algorithmic isomorphism between ABCD transformation of the WDF and the optical Fresnel transform. We prove this adaption in the context of operator language. Both the single-mode and the two-mode Fresnel operators as the image of classical Fresnel transform are introduced in our discussions, while the two-mode Wigner operator in the entangled state representation is introduced for fitting the two-mode Fresnel operator.

  2. Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu


    A broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (BAOSO) consisting of four afocal telescopes, formed by pairs of off-axis spherical mirrors in a non-planar arrangement, is presented. The non-planar folding of the telescopes is used to simultaneously reduce pupil and image plane astigmatism. The former improves the adaptive optics performance by reducing the root-mean-square (RMS) of the wavefront and the beam wandering due to optical scanning. The latter provides diffraction limited performance over a 3 diopter (D) vergence range. This vergence range allows for the use of any broadband light source(s) in the 450-850 nm wavelength range to simultaneously image any combination of retinal layers. Imaging modalities that could benefit from such a large vergence range are optical coherence tomography (OCT), multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, single- and multi-photon fluorescence. The benefits of the non-planar telescopes in the BAOSO are illustrated by resolving the human foveal photoreceptor mosaic in reflectance using two different superluminescent diodes with 680 and 796 nm peak wavelengths, reaching the eye with a vergence of 0.76 D relative to each other. PMID:21698035

  3. Statistical learning methods for aero-optic wavefront prediction and adaptive-optic latency compensation (United States)

    Burns, W. Robert

    Since the early 1970's research in airborne laser systems has been the subject of continued interest. Airborne laser applications depend on being able to propagate a near diffraction-limited laser beam from an airborne platform. Turbulent air flowing over the aircraft produces density fluctuations through which the beam must propagate. Because the index of refraction of the air is directly related to the density, the turbulent flow imposes aberrations on the beam passing through it. This problem is referred to as Aero-Optics. Aero-Optics is recognized as a major technical issue that needs to be solved before airborne optical systems can become routinely fielded. This dissertation research specifically addresses an approach to mitigating the deleterious effects imposed on an airborne optical system by aero-optics. A promising technology is adaptive optics: a feedback control method that measures optical aberrations and imprints the conjugate aberrations onto an outgoing beam. The challenge is that it is a computationally-difficult problem, since aero-optic disturbances are on the order of kilohertz for practical applications. High control loop frequencies and high disturbance frequencies mean that adaptive-optic systems are sensitive to latency in sensors, mirrors, amplifiers, and computation. These latencies build up to result in a dramatic reduction in the system's effective bandwidth. This work presents two variations of an algorithm that uses model reduction and data-driven predictors to estimate the evolution of measured wavefronts over a short temporal horizon and thus compensate for feedback latency. The efficacy of the two methods are compared in this research, and evaluated against similar algorithms that have been previously developed. The best version achieved over 75% disturbance rejection in simulation in the most optically active flow region in the wake of a turret, considerably outperforming conventional approaches. The algorithm is shown to be

  4. Laser beam propagation in nonlinear optical media

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Shekhar


    ""This is very unique and promises to be an extremely useful guide to a host of workers in the field. They have given a generalized presentation likely to cover most if not all situations to be encountered in the laboratory, yet also highlight several specific examples that clearly illustrate the methods. They have provided an admirable contribution to the community. If someone makes their living by designing lasers, optical parametric oscillators or other devices employing nonlinear crystals, or designing experiments incorporating laser beam propagation through linear or nonlinear media, then

  5. Multifocal multiphoton microscopy with adaptive optical correction (United States)

    Coelho, Simao; Poland, Simon; Krstajic, Nikola; Li, David; Monypenny, James; Walker, Richard; Tyndall, David; Ng, Tony; Henderson, Robert; Ameer-Beg, Simon


    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a well established approach for measuring dynamic signalling events inside living cells, including detection of protein-protein interactions. The improvement in optical penetration of infrared light compared with linear excitation due to Rayleigh scattering and low absorption have provided imaging depths of up to 1mm in brain tissue but significant image degradation occurs as samples distort (aberrate) the infrared excitation beam. Multiphoton time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) FLIM is a method for obtaining functional, high resolution images of biological structures. In order to achieve good statistical accuracy TCSPC typically requires long acquisition times. We report the development of a multifocal multiphoton microscope (MMM), titled MegaFLI. Beam parallelization performed via a 3D Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), increases TCSPC count rate proportional to the number of beamlets produced. A weighted 3D GS algorithm is employed to improve homogeneity. An added benefit is the implementation of flexible and adaptive optical correction. Adaptive optics performed by means of Zernike polynomials are used to correct for system induced aberrations. Here we present results with significant improvement in throughput obtained using a novel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) 1024 pixel single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array, opening the way to truly high-throughput FLIM.

  6. Laser parameters, focusing optics, and side effects in femtosecond laser corneal surgery (United States)

    Plamann, Karsten; Nuzzo, Valeria; Peyrot, Donald A.; Deloison, Florent; Savoldelli, Michèle; Legeais, Jean-Marc


    Nowadays, femtosecond lasers are routinely used in refractive eye surgery. Until recently, commercialised clinical systems were exclusively based on ytterbium or neodymium-doped solid state lasers emitting sub-picosecond pulses at a wavelength of about 1 μm and repetition rates of a few 10 kHz. These systems use pulse energies in the μJ range and focussing optics of NA = 0.3 to 0.5. Recent developments have provided a variety of alternative and equally viable approaches: systems are now available using nJ pulses at high numerical apertures and MHz repetition rates - an approach so far only used for femtosecond cell surgery - and fibre laser technology is now being used for femtosecond laser corneal surgery. Recent research has also provided more insight in side effects occurring in present systems: self focusing phenomena and so far unexplained periodical structures have been observed even at high numerical apertures (NA >> 0.5) and moderate pulse energies. The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with strongly scattering tissue has been studied in view of extending the application of femtosecond lasers to keratoplasty for opaque corneas and to glaucoma surgery. The use of new laser wavelengths and adaptive optics has been proposed. Despite the reputation of femtosecond surgical systems for their precision, repeatability and the absence of secondary effects or complications, a closer examination reveals the presence of subtle phenomena which merit further investigation. We present three of these phenomena: the influence of optical aberration on the quality of the incision, the occurrence of filamentation effects, and the deposit of microscopic glass fragments when performing penetrating incisions.

  7. The Durham Adaptive Optics Simulation Platform (DASP): Current status


    Basden, Alastair; Bharmal, Nazim; Jenkins, David; Morris, Timothy; Osborn, James; Jia, Peng; Staykov, Lazar


    The Durham Adaptive Optics Simulation Platform (DASP) is a Monte-Carlo modelling tool used for the simulation of astronomical and solar adaptive optics systems. In recent years, this tool has been used to predict the expected performance of the forthcoming extremely large telescope adaptive optics systems, and has seen the addition of several modules with new features, including Fresnel optics propagation and extended object wavefront sensing. Here, we provide an overview of the features of D...

  8. Adaptive laser link reconfiguration using constraint propagation (United States)

    Crone, M. S.; Julich, P. M.; Cook, L. M.


    This paper describes Harris AI research performed on the Adaptive Link Reconfiguration (ALR) study for Rome Lab, and focuses on the application of constraint propagation to the problem of link reconfiguration for the proposed space based Strategic Defense System (SDS) Brilliant Pebbles (BP) communications system. According to the concept of operations at the time of the study, laser communications will exist between BP's and to ground entry points. Long-term links typical of RF transmission will not exist. This study addressed an initial implementation of BP's based on the Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS) SDI mission. The number of satellites and rings studied was representative of this problem. An orbital dynamics program was used to generate line-of-site data for the modeled architecture. This was input into a discrete event simulation implemented in the Harris developed COnstraint Propagation Expert System (COPES) Shell, developed initially on the Rome Lab BM/C3 study. Using a model of the network and several heuristics, the COPES shell was used to develop the Heuristic Adaptive Link Ordering (HALO) Algorithm to rank and order potential laser links according to probability of communication. A reduced set of links based on this ranking would then be used by a routing algorithm to select the next hop. This paper includes an overview of Constraint Propagation as an Artificial Intelligence technique and its embodiment in the COPES shell. It describes the design and implementation of both the simulation of the GPALS BP network and the HALO algorithm in COPES. This is described using a 59 Data Flow Diagram, State Transition Diagrams, and Structured English PDL. It describes a laser communications model and the heuristics involved in rank-ordering the potential communication links. The generation of simulation data is described along with its interface via COPES to the Harris developed View Net graphical tool for visual analysis of communications

  9. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Katzir, Abraham


    The increasing use of fiber optics in the field of medicine has created a need for an interdisciplinary perspective of the technology and methods for physicians as well as engineers and biophysicists. This book presents a comprehensive examination of lasers and optical fibers in an hierarchical, three-tier system. Each chapter is divided into three basic sections: the Fundamentals section provides an overview of basic concepts and background; the Principles section offers an in-depth engineering approach; and the Advances section features specific information on systems an

  10. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.


    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  11. Lithographic manufacturing of adaptive optics components (United States)

    Scott, R. Phillip; Jean, Madison; Johnson, Lee; Gatlin, Ridley; Bronson, Ryan; Milster, Tom; Hart, Michael


    Adaptive optics systems and their laboratory test environments call for a number of unusual optical components. Examples include lenslet arrays, pyramids, and Kolmogorov phase screens. Because of their specialized application, the availability of these parts is generally limited, with high cost and long lead time, which can also significantly drive optical system design. These concerns can be alleviated by a fast and inexpensive method of optical fabrication. To that end, we are exploring direct-write lithographic techniques to manufacture three different custom elements. We report results from a number of prototype devices including 1, 2, and 3 wave Multiple Order Diffractive (MOD) lenslet arrays with 0.75 mm pitch and phase screens with near Kolmogorov structure functions with a Fried length r0 around 1 mm. We also discuss plans to expand our research to include a diffractive pyramid that is smaller, lighter, and more easily manufactured than glass versions presently used in pyramid wavefront sensors. We describe how these components can be produced within the limited dynamic range of the lithographic process, and with a rapid prototyping and manufacturing cycle. We discuss exploratory manufacturing methods, including replication, and potential observing techniques enabled by the ready availability of custom components.

  12. Task performance in astronomical adaptive optics (United States)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, J. C.; Caucci, Luca


    In objective or task-based assessment of image quality, figures of merit are defined by the performance of some specific observer on some task of scientific interest. This methodology is well established in medical imaging but is just beginning to be applied in astronomy. In this paper we survey the theory needed to understand the performance of ideal or ideal-linear (Hotelling) observers on detection tasks with adaptive-optical data. The theory is illustrated by discussing its application to detection of exoplanets from a sequence of short-exposure images.

  13. Optical polymers for laser medical applications (United States)

    Sultanova, Nina G.; Kasarova, Stefka N.; Nikolov, Ivan D.


    In medicine, optical polymers are used not only in ophthalmology but in many laser surgical, diagnostic and therapeutic systems. The application in lens design is determined by their refractive and dispersive properties in the considered spectral region. We have used different measuring techniques to obtain precise refractometric data in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Dispersive, thermal and other important optical characteristics of polymers have been studied. Design of a plastic achromatic objective, used in a surgical stereo-microscope at 1064 nm laser wavelength, is accomplished. Geometrical and wavefront aberrations are calculated. Another example of application of polymers is the designed all-mirror apochromatic micro-lens, intended for superluminescent diode fiber coupling in medical systems.

  14. Pulsed laser damage to optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.; Gillies, G.T.; Magnuson, D.W.; Pagano, T.S.


    This paper describes some observations of pulsed laser damage to optical fibers with emphasis on a damage mode characterized as a linear fracture along the outer core of a fiber. Damage threshold data are presented which illustrate the effects of the focusing lens, end-surface preparation, and type of fiber. An explanation based on fiber-beam misalignment is given and is illustrated by a simple experiment and ray trace

  15. Optical design considerations when imaging the fundus with an adaptive optics correction (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Campbell, Melanie C. W.; Kisilak, Marsha L.; Boyd, Shelley R.


    Adaptive Optics (AO) technology has been used in confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (CSLO) which are analogous to confocal scanning laser microscopes (CSLM) with advantages of real-time imaging, increased image contrast, a resistance to image degradation by scattered light, and improved optical sectioning. With AO, the instrumenteye system can have low enough aberrations for the optical quality to be limited primarily by diffraction. Diffraction-limited, high resolution imaging would be beneficial in the understanding and early detection of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. However, to maintain diffraction-limited imaging, sufficient pixel sampling over the field of view is required, resulting in the need for increased data acquisition rates for larger fields. Imaging over smaller fields may be a disadvantage with clinical subjects because of fixation instability and the need to examine larger areas of the retina. Reduction in field size also reduces the amount of light sampled per pixel, increasing photon noise. For these reasons, we considered an instrument design with a larger field of view. When choosing scanners to be used in an AOCSLO, the ideal frame rate should be above the flicker fusion rate for the human observer and would also allow user control of targets projected onto the retina. In our AOCSLO design, we have studied the tradeoffs between field size, frame rate and factors affecting resolution. We will outline optical approaches to overcome some of these tradeoffs and still allow detection of the earliest changes in the fundus in diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Initial alignment method for free space optics laser beam (United States)

    Shimada, Yuta; Tashiro, Yuki; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Koichi; Tsujimura, Takeshi


    The authors have newly proposed and constructed an active free space optics transmission system. It is equipped with a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes, and it transmits a collimated thin laser beam and accurately steers the laser beam direction. It is necessary to introduce the laser beam within sensible range of the receiver in advance of laser beam tracking control. This paper studies an estimation method of laser reaching point for initial laser beam alignment. Distributed photodiodes detect laser luminescence at respective position, and the optical axis of laser beam is analytically presumed based on the Gaussian beam optics. Computer simulation evaluates the accuracy of the proposed estimation methods, and results disclose that the methods help us to guide the laser beam to a distant receiver.

  17. Femtosecond Laser Structuring in Optical Fiber and Transparent Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Peter R.


    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser processing is optimized for writing optical circuits, optical resonators, and microfluidic devices inside the cladding of single-mode optical fiber that couple efficiently with the fiber core waveguide. The laser processes open new directions towards Labon-a-Fiber.

  18. Through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) with adaptive optics (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Gyunam; Jeong, Junhee; Park, Chris


    Through-focus optical microscopy (TSOM) with nanometer-scale lateral and vertical sensitivity levels matching those of scanning electron microscopy has been demonstrated to be useful both for 3D inspections and metrology assessments. In 2014, funded by two private companies (Nextin/Samsung Electronics) and the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (KEIT), a research team from four universities in South Korea set out to investigate core technologies for developing in-line TSOM inspection and metrology tools, with the respective teams focusing on optics implementation, defect inspection, computer simulation and high-speed metrology matching. We initially confirmed the reported validity of the TSOM operation through a computer simulation, after which we implemented the TSOM operation by throughfocus scanning of existing UV (355nm) and IR (800nm) inspection tools. These tools have an identical sampling distance of 150 nm but have different resolving distances (310 and 810 nm, respectively). We initially experienced some improvement in the defect inspection sensitivity level over TSV (through-silicon via) samples with 6.6 μm diameters. However, during the experiment, we noted sensitivity and instability issues when attempting to acquire TSOM images. As TSOM 3D information is indirectly extracted by differentiating a target TSOM image from reference TSOM images, any instability or mismatch in imaging conditions can result in measurement errors. As a remedy to such a situation, we proposed the application of adaptive optics to the TSOM operation and developed a closed-loop system with a tip/tilt mirror and a Shack-Hartmann sensor on an optical bench. We were able to keep the plane position within in RMS 0.4 pixel by actively compensating for any position instability which arose during the TSOM scanning process along the optical axis. Currently, we are also developing another TSOM tool with a deformable mirror instead of a tip/tilt mirror, in which case we

  19. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Buchhold


    Full Text Available This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD. The downstream microcontroller’s software identifies the geometric shape’s center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels, the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user’s range of motion (stroke and force. This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability.

  20. Laser optical pumping of sodium and lithium atom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusma, J.T.


    The method of optical pumping with a continuous wave dye laser has been used to produce beams of polarized 23 Na atoms and polarized 6 Li atoms. Optical pumping of a 23 Na atom beam using either a multimode dye laser or a single frequency dye laser with a double passed acousto-optic modulator results in electron spin polarizations of 0.70-0.90 and nuclear spin polarizations of 0.75-0.90. Optical pumping of a 6 Li atom beam using a single frequency dye laser either with an acousto-optic modulator or with Doppler shift pumping results in electron spin polarizations of 0.77-0.95 and nuclear spin polarizations greater than 0.90. The polarization of the atom beam is measured using either the laser induced fluorescence in an intermediate magnetic field or a 6-pole magnet to determine the occupation probabilities of the ground hyperfine sublevels following optical pumping. The results of the laser optical pumping experiments agree with the results of a rate equation analysis of the optical pumping process which predicts that nearly all atoms are transferred into a single sublevel for our values of laser intensity and interaction time. The use of laser optical pumping in a polarized ion source for nuclear scattering experiments is discussed. The laser optical pumping method provides a means of constructing an intense source of polarized Li and Na ions

  1. Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo


    We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized....

  2. Optically sensitive Medipix2 detector for adaptive optics wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, John; Tremsina, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; CERN. Geneva


    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused microchannel plate (MCP) read out by multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ("Medipix2") with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 256 x 256 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting), can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates and is abutable on 3 sides. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 ns. When used in a Shack-Hartmann style wavefront sensor, a detector with 4 Medipix chips should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7 x 7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest.

  3. Optically sensitive Medipix2 detector for adaptive optics wavefront sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, John; McPhate, Jason; Tremsin, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan


    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused microchannel plate (MCP) read out by multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ('Medipix2') with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 256x256 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting), can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates and is abutable on 3 sides. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 ns. When used in a Shack-Hartmann style wavefront sensor, a detector with 4 Medipix chips should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7x7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest

  4. Artificial guide stars for adaptive optics using unmanned aerial vehicles (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Brown, Anthony M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Clark, P.; Massey, R.


    Astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to increase effective telescope resolution. However, they cannot be used to observe the whole sky since one or more natural guide stars of sufficient brightness must be found within the telescope field of view for the AO system to work. Even when laser guide stars are used, natural guide stars are still required to provide a constant position reference. Here, we introduce a technique to overcome this problem by using rotary unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a platform from which to produce artificial guide stars. We describe the concept that relies on the UAV being able to measure its precise relative position. We investigate the AO performance improvements that can be achieved, which in the cases presented here can improve the Strehl ratio by a factor of at least 2 for a 8 m class telescope. We also discuss improvements to this technique, which is relevant to both astronomical and solar AO systems.

  5. Practical guidelines for implementing adaptive optics in fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Wilding, Dean; Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Vdovin, Gleb; Verhaegen, Michel


    In life sciences, interest in the microscopic imaging of increasingly complex three dimensional samples, such as cell spheroids, zebrafish embryos, and in vivo applications in small animals, is growing quickly. Due to the increasing complexity of samples, more and more life scientists are considering the implementation of adaptive optics in their experimental setups. While several approaches to adaptive optics in microscopy have been reported, it is often difficult and confusing for the microscopist to choose from the array of techniques and equipment. In this poster presentation we offer a small guide to adaptive optics providing general guidelines for successful adaptive optics implementation.

  6. Receding-horizon adaptive contyrol of aero-optical wavefronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesch, J.; Gibson, S.; Verhaegen, M.


    A new method for adaptive prediction and correction of wavefront errors in adaptive optics (AO) is introduced. The new method is based on receding-horizon control design and an adaptive lattice filter. Experimental results presented illustrate the capability of the new adaptive controller to predict

  7. Adaptive High Frequency Laser Sonar System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cray, Benjamin A


    .... Antivibration mounts are joined between said scanning laser vibrometer and said housing. In further embodiments, the scanning laser vibrometer detects vibrations at a plurality of locations on the acoustic window forming a virtual array...

  8. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E.; Fry, Alan R., E-mail: [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)


    This manuscript serves as a reference to describe the optical laser sources and capabilities at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  9. Adaptive optics imaging of inherited retinal diseases. (United States)

    Georgiou, Michalis; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Patterson, Emily J; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel


    Adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy allows for non-invasive retinal phenotyping on a microscopic scale, thereby helping to improve our understanding of retinal diseases. An increasing number of natural history studies and ongoing/planned interventional clinical trials exploit AO ophthalmoscopy both for participant selection, stratification and monitoring treatment safety and efficacy. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of AO ophthalmoscopy, recent developments and its application to a broad range of inherited retinal diseases, including Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa and achromatopsia. Finally, we describe the impact of this in vivo microscopic imaging on our understanding of disease pathogenesis, clinical trial design and outcome metrics, while recognising the limitation of the small cohorts reported to date. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Precision Spectroscopy, Diode Lasers, and Optical Frequency Measurement Technology (United States)

    Hollberg, Leo (Editor); Fox, Richard (Editor); Waltman, Steve (Editor); Robinson, Hugh


    This compilation is a selected set of reprints from the Optical Frequency Measurement Group of the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and consists of work published between 1987 and 1997. The two main programs represented here are (1) development of tunable diode-laser technology for scientific applications and precision measurements, and (2) research toward the goal of realizing optical-frequency measurements and synthesis. The papers are organized chronologically in five, somewhat arbitrarily chosen categories: Diode Laser Technology, Tunable Laser Systems, Laser Spectroscopy, Optical Synthesis and Extended Wavelength Coverage, and Multi-Photon Interactions and Optical Coherences.

  11. Optical reprogramming with ultrashort femtosecond laser pulses (United States)

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans G.; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten


    The use of sub-15 femtosecond laser pulses in stem cell research is explored with particular emphasis on the optical reprogramming of somatic cells. The reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be evoked through the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. Conventional approaches utilize retro/lenti-viruses to deliver genes/transcription factors as well as to facilitate the integration of transcription factors into that of the host genome. However, the use of viruses may result in insertional mutations caused by the random integration of genes and as a result, this may limit the use within clinical applications due to the risk of the formation of cancer. In this study, a new approach is demonstrated in realizing non-viral reprogramming through the use of ultrashort laser pulses, to introduce transcription factors into the cell so as to generate iPS cells.

  12. Optical radiation, with particular reference to lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, L.; Michaelson, S.M.; Rockwell, R.J.; Sliney, D.H.; Tengroth, B.M.; Wolbarsht, M.L.


    Laser emissions cover wavelengths from 10 nm to 1 mm and are used in a wide variety of applications. The interactions between biological tissues and laser radiation depend on irradiance and radiant exposure, exposure duration and wavelength. Because of the relatively superficial absorption, the major biological effects are on the skin and the eye. The health hazards to the skin are both acute (thermal burns, sunburn, photosensitized reactions) and chronic (accelerated aging and photocarcinogenesis). The main health hazards to the eye are photokeratitis, corneal burns, photochemical and thermal cataract, ocular inflammation, and photo-chemical, thermal and thermo-acoustic retinal injury and optical breakdown within the eye. Secondary haemorrhage in the vitreous humour with complete loss of vision could be produced by severe damage to the retina. 59 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  13. Robust adaptive optics systems for vision science (United States)

    Burns, S. A.; de Castro, A.; Sawides, L.; Luo, T.; Sapoznik, K.


    Adaptive Optics (AO) is of growing importance for understanding the impact of retinal and systemic diseases on the retina. While AO retinal imaging in healthy eyes is now routine, AO imaging in older eyes and eyes with optical changes to the anterior eye can be difficult and requires a control and an imaging system that is resilient when there is scattering and occlusion from the cornea and lens, as well as in the presence of irregular and small pupils. Our AO retinal imaging system combines evaluation of local image quality of the pupil, with spatially programmable detection. The wavefront control system uses a woofer tweeter approach, combining an electromagnetic mirror and a MEMS mirror and a single Shack Hartmann sensor. The SH sensor samples an 8 mm exit pupil and the subject is aligned to a region within this larger system pupil using a chin and forehead rest. A spot quality metric is calculated in real time for each lenslet. Individual lenslets that do not meet the quality metric are eliminated from the processing. Mirror shapes are smoothed outside the region of wavefront control when pupils are small. The system allows imaging even with smaller irregular pupils, however because the depth of field increases under these conditions, sectioning performance decreases. A retinal conjugate micromirror array selectively directs mid-range scatter to additional detectors. This improves detection of retinal capillaries even when the confocal image has poorer image quality that includes both photoreceptors and blood vessels.

  14. Adaptive optics without altering visual perception. (United States)

    Koenig, D E; Hart, N W; Hofer, H J


    Adaptive optics combined with visual psychophysics creates the potential to study the relationship between visual function and the retina at the cellular scale. This potential is hampered, however, by visual interference from the wavefront-sensing beacon used during correction. For example, we have previously shown that even a dim, visible beacon can alter stimulus perception (Hofer et al., 2012). Here we describe a simple strategy employing a longer wavelength (980nm) beacon that, in conjunction with appropriate restriction on timing and placement, allowed us to perform psychophysics when dark adapted without altering visual perception. The method was verified by comparing detection and color appearance of foveally presented small spot stimuli with and without the wavefront beacon present in 5 subjects. As an important caution, we found that significant perceptual interference can occur even with a subliminal beacon when additional measures are not taken to limit exposure. Consequently, the lack of perceptual interference should be verified for a given system, and not assumed based on invisibility of the beacon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical design considerations for laser fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Maniscalco, J.A.


    The plan for the development of commercial inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plants is discussed, emphasizing the utilization of the unique features of laser fusion to arrive at conceptual designs for reactors and optical systems which minimize the need for advanced materials and techniques requiring expensive test facilities. A conceptual design for a liquid lithium fall reactor is described which successfully deals with the hostile x-ray and neutron environment and promises to last the 30 year plant lifetime. Schemes for protecting the final focusing optics are described which are both compatible with this reactor system and show promise of surviving a full year in order to minimize costly downtime. Damage mechanisms and protection techniques are discussed, and a recommendation is made for a high f-number metal mirror final focusing system

  16. International Conference on Laser Physics and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Shengwu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Scully, Marlan


    Since the advent of the laser about 40 years ago, the field of laser physics and quantum optics have evolved into a major discipline. The early studies included the optical coherence theory and the semiclassical and quantum mechanical theories of the laser. More recently many new and interesting effects have been predicted. These include the role of coherent atomic effects in lasing without inversion and electromagnetically induced transparency, atom optics, laser cooling and trapping, teleportation, the single-atom micromaser and its role in quantum measurement theory, to name a few. The International Conference on Laser Physics and Quantum Optics was held in Shanghai from August 25 to August 28, 1999, to discuss these and many other exciting developments in laser physics and quantum optics. The international character of the conference was manifested by the fact that scientists from over 13 countries participated and lectured at the conference. There were four keynote lectures delivered by Nobel laureate Wi...

  17. CO2 laser and plasma microjet process for improving laser optics (United States)

    Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Butler, James A.; Grundler, Walter; Governo, George K.


    A optic is produced for operation at the fundamental Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 1.06 micrometers through the tripled Nd:YAG laser wavelength of 355 nanometers by the method of reducing or eliminating the growth of laser damage sites in the optics by processing the optics to stop damage in the optics from growing to a predetermined critical size. A system is provided of mitigating the growth of laser-induced damage in optics by virtue of very localized removal of glass and absorbing material.

  18. Optical components for the Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallerstein, E.P.; Baker, P.C.; Brown, N.J.


    In addition to its other characteristics, the Nova Laser Fusion facility may well be the largest precision optical project ever undertaken. Moreover, during the course of construction, concurrent research and development has been successfully conducted, and has resulted in significant advances in various technical areas, including manufacturing efficiency. Although assembly of the first two beams of Nova is just commencing, the optical production, including construction of the special facilities required for many of the components, has been underway for over three years, and many phases of the optical manufacturing program for the first 10 beams will be completed within the next two years. On the other hand, new requirements for second and third harmonic generation have created the need to initiate new research and development. This work has been accomplished through the enormous cooperation DOE/LLNL has received from commercial industry on this project. In many cases, industry, where much of the optical component research and development and virtually all of the manufacturing is being done, has made substantial investment of its own funds in facilities, equipment, and research and development, in addition to those supplied by DOE/LLNL

  19. Optical Cutting Interruption Sensor for Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Adelmann


    Full Text Available We report on an optical sensor system attached to a 4 kW fiber laser cutting machine to detect cutting interruptions. The sensor records the thermal radiation from the process zone with a modified ring mirror and optical filter arrangement, which is placed between the cutting head and the collimator. The process radiation is sensed by a Si and InGaAs diode combination with the detected signals being digitalized with 20 kHz. To demonstrate the function of the sensor, signals arising during fusion cutting of 1 mm stainless steel and mild steel with and without cutting interruptions are evaluated and typical signatures derived. In the recorded signals the piercing process, the laser switch on and switch off point and waiting period are clearly resolved. To identify the cutting interruption, the signals of both Si and InGaAs diodes are high pass filtered and the signal fluctuation ranges being subsequently calculated. Introducing a correction factor, we identify that only in case of a cutting interruption the fluctuation range of the Si diode exceeds the InGaAs diode. This characteristic signature was successfully used to detect 80 cutting interruptions of 83 incomplete cuts (alpha error 3.6% and system recorded no cutting interruption from 110 faultless cuts (beta error of 0. This particularly high detection rate in combination with the easy integration of the sensor, highlight its potential for cutting interruption detection in industrial applications.

  20. Linear zonal atmospheric prediction for adaptive optics (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick C.; Rhoadarmer, Troy A.; Coy, Hanna A.; Angel, J. Roger P.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael


    We compare linear zonal predictors of atmospheric turbulence for adaptive optics. Zonal prediction has the possible advantage of being able to interpret and utilize wind-velocity information from the wavefront sensor better than modal prediction. For simulated open-loop atmospheric data for a 2- meter 16-subaperture AO telescope with 5 millisecond prediction and a lookback of 4 slope-vectors, we find that Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule training of linear nets and Back- Propagation training of non-linear multilayer neural networks is quite slow, getting stuck on plateaus or in local minima. Recursive Least Squares training of linear predictors is two orders of magnitude faster and it also converges to the solution with global minimum error. We have successfully implemented Amari's Adaptive Natural Gradient Learning (ANGL) technique for a linear zonal predictor, which premultiplies the Delta-Rule gradients with a matrix that orthogonalizes the parameter space and speeds up the training by two orders of magnitude, like the Recursive Least Squares predictor. This shows that the simple Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule's slow convergence is not a fluke. In the case of bright guidestars, the ANGL, RLS, and standard matrix-inversion least-squares (MILS) algorithms all converge to the same global minimum linear total phase error (approximately 0.18 rad2), which is only approximately 5% higher than the spatial phase error (approximately 0.17 rad2), and is approximately 33% lower than the total 'naive' phase error without prediction (approximately 0.27 rad2). ANGL can, in principle, also be extended to make non-linear neural network training feasible for these large networks, with the potential to lower the predictor error below the linear predictor error. We will soon scale our linear work to the approximately 108-subaperture MMT AO system, both with simulations and real wavefront sensor data from prime focus.

  1. Effect of External Optical Feedback for Nano-laser Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug


    We theoretically investigated the effect of optical feedback on a photonic crystal nanolaser, comparing with conventional in-plane and vertical-cavity lasers.......We theoretically investigated the effect of optical feedback on a photonic crystal nanolaser, comparing with conventional in-plane and vertical-cavity lasers....

  2. Optical System Design and Integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Schmidt, Stephen; Britt, Jamie; Mamakos, William; Trunzo, Raymond; Cavanaugh, John; Miller, Roger


    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). developed for the 2004 MESSENGER mission to Mercury, is designed to measure the planet's topography via laser ranging. A description of the MLA optical system and its measured optical performance during instrument-level and spacecraft-level integration and testing are presented.

  3. Optical pumping of Rb by Ti:Sa laser and high-power laser diode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Rychnovský, Jan; Lazar, Josef


    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2006), s. 350-354 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1065303; GA ČR GA102/04/2109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : optical pumping * Ti:Sa laser * laser diode * emission linewidth * spectroscopy * laser frequency stabilization Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2006

  4. Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium plasma under the effect of two sequential laser pulses ... Laser Plasma Division, Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, India; Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Boulevard, Starkville, ...

  5. The Laser Level as an Optics Laboratory Tool (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey


    For decades now, the laser has been used as a handy device for performing ray traces in geometrical optics demonstrations and laboratories. For many ray- trace applications, I have found the laser level 3 to be even more visually compelling and easy for student use than the laser pointer.

  6. Optical system for laser triggering of PBFA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamil, R.A.; Seamons, L.O.; Schanwald, L.P.; Gerber, R.A.


    The PBFA II laser triggering optical system consists of nearly 300 optical components. These optics must be sufficiently precise to preserve the laser beam quality, as well as to equally distribute the energy of the UV laser beam to the 36, 5.5 MV gas-filled switches at precisely the same instant. Both index variation and cleanliness of the air long the laser path must be controlled. The manual alignment system is capable of alignment to better than the acceptable error of 200 microradians (laser to switches). A technique has been devised to ease the alignment procedure by using a special high gain video camera and a tool alignment telescope to view retroreflective tape targets having optical brightness gains over white surfaces of 10/sup 3/. The camera is a charge-coupled detector intensified by a double microchannel plate having an optical gain of between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 5/

  7. 2nd Topical Workshop on Laser Technology and Optics Design

    CERN Document Server


    Lasers have a variety of applications in particle accelerator operation and will play a key role in the development of future particle accelerators by improving the generation of high brightness electron and exotic ion beams and through increasing the acceleration gradient. Lasers will also make an increasingly important contribution to the characterization of many complex particle beams by means of laser-based beam diagnostics methods. The second LANET topical workshop will address the key aspects of laser technology and optics design relevant to laser application to accelerators. The workshop will cover general optics design, provide an overview of different laser sources and discuss methods to characterize beams in details. Participants will be able to choose from a range of topical areas that go deeper in more specific aspects including tuneable lasers, design of transfer lines, noise sources and their elimination and non-linear optics effects. The format of the workshop will be mainly training-based wit...

  8. Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye (United States)

    Geng, Ying; Dubra, Alfredo; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Sharma, Robin; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.


    Correction of the eye’s monochromatic aberrations using adaptive optics (AO) can improve the resolution of in vivo mouse retinal images [Biss et al., Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659 (2007) and Alt et al., Proc. SPIE 7550, 755019 (2010)], but previous attempts have been limited by poor spot quality in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS). Recent advances in mouse eye wavefront sensing using an adjustable focus beacon with an annular beam profile have improved the wavefront sensor spot quality [Geng et al., Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717 (2011)], and we have incorporated them into a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The performance of the instrument was tested on the living mouse eye, and images of multiple retinal structures, including the photoreceptor mosaic, nerve fiber bundles, fine capillaries and fluorescently labeled ganglion cells were obtained. The in vivo transverse and axial resolutions of the fluorescence channel of the AOSLO were estimated from the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the line and point spread functions (LSF and PSF), and were found to be better than 0.79 μm ± 0.03 μm (STD)(45% wider than the diffraction limit) and 10.8 μm ± 0.7 μm (STD)(two times the diffraction limit), respectively. The axial positional accuracy was estimated to be 0.36 μm. This resolution and positional accuracy has allowed us to classify many ganglion cell types, such as bistratified ganglion cells, in vivo. PMID:22574260

  9. (HEL MRI) 3D Meta Optics for High Energy Lasers (United States)


    optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing ." Optics express 24, no. 9 (2016): 9794-9805. 3. Li, Yuan, Wenzhe Li, J. Miller, and...Magnusson, R.; Binun, P.; McCormick, K., "Wavelength Selection and Polarization Multiplexing of Blue Laser Diodes," in Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE...spatial multiplexing can take advantage of a non-Gaussian beam profile. If the components are to be used as out-couplers in bulk lasers , the optics


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Sandrine J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Soummer, Remi; Macintosh, Bruce; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand


    We present testbed results of the Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics (LAO). These results are part of the validation and tests of the coronagraph and of the Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). The apodizer component is manufactured with a halftone technique using black chrome microdots on glass. Testing this APLC (like any other coronagraph) requires extremely good wavefront correction, which is obtained to the 1 nm rms level using the microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) technology, on the ExAO visible testbed of the LAO at the University of Santa Cruz. We used an APLC coronagraph without central obstruction, both with a reference super-polished flat mirror and with the MEMS to obtain one of the first images of a dark zone in a coronagraphic image with classical adaptive optics using a MEMS deformable mirror (without involving dark hole algorithms). This was done as a complementary test to the GPI coronagraph testbed at American Museum of Natural History, which studied the coronagraph itself without wavefront correction. Because we needed a full aperture, the coronagraph design is very different from the GPI design. We also tested a coronagraph with central obstruction similar to that of GPI. We investigated the performance of the APLC coronagraph and more particularly the effect of the apodizer profile accuracy on the contrast. Finally, we compared the resulting contrast to predictions made with a wavefront propagation model of the testbed to understand the effects of phase and amplitude errors on the final contrast.

  11. Adaptive optics correction into single mode fiber for a low Earth orbiting space to ground optical communication link using the OPALS downlink. (United States)

    Wright, Malcolm W; Morris, Jeffery F; Kovalik, Joseph M; Andrews, Kenneth S; Abrahamson, Matthew J; Biswas, Abhijit


    An adaptive optics (AO) testbed was integrated to the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) ground station telescope at the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) as part of the free space laser communications experiment with the flight system on board the International Space Station (ISS). Atmospheric turbulence induced aberrations on the optical downlink were adaptively corrected during an overflight of the ISS so that the transmitted laser signal could be efficiently coupled into a single mode fiber continuously. A stable output Strehl ratio of around 0.6 was demonstrated along with the recovery of a 50 Mbps encoded high definition (HD) video transmission from the ISS at the output of the single mode fiber. This proof of concept demonstration validates multi-Gbps optical downlinks from fast slewing low-Earth orbiting (LEO) spacecraft to ground assets in a manner that potentially allows seamless space to ground connectivity for future high data-rates network.

  12. Simulating the performance of adaptive optics techniques on FSO communications through the atmosphere (United States)

    Martínez, Noelia; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis Fernando; Sodnik, Zoran


    The Optical Ground Station (OGS), installed in the Teide Observatory since 1995, was built as part of ESA efforts in the research field of satellite optical communications to test laser telecommunication terminals on board of satellites in Low Earth Orbit and Geostationary Orbit. As far as one side of the link is settled on the Earth, the laser beam (either on the uplink or on the downlink) has to bear with the atmospheric turbulence. Within the framework of designing an Adaptive Optics system to improve the performance of the Free-Space Optical Communications at the OGS, turbulence conditions regarding uplink and downlink have been simulated within the OOMAO (Object-Oriented Matlab Adaptive Optics) Toolbox as well as the possible utilization of a Laser Guide Star to measure the wavefront in this context. Simulations have been carried out by reducing available atmospheric profiles regarding both night-time and day-time measurements and by having into account possible seasonal changes. An AO proposal to reduce atmospheric aberrations and, therefore, ameliorate FSO links performance is presented and analysed in this paper

  13. Nonlinear optics with coherent free electron lasers (United States)

    Bencivenga, F.; Capotondi, F.; Mincigrucci, R.; Cucini, R.; Manfredda, M.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Simoncig, A.; Masciovecchio, C.


    We interpreted the recent construction of free electron laser (FELs) facilities worldwide as an unprecedented opportunity to bring concepts and methods from the scientific community working with optical lasers into the domain of x-ray science. This motivated our efforts towards the realization of FEL-based wave-mixing applications. In this article we present new extreme ultraviolet transient grating (X-TG) data from vitreous SiO2, collected using two crossed FEL pulses (photon frequency 38 eV) to generate the X-TG and a phase matched optical probing pulse (photon frequency 3.1 eV). This experiment extends our previous investigation, which was carried out on a nominally identical sample using a different FEL photon frequency (45 eV) to excite the X-TG. The present data are featured by a peak intensity of the X-TG signal substantially larger than that previously reported and by slower modulations of the X-TG signal at positive delays. These differences could be ascribed to the different FEL photon energy used in the two experiments or to differences in the sample properties. A systematic X-TG study on the same sample as a function of the FEL wavelength is needed to draw a consistent conclusion. We also discuss how the advances in the performance of the FELs, in terms of generation of fully coherent photon pulses and multi-color FEL emission, may push the development of original experimental strategies to study matter at the femtosecond-nanometer time-length scales, with the unique option of element and chemical state specificity. This would allow the development of advanced experimental tools based on wave-mixing processes, which may have a tremendous impact in the study of a large array of phenomena, ranging from nano-dynamics in complex materials to charge and energy transfer processes.

  14. Advanced in Nonlinear Optics and Laser Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, S.; Kotler, Z; Lavi, R.; Sternklar, S.


    The Nonlinear Optics Group (NLOG) at Soreq NRC is engaged in the development of fundamental and applied technology in the related fields of nonlinear optics and laser development. Our work in nonlinear optics started with the goal of improving laser performance. These efforts were successful and opened the way for R and D in nonlinear optics for other applications. Today we use nonlinear optics to enable continuous tunability of lasers, control the path of light beams, modulate a light signal rapidly, provide optical data storage, and supply new means of microscopically probing biological and inorganic samples. Technology maturation and interaction with users will show which aspects of nonlinear optics will make the most impact

  15. Liquid-crystal laser optics: design, fabrication, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, S.D.; Cerqua, K.A.; Marshall, K.L.; Schmid, A.; Guardalben, M.J.; Skerrett, K.J.


    We describe the development of laser optics utilizing liquid crystals. Devices discussed constitute passive optical elements for both low-power and high-power laser systems, operating in either the pulsed or cw mode. Designs and fabrication methods are given in detail for wave plates, circular polarizers, optical isolators, laser-blocking notch filters, and soft apertures. Performance data in the visible to near infrared show these devices to be useful alternatives to other technologies based on conventional glasses, crystals, or thin films. The issue of laser damage is examined on the basis of off-line threshold testing and daily use in OMEGA, the 24-beam Nd:glass laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Results demonstrate that long-term survivability has been achieved

  16. Optical implementations of associative networks with versatile adaptive learning capabilities. (United States)

    Fisher, A D; Lippincott, W L; Lee, J N


    Optical associative, parallel-processing architectures are being developed using a multimodule approach, where a number of smaller, adaptive, associative modules are nonlinearly interconnected and cascaded under the guidance of a variety of organizational principles to structure larger architectures for solving specific problems. A number of novel optical implementations with versatile adaptive learning capabilities are presented for the individual associative modules, including holographic configurations and five specific electrooptic configurations. The practical issues involved in real optical architectures are analyzed, and actual laboratory optical implementations of associative modules based on Hebbian and Widrow-Hoff learning rules are discussed, including successful experimental demonstrations of their operation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Egorov


    Full Text Available Simulation results for on-board optical system of a space mini-vehicle with laser propulsion are presented. This system gives the possibility for receiving theremote laser radiation power independently of a system telescope mutual orientation to the vehicle orbiting direction. The on-board optical system is designed with the use of such optical elements as optical hinges and turrets. The system incorporates the optical switch that is a special optical system adapting optically both receiving telescope and laser propulsion engines. Modeling and numerical simulation of the system have been performed with the use of ZEMAX software (Radiant Ltd. The object matter of calculations lied in size definition of system optical elements, requirements to accuracy of their manufacturing and reciprocal adjusting to achieve an efficient radiation energy delivery to laser propulsion engine. Calculations have been performed with account to the limitations on the mini-vehicle mass, its overall dimensions, and radiation threshold density of the optical elements utilized. The requirements to the laser beam quality at the entrance aperture of laser propulsion engine have been considered too. State-of-the-art optical technologies make it possible to manufacture space reflectors made of CO-115M glassceramics with weight-reducing coefficient of 0.72 and the radiation threshold of 5 J/cm2 for the radiation with a 1.064 microns wavelength at 10-20 ns pulse duration. The optimal diameter of a receiving telescope primary mirror has been 0.5 m when a coordinated transmitting telescope diameter is equal to 1 m. This provides the reception of at least 84% of laser energy. The main losses of radiation energy are caused by improper installation of receiving telescope mirrors and by in-process errors arising at manufacturing the telescope mirrors with a parabolic surface. It is shown that requirements to the in-process admissible errors for the on-board optical system elements

  18. Laser diodes for sensing applications: adaptive cruise control and more (United States)

    Heerlein, Joerg; Morgott, Stefan; Ferstl, Christian


    Adaptive Cruise Controls (ACC) and pre-crash sensors require an intelligent eye which can recognize traffic situations and deliver a 3-dimensional view. Both microwave RADAR and "Light RADAR" (LIDAR) systems are well suited as sensors. In order to utilize the advantages of LIDARs -- such as lower cost, simpler assembly and high reliability -- the key component, the laser diode, is of primary importance. Here, we present laser diodes which meet the requirements of the automotive industry.

  19. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)


    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  20. Research on the compensation of laser launch optics to improve the performance of the LGS spot. (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Yuning; Tian, Donghe; Zheng, Quan; Lin, Xudong; Wang, Liang; Yang, Qingyun


    To improve the beam quality of the uplink laser, a 37 channel piezo-ceramic deformable mirror was inserted into the laser launch optics to compensate the static aberrations. An interferometer was used as the calibration light source as well as the wavefront sensor to perform closed-loop correction for the moment. About 0.38λ root mean square (rms) aberrations, including the deformable mirror's initial figure error, were compensated, and the residual error was less than 0.07λ rms. Field observations with a 2 m optical telescope demonstrated that the peak intensity value of the laser guide star (LGS) spot increased from 5650 to 7658, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) size reduced from 4.07 arcseconds to 3.52 arcseconds. With the compensation, an improved guide star spot can be obtained, which is crucial for the adaptive optics systems of ground-based large telescopes.


    Querques, Giuseppe; Kamami-Levy, Cynthia; Georges, Anouk; Pedinielli, Alexandre; Capuano, Vittorio; Blanco-Garavito, Rocio; Poulon, Fanny; Souied, Eric H


    To describe adaptive optics (AO) imaging of foveal sparing in geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Flood-illumination AO infrared (IR) fundus images were obtained in four consecutive patients with GA using an AO retinal camera (rtx1; Imagine Eyes). Adaptive optics IR images were overlaid with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence images to allow direct correlation of en face AO features with areas of foveal sparing. Adaptive optics appearance of GA and foveal sparing, preservation of functional photoreceptors, and cone densities in areas of foveal sparing were investigated. In 5 eyes of 4 patients (all female; mean age 74.2 ± 11.9 years), a total of 5 images, sized 4° × 4°, of foveal sparing visualized on confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence were investigated by AO imaging. En face AO images revealed GA as regions of inhomogeneous hyperreflectivity with irregularly dispersed hyporeflective clumps. By direct comparison with adjacent regions of GA, foveal sparing appeared as well-demarcated areas of reduced reflectivity with less hyporeflective clumps (mean 14.2 vs. 3.2; P = 0.03). Of note, in these areas, en face AO IR images revealed cone photoreceptors as hyperreflective dots over the background reflectivity (mean cone density 3,271 ± 1,109 cones per square millimeter). Microperimetry demonstrated residual function in areas of foveal sparing detected by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence. Adaptive optics allows the appreciation of differences in reflectivity between regions of GA and foveal sparing. Preservation of functional cone photoreceptors was demonstrated on en face AO IR images in areas of foveal sparing detected by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence.

  2. Optical wave microphone measurement during laser ablation of Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsugi, Fumiaki, E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Ide, Ryota; Ikegami, Tomoaki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Nakamiya, Toshiyuki; Sonoda, Yoshito [Graduate School of Industrial Engineering, Tokai University, 9-1-1 Toroku, Kumamoto, 862-8652 (Japan)


    Pulsed laser irradiation is used for surface treatment of a solid and ablation for particle formation in gas, liquid or supercritical phase media. When a pulsed laser is used to irradiate a solid, spatial refractive index variations (including photothermal expansion, shockwaves and particles) occur, which vary depending on the energy density of the pulsed laser. We focused on this phenomenon and applied an unique method for detection of refractive index variation using an optical wave microphone based on Fraunhofer diffraction. In this research, we analyzed the waveforms and frequencies of refractive index variations caused by pulsed laser irradiation of silicon in air and measured with an optical wave microphone.

  3. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers for atomic and molecular physics (United States)

    Burd, S.; Leibfried, D.; Wilson, A. C.; Wineland, D. J.


    Experiments in atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics rely on lasers at many different wavelengths and with varying requirements on spectral linewidth, power and intensity stability. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSLs), when combined with nonlinear frequency conversion, can potentially replace many of the laser systems currently in use. We are developing a source for laser cooling and spectroscopy of Mg+ ions at 280 nm, based on a frequency quadrupled OPSL with the gain chip fabricated at the ORC at Tampere Univ. of Technology, Finland. This OPSL system could serve as a prototype for many other sources used in atomic and molecular physics.

  4. Laser cooling in a feedback-controlled optical shaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilensky, Mark Y.; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.; Prior, Yehiam


    We explore the prospects of optical shaking, a recently suggested generic approach to laser cooling of neutral atoms and molecules. Optical shaking combines elements of Sisyphus cooling and of stochastic cooling techniques and is based on feedback-controlled interaction of particles with strong nonresonant laser fields. The feedback loop guarantees a monotonous energy decrease without a loss of particles. We discuss two types of feedback algorithms and provide an analytical estimation of their cooling rate. We study the robustness of optical shaking against noise and establish minimal stability requirements for the lasers. The analytical predictions are in a good agreement with the results of detailed numerical simulations

  5. Research on the adaptive optical control technology based on DSP (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Xue, Qiao; Zeng, Fa; Zhao, Junpu; Zheng, Kuixing; Su, Jingqin; Dai, Wanjun


    Adaptive optics is a real-time compensation technique using high speed support system for wavefront errors caused by atmospheric turbulence. However, the randomness and instantaneity of atmospheric changing introduce great difficulties to the design of adaptive optical systems. A large number of complex real-time operations lead to large delay, which is an insurmountable problem. To solve this problem, hardware operation and parallel processing strategy are proposed, and a high-speed adaptive optical control system based on DSP is developed. The hardware counter is used to check the system. The results show that the system can complete a closed loop control in 7.1ms, and improve the controlling bandwidth of the adaptive optical system. Using this system, the wavefront measurement and closed loop experiment are carried out, and obtain the good results.

  6. Solar adaptive optics: specificities, lessons learned, and open alternatives (United States)

    Montilla, I.; Marino, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Collados, M.; Montoya, L.; Tallon, M.


    First on sky adaptive optics experiments were performed on the Dunn Solar Telescope on 1979, with a shearing interferometer and limited success. Those early solar adaptive optics efforts forced to custom-develop many components, such as Deformable Mirrors and WaveFront Sensors, which were not available at that time. Later on, the development of the correlation Shack-Hartmann marked a breakthrough in solar adaptive optics. Since then, successful Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics instruments have been developed for many solar telescopes, i.e. the National Solar Observatory, the Vacuum Tower Telescope and the Swedish Solar Telescope. Success with the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems for GREGOR and the New Solar Telescope has proved to be more difficult to attain. Such systems have a complexity not only related to the number of degrees of freedom, but also related to the specificities of the Sun, used as reference, and the sensing method. The wavefront sensing is performed using correlations on images with a field of view of 10", averaging wavefront information from different sky directions, affecting the sensing and sampling of high altitude turbulence. Also due to the low elevation at which solar observations are performed we have to include generalized fitting error and anisoplanatism, as described by Ragazzoni and Rigaut, as non-negligible error sources in the Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics error budget. For the development of the next generation Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope and the European Solar Telescope we still need to study and understand these issues, to predict realistically the quality of the achievable reconstruction. To improve their designs other open issues have to be assessed, i.e. possible alternative sensing methods to avoid the intrinsic anisoplanatism of the wide field correlation Shack-Hartmann, new parameters to estimate the performance of an adaptive optics solar system, alternatives to

  7. Minimally invasive non-thermal laser technology using laser-induced optical breakdown for skin rejuvenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habbema, L.; Verhagen, R.; Van Hal, R.; Liu, Y.; Varghese, B.


    We describe a novel, minimally invasive laser technology for skin rejuvenation by creating isolated microscopic lesions within tissue below the epidermis using laser induced optical breakdown. Using an in-house built prototype device, tightly focused near-infrared laser pulses are used to create

  8. Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Ashley J


    The second edition of 'Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue' maintains the standard of excellence established in the first edition, while adjusting the content to reflect changes in tissue optics and medical applications since 1995. The material concerning light propagation now contains new chapters devoted to electromagnetic theory for coherent light. The material concerning thermal laser-tissue interactions contains a new chapter on pulse ablation of tissue. The medical applications section now includes several new chapters on Optical Coherent Tomography, acoustic imaging, molecular imaging, forensic optics and nerve stimulation. A detailed overview is provided of the optical and thermal response of tissue to laser irradiation along with diagnostic and therapeutic examples including fiber optics. Sufficient theory is included in the book so that it is suitable for a one or two semester graduate or for senior elective courses. Material covered includes: 1. light propagation and diagnostic appl...

  9. IR-laser assisted additive freeform optics manufacturing. (United States)

    Hong, Zhihan; Liang, Rongguang


    Computer-controlled additive manufacturing (AM) processes, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, create 3D objects by the successive adding of a material or materials. While there have been tremendous developments in AM, the 3D printing of optics is lagging due to the limits in materials and tight requirements for optical applicaitons. We propose a new precision additive freeform optics manufacturing (AFOM) method using an pulsed infrared (IR) laser. Compared to ultraviolet (UV) curable materials, thermally curable optical silicones have a number of advantages, such as strong UV stability, non-yellowing, and high transmission, making it particularly suitable for optical applications. Pulsed IR laser radiation offers a distinct advantage in processing optical silicones, as the high peak intensity achieved in the focal region allows for curing the material quickly, while the brief duration of the laser-material interaction creates a negligible heat-affected zone.


    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaolin; Godara, Pooja; Zhang, Tianjiao; Clark, Mark E; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Spaide, Richard F; Owsley, Cynthia; Curcio, Christine A


    To investigate the natural history of dot subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) in age-related macular degeneration, using high-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Six eyes of four patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration were studied at baseline and 1 year later. Individual dot SDD within the central 30° retina were examined with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography. A total of 269 solitary SDD were identified at baseline. Over 12.25 ± 1.18 months, all 35 Stage 1 SDD progressed to advanced stages. Eighteen (60%) Stage 2 lesions progressed to Stage 3 and 12 (40%) remained at Stage 2. Of 204 Stage 3 SDD, 12 (6.4%) disappeared and the rest remained. Twelve new SDD were identified, including 6 (50%) at Stage 1, 2 (16.7%) at Stage 2, and 4 (33.3%) at Stage 3. The mean percentage of the retina affected by dot SDD, measured by the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, increased in 5/6 eyes (from 2.31% to 5.08% in the most changed eye) and decreased slightly in 1/6 eye (from 10.67% to 10.54%). Dynamism, the absolute value of the areas affected by new and regressed lesions, ranged from 0.7% to 9.3%. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy reveals that dot SDD, like drusen, are dynamic.

  11. Novel adaptive fiber-optics collimator for coherent beam combination. (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Pengfei; Ma, Yanxing; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei


    In this manuscript, we experimentally validate a novel design of adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC), which utilizes two levers to enlarge the movable range of the fiber end cap. The enlargement of the range makes the new AFOC possible to compensate the end-cap/tilt aberration in fiber laser beam combining system. The new AFOC based on flexible hinges and levers was fabricated and the performance of the new AFOC was tested carefully, including its control range, frequency response and control accuracy. Coherent beam combination (CBC) of two 5-W fiber amplifiers array with simultaneously end-cap/tilt control and phase-locking control was implemented successfully with the novel AFOC. Experimental results show that the average normalized power in the bucket (PIB) value increases from 0.311 to 0.934 with active phasing and tilt aberration compensation simultaneously, and with both controls on, the fringe contrast improves to more than 82% from 0% for the case with both control off. This work presents a promising structure for tilt aberration control in high power CBC system.

  12. Nanomechanical characterization of adaptive optics components in microprojectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Manuel; Bhushan, Bharat


    Compact microprojectors are being developed for information display in mobile electronic devices. A key component of the microprojector is the green laser package, which consists of an adaptive optics component with a drive mechanism. A crucial concern is the mechanical wear of key drive mechanism components, such as the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) driving rod, the Zn alloy body and the stainless steel friction plate, after prolonged operation. Since friction and wear are dependent on the mechanical properties, nanoindentation experiments were conducted on these drive mechanism components using a depth-sensing nanoindenter at room and elevated temperatures up to 100 °C. The hardness and elastic modulus of all the materials studied decrease at increasing test temperatures. From plasticity index analysis, a correlation between the tendency for plastic deformation and the mechanical properties was obtained. Nanoscratch studies were also conducted in order to simulate wear, as well as examine the scratch resistance and deformation modes of these materials, where it was found that the CFRP rod exhibited the highest scratch resistance. The CFRP rod undergoes mostly brittle deformation, while the Zn alloy body and friction plate undergo plastic deformation.

  13. Adaptive Forward Error Correction for Energy Efficient Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert


    In this paper we propose a novel scheme for on the fly code rate adjustment for forward error correcting (FEC) codes on optical links. The proposed scheme makes it possible to adjust the code rate independently for each optical frame. This allows for seamless rate adaption based on the link state...

  14. Investigation on adaptive optics performance from propagation channel characterization with the small optical transponder (United States)

    Petit, Cyril; Védrenne, Nicolas; Velluet, Marie Therese; Michau, Vincent; Artaud, Geraldine; Samain, Etienne; Toyoshima, Morio


    In order to address the high throughput requested for both downlink and uplink satellite to ground laser links, adaptive optics (AO) has become a key technology. While maturing, application of this technology for satellite to ground telecommunication, however, faces difficulties, such as higher bandwidth and optimal operation for a wide variety of atmospheric conditions (daytime and nighttime) with potentially low elevations that might severely affect wavefront sensing because of scintillation. To address these specificities, an accurate understanding of the origin of the perturbations is required, as well as operational validation of AO on real laser links. We report here on a low Earth orbiting (LEO) microsatellite to ground downlink with AO correction. We discuss propagation channel characterization based on Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (WFS) measurements. Fine modeling of the propagation channel is proposed based on multi-Gaussian model of turbulence profile. This model is then used to estimate the AO performance and validate the experimental results. While AO performance is limited by the experimental set-up, it proves to comply with expected performance and further interesting information on propagation channel is extracted. These results shall help dimensioning and operating AO systems for LEO to ground downlinks.

  15. Precision laser processing for micro electronics and fiber optic manufacturing (United States)

    Webb, Andrew; Osborne, Mike; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Dinkel, Duane W.


    The application of laser based materials processing for precision micro scale manufacturing in the electronics and fiber optic industry is becoming increasingly widespread and accepted. This presentation will review latest laser technologies available and discuss the issues to be considered in choosing the most appropriate laser and processing parameters. High repetition rate, short duration pulsed lasers have improved rapidly in recent years in terms of both performance and reliability enabling flexible, cost effective processing of many material types including metal, silicon, plastic, ceramic and glass. Demonstrating the relevance of laser micromachining, application examples where laser processing is in use for production will be presented, including miniaturization of surface mount capacitors by applying a laser technique for demetalization of tracks in the capacitor manufacturing process and high quality laser machining of fiber optics including stripping, cleaving and lensing, resulting in optical quality finishes without the need for traditional polishing. Applications include telecoms, biomedical and sensing. OpTek Systems was formed in 2000 and provide fully integrated systems and sub contract services for laser processes. They are headquartered in the UK and are establishing a presence in North America through a laser processing facility in South Carolina and sales office in the North East.

  16. Laser startup optics for Baseball II and future mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.M.; Chargin, A.K.; Brown, N.J.


    The laser startup system for Baseball II-T uses a 300-J CO 2 laser to hit a 100-μ diameter pellet with a laser power density on the order of 10 13 W/cm 2 . The laser is a 20-cm diameter unstable resonator transversely excited (TEA) oscillator. The beam is split and then focused using off-axis parabolas. The symmetric configuration and central obscuration of the CO 2 beam allow coaxial alignment and pellet detection optics. This experiment primarily uses commercially available systems and components. Optical elements were fabricated both by direct machining and standard polishing techniques. The laser and optical systems are directly scalable to reactor requirements using demonstrated technologies

  17. Acousto-optic replication of ultrashort laser pulses (United States)

    Yushkov, Konstantin B.; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya.; Ovchinnikov, Andrey V.; Chefonov, Oleg V.


    Precisely controlled sequences of ultrashort laser pulses are required in various scientific and engineering applications. We developed a phase-only acousto-optic pulse shaping method for replication of ultrashort laser pulses in a TW laser system. A sequence of several Fourier-transform-limited pulses is generated from a single femtosecond laser pulse by means of applying a piecewise linear phase modulation over the whole emission spectrum. Analysis demonstrates that the main factor which limits maximum delay between the pulse replicas is spectral resolution of the acousto-optic dispersive delay line used for pulse shaping. In experiments with a Cr:forsterite laser system, we obtained delays from 0.3 to 3.5 ps between two replicas of 190 fs transform-limited pulses at the central wavelength of laser emission, 1230 nm.

  18. Optical vortex generation from a diode-pumped alexandrite laser (United States)

    Thomas, G. M.; Minassian, A.; Damzen, M. J.


    We present the demonstration of an optical vortex mode directly generated from a diode-pumped alexandrite slab laser, operating in the bounce geometry. This is the first demonstration of an optical vortex mode generated from an alexandrite laser or from any other vibronic laser. An output power of 2 W for a vortex mode with a ‘topological charge’ of 1 was achieved and the laser was made to oscillate with both left- and right-handed vorticity. The laser operated at two distinct wavelengths simultaneously, 755 and 759 nm, due to birefringent filtering in the alexandrite gain medium. The result offers the prospect of broadly wavelength tunable vortex generation directly from a laser.

  19. Laser Transmitters for the optical link systems used in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    In the CMS experiment of the now new flagship LHC optical links will be used for the tracker readout system. One part of this components will be semiconductor laser (~50.000 !!!), named correctly: 1310 nm InGaAsP (DCPBH-MQW) edge-emitting laser. They are foreseen as transmitter in the Tx Hybrid part of the optical link system.

  20. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.


    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting, antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation

  1. Proceedings of the IEEE laser and electro-optics society annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.J.B.; Raney, H.; Raney, D.; Spalaris, C.N.


    This book is covered under the following headings: Electro-optic systems; Emerging laser technology; Optical sensors and measurements; Optoelectronics; Semiconductor diode lasers; Solid state lasers; UV and short wavelength; Applied optical diagnostics of semiconductor materials and devices symposium and optical sensors and measurements; and Applied optical diagnostics of semiconductor materials and devices symposium

  2. Mathematical model of an optically pumped molecular laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR


    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed that accurately predicts the performance of an optically pumped HBr laser. Relatively high conversion efficiency was achieved. Tm pumped Ho:YLF is a viable source for pumping HBr laser, while HBr can be scaled...

  3. Optical properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) during nanosecond laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, N.E., E-mail: [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Boul., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasov, P.A.; Nikov, Ru.G.; Nikov, R.G.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Stoyanchov, T.R. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Boul., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Fukata, N. [International Center for Materials for NanoArchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Kolev, K.N.; Valova, E.I.; Georgieva, J.S.; Armyanov, St.A. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)


    Highlights: • Ns-laser (266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) processing of medical grade PDMS is performed. • Investigation of the optical transmittance as a function of the laser beam parameters. • Analyses of laser treated area by optical & laser microscope and μ-Raman spectrometry. • Application as (MEAs) neural interface for monitor and stimulation of neural activity. - Abstract: This article presents experimental investigations of effects of the process parameters on the medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer processed by laser source with irradiation at UV (266 and 355 nm), VIS (532 nm) and NIR (1064 nm). Systematic experiments are done to characterize how the laser beam parameters (wavelength, fluence, and number of pulses) affect the optical properties and the chemical composition in the laser treated areas. Remarkable changes of the optical properties and the chemical composition are observed. Despite the low optical absorption of the native PDMS for UV, VIS and NIR wavelengths, successful laser treatment is accomplished due to the incubation process occurring below the polymer surface. With increasing of the fluence and the number of the pulses chemical transformations are revealed in the entire laser treated area and hence decreasing of the optical transmittance is observed. The incubation gets saturation after a certain number of pulses and the laser ablation of the material begins efficiently. At the UV and VIS wavelengths the number of the initial pulses, at which the optical transmittance begins to reduce, decreases from 16 up to 8 with increasing of the laser fluence up to 1.0, 2.5 and 10 J cm{sup −2} for 266, 355 and 532 nm, respectively. In the case of 1064 nm the optical transmittance begins to reduce at 11th pulse incident at a fluence of 13 J cm{sup −2} and the number of the pulses decreases to 8 when the fluence reaches value of 16 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold laser fluence needed to induce incubation process after certain

  4. Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol; Cha, Jae Sang


    An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications

  5. Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Sang [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications.

  6. Skin optical clearing for improvement of laser tattoo removal (United States)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.


    The possibility of improvement of laser tattoo removal due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that previously perforation of skin stratum corneum allows increasing tattoo image contrast at topical administration of immersion agent in contrast with non-perforated skin. Computer Monte Carlo simulation shows that at the optical clearing of upper skin layers the tattoo image contrast and the photon fraction absorbed in the tattoo area at the depths of 0.5 or 1.0 mm increase, that allows significant decreasing of the power of laser radiation used at laser thermolysis.

  7. Analysis of laser-induced heating in optical neuronal guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Christian L.; Bruus, Henrik


    Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to control the growth direction of neuronal growth cones by stimulation with weak laser light; an effect dubbed optical neuronal guidance. The effect exists for a broad range of laser wavelengths, spot sizes, spot intensities, optical intensity...... profiles and beam modulations, but it is unknown which biophysical mechanisms govern it. Based on thermodynamic modeling and simulation using published experimental parameters as input, we argue that the guidance is linked to heating. Until now, temperature effects due to laser-induced heating...

  8. Optical design of high power excimer laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongsheng; Zhao Jun; Ma Lianying; Yi Aiping; Liu Jingru


    Image relay and angular multiplexing,which should be considered together in the design of high power excimer laser system, is reviewed. It's important to select proper illumination setup and laser beam shaping techniques. Given the complex and special angular multiplexing scheme in high power excimer laser systems, some detailed conceptual layout schemes are given in the paper. After a brief description of lens array and reflective telescope objective, which combine the incoming beams to a common focus, a new schematic layout which uses the final targeting optics and one optical delay line array, to realize multiplexing and de-multiplexing simultaneously is first proposed in the paper. (authors)

  9. CO2 laser pulse switching by optically excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, V.L. da.


    The construction and the study of a semi-conductor optical switch used for generating short infrared pulses and to analyse the semiconductor characteristics, are presented. The switch response time depends on semiconductor and control laser characteristics. The results obtained using a Ge switch controlled by N 2 , NdYag and Dye lasers are presented. The response time was 50 ns limited by Ge recombination time. The reflectivity increased from 7% to 59% using N 2 laser to control the switch. A simple model for semiconductor optical properties that explain very well the experimental results, is also presented. (author) [pt

  10. A microring multimode laser using hollow polymer optical fibre

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dye-doped optical fibre; fibre laser; microcavity; whispering gallery mode. ... Cylindrical microcavities with diameters 155, 340 and 615 m were fabricated from a dye-doped hollow polymer optical fibre preform. ... International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022, India ...

  11. Optical trapping with Bessel beams generated from semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovskii, G S; Dudelev, V V; Losev, S N; Soboleva, K K; Deryagin, A G; Kuchinskii, V I; Sibbett, W; Rafailov, E U


    In this paper, we study generation of Bessel beams from semiconductor lasers with high beam propagation parameter M 2 and their utilization for optical trapping and manipulation of microscopic particles including living cells. The demonstrated optical tweezing with diodegenerated Bessel beams paves the way to replace their vibronic-generated counterparts for a range of applications towards novel lab-on-a-chip configurations

  12. Laser optically pumped by laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silfvast, W.T.; Wood, O.R. II.


    Laser solids, liquids and gases are pumped by a new technique in which the output from an efficient molecular laser, such as a CO 2 laser, ionizes a medium, such as xenon, into a generally cylindrical plasma volume, in proximity to the pumped laser body. Breakdown yields a visible and ultraviolet-radiation-emitting plasma in that volume to pump the laser body. The spectral radiance of the plasma is significantly higher than that produced by a dc-discharge-heated plasma at nearly all wavelengths in the plasma spectrum. The risetime of radiation from the laser-produced plasma can also be significantly shorter than that of a dc heated plasma. A further advantage resides in the fact that in some applications the attenuating walls needed by flashlamps may be eliminated with the result that laser threshold is more readily reached. Traveling wave excitation may be provided by oblique incidence of the pumping laser beam through the ionizable medium to create sequential ionization of portions of that medium along the length of the pumped laser body. (auth)

  13. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nostrand, M.C.; Weiland, T.L.; Luthi, R.L.; Vickers, J.L.; Sell, W.D.; Stanley, J.A.; Honig, J.; Auerbach, J.; Hackel, R.P.; Wegner, P.J.


    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm 2 high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics

  14. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems (United States)

    Downie, John D.


    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  15. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, A.


    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  16. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.


    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  17. Optical response in a laser-driven quantum pseudodot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, D. Gul [Physics Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S., E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U. [Department of Optical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Kasapoglu, E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sari, H. [Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sokmen, I. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey)


    We investigate theoretically the intense laser-induced optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a two-dimensional quantum pseudodot system under an uniform magnetic field. The effects of non-resonant, monochromatic intense laser field upon the system are treated within the framework of high-frequency Floquet approach in which the system is supposed to be governed by a laser-dressed potential. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients and relative changes in the refractive index are obtained by means of the compact-density matrix approach and iterative method. The results of numerical calculations for a typical GaAs quantum dot reveal that the optical response depends strongly on the magnitude of external magnetic field and characteristic parameters of the confinement potential. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the intense laser field modifies the confinement and thereby causes remarkable changes in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the system.

  18. Optical response in a laser-driven quantum pseudodot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, D. Gul; Sakiroglu, S.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sokmen, I.


    We investigate theoretically the intense laser-induced optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a two-dimensional quantum pseudodot system under an uniform magnetic field. The effects of non-resonant, monochromatic intense laser field upon the system are treated within the framework of high-frequency Floquet approach in which the system is supposed to be governed by a laser-dressed potential. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients and relative changes in the refractive index are obtained by means of the compact-density matrix approach and iterative method. The results of numerical calculations for a typical GaAs quantum dot reveal that the optical response depends strongly on the magnitude of external magnetic field and characteristic parameters of the confinement potential. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the intense laser field modifies the confinement and thereby causes remarkable changes in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the system.

  19. Laser based analysis using a passively Q-switched laser employing analysis electronics and a means for detecting atomic optical emission of the laser media (United States)

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.


    A device for Laser based Analysis using a Passively Q-Switched Laser comprising an optical pumping source optically connected to a laser media. The laser media and a Q-switch are positioned between and optically connected to a high reflectivity mirror (HR) and an output coupler (OC) along an optical axis. The output coupler (OC) is optically connected to the output lens along the optical axis. A means for detecting atomic optical emission comprises a filter and a light detector. The optical filter is optically connected to the laser media and the optical detector. A control system is connected to the optical detector and the analysis electronics. The analysis electronics are optically connected to the output lens. The detection of the large scale laser output production triggers the control system to initiate the precise timing and data collection from the detector and analysis.

  20. Quantum confined laser devices optical gain and recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Blood, Peter


    The semiconductor laser, invented over 50 years ago, has had an enormous impact on the digital technologies that now dominate so many applications in business, commerce and the home. The laser is used in all types of optical fibre communication networks that enable the operation of the internet, e-mail, voice and skype transmission. Approximately one billion are produced each year for a market valued at around $5 billion. Nearly all semiconductor lasers now use extremely thin layers of light emitting materials (quantum well lasers). Increasingly smaller nanostructures are used in the form of quantum dots. The impact of the semiconductor laser is surprising in the light of the complexity of the physical processes that determine the operation of every device. This text takes the reader from the fundamental optical gain and carrier recombination processes in quantum wells and quantum dots, through descriptions of common device structures to an understanding of their operating characteristics. It has a consistent...

  1. High energy laser optics manufacturing: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, E.D.


    This report presents concepts and methods, major conclusions, and major recommendations concerning the fabrication of high energy laser optics (HELO) that are to be machined by the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of concepts and methods proposed for metrological operations, polishing of reflective surfaces, mounting of optical components, construction of mirror substrates, and applications of coatings are included

  2. Laser guide stars for optical free-space communications (United States)

    Mata-Calvo, Ramon; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Barrios, Ricardo; Centrone, Mauro; Giggenbach, Dirk; Lombardi, Gianluca; Becker, Peter; Zayer, Igor


    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) performed a measurement campaign together in April and July 2016 at Teide-Observatory (Tenerife), with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), to investigate the use of laser guide stars (LGS) in ground to space optical communications. Atmospheric turbulence causes strong signal fluctuations in the uplink, due to scintillation and beam wander. In space communications, the use of the downlink channel as reference for pointing and for pre-distortion adaptive optics is limited by the size of the isokinetic and isoplanatic angle in relation to the required point-ahead angle. Pointing and phase errors due to the decorrelation between downward and upward beam due to the point-ahead angle may have a severe impact on the required transmit power and the stability of the communications link. LGSs provide a self-tailored reference to any optical ground-to-space link, independently of turbulence conditions and required point-ahead angle. In photon-starved links, typically in deep-space scenarios, LGSs allow dedicating all downlink received signal to communications purposes, increasing the available link margin. The scope of the joint DLR-ESO measurement campaign was, first, to measure the absolute value of the beam wander (uplink-tilt) using a LGS, taking a natural star as a reference, and, second, to characterize the decrease of correlation between uplink-tilt and downlink-tilt with respect to the angular separation between both sources. This paper describes the experiments performed during the measurement campaigns, providing an overview of the measured data and the first outcomes of the data post-processing.

  3. Mode profiling of optical fibers at high laser powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Pedersen, David Bue; Simonsen, R.B.


    of the focused spot can be determined. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating wire being swept though the laser beam, while the reflected signal is recorded [1]. By changing the incident angle of the rotating rod from 0° to 360° in relation to the fiber, the full profile of the laser beam...... is obtained. Choosing a highly reflective rod material and a sufficiently high rotation speed, these measurements can be done with high laser powers, without any additional optical elements between the fiber and analyzer. The performance of the analyzer was evaluated by coupling laser light into different...

  4. Diffractive optical elements for transformation of modes in lasers (United States)

    Sridharan, Arun K.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Armstrong, James P.; Dawson, Jay W.


    Spatial mode conversion modules are described, with the capability of efficiently transforming a given optical beam profile, at one plane in space into another well-defined optical beam profile at a different plane in space, whose detailed spatial features and symmetry properties can, in general, differ significantly. The modules are comprised of passive, high-efficiency, low-loss diffractive optical elements, combined with Fourier transform optics. Design rules are described that employ phase retrieval techniques and associated algorithms to determine the necessary profiles of the diffractive optical components. System augmentations are described that utilize real-time adaptive optical techniques for enhanced performance as well as power scaling.

  5. The development of fluorides for high power laser optics (United States)

    Ready, J. F.; Vora, H.


    The laser assisted thermonuclear fusion program has need for improved optical materials with high transmission in the ultraviolet, and with low values of nonlinear index of refraction. Lithium fluoride possesses a combination of optical properties which are of use. Single crystalline LiF is limited by low mechanical strength. The technique of press forging to increase the mechanical strength is investigated. LiF single crystals were press forged over the temperature range 300 - 600 deg C to produce fine grained polycrystalline material. Optical homogenity at 633, stress birefringence, scattering at 633, residual absorption over the spectral range 339 - 3800 nm, and laser damage thresholds for 1 ns, 1064 nm and 700 ps, 266 nm laser pulses are evaluated. Single crystals can be press forged without seriously degrading their optical properties. Yield strength in compression, proportional limit and fracture strength in 3 and 4 point bending, fracture energy, and threshold for microyield are discussed.

  6. Optical properties of a multibarrier structure under intense laser fields (United States)

    Ospina, D. A.; Akimov, V.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Morales, A. L.; Tulupenko, V.; Duque, C. A.


    Using the diagonalization method and within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations, the energy spectrum and the wave functions are investigated in biased multibarrier structure taking into account the effects of nonresonant intense laser fields. We calculated the optical properties from the susceptibility using a nonperturbative formalism recently reported. We study the changes in the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refraction index for several values of the dressing laser parameter and for some specific values of the electric field applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure. It is concluded from our study that the peaks in the optical absorption spectrum have redshifts or blueshifts as a function of the laser parameter and the electric field. These parameters could be suitable tools for tuning the electronic and optical properties of the multibarrier structure.

  7. Wavelet methods in multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helin, T; Yudytskiy, M


    The next generation ground-based telescopes rely heavily on adaptive optics for overcoming the limitation of atmospheric turbulence. In the future adaptive optics modalities, like multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), atmospheric tomography is the major mathematical and computational challenge. In this severely ill-posed problem, a fast and stable reconstruction algorithm is needed that can take into account many real-life phenomena of telescope imaging. We introduce a novel reconstruction method for the atmospheric tomography problem and demonstrate its performance and flexibility in the context of MCAO. Our method is based on using locality properties of compactly supported wavelets, both in the spatial and frequency domains. The reconstruction in the atmospheric tomography problem is obtained by solving the Bayesian MAP estimator with a conjugate-gradient-based algorithm. An accelerated algorithm with preconditioning is also introduced. Numerical performance is demonstrated on the official end-to-end simulation tool OCTOPUS of European Southern Observatory. (paper)

  8. Generation of optical vortices with an adaptive helical mirror. (United States)

    Ghai, Devinder Pal


    Generation of optical vortices using a new design of adaptive helical mirror (AHM) is reported. The new AHM is a reflective device that can generate an optical vortex of any desired topological charge, both positive and negative, within its breakdown limits. The most fascinating feature of the AHM is that the topological charge of the optical vortex generated with it can be changed in real time by varying the excitation voltage. Generation of optical vortices up to topological charge 4 has been demonstrated. The presence of a vortex in the optical field generated with the AHM is confirmed by producing both fork and spiral fringes in an interferometric setup. Various design improvements to further enhance the performance of the reported AHM are discussed. Some of the important applications of AHM are also listed. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Beam transport optics for high-power laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.


    Beam transport optics receive output energy from the laser cavity and deliver it to the work site. Depending on the application, this may require a few simple elements or large complex systems. Collection of the laser energy depends on the spatial and temporal energy distribution as well as the wavelength and polarization of the laser cavity and output coupler. Transport optics can perform a variety of functions, including beam formatting, frequency doubling, and distribution to one or more work sites while maintaining or even improving the beam quality. The beam may be delivered to work sites as focused spots or images, projected to distant targets, or propagated through various media for sensing or photochemical processing. Design may involve optical modeling of the system, including diffraction effects and thermal management. A Gaussian beam profile is often used for convenience in modeling. When deviations from this ideal profile need to be considered, it is necessary to characterize the laser beam in detail. Design of the transport system requires understanding of the interaction of the laser energy with optical materials and components. Practical considerations include mounting the optics without stress and with the stability suitable for the intended application. Requirements for beam direction, stability, size, shape, and quality dictate the design approach for each specific situation. Attention also must be given to reliability, environmental, and commercial requirements. Damage to optics in high-power laser systems is a common concern. Environmental problems such as atmospheric turbulence, contamination by dust or vapor from the work site or other sources, or absorption of water vapor can directly degrade beam quality. Other potentially significant optical performance effects may result from instability and aging of the optics, temperature, humidity, pressure, transmitted vibration, and contamination from the work site or other sources

  10. Theoretical model for a background noise limited laser-excited optical filter for doubled Nd lasers (United States)

    Shay, Thomas M.; Garcia, Daniel F.


    A simple theoretical model for the calculation of the dependence of filter quantum efficiency versus laser pump power in an atomic Rb vapor laser-excited optical filter is reported. Calculations for Rb filter transitions that can be used to detect the practical and important frequency-doubled Nd lasers are presented. The results of these calculations show the filter's quantum efficiency versus the laser pump power. The required laser pump powers required range from 2.4 to 60 mW/sq cm of filter aperture.

  11. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe


    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. PMID:23271600

  12. Memory Effect on Adaptive Decision Making with a Chaotic Semiconductor Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatomo Mihana


    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of a memory parameter on the performance of adaptive decision making using a tug-of-war method with the chaotic oscillatory dynamics of a semiconductor laser. We experimentally generate chaotic temporal waveforms of the semiconductor laser with optical feedback and apply them for adaptive decision making in solving a multiarmed bandit problem that aims at maximizing the total reward from slot machines whose hit probabilities are dynamically switched. We examine the dependence of making correct decisions on different values of the memory parameter. The degree of adaptivity is found to be enhanced with a smaller memory parameter, whereas the degree of convergence to the correct decision is higher for a larger memory parameter. The relations among the adaptivity, environmental changes, and the difficulties of the problem are also discussed considering the requirement of past decisions. This examination of ultrafast adaptive decision making highlights the importance of memorizing past events and paves the way for future photonic intelligence.

  13. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics. (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K


    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  14. Adaptive optical microscope for brain imaging in vivo (United States)

    Wang, Kai


    The optical heterogeneity of biological tissue imposes a major limitation to acquire detailed structural and functional information deep in the biological specimens using conventional microscopes. To restore optimal imaging performance, we developed an adaptive optical microscope based on direct wavefront sensing technique. This microscope can reliably measure and correct biological samples induced aberration. We demonstrated its performance and application in structural and functional brain imaging in various animal models, including fruit fly, zebrafish and mouse.

  15. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bien-Aime, K.


    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 , a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  16. Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn


    On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal....

  17. Photonic crystal-adaptive optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas

    This Ph.D. thesis presents methods for enhancing the optical functionality of transparent glass panes by introduction of invisible nanoscale surface structures, such as gratings and planar photonic cyrstals. In this way the primary functionality of the glass - transparancy - may be enhanced...... been designed, fabricated and analyzed. First a solar harvesting method, based on nanoscale gratings which are imprinted in a thin-film which is deposited on the window pane is discussed. Free-space light which is incident onto a window is coupled to guided modes in the thin-film or the substrate...

  18. The fundus photo has met its match: optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy are here to stay. (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica I W


    Over the past 25 years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy have revolutionised our ability to non-invasively observe the living retina. The purpose of this review is to highlight the techniques and human clinical applications of recent advances in OCT and adaptive optics scanning laser/light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) ophthalmic imaging. Optical coherence tomography retinal and optic nerve head (ONH) imaging technology allows high resolution in the axial direction resulting in cross-sectional visualisation of retinal and ONH lamination. Complementary AO ophthalmoscopy gives high resolution in the transverse direction resulting in en face visualisation of retinal cell mosaics. Innovative detection schemes applied to OCT and AOSLO technologies (such as spectral domain OCT, OCT angiography, confocal and non-confocal AOSLO, fluorescence, and AO-OCT) have enabled high contrast between retinal and ONH structures in three dimensions and have allowed in vivo retinal imaging to approach that of histological quality. In addition, both OCT and AOSLO have shown the capability to detect retinal reflectance changes in response to visual stimuli, paving the way for future studies to investigate objective biomarkers of visual function at the cellular level. Increasingly, these imaging techniques are being applied to clinical studies of the normal and diseased visual system. Optical coherence tomography and AOSLO technologies are capable of elucidating the structure and function of the retina and ONH noninvasively with unprecedented resolution and contrast. The techniques have proven their worth in both basic science and clinical applications and each will continue to be utilised in future studies for many years to come. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Vivian; Sanders, David; Kewley, Lisa [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Medling, Anne; Max, Claire [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Iwasawa, Kazushi [ICREA and Institut del Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Evans, Aaron [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fazio, Giovanni, E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    There is X-ray, optical, and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic evidence that the late-stage ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Mrk 273 hosts a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, the exact location of the AGN and the nature of the nucleus have been difficult to determine due to dust obscuration and the limited wavelength coverage of available high-resolution data. Here we present near-infrared integral-field spectra and images of the nuclear region of Mrk 273 taken with OSIRIS and NIRC2 on the Keck II Telescope with laser guide star adaptive optics. We observe three spatially resolved components, and analyze the nuclear molecular and ionized gas emission lines and their kinematics. We confirm the presence of the hard X-ray AGN in the southwest nucleus. In the north nucleus, we find a strongly rotating gas disk whose kinematics indicate a central black hole of mass 1.04 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}. The H{sub 2} emission line shows an increase in velocity dispersion along the minor axis in both directions, and an increased flux with negative velocities in the southeast direction; this provides direct evidence for a collimated molecular outflow along the axis of rotation of the disk. The third spatially distinct component appears to the southeast, 640 and 750 pc from the north and southwest nuclei, respectively. This component is faint in continuum emission but shows several strong emission line features, including [Si VI] 1.964 μm which traces an extended coronal-line region. The geometry of the [Si VI] emission combined with shock models and energy arguments suggest that [Si VI] in the southeast component must be at least partly ionized by the SW AGN or a putative AGN in the northern disk, either through photoionization or through shock-heating from strong AGN- and circumnuclear-starburst-driven outflows. This lends support to a scenario in which Mrk 273 may be a dual AGN system.

  20. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, Yu V [V.A.Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazaryan, M A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mokrushin, Yu M [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Shakin, O V [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  1. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu V; Kazaryan, M A; Mokrushin, Yu M; Shakin, O V


    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  2. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu M.; Shakin, O. V.


    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation.

  3. Sol-gel optical coatings for lasers: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floch, H.G.; Belleville, P.F.; Priotton, J.J.


    Many manufacturers and users claim that optical coatings are best prepared by physical vapor deposition technology. Others believe that sol-gel technology is an effective and competitive alternative. This article, the first of three, emphasizes sol-gel thin-film history and relates it to high-power laser technology, chemistry of the sol-gel process, production of optical coatings and deposition techniques. The second and third articles describe the preparation and performance of antireflective and highly reflective sol-gel optical coatings, respectively, that have been developed for the 1.8-MJ/500-TW (351-nm) pulsed neodymium-glass laser. This powerful laser is to be used in France's Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. It will demonstrate, at the laboratory scale, ignition of deuterium-tritium fusion fuel

  4. Adaptive Optics Facility: control strategy and first on-sky results of the acquisition sequence (United States)

    Madec, P.-Y.; Kolb, J.; Oberti, S.; Paufique, J.; La Penna, P.; Hackenberg, W.; Kuntschner, H.; Argomedo, J.; Kiekebusch, M.; Donaldson, R.; Suarez, M.; Arsenault, R.


    The Adaptive Optics Facility is an ESO project aiming at converting Yepun, one of the four 8m telescopes in Paranal, into an adaptive telescope. This is done by replacing the current conventional secondary mirror of Yepun by a Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and attaching four Laser Guide Star (LGS) Units to its centerpiece. In the meantime, two Adaptive Optics (AO) modules have been developed incorporating each four LGS WaveFront Sensors (WFS) and one tip-tilt sensor used to control the DSM at 1 kHz frame rate. The four LGS Units and one AO module (GRAAL) have already been assembled on Yepun. Besides the technological challenge itself, one critical area of AOF is the AO control strategy and its link with the telescope control, including Active Optics used to shape M1. Another challenge is the request to minimize the overhead due to AOF during the acquisition phase of the observation. This paper presents the control strategy of the AOF. The current control of the telescope is first recalled, and then the way the AO control makes the link with the Active Optics is detailed. Lab results are used to illustrate the expected performance. Finally, the overall AOF acquisition sequence is presented as well as first results obtained on sky with GRAAL.

  5. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.


    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  6. Return-map for semiconductor lasers with optical feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne; Sabbatier, H.


    It is well known that a semiconductor laser exposed to moderate optical feedback and biased near threshold exhibits the phenomenon of low-frequency intensity fluctuations (LFF). While this behavior can be numerically simulated using the so-called Lang-Kobayshi model, the interpretation of the phe......It is well known that a semiconductor laser exposed to moderate optical feedback and biased near threshold exhibits the phenomenon of low-frequency intensity fluctuations (LFF). While this behavior can be numerically simulated using the so-called Lang-Kobayshi model, the interpretation...

  7. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.


    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  8. Simulated annealing in adaptive optics for imaging the eye retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zommer, S.; Adler, J.; Lipson, S. G.; Ribak, E.


    Full Text:Adaptive optics is a method designed to correct deformed images in real time. Once the distorted wavefront is known, a deformable mirror is used to compensate the aberrations and return the wavefront to a plane wave. This study concentrates on methods that omit wave front sensing from the reconstruction process. Such methods use stochastic algorithms to find the extremum of a certain sharpness function, thereby correcting the image without any information on the wavefront. Theoretical work [l] has shown that the optical problem can be mapped onto a model for crystal roughening. The main algorithm applied is simulated annealing. We present a first hardware realization of this algorithm in an adaptive optics system designed to image the retina of the human eye

  9. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev


    Full Text Available In the development of optical telescopes, striving to increase the penetrating power of a telescope has been always the main trend. A real way to solve this problem is to raise the quality of the image (reduction of the image angular size under real conditions of distorting factor and increase a diameter of the main mirror. This is counteracted by the various distorting factors or interference occurring in realtime use of telescopes, as well as by complicated manufacturing processes of large mirrors.It is shown that the most effective method to deal with the influence of distorting factors on the image quality in the telescope is the minimization (through selecting the place to mount a telescope and choosing the rational optical scheme, creating materials and new technologies, improving a design, unloading the mirrors, mounting choice, etc., and then the adaptive compensation of remaining distortions.It should be noted that a domestic concept to design large-sized telescopes allows us to use, in our opinion, the most efficient ways to do this. It means to abandon the creation of "an absolutely rigid and well-ordered" design, providing the passively aligned state telescope optics under operating conditions. The design must just have such a level of residual deformations that their effect can be efficiently compensated by the adaptive system using the segmented elements of the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a corrector.It has been found that in the transmission optical systems to deliver laser power to a remote object, it is necessary not only to overcome the distorting effect of factors inherent in optical information systems, but, additionally, find a way to overcome a number of new difficulties. The main ones have been identified to be as follows:• the influence of laser radiation on the structure components and the propagation medium and, as a consequence, the opposite effect of the structure components and the propagation

  10. Optical neuron by use of a laser diode with injection seeding and external optical feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos, E.C.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.L.; Hill, M.T.; Blum, M.W.; Schleipen, J.J.H.B.; Waardt, de H.


    We present an all-optical neuron by use of a multimode laser diode that is subjected to external optical feedback and light injection. The shape of the threshold function, that is needed for neural operation, is controlled by adjusting the external feedback level for two longitudinal cavity modes of

  11. The theoretical study of the optical klystron free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhenhua


    The work of the theoretical study and numerical simulation of optical klystron free electron laser is supported by National 863 Research Development Program and National Science Foundation of China. The object of studying UV band free electron laser (FEL) is to understand the physical law of optical klystron FEL and to gain experience for design. A three-dimensional code OPFEL are made and it is approved that the code is correct completely. The magnetic field of the optical klystron, the energy modulation of the electron beam, the density modulation of the electron beam, spontaneous emission of the electron beam in optical klystron, the harmonic super-radiation of the electron beam, and the effects of the undulator magnetic field error on modulation of the electron beam energy are simulated. These results are useful for the future experiments

  12. Optical cell cleaning with NIR femtosecond laser pulses (United States)

    Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten


    Femtosecond laser microscopes have been used as both micro and nanosurgery tools. The optical knock-out of undesired cells in multiplex cell clusters shall be further reported on in this study. Femtosecond laser-induced cell death is beneficial due to the reduced collateral side effects and therefore can be used to selectively destroy target cells within monolayers, as well as within 3D tissues, all the while preserving cells of interest. This is an important characteristic for the application in stem cell research and cancer treatment. Non-precise damage compromises the viability of neighboring cells by inducing side effects such as stress to the cells surrounding the target due to the changes in the microenvironment, resulting from both the laser and laser-exposed cells. In this study, optimum laser parameters for optical cleaning by isolating single cells and cell colonies are exploited through the use of automated software control. Physiological equilibrium and cellular responses to the laser induced damages are also investigated. Cell death dependence on laser focus, determination and selectivity of intensity/dosage, controllable damage and cell recovery mechanisms are discussed.

  13. Analysis and Design of Adaptive OCDMA Passive Optical Networks (United States)

    Hadi, Mohammad; Pakravan, Mohammad Reza


    OCDMA systems can support multiple classes of service by differentiating code parameters, power level and diversity order. In this paper, we analyze BER performance of a multi-class 1D/2D OCDMA system and propose a new approximation method that can be used to generate accurate estimation of system BER using a simple mathematical form. The proposed approximation provides insight into proper system level analysis, system level design and sensitivity of system performance to the factors such as code parameters, power level and diversity order. Considering code design, code cardinality and system performance constraints, two design problems are defined and their optimal solutions are provided. We then propose an adaptive OCDMA-PON that adaptively shares unused resources of inactive users among active ones to improve upstream system performance. Using the approximated BER expression and defined design problems, two adaptive code allocation algorithms for the adaptive OCDMA-PON are presented and their performances are evaluated by simulation. Simulation results show that the adaptive code allocation algorithms can increase average transmission rate or decrease average optical power consumption of ONUs for dynamic traffic patterns. According to the simulation results, for an adaptive OCDMA-PON with BER value of 1e-7 and user activity probability of 0.5, transmission rate (optical power consumption) can be increased (decreased) by a factor of 2.25 (0.27) compared to fixed code assignment.

  14. Adaptive metal mirror for high-power CO2 lasers (United States)

    Jarosch, Uwe-Klaus


    Spherical mirrors with a variable radius of curvature are used inside laser resonators as well as in the beam path between the laser and the workpiece. Commercially-available systems use piezoelectric actuators, or the pressure of the coolant, to deform the mirror surface. In both cases, the actuator and the cooling system influence each other. This interaction is avoided through the integration of the cooling system with the flexible mirror membrane. A multi- channel design leads to an optimized cooling effect, which is necessary for high power applications. The contour of the variable metal mirror depends on the mounting between the membrane and the mirror body and on the distribution of forces. Four cases of deformation can be distinguished for a circular elastic membrane. The realization of an adaptive metal mirror requires a technical compromise to be made. A mechanical construction is presented which combines an elastic hinge with the inlet and outlet of the coolant. For the deformation of the mirror membranes two actuators with different character of deformation are used. The superposition of the two deformations results in smaller deviations from the spherical surface shape than can be achieved using a single actuator. DC proportional magnets have been introduced as cheap and rigid actuators. The use of this adaptive mirror, either in a low pressure atmosphere of a gas laser resonator, or in an extra-cavity beam path is made possible through the use of a ventilation system.

  15. Design of fiber optic probes for laser light scattering (United States)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Chu, Benjamin


    A quantitative analysis is presented of the role of optical fibers in laser light scattering. Design of a general fiber optic/microlens probe by means of ray tracing is described. Several different geometries employing an optical fiber of the type used in lightwave communications and a graded index microlens are considered. Experimental results using a nonimaging fiber optic detector probe show that due to geometrical limitations of single mode fibers, a probe using a multimode optical fiber has better performance, for both static and dynamic measurements of the scattered light intensity, compared with a probe using a single mode fiber. Fiber optic detector probes are shown to be more efficient at data collection when compared with conventional approaches to measurements of the scattered laser light. Integration of fiber optic detector probes into a fiber optic spectrometer offers considerable miniaturization of conventional light scattering spectrometers, which can be made arbitrarily small. In addition static and dynamic measurements of scattered light can be made within the scattering cell and consequently very close to the scattering center.

  16. Improving fiber-optic laser beam delivery by incorporating GRADIUM optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, B.V.; Leong, K.H.


    The performance of a fiber-optic laser beam delivery system strongly depends on the fiber and the optics used to image the fiber face on the workpiece. We have compared off-the-shelf homogenous (BK7) and GRADIUM (axial-gradient) singlets to determine what improvement the GRADIUM offers in practice to the typical laser user. The realized benefit for this application, although significant, is much smaller than would be realized by a conventional imaging application. The figure of merit for laser-based materials processing is the 86% energy-enclosure radius, which is not directly supported by commerical ray-tracing software. Therefore empirical rules of thumb are presented to understand when GRADIUM (or any other well-corrected optics) will yield meaningful improvement to the beam delivery system. copyright 1997 Optical Society of America

  17. Proton irradiation of liquid crystal based adaptive optical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buis, E.J.; Berkhout, G.C.G.; Love, G.D.; Kirby, A.K.; Taylor, J.M.; Hannemann, S.; Collon, M.J.


    To assess its radiation hardness, a liquid crystal based adaptive optical element has been irradiated using a 60 MeV proton beam. The device with the functionality of an optical beam steerer was characterised before, during and after the irradiation. A systematic set of measurements on the transmission and beam deflection angles was carried out. The measurements showed that the transmission decreased only marginally and that its optical performance degraded only after a very high proton fluence (10 10 p/cm 2 ). The device showed complete annealing in the functionality as a beam steerer, which leads to the conclusion that the liquid crystal technology for optical devices is not vulnerable to proton irradiation as expected in space.

  18. Proton irradiation of liquid crystal based adaptive optical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buis, E.J., E-mail: [cosine Science and Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Berkhout, G.C.G. [cosine Science and Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huygens Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Love, G.D.; Kirby, A.K.; Taylor, J.M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hannemann, S.; Collon, M.J. [cosine Research BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)


    To assess its radiation hardness, a liquid crystal based adaptive optical element has been irradiated using a 60 MeV proton beam. The device with the functionality of an optical beam steerer was characterised before, during and after the irradiation. A systematic set of measurements on the transmission and beam deflection angles was carried out. The measurements showed that the transmission decreased only marginally and that its optical performance degraded only after a very high proton fluence (10{sup 10}p/cm{sup 2}). The device showed complete annealing in the functionality as a beam steerer, which leads to the conclusion that the liquid crystal technology for optical devices is not vulnerable to proton irradiation as expected in space.

  19. Brillouin micro-spectroscopy through aberrations via sensorless adaptive optics (United States)

    Edrei, Eitan; Scarcelli, Giuliano


    Brillouin spectroscopy is a powerful optical technique for non-contact viscoelastic characterizations which has recently found applications in three-dimensional mapping of biological samples. Brillouin spectroscopy performances are rapidly degraded by optical aberrations and have therefore been limited to homogenous transparent samples. In this work, we developed an adaptive optics (AO) configuration designed for Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to engineer the incident wavefront and correct for aberrations. Our configuration does not require direct wavefront sensing and the injection of a "guide-star"; hence, it can be implemented without the need for sample pre-treatment. We used our AO-Brillouin spectrometer in aberrated phantoms and biological samples and obtained improved precision and resolution of Brillouin spectral analysis; we demonstrated 2.5-fold enhancement in Brillouin signal strength and 1.4-fold improvement in axial resolution because of the correction of optical aberrations.

  20. Laser-based data acquisition in gas centrifuge environments using optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, M.R.; Allison, S.W.; Marshall, B.; Davies, T.J.; Franks, L.A.; Nelson, M.A.; Noel, B.W.


    The operating environment of gas centrifuges poses three basic experimental problems: rotating reference frame, corrosive effects of UF 6 gas, and vacuum coupling. Diagnostic experiments in this environment effectively use fiber optics as laser transport systems and data extraction channels. Access to the interior of rotating centrifuges is only from a central nonrotating column assembly. Optical paths are often long and difficult to measure in static conditions with precision necessary in operating conditions. Residual traces of HF gas, from UF 6 , damage exposed optical components over time. Diagnostic measurements requiring pulsed laser sources and analysis of fluorescence emissions, both from UF 6 gas and from temperature-sensitive phosphor are described, with emphasis on optical fiber components and experimental design configurations. The studies were done at Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant through the Centrifuge Physics Department of the Centrifuge Division. The advantages of fiber optics methods include: optical path flexibility, small and adaptable size of components, utility in connection with moveable assemblies, and relative ease of vacuum isolation. 3 references, 6 figures

  1. Dual-axis vapor cell for simultaneous laser frequency stabilization on disparate optical transitions (United States)

    Jayakumar, Anupriya; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Jamison, Alan O.; Gupta, Subhadeep


    We have developed a dual-axis ytterbium (Yb) vapor cell and used it to simultaneously address the two laser cooling transitions in Yb at wavelengths 399 nm and 556 nm, featuring the disparate linewidths of 2π × 29 MHz and 2π × 182 KHz, respectively. By utilizing different optical paths for the two wavelengths, we simultaneously obtain comparable optical densities suitable for saturated absorption spectroscopy for both the transitions and keep both the lasers frequency stabilized over several hours. We demonstrate that by appropriate control of the cell temperature profile, two atomic transitions differing in relative strength across a large range of over three orders of magnitude can be simultaneously addressed, making the device adaptable to a variety of spectroscopic needs. We also show that our observations can be understood with a simple theoretical model of the Yb vapor.

  2. Dual-axis vapor cell for simultaneous laser frequency stabilization on disparate optical transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, Anupriya, E-mail:; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Jamison, Alan O.; Gupta, Subhadeep [Department of Physics, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351560, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)


    We have developed a dual-axis ytterbium (Yb) vapor cell and used it to simultaneously address the two laser cooling transitions in Yb at wavelengths 399 nm and 556 nm, featuring the disparate linewidths of 2π × 29 MHz and 2π × 182 KHz, respectively. By utilizing different optical paths for the two wavelengths, we simultaneously obtain comparable optical densities suitable for saturated absorption spectroscopy for both the transitions and keep both the lasers frequency stabilized over several hours. We demonstrate that by appropriate control of the cell temperature profile, two atomic transitions differing in relative strength across a large range of over three orders of magnitude can be simultaneously addressed, making the device adaptable to a variety of spectroscopic needs. We also show that our observations can be understood with a simple theoretical model of the Yb vapor.

  3. Spatial beam shaping using a micro-structured optical fiber and all-fiber laser amplification system for large-scale laser facilities seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, Pierre


    Spatial beam shaping is an important topic for the lasers applications. For various industrial areas (marking, drilling, laser-matter interaction, high-power laser seeding...) the optical beam has to be flattened. Currently, the state of the art of the beam shaping: 'free-space' solutions or highly multimode fibers, are not fully suitable. The first ones are very sensitive to any perturbations and the maintenance is challenging, the second ones cannot deliver a coherent beam. For this reason, we present in this manuscript a micro-structured optical single-mode fiber delivering a spatially flattened beam. This 'Top-Hat' fiber can shape any beam in a spatially coherent beam what is a progress with respect to the highly multimode fibers used in the state of the art. The optical fibers are easy to use and very robust, what is a strong benefit with respect to the 'free-space' solutions. Thanks to this fiber, we could realize an all-fiber multi-stage laser chain to amplify a 10 ns pulse to 100 μJ. Moreover the temporal, spectral and spatial properties were preserved. We adapted this 'Top-Hat' fiber to this multi-stage laser chain, we proved the capability and the interest of this fiber for the spatial beam shaping of the laser beams in highly performing and robust laser systems. (author) [fr

  4. Quantum cascade lasers as metrological tools for space optics (United States)

    Bartalini, S.; Borri, S.; Galli, I.; Mazzotti, D.; Cancio Pastor, P.; Giusfredi, G.; De Natale, P.


    A distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser working in the 4.3÷4.4 mm range has been frequency stabilized to the Lamb-dip center of a CO2 ro-vibrational transition by means of first-derivative locking to the saturated absorption signal, and its absolute frequency counted with a kHz-level precision and an overall uncertainty of 75 kHz. This has been made possible by an optical link between the QCL and a near-IR Optical Frequency Comb Synthesizer, thanks to a non-linear sum-frequency generation process with a fiber-amplified Nd:YAG laser. The implementation of a new spectroscopic technique, known as polarization spectroscopy, provides an improved signal for the locking loop, and will lead to a narrower laser emission and a drastic improvement in the frequency stability, that in principle is limited only by the stability of the optical frequency comb synthesizer (few parts in 1013). These results confirm quantum cascade lasers as reliable sources not only for high-sensitivity, but also for highprecision measurements, ranking them as optimal laser sources for space applications.

  5. Optically Pumped Carbon Monoxide Cascade Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawruk, Nicholas W


    ...) overtone band of the CO, which induced lasing on the (3,2) and (2,1) bands around 4.7um. The laser output was spectrally separated to determine the spectral and temporal evolution of the CO lasing pulse...

  6. High precision optical fiber alignment using tube laser bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Herder, Justus Laurens


    In this paper, we present a method to align optical fibers within 0.2 μm of the optimal position, using tube laser bending and in situ measuring of the coupling efficiency. For near-UV wavelengths, passive alignment of the fibers with respect to the waveguides on photonic integrated circuit chips

  7. Acumulating regions of winding periodic orbits in optically driven lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauskopf, B.; Wieczorek, S.


    We investigate the route to locking in class B lasers subject to optically injected light for injection strengths and detunings near a codimension-two saddle-node Hopf point. This is the parameter region where the Adler approximation is not valid and where Yeung and Strogatz recently reported a

  8. Developing a more useful surface quality metric for laser optics (United States)

    Turchette, Quentin; Turner, Trey


    Light scatter due to surface defects on laser resonator optics produces losses which lower system efficiency and output power. The traditional methodology for surface quality inspection involves visual comparison of a component to scratch and dig (SAD) standards under controlled lighting and viewing conditions. Unfortunately, this process is subjective and operator dependent. Also, there is no clear correlation between inspection results and the actual performance impact of the optic in a laser resonator. As a result, laser manufacturers often overspecify surface quality in order to ensure that optics will not degrade laser performance due to scatter. This can drive up component costs and lengthen lead times. Alternatively, an objective test system for measuring optical scatter from defects can be constructed with a microscope, calibrated lighting, a CCD detector and image processing software. This approach is quantitative, highly repeatable and totally operator independent. Furthermore, it is flexible, allowing the user to set threshold levels as to what will or will not constitute a defect. This paper details how this automated, quantitative type of surface quality measurement can be constructed, and shows how its results correlate against conventional loss measurement techniques such as cavity ringdown times.

  9. Quantum mechanical features of optically pumped CW FIR lasers (United States)

    Seligson, D.; Leite, J. R. R.; Sanchez, A.; Feld, M. S.; Ducloy, M.


    Quantum mechanical predictions for the gain of an optically pumped CW FIR laser are presented for cases in which one or both of the pump and FIR transitions are pressure or Doppler broadened. The results are compared to those based on the rate equation model. Some of the quantum mechanical predictions are verified in CH3OH.

  10. Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten


    The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. The properties of pulse sources and characterization methods are described as well as requirements for application in communication systems. Especially, the importance of...

  11. Research on optic antenna of space laser communication networking (United States)

    Meng, Li-Xin; Li, Long; Zhang, Li-zhong; Zhao, Shan-shan; Jiang, Hui-lin


    With the highlights of the high transmission rate, large capacity, strong anti-interference and anti-capture ability, good security and small light, space laser communication becomes an important hotspot. At present, the focus of research of the laser communication system is point to point communication structure. However, from the application point of view, both the realization of space laser communication among multiple points and the establishment of the information transmission network can really have the practical value. Aiming at the problem of space laser communication network, this article puts forward the general idea about optical antenna to achieve multiple tracking goals at the same time. Through the analysis of the optical antenna, and the comparing of the current commonly used mirror driving mechanism, a new mirror driving mechanism is designed. The azimuth motion, containing circular grating feedback, is driven by torque motor,voice coil motor of fan produces pitch motion that has fan-shaped grating feedback, so that compression of the structure size to improve the efficiency of the reflector assembly. Through the establishment of the driving mechanism and the kinematic model of 3D entity, the relationship between the single drive azimuth and pitch angle following the angle of incident light is explained. The biggest ideal view area affecting the optical antenna is obtained by the simulation analysis of the kinematics model using MATLAB. The several factors of field overlap area and blind area offers a theoretical basis for structure optimization and control system for the subsequent optical antenna design.

  12. Test Port for Fiber-Optic-Coupled Laser Altimeter (United States)

    Ramos Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley; Rinis, Haris; Cavanaugh, John


    A test port designed as part of a fiber optic coupled laser altimeter receiver optical system allows for the back-illumination of the optical system for alignment verification, as well as illumination of the detector(s) for testing the receiver electronics and signal-processing algorithms. Measuring the optical alignment of a laser altimeter instrument is difficult after the instrument is fully assembled. The addition of a test port in the receiver aft-optics allows for the back-illumination of the receiver system such that its focal setting and boresight alignment can be easily verified. For a multiple-detector receiver system, the addition of the aft-optics test port offers the added advantage of being able to simultaneously test all the detectors with different signals that simulate the expected operational conditions. On a laser altimeter instrument (see figure), the aft-optics couple the light from the receiver telescope to the receiver detector(s). Incorporating a beam splitter in the aft-optics design allows for the addition of a test port to back-illuminate the receiver telescope and/or detectors. The aft-optics layout resembles a T with the detector on one leg, the receiver telescope input port on the second leg, and the test port on the third leg. The use of a custom beam splitter with 99-percent reflection, 1-percent transmission, and a mirrored roof can send the test port light to the receiver telescope leg as well as the detector leg, without unduly sacrificing the signal from the receiver telescope to the detector. The ability to test the receiver system alignment, as well as multiple detectors with different signals without the need to disassemble the instrument or connect and reconnect components, is a great advantage to the aft-optics test port. Another benefit is that the receiver telescope aperture is fully back-illuminated by the test port so the receiver telescope focal setting vs. pressure and or temperature can be accurately measured (as

  13. Holograms for laser diode: Single mode optical fiber coupling (United States)

    Fuhr, P. L.


    The low coupling efficiency of semiconductor laser emissions into a single mode optical fibers place a severe restriction on their use. Associated with these conventional optical coupling techniques are stringent alignment sensitivities. Using holographic elements, the coupling efficiency may be increased and the alignment sensitivity greatly reduced. Both conventional and computer methods used in the generation of the holographic couplers are described and diagrammed. The reconstruction geometries used are shown to be somewhat restrictive but substantially less rigid than their conventional optical counterparts. Single and double hologram techniques are examined concerning their respective ease of fabrication and relative merits.

  14. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Optically pumped ultraviolet BR2 laser (United States)

    Kamrukov, A. S.; Kozlov, N. P.; Protasov, Yu S.; Ushmarov, E. Yu


    A report is given of lasing achieved for the first time in optically pumped molecular bromine (D' 3Π2g→A' 3π2u, λL approx 292 nm). It was pumped by thermal vacuum ultraviolet radiation emitted by plasmadynamic discharges of magnetoplasma compressors, formed directly in the laser active medium. An output energy of ~ 1.1 J was obtained per laser pulse of ~ 5-μs duration from a Br2:Ar approx 1:450 active mixture at a pressure of ~ 4 atm. A comparison was made of the experimental output parameters of optically pumped Br2, I2, and XeF (B-X) lasers when their geometries and excitation energies were identical.

  15. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults


    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.


    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of ...

  16. Segmented bimorph mirrors for adaptive optics: morphing strategy. (United States)

    Bastaits, Renaud; Alaluf, David; Belloni, Edoardo; Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Preumont, André


    This paper discusses the concept of a light weight segmented bimorph mirror for adaptive optics. It focuses on the morphing strategy and addresses the ill-conditioning of the Jacobian of the segments, which are partly outside the optical pupil. Two options are discussed, one based on truncating the singular values and one called damped least squares, which minimizes a combined measure of the sensor error and the voltage vector. A comparison of various configurations of segmented mirrors was conducted; it is shown that segmentation sharply increases the natural frequency of the system with limited deterioration of the image quality.

  17. Application of optical processing to adaptive phased array radar (United States)

    Carroll, C. W.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.


    The results of the investigation of the applicability of optical processing to Adaptive Phased Array Radar (APAR) data processing will be summarized. Subjects that are covered include: (1) new iterative Fourier transform based technique to determine the array antenna weight vector such that the resulting antenna pattern has nulls at desired locations; (2) obtaining the solution of the optimal Wiener weight vector by both iterative and direct methods on two laboratory Optical Linear Algebra Processing (OLAP) systems; and (3) an investigation of the effects of errors present in OLAP systems on the solution vectors.

  18. Laser backlight unit based on a leaky optical fiber (United States)

    Okuda, Yuuto; Onoda, Kousuke; Fujieda, Ichiro


    A backlight unit is constructed by laying out an optical fiber on a two-dimensional plane and letting the light leak out in a controlled manner. In experiment, we formed multiple grooves on the surface of a plastic optical fiber by pressing a heated knife edge. The depth of the groove determined the percentage of the optical power leaking out. The optical fiber with multiple grooves was embedded in an acrylic plate with a spiral trench, and a diffuser sheet was placed over it. When we injected laser light into the end of the optical fiber, this configuration successfully worked as an area illuminator. However, the coherent nature of the laser light caused severe speckle noise. We evaluated the speckle contrast under darkness, and it varied from 80% to 23%, depending on the lens aperture used to capture the images of the illuminator. We glued an ultrasound generator to the optical fiber to introduce phase modulation for the light propagating inside the optical fiber. In this way, the speckle contrast was reduced by a factor of seven to four. Under room lighting, the speckle noise was made barely noticeable by turning on the ultrasound generator.

  19. Strong optical feedback in birefringent dual frequency laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Wei; Zhang Shu-Lian


    Strong optical feedback in a birefringent dual frequency He-Ne laser with a high reflectivity feedback mirror has been investigated for the first time. The output characteristics of two orthogonally polarized modes are demonstrated in two different optical feedback cases: one is for both modes being fed back and the other is for only one of the modes being fed back. Strong mode competition can be observed between the two modes with strong optical feedback. And when one mode's intensity is near its maximum, the other mode is nearly extinguished. When both modes are fed back into the laser cavity, the mode competition is stronger than when only one mode is fed back. The difference in initial intensity between the two orthogonally polarized modes plays an important role in the mode competition, which has been experimentally and theoretically demonstrated.

  20. Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Bui, Bang; Nguyen, Christine T O; He, Zheng; Metha, Andrew


    Conventional adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes use wavefront sensing methods to characterize ocular aberrations for real-time correction. However, there are important situations in which the wavefront sensing step is susceptible to difficulties that affect the accuracy of the correction. To circumvent these, wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (or non-wavefront sensing AO; NS-AO) imaging has recently been developed and has been applied to point-scanning based retinal imaging modalities. In this study we show, for the first time, contrast-based NS-AO ophthalmoscopy for full-frame in vivo imaging of human and animal eyes. We suggest a robust image quality metric that could be used for any imaging modality, and test its performance against other metrics using (physical) model eyes.

  1. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1980. (United States)


    conference organization. As many of you have experienced, the printed proceedings of these Laser Damage Symposia in our personal libraries are...responsible person or agency. I look forward to our continued relationship. Finally, let me thank the organizers of this Symposium. They have done a...the professional operation of the Symposium and Ms. Susie Rivera and Ms. Sheila Aaker for their part in the preparation and publication of the

  2. Optical radiation, with particular reference to lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, L.; Rockwell, R.J.; Tengroth, B.M.; Wolbarsht, M.L.


    It is generally considered that the biological effects resulting from exposure to lasers (except for UV) are primarily a manifestation of a thermal response or photochemical reaction. Of special interest is the information on acute exposures to the eye and skin which, for the most part, has been obtained from research on experimental animals. There is little documented evidence from accidental exposure of man, but the increasing numbers of incidents occurring during therapeutic use should provide additional information

  3. Laser Induced Optical Damage in Solids (United States)


    the full angle subtended by the object. 1 The sun, which subtends 20 = 0.54’, can be concentrated about 46,000 times. Using nonimaging techniques...cone, these nonimaging techniques can concentrate sunlight to intensities as high as -108 W/m 2, (or 104 W/cm 2 as is more often reported when dealing...REFERENCES 1. P. Gleckman. J. O’Gallagher, and R. Winston , "Approaching the Irradiance of the Sun Through Norimaging Optics ," Optics News 15:33, May 1989

  4. Fiber-optic laser sensor for mine detection and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohling, Christian; Scheel, Dirk; Hohmann, Konrad; Schade, Wolfgang; Reuter, Matthias; Holl, Gerhard


    What we believe to be a new optical approach for the identification of mines and explosives by analyzing the surface materials and not only bulk is developed. A conventional manually operated mine prodder is upgraded by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In situ and real-time information of materials that are in front of the prodder are obtained during the demining process in order to optimize the security aspects and the speed of demining. A Cr4+:Nd3+:YAG microchip laser is used as a seed laser for an ytterbium-fiber amplifier to generate high-power laser pulses at 1064 nm with pulse powers up to Ep=1 mJ, a repetition rate of frep.=2-20 kHz and a pulse duration of tp=620 ps. The recorded LIBS signals are analyzed by applying neural networks for the data analysis

  5. Application of adaptive Kalman filter in vehicle laser Doppler velocimetry (United States)

    Fan, Zhe; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Bai, Jie; Liu, Jingyun


    Due to the variation of road conditions and motor characteristics of vehicle, great root-mean-square (rms) error and outliers would be caused. Application of Kalman filter in laser Doppler velocimetry(LDV) is important to improve the velocity measurement accuracy. In this paper, the state-space model is built by using current statistical model. A strategy containing two steps is adopted to make the filter adaptive and robust. First, the acceleration variance is adaptively adjusted by using the difference of predictive observation and measured observation. Second, the outliers would be identified and the measured noise variance would be adjusted according to the orthogonal property of innovation to reduce the impaction of outliers. The laboratory rotating table experiments show that adaptive Kalman filter greatly reduces the rms error from 0.59 cm/s to 0.22 cm/s and has eliminated all the outliers. Road experiments compared with a microwave radar show that the rms error of LDV is 0.0218 m/s, and it proves that the adaptive Kalman filtering is suitable for vehicle speed signal processing.

  6. Optical characteristics of a gallium laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuaibov, A.K.; Shimon, L.L.; Dashchenko, A.I.; Shevera, I.V.; Chuchman, M.P.


    Results are presented from studies of the emission from an erosion gallium laser plasma at a moderate intensity (W = (1-5) x 10 8 W/cm 2 ) of a 1.06-μm laser radiation. It is shown that, under these conditions, the lower excited states of gallium atoms are populated most efficiently. Among the ions, only the most intense GaII lines are observed in the emission spectrum. The populations of GaI and GaII excited states are not related to direct electron excitation, but are determined by the recombination of gallium ions with slow electrons. The recombination times of GaIII and GaII ions in the core of the plasma jet are determined from the waveforms of emission in the GaII and GaI spectral lines and are equal to 10 and 140 ns, respectively. The results obtained are of interest for spectroscopic diagnostics of an erosion plasma produced from gallium-containing layered crystals during the laser deposition of thin films

  7. Optical properties of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium cells investigated with adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin

    Human vision starts when photoreceptors collect and respond to light. Photoreceptors do not function in isolation though, but share close interdependence with neighboring photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. These cellular interactions are essential for normal function of the photoreceptor-RPE complex, but methods to assess these in the living human eye are limited. One approach that has gained increased promise is high-resolution retinal imaging that has undergone tremendous technological advances over the last two decades to probe the living retina at the cellular level. Pivotal in these advances has been adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that together allow unprecedented spatial resolution of retinal structures in all three dimensions. Using these high-resolution systems, cone photoreceptor are now routinely imaged in healthy and diseased retina enabling fundamental structural properties of cones to be studied such as cell spacing, packing arrangement, and alignment. Other important cell properties, however, have remained elusive to investigation as even better imaging performance is required and thus has resulted in an incomplete understanding of how cells in the photoreceptor-RPE complex interact with light. To address this technical bottleneck, we expanded the imaging capability of AO-OCT to detect and quantify more accurately and completely the optical properties of cone photoreceptor and RPE cells at the cellular level in the living human retina. The first objective of this thesis was development of a new AO-OCT method that is more precise and sensitive, thus enabling a more detailed view of the 3D optical signature of the photoreceptor-RPE complex than was previously possible (Chapter 2). Using this new system, the second objective was quantifying the waveguide properties of individual cone photoreceptor inner and outer segments across the macula (Chapter 3). The third objective extended the AO

  8. Optical power allocation for adaptive transmissions in wavelength-division multiplexing free space optical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou


    Full Text Available Attracting increasing attention in recent years, the Free Space Optics (FSO technology has been recognized as a cost-effective wireless access technology for multi-Gigabit rate wireless networks. Radio on Free Space Optics (RoFSO provides a new approach to support various bandwidth-intensive wireless services in an optical wireless link. In an RoFSO system using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM, it is possible to concurrently transmit multiple data streams consisting of various wireless services at very high rate. In this paper, we investigate the problem of optical power allocation under power budget and eye safety constraints for adaptive WDM transmission in RoFSO networks. We develop power allocation schemes for adaptive WDM transmissions to combat the effect of weather turbulence on RoFSO links. Simulation results show that WDM RoFSO can support high data rates even over long distance or under bad weather conditions with an adequate system design.

  9. Adaptive Optical System for Retina Imaging Approaches Clinic Applications (United States)

    Ling, N.; Zhang, Y.; Rao, X.; Wang, C.; Hu, Y.; Jiang, W.; Jiang, C.

    We presented "A small adaptive optical system on table for human retinal imaging" at the 3rd Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine. In this system, a 19 element small deformable mirror was used as wavefront correction element. High resolution images of photo receptors and capillaries of human retina were obtained. In recent two years, at the base of this system a new adaptive optical system for human retina imaging has been developed. The wavefront correction element is a newly developed 37 element deformable mirror. Some modifications have been adopted for easy operation. Experiments for different imaging wavelengths and axial positions were conducted. Mosaic pictures of photoreceptors and capillaries were obtained. 100 normal and abnormal eyes of different ages have been inspected.The first report in the world concerning the most detailed capillary distribution images cover ±3° by ± 3° field around the fovea has been demonstrated. Some preliminary very early diagnosis experiment has been tried in laboratory. This system is being planned to move to the hospital for clinic experiments.

  10. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging. (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris


    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  11. Laser & Fiber Optics: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project. (United States)

    Eickhoff, Luvern R.

    This instructional manual contains 20 learning activity packets for use in a workshop on lasers and fiber optics. The lessons cover the following topics: what a laser; coherent light; setting up the laser; characteristics of the laser beam; scattering of light; laser beam divergence, intensity, color, ophthalmology, and reflections; directivity of…

  12. Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optics for microscopy (United States)

    Ji, Na; Milkie, Daniel E.; Betzig, Eric


    Inhomogeneous optical properties of biological samples make it difficult to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in depth. Correcting the sample-induced optical aberrations needs adaptive optics (AO). However, the direct wavefront-sensing approach commonly used in astronomy is not suitable for most biological samples due to their strong scattering of light. We developed an image-based AO approach that is insensitive to sample scattering. By comparing images of the sample taken with different segments of the pupil illuminated, local tilt in the wavefront is measured from image shift. The aberrated wavefront is then obtained either by measuring the local phase directly using interference or with phase reconstruction algorithms similar to those used in astronomical AO. We implemented this pupil-segmentation-based approach in a two-photon fluorescence microscope and demonstrated that diffraction-limited resolution can be recovered from nonbiological and biological samples.

  13. Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer J.; Masella, Benjamin; Dubra, Alfredo; Sharma, Robin; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Williams, David R.


    In vivo two-photon imaging through the pupil of the primate eye has the potential to become a useful tool for functional imaging of the retina. Two-photon excited fluorescence images of the macaque cone mosaic were obtained using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, overcoming the challenges of a low numerical aperture, imperfect optics of the eye, high required light levels, and eye motion. Although the specific fluorophores are as yet unknown, strong in vivo intrinsic fluorescence allowed images of the cone mosaic. Imaging intact ex vivo retina revealed that the strongest two-photon excited fluorescence signal comes from the cone inner segments. The fluorescence response increased following light stimulation, which could provide a functional measure of the effects of light on photoreceptors. PMID:21326644

  14. Optically Pumped Far Infrared Molecular Lasers. (United States)


    and 4 were reported by Fetterman , et al. and Gullberg, et al.3 An additional FIR transition (i.e., G:sR(5,4) has been reported,5 but is not shown in...attempt has been made to frequency stabilize the experiment. Recently, Fetterman , et al. 11 performed "real-ti adctral analysis for FIR laser pulses...wave device known 4 as a Reflective Array Compressor (RAC) was developed for just this sort of problem in the radar community. Recently, Fetterman , et al

  15. Optical emission spectroscopy of carbon laser plasma ion source (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.


    Carbon laser plasma generated by an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7 ns, fluence 4-52 J cm-2) is studied by optical emission spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight. Up to C4+ ions are detected with the ion flux strongly dependent on the laser fluence. The increase in ion charge with the laser fluence is accompanied by observation of multicharged ion lines in the optical spectra. The time-integrated electron temperature Te is calculated from the Boltzmann plot using the C II lines at 392.0, 426.7, and 588.9 nm. Te is found to increase from ∼0.83 eV for a laser fluence of 22 J cm-2 to ∼0.90 eV for 40 J cm-2. The electron density ne is obtained from the Stark broadened profiles of the C II line at 392 nm and is found to increase from ∼ 2 . 1 × 1017cm-3 for 4 J cm-2 to ∼ 3 . 5 × 1017cm-3 for 40 J cm-2. Applying an external electric field parallel to the expanding plume shows no effect on the line emission intensities. Deconvolution of ion time-of-flight signal with a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for each charge state results in an ion temperature Ti ∼4.7 and ∼6.0 eV for 20 and 36 J cm-2, respectively.

  16. Optical design of multi-multiple expander structure of laser gas analysis and measurement device (United States)

    Fu, Xiang; Wei, Biao


    The installation and debugging of optical circuit structure in the application of carbon monoxide distributed laser gas analysis and measurement, there are difficult key technical problems. Based on the three-component expansion theory, multi-multiple expander structure with expansion ratio of 4, 5, 6 and 7 is adopted in the absorption chamber to enhance the adaptability of the installation environment of the gas analysis and measurement device. According to the basic theory of aberration, the optimal design of multi-multiple beam expander structure is carried out. By using image quality evaluation method, the difference of image quality under different magnifications is analyzed. The results show that the optical quality of the optical system with the expanded beam structure is the best when the expansion ratio is 5-7.

  17. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.


    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  18. Wavelength-tunable laser based on nonlinear dispersive-wave generation in a tapered optical waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method and a wavelength tunable laser comprising a first laser source configured to emit a first optical pulse having a pump wavelength, the first optical pulse being emitted in a first longitudinal direction. Furthermore, the wavelength tunable laser comprises...... a waveguide extending in the first longitudinal direction, the waveguide having longitudinally varying phase matching conditions, the waveguide being configured to generate a second optical pulse with a centre wavelength upon receiving the first optical pulse, wherein the wavelength tunable laser...... is configured to tune the centre wavelength of the second optical pulse by varying at least one pulse property of the first optical pulse....

  19. Short wavelength optics for future free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.


    Although much free-electron laser work is directed toward achieving sufficient single-pass gain to be useful for research purposes, the availability of mirrors of high reflectance for the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regime would make resonant cavities a possibility. In addition, as in ordinary synchrotron radiation work, mirrors are required for the construction of realistic experiments and for beam manipulation purposes such as folding and extraction. The Working Group discussed a number of approaches to reflecting optics for free electron lasers, which are summarized here, and described in some detail. 16 references, 2 figures

  20. Ultrafast Optics: Vector Cavity Laser - Physics and Technology (United States)


    with a quasi- vector cavity both numerically and experimentally. It is expected that through the study a deep and comprehensive understanding on the...799-801, Jun. 1997. 31. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like pulse in a gain-guided soliton fiber laser," Opt...solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Communications 281 (22), 5614 (2008). 110. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like

  1. Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers: Physics and Technology (United States)


    with a quasi- vector cavity both numerically and experimentally. It is expected that through the study a deep and comprehensive understanding on the...799-801, Jun. 1997. 31. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like pulse in a gain-guided soliton fiber laser," Opt...solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Communications 281 (22), 5614 (2008). 110. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like

  2. Ultrafast Optics: Vector Cavity Fiber Lasers - Physics and Technology (United States)


    with a quasi- vector cavity both numerically and experimentally. It is expected that through the study a deep and comprehensive understanding on the...799-801, Jun. 1997. 31. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like pulse in a gain-guided soliton fiber laser," Opt...solitons in a ring fiber laser," Optics Communications 281 (22), 5614 (2008). 110. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen , "Noise-like

  3. Fast optics for the Rutherford laser compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micholas, D.J.


    The compression chamber optical system proposed for the Rutherford Laboratory Laser compression experiments is described. The system corrects for longitudinal spherical aberration giving a final spot size approximately 15 μm. This could theoretically be improved. The two laser beams are focused via a pair of F/1.2 aspheric lenses onto a double-pass 'clam shell' aspheric mirror system. An analysis of the lens and mirror system is given and compared with an alternative ellipsoidal system already developed. The problems of manufacturing aspheric lenses to operate at 1.06 μm are outlined and an alternative novel approach to this design given. (author)

  4. Curriculum in biomedical optics and laser-tissue interactions (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L.


    A graduate student level curriculum has been developed for teaching the basic principles of how lasers and light interact with biological tissues and materials. The field of Photomedicine can be divided into two topic areas: (1) where tissue affects photons, used for diagnostic sensing, imaging, and spectroscopy of tissues and biomaterials, and (2) where photons affect tissue, used for surgical and therapeutic cutting, dissecting, machining, processing, coagulating, welding, and oxidizing tissues and biomaterials. The courses teach basic principles of tissue optical properties and light transport in tissues, and interaction of lasers and conventional light sources with tissues via photochemical, photothermal and photomechanical mechanisms.

  5. Optical Thomson scatter from laser-ablated plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delserieys, A.; Khattak, F. Y.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Riley, D.; Pedregosa Gutierrez, J.


    We have obtained density and temperature informations on an expanding KrF laser-ablated magnesium plume via optical Thomson scatter with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The electron temperature was found to decay with the expected T e ∝t -1 dependence. However, we have found the electron density to have a time dependence n e ∝t -4.95 which can be explained by strong recombination processes. We also observed atomic Raman satellites originating from transitions between the different angular momentum levels of the metastable 3 P 0 term in Mg I

  6. Optical system for UV-laser technological equipment (United States)

    Fedosov, Yuri V.; Romanova, Galina E.; Afanasev, Maxim Ya.


    Recently there has been an intensive development of intelligent industrial equipment that is highly automated and can be rapidly adjusted for certain details. This equipment can be robotics systems, automatic wrappers and markers, CNC machines and 3D printers. The work equipment considered is the system for selective curing of photopolymers using a UV-laser and UV-radiation in such equipment that leads to additional technical difficulties. In many cases for transporting the radiation from the laser to the point processed, a multi-mirror system is used: however, such systems are usually difficult to adjust. Additionally, such multi-mirror systems are usually used as a part of the equipment for laser cutting of metals using high-power IR-lasers. For the UV-lasers, using many mirrors leads to crucial radiation losses because of many reflections. Therefore, during the development of the optical system for technological equipment using UV-laser we need to solve two main problems: to transfer the radiation for the working point with minimum losses and to include the system for controlling/handling the radiation spot position. We introduce a system for working with UV-lasers with 450mW of power and a wavelength of 0.45 μm based on a fiber system. In our modelling and design, we achieve spot sizes of about 300 μm, and the designed optical and mechanical systems (prototypes) were manufactured and assembled. In this paper, we present the layout of the technological unit, the results of the theoretical modelling of some parts of the system and some experimental results.

  7. LDRD Final Report: Adaptive Methods for Laser Plasma Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, M R; Garaizar, F X; Hittinger, J A


    The goal of this project was to investigate the utility of parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in the simulation of laser plasma interaction (LPI). The scope of work included the development of new numerical methods and parallel implementation strategies. The primary deliverables were (1) parallel adaptive algorithms to solve a system of equations combining plasma fluid and light propagation models, (2) a research code implementing these algorithms, and (3) an analysis of the performance of parallel AMR on LPI problems. The project accomplished these objectives. New algorithms were developed for the solution of a system of equations describing LPI. These algorithms were implemented in a new research code named ALPS (Adaptive Laser Plasma Simulator) that was used to test the effectiveness of the AMR algorithms on the Laboratory's large-scale computer platforms. The details of the algorithm and the results of the numerical tests were documented in an article published in the Journal of Computational Physics [2]. A principal conclusion of this investigation is that AMR is most effective for LPI systems that are ''hydrodynamically large'', i.e., problems requiring the simulation of a large plasma volume relative to the volume occupied by the laser light. Since the plasma-only regions require less resolution than the laser light, AMR enables the use of efficient meshes for such problems. In contrast, AMR is less effective for, say, a single highly filamented beam propagating through a phase plate, since the resulting speckle pattern may be too dense to adequately separate scales with a locally refined mesh. Ultimately, the gain to be expected from the use of AMR is highly problem-dependent. One class of problems investigated in this project involved a pair of laser beams crossing in a plasma flow. Under certain conditions, energy can be transferred from one beam to the other via a resonant interaction with an ion acoustic wave in the crossing region. AMR provides an

  8. Optical klystron and harmonic generation free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qika Jia


    Full Text Available The optical field evolution of an optical klystron free electron laser is analytically described for both low gain and high gain cases. The harmonic optical klystron (HOK in which the second undulator is resonant on the higher harmonic of the first undulator is analyzed as a harmonic amplifier. The optical field evolution equation of the HOK is derived analytically for both the CHG mode (coherent harmonic generation, the quadratic gain regime and the HGHG mode (high gain harmonic generation, the exponential gain regime, the effects of energy spread, energy modulation, and dispersion in the whole process are taken into account. The linear theory is given and discussed for the HGHG mode. The analytical formula is given for the CHG mode.

  9. Modeling and analysis of laser active interference optical path (United States)

    Shan, Cong-miao; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Chen, Jian-biao; Ren, Jian-ying


    By using the geometrical optics and physical optics method, the models of wedge plate interference optical path, Michelson interferometer and Mach Zehnder interferometer thus three different active interference pattern are built. The optical path difference (OPD) launched by different interference patterns, fringe spacing and contrast expression have been derived. The results show that far field interference peak intensity of the wedge plate interference is small, so the detection distance is limited, Michelson interferometer with low contrast affects the performance of detection system, Mach Zehnder interferometer has greater advantages in peak intensity, the variable range of interference fringe spacing and contrast ratio. The results of this study are useful for the theoretical research and practical application of laser active interference detection.

  10. Adaptive optics improves multiphoton super-resolution imaging (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yicong; Winter, Peter; Shroff, Hari


    Three dimensional (3D) fluorescence microscopy has been essential for biological studies. It allows interrogation of structure and function at spatial scales spanning the macromolecular, cellular, and tissue levels. Critical factors to consider in 3D microscopy include spatial resolution, signal-to-noise (SNR), signal-to-background (SBR), and temporal resolution. Maintaining high quality imaging becomes progressively more difficult at increasing depth (where optical aberrations, induced by inhomogeneities of refractive index in the sample, degrade resolution and SNR), and in thick or densely labeled samples (where out-of-focus background can swamp the valuable, in-focus-signal from each plane). In this report, we introduce our new instrumentation to address these problems. A multiphoton structured illumination microscope was simply modified to integrate an adpative optics system for optical aberrations correction. Firstly, the optical aberrations are determined using direct wavefront sensing with a nonlinear guide star and subsequently corrected using a deformable mirror, restoring super-resolution information. We demonstrate the flexibility of our adaptive optics approach on a variety of semi-transparent samples, including bead phantoms, cultured cells in collagen gels and biological tissues. The performance of our super-resolution microscope is improved in all of these samples, as peak intensity is increased (up to 40-fold) and resolution recovered (up to 176+/-10 nm laterally and 729+/-39 nm axially) at depths up to 250 μm from the coverslip surface.

  11. Gaseous laser targets and optical diagnostics for studying compressible hydrodynamic instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J M; Robey, H; Mackinnon, A


    Explore the combination of optical diagnostics and gaseous targets to obtain important information about compressible turbulent flows that cannot be derived from traditional laser experiments for the purposes of V and V of hydrodynamics models and understanding scaling. First year objectives: Develop and characterize blast wave-gas jet test bed; Perform single pulse shadowgraphy of blast wave interaction with turbulent gas jet as a function of blast wave Mach number; Explore double pulse shadowgraphy and image correlation for extracting velocity spectra in the shock-turbulent flow interaction; and Explore the use/adaptation of advanced diagnostics

  12. Laser beam soldering of micro-optical components (United States)

    Eberhardt, R.


    MOTIVATION Ongoing miniaturisation and higher requirements within optical assemblies and the processing of temperature sensitive components demands for innovative selective joining techniques. So far adhesive bonding has primarily been used to assemble and adjust hybrid micro optical systems. However, the properties of the organic polymers used for the adhesives limit the application of these systems. In fields of telecommunication and lithography, an enhancement of existing joining techniques is necessary to improve properties like humidity resistance, laserstability, UV-stability, thermal cycle reliability and life time reliability. Against this background laser beam soldering of optical components is a reasonable joining technology alternative. Properties like: - time and area restricted energy input - energy input can be controlled by the process temperature - direct and indirect heating of the components is possible - no mechanical contact between joining tool and components give good conditions to meet the requirements on a joining technology for sensitive optical components. Additionally to the laser soldering head, for the assembly of optical components it is necessary to include positioning units to adjust the position of the components with high accuracy before joining. Furthermore, suitable measurement methods to characterize the soldered assemblies (for instance in terms of position tolerances) need to be developed.

  13. 100 GHz Externally Modulated Laser for Optical Interconnects Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozolins, Oskars; Pang, Xiaodan; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel


    We report on a 116 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK), four pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and 105-Gb/s 8-PAM optical transmitter using an InP-based integrated and packaged externally modulated laser for high-speed optical interconnects with up to 30 dB static extinction ratio and over 100-GHz 3-d......B bandwidth with 2 dB ripple. In addition, we study the tradeoff between power penalty and equalizer length to foresee transmission distances with standard single mode fiber....

  14. Optical Fiber Sensing Based on Reflection Laser Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gagliardi


    Full Text Available An overview on high-resolution and fast interrogation of optical-fiber sensors relying on laser reflection spectroscopy is given. Fiber Bragg-gratings (FBGs and FBG resonators built in fibers of different types are used for strain, temperature and acceleration measurements using heterodyne-detection and optical frequency-locking techniques. Silica fiber-ring cavities are used for chemical sensing based on evanescent-wave spectroscopy. Various arrangements for signal recovery and noise reduction, as an extension of most typical spectroscopic techniques, are illustrated and results on detection performances are presented.

  15. Development of fluorides for high power laser optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ready, J.F.; Vora, H.


    The laser-assisted thermonuclear fusion program has significant needs for improved optical materials with high transmission in the ultraviolet, and with low values of nonlinear index of refraction. Lithium fluoride (LiF) possesses a combination of optical properties which are of potential use. Single-crystalline LiF is limited by low mechanical strength. In this program, we investigated the technique of press-forging to increase the mechanical strength. LiF single crystals were press-forged over the temperature range 300 to 600 0 C to produce fine-grained polycrystalline material

  16. Sub-Airy Confocal Adaptive Optics Scanning Ophthalmoscopy. (United States)

    Sredar, Nripun; Fagbemi, Oladipo E; Dubra, Alfredo


    To demonstrate the viability of improving transverse image resolution in reflectance scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy using sub-Airy disk confocal detection. The foveal cone mosaic was imaged in five human subjects free of known eye disease using two custom adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopes (AOSLOs) in reflectance with 7.75 and 4.30 mm pupil diameters. Confocal pinholes of 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 Airy disk diameters (ADDs) were used in a retinal conjugate plane before the light detector. Average cone photoreceptor intensity profile width and power spectrum were calculated for the resulting images. Detected energy using a model eye was recorded for each pinhole size. The cone photoreceptor mosaic is better resolved with decreasing confocal pinhole size, with the high spatial frequency content of the images enhanced in both the large- and small-pupil AOSLOs. The average cone intensity profile width was reduced by ∼15% with the use of a 0.5 ADD pinhole when compared to a 1.0 ADD, with an accompanying reduction in signal greater than a factor of four. The use of sub-Airy disk confocal pinhole detection without increasing retinal light exposure results in a substantial improvement in image resolution at the cost of larger than predicted signal reduction. Improvement in transverse resolution using sub-Airy disk confocal detection is a practical and low-cost approach that is applicable to all point- and line-scanning ophthalmoscopes, including optical coherence tomographers.

  17. Optical characteristics of novel bulk and nanoengineered laser host materials (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sova, Stacey; Kelly, Lisa; Bevan, Talon; Arnold, Bradley; Cooper, Christopher; Choa, Fow-Sen; Singh, N. B.


    The hexagonal apatite single crystals have been investigated for their applications as laser host materials. Czochralksi and flux growth methods have been utilized to obtain single crystals. For low temperature processing (useful properties as laser hosts and bone materials. Calcium lanthanum silicate (Nd-doped) and lanthanum aluminate material systems were studied in detail. Nanoengineered calcium and lanthanum based silicates were synthesized by a solution method and their optical and morphological characteristics were compared with Czochralski grown bulk hydroxyapatite single crystals. Materials were evaluated by absorbance, fluorescence and Raman characteristics. Neodymium, iron and chromium doped crystals grown by a solution method showed weak but similar optical properties to that of Czochralski grown single crystals.

  18. The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, S.; Krauskopf, B.; Simpson, T.B.; Lenstra, D.


    This report presents a modern approach to the theoretical and experimental study of complex nonlinear behavior of a semiconductor laser with optical injection-an example of a widely applied and technologically relevant forced nonlinear oscillator. We show that the careful bifurcation analysis of a rate equation model yields (i) a deeper understanding of already studied physical phenomena, and (ii) the discovery of new dynamical effects, such as multipulse excitability. Different instabilities, cascades of bifurcations, multistability, and sudden chaotic transitions, which are often viewed as independent, are in fact logically connected into a consistent web of bifurcations via special points called organizing centers. This theoretical bifurcation analysis has predictive power, which manifests itself in good agreement with experimental measurements over a wide range of parameters and diversity of dynamics. While it is dealing with the specific system of an optically injected laser, our work constitutes the state-of-the-art in the understanding and modeling of a nonlinear physical system in general

  19. Laser metrology and optic active control system for GAIA (United States)

    D'Angelo, F.; Bonino, L.; Cesare, S.; Castorina, G.; Mottini, S.; Bertinetto, F.; Bisi, M.; Canuto, E.; Musso, F.


    The Laser Metrology and Optic Active Control (LM&OAC) program has been carried out under ESA contract with the purpose to design and validate a laser metrology system and an actuation mechanism to monitor and control at microarcsec level the stability of the Basic Angle (angle between the lines of sight of the two telescopes) of GAIA satellite. As part of the program, a breadboard (including some EQM elements) of the laser metrology and control system has been built and submitted to functional, performance and environmental tests. In the followings we describe the mission requirements, the system architecture, the breadboard design, and finally the performed validation tests. Conclusion and appraisals from this experience are also reported.

  20. Fast optical shutters for Nova, a high power fusion laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L.P.; Gagnon, W.L.; Carder, B.M.


    Preliminary design and performance test results for fast optical shutters intended for use in the Nova high power fusion laser system are briefly described. Both an opening shutter to protect the pellet target from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), and a closing shutter to protect the laser from light reflected back from the target are discussed. Faraday rotators, synchronized by a 400 Hz oscillator, provide an opening shutter mechanism with an opening time of approximately 10 μs. A plasma closing shutter, employing electrical sublimation of a foil, provide a shutter closing time of 70 ns +- 20 ns. Energy for foil sublimation is provided by discharge of a 42 J capacitor bank. Implementation of these shutter techniques in the Nova system is anticipated to improve laser output power and efficiency

  1. Programmable current source for diode lasers stabilized optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Camas, J.; Garcia, L.


    In this paper, we present the electronic design of a programmable stabilized current source. User can access to the source through a password, which, it has a database with the current and voltage operating points. This source was successfully used as current source in laser diode in optical fiber sensors. Variations in the laser current were carried out by a monitoring system and a control of the Direct Current (DC), which flowing through a How land source with amplifier. The laser current can be stabilized with an error percent of ± 1 μA from the threshold current (Ith) to its maximum operation current (Imax) in DC mode. The proposed design is reliable, cheap, and its output signal of stabilized current has high quality. (Author)

  2. General analysis of slab lasers using geometrical optics. (United States)

    Chung, Te-yuan; Bass, Michael


    A thorough and general geometrical optics analysis of a slab-shaped laser gain medium is presented. The length and thickness ratio is critical if one is to achieve the maximum utilization of absorbed pump power by the laser light in such a medium; e.g., the fill factor inside the slab is to be maximized. We point out that the conditions for a fill factor equal to 1, laser light entering and exiting parallel to the length of the slab, and Brewster angle incidence on the entrance and exit faces cannot all be satisfied at the same time. Deformed slabs are also studied. Deformation along the width direction of the largest surfaces is shown to significantly reduce the fill factor that is possible.

  3. 2nd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Maria


    This collection of the selected papers presented to the Second International Conference on Photonics, Optics and laser technology PHOTOPTICS 2014 covers the three main conference scientific areas of “Optics”, “Photonics” and “Lasers”. The selected papers, in two classes full and short, result from a double blind review carried out by conference Program Committee members who are highly qualified experts in the conference topic areas.

  4. 3rd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Maria


    The book provides a collection of selected papers presented to the third International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology PHOTOPTICS 2015, covering the three main conference scientific areas of “Optics”, “Photonics” and “Lasers”. The selected papers, in two classes full and short, result from a double blind review carried out by the conference program committee members which are highly qualified experts in conference topic areas.

  5. Laser optics for a γ-γ collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klem, D.E.; Seppala, L.


    The constraints on an optical system to convert the electron beams to γ-ray beams for a γ-γ collider are considered. We show that the range of possible designs is limited by the requirement of near head-on collisions and present a design which achieves two passes of the laser pulse with arbitrary control of the polarization. For certain polarization combinations, four passes appear possible. 16 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Uses of laser optical pumping to produce polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.


    Laser optical pumping can be used to produce polarized alkali atom beams or polarized alkali vapor targets. Polarized alkali atom beams can be converted into polarized alkali ion beams, and polarized alkali vapor targets can be used to produce polarized H - or 3 He - ion beams. In this paper the authors discuss how the polarized alkali atom beams and polarized alkali vapor targets are used to produce polarized ion beams with emphasis on the production of polarized negative ion beams

  7. Survey Talk--New Laser and Optical Radiation Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.


    New techniques am reported for electron beam monitoring, that rely either on the analysis of the properties of wiggler radiation (from static magnetic fields as well as from laser ''undulators'', also referred to as Thomson scattering) or on the non-linear mixing of laser radiation with electron beam radiation. The different techniques reviewed are capable of providing information on femtosecond time scales and micron or even sub-micron spatial scales. The laser undulator is also proposed as a useful tool for non- destructive measurement of high power electron beams. An example is given of measuring electron beam energy and energy spread through spectral filtering of spontaneous wiggler radiation [1]. A novel technique based on fluctuational characteristics of radiation is described, for single shot, nondestructive measurement of the electron beam bunch length [2,3]. Thomson scattering based beam monitoring techniques are discussed which, through analysis of the radiated beam properties, allow non-destructive detailed measurement of transverse and longitudinal distributions of relativistic electron beams [4]. Two new techniques are discussed which rely on non-linear optical mixing of laser radiation with electron bunch emission: differential optical gating (DOG) [5] and electron bunch length measurement in a storage ring based on sum-frequency generation [6

  8. Optical spectroscopy using gas-phase femtosecond laser filamentation. (United States)

    Odhner, Johanan; Levis, Robert


    Femtosecond laser filamentation occurs as a dynamic balance between the self-focusing and plasma defocusing of a laser pulse to produce ultrashort radiation as brief as a few optical cycles. This unique source has many properties that make it attractive as a nonlinear optical tool for spectroscopy, such as propagation at high intensities over extended distances, self-shortening, white-light generation, and the formation of an underdense plasma. The plasma channel that constitutes a single filament and whose position in space can be controlled by its input parameters can span meters-long distances, whereas multifilamentation of a laser beam can be sustained up to hundreds of meters in the atmosphere. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding and use of laser filaments for spectroscopic investigations of molecules. A theoretical framework of filamentation is presented, along with recent experimental evidence supporting the established understanding of filamentation. Investigations carried out on vibrational and rotational spectroscopy, filament-induced breakdown, fluorescence spectroscopy, and backward lasing are discussed.

  9. Multimode laser beam analyzer instrument using electrically programmable optics. (United States)

    Marraccini, Philip J; Riza, Nabeel A


    Presented is a novel design of a multimode laser beam analyzer using a digital micromirror device (DMD) and an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) that serve as the digital and analog agile optics, respectively. The proposed analyzer is a broadband laser characterization instrument that uses the agile optics to smartly direct light to the required point photodetectors to enable beam measurements of minimum beam waist size, minimum waist location, divergence, and the beam propagation parameter M(2). Experimental results successfully demonstrate these measurements for a 500 mW multimode test laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm. The minimum beam waist, divergence, and M(2) experimental results for the test laser are found to be 257.61 μm, 2.103 mrad, 1.600 and 326.67 μm, 2.682 mrad, 2.587 for the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. These measurements are compared to a traditional scan method and the results of the beam waist are found to be within error tolerance of the demonstrated instrument.

  10. Laser additive manufacturing of 3D meshes for optical applications. (United States)

    Essa, Khamis; Sabouri, Aydin; Butt, Haider; Basuny, Fawzia Hamed; Ghazy, Mootaz; El-Sayed, Mahmoud Ahmed


    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a widely used additive manufacturing process that can be used for printing of intricate three dimensional (3D) metallic structures. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V alloy based 3D meshes with nodally-connected diamond like unit cells, with lattice spacing varying from 400 to 1000 microns. A Concept Laser M2 system equipped with laser that has a wavelength of 1075 nm, a constant beam spot size of 50μm and maximum power of 400W was used to manufacture the 3D meshes. These meshes act as optical shutters / directional transmitters and display interesting optical properties. A detailed optical characterisation was carried out and it was found that these structures can be optimised to act as scalable rotational shutters with high efficiencies and as angle selective transmission screens for protection against unwanted and dangerous radiations. The efficiency of fabricated lattice structures can be increased by enlarging the meshing size.

  11. Laser additive manufacturing of 3D meshes for optical applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Essa

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM is a widely used additive manufacturing process that can be used for printing of intricate three dimensional (3D metallic structures. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V alloy based 3D meshes with nodally-connected diamond like unit cells, with lattice spacing varying from 400 to 1000 microns. A Concept Laser M2 system equipped with laser that has a wavelength of 1075 nm, a constant beam spot size of 50μm and maximum power of 400W was used to manufacture the 3D meshes. These meshes act as optical shutters / directional transmitters and display interesting optical properties. A detailed optical characterisation was carried out and it was found that these structures can be optimised to act as scalable rotational shutters with high efficiencies and as angle selective transmission screens for protection against unwanted and dangerous radiations. The efficiency of fabricated lattice structures can be increased by enlarging the meshing size.

  12. Applications of optical sensing for laser cutting and drilling. (United States)

    Fox, Mahlen D T; French, Paul; Peters, Chris; Hand, Duncan P; Jones, Julian D C


    Any reliable automated production system must include process control and monitoring techniques. Two laser processing techniques potentially lending themselves to automation are percussion drilling and cutting. For drilling we investigate the performance of a modification of a nonintrusive optical focus control system we previously developed for laser welding, which exploits the chromatic aberrations of the processing optics to determine focal error. We further developed this focus control system for closed-loop control of laser cutting. We show that an extension of the technique can detect deterioration in cut quality, and we describe practical trials carried out on different materials using both oxygen and nitrogen assist gas. We base our techniques on monitoring the light generated by the process, captured nonintrusively by the effector optics and processed remotely from the workpiece. We describe the relationship between the temporal and the chromatic modulation of the detected light and process quality and show how the information can be used as the basis of a process control system.

  13. Multiple-Zone Diffractive Optic Element for Laser Ranging Applications (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis A.


    A diffractive optic element (DOE) can be used as a beam splitter to generate multiple laser beams from a single input laser beam. This technology has been recently used in LRO s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to generate five laser beams that measure the lunar topography from a 50-km nominal mapping orbit (see figure). An extension of this approach is to use a multiple-zone DOE to allow a laser altimeter instrument to operate over a wider range of distances. In particular, a multiple-zone DOE could be used for applications that require both mapping and landing on a planetary body. In this case, the laser altimeter operating range would need to extend from several hundred kilometers down to a few meters. The innovator was recently involved in an investigation how to modify the LOLA instrument for the OSIRIS asteroid mapping and sample return mission. One approach is to replace the DOE in the LOLA laser beam expander assembly with a multiple-zone DOE that would allow for the simultaneous illumination of the asteroid with mapping and landing laser beams. The proposed OSIRIS multiple-zone DOE would generate the same LOLA five-beam output pattern for high-altitude topographic mapping, but would simultaneously generate a wide divergence angle beam using a small portion of the total laser energy for the approach and landing portion of the mission. Only a few percent of the total laser energy is required for approach and landing operations as the return signal increases as the inverse square of the ranging height. A wide divergence beam could be implemented by making the center of the DOE a diffractive or refractive negative lens. The beam energy and beam divergence characteristics of a multiple-zone DOE could be easily tailored to meet the requirements of other missions that require laser ranging data. Current single-zone DOE lithographic manufacturing techniques could also be used to fabricate a multiple-zone DOE by masking the different DOE zones during

  14. Agent-based station for on-line diagnostics by self-adaptive laser Doppler vibrometry. (United States)

    Serafini, S; Paone, N; Castellini, P


    A self-adaptive diagnostic system based on laser vibrometry is proposed for quality control of mechanical defects by vibration testing; it is developed for appliances at the end of an assembly line, but its characteristics are generally suited for testing most types of electromechanical products. It consists of a laser Doppler vibrometer, equipped with scanning mirrors and a camera, which implements self-adaptive bahaviour for optimizing the measurement. The system is conceived as a Quality Control Agent (QCA) and it is part of a Multi Agent System that supervises all the production line. The QCA behaviour is defined so to minimize measurement uncertainty during the on-line tests and to compensate target mis-positioning under guidance of a vision system. Best measurement conditions are reached by maximizing the amplitude of the optical Doppler beat signal (signal quality) and consequently minimize uncertainty. In this paper, the optimization strategy for measurement enhancement achieved by the down-hill algorithm (Nelder-Mead algorithm) and its effect on signal quality improvement is discussed. Tests on a washing machine in controlled operating conditions allow to evaluate the efficacy of the method; significant reduction of noise on vibration velocity spectra is observed. Results from on-line tests are presented, which demonstrate the potential of the system for industrial quality control.

  15. Agent-based station for on-line diagnostics by self-adaptive laser Doppler vibrometry (United States)

    Serafini, S.; Paone, N.; Castellini, P.


    A self-adaptive diagnostic system based on laser vibrometry is proposed for quality control of mechanical defects by vibration testing; it is developed for appliances at the end of an assembly line, but its characteristics are generally suited for testing most types of electromechanical products. It consists of a laser Doppler vibrometer, equipped with scanning mirrors and a camera, which implements self-adaptive bahaviour for optimizing the measurement. The system is conceived as a Quality Control Agent (QCA) and it is part of a Multi Agent System that supervises all the production line. The QCA behaviour is defined so to minimize measurement uncertainty during the on-line tests and to compensate target mis-positioning under guidance of a vision system. Best measurement conditions are reached by maximizing the amplitude of the optical Doppler beat signal (signal quality) and consequently minimize uncertainty. In this paper, the optimization strategy for measurement enhancement achieved by the down-hill algorithm (Nelder-Mead algorithm) and its effect on signal quality improvement is discussed. Tests on a washing machine in controlled operating conditions allow to evaluate the efficacy of the method; significant reduction of noise on vibration velocity spectra is observed. Results from on-line tests are presented, which demonstrate the potential of the system for industrial quality control.

  16. Night myopia studied with an adaptive optics visual analyzer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Artal

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Eyes with distant objects in focus in daylight are thought to become myopic in dim light. This phenomenon, often called "night myopia" has been studied extensively for several decades. However, despite its general acceptance, its magnitude and causes are still controversial. A series of experiments were performed to understand night myopia in greater detail. METHODS: We used an adaptive optics instrument operating in invisible infrared light to elucidate the actual magnitude of night myopia and its main causes. The experimental setup allowed the manipulation of the eye's aberrations (and particularly spherical aberration as well as the use of monochromatic and polychromatic stimuli. Eight subjects with normal vision monocularly determined their best focus position subjectively for a Maltese cross stimulus at different levels of luminance, from the baseline condition of 20 cd/m(2 to the lowest luminance of 22 × 10(-6 cd/m(2. While subjects performed the focusing tasks, their eye's defocus and aberrations were continuously measured with the 1050-nm Hartmann-Shack sensor incorporated in the adaptive optics instrument. The experiment was repeated for a variety of controlled conditions incorporating specific aberrations of the eye and chromatic content of the stimuli. RESULTS: We found large inter-subject variability and an average of -0.8 D myopic shift for low light conditions. The main cause responsible for night myopia was the accommodation shift occurring at low light levels. Other factors, traditionally suggested to explain night myopia, such as chromatic and spherical aberrations, have a much smaller effect in this mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: An adaptive optics visual analyzer was applied to study the phenomenon of night myopia. We found that the defocus shift occurring in dim light is mainly due to accommodation errors.

  17. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R.; Rossi, Ethan A.


    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2–3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5–0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05–0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3–5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7–1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07–0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing. PMID:26114033

  18. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy (United States)

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas


    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy – or rather nanoscopy – to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem. PMID:26124194

  19. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.


    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  20. Six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashko, R V; Bezruk, M N; Kamshilin, A A; Kulchin, Yurii N


    We have proposed and analysed a scheme for the multiplexing of orthogonal dynamic holograms in photorefractive crystals which ensures almost zero cross talk between the holographic channels upon phase demodulation. A six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer was built, and the detection limit for small phase fluctuations in the channels of the interferometer was determined to be 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} rad W{sup 1/2} Hz{sup -1/2}. The channel multiplexing capacity of the interferometer was estimated. The formation of 70 channels such that their optical fields completely overlap in the crystal reduces the relative detection limit in the working channel by just 10 %. We found conditions under which the maximum cross talk between the channels was within the intrinsic noise level in the channels (-47 dB).

  1. Adaptive phase measurements in linear optical quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph, T C; Lund, A P; Wiseman, H M


    Photon counting induces an effective non-linear optical phase shift in certain states derived by linear optics from single photons. Although this non-linearity is non-deterministic, it is sufficient in principle to allow scalable linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The most obvious way to encode a qubit optically is as a superposition of the vacuum and a single photon in one mode-so-called 'single-rail' logic. Until now this approach was thought to be prohibitively expensive (in resources) compared to 'dual-rail' logic where a qubit is stored by a photon across two modes. Here we attack this problem with real-time feedback control, which can realize a quantum-limited phase measurement on a single mode, as has been recently demonstrated experimentally. We show that with this added measurement resource, the resource requirements for single-rail LOQC are not substantially different from those of dual-rail LOQC. In particular, with adaptive phase measurements an arbitrary qubit state α vertical bar 0>+β vertical bar 1> can be prepared deterministically

  2. Advances in lasers and optical micro-nano-systems (United States)

    Laurell, F.; Fazio, E.


    Lasers represent a well consolidated technology: nevertheless, research in this field remains very active and productive, in both basic and applied directions. At the moment significant attention is given to those sources that bring together high power and compactness. Such high power lasers find important applications for material treatments and such applications are presented by Ehsani et al and Saiedeh Saghafi et al, in the treatment of dielectric thin films (Alteration of optical and morphological properties of polycarbonate illuminated by visible/IR laser beams) or of biological tissues like pistachio seeds (Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis). In particular the latter paper show how laser sources can find very important applications in new domains, preserving goods and food without the need for preservatives or pesticides by simply sterilizing them using light. Optical Micro and Nano Systems presents a new domain for exploration. In this framework this special issue is very attractive, because it assembles papers reporting new results in three directions: new techniques for monitoring integrated micro- and nano-systems, new integrated systems and novel high performance metamaterial configurations. Integrated micro-components can be monitored and controlled using reflectance measurements as presented by Piombini et al (Toward the reflectance measurement of micro components). Speckle formation during laser beam reflection can also be a very sophisticated tool for detecting ultra-precise displacements, as presented by Filter et al (High resolution displacement detection with speckles : accuracy limits in linear displacement speckle metrology). Three dimensional integrated optical structures is indeed a big challenge and a peculiarity of photonics, they can be formed through traditional holography or using more sophisticated and novel ! technologies. Thus, special

  3. Conjugate adaptive optics with remote focusing in multiphoton microscopy (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Lam, Tuwin; Zhu, Bingzhao; Li, Qinggele; Reinig, Marc R.; Kubby, Joel


    The small correction volume for conventional wavefront shaping methods limits their application in biological imaging through scattering media. In this paper, we take advantage of conjugate adaptive optics (CAO) and remote focusing (CAORF) to achieve three-dimensional (3D) scanning through a scattering layer with a single correction. Our results show that the proposed system can provide 10 times wider axial field of view compared with a conventional conjugate AO system when 16,384 segments are used on a spatial light modulator. We demonstrate two-photon imaging with CAORF through mouse skull. The fluorescent microspheres embedded under the scattering layers can be clearly observed after applying the correction.

  4. Adaptive optics system for the IRSOL solar observatory (United States)

    Ramelli, Renzo; Bucher, Roberto; Rossini, Leopoldo; Bianda, Michele; Balemi, Silvano


    We present a low cost adaptive optics system developed for the solar observatory at Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), Switzerland. The Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor is based on a Dalsa CCD camera with 256 pixels × 256 pixels working at 1kHz. The wavefront compensation is obtained by a deformable mirror with 37 actuators and a Tip-Tilt mirror. A real time control software has been developed on a RTAI-Linux PC. Scicos/Scilab based software has been realized for an online analysis of the system behavior. The software is completely open source.

  5. Optimal model-based sensorless adaptive optics for epifluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Wilding, Dean; Vdovin, Gleb; Verhaegen, Michel


    We report on a universal sample-independent sensorless adaptive optics method, based on modal optimization of the second moment of the fluorescence emission from a point-like excitation. Our method employs a sample-independent precalibration, performed only once for the particular system, to establish the direct relation between the image quality and the aberration. The method is potentially applicable to any form of microscopy with epifluorescence detection, including the practically important case of incoherent fluorescence emission from a three dimensional object, through minor hardware modifications. We have applied the technique successfully to a widefield epifluorescence microscope and to a multiaperture confocal microscope.

  6. High resolution observations using adaptive optics: Achievements and future needs (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, K.; Rimmele, T.


    Over the last few years, several interesting observations were obtained with the help of solar Adaptive Optics (AO). In this paper, few observations made using the solar AO are enlightened and briefly discussed. A list of disadvantages with the current AO system are presented. With telescopes larger than 1.5 m expected during the next decade, there is a need to develop the existing AO technologies for large aperture telescopes. Some aspects of this development are highlighted. Finally, the recent AO developments in India are also presented.

  7. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V


    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.

  8. Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue. (United States)

    Adie, Steven G; Graf, Benedikt W; Ahmad, Adeel; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A


    Aberrations in optical microscopy reduce image resolution and contrast, and can limit imaging depth when focusing into biological samples. Static correction of aberrations may be achieved through appropriate lens design, but this approach does not offer the flexibility of simultaneously correcting aberrations for all imaging depths, nor the adaptability to correct for sample-specific aberrations for high-quality tomographic optical imaging. Incorporation of adaptive optics (AO) methods have demonstrated considerable improvement in optical image contrast and resolution in noninterferometric microscopy techniques, as well as in optical coherence tomography. Here we present a method to correct aberrations in a tomogram rather than the beam of a broadband optical interferometry system. Based on Fourier optics principles, we correct aberrations of a virtual pupil using Zernike polynomials. When used in conjunction with the computed imaging method interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy, this computational AO enables object reconstruction (within the single scattering limit) with ideal focal-plane resolution at all depths. Tomographic reconstructions of tissue phantoms containing subresolution titanium-dioxide particles and of ex vivo rat lung tissue demonstrate aberration correction in datasets acquired with a highly astigmatic illumination beam. These results also demonstrate that imaging with an aberrated astigmatic beam provides the advantage of a more uniform depth-dependent signal compared to imaging with a standard gaussian beam. With further work, computational AO could enable the replacement of complicated and expensive optical hardware components with algorithms implemented on a standard desktop computer, making high-resolution 3D interferometric tomography accessible to a wider group of users and nonspecialists.

  9. A novel optical gating method for laser gated imaging (United States)

    Ginat, Ran; Schneider, Ron; Zohar, Eyal; Nesher, Ofer


    For the past 15 years, Elbit Systems is developing time-resolved active laser-gated imaging (LGI) systems for various applications. Traditional LGI systems are based on high sensitive gated sensors, synchronized to pulsed laser sources. Elbit propriety multi-pulse per frame method, which is being implemented in LGI systems, improves significantly the imaging quality. A significant characteristic of the LGI is its ability to penetrate a disturbing media, such as rain, haze and some fog types. Current LGI systems are based on image intensifier (II) sensors, limiting the system in spectral response, image quality, reliability and cost. A novel propriety optical gating module was developed in Elbit, untying the dependency of LGI system on II. The optical gating module is not bounded to the radiance wavelength and positioned between the system optics and the sensor. This optical gating method supports the use of conventional solid state sensors. By selecting the appropriate solid state sensor, the new LGI systems can operate at any desired wavelength. In this paper we present the new gating method characteristics, performance and its advantages over the II gating method. The use of the gated imaging systems is described in a variety of applications, including results from latest field experiments.

  10. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode. (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju


    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  11. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhouxiang; Zhang Xian; Huang Kaikai; Lu Xuanhui [Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)


    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad{sup 2} and transition time of 100 {mu}s under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  12. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array (United States)

    Xu, Zhouxiang; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui


    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad2 and transition time of 100 μs under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  13. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping


    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution

  14. All-metal coupling and package of semiconductor laser and amplifier with optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fenglan; Li Lina; Zhang Yueqing


    The semiconductor laser and optical amplifier made by Changchun Institute of Physics coupled with optical fiber by use of all-metal coupling are represented. The net gain of semiconductor laser amplifier with optical fiber is 14 ∼18 dB

  15. Combined advanced finishing and UV laser conditioning process for producing damage resistant optics (United States)

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Peterson, John E.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Miller, Philip E.; Parham, Thomas G.; Nichols, Michael A.


    A method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects, and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure to a high-power laser beam.

  16. Dispersion Compensation Requirements for Optical CDMA Using WDM Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, A J; Hendandez, V J; Feng, H X C; Heritage, J P; Lennon, W J


    Optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) uses very narrow transmission pulses and is thus susceptible to fiber optic link impairments. When the O-CDMA is implemented as wavelength/time (W/T) matrices which use wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) sources such as multi-frequency laser transmitters, the susceptibility may be higher due to: (a) the large bandwidth utilized and (b) the requirement that the various wavelength components of the codes be synchronized at the point of modulation and encoding as well as after (optical) correlation. A computer simulation based on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, developed to study optical networking on the National Transparent Optical Network (NTON), was modified to characterize the impairments on the propagation and decoding of W/T matrix codes over a link of the NTON. Three critical link impairments were identified by the simulation: group velocity dispersion (GVD); the flatness of the optical amplifier gain; and the slope of the GVD. Subsequently, experiments were carried out on the NTON link to verify and refine the simulations as well as to suggest improvements in the W/T matrix signal processing design. The NTON link measurements quantified the O-CDMA dispersion compensation requirements. Dispersion compensation management is essential to assure the performance of W/T matrix codes

  17. Fibre-optic laser-assisted infrared tumour diagnostics (FLAIR) (United States)

    Bindig, U.; Müller, G.


    Laser based fibre-optic surgery procedures are commonly used in minimal invasive surgery. Despite the development of precise and efficient laser systems there are also innovative attempts in the field of bio-medical diagnostics. As a direct result of the tissue's optical properties most applications are focused on the visible wavelength range of the spectrum. The extension of the spectrum up to the mid-infrared (IR) region will offer a broad range of possibilities for novel strategies with a view to non-invasive diagnostics in medicine. We describe a method to detect differences between diseased and normal tissues, which involve Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy and fibre-optics methods. Regions of interest on 10 µm thin tissue sections were mapped using an IR microscope in transmission mode. After IR-mapping, the samples were analysed using standard pathological techniques. Quadratic discriminant and correlation analyses were applied to the IR maps obtained allowing differentiation between cancerous and normal tissue. The use of optical fibres, transparent in the mid-IR, allowed measurements to be made in the attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-mode at a remote location. The IR sensor is in contact with the sample that shows characteristic absorption lines. The total transmission of the fibre and the sample will decrease at these lines. This method can be used to determine the absorption of a sample in a non-destructive manner. In this paper we report on our efforts to develop an IR fibre-optic sensor for tissue identification as well as to differentiate between malignant and healthy tissue in vivo. We also describe the technical design of the laboratory set-up and the results of developments made. Silver halide fibres and a special sensor tip were used for the ATR measurements on tissue specimens. The results indicate that fibre-optic IR spectrometry will be a useful tool for bio-diagnostics.

  18. Fibre-optic laser-assisted infrared tumour diagnostics (FLAIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindig, U; Mueller, G


    Laser based fibre-optic surgery procedures are commonly used in minimal invasive surgery. Despite the development of precise and efficient laser systems there are also innovative attempts in the field of bio-medical diagnostics. As a direct result of the tissue's optical properties most applications are focused on the visible wavelength range of the spectrum. The extension of the spectrum up to the mid-infrared (IR) region will offer a broad range of possibilities for novel strategies with a view to non-invasive diagnostics in medicine. We describe a method to detect differences between diseased and normal tissues, which involve Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy and fibre-optics methods. Regions of interest on 10 μm thin tissue sections were mapped using an IR microscope in transmission mode. After IR-mapping, the samples were analysed using standard pathological techniques. Quadratic discriminant and correlation analyses were applied to the IR maps obtained allowing differentiation between cancerous and normal tissue. The use of optical fibres, transparent in the mid-IR, allowed measurements to be made in the attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-mode at a remote location. The IR sensor is in contact with the sample that shows characteristic absorption lines. The total transmission of the fibre and the sample will decrease at these lines. This method can be used to determine the absorption of a sample in a non-destructive manner. In this paper we report on our efforts to develop an IR fibre-optic sensor for tissue identification as well as to differentiate between malignant and healthy tissue in vivo. We also describe the technical design of the laboratory set-up and the results of developments made. Silver halide fibres and a special sensor tip were used for the ATR measurements on tissue specimens. The results indicate that fibre-optic IR spectrometry will be a useful tool for bio-diagnostics

  19. Extended depth of focus adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki


    We present an adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT) with a long focal range by active phase modulation of the pupil. A long focal range is achieved by introducing AO-controlled third-order spherical aberration (SA). The property of SA and its effects on focal range are investigated in detail using the Huygens-Fresnel principle, beam profile measurement and OCT imaging of a phantom. The results indicate that the focal range is extended by applying SA, and the direction of extension can be controlled by the sign of applied SA. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo human retinal imaging by altering the applied SA. PMID:23082278

  20. Overview of deformable mirror technologies for adaptive optics and astronomy (United States)

    Madec, P.-Y.


    From the ardent bucklers used during the Syracuse battle to set fire to Romans’ ships to more contemporary piezoelectric deformable mirrors widely used in astronomy, from very large voice coil deformable mirrors considered in future Extremely Large Telescopes to very small and compact ones embedded in Multi Object Adaptive Optics systems, this paper aims at giving an overview of Deformable Mirror technology for Adaptive Optics and Astronomy. First the main drivers for the design of Deformable Mirrors are recalled, not only related to atmospheric aberration compensation but also to environmental conditions or mechanical constraints. Then the different technologies available today for the manufacturing of Deformable Mirrors will be described, pros and cons analyzed. A review of the Companies and Institutes with capabilities in delivering Deformable Mirrors to astronomers will be presented, as well as lessons learned from the past 25 years of technological development and operation on sky. In conclusion, perspective will be tentatively drawn for what regards the future of Deformable Mirror technology for Astronomy.

  1. Photometric Calibration of the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (United States)

    Stevenson, Sarah Anne; Rodrigo Carrasco Damele, Eleazar; Thomas-Osip, Joanna


    The Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is an instrument available on the Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, utilizing the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). In order to allow users to easily perform photometry with this instrument and to monitor any changes in the instrument in the future, we seek to set up a process for performing photometric calibration with standard star observations taken across the time of the instrument’s operation. We construct a Python-based pipeline that includes IRAF wrappers for reduction and combines the AstroPy photutils package and original Python scripts with the IRAF apphot and photcal packages to carry out photometry and linear regression fitting. Using the pipeline, we examine standard star observations made with GSAOI on 68 nights between 2013 and 2015 in order to determine the nightly photometric zero points in the J, H, Kshort, and K bands. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, processed using the Gemini IRAF and gemini_python packages, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  2. Time-resolved analysis of nonlinear optical limiting for laser synthesized carbon nanoparticles (United States)

    Chen, G. X.; Hong, M. H.


    Nonlinear optical limiting materials have attracted much research interest in recent years. Carbon nanoparticles suspended in liquids show a strong nonlinear optical limiting function. It is important to investigate the nonlinear optical limiting process of carbon nanoparticles for further improving their nonlinear optical limiting performance. In this study, carbon nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation of a carbon target in tetrahydrofuran (THF). Optical limiting properties of the samples were studied with 532-nm laser light, which is in the most sensitive wavelength band for human eyes. The shape of the laser pulse plays an important role for initializing the nonlinear optical limiting effect. Time-resolved analysis of laser pulses discovered 3 fluence stages of optical limiting. Theoretical simulation indicates that the optical limiting is initialized by a near-field optical enhancement effect.

  3. Automatic low-order aberration correction based on geometrical optics for slab lasers. (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Dong, Lizhi; Lai, Boheng; Yang, Ping; Liu, Yong; Kong, Qingfeng; Yang, Kangjian; Tang, Guomao; Xu, Bing


    In this paper, we present a method based on geometry optics to simultaneously correct low-order aberrations and reshape the beams of slab lasers. A coaxial optical system with three lenses is adapted. The positions of the three lenses are directly calculated based on the beam parameters detected by wavefront sensors. The initial sizes of the input beams are 1.8  mm×11  mm, and peak-to-valley (PV) values of the wavefront range up to several tens of microns. After automatic correction, the dimensions may reach nearly 22  mm×22  mm as expected, and PV values of the wavefront are less than 2 μm. The effectiveness and precision of this method are verified with experiments.

  4. Solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics performance improvement (United States)

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Xiaofang; Song, Jie


    In order to overcome the effect of the atmospheric anisoplanatism, Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO), which was developed based on turbulence correction by means of several deformable mirrors (DMs) conjugated to different altitude and by which the limit of a small corrected FOV that is achievable with AO is overcome and a wider FOV is able to be corrected, has been widely used to widen the field-of-view (FOV) of a solar telescope. With the assistance of the multi-threaded Adaptive Optics Simulator (MAOS), we can make a 3D reconstruction of the distorted wavefront. The correction is applied by one or more DMs. This technique benefits from information about atmospheric turbulence at different layers, which can be used to reconstruct the wavefront extremely well. In MAOS, the sensors are either simulated as idealized wavefront gradient sensors, tip-tilt sensors based on the best Zernike fit, or a WFS using physical optics and incorporating user specified pixel characteristics and a matched filter pixel processing algorithm. Only considering the atmospheric anisoplanatism, we focus on how the performance of a solar MCAO system is related to the numbers of DMs and their conjugate heights. We theoretically quantify the performance of the tomographic solar MCAO system. The results indicate that the tomographic AO system can improve the average Strehl ratio of a solar telescope by only employing one or two DMs conjugated to the optimum altitude. And the S.R. has a significant increase when more deformable mirrors are used. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of DM conjugate altitude on the correction achievable by the MCAO system, and present the optimum DM conjugate altitudes.

  5. Applications of optical fiber to remote laser fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Shin, Jang Soo; Lee, Sang Mock; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Heon; Hong, Seok Kyung


    Fluorescence analysis using time-resolved laser fluorimetry has been used for trace uranium analysis because this method shows high sensitivity and low detection limit and is less matrix dependent than any other fluorimetric measurement. By this time, the uranium analyses in the solution of reprocessing process or high radioactive area have been primarily analyzed by sampling of the solution, but recently, a study on a remote uranium fluorescence analysis using optical fiber has been setting out based on the development of an optical fiber with radiation resistivity and of an advanced laser excitation source. Laser fluorimetry developed by our laboratory for trace uranium analyses in uranium handling process or in urine samples of workers in a nuclear facility has been used in our institute since 1988. A development of the system for remote control of uranium fluorescence analysis will be expected to contribute to an on-line uranium concentration monitoring in the cooling water of reconversion stream. In this report, we summarize the information related to fluorescence analyses and remote fluorescence monitoring methods established by foreign countries and our laboratory. We also present a future research direction for remote on-line monitoring of uranium in conversion or reconversion process. (Author)

  6. Control algorithms and applications of the wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Yuanshen; Yang, Huizhen


    Compared with the conventional adaptive optics (AO) system, the wavefront sensorless (WFSless) AO system need not to measure the wavefront and reconstruct it. It is simpler than the conventional AO in system architecture and can be applied to the complex conditions. Based on the analysis of principle and system model of the WFSless AO system, wavefront correction methods of the WFSless AO system were divided into two categories: model-free-based and model-based control algorithms. The WFSless AO system based on model-free-based control algorithms commonly considers the performance metric as a function of the control parameters and then uses certain control algorithm to improve the performance metric. The model-based control algorithms include modal control algorithms, nonlinear control algorithms and control algorithms based on geometrical optics. Based on the brief description of above typical control algorithms, hybrid methods combining the model-free-based control algorithm with the model-based control algorithm were generalized. Additionally, characteristics of various control algorithms were compared and analyzed. We also discussed the extensive applications of WFSless AO system in free space optical communication (FSO), retinal imaging in the human eye, confocal microscope, coherent beam combination (CBC) techniques and extended objects.

  7. Laser and optical techniques employed in enviromental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunesson, A


    Monitoring of trace gases in the atmosphere has been performed with differential absorption lidar and differential optical absorption spectroscopy. A new mobile differential absorption lidar system has been constructed it is described in detail and examples of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ measurements are given. Studies of the NO/sub 2/ concentration distribution in an urban area during a temperature inversion were performed. Detection of CI/sub 2/ with DIAL was investigated. Using a narrow-bandwidth laser system range-resolved measurements of NO and Hg were investigated. Mapping of NO and Hg plumes was performed. The use of mercury as a tracer gas for geothermal energy exploration was investigated during a field test in Iceland. Contrary to expectations very low mercury concentrations were detected. A high-resolution differential optical absorption system has been constructed and applied in longh-path monitoring of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. Detection of atmospheric atomic mercury was investigated. A multipass absorption cell (White cell) has been constructed and used for spectroscopic measurements. Weak oxygen absorption lines in the vicinity of the Hg line were studied both with laser and optical techniques. (With 176 refs.)

  8. Optical guiding and beam bending in free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharlemann, E.T.


    The electron beam in a free-electron laser (FEL) can act as an optical fiber, guiding or bending the optical beam. The refractive and gain effects of the bunched electron beam can compensate for diffraction, making possible wigglers that are many Rayleigh ranges (i.e., characteristic diffraction lengths) long. The origin of optical guiding can be understood by examining gain and refractive guiding in a fiber with a complex index of refraction, providing a mathematical description applicable also to the FEL, with some extensions. In the exponential gain regime of the FEL, the electron equations of motion must be included, but a self-consistent description of exponential gain with diffraction fully included becomes possible. The origin of the effective index of refraction of an FEL is illustrated with a simple example of bunched, radiating dipoles. Some of the properties of the index of refraction are described. The limited experimental evidence for optical beam bending is summarized. The evidence does not yet provide conclusive proof of the existence of optical guiding, but supports the idea. Finally, the importance of refractive guiding for the performance of a high-gain tapered-wiggler FEL amplifier is illustrated with numerical simulations

  9. Internal optical losses in very thin cw heterojunction laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.K.; Kressel, H.; Ladany, I.


    Theoretical calculations are presented showing the relationship between the internal laser absorption and structural parameters appropriate for cw room-temperature lasers. These diodes have submicron-thick recombination regions, and very small spacings between the heat sink and the recombination region to minimize the thermal resistance. The optical loss is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of radiation confinement to the active region. In particular, absorption in the surface GaAs layer providing the ohmic contact becomes very significant when the intermediate (AlGa)As layer is reduced below about 1 μm. It is further shown that excessive penetration into the GaAs regions gives rise to anomalies in the far-field radiation profiles in the direction perpendicular to the junction plane. Proper design of the internal structure of the laser avoids large increases of the threshold current density as well as large decreases in the external differential quantum efficiency from interaction with the contact layer. The design curves presented can be used to predict the gain required at threshold for a broad range of structural parameters of interest in low-threshold laser design

  10. Laser-matter structuration of optical and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallo, L., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Mezel, C., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); CEA Le Ripault, 37260 Monts (France); Guillemot, F., E-mail: [UMR 577 INSERM, Universite Bordeaux 2 (France); Chimier, B., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Bourgeade, A., E-mail: [CEA-CESTA, Le Barp (France); Regan, C., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Duchateau, G., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Souquet, A., E-mail: [UMR 577 INSERM, Universite Bordeaux 2 (France); Hebert, D., E-mail: [CEA-CESTA, Le Barp (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study we model nanomaterial structuring. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser energy deposition is discussed first. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full and approximate models are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic material response is addressed via hydrodynamics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sild effects are accounted for - Abstract: Interaction of ultrafast laser, i.e. from the femtosecond (fs) to the nanosecond (ns) regime, with initially transparent matter may produce very high energy density hot spots in the bulk as well as at the material surface, depending on focusing conditions. In the fs regime, absorption is due to ionisation of the dielectric, which enables absorption process to begin, and then hydrodynamic to take place. In the ns regime both absorption and hydrodynamic are coupled to each other, which complexifies considerably the comprehension but matter structuration looks similar. A numerical tool including solution of 3D Maxwell equations and a rate equation for free electrons is first compared to some available simple models of laser energy absorption. Then, subsequent material deformation, i.e. structuration, is determined by solving hydrodynamic equations, including or not solid behaviour. We show that nature of the final structures strongly depends on the amount of deposited energy and on the shape of the absorption zone. Then we address some problems related to laser-matter structuration of optical and biological materials in the fs, ps and ns regimes.

  11. Adaptive optics stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (AO-STORM) by particle swarm optimization. (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan F; Zhang, Yiwen; Shen, Ping; Kner, Peter


    Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) can achieve resolutions of better than 20nm imaging single fluorescently labeled cells. However, when optical aberrations induced by larger biological samples degrade the point spread function (PSF), the localization accuracy and number of localizations are both reduced, destroying the resolution of STORM. Adaptive optics (AO) can be used to correct the wavefront, restoring the high resolution of STORM. A challenge for AO-STORM microscopy is the development of robust optimization algorithms which can efficiently correct the wavefront from stochastic raw STORM images. Here we present the implementation of a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach with a Fourier metric for real-time correction of wavefront aberrations during STORM acquisition. We apply our approach to imaging boutons 100 μm deep inside the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila melanogaster larvae achieving a resolution of 146 nm.

  12. Binary stars observed with adaptive optics at the starfire optical range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, Jack D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, RDSAM, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States)


    In reviewing observations taken of binary stars used as calibration objects for non-astronomical purposes with adaptive optics on the 3.5 m Starfire Optical Range telescope over the past 2 years, one-fifth of them were found to be off-orbit. In order to understand such a high number of discrepant position angles and separations, all previous observations in the Washington Double Star Catalog for these rogue binaries were obtained from the Naval Observatory. Adding our observations to these yields new orbits for all, resolving the discrepancies. We have detected both components of γ Gem for the first time, and we have shown that 7 Cam is an optical pair, not physically bound.

  13. Route to broadband chaos in a chaotic laser diode subject to optical injection. (United States)

    Wang, An-Bang; Wang, Yun-Cai; Wang, Juan-Fen


    We experimentally and numerically demonstrate a route to bandwidth-enhanced chaos that is induced by an additional optical injection for a chaotic laser diode with optical feedback. The measured and calculated optical spectra consistently reveal that the mechanism of bandwidth enhancement is the interaction between the injection and chaotic laser field via beating. The bandwidth can be maximized only when the injected light is detuned into the edge of the optical spectrum of the chaotic laser field and the beating frequency exceeds the original bandwidth. The simulated dynamics maps indicate that 20 GHz broadband chaos can be obtained by commonly used laser diodes.

  14. Research on Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm by Improved Expectation Maximization Method


    Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Dongming; Su, Wei; Yang, Jinhua; Jiang, Yutong


    To improve the effect of adaptive optics images’ restoration, we put forward a deconvolution algorithm improved by the EM algorithm which joints multiframe adaptive optics images based on expectation-maximization theory. Firstly, we need to make a mathematical model for the degenerate multiframe adaptive optics images. The function model is deduced for the points that spread with time based on phase error. The AO images are denoised using the image power spectral density and support constrain...

  15. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults (United States)

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.


    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: 1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), 2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and 3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (Pvel) was calculated for consecutive 5 s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the Pvel. Pvel was greater in older adults in all conditions (p Pvel of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between trial 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in Pvel following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization. PMID:18329878

  16. Internal optical losses in very thin CW heterojunction laser diodes (United States)

    Butler, J. K.; Kressel, H.; Ladany, I.


    Theoretical calculations are presented showing the relationship between the internal laser absorption and structural parameters appropriate for CW room-temperature lasers. These diodes have submicron-thick recombination regions, and very small spacings between the heat sink and the recombination region to minimize the thermal resistance. The optical loss is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of radiation confinement to the active region. In particular, absorption in the surface GaAs layer providing the ohmic contact becomes very significant when the intermediate (AlGa)As layer is reduced below about 1 micron. It is further shown that excessive penetration into the GaAs regions gives rise to anomalies in the far-field radiation profiles in the direction perpendicular to the junction plane.

  17. Investigation of local optical inhomogeneities in flashlamp photolysis lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, B V; Borovkov, V V; Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arenian, V A; Sukhanov, L V; Ustinenko, V A


    Local changes in the refractive index which occur in the active medium under flashlamp-excited photolysis laser action are examined experimentally. Under conditions of the inverse population storage and suppression of the laser action by a strong quencher, local inhomogeneities have been absent. It is shown that the stimulated emission is inhomogeneous over the active medium and features regular character with the radiation density modulation within 20-30 percent and with typical size of inhomogeneities of not greater than 0.5 mm. On the basis of experimental results and estimation, a conclusion is drawn that the local optical inhomogeneities are caused by gasdynamic displacements of the gas due to different heat evolutions in the regions of the radiation density maximum and minimum.

  18. The adaptation of methods in multilayer optics for the calculation of specular neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, J.


    The adaptation of standard methods in multilayer optics to the calculation of specular neutron reflection is described. Their application is illustrated with examples which include a glass optical flat and a deuterated Langmuir-Blodgett film. (author)

  19. Growth behavior of laser-induced damage on fused silica optics under UV, ns laser irradiation. (United States)

    Negres, Raluca A; Norton, Mary A; Cross, David A; Carr, Christopher W


    The growth behavior of laser-induced damage sites is affected by a large number of laser parameters as well as site morphology. Here we investigate the effects of pulse duration on the growth rate of damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Results demonstrate a significant dependence of the growth parameters on laser pulse duration at 351 nm from 1 ns to 15 ns, including the observation of a dominant exponential versus linear, multiple-shot growth behavior for long and short pulses, respectively. These salient behaviors are tied to the damage morphology and suggest a shift in the fundamental growth mechanisms for pulses in the 1-5 ns range.

  20. Investigation of diffractive optical element femtosecond laser machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrol, Grégoire R., E-mail: [ECAM Strasbourg-Europe, Espace Européen de l’entreprise, 2, rue de Madrid – 67300 SCHILTIGHEIM, CS. 20013, 67012 Strasbourg CEDEX (France); Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Ciceron, Adline [ECAM Strasbourg-Europe, Espace Européen de l’entreprise, 2, rue de Madrid – 67300 SCHILTIGHEIM, CS. 20013, 67012 Strasbourg CEDEX (France); Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Twardowski, Patrice; Pfeiffer, Pierre [Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Télécom Physique Strasbourg – Pôle API – 300 Bd Sébastien Brant – CS 10413, Illkirch Graffenstaden F 67400 (France); and others


    Highlights: • A method for rapid manufacturing of optical diffractive element in BK7 is proposed. • A binary grating in BK7 was successfully machined by femtosecond laser pulses. • Process relying on nonlinear absorption in the dielectric due to photoionization. • The binary grating was analysed by SEM and interferometric microscopy. • Simulations by Fourier modal method supported the measured diffractive efficiency. - Abstract: This paper presents an explorative study on the machining of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in transparent materials using a femtosecond laser source. A simple form of DOE, a binary phase grating with a period of 20.85 μm (σ = 0.5 μm), a groove depth and width of 0.7 μm (σ = 0.2 μm) and 8.8 μm (σ = 0.5 μm) respectively, was successfully machined in BK7. The topographic characteristics were measured by white light interferometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The processing was carried out on high precision stages with an ultrafast fibre laser (350 fs) emitting a 343 nm pulse focused onto the sample with a stationary microscope objective. A diffracted efficiency of 27%, obtained with a spectro goniometer, was corroborated by the theoretical results obtained by the Fourier modal method (FMM), taking into account the measured topographic values. These encouraging results demonstrate that high-speed femtosecond laser manufacturing of DOE in bulk glasses can be achieved, opening the way to rapid prototyping of multi-layered-DOEs.

  1. An Alternative Method of Evaluating 1540NM Exposure Laser Damage using an Optical Tissue Phantom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jindra, Nichole M; Figueroa, Manuel A; Rockwell, Benjamin A; Chavey, Lucas J; Zohner, Justin J


    An optical phantom was designed to physically and optically resemble human tissue, in an effort to provide an alternative for detecting visual damage resulting from inadvertent exposure to infrared lasers...

  2. Developing a Methodology for Elaborating a Pulsed Optical Safety Area for High Power Laser Diodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yankov, Plamen


    The laser diodes are efficient sources of optical radiation. The maximum optical peak power depends on the pulse duration of the driving current pulse - reducing the pulse duration the safety peak power is increased...

  3. Robust Frequency Combs and Lasers for Optical Clocks and Sensing, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical frequency combs are the key enabling technology that enabled the immense fractional stability of highly-stabilized lasers in the optical regime to be...

  4. Effective Linewidth of Semiconductor Lasers for Coherent Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Pang, Xiaodan; Schatz, Richard


    name “Effective Linewidth”. We derive this figure of merit analytically, explore it by numerical simulations and experimentally validate our results by transmitting a 28 Gbaud DP-16QAM over an optical link. Our investigations cover the use of semiconductor lasers both in the transmitter side...... and as a local oscillator at the receiver. The obtained results show that our proposed “effective linewidth” is easy to measure and accounts for frequency noise more accurately, and hence the penalties associated to phase noise in the received signal....

  5. Optical performance of the Gemini carbon dioxide laser fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Hayden, J.J.; Liberman, I.


    The performance of the Gemini two beam carbon dioxide laser fusion system was recently upgraded by installation of optical components with improved quality in the final amplifier. A theoretical analysis was conducted in conjunction with measurements of the new performance. The analysis and experimental procedures, and results obtained are reported and compared. Good agreement was found which was within the uncertainties of the analysis and the inaccuracies of the experiments. The focal spot Strehl ratio was between 0.24 and 0.3 for both beams

  6. Possible power source found for fiber optic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, Tyler J.


    Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory are researching ways to use a new semiconductor alloy, indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), as as photovoltaic power source for lasers in fiber optics and space communication satellites. The efficiency of electricity-generating solar cells utilizing InGaAsN is predicted to be 40%-nearly twice the efficiency rate of a standard silicon solar cell. The use of InGaAsN in solar cells is a potential power source for satellites and other space systems. (AIP) (c)

  7. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Fiber Ring Laser Demodulation Technology. (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Peng-Zhao; Wang, Jian-Zhang


    A review for optical fiber sensors based on fiber ring laser (FRL) demodulation technology is presented. The review focuses on the principles, main structures, and the sensing performances of different kinds of optical fiber sensors based on FRLs. First of all, the theory background of the sensors has been discussed. Secondly, four different types of sensors are described and compared, which includes Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) typed sensors, Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) typed sensors, Sagnac typed sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) typed sensors. Typical studies and main properties of each type of sensors are presented. Thirdly, a comparison of different types of sensors are made. Finally, the existing problems and future research directions are pointed out and analyzed.

  8. Optical third-harmonic generation using ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, D.; Keto, J.W.; Becker, M.F.


    To better predict optical third-harmonic generation (THG) in transparent dielectrics, we model a typical ultrashort pulsed Gaussian beam, including both group velocity mismatch and phase mismatch of the fundamental and harmonic fields. We find that competition between the group velocity mismatch and phase mismatch leads to third-harmonic generation that is sensitive only to interfaces. In this case, the spatial resolution is determined by the group velocity walk-off length. THG of modern femtosecond lasers in optical solids is a bulk process, without a surface susceptibility, but bears the signature of a surface enhancement effect in z-scan measurements. We demonstrate the accuracy of the model, by showing the agreement between the predicted spectral intensity and the measured third-harmonic spectrum from a thin sapphire crystal

  9. Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 Laser and Electro-Optic Technology for Space-Based Sodium Lidar Instrument (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Janches, Diego; Jones, Sarah L.; Blagojevic, Branimir; Chen, Jeffrey


    We are developing a laser and electro-optic technology to remotely measure Sodium (Na) by adapting existing lidar technology with space flight heritage. The developed instrumentation will serve as the core for the planning of an Heliophysics mission targeted to study the composition and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere based on a spaceborne lidar that will measure the mesospheric Na layer. We present performance results from our diode-pumped tunable Q-switched self-Raman c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with intra-cavity frequency doubling that produces multi-watt 589 nm wavelength output. The c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has a fundamental wavelength that is tunable from 1063-1067 nanometers. A CW (Continuous Wave) External Cavity diode laser is used as a injection seeder to provide single-frequency grating tunable output around 1066 nanometers. The injection-seeded self-Raman shifted Nd:VO4 laser is tuned across the sodium vapor D2 line at 589 nanometers. We will review technologies that provide strong leverage for the sodium lidar laser system with strong heritage from the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). These include a space-qualified frequency-doubled 9 watts-at-532-nanometer wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser, a tandem interference filter temperature-stabilized fused-silica-etalon receiver and high-bandwidth photon-counting detectors.

  10. Robo-AO KP: A new era in robotic adaptive optics (United States)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Duev, Dmitry; Ziegler, Carl; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.; Atkinson, Dani Eleanor; Tanner, Angelle M.; Zhang, Celia; Ray, Amy


    Robo-AO is the first and only fully automated adaptive optics laser guide star AO instrument. It was developed as an instrument for 1-3m robotic telescopes, in order to take advantage of their availability to pursue large survey programs and target of opportunity observations that aren't possible with other AO systems. Robo-AO is currently the most efficient AO system in existence, and it can achieve an observation rate of 20+ science targets per hour. In more than three years of operations at Palomar Observatory, it has been quite successful, producing technology that is being adapted by other AO systems and robotic telescope projects, as well as several high impact scientific publications. Now, Robo-AO has been selected to take over operation of the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1m telescope. This will give Robo-AO KP the opportunity to pursue multiple science programs consisting of several thousand targets each during the three years it will be on the telescope. One-sixth of the observing time will be allocated to the US community through the NOAO TAC process. This presentation will discuss the process adapting Robo-AO to the KPNO 2.1m telescope, the plans for integration and initial operations, and the science operations and programs to be pursued.

  11. Optical design for increased interaction length in a high gradient dielectric laser accelerator


    Cesar, D.; Maxson, J.; Musumeci, P.; Shen, X.; England, R. J.; Wootton, K. P.


    We present a methodology for designing and measuring pulse front tilt in an ultrafast laser for use in dielectric laser acceleration. Previous research into dielectric laser accelerating modules has focused on measuring high accelerating gradients in novel structures, but has done so only for short electron-laser coupling lengths. Here we demonstrate an optical design to extend the laser-electron interaction to 1mm.

  12. Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system. (United States)

    van Dam, Marcos A; Le Mignant, David; Macintosh, Bruce A


    The adaptive-optics (AO) system at the W. M. Keck Observatory is characterized. We calculate the error budget of the Keck AO system operating in natural guide star mode with a near-infrared imaging camera. The measurement noise and bandwidth errors are obtained by modeling the control loops and recording residual centroids. Results of sky performance tests are presented: The AO system is shown to deliver images with average Strehl ratios of as much as 0.37 at 1.58 microm when a bright guide star is used and of 0.19 for a magnitude 12 star. The images are consistent with the predicted wave-front error based on our error budget estimates.

  13. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W


    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  14. Three wavelength optical alignment of the Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Seppala, L.G.


    The Nova laser, presently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, will be capable of delivering more than 100 kJ of focused energy to an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target. Operation at the fundamental wavelength of the laser (1.05 μm) and at the second and third harmonic will be possible. This paper will discuss the optical alignment systems and techniques being implemented to align the laser output to the target at these wavelengths prior to each target irradiation. When experiments require conversion of the laser light to wavelengths of 0.53 μm and 0.35 μm prior to target irradiation, this will be accomplished in harmonic conversion crystals located at the beam entrances to the target chamber. The harmonic alignment system will be capable of introducing colinear alignment beams of all three wavelengths into the laser chains at the final spatial filter. The alignment beam at 1.05 μm will be about three cm in diameter and intense enough to align the conversion crystals. Beams at 0.53 μm and 0.35 μm will be expanded by the spatial filter to full aperture (74 cm) and used to illuminate the target and other alignment aids at the target chamber focus. This harmonic illumination system will include viewing capability as well. A final alignment sensor will be located at the target chamber. It will view images of the chamber focal plane at all three wavelengths. In this way, each beam can be aligned at the desired wavelength to produce the focal pattern required for each target irradiation. The design of the major components in the harmonic alignment system will be described, and a typical alignment sequence for alignment to a target will be presented

  15. Very high repetition-rate electro-optical cavity-dumped Nd: YVO4 laser with optics and dynamics stabilities (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; Shi, Zhaohui; Huang, Yutao; Fan, Zhongwei; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Liqun


    In this paper, a very high repetition-rate, short-pulse, electro-optical cavity-dumped Nd: YVO4 laser is experimentally and theoretically investigated. The laser performance is optimized from two aspects. Firstly, the laser resonator is designed for a good thermal stability under large pump power fluctuation through optics methods. Secondly, dynamics simulation as well as experiments verifies that cavity dumping at very high repetition rate has better stability than medium/high repetition rate. At 30 W, 880 nm pump power, up to 500 kHz, constant 5 ns, stable 1064 nm fundamental-mode laser pulses can be obtained with 10 W average output power.

  16. Adaptive Laser Sintering System for In-space Printed Electronics, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to enhance the Optomec Aerosol Jet(R) technology for additive manufacturing by introduction of an Adaptive Laser Sintering System (ALSS)...

  17. Alternative laser system for cesium magneto-optical trap via optical injection locking to sideband of a 9-GHz current-modulated diode laser. (United States)

    Diao, Wenting; He, Jun; Liu, Zhi; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin


    By optical injection of an 852-nm extended-cavity diode laser (master laser) to lock the + 1-order sideband of a ~9-GHz-current-modulated diode laser (slave laser), we generate a pair of phase-locked lasers with a frequency difference up to ~9-GHz for a cesium (Cs) magneto-optical trap (MOT) with convenient tuning capability. For a cesium MOT, the master laser acts as repumping laser, locked to the Cs 6S₁/₂ (F = 3) - 6P₃/₂ (F' = 4) transition. When the + 1-order sideband of the 8.9536-GHz-current-modulated slave laser is optically injection-locked, the carrier operates on the Cs 6S₁/₂ (F = 4) - 6P₃/₂ (F' = 5) cooling cycle transition with -12 MHz detuning and acts as cooling/trapping laser. When carrying a 9.1926-GHz modulation signal, this phase-locked laser system can be applied in the fields of coherent population trapping and coherent manipulation of Cs atomic ground states.

  18. Optical and plasma smoothing of laser imprinting in targets driven by lasers with SSD bandwidths up to 1 THz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehly, T.R.; Goncharov, V.N.; Gotchev, O.; Knauer, J.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Oron, D.; Regan, S.P.; Srebro, Y.; Seka, W.; Shvarts, D.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk, V.A.


    The creation of a plasma atmosphere in laser-target interactions increases the distance between the regions of laser absorption and hydrodynamic instability (ablation front), thus allowing thermal smoothing and a reduction of laser-imprinted modulations that reach the unstable ablation region. The total laser imprinting is reduced with pulse shapes that produce a plasma atmosphere more rapidly and by the implementation of temporal beam smoothing. These effects are measured and found to be consistent with models for the hydrodynamics and optical smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). Imprinting is reduced as the laser bandwidth is increased from 0.2 to 1.0 THz

  19. Optical breakdown of helium in Bessel laser radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, N E; Pleshanov, I V; Margolin, L Ya; Pyatnitskii, Lev N


    Numerical simulation is used to investigate the dynamics of formation of a helium plasma in Bessel beams, shaped by an axicon and a phase converter from a laser radiation pulse with Gaussian temporal and radial intensity profiles. The beam intensities at the breakdown threshold are determined as a function of the pulse duration for various radial field distributions in a beam characterised by Bessel functions of order m (m = 0 - 5). It is shown that in the investigated range of parameters the threshold intensity is independent of m. The temporal and spatial evolution of the resultant plasma, and the dependence of the plasma characteristics on the pulse parameters are considered. Conditions are found for the formation of tubular plasma channels in beams of orders m≥1. The adopted model of the optical breakdown of helium is shown to be satisfactory because of a good agreement between the results of calculations of the moment of breakdown in a zeroth-order Bessel beam and experimental results. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  20. Multimodal adaptive optics for depth-enhanced high-resolution ophthalmic imaging (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Mujat, Mircea; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Lue, Niyom; Ferguson, R. Daniel


    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The development represents the first ever high performance AO system constructed that combines AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 μm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. The system is designed to operate on a broad clinical population with a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration that allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction. The system also includes a wide field line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation; an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of rotational eye motion; and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation to the subject of stimuli and other visual cues. The system was tested in a limited number of human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. The system was able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 μm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve targets deep into the choroid. In addition to instrument hardware development, analysis algorithms were developed for efficient information extraction from clinical imaging sessions, with functionality including automated image registration, photoreceptor counting, strip and montage stitching, and segmentation. The system provides clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help

  1. Acute Solar Retinopathy Imaged With Adaptive Optics, Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography. (United States)

    Wu, Chris Y; Jansen, Michael E; Andrade, Jorge; Chui, Toco Y P; Do, Anna T; Rosen, Richard B; Deobhakta, Avnish


    Solar retinopathy is a rare form of retinal injury that occurs after direct sungazing. To enhance understanding of the structural changes that occur in solar retinopathy by obtaining high-resolution in vivo en face images. Case report of a young adult woman who presented to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary with symptoms of acute solar retinopathy after viewing the solar eclipse on August 21, 2017. Results of comprehensive ophthalmic examination and images obtained by fundus photography, microperimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy, OCT angiography, and en face OCT. The patient was examined after viewing the solar eclipse. Visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS. The patient was left-eye dominant. Spectral-domain OCT images were consistent with mild and severe acute solar retinopathy in the right and left eye, respectively. Microperimetry was normal in the right eye but showed paracentral decreased retinal sensitivity in the left eye with a central absolute scotoma. Adaptive optics images of the right eye showed a small region of nonwaveguiding photoreceptors, while images of the left eye showed a large area of abnormal and nonwaveguiding photoreceptors. Optical coherence tomography angiography images were normal in both eyes. En face OCT images of the right eye showed a small circular hyperreflective area, with central hyporeflectivity in the outer retina of the right eye. The left eye showed a hyperreflective lesion that intensified in area from inner to middle retina and became mostly hyporeflective in the outer retina. The shape of the lesion on adaptive optics and en face OCT images of the left eye corresponded to the shape of the scotoma drawn by the patient on Amsler grid. Acute solar retinopathy can present with foveal cone photoreceptor mosaic disturbances on adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy imaging. Corresponding reflectivity changes can be seen on en face OCT, especially

  2. The effect of laser ablation parameters on optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles (United States)

    Gursoy, Irmak; Yaglioglu, Halime Gul


    This paper presents the effect of laser ablation parameters on optical limiting properties of silver nanoparticles. The current applications of lasers such as range finding, guidance, detection, illumination and designation have increased the potential of damaging optical imaging systems or eyes temporary or permanently. The applications of lasers introduce risks for sensors or eyes, when laser power is higher than damage threshold of the detection system. There are some ways to protect these systems such as neutral density (nd) filters, shutters, etc. However, these limiters reduce the total amount of light that gets into the system. Also, response time of these limiters may not be fast enough to prevent damage and cause precipitation in performance due to deprivation of transmission or contrast. Therefore, optical limiting filters are needed that is transparent for low laser intensities and limit or block the high laser intensities. Metal nanoparticles are good candidates for such optical limiting filters for ns pulsed lasers or CW lasers due to their high damage thresholds. In this study we investigated the optical limiting performances of silver nanoparticles produced by laser ablation technique. A high purity silver target immersed in pure water was ablated with a Nd:YAG nanosecond laser at 532 nm. The effect of altering laser power and ablation time on laser ablation efficiency of nanoparticles was investigated experimentally and optimum values were specified. Open aperture Zscan experiment was used to investigate the effect of laser ablation parameters on the optical limiting performances of silver nanoparticles in pure water. It was found that longer ablation time decreases the optical limiting threshold. These results are useful for silver nanoparticles solutions to obtain high performance optical limiters.

  3. All-optical NRZ-to-RZ data format conversion with optically injected laser diode or semiconductor optical amplifier (United States)

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Chang, Yung-Cheng; Yu, Kun-Chieh


    By injecting the optical NRZ data into a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FPLD) synchronously modulated at below threshold condition or a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) gain-depleted with a backward injected clock stream, the all-optical non-return to zero (NRZ) to return-to-zero (RZ) format conversion of a STM-64 date-stream for synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) or an OC-192 data stream for synchronous optical network (SONET) in high-speed fiber-optic communication link can be performed. Without the assistance of any complicated RF electronic circuitry, the output RZ data-stream at bit rate of up to 10 Gbit/s is successfully transformed in the optically NRZ injection-locked FPLD, in which the incoming NRZ data induces gain-switching of the FPLD without DC driving current or at below threshold condition. A power penalty of 1.2 dB is measured after NRZ-to-RZ transformation in the FPLD. Alternatively, the all-optical 10Gbits/s NRZ-to-RZ format conversion can also be demonstrated in a semiconductor optical amplifier under a backward dark-optical-comb injection with its duty-cycle 70%, which is obtained by reshaping from the received data clock at 10 GHz. The incoming optical NRZ data-stream is transformed into a pulsed RZ data-stream with its duty-cycle, rms timing jitter, and conversion gain of 15%, 4ps, and 3dB, respectively. In contrast to the FPLD, the SOA based NRZ-to-RZ converter exhibits an enhanced extinction ratio from 7 to 13 dB, and BER of 10 -13 at -18.5 dBm. In particular, the power penalty of the received RZ data-stream has greatly improved by 5 dB as compared to that obtained from FPLD.


    A compact diode laser/fiber-optic Raman spectrometer is used for quantitative detection of environmentally important dyes. This system is based on diode laser excitation at 782 mm, fiber optic probe technology, an imaging spectrometer, and state-of-the-art scientific CCD camera. ...

  5. Laser Communications and Fiber Optics Lab Manual. High-Technology Training Module. (United States)

    Biddick, Robert

    This laboratory training manual on laser communications and fiber optics may be used in a general technology-communications course for ninth graders. Upon completion of this exercise, students achieve the following goals: match concepts with laser communication system parts; explain advantages of fiber optic cable over conventional copper wire;…

  6. Applications of the lots computer code to laser fusion systems and other physical optics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.; Wolfe, P.N.


    The Laser Optical Train Simulation (LOTS) code has been developed at the Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona under contract to Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). LOTS is a diffraction based code designed to beam quality and energy of the laser fusion system in an end-to-end calculation

  7. Optical signal inverter of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet with red shift of laser diodes. (United States)

    Maeda, Y


    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated in a simple structure that combined a laser diode with Er-doped YAG crystal. The optical signal inversion occurred at a response time of 7 ns and was caused by the decrease of transmission of Er:YAG against the red shift of the wavelength of the laser diode.

  8. Characterization of collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocek, Tomáš; Sebban, S.; Bettaibi, I.; Upcraft, L. M.; Balcou, P.; Breger, P.; Zeitoun, P.; Le Pape, S.; Ros, D.; Klisnick, A.; Carillon, A.; Jamelot, G.; Rus, Bedřich; Wyart, J. F.


    Roč. 78, - (2004), s. 939-944 ISSN 0946-2171 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) 199900086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : X-ray lasers * optical-field-ionization * collisional excitation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.215, year: 2004

  9. Development of high-power optically-pumped far-infrared lasers for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Mitsuishi, Akiyoshi; Fujita, Shigeru; Tsunawaki, Yoshiaki.


    The activities for developing an over 0.1-MW optically-pumped 385-μm D 2 O laser and a CW optically-pumped 382.9-μm CH 2 F 2 laser as local oscillator for measurement of ion temperature in Tokamaks are described. (author)


    Yanoga, Fatoumata; Gentile, Ronald C; Chui, Toco Y P; Freund, K Bailey; Fell, Millie; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Rosen, Richard B


    To report a case of persistent retinal toxicity associated with a high dose of sildenafil citrate intake. Single retrospective case report. A 31-year-old white man with no medical history presented with complaints of bilateral multicolored photopsias and erythropsia (red-tinted vision), shortly after taking sildenafil citrate-purchased through the internet. Patient was found to have cone photoreceptor damage, demonstrated using electroretinogram, optical coherence tomography, and adaptive optics imaging. The patient's symptoms and the photoreceptor structural changes persisted for several months. Sildenafil citrate is a widely used erectile dysfunction medication that is typically associated with transient visual symptoms in normal dosage. At high dosage, sildenafil citrate can lead to persistent retinal toxicity in certain individuals.

  11. Assessment of laser-induced acceleration effects in optical clearing of in vivo human skin by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Zhigang; Wei, Huajiang; Jin, Ying


    Laser irradiation is considered to be a promising innovative technology which has been developed in an attempt to increase transdermal drug delivery. In this study, a near-infrared CW diode laser (785 nm) was applied to increase permeability of glycerol solutions in human skin in vivo and improve the optical clearing efficacy. Results show that for both 15%v/v and 30%v/v glycerol, the permeability coefficient increased significantly if the detected area of the skin tissue was treated with laser irradiation before optical clearing agents (OCAs) were applied. This study based on optical coherence tomography imaging technique and optical clearing effect finds laser irradiation a new approach for enhancing the penetration of OCAs and accelerating the rate of transdermal drug delivery. (paper)

  12. Assessment of laser-induced acceleration effects in optical clearing of in vivo human skin by optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Zhan, Zhigang; Wei, Huajiang; Jin, Ying


    Laser irradiation is considered to be a promising innovative technology which has been developed in an attempt to increase transdermal drug delivery. In this study, a near-infrared CW diode laser (785 nm) was applied to increase permeability of glycerol solutions in human skin in vivo and improve the optical clearing efficacy. Results show that for both 15%v/v and 30%v/v glycerol, the permeability coefficient increased significantly if the detected area of the skin tissue was treated with laser irradiation before optical clearing agents (OCAs) were applied. This study based on optical coherence tomography imaging technique and optical clearing effect finds laser irradiation a new approach for enhancing the penetration of OCAs and accelerating the rate of transdermal drug delivery.

  13. Theoretical and experimental studies of optical feedback on solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervevan, L.


    The main objective of this Phd thesis was to implement solid-state lasers based on codoped Yb 3+ :Er 3+ phosphate glasses pumped by laser diode and to study their behavior when submitted to an optical feedback. This kind of lasers presents as main advantages a very high sensibility to the optical feedback due to the optical properties of the Er 3+ ion enhancing the relaxation oscillations. Moreover, the emission wavelength around 1,535 μm belongs to the eye safe spectral domain. First, we have established the rate equations of the population inversion and the electric field for a three-level laser (Yb:Er) submitted to an optical feedback. We have done a comparative study of the influence of the amplifying medium (three-level system Yb:Er or four-level system LNA:Nd) and cavity parameters on the sensitivity due to the optical feedback. The home-made lasers were implemented in optical feedback experiments allowing original measurement of speed, absolute distance or vibration for optical detection of sound restitution. The fourth part of this thesis deals with the behavior a dual frequency laser submitted to a optical feedback. Such a laser oscillates simultaneously on two polarization eigenstates whose optical frequencies are slightly different. The beating mode between these two eigenstates allows self-heterodyne detection. (author)

  14. Differential Polarization Nonlinear Optical Microscopy with Adaptive Optics Controlled Multiplexed Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginijus Barzda


    Full Text Available Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential to become an indispensable tool for structural investigations of ordered biological assemblies and microcrystalline aggregates. Their microscopic organization can be probed through fast and sensitive measurements of nonlinear optical signal anisotropy, which can be achieved with microscopic spatial resolution by using time-multiplexed pulsed laser beams with perpendicular polarization orientations and photon-counting detection electronics for signal demultiplexing. In addition, deformable membrane mirrors can be used to correct for optical aberrations in the microscope and simultaneously optimize beam overlap using a genetic algorithm. The beam overlap can be achieved with better accuracy than diffraction limited point-spread function, which allows to perform polarization-resolved measurements on the pixel-by-pixel basis. We describe a newly developed differential polarization microscope and present applications of the differential microscopy technique for structural studies of collagen and cellulose. Both, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence-detected nonlinear absorption anisotropy are used in these investigations. It is shown that the orientation and structural properties of the fibers in biological tissue can be deduced and that the orientation of fluorescent molecules (Congo Red, which label the fibers, can be determined. Differential polarization microscopy sidesteps common issues such as photobleaching and sample movement. Due to tens of megahertz alternating polarization of excitation pulses fast data acquisition can be conveniently applied to measure changes in the nonlinear signal anisotropy in dynamically changing in vivo structures.

  15. Interband optical pulse injection locking of quantum dot mode-locked semiconductor laser. (United States)

    Kim, Jimyung; Delfyett, Peter J


    We experimentally demonstrate optical clock recovery from quantum dot mode-locked semiconductor lasers by interband optical pulse injection locking. The passively mode-locked slave laser oscillating on the ground state or the first excited state transition is locked through the injection of optical pulses generated via the opposite transition bands, i.e. the first excited state or the ground state transition from the hybridly mode-locked master laser, respectively. When an optical pulse train generated via the first excited state from the master laser is injected to the slave laser oscillating via ground state, the slave laser shows an asymmetric locking bandwidth around the nominal repetition rate of the slave laser. In the reverse injection case of, i.e. the ground state (master laser) to the first excited state (slave laser), the slave laser does not lock even though both lasers oscillate at the same cavity frequency. In this case, the slave laser only locks to higher injection rates as compared to its own nominal repetition rate, and also shows a large locking bandwidth of 6.7 MHz.

  16. Time resolved optical emission spectroscopy of cross-beam pulsed laser ablation on graphite targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangines, R.; Sanchez Ake, C.; Sobral, H.; Villagran-Muniz, M.


    Cross-beam pulsed laser ablation with two delayed lasers is performed on two perpendicular graphite targets. The time delay between lasers is varied by up to 5 μs, and physical changes on the second plasma, due to the interaction with the first generated one, are determined by time resolved optical emission spectroscopy

  17. Laser distance measurement using a newly developed composite-type optical fiberscope for fetoscopic laser surgery (United States)

    Seki, Takeshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Naganawa, Akihiro; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Kim, Keri; Chiba, Toshio


    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a condition of twins disproportionately sharing blood by the communicating vessels in the shared placenta and resulting in the significantly high fetal and perinatal mortality rate. Fetoscopic laser surgery is performed to block these communicating vessels. It is difficult, however, to perceive the distance from the tip of the fetoscope to the placental surface with only a two-dimensional fetoscopic view. When the distance is too short it causes excessive irradiation and even the risk of inadvertent damage to the placenta. On the other hand, not only target vessels but also adjacent tissues can be irradiated when it is too long. We have developed a composite-type optical fiberscope (COF) that was able to observe the target area and also to perform laser irradiation at the same time. In this paper, we studied a method to estimate the distance from the tip of the COF to the target area. We combined the COF with a laser blood-flow meter. Using laser light from the meter, we measured the total amount of light received ("REFLEX") and estimated the relation between the "REFLEX" value and the laser irradiation distance. Further in vivo experiments were subsequently carried out using porcine mesenteric blood vessels. The results showed that the distance and the "REFLEX" value were inversely proportional, irrespective of the experimental environment (e.g. in air, water and amniotic fluid-like solution) and the target object. In the in vivo experiments, we quantitatively measured the distance within an accuracy of ±1 mm (approximately 10%). In conclusion, our new system was able to measure the distance in vivo enabling a surgeon to safely and effectively perform laser irradiation at a suitable distance. The system can be used not only for fetoscopic surgery but also for general endoscopic surgery.

  18. High energy erbium laser end-pumped by a laser diode bar array coupled to a Nonimaging Optic Concentrator


    Tanguy , Eric; Feugnet , Gilles; Pocholle , Jean-Paul; Blondeau , R.; Poisson , M.A.; Duchemin , J.P.


    International audience; A high energy Er3+, Yb3+:glass laser end pumped by a laser diode array emitting at 980 nm coupled to a Nonimaging Optic Concentrator (NOC) is demonstrated. Energy up to 100 mJ and a 16% slope efficiency are achieved in a plano-plano laser cavity. The energy transfer coefficient from Yb3+ to Er3+ is estimated by a new method.

  19. Optical identification of sea-mines - Gated viewing three-dimensional laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens


    A gated viewing high accuracy mono-static laser radar has been developed for the purpose of improving the optical underwater sea-mine identification handled by the Navy. In the final stage of the sea-mine detection, classification and identification process the Navy applies a remote operated...... vehicle for optical identification of the bottom seamine. The experimental results of the thesis indicate that replacing the conventional optical video and spotlight system applied by the Navy with the gated viewing two- and three-dimensional laser radar can improve the underwater optical sea...... of the short laser pulses (0.5 ns), the high laser pulse repetition rate (32.4 kHz), the fast gating camera (0.2 ns), the short camera delay steps (0.1 ns), the applied optical single mode fiber, and the applied algorithm for three-dimensional imaging. The gated viewing laser radar system configuration...

  20. Estimating optical feedback from a chalcogenide fiber in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jumpertz


    Full Text Available The amount of optical feedback originating from a chalcogenide fiber used to couple light from a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser is evaluated experimentally. Threshold reduction measurements on the fibered laser, combined with an analytical study of a rate equations model of the laser under optical feedback, allow estimating the feedback strength between 11% and 15% depending on the fiber cleavage quality. While this remains below the frontier of the chaotic regime, it is sufficient to deeply modify the optical spectrum of a quantum cascade laser. Hence for applications such as gas spectroscopy, where the shape of the optical spectrum is of prime importance, the use of mid-infrared optical isolators may be necessary for fibered quantum cascade lasers to be fully exploited.

  1. Application of laser peening with a composite-type optical fiberscope for pancreatic calculus fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Norio; Ishikawa, Noriko; Ito, Fuyumi; Nishimura, Akihiko; Oka, Kiyoshi


    For low infestation treatment on pancreatolithiasis, we propose that laser peening phenomena by use of a composite-type optical fiberscope are useful to crush pancreatic a calculus into fragments, Nanosecond laser pulses go through the composite-type optical fiberscope and are focused on the surface of the pancreatic calculus. Laser processed fracture shapes on the calculus were observed and the pulse energy dependence were measured. The essential points for system integration were discussed. (author)

  2. Hollow Core Optical Fiber Gas Lasers: Toward Novel and Practical Systems in Fused Silica (United States)


    Hollow core Optically pumped Fiber Gas LASer’s (HOFGLAS’s) based on population inversion combine advantages of fiber lasers such as long interaction...polarization dependent fiber properties. Preliminary experiments were performed toward simultaneous lasing in the visible and near infrared; lasing in...words) Hollow core Optically pumped Fiber Gas LASer’s (HOFGLAS’s) based on population inversion combine advantages of fiber lasers such as long

  3. All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okishev, A.V.; Skeldon, M.D.; Keck, R.L.; Seka, W.


    OAK-B135 All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility. The authors have developed an all-solid-state, compact, computer-controlled, flexible optical pulse shaper for the OMEGA laser facility. This pulse shaper produces high bandwidth, temporally shaped laser pulses that meet OMEGA requirements. The design is a significant simplification over existing technology with improved performance capabilities

  4. Computer controlling of writing beam in laser microfabrication of diffractive optics


    Korolkov, V.; Shimansky, R.; Cherkashin, V.; Denk, D.


    Laser microfabrication of diffractive optics with continuous relief is based on the direct local action of focused laser radiation on the recording material. Control of writing beam parameters (beam power, spot size, waist position) is one of the main tasks in microfabrication using laser writing systems. Method of the control defines the correspondence between the fabricated microrelief of the diffractive optical element and a designed one. Complexity of this task consists in the necessity t...

  5. Communication with diode laser: short distance line of sight communication using fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.H.


    The objective of this project is to carry audio signal from transmitting station to a short distance receiving station along line of sight and also communication through fiber optics is performed, using diode laser light as carrier. In this project optical communication system, modulation techniques, basics of laser and causes of using diode laser are discussed briefly. Transmitter circuit and receiver circuit are fully described. Communication was performed using pulse width modulation technique. Optical fiber communication have many advantages over other type of conventional communication techniques. This report contains the description of optical fiber communication and compared with other communication systems. (author)

  6. Noninvasive optical imaging of resistance training adaptations in human muscle (United States)

    Warren, Robert V.; Cotter, Joshua; Ganesan, Goutham; Le, Lisa; Agustin, Janelle P.; Duarte, Bridgette; Cutler, Kyle; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.


    A quantitative and dynamic analysis of skeletal muscle structure and function can guide training protocols and optimize interventions for rehabilitation and disease. While technologies exist to measure body composition, techniques are still needed for quantitative, long-term functional imaging of muscle at the bedside. We evaluate whether diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) can be used for long-term assessment of resistance training (RT). DOSI measures of tissue composition were obtained from 12 adults before and after 5 weeks of training and compared to lean mass fraction (LMF) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Significant correlations were detected between DXA LMF and DOSI-measured oxy-hemo/myoglobin, deoxy-hemo/myoglobin, total-hemo/myoglobin, water, and lipid. RT-induced increases of ˜6% in oxy-hemo/myoglobin (3.4±1.0 μM, p=0.00314) and total-hemo/myoglobin (4.9±1.1 μM, p=0.00024) from the medial gastrocnemius were detected with DOSI and accompanied by ˜2% increases in lean soft tissue mass (36.4±12.4 g, p=0.01641) and ˜60% increases in 1 rep-max strength (41.5±6.2 kg, p = 1.9E-05). DOSI measures of vascular and/or muscle changes combined with correlations between DOSI and DXA suggest that quantitative diffuse optical methods can be used to evaluate body composition, provide feedback on long-term interventions, and generate new insight into training-induced muscle adaptations.

  7. Performance and safety of holmium: YAG laser optical fibers. (United States)

    Knudsen, Bodo E; Glickman, Randolph D; Stallman, Kenneth J; Maswadi, Saher; Chew, Ben H; Beiko, Darren T; Denstedt, John D; Teichman, Joel M H


    Lower-pole ureteronephroscopy requires transmission of holmium:YAG energy along a deflected fiber. Current ureteroscopes are capable of high degrees of deflection, which may stress laser fibers beyond safe limits during lower-pole use. We hypothesized that optical fiber and safety measures differ among manufacturers. Small (200-273-microm) and medium-diameter (300-400-microm) Ho:YAG fibers were tested in a straight and 180 degrees bent configuration. Energy transmission was measured by an energy detector. Fiber durability was assessed by firing the laser in sequentially tighter bending diameters. The fibers were bent to 180 degrees with a diameter of 6 cm and run at 200- to 4000-mJ pulse energy to determine the minimum energy required to fracture the fiber. The bending diameter was decreased by 1-cm increments and testing repeated until a bending diameter of 1 cm was reached. The maximum deflection of the ACMI DUR-8E ureteroscope with each fiber in the working channel was recorded. The flow rate through the working channel of the DUR-8E was measured for each fiber. The mean energy transmission differed among fibers (P < 0.001). The Lumenis SL 200 and the InnovaQuartz 400 were the best small and medium-diameter fibers, respectively, in resisting thermal breakdown (P < 0.01). The Dornier Lightguide Super 200 fractured repeatedly at a bend diameter of 2 cm and with the lowest energy (200 mJ). The other small fibers fractured only at a bend diameter of 1 cm. The Sharplan 200 and InnovaQuartz Sureflex 273T were the most flexible fibers, the Lumenis SL 365 the least. The flow rate was inversely proportional to four times the power of the diameter of the fiber. Optical performance and safety differ among fibers. Fibers transmit various amounts of energy to their cladding when bent. During lower-pole nephroscopy with the fiber deflected, there is a risk of fiber fracture from thermal breakdown and laser-energy transmission to the endoscope. Some available laser fibers

  8. Digital adaptive optics for achieving space-invariant lateral resolution in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical interferometric imaging technique that provides reflectivity profiles of the sample structures with high axial resolution. The high axial resolution is due to the use of low coherence (broad-band) light source. However, the lateral resolution in OCT depends on the numerical aperture (NA) of the focusing/imaging optics and it is affected by defocus and other higher order optical aberrations induced by the imperfect optics, or by the sample itself.Hardware based adaptive optics (AO) has been successfully combined with OCT to achieve high lateral resolution in combination with high axial resolution provided by OCT. AO, which conventionally uses Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH WFS) and deformable mirror for wavefront sensing and correction respectively, can compensate for optical aberration and can enable diffraction-limited resolution in OCT. Visualization of cone photoreceptors in 3-D has been successfully demonstrated using AO-OCT. However, OCT being an interferometric imaging technique can provide access to phase information.This phase information can be exploited by digital adaptive optics (DAO) techniques to correct optical aberration in the post-processing step to obtain diffraction-limited space invariant lateral resolution throughout the image volume. Thus, the need for hardware based AO can be eliminated, which in turn can reduce the system complexity and economical cost. In the first paper of this thesis, a novel DAO method based on sub-aperture correlation is presented which is the digital equivalent of SH WFS. The advantage of this method is that it is non-iterative in nature and it does not require a priori knowledge of any system parameters such wavelength, focal length, NA or detector pixel size. For experimental proof, a FF SS OCT system was used and the sample consisted of resolution test target and a plastic plate that introduced random optical aberration. Experimental results show that

  9. Large-field-of-view imaging by multi-pupil adaptive optics. (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Kong, Lingjie; Zhou, Yifeng; Cui, Meng


    Adaptive optics can correct for optical aberrations. We developed multi-pupil adaptive optics (MPAO), which enables simultaneous wavefront correction over a field of view of 450 × 450 μm 2 and expands the correction area to nine times that of conventional methods. MPAO's ability to perform spatially independent wavefront control further enables 3D nonplanar imaging. We applied MPAO to in vivo structural and functional imaging in the mouse brain.

  10. Design and application of a new modular adapter for laser diffraction characterization of inhalation aerosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Gjaltema, D; Hagedoorn, P; Schaller, M; Witt, W; Frijlink, H W


    An inhaler adapter has been designed for the characterization of the aerosol clouds from medical aerosol generators such as nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (dpis) and metered dose inhalers (mdis) with laser diffraction technology. The adapter has a pre-separator, for separation of large particles

  11. Laser-ablated silicon nanoparticles: optical properties and perspectives in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillin, M Yu; Sergeeva, E A; Agrba, P D; Krainov, A D; Ezhov, A A; Shuleiko, D V; Kashkarov, P K; Zabotnov, S V


    Due to their biocompatibility silicon nanoparticles have high potential in biomedical applications, especially in optical diagnostics. In this paper we analyze properties of the silicon nanoparticles formed via laser ablation in water and study the possibility of their application as contrasting agents in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The nanoparticles suspension was produced by picosecond laser irradiation of monocrystalline silicon wafers in water. According to transmission electron microcopy analysis the silicon nanoparticles in the obtained suspension vary in size from 2 to 200 nm while concentration of the particles is estimated as 10 13 cm −3 . The optical properties of the suspension in the range from 400 to 1000 nm were studied by spectrophotometry measurements revealing a scattering coefficient of about 0.1 mm −1 and a scattering anisotropy factor in the range of 0.2–0.4. In OCT study a system with a central wavelength of 910 nm was employed. Potential of the silicon nanoparticles as a contrasting agent for OCT is studied in experiments with agarose gel phantoms. Topical application of the nanoparticles suspension allowed the obtaining of the contrast of structural features of phantom up to 14 dB in the OCT image. (paper)

  12. Laser speckle flowgraphy for differentiating between nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy and anterior optic neuritis. (United States)

    Maekubo, Tomoyuki; Chuman, Hideki; Nao-I, Nobuhisa


    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) for the differentiation of acute nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) from anterior optic neuritis (ON). To investigate blood flow in the optic disc under normal conditions, NAION, and anterior ON, we compared the tissue blood flow of the right eye with that of the left eye in the control group, and that of the affected eye with that of the unaffected eye in the NAION and anterior ON groups. In the normal control group, the tissue blood flow did not significantly differ between the right and left eyes. In the NAION group, all 6 patients had decreased optic disc blood flow in the NAION eye when compared with the unaffected eye. By contrast, in the anterior ON group, all 6 patients had increased optic disc blood flow in the anterior ON eye when compared with the unaffected eye. In the NAION group, the mean blur rate (MBR) of the affected eyes was 29.5 % lower than that of the unaffected eyes. In the anterior ON group, the MBR of the affected eyes was 15.9 % higher than that of the unaffected eyes. LSFG could be useful in differentiating between NAION and anterior ON. In addition, this imaging technique saves time and is noninvasive.

  13. Optically-Based Diagnostics for Gas-Phase Laser Development (United States)


    Laser (COIL), Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser (EOIL), Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL), and Exciplex Alkali Laser (XPAL). The papers at this Symposium... exciplex -assisted absorption and laser-induced fluorescence, and multi-photon excitation of infrared atomic alkali transitions.11,12 In this paper... EXCIPLEX LASER SYSTEMS Proper review and discussion of the DPAL and XPAL laser systems can be found elsewhere,11,12 and in the paper by Carroll and

  14. Surface Contaminant Control Technologies to Improve Laser Damage Resistance of Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Cheng


    Full Text Available The large high-power solid lasers, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF of America and the Shenguang-III (SG-III laser facility of China, can output over 2.1 MJ laser pulse for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF experiments. Because of the enhancement of operating flux and the expansion of laser driver scale, the problem of contamination seriously influences their construction period and operation life. During irradiation by intense laser beams, the contaminants on the metallic surface of beam tubes can be transmitted to the optical surfaces and lead to damage of optical components. For the high-power solid-state laser facilities, contamination control focuses on the slab amplifiers, spatial filters, and final-optical assemblies. In this paper, an effective solution to control contaminations including the whole process of the laser driver is put forward to provide the safe operation of laser facilities, and the detailed technical methods of contamination control such as washing, cleanliness metrology, and cleanliness protecting are also introduced to reduce the probability of laser-induced damage of optics. The experimental results show that the cleanliness level of SG-III laser facility is much better to ensure that the laser facility can safely operate at high energy flux.

  15. Laser of optical fiber composed by two coupled cavities: application as optical fiber sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez S, R.A.; Kuzin, E.A.; Ibarra E, B.; May A, M.; Shlyagin, M.; Marquez B, I.


    We show an optical fiber laser sensor which consist of two cavities coupled and three fiber Bragg gratings. We used one Bragg grating (called reference) and two Bragg gratings (called sensors), which have the lower reflection wavelength. The reference grating with the two sensors grating make two cavities: first one is the internal cavity which has 4230 m of length and the another one is the external cavity which has 4277 m of length. Measuring the laser beating frequency for a resonance cavity and moving the frequency peaks when the another cavity is put in resonance, we prove that the arrangement can be used as a two points sensor for determining the difference of temperature or stress between these two points. (Author)

  16. Control code for laboratory adaptive optics teaching system (United States)

    Jin, Moonseob; Luder, Ryan; Sanchez, Lucas; Hart, Michael


    By sensing and compensating wavefront aberration, adaptive optics (AO) systems have proven themselves crucial in large astronomical telescopes, retinal imaging, and holographic coherent imaging. Commercial AO systems for laboratory use are now available in the market. One such is the ThorLabs AO kit built around a Boston Micromachines deformable mirror. However, there are limitations in applying these systems to research and pedagogical projects since the software is written with limited flexibility. In this paper, we describe a MATLAB-based software suite to interface with the ThorLabs AO kit by using the MATLAB Engine API and Visual Studio. The software is designed to offer complete access to the wavefront sensor data, through the various levels of processing, to the command signals to the deformable mirror and fast steering mirror. In this way, through a MATLAB GUI, an operator can experiment with every aspect of the AO system's functioning. This is particularly valuable for tests of new control algorithms as well as to support student engagement in an academic environment. We plan to make the code freely available to the community.

  17. Sensorless adaptive optics for isoSTED nanoscopy (United States)

    Antonello, Jacopo; Hao, Xiang; Allgeyer, Edward S.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Rittscher, Jens; Booth, Martin J.


    The presence of aberrations is a major concern when using fluorescence microscopy to image deep inside tissue. Aberrations due to refractive index mismatch and heterogeneity of the specimen under investigation cause severe reduction in the amount of fluorescence emission that is collected by the microscope. Furthermore, aberrations adversely affect the resolution, leading to loss of fine detail in the acquired images. These phenomena are particularly troublesome for super-resolution microscopy techniques such as isotropic stimulated-emission-depletion microscopy (isoSTED), which relies on accurate control of the shape and co-alignment of multiple excitation and depletion foci to operate as expected and to achieve the super-resolution effect. Aberrations can be suppressed by implementing sensorless adaptive optics techniques, whereby aberration correction is achieved by maximising a certain image quality metric. In confocal microscopy for example, one can employ the total image brightness as an image quality metric. Aberration correction is subsequently achieved by iteratively changing the settings of a wavefront corrector device until the metric is maximised. This simplistic approach has limited applicability to isoSTED microscopy where, due to the complex interplay between the excitation and depletion foci, maximising the total image brightness can lead to introducing aberrations in the depletion foci. In this work we first consider the effects that different aberration modes have on isoSTED microscopes. We then propose an iterative, wavelet-based aberration correction algorithm and evaluate its benefits.

  18. Electron accelerator with a laser ignition for investigation of beam plasma by optical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabanov, S.N.; Korolev, A.A.; Kul'beda, V.E.; Razumovskij, A.I.; Trukhin, V.A.


    Facility to conduct investigations into dense gas beam plasma is described. Facility comprises: electron accelerator (200-300 keV, 5kA, 20ns), OGM-40 ignition ruby laser LZhI-501 diagnostic laser (with 0.55-0.66 μm tunable wave length), Michelson interferometer and diagnostic equipment for optical measurements. Laser ignition of spark gap is introduced to strong synchronization (±10ns) of radiation pulse of diagnostic laser with beam current pulse

  19. Cleaning Process Versus Laser-Damage Threshold of Coated Optical Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigatti, A.L.


    The cleaning of optical surfaces is important in the manufacture of high-laser-damage-threshold coatings, which are a key component on peak-power laser systems such as OMEGA located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Since cleaning adds time, labor, and ultimately cost to the final coated component, this experiment was designed to determine the impact of different cleaning protocols on the measured laser-damage performance

  20. Laser Polarimeter for Measurement of Optical Activity of Biological Objects (United States)

    Protasov, E. A.; Protasov, D. E.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this paper has been described the polarimetric device for measurement of optical activity of biological tissues, where the source of radiation is an infrared laser with a wave λ=0.808 micron. The polarizers used are polarizing prisms of Glan - Taylor. To obtain required angular resolution (0.180/cm) has been developed a device that converts the angle of rotation of the analyzer into electrical signal, which is fed to the appropriate scan digital oscilloscope. The passage of the polarized light through the fingers of the hand was established and the angles of rotation of the polarization vector of the transmitted radiation were measured, the values of which may be determined by the content of hemoglobin in the blood.

  1. Overview of solid state lasers with applications as LIDAR transmitters and optical image amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.C.; Basiev, T.T.; Zverev, P.G.


    Full text: This talk will review the current status of solid state lasers. Then a specific class of solid state lasers, Raman lasers, will be discussed as a specific example of new technology development. The spectroscopic properties of the materials are used in these lasers is presented and the use of these materials in shared-, coupled-, and external-resonator laser systems is described. System design parameters affecting efficiency, beam quality, and temporal pulse width are discussed. Examples will be presented of the use of these lasers for transmitters in atmospheric and marine imaging light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems and in optical amplifiers

  2. An optical technique to measure the frequency and mode emission of tunable lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, S.; Simili, R.


    To use mode tunable lasers it is necessary to measure the laser frequency and the mode emission. This problem is very important when waveguide lasers are used. Normally this information is obtained by a heterodyne technique, but there are some difficulties to perform this method in a large electrical noise environment, when pulsed of radiofrequency lasers are used. This laser information was obtained by using an alternative low-cost optical system. With this apparatus the cavity pulling was measured and an upper limit for the linewidth of a radiofrequency, high pressure, line and mode-tunable, CO 2 laser was roughly estimated

  3. Conversion from non-orthogonally to orthogonally polarized optical single-sideband modulation using optically injected semiconductor lasers. (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Han; Tseng, Chin-Hao; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang


    This Letter investigates an optically injected semiconductor laser for conversion from non-orthogonally to orthogonally polarized optical single-sideband modulation. The underlying mechanism relies solely on nonlinear laser characteristics and, thus, only a typical semiconductor laser is required as the key conversion unit. This conversion can be achieved for a broadly tunable frequency range up to at least 65 GHz. After conversion, the microwave phase quality, including linewidth and phase noise, is mostly preserved, and simultaneous microwave amplification up to 23 dB is feasible.

  4. A study of optical design and optimization applied to lens module of laser beam shaping of advanced modern optical device (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chen, Zhen Hsiang


    This study used the aspheric lens to realize the laser flat-top optimization, and applied the genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimal results. Using the characteristics of aspheric lens to obtain the optimized high quality Nd: YAG 355 waveband laser flat-top optical system, this study employed the Light tools LDS (least damped square) and the GA of artificial intelligence optimization method to determine the optimal aspheric coefficient and obtain the optimal solution. This study applied the aspheric lens with GA for the flattening of laser beams using two aspheric lenses in the aspheric surface optical system to complete 80% spot narrowing under standard deviation of 0.6142.

  5. Optically-ionized plasma recombination x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, P.; Eder, D.C.; Wilks, S.C.; Dunning, M.J.; Keane, C.J.


    Design studies for recombination x-ray lasers based on plasmas ionized by high intensity, short pulse optical lasers are presented. Transient lasing on n = 3 to n = 2 transitions in Lithium-like Neon allows for moderately short wavelengths (≤ 100 angstrom) without requiring ionizing intensities associated with relativistic electron quiver energies. The electron energy distribution following the ionizing pulse affects directly the predicted gains for this resonance transition. Efficiencies of 10 -6 or greater are found for plasma temperatures in the vicinity of 40 eV. Simulation studies of parametric heating phenomena relating to stimulated Raman and Compton scattering are presented. For electron densities less than about 2.5 x 10 20 cm -3 and peak driver intensity of 2 x 10 17 W/cm 2 at 0.25 μm with pulse length of 100 fsec, the amount of electron heating is found to be marginally significant. For Lithium-like Aluminum, the required relativistic ionizing intensity gives excessive electron heating and reduced efficiency, thereby rendering this scheme impractical for generating shorter wavelength lasing (≤ 50 angstrom) in the transient case. Following the transient lasing phase, a slow hydrodynamic expansion into the surrounding cool plasma is accompanied by quasi-static gain on the n = 4 to n = 3 transition in Lithium-like Neon. Parametric heating effects on gain optimization in this regime are also discussed. 18 refs., 6 figs

  6. Model for optical-laser-induced impulse in vacuo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingus, R.S.; Goldman, S.R.


    A simple model, along with its derivation, is presented for calculating the impulse from targets in a vacuum exposed to single-pulse, optical lasers. Figures demonstrate that throughout most of the range of interest, results from the model agree well with experimental data and LASNEX radiation-hydrodynamic computer code calculations. The model assumes isothermal blowoff and thus takes advantage of the insensitivity of impulse to energy distribution within the ablated mass. The density profile in the blowoff is estimated and the Saha equation is used to evaluate the degree of ionization. The laser absorption coefficient and thermal radiation opacity are evaluated as a function of position in the blowoff in order to evaluate the energy reaching the ablation surface. An overall energy balance plus an energy balance at the ablation surface are used to determine the blowoff mass and temperature. The success of the model indicates that the impulse is insensitive to detailed interactions in the vicinity of the ablation surface. 11 refs., 6 figs

  7. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier (United States)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun


    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  8. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.


    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  9. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  10. Optical phase dynamics in mutually coupled diode laser systems exhibiting power synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Vishwa; Ghosh, R; Prasad, Awadhesh


    We probe the physical mechanism behind the known phenomenon of power synchronization of two diode lasers that are mutually coupled via their delayed optical fields. In a diode laser, the amplitude and the phase of the optical field are coupled by the so-called linewidth enhancement factor, α. In this work, we explore the role of optical phases of the electric fields in amplitude (and hence power) synchronization through α in such mutually delay-coupled diode laser systems. Our numerical results show that the synchronization of optical phases drives the powers of lasers to synchronized death regimes. We also find that as α varies for different diode lasers, the system goes through a sequence of in-phase amplitude-death states. Within the windows between successive amplitude-death regions, the cross-correlation between the field amplitudes exhibits a universal power-law behaviour with respect to α.

  11. Light propagation studies on laser modified waveguides using scanning near-field optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrise, X.; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Jimenez, D.


    By means of direct laser writing on Al, a new method to locally modify optical waveguides is proposed. This technique has been applied to silicon nitride waveguides, allowing modifications of the optical propagation along the guide. To study the formed structures, a scanning near-held optical mic...

  12. Ultraviolet SO lasers optically pumped by a tunable, line-narrowed KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.C.D.


    The feasibility of an ultraviolet energy storage laser based on the long-lived sulfur monoxide A 3 π-χ 3 Σ - electronic transition was investigated, and an ultraviolet laser based on the short-lived SO(B 3 Σ - -χ 3 Σ - ) transition was demonstrated and modeled. Both were optically pumped by a continuously tunable, line-narrowed KrF laser developed for efficient rotationally resolved excitation of SO. SO was produced by both microwave discharge and excimer laser photolysis of the precursor molecules SO 2 and SOCl 2 , with a maximum SO concentration (10 16 cm -3 ) generated by ArF (193 nm) photodissociation of SO 2 . Laser induced fluorescence of SO was used to study the excitation spectroscopy, vibrational branching ratios, lifetimes and deactivation rates. The radiative lifetime of SO(A 3 π 2 ,v' = 5) was measured to be 6.9 μs and that of SO(B,v' = 1) to be 33 ns. Lifetimes in the highly perturbed SO(B,v' = 2) level ranged from 28--90 ns. Measurements and modeling of the excitation saturation fluence as a function of buffer gas pressure determined what fraction of the ground state SO(X) molecules could be excited to SO(A) or SO(B). No evidence of excited state absorption was seen. Lasing on six new ultraviolet SO(B-X) vibrational bands in the range 262--315 nm was demonstrated. SO(B-X) pulse energies of up to 11 μJ were obtained and the gain coefficient was estimated to be 0.1 cm -1 . A multi-level rate equation model of the SO(B-X) excitation and lasing transitions, including collisional rotational mixing, described the dynamics of the lasing and measured output very well. Modeling showed and experiments confirmed that the maximum possible SO laser gain simply corresponded to saturating the excitation of a single rotational level. Collisional coupling of the rotational levels increased the laser output energy

  13. Stability of optically injected two-state quantum-dot lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinecke, Stefan; Lingnau, Benjamin; Roehm, Andre; Luedge, Kathy [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)


    Simultaneous two-state lasing is a unique property of semiconductor quantum-dot (QD) lasers. This not only changes steady-state characteristics of the laser device but also its dynamic response to perturbations. In this paper we investigate the dynamic stability of QD lasers in an external optical injection setup. Compared to conventional single-state laser devices, we find a strong suppression of dynamical instabilities in two-state lasers. Furthermore, depending on the frequency and intensity of the injected light, pronounced areas of bistability between both lasing frequencies appear, which can be employed for fast optical switching in all-optical photonic computing applications. These results emphasize the suitability of QD semiconductor lasers in future integrated optoelectronic systems where a high level of stability is required. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Development of laser surface cladding through energy transmission over optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kenji; Morishige, Norio; Irisawa, Toshio


    Much attention has recently been paid to laser cladding techniques as an approach in controlling the composition and structure of the metal surface. If YAG laser is used as the cladding method, the flexibility of laser cladding process increases extremely because YAG laser beam is transmitted through an optical fiber, and enabling cladding on pipes installed in actual plants. So experiments on YAG laser cladding through energy transmission over an optical fiber were performed to prevent stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel pipes. In order to build a cladding layer, mixed metal powder were pre-placed on the inner surface of the pipe using organic binder and the pre-placed powder beds were melted with YAG laser beam transmitted using an optical fiber. This paper introduces the method of building a cladding layer on pipes in actual nuclear plants. (author)

  15. Stability of optically injected two-state quantum-dot lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinecke, Stefan; Lingnau, Benjamin; Roehm, Andre; Luedge, Kathy


    Simultaneous two-state lasing is a unique property of semiconductor quantum-dot (QD) lasers. This not only changes steady-state characteristics of the laser device but also its dynamic response to perturbations. In this paper we investigate the dynamic stability of QD lasers in an external optical injection setup. Compared to conventional single-state laser devices, we find a strong suppression of dynamical instabilities in two-state lasers. Furthermore, depending on the frequency and intensity of the injected light, pronounced areas of bistability between both lasing frequencies appear, which can be employed for fast optical switching in all-optical photonic computing applications. These results emphasize the suitability of QD semiconductor lasers in future integrated optoelectronic systems where a high level of stability is required. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Adaptive restoration of a partially coherent blurred image using an all-optical feedback interferometer with a liquid-crystal device. (United States)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Barnes, Thomas H


    A liquid-crystal adaptive optics system using all-optical feedback interferometry is applied to partially coherent imaging through a phase disturbance. A theoretical analysis based on the propagation of the cross-spectral density shows that the blurred image due to the phase disturbance can be restored, in principle, irrespective of the state of coherence of the light illuminating the object. Experimental verification of the theory has been performed for two cases when the object to be imaged is illuminated by spatially coherent light originating from a He-Ne laser and by spatially incoherent white light from a halogen lamp. We observed in both cases that images blurred by the phase disturbance were successfully restored, in agreement with the theory, immediately after the adaptive optics system was activated. The origin of the deviation of the experimental results from the theory, together with the effect of the feedback misalignment inherent in our optical arrangement, is also discussed.

  17. Optical Protection Filters for Harmful Laser Beams and UV Radiation (United States)

    Azim M., Osama A.


    Due to the rapid growth of radiation protection applications in various devices and instruments, it is essential to use suitable filters for eye protection of the personal working in the radiation field. Different protection filters were produced to protect from four laser beam wavelengths (at 532nm, 632.8nm, 694nm and 1064nm) and block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters used optical thin film technology. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production filter processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Dralo (mixture of oxides TiO2/Al2O3), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition by an electron beam gun. The output transmittance curves for both theoretical and experimental values of all filters are presented. To validate the suitability for use in a `real world', rather than laboratory test application, full environmental assessment was also carried out. These filters exhibited high endurance after exposing them to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance and humidity) according to military standards MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  18. Optical Protection Filters for Harmful Laser Beams and UV Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azim M, Osama A.


    Due to the rapid growth of radiation protection applications in various devices and instruments, it is essential to use suitable filters for eye protection of the personal working in the radiation field. Different protection filters were produced to protect from four laser beam wavelengths (at 532nm, 632.8nm, 694nm and 1064nm) and block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters used optical thin film technology. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production filter processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Dralo (mixture of oxides TiO2/Al2O3), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition by an electron beam gun. The output transmittance curves for both theoretical and experimental values of all filters are presented. To validate the suitability for use in a 'real world', rather than laboratory test application, full environmental assessment was also carried out. These filters exhibited high endurance after exposing them to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance and humidity) according to military standards MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A

  19. Quantitative evaluation of enhanced laser tattoo removal by skin optical clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihua Liu


    Full Text Available Lasers have been widely used for tattoo removal, but the limited light penetration depth caused by high skin scattering property restricts the therapeutic outcome of deep tattoo. Skin optical clearing method, by introducing optical clearing agent (OCA into skin, has shown some improvement in the effect of laser tattoo removal. In this study, the enhanced laser tattoo removal has been quantitatively assessed. OCA was applied to the skin of tattoo animal model and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm irradiation was used to remove the tattoo. The skin evaluation instrument (Mexameter probe, MPA580 was applied to measure the content of tattoo pigment before and after laser treatment, and then the clearance rate of pigment was calculated. Further, Monte Carlo (MC method was utilized to simulate the effect of skin optical clearing on light transmission in tattoo skin model. By comparing the pigment change of tattoo areas respectively treated with OCA plus laser and single laser, it was found that pigment clearance of the former tattoo area was increased by 1.5-fold. Further, the MC simulation verified that the reduced light scattering in skin could increase the effective dose of luminous flux reaching to the deep tattoo regions. It can be concluded from both experiment and theoretical simulations that skin optical clearing technique could improve the outcome of laser tattoo removal, which should be beneficial for clinical laser tattoo removal and other laser pigment elimination.

  20. Wide-Field Optic for Autonomous Acquisition of Laser Link (United States)

    Page, Norman A.; Charles, Jeffrey R.; Biswas, Abhijit


    An innovation reported in Two-Camera Acquisition and Tracking of a Flying Target, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 8 (August 2008), p. 20, used a commercial fish-eye lens and an electronic imaging camera for initially locating objects with subsequent handover to an actuated narrow-field camera. But this operated against a dark-sky background. An improved solution involves an optical design based on custom optical components for the wide-field optical system that directly addresses the key limitations in acquiring a laser signal from a moving source such as an aircraft or a spacecraft. The first challenge was to increase the light collection entrance aperture diameter, which was approximately 1 mm in the first prototype. The new design presented here increases this entrance aperture diameter to 4.2 mm, which is equivalent to a more than 16 times larger collection area. One of the trades made in realizing this improvement was to restrict the field-of-view to +80 deg. elevation and 360 azimuth. This trade stems from practical considerations where laser beam propagation over the excessively high air mass, which is in the line of sight (LOS) at low elevation angles, results in vulnerability to severe atmospheric turbulence and attenuation. An additional benefit of the new design is that the large entrance aperture is maintained even at large off-axis angles when the optic is pointed at zenith. The second critical limitation for implementing spectral filtering in the design was tackled by collimating the light prior to focusing it onto the focal plane. This allows the placement of the narrow spectral filter in the collimated portion of the beam. For the narrow band spectral filter to function properly, it is necessary to adequately control the range of incident angles at which received light intercepts the filter. When this angle is restricted via collimation, narrower spectral filtering can be implemented. The collimated beam (and the filter) must be relatively large to

  1. Creating large second-order optical nonlinearity in optical waveguides written by femtosecond laser pulses in boro-aluminosilicate glass (United States)

    An, Hong-Lin; Arriola, Alexander; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Withford, Michael J.; Fleming, Simon


    The thermal poling technique was applied to optical waveguides embedded in a commercial boro-aluminosilicate glass, resulting in high levels of induced second-order optical nonlinearity. The waveguides were fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique, and thermally poled samples were characterized with second harmonic optical microscopy to reveal the distribution profile of the induced nonlinearity. It was found that, in contrast to fused silica, the presence of waveguides in boro-aluminosilicate glass led to an enhancement of the creation of the second-order nonlinearity, which is larger in the laser written waveguiding regions when compared to the un-modified substrate. The magnitude of the nonlinear coefficient d33 achieved in the core of the laser-written waveguides, up to 0.2 pm/V, was comparable to that in thermally poled fused silica, enabling the realization of compact integrated electro-optic devices in boro-aluminosilicate glasses.

  2. Low-power laser therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: effective optical power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen


    Full Text Available Low-power laser therapy has been used for the non-surgical treatment of mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome, although its efficacy has been a long-standing controversy. The laser parameters in low-power laser therapy are closely related to the laser effect on human tissue. To evaluate the efficacy of low-power laser therapy, laser parameters should be accurately measured and controlled, which has been ignored in previous clinical trials. Here, we report the measurement of the effective optical power of low-power laser therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome. By monitoring the backside reflection and scattering laser power from human skin at the wrist, the effective laser power can be inferred. Using clinical measurements from 30 cases, we found that the effective laser power differed significantly among cases, with the measured laser reflection coefficient ranging from 1.8% to 54%. The reflection coefficient for 36.7% of these 30 cases was in the range of 10–20%, but for 16.7% of cases, it was higher than 40%. Consequently, monitoring the effective optical power during laser irradiation is necessary for the laser therapy of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  3. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.


    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  4. Nonlinear optics and solid-state lasers advanced concepts, tuning-fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianquan


    This book covers the complete spectrum of nonlinear optics and all solid state lasers.The book integrates theory, calculations and practical design, technology, experimental schemes and applications. With the expansion and further development of Laser technology, the wavelength spectrum of Lasers had to be enlarged, even to be tunable which requires the use of nonlinear optical and Laser tunable technology. It systematically summarizes and integrates the analysis of international achievements within the last 20 years in this field. It will be helpful for university teachers, graduate students as well as engineers.

  5. Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Conedera, Veronique; Granier, Hugues; Liotard, Arnaud; Lanzoni, Patrick; Salvagnac, Ludovic; Fabre, Norbert; Camon, Henri


    Future adaptive optics (AO) systems require deformable mirrors with very challenging parameters, up to 250 000 actuators and inter-actuator spacing around 500 μm. MOEMS-based devices are promising for the development of a complete generation of new deformable mirrors. Our micro-deformable mirror (MDM) is based on an array of electrostatic actuators with attachments to a continuous mirror on top. The originality of our approach lies in the elaboration of layers made of polymer materials. Mirror layers and active actuators have been demonstrated. Based on the design of this actuator and our polymer process, realization of a complete polymer-MDM has been done using two process flows: the first involves exclusively polymer materials while the second uses SU8 polymer for structural layers and SiO II and sol-gel for sacrificial layers. The latest shows a better capability in order to produce completely released structures. The electrostatic force provides a non-linear actuation, while AO systems are based on linear matrices operations. Then, we have developed a dedicated 14-bit electronics in order to "linearize" the actuation, using a calibration and a sixth-order polynomial fitting strategy. The response is nearly perfect over our 3×3 MDM prototype with a standard deviation of 3.5 nm; the influence function of the central actuator has been measured. First evaluation on the cross non-linarities has also been studied on OKO mirror and a simple look-up table is sufficient for determining the location of each actuator whatever the locations of the neighbor actuators. Electrostatic MDM are particularly well suited for open-loop AO applications.

  6. Adaptive Optics Observations of Exoplanets, Brown Dwarfs, and Binary Stars (United States)

    Hinkley, Sasha


    The current direct observations of brown dwarfs and exoplanets have been obtained using instruments not specifically designed for overcoming the large contrast ratio between the host star and any wide-separation faint companions. However, we are about to witness the birth of several new dedicated observing platforms specifically geared towards high contrast imaging of these objects. The Gemini Planet Imager, VLT-SPHERE, Subaru HiCIAO, and Project 1640 at the Palomar 5m telescope will return images of numerous exoplanets and brown dwarfs over hundreds of observing nights in the next five years. Along with diffraction-limited coronagraphs and high-order adaptive optics, these instruments also will return spectral and polarimetric information on any discovered targets, giving clues to their atmospheric compositions and characteristics. Such spectral characterization will be key to forming a detailed theory of comparative exoplanetary science which will be widely applicable to both exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Further, the prevalence of aperture masking interferometry in the field of high contrast imaging is also allowing observers to sense massive, young planets at solar system scales (~3-30 AU)- separations out of reach to conventional direct imaging techniques. Such observations can provide snapshots at the earliest phases of planet formation-information essential for constraining formation mechanisms as well as evolutionary models of planetary mass companions. As a demonstration of the power of this technique, I briefly review recent aperture masking observations of the HR 8799 system. Moreover, all of the aforementioned techniques are already extremely adept at detecting low-mass stellar companions to their target stars, and I present some recent highlights.

  7. Adaptive optics plug-and-play setup for high-resolution microscopes with multi-actuator adaptive lens (United States)

    Quintavalla, M.; Pozzi, P.; Verhaegen, Michelle; Bijlsma, Hielke; Verstraete, Hans; Bonora, S.


    Adaptive Optics (AO) has revealed as a very promising technique for high-resolution microscopy, where the presence of optical aberrations can easily compromise the image quality. Typical AO systems however, are almost impossible to implement on commercial microscopes. We propose a simple approach by using a Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens (MAL) that can be inserted right after the objective and works in conjunction with an image optimization software allowing for a wavefront sensorless correction. We presented the results obtained on several commercial microscopes among which a confocal microscope, a fluorescence microscope, a light sheet microscope and a multiphoton microscope.

  8. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode. (United States)

    Maeda, Y


    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  9. Development of laser marking system with electro-optic Q-switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Kwang Suk; Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon.


    We developed a high repetition electro-optic Q switch Nd:YAG laser and scan system for laser marking. We localized the scan mirrors and their mounts. We made the database for the optical properties of commercial flat-field lenses with our optics design software. We fabricated the detailed network between the galvanometer based beam scanning system and the laser generator. To accelerate the commercialization by the joint company, the training and transfer of technology were pursued in the joint participation by company researchers from the early stage. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 27 figs

  10. Development of laser marking system with electro-optic Q-switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Kwang Suk; Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon


    We developed a high repetition electro-optic Q switch Nd:YAG laser and scan system for laser marking. We localized the scan mirrors and their mounts. We made the database for the optical properties of commercial flat-field lenses with our optics design software. We fabricated the detailed network between the galvanometer based beam scanning system and the laser generator. To accelerate the commercialization by the joint company, the training and transfer of technology were pursued in the joint participation by company researchers from the early stage. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 27 figs.

  11. Quantum Dot Laser for a Light Source of an Athermal Silicon Optical Interposer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Hatori


    Full Text Available This paper reports a hybrid integrated light source fabricated on a silicon platform using a 1.3 μm wavelength quantum dot array laser. Temperature insensitive characteristics up to 120 °C were achieved by the optimum quantum dot structure and laser structure. Light output power was obtained that was high enough to achieve an optical error-free link of a silicon optical interposer. Furthermore, we investigated a novel spot size convertor in a silicon waveguide suitable for a quantum dot laser for lower energy cost operation of the optical interposer.

  12. Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning (United States)

    Peterson, John E.; Maricle, Stephen M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.


    The present invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure for a long period of time to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nm or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

  13. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems. (United States)

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S


    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm 2 of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm 2 to 9.5 J/cm 2 of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  14. Performance analysis of an adaptive optics system for free-space optics communication through atmospheric turbulence. (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang


    The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0  = 10, f G  = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB  = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.

  15. Adaptive optics fundus images of cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tojo N


    Full Text Available Naoki Tojo, Tomoko Nakamura, Chiharu Fuchizawa, Toshihiko Oiwake, Atsushi HayashiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa using an adaptive optics fundus camera and to investigate any correlations between cone photoreceptor density and findings on optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence.Methods: We examined two patients with typical retinitis pigmentosa who underwent ophthalmological examination, including measurement of visual acuity, and gathering of electroretinographic, optical coherence tomographic, fundus autofluorescent, and adaptive optics fundus images. The cone photoreceptors in the adaptive optics images of the two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and five healthy subjects were analyzed.Results: An abnormal parafoveal ring of high-density fundus autofluorescence was observed in the macula in both patients. The border of the ring corresponded to the border of the external limiting membrane and the inner segment and outer segment line in the optical coherence tomographic images. Cone photoreceptors at the abnormal parafoveal ring were blurred and decreased in the adaptive optics images. The blurred area corresponded to the abnormal parafoveal ring in the fundus autofluorescence images. Cone densities were low at the blurred areas and at the nasal and temporal retina along a line from the fovea compared with those of healthy controls. The results for cone spacing and Voronoi domains in the macula corresponded with those for the cone densities.Conclusion: Cone densities were heavily decreased in the macula, especially at the parafoveal ring on high-density fundus autofluorescence in both patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Adaptive optics images enabled us to observe in vivo changes in the cone photoreceptors of

  16. Level crossing statistics for optical beam wander in a turbulent atmosphere with applications to ground-to-space laser communications. (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Fields, Renny A


    Level crossing statistics is applied to the complex problem of atmospheric turbulence-induced beam wander for laser propagation from ground to space. A comprehensive estimate of the single-axis wander angle temporal autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum is used to develop, for the first time to our knowledge, analytic expressions for the mean angular level crossing rate and the mean duration of such crossings. These results are based on an extension and generalization of a previous seminal analysis of the beam wander variance by Klyatskin and Kon. In the geometrical optics limit, we obtain an expression for the beam wander variance that is valid for both an arbitrarily shaped initial beam profile and transmitting aperture. It is shown that beam wander can disrupt bidirectional ground-to-space laser communication systems whose small apertures do not require adaptive optics to deliver uniform beams at their intended target receivers in space. The magnitude and rate of beam wander is estimated for turbulence profiles enveloping some practical laser communication deployment options and suggesting what level of beam wander effects must be mitigated to demonstrate effective bidirectional laser communication systems.

  17. Phase Diversity Wavefront Sensing for Control of Space Based Adaptive Optics Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schgallis, Richard J


    Phase Diversity Wavefront Sensing (PD WFS) is a wavefront reconstruction technique used in adaptive optics, which takes advantage of the curvature conjugating analog physical properties of a deformable mirror (MMDM or Bi-morph...

  18. Adaptive Optics Simulation for the World's Largest Telescope on Multicore Architectures with Multiple GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem; Gratadour, Damien; Charara, Ali; Gendron, Eric


    We present a high performance comprehensive implementation of a multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) simulation on multicore architectures with hardware accelerators in the context of computational astronomy. This implementation will be used


    Labriola, Leanne T; Legarreta, Andrew D; Legarreta, John E; Nadler, Zach; Gallagher, Denise; Hammer, Daniel X; Ferguson, R Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S


    To elucidate the location of pathological changes in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) with the use of multimodal adaptive optics (AO) imaging. A 5-year observational case study of a 24-year-old female with recurrent MEWDS. Full examination included history, Snellen chart visual acuity, pupil assessment, intraocular pressures, slit lamp evaluation, dilated fundoscopic exam, imaging with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography. Three distinct acute episodes of MEWDS occurred during the period of follow-up. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive-optics imaging showed disturbance in the photoreceptor outer segments (PR OS) in the posterior pole with each flare. The degree of disturbance at the photoreceptor level corresponded to size and extent of the visual field changes. All findings were transient with delineation of the photoreceptor recovery from the outer edges of the lesion inward. Hyperautofluorescence was seen during acute flares. Increase in choroidal thickness did occur with each active flare but resolved. Although changes in the choroid and RPE can be observed in MEWDS, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, and multimodal adaptive optics imaging localized the visually significant changes seen in this disease at the level of the photoreceptors. These transient retinal changes specifically occur at the level of the inner segment ellipsoid and OS/RPE line. En face optical coherence tomography imaging provides a detailed, yet noninvasive method for following the convalescence of MEWDS and provides insight into the structural and functional relationship of this transient inflammatory retinal disease.

  20. Ultrafast gated imaging of laser produced plasmas using the optical Kerr effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, D. R.; Wegner, U.; Ahlswede, H.-C.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Gallegos, P. L.; Divall, E. J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Neely, D.; Smith, R. A.


    Optical imaging is a versatile diagnostic for investigations of plasmas generated under intense laser irradiation. Electro-optic gating techniques operating on the >100 ps timescale are commonly used to reduce the amount of light detected from self-emission of hot plasma or improve the temporal resolution of the detector. The use of an optical Kerr gate enables a superior dynamic range and temporal resolution compared to electronically gated devices. The application of this method for enhanced imaging of laser produced plasmas with gate time ∼100 fs is demonstrated, and the possibility to produce a sub-10 fs, high dynamic range 'all optical' streak camera is discussed.

  1. Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing. (United States)

    Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng


    We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1  μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources.

  2. Experimental Adaptive Digital Performance Monitoring for Optical DP-QPSK Coherent Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zhang, Xu; Zibar, Darko


    We report on a successful experimental demonstration of a digital optical performance monitoring (OPM) yielding satisfactory estimation accuracy along with adaptive impairment equalization. No observable penalty is measured when equalizer is driven by monitoring module.......We report on a successful experimental demonstration of a digital optical performance monitoring (OPM) yielding satisfactory estimation accuracy along with adaptive impairment equalization. No observable penalty is measured when equalizer is driven by monitoring module....

  3. Efficient optical trapping of CdTe quantum dots by femtosecond laser pulses

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Weiyi


    The development in optical trapping and manipulation has been showing rapid progress, most of it is in the small particle sizes in nanometer scales, substituting the conventional continuous-wave lasers with high-repetition-rate ultrashort laser pulse train and nonlinear optical effects. Here, we evaluate two-photon absorption in optical trapping of 2.7 nm-sized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with high-repetition-rate femtosecond pulse train by probing laser intensity dependence of both Rayleigh scattering image and the two-photon-induced luminescence spectrum of the optically trapped QDs. The Rayleigh scattering imaging indicates that the two-photon absorption (TPA) process enhances trapping ability of the QDs. Similarly, a nonlinear increase of the two-photon-induced luminescence with the incident laser intensity fairly indicates the existence of the TPA process.

  4. 375-nm ultraviolet-laser based non-line-of-sight underwater optical communication

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin; Cai, Wenqi; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ooi, Ee-Ning; He, Hongsen; Chaaban, Anas; Shen, Chao; Oubei, Hassan M.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.


    For circumventing the alignment requirement of line-of-sight (LOS) underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC), we demonstrated a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UWOC link adequately enhanced using ultraviolet (UV) 375-nm laser. Path loss was chosen

  5. Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplifier as the Front End for the OMEGA EP Laser Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Guardalben, M.J.; Keegan, J.; Puth, J.; Waxer, L.J.; Zuegel, J.D.


    A 145-mJ optical parametric amplifier has been developed as a front-end source prototype for the OEMGA EP laser chain. The system definition is presented together with experimental results that show 30% conversion efficiency

  6. Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Sazio, P.J.A.; Day, T.D.; Sparks, J.R.; Cheng, H.Y.; Badding, J.V.; Peacock, A.C.


    Roč. 13, č. 12 (2014), s. 1122-1127 ISSN 1476-1122 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : strained silicon * modulation * generation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 36.503, year: 2014

  7. Optical system design with common aperture for mid-infrared and laser composite guidance (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanzhi; Yang, Zijian; Sun, Ting; Yang, Huamei; Han, Kunye; Hu, Bo


    When the field of operation of precision strike missiles is more and more complicated, autonomous seekers will soon encounter serious difficulties, especially with regard to low signature targets and complex scenarios. So the dual-mode sensors combining an imaging sensor with a semi-active laser seeker are conceived to overcome these specific problems. Here the sensors composed a dual field of view mid-infrared thermal imaging camera and a laser range finder have the common optical aperture which produced the minization of seeker construction. The common aperture optical systems for mid-infrared and laser dual-mode guildance have been developed, which could meet the passive middle infrared high-resolution imaging and the active laser high-precision indication and ranging. The optical system had good image quality, and fulfilled the performance requirement of seeker system. The design and expected performance of such a dual-mode optical system will be discussed.

  8. Refined adaptive optics simulation with wide field of view for the E-ELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebbo, Manal


    Refined simulation tools for wide field AO systems (such as MOAO, MCAO or LTAO) on ELTs present new challenges. Increasing the number of degrees of freedom (scales as the square of the telescope diameter) makes the standard simulation's codes useless due to the huge number of operations to be performed at each step of the Adaptive Optics (AO) loop process. This computational burden requires new approaches in the computation of the DM voltages from WFS data. The classical matrix inversion and the matrix vector multiplication have to be replaced by a cleverer iterative resolution of the Least Square or Minimum Mean Square Error criterion (based on sparse matrices approaches). Moreover, for this new generation of AO systems, concepts themselves will become more complex: data fusion coming from multiple Laser and Natural Guide Stars (LGS / NGS) will have to be optimized, mirrors covering all the field of view associated to dedicated mirrors inside the scientific instrument itself will have to be coupled using split or integrated tomography schemes, differential pupil or/and field rotations will have to be considered, etc. All these new entries should be carefully simulated, analysed and quantified in terms of performance before any implementation in AO systems. For those reasons I developed, in collaboration with the ONERA, a full simulation code, based on iterative solution of linear systems with many parameters (use of sparse matrices). On this basis, I introduced new concepts of filtering and data fusion (LGS / NGS) to effectively manage modes such as tip, tilt and defocus in the entire process of tomographic reconstruction. The code will also eventually help to develop and test complex control laws (Multi-DM and multi-field) who have to manage a combination of adaptive telescope and post-focal instrument including dedicated deformable mirrors. The first application of this simulation tool has been studied in the framework of the EAGLE multi-object spectrograph

  9. Development of surgical CW Nd:YAG laser with optical fiber delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Mook; Jung, Chin Mann; Kim, Kwang Suk; Kim, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Wan; Kim, Duk Hyun


    We developed a surgical CW Nd:YAG laser with optical fiber delivery system. Several commercial models have been investigated in design and performance. We improved its quality to the level of commercial Nd:YAG laser by an endurance test for each parts of laser system. The maximum power of our surgical laser was 150 W and the laser pulse width could be controlled to 99 sec continuously by 0.1 sec. Many optical parts were localized and lowered much in cost. Only few parts were imported and almost 90% in cost were localized. Also, to find out the maintenance problem of this surgical laser, it was applicated to the production line of our joint company. (Author)

  10. Electrically tunable Brillouin fiber laser based on a metal-coated single-mode optical fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov

    Full Text Available We explore tunability of the Brillouin fiber laser employing Joule heating. For this purpose, 10-m-length of a metal-coated single-mode optical cavity fiber has been directly included into an electrical circuit, like a conductor wire. With the current up to ∼3.5 A the laser tuning is demonstrated over a spectrum range of ∼400 MHz. The observed laser line broadening up to ∼2 MHz is explained by frequency drift and mode-hoping in the laser caused by thermal noise. Keywords: Brillouin fiber laser, Metal-coated optical fiber, Laser tuning, Fiber sensors

  11. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing (United States)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.; Yaroslavskii, I. V.


    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%—40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency.

  12. Optical modeling of induction-linac driven free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharlemann, E.T.; Fawley, W.M.


    The free-electron laser (FEL) simulation code FRED, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) primarily to model single-pass FEL amplifiers driven by induction linear accelerators, is described. The main emphasis is on the modeling of optical propagation in the laser and on the differences between the requirements for modeling rf-linac-driven vs. induction-linac-driven FELs. Examples of optical guiding and mode cleanup are presented for a 50 μm FEL

  13. Optical fiber cable for transmission of high power laser energy over great distances (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.; Koblick, Yeshaya


    There is provided a system and apparatus for the transmission of high power laser energy over great distances without substantial power loss and without the presence of stimulated Raman scattering. There is further provided systems and optical fiber cable configurations and optical fiber structures for the delivering high power laser energy over great distances to a tool or surface to perform an operation or work with the tool or upon the surface.

  14. Optical fiber configurations for transmission of laser energy over great distances (United States)

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S


    There are provided optical fiber configurations that provide for the delivery of laser energy, and in particular, the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy over great distances. These configurations further are hardened to protect the optical fibers from the stresses and conditions of an intended application. The configurations provide means for determining the additional fiber length (AFL) need to obtain the benefits of such additional fiber, while avoiding bending losses.

  15. Laser- and gamma-induced transformations of optical spectra of indium-doped sodium borate glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kopyshinsky, O V; Zelensky, S E; Danilchenko, B A; Shakhov, O P


    The optical absorption and luminescence properties of indium-doped sodium borate glass irradiated by gamma-rays and by powerful UV lasers within the impurity-related absorption band are investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that both the laser- and gamma-irradiation cause similar transformations of optical spectra in the UV and visible regions. The changes of the spectra observed are described with the use of a model which includes three types of impurity centres formed by differently charged indium ions.

  16. High-power extended cavity laser optimized for optical pumping ot Rb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef


    Roč. 18, č. 9 (2007), N77-N80 ISSN 0957-0233 R&D Pro jects: GA ČR GA102/04/2109; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA AV ČR IAA200650504; GA AV ČR IAA1065303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : laser diode * emission linewidth * diffraction grating * optical pumping * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2007

  17. Electrical and optical response of a laser diode to transient ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggio, J.; Brisset, C.; Sommer, J.L.; D'hose, C.; Lalande, P.; Leray, J.L.; Musseau, O.


    The authors have studied transient irradiation effects on the optical and electrical responses of a laser diode. The influence of dose rate, ranging from 10 9 to 10 12 rad(Si)/s, has been investigated through a complete experimental study. Dose rate vulnerability of the laser diode has been observed. Electrical and optical transient responses are determined by the dose rate, the diode structure, and its operating point

  18. [Study on the change of optical zone after femtosecond laser assisted laser in situ keratomileusis]. (United States)

    Li, H; Chen, M; Tian, L; Li, D W; Peng, Y S; Zhang, F F


    Objective: To explore the change of optical zone after femtosecond laser assisted laser in sitn keratomileusis(FS-LASIK) so as to provide the reference for measurement and design of clinical optical zone. Methods: This retrospective case series study covers 41 eyes of 24 patients (7 males and 17 females, aged from 18 to 42 years old) with myopia and myopic astigmatism who have received FS-LASIK surgery at Corneal Refractive Department of Qingdao Eye Hospital and completed over 6 months of clinical follow-up. Pentacam system (with the application of 6 corneal topographic map modes including: the pure axial curvature topographic map, the pure tangential curvature topographic map, the axial curvature difference topographic map, the tangential curvature difference topographic map, the postoperative front elevation map and the corneal thickness difference topographic map), combined with transparent concentric software (a system independently developed by Qingdao Eye Hospital) was used to measure the optical zone at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively, the optical zone diameters measurement results among different follow-up times in group were analyzed with the repeated measures analysis of variance, and the actual measured values and the theoretical design values of the optical zone were analyzed with independent-samples t-testing. Spearman correlation coefficient ( r(s) ) have been applied to evaluate the relationship between postoperative optical zone measurement values and the potential influencing factors. Results: The optical zone diameters measured by pure axial curvature topographic map at 1, 3 and 6 months after FS-LASIK showed (6.55±0.50)mm, (6.50±0.53)mm and (6.48±0.53)mm respectively. The differences between values are of no statistical significance ( F= 1.60, P= 0.21), the optical zone diameter measured by pure tangential curvature topographic map at 1, 3 and 6 months after FS-LASIK showed (5.44±0.46)mm, (5.46±0.52)mm and (5.44±0.50)mm respectively, the

  19. Wavelength switching dynamics of two-colour semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, S; Heinricht, P; Brandonisio, N; Amann, A; O’Brien, S


    The wavelength switching dynamics of two-colour semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback are presented. These devices incorporate slotted regions etched into the laser ridge waveguide for tailoring the output spectrum. Experimental measurements are presented demonstrating that optical injection in one or both modes of these devices can induce wavelength bistability. Measured switching dynamics with modulated optical injection are shown to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on a simple rate equation model. We also demonstrate experimentally that time-delayed optical feedback can induce wavelength bistability for short external cavity lengths. Numerical simulations indicate that this two-colour optical feedback system can provide fast optical memory functionality based on injected optical pulses without the need for an external holding beam. (paper)

  20. Fiber Optic Cables for Transmission of High-Power Laser Pulses in Spaceflight Applications (United States)

    Thomes, W. J., Jr.; Ott, M. N.; Chuska, R. F.; Switzer, R. C.; Blair, D. E.


    Lasers with high peak power pulses are commonly used in spaceflight missions for a wide range of applications, from LIDAR systems to optical communications. Due to the high optical power needed, the laser has to be located on the exterior of the satellite or coupled through a series of free space optics. This presents challenges for thermal management, radiation resistance, and mechanical design. Future applications will require multiple lasers located close together, which further complicates the design. Coupling the laser energy into a fiber optic cable allows the laser to be relocated to a more favorable position on the spacecraft. Typical fiber optic termination procedures are not sufficient for injection of these high-power laser pulses without catastrophic damage to the fiber endface. In the current study, we will review the causes of fiber damage during high-power injection and discuss our new manufacturing procedures that overcome these issues to permit fiber use with high reliability in these applications. We will also discuss the proper methods for launching the laser pulses into the fiber to avoid damage and how this is being implemented for current spaceflight missions.