Sample records for adaptive optics laser

  1. Adaptive Optics Imaging in Laser Pointer Maculopathy. (United States)

    Sheyman, Alan T; Nesper, Peter L; Fawzi, Amani A; Jampol, Lee M


    The authors report multimodal imaging including adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) (Apaeros retinal image system AOSLO prototype; Boston Micromachines Corporation, Boston, MA) in a case of previously diagnosed unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM) that demonstrated features of laser pointer maculopathy. The authors also show the adaptive optics images of a laser pointer maculopathy case previously reported. A 15-year-old girl was referred for the evaluation of a maculopathy suspected to be UAIM. The authors reviewed the patient's history and obtained fluorescein angiography, autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, and AOSLO. The time course of disease and clinical examination did not fit with UAIM, but the linear pattern of lesions was suspicious for self-inflicted laser pointer injury. This was confirmed on subsequent questioning of the patient. The presence of linear lesions in the macula that are best highlighted with multimodal imaging techniques should alert the physician to the possibility of laser pointer injury. AOSLO further characterizes photoreceptor damage in this condition. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:782-785.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Adaptive optics and laser guide stars at Lick observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    For the past several years LLNL has been developing adaptive optics systems for correction of both atmospheric turbulence effects and thermal distortions in optics for high-power lasers. Our early work focused on adaptive optics for beam control in laser isotope separation and ground-based free electron lasers. We are currently developing innovative adaptive optics and laser systems for sodium laser guide star applications at the University of California`s Lick and Keck Observeratories. This talk will describe our adaptive optics technology and some of its applications in high-resolution imaging and beam control.

  3. Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, C.E. [ed.


    Five papers are included: feasibility experiment for sodium-alyer laser guide stars at LLNL; system design for a high power sodium beacon laser; sodium guide star adaptive optics system for astronomical imaging in the visible and near-infrared; high frame-rate, large field wavefront sensor; and resolution limits for ground-based astronomical imaging. Figs, tabs, refs.

  4. Optical design of the adaptive optics laser guide star system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The design of an adaptive optics package for the 3 meter Lick telescope is presented. This instrument package includes a 69 actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann type wavefront sensor operating in the visible wavelength; a quadrant detector for the tip-tile sensor and a tip-tilt mirror to stabilize atmospheric first order tip-tile errors. A high speed computer drives the deformable mirror to achieve near diffraction limited imagery. The different optical components and their individual design constraints are described. motorized stages and diagnostics tools are used to operate and maintain alignment throughout observation time from a remote control room. The expected performance are summarized and actual results of astronomical sources are presented.

  5. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino D


    Full Text Available David Merino, Pablo Loza-Alvarez The Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Adaptive optics (AO retinal imaging has become very popular in the past few years, especially within the ophthalmic research community. Several different retinal techniques, such as fundus imaging cameras or optical coherence tomography systems, have been coupled with AO in order to produce impressive images showing individual cell mosaics over different layers of the in vivo human retina. The combination of AO with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy has been extensively used to generate impressive images of the human retina with unprecedented resolution, showing individual photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, as well as microscopic capillary vessels, or the nerve fiber layer. Over the past few years, the technique has evolved to develop several different applications not only in the clinic but also in different animal models, thanks to technological developments in the field. These developments have specific applications to different fields of investigation, which are not limited to the study of retinal diseases but also to the understanding of the retinal function and vision science. This review is an attempt to summarize these developments in an understandable and brief manner in order to guide the reader into the possibilities that AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy offers, as well as its limitations, which should be taken into account when planning on using it. Keywords: high-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging, AOSLO


    Skondra, Dimitra; Nesper, Peter L; Fawzi, Amani A


    To report a case of acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy including the findings of optical coherence tomography angiography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Findings on clinical examination, color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography, and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. A 54-year-old white man with no significant medical history and history of smoking presented with bilateral multiple serous and vitelliform detachments consistent with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy. Extensive infectious, inflammatory, and malignancy workup was negative. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed thickened, hyperreflective ellipsoid zone, subretinal fluid, and focal as well as diffuse subretinal hyperreflective material corresponding to the vitelliform lesions. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed normal retinal and choroidal vasculature, whereas adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy showed circular focal "target" lesions at the level of the photoreceptors in the area of foveal detachment. Multimodal imaging is valuable in evaluating patients with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy.

  7. Principles of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert


    History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst

  8. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in fundus imaging, a review and update. (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Ni; Kang, Jie; He, Yi; Chen, Xiao-Ming


    Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) has been a promising technique in funds imaging with growing popularity. This review firstly gives a brief history of adaptive optics (AO) and AO-SLO. Then it compares AO-SLO with conventional imaging methods (fundus fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography) and other AO techniques (adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy and adaptive optics optical coherence tomography). Furthermore, an update of current research situation in AO-SLO is made based on different fundus structures as photoreceptors (cones and rods), fundus vessels, retinal pigment epithelium layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and lamina cribrosa. Finally, this review indicates possible research directions of AO-SLO in future.

  9. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in fundus imaging, a review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO has been a promising technique in funds imaging with growing popularity. This review firstly gives a brief history of adaptive optics (AO and AO-SLO. Then it compares AO-SLO with conventional imaging methods (fundus fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography and other AO techniques (adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy and adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. Furthermore, an update of current research situation in AO-SLO is made based on different fundus structures as photoreceptors (cones and rods, fundus vessels, retinal pigment epithelium layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and lamina cribrosa. Finally, this review indicates possible research directions of AO-SLO in future.

  10. Pulse front adaptive optics: a new method for control of ultrashort laser pulses. (United States)

    Sun, Bangshan; Salter, Patrick S; Booth, Martin J


    Ultrafast lasers enable a wide range of physics research and the manipulation of short pulses is a critical part of the ultrafast tool kit. Current methods of laser pulse shaping are usually considered separately in either the spatial or the temporal domain, but laser pulses are complex entities existing in four dimensions, so full freedom of manipulation requires advanced forms of spatiotemporal control. We demonstrate through a combination of adaptable diffractive and reflective optical elements - a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) and a deformable mirror (DM) - decoupled spatial control over the pulse front (temporal group delay) and phase front of an ultra-short pulse was enabled. Pulse front modulation was confirmed through autocorrelation measurements. This new adaptive optics technique, for the first time enabling in principle arbitrary shaping of the pulse front, promises to offer a further level of control for ultrafast lasers.

  11. Sky coverage modeling for the whole sky for laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics. (United States)

    Wang, Lianqi; Andersen, David; Ellerbroek, Brent


    The scientific productivity of laser guide star adaptive optics systems strongly depends on the sky coverage, which describes the probability of finding natural guide stars for the tip/tilt wavefront sensor(s) to achieve a certain performance. Knowledge of the sky coverage is also important for astronomers planning their observations. In this paper, we present an efficient method to compute the sky coverage for the laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics system, the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), being designed for the Thirty Meter Telescope project. We show that NFIRAOS can achieve more than 70% sky coverage over most of the accessible sky with the requirement of 191 nm total rms wavefront.

  12. Sodium Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Imaging Polarimetry of Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, M D; Graham, J R; Lloyd, J P; Kalas, P; Gates, E L; Gavel, D T; Pennington, D M; Max, C E


    The future of high-resolution ground-based optical and infrared astronomy requires the successful implementation of laser guide star adaptive optics systems. We present the first science results from the Lick Observatory sodium beacon laser guide star system. By coupling this system to a near-infrared (J;H;Ks bands) dual-channel imaging polarimeter, we achieve very high sensitivity to light scattered in the circumstellar enviroment of Herbig Ae/Be stars on scales of 100-300 AU. Observations of LkH{alpha} 198 reveal a highly polarized, biconical nebula 10 arcseconds in diameter (6000 AU) . We also observe a polarized jet-like feature associated with the deeply embedded source LkH{alpha} 198-IR. The star LkH{alpha} 233 presents a narrow, unpolarized dark lane dividing its characteristic butterfly-shaped polarized reflection nebulosity. This linear structure is oriented perpendicular to an optical jet and bipolar cavity and is consistent with the presence of an optically thick circumstellar disk blocking our direct view of the star. These data suggest that the evolutionary picture developed for the lower-mass T Tauri stars is also relevant to the Herbig Ae/Be stars and demonstrate the ability of laser guide star adaptive optics systems to obtain scientific results competitive with natural guide star adaptive optics or space-based telescopes.

  13. Analysis of a holographic laser adaptive optics system using a deformable mirror. (United States)

    Yao, Kainan; Wang, Jianli; Liu, Xinyue; Lin, Xudong; Chen, Lu


    We describe a closed-loop holographic laser adaptive optics system (HLAOS) based on a holographic wavefront sensor (HWFS) and 21-element continuous-surface piezoelectric deformable mirror (DM). The principle behind HWFSs is described, and then the response sensitivity and crosstalk effect on the lowest 12 Zernike modes of aberration are analyzed. Next, the wavefront-correction capability of the 21-element DM is analyzed. The closed-loop correction of the HLAOS to a static aberration is then numerically simulated. We report a practical implementation of the HLAOS and compare the aberration-compensation effect with a traditional adaptive optics system based on a 37-unit Shark-Hartmann sensor. The practically relevant parameters are analyzed and the experimental results show that an HLAOS using a piezoelectric DM can achieve a correction capability comparable to that of a traditional adaptive optics system.

  14. Tomography for multiconjugate adaptive optics systems using laser guide stars (United States)

    Gavel, Donald T.


    In this paper we present a solution to the MCAO reconstruction problem using multiple laser guide stars and show that it can be interpreted as a form of back-projection tomography. It is shown that a key intermediate step is to determine a minimum-variance estimate of the index variations over the atmospheric volume. We follow the idea of Tokovinin and Viard [JOSA-A, April 2001] in initially formulating the problem in the Fourier domain; we then extend the interpretation to the spatial domain. The former results were limited to the case of infinite aperture and plane wave beacons, and the statistically optimal wavefront solution was given for a single science direction. The new approach is more general and interpretable as tomographic back-projections, which gives rise to algorithms for the finite aperture, cone (laser) beams, and wide-science-field cases. A fortuitous consequence of this analysis is that a "fast" algorithm suitable for real-time implementation has become evident. The reconstruction requires only filtering and the inversion of small (dimension = number of guidestars) matrices. In simulations, we compare results with those of a spatial domain least-square matrix-inversion method.

  15. Detection of airbag impact-induced cone photoreceptor damage by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: a case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaizu, Yoshihiro; Nakao, Shintaro; Yamaguchi, Muneo; Murakami, Yusuke; Salehi-Had, Hani; Ishibashi, Tatsuro


    The purpose of this study was to report a case of traumatic maculopathy with para-central visual field defects following an impact by airbag deployment using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO...

  16. Adaptive Bit Rate Video Streaming Through an RF/Free Space Optical Laser Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbulut


    Full Text Available This paper presents a channel-adaptive video streaming scheme which adjusts video bit rate according to channel conditions and transmits video through a hybrid RF/free space optical (FSO laser communication system. The design criteria of the FSO link for video transmission to 2.9 km distance have been given and adaptive bit rate video streaming according to the varying channel state over this link has been studied. It has been shown that the proposed structure is suitable for uninterrupted transmission of videos over the hybrid wireless network with reduced packet delays and losses even when the received power is decreased due to weather conditions.

  17. Application of adaptive optics for flexible laser induced ultrasound field generation and uncertainty reduction in measurements (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Schmieder, Felix; Teich, Martin; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Czarske, Jürgen


    The availability of spatial light modulators as standard turnkey components and their ongoing development makes them attractive for a huge variety of optical measurement systems in industry and research. Here, we outline two examples of how optical measurements can benefit from spatial light modulators. Ultrasound testing has become an indispensable tool for industrial inspection. Contact-free measurements can be achieved by laser-induced ultrasound. One disadvantage is that due to the highly divergent sound field of the generated shear waves for a point-wise thermoelastic excitation, only a poor spatial selectivity can be achieved. This problem can be solved by creating an ultrasound focus by means of a ring-like laser intensity distribution, but standard fixed-form optical components used for their generation are always optimised to a fixed set of parameters. Here, we demonstrate, how a predefined intensity pattern as e.g. a ring can be created from an arbitrary input laser beam using a phase-retrieval algorithm to shape an ultrasound focus in the sample. By displaying different patterns on the spatial light modulator, the focus can be traversed in all three directions through the object allowing a fast and highly spatially resolving scanning of the sample. Optical measurements take often place under difficult conditions. They are affected by variations of the refractive index, caused e.g. by phase boundaries between two media of different optical density. This will result in an increased measurement uncertainty or, in the worst case, will cause the measurement to fail. To overcome these limitations, we propose the application of adaptive optics. Optical flow velocity measurements based on image correlation in water that are performed through optical distortions are discussed. We demonstrate how the measurement error induced by refractive index variations can be reduced if a spatial light modulator is used in the measurement setup to compensate for the wavefront

  18. Active eye-tracking for an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. (United States)

    Sheehy, Christy K; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Sabesan, Ramkumar; Roorda, Austin


    We demonstrate a system that combines a tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) and an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) system resulting in both optical (hardware) and digital (software) eye-tracking capabilities. The hybrid system employs the TSLO for active eye-tracking at a rate up to 960 Hz for real-time stabilization of the AOSLO system. AOSLO videos with active eye-tracking signals showed, at most, an amplitude of motion of 0.20 arcminutes for horizontal motion and 0.14 arcminutes for vertical motion. Subsequent real-time digital stabilization limited residual motion to an average of only 0.06 arcminutes (a 95% reduction). By correcting for high amplitude, low frequency drifts of the eye, the active TSLO eye-tracking system enabled the AOSLO system to capture high-resolution retinal images over a larger range of motion than previously possible with just the AOSLO imaging system alone.

  19. New adaptive optics control strategy for petawatt-class laser chains (United States)

    Varkentina, N.; Dovillaire, G.; Legrand, J.; Beaugrand, G.; Stefanon, I.; Treimany, P.; Levecq, X.


    A new generation of ultra-high intensity femtosecond petawatt- and above-class lasers requires new approaches to wavefront corrections. New challenges for adaptive optics consist in overcoming the constraints of potentially bigger diameters, larger amplitude aberrations, faster optics, higher risk of damaging optical components and faster and easier maintenance. Here we present a new technology of a mechanical deformable mirror, which has a large stroke, high temporal stability, low hysteresis, no printthrough effect, easy, safe and fast maintenance and an operating frequency up to 10 Hz. We propose the full correction of the final focal spot in the target chamber by a combination of a standard adaptive optics system, a simple focal plane camera and a phase retrieval correction process. We test the reliability of the correction system in terms of intensity variation and wavefront stability. We further verify correction robustness of the method on a large spectral bandwidth and finally perform a focal spot correction on a terawatt laser system in both low and high-power regimes.

  20. High-Altitude Airborne Platform Characterisation of Adaptive Optic Corrected Ground Based Laser (United States)

    Bennet, F.; Petkovic, M.; Sheard, B.; Greene, B.

    Adaptive optics can be used for more than astronomical imaging with large telescopes. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) and the Space Environment Management Research Centre (SERC) at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia, have been developing adaptive optics (AO) for space environment management. Turbulence in the atmosphere causes optical signals to become degraded during propagation, which reduces the effective aperture of your transmitting or receiving telescope. An AO system measures and corrects for the turbulence in the atmosphere, allowing for greater resolution of optical signals. AO can be used to correct a laser beam propagating from the ground into space, or high-altitude airborne platform. The AO system performance depends heavily on the chosen site and system design. In order to properly design and implement a cost-effective AO system to propagate a laser into orbit, we propose using high-altitude platforms to measure AO system performance directly as a precursor in-orbit measurements. SERC plan on demonstrating remote manoeuvre of an orbiting object using photon pressure from an AO corrected high power ground based laser. The manoeuvre target will be a suitable piece of debris, or a dedicated satellite mission which is instrumented and tracked to measure the applied photon pressure and resulting orbit perturbation. High-altitude airborne platforms such as weather balloons or UAVs enable us to efficiently de-risk elements of this program by validating our numerical simulations of AO system performance with actual measurements. We are then able to confidently move towards in-orbit measurement of an AO corrected ground based laser, and remote manoeuvre with photon pressure. We present simulations along with experimental results for the development of array detectors which can be used to directly measure AO system performance.

  1. Laser adaptive holographic hydrophone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashko, R V; Kulchin, Yu N; Bezruk, M N; Ermolaev, S A [Institute of Automation and Control Processes, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)


    A new type of a laser hydrophone based on dynamic holograms, formed in a photorefractive crystal, is proposed and studied. It is shown that the use of dynamic holograms makes it unnecessary to use complex optical schemes and systems for electronic stabilisation of the interferometer operating point. This essentially simplifies the scheme of the laser hydrophone preserving its high sensitivity, which offers the possibility to use it under a strong variation of the environment parameters. The laser adaptive holographic hydrophone implemented at present possesses the sensitivity at a level of 3.3 mV Pa{sup -1} in the frequency range from 1 to 30 kHz. (laser hydrophones)

  2. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors (United States)

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones; Steven M.


    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.


    Iida, Yuto; Muraoka, Yuki; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Murakami, Tomoaki; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Arichika, Shigeta; Takahashi, Ayako; Miwa, Yuko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa


    To investigate associations between parafoveal microcirculatory status and foveal pathomorphology in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Ten consecutive patients (10 eyes) with acute retinal vein occlusion were enrolled, 9 eyes of which received intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections. Foveal morphologic changes were examined via optical coherence tomography (OCT), and parafoveal circulatory status was assessed via adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). The mean parafoveal aggregated erythrocyte velocity (AEV) measured by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with retinal vein occlusion was 0.99 ± 0.43 mm/second at baseline, which was significantly lower than that of age-matched healthy subjects (1.41 ± 0.28 mm/second, P = 0.042). The longitudinal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy examinations of each patient showed that parafoveal AEV was strongly inversely correlated with optical coherence tomography-measured central foveal thickness (CFT) over the entire observation period. Using parafoveal AEV and central foveal thickness measurements obtained at the first and second examinations, we investigated associations between differences in parafoveal AEV and central foveal thickness, which were significantly and highly correlated (r = -0.84, P = 0.002). Using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with retinal vein occlusion macular edema, we could quantitatively evaluate the parafoveal AEV. A reduction or an increase in parafoveal AEV may be a clinical marker for the resolution or development/progression of macular edema respectively.

  4. The Robo-AO KOI survey: laser adaptive optics imaging of every Kepler exoplanet candidate (United States)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Nofi, Larissa


    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star (KOI) with laser adaptive optics imaging to hunt for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions. With the unparalleled efficiency provided by the first fully robotic adaptive optics system, we perform the critical search for nearby stars (0.15" to 4.0" separation with contrasts up to 6 magnitudes) that dilute the observed planetary transit signal, contributing to inaccurate planetary characteristics or astrophysical false positives. We present 3313 high resolution observations of Kepler planetary hosts from 2012-2015, discovering 479 nearby stars. We measure an overall nearby star probability rate of 14.5+/-0.8%. With this large data set, we are uniquely able to explore broad correlations between multiple star systems and the properties of the planets which they host, providing insight into the formation and evolution of planetary systems in our galaxy. Several KOIs of particular interest will be discussed, including possible quadruple star systems hosting planets and updated properties for possible rocky planets orbiting with in their star's habitable zone.

  5. Multi-wavelength imaging with the adaptive optics scanning laser Ophthalmoscope (United States)

    Grieve, Kate; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Zhang, Yuhua; Roorda, Austin


    The adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope has been fitted with three light sources of different wavelengths to allow simultaneous or separate imaging with one, two or three wavelength combinations. The source wavelengths used are 532 nm, 658 nm and 840 nm. Typically the instrument is used in dual-frame mode, performing imaging at 840 nm and precisely coincident retinal stimulation in one of the visible wavelengths. Instrument set-up and single-detector image capture are described. Simultaneous multi-wavelength imaging in the living human retina is demonstrated. The chromatic aberrations of the human eye lead to lateral and axial shifts, as well as magnification differences in the image, from one wavelength to another. Measurement of these chromatic effects is described for instrument characterization purposes.

  6. Cone structure imaged with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in eyes with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration. (United States)

    Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Duncan, Jacque L; Syed, Reema; Menghini, Moreno; Roorda, Austin J


    To evaluate cone spacing using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) in eyes with nonneovascular AMD, and to correlate progression of AOSLO-derived cone measures with standard measures of macular structure. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images were obtained over 12 to 21 months from seven patients with AMD including four eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) and four eyes with drusen. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images were overlaid with color, infrared, and autofluorescence fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images to allow direct correlation of cone parameters with macular structure. Cone spacing was measured for each visit in selected regions including areas over drusen (n = 29), at GA margins (n = 14), and regions without drusen or GA (n = 13) and compared with normal, age-similar values. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging revealed continuous cone mosaics up to the GA edge and overlying drusen, although reduced cone reflectivity often resulted in hyporeflective AOSLO signals at these locations. Baseline cone spacing measures were normal in 13/13 unaffected regions, 26/28 drusen regions, and 12/14 GA margin regions. Although standard clinical measures showed progression of GA in all study eyes, cone spacing remained within normal ranges in most drusen regions and all GA margin regions. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy provides adequate resolution for quantitative measurement of cone spacing at the margin of GA and over drusen in eyes with AMD. Although cone spacing was often normal at baseline and remained normal over time, these regions showed focal areas of decreased cone reflectivity. These findings may provide insight into the pathophysiology of AMD progression. ( number, NCT00254605).

  7. Implantable collamer lens and femtosecond laser for myopia: comparison using an adaptive optics visual simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Pérez-Vives


    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare optical and visual quality of implantable collamer lens (ICL implantation and femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (F-LASIK for myopia. Methods: The CRX1 adaptive optics visual simulator (Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France was used to simulate the wavefront aberration pattern after the two surgical procedures for -3-diopter (D and -6-D myopia. Visual acuity at different contrasts and contrast sensitivities at 10, 20, and 25 cycles/degree (cpd were measured for 3-mm and 5-mm pupils. The modulation transfer function (MTF and point spread function (PSF were calculated for 5-mm pupils. Results: F-LASIK MTF was worse than ICL MTF, which was close to diffraction-limited MTF. ICL cases showed less spread out of PSF than F-LASIK cases. ICL cases showed better visual acuity values than F-LASIK cases for all pupils, contrasts, and myopic treatments (p0.05. For -6-D myopia, however, statistically significant differences in contrast sensitivities were found for both pupils for all evaluated spatial frequencies (p<0.05. Contrast sensitivities were better after ICL implantation than after F-LASIK. Conclusions: ICL implantation and F-LASIK provide good optical and visual quality, although the former provides better outcomes of MTF, PSF, visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity, especially for cases with large refractive errors and pupil sizes. These outcomes are related to the F-LASIK producing larger high-order aberrations.

  8. A ground-layer adaptive optics system with multiple laser guide stars. (United States)

    Hart, M; Milton, N M; Baranec, C; Powell, K; Stalcup, T; McCarthy, D; Kulesa, C; Bendek, E


    To determine the influence of the environment on star formation, we need to study the process in the extreme conditions of massive young star clusters ( approximately 10(4) solar masses) near the centre of our own Galaxy. Observations must be carried out in the near infrared because of very high extinction in visible light within the Galactic plane. We need high resolution to identify cluster members from their peculiar motions, and because most such clusters span more than 1', efficient observation demands a wide field of view. There is at present no space-based facility that meets all these criteria. Ground-based telescopes can in principle make such observations when fitted with ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO), which removes the optical aberration caused by atmospheric turbulence up to an altitude of approximately 500 m (refs 7-10). A GLAO system that uses multiple laser guide stars has been developed at the 6.5-m MMT telescope, in Arizona. In previous tests, the system improved the resolution of the telescope by 30-50%, limited by wavefront error in the optics, but that was insufficient to allow rapid determination of cluster membership. Here we report observations of the core of the globular cluster M3 made after commissioning a sensor to monitor and remove slowly varying aberration in the optics. In natural seeing of 0.7'', the point spread function at 2.2-mum wavelength was sharpened uniformly to 0.3'' over a field of at least 2'. The wide-field resolution was enhanced by a factor of two to three over previous work, with better uniformity, and extends to a wavelength of 1.2 mum. Entire stellar clusters may be examined in a single pointing, and cluster membership can be determined from two such observations separated by just one year.

  9. Intelligent correction of laser beam propagation through turbulent media using adaptive optics (United States)

    Ko, Jonathan; Wu, Chensheng; Davis, Christopher C.


    Adaptive optics methods have long been used by researchers in the astronomy field to retrieve correct images of celestial bodies. The approach is to use a deformable mirror combined with Shack-Hartmann sensors to correct the slightly distorted image when it propagates through the earth's atmospheric boundary layer, which can be viewed as adding relatively weak distortion in the last stage of propagation. However, the same strategy can't be easily applied to correct images propagating along a horizontal deep turbulence path. In fact, when turbulence levels becomes very strong (Cn 2>10-13 m-2/3), limited improvements have been made in correcting the heavily distorted images. We propose a method that reconstructs the light field that reaches the camera, which then provides information for controlling a deformable mirror. An intelligent algorithm is applied that provides significant improvement in correcting images. In our work, the light field reconstruction has been achieved with a newly designed modified plenoptic camera. As a result, by actively intervening with the coherent illumination beam, or by giving it various specific pre-distortions, a better (less turbulence affected) image can be obtained. This strategy can also be expanded to much more general applications such as correcting laser propagation through random media and can also help to improve designs in free space optical communication systems.

  10. High-Resolution Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope with Dual Deformable Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D C; Jones, S M; Silva, D A; Olivier, S S


    Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO SLO) has demonstrated superior optical quality of non-invasive view of the living retina, but with limited capability of aberration compensation. In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of dual deformable mirrors can effectively compensate large aberrations in the human retina. We used a bimorph mirror to correct large-stroke, low-order aberrations and a MEMS mirror to correct low-stroke, high-order aberration. The measured ocular RMS wavefront error of a test subject was 240 nm without AO compensation. We were able to reduce the RMS wavefront error to 90 nm in clinical settings using one deformable mirror for the phase compensation and further reduced the wavefront error to 48 nm using two deformable mirrors. Compared with that of a single-deformable-mirror SLO system, dual AO SLO offers much improved dynamic range and better correction of the wavefront aberrations. The use of large-stroke deformable mirrors provided the system with the capability of axial sectioning different layers of the retina. We have achieved diffraction-limited in-vivo retinal images of targeted retinal layers such as photoreceptor layer, blood vessel layer and nerve fiber layers with the combined phase compensation of the two deformable mirrors in the AO SLO.

  11. Robotic laser adaptive optics imaging of 715 Kepler exoplanet candidates using Robo-AO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Ravichandran, Ganesh [West Tresper Clarke High School, East Meadow School District, 740 Edgewood Drive, Westbury, NY 11590 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Ramaprakash, A. N. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)


    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. In this paper, we present the results from the 2012 observing season, searching for stars close to 715 Kepler planet candidate hosts. We find 53 companions, 43 of which are new discoveries. We detail the Robo-AO survey data reduction methods including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for large adaptive optics surveys. Our survey is sensitive to objects from ≈0.''15 to 2.''5 separation, with magnitude differences up to Δm ≈ 6. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for Kepler planet candidates of 7.4% ± 1.0%, and calculate the effects of each detected nearby star on the Kepler-measured planetary radius. We discuss several Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are 'coincident multiple' systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we find 98% confidence evidence that short-period giant planets are two to three times more likely than longer-period planets to be found in wide stellar binaries.

  12. Robotic Laser Adaptive Optics Imaging of 715 Kepler Exoplanet Candidates Using Robo-AO (United States)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Morton, Tim; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Ravichandran, Ganesh; Ziegler, Carl; Johnson, John Asher; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.


    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. In this paper, we present the results from the 2012 observing season, searching for stars close to 715 Kepler planet candidate hosts. We find 53 companions, 43 of which are new discoveries. We detail the Robo-AO survey data reduction methods including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for large adaptive optics surveys. Our survey is sensitive to objects from ≈0.''15 to 2.''5 separation, with magnitude differences up to Δm ≈ 6. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for Kepler planet candidates of 7.4% ± 1.0%, and calculate the effects of each detected nearby star on the Kepler-measured planetary radius. We discuss several Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are "coincident multiple" systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we find 98% confidence evidence that short-period giant planets are two to three times more likely than longer-period planets to be found in wide stellar binaries.

  13. Maritime adaptive optics beam control


    Corley, Melissa S.


    The Navy is interested in developing systems for horizontal, near ocean surface, high-energy laser propagation through the atmosphere. Laser propagation in the maritime environment requires adaptive optics control of aberrations caused by atmospheric distortion. In this research, a multichannel transverse adaptive filter is formulated in Matlab's Simulink environment and compared to a complex lattice filter that has previously been implemented in large system simulations. The adaptive fil...

  14. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars (United States)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    Since Galileo's first telescope some 400 years ago, astronomers have been building ever-larger instruments. Yet only within the last two decades has it become possible to realize the potential angular resolutions of large ground-based telescopes, by using adaptive optics (AO) technology to counter the blurring effects of Earth's atmosphere. And only within the past decade have the development of laser guide stars (LGS) extended AO capabilities to observe science targets nearly anywhere in the sky. Improving turbulence simulation strategies and LGS are the two main topics of my research. In the first part of this thesis, I report on the development of a technique for manufacturing phase plates for simulating atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory. The process involves strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of the plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2--1.2 mm at 650 nm measurement wavelength, with a Kolmogorov power law. These plates proved valuable at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, where they have been used in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager, and as part of the calibration system of the on-sky AO testbed named ViLLaGEs (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments). I present a comparison of measurements taken by ViLLaGEs of the power spectrum of a plate and the real sky turbulence. The plate is demonstrated to follow Kolmogorov theory well, while the sky power spectrum does so in a third of the data. This method of fabricating phase plates has been established as an effective and low-cost means of creating simulated turbulence. Due to the demand for such devices, they are now being distributed to other members of the AO community. The second topic of this thesis pertains to understanding and

  15. Refractive Changes Induced by Spherical Aberration in Laser Correction Procedures: An Adaptive Optics Study. (United States)

    Amigó, Alfredo; Martinez-Sorribes, Paula; Recuerda, Margarita


    To study the effect on vision of induced negative and positive spherical aberration within the range of laser vision correction procedures. In 10 eyes (mean age: 35.8 years) under cyclopegic conditions, spherical aberration values from -0.75 to +0.75 µm in 0.25-µm steps were induced by an adaptive optics system. Astigmatism and spherical refraction were corrected, whereas the other natural aberrations remained untouched. Visual acuity, depth of focus defined as the interval of vision for which the target was still perceived acceptable, contrast sensitivity, and change in spherical refraction associated with the variation in pupil diameter from 6 to 2.5 mm were measured. A refractive change of 1.60 D/µm of induced spherical aberration was obtained. Emmetropic eyes became myopic when positive spherical aberration was induced and hyperopic when negative spherical aberration was induced (R2 = 81%). There were weak correlations between spherical aberration and visual acuity or depth of focus (R2 = 2% and 3%, respectively). Contrast sensitivity worsened with the increment of spherical aberration (R2 = 59%). When pupil size decreased, emmetropic eyes became hyperopic when preexisting spherical aberration was positive and myopic when spherical aberration was negative, with an average refractive change of 0.60 D/µm of spherical aberration (R2 = 54%). An inverse linear correlation exists between the refractive state of the eye and spherical aberration induced within the range of laser vision correction. Small values of spherical aberration do not worsen visual acuity or depth of focus, but positive spherical aberration may induce night myopia. In addition, the changes in spherical refraction when the pupil constricts may worsen near vision when positive spherical aberration is induced or improve it when spherical aberration is negative. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(7):470-474.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Design of a Compact, Bimorph Deformable Mirror-Based Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope. (United States)

    He, Yi; Deng, Guohua; Wei, Ling; Li, Xiqi; Yang, Jinsheng; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong


    We have designed, constructed and tested an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) using a bimorph mirror. The simulated AOSLO system achieves diffraction-limited criterion through all the raster scanning fields (6.4 mm pupil, 3° × 3° on pupil). The bimorph mirror-based AOSLO corrected ocular aberrations in model eyes to less than 0.1 μm RMS wavefront error with a closed-loop bandwidth of a few Hz. Facilitated with a bimorph mirror at a stroke of ±15 μm with 35 elements and an aperture of 20 mm, the new AOSLO system has a size only half that of the first-generation AOSLO system. The significant increase in stroke allows for large ocular aberrations such as defocus in the range of ±600° and astigmatism in the range of ±200°, thereby fully exploiting the AO correcting capabilities for diseased human eyes in the future.

  17. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors for large aberration correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D; Jones, S M; Silva, D A; Olivier, S S


    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes with adaptive optics (AOSLO) have been shown previously to provide a noninvasive, cellular-scale view of the living human retina. However, the clinical utility of these systems has been limited by the available deformable mirror technology. In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of dual deformable mirrors can effectively compensate large aberrations in the human retina, making the AOSLO system a viable, non-invasive, high-resolution imaging tool for clinical diagnostics. We used a bimorph deformable mirror to correct low-order aberrations with relatively large amplitudes. The bimorph mirror is manufactured by Aoptix, Inc. with 37 elements and 18 {micro}m stroke in a 10 mm aperture. We used a MEMS deformable mirror to correct high-order aberrations with lower amplitudes. The MEMS mirror is manufactured by Boston Micromachine, Inc with 144 elements and 1.5 {micro}m stroke in a 3 mm aperture. We have achieved near diffraction-limited retina images using the dual deformable mirrors to correct large aberrations up to {+-} 3D of defocus and {+-} 3D of cylindrical aberrations with test subjects. This increases the range of spectacle corrections by the AO systems by a factor of 10, which is crucial for use in the clinical environment. This ability for large phase compensation can eliminate accurate refractive error fitting for the patients, which greatly improves the system ease of use and efficiency in the clinical environment.

  18. Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits as revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaolin; Rivero, Ernesto Blanco; Clark, Mark E; Witherspoon, Clark Douglas; Spaide, Richard F; Girkin, Christopher A; Owsley, Cynthia; Curcio, Christine A


    To describe the microscopic structure of photoreceptors impacted by subretinal drusenoid deposits, also called pseudodrusen, an extracellular lesion associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Observational case series. We recruited 53 patients with AMD and 10 age-similar subjects who had normal retinal health. All subjects underwent color fundus photography, infrared reflectance, red-free reflectance, autofluorescence, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Subretinal drusenoid deposits were classified by a 3-stage OCT-based grading system. Lesions and surrounding photoreceptors were examined by AOSLO. Subretinal drusenoid deposits were found in 26 eyes of 13 patients with AMD and imaged by AOSLO and spectral-domain OCT in 18 eyes (n = 342 lesions). Spectral-domain OCT showed subretinal drusenoid deposits as highly reflective material accumulated internal to the retinal pigment epithelium. AOSLO revealed that photoreceptor reflectivity was qualitatively reduced by stage 1 subretinal drusenoid deposits and was greatly reduced by stage 2. AOSLO presented a distinct structure in stage 3, a hyporeflective annulus consisting of deflected, degenerated or absent photoreceptors. A central core with a reflectivity superficially resembling photoreceptors is formed by the lesion material itself. A hyporeflective gap in the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on either side of this core shown in spectral-domain OCT corresponded to the hyporeflective annulus seen by AOSLO. AOSLO and multimodal imaging of subretinal drusenoid deposits indicate solid, space-filling lesions in the subretinal space. Associated retinal reflectivity changes are related to lesion stages and are consistent with perturbations to photoreceptors, as suggested by histology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ


    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  20. Increasing the field of view of adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Salas, Matthias; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Pircher, Michael


    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) set-up with two deformable mirrors (DM) is presented. It allows high resolution imaging of the retina on a 4°×4° field of view (FoV), considering a 7 mm pupil diameter at the entrance of the eye. Imaging on such a FoV, which is larger compared to classical AO-SLO instruments, is allowed by the use of the two DMs. The first DM is located in a plane that is conjugated to the pupil of the eye and corrects for aberrations that are constant in the FoV. The second DM is conjugated to a plane that is located ∼0.7 mm anterior to the retina. This DM corrects for anisoplanatism effects within the FoV. The control of the DMs is performed by combining the classical AO technique, using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor, and sensorless AO, which uses a criterion characterizing the image quality. The retinas of four healthy volunteers were imaged in-vivo with the developed instrument. In order to assess the performance of the set-up and to demonstrate the benefits of the 2 DM configuration, the acquired images were compared with images taken in conventional conditions, on a smaller FoV and with only one DM. Moreover, an image of a larger patch of the retina was obtained by stitching of 9 images acquired with a 4°×4° FoV, resulting in a total FoV of 10°×10°. Finally, different retinal layers were imaged by shifting the focal plane.

  1. Lowered threshold energy for femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in a water based eye model by aberration correction with adaptive optics. (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Géneaux, Romain; Günther, Axel; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo


    In femtosecond laser ophthalmic surgery tissue dissection is achieved by photodisruption based on laser induced optical breakdown. In order to minimize collateral damage to the eye laser surgery systems should be optimized towards the lowest possible energy threshold for photodisruption. However, optical aberrations of the eye and the laser system distort the irradiance distribution from an ideal profile which causes a rise in breakdown threshold energy even if great care is taken to minimize the aberrations of the system during design and alignment. In this study we used a water chamber with an achromatic focusing lens and a scattering sample as eye model and determined breakdown threshold in single pulse plasma transmission loss measurements. Due to aberrations, the precise lower limit for breakdown threshold irradiance in water is still unknown. Here we show that the threshold energy can be substantially reduced when using adaptive optics to improve the irradiance distribution by spatial beam shaping. We found that for initial aberrations with a root-mean-square wave front error of only one third of the wavelength the threshold energy can still be reduced by a factor of three if the aberrations are corrected to the diffraction limit by adaptive optics. The transmitted pulse energy is reduced by 17% at twice the threshold. Furthermore, the gas bubble motions after breakdown for pulse trains at 5 kilohertz repetition rate show a more transverse direction in the corrected case compared to the more spherical distribution without correction. Our results demonstrate how both applied and transmitted pulse energy could be reduced during ophthalmic surgery when correcting for aberrations. As a consequence, the risk of retinal damage by transmitted energy and the extent of collateral damage to the focal volume could be minimized accordingly when using adaptive optics in fs-laser surgery.

  2. Laser based bi-directional Gbit ground links with the Tesat transportable adaptive optical ground station (United States)

    Heine, Frank; Saucke, Karen; Troendle, Daniel; Motzigemba, Matthias; Bischl, Hermann; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Henninger, Hennes; Meyer, Rolf; Richter, Ines; Sodnik, Zoran


    Optical ground stations can be an alternative to radio frequency based transmit (forward) and receive (return) systems for data relay services and other applications including direct to earth optical communications from low earth orbit spacecrafts, deep space receivers, space based quantum key distribution systems and Tbps capacity feeder links to geostationary spacecrafts. The Tesat Transportable Adaptive Optical Ground Station is operational since September 2015 at the European Space Agency site in Tenerife, Spain.. This paper reports about the results of the 2016 experimental campaigns including the characterization of the optical channel from Tenerife for an optimized coding scheme, the performance of the T-AOGS under different atmospheric conditions and the first successful measurements of the suitability of the Alphasat LCT optical downlink performance for future continuous variable quantum key distribution systems.

  3. Laser-only Adaptive Optics Achieves Significant Image Quality Gains Compared to Seeing-limited Observations over the Entire Sky (United States)

    Howard, Ward S.; Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl A.; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed


    Adaptive optics laser guide-star systems perform atmospheric correction of stellar wavefronts in two parts: stellar tip-tilt and high-spatial-order laser correction. The requirement of a sufficiently bright guide star in the field-of-view to correct tip-tilt limits sky coverage. In this paper, we show an improvement to effective seeing without the need for nearby bright stars, enabling full sky coverage by performing only laser-assisted wavefront correction. We used Robo-AO, the first robotic AO system, to comprehensively demonstrate this laser-only correction. We analyze observations from four years of efficient robotic operation covering 15000 targets and 42000 observations, each realizing different seeing conditions. Using an autoguider (or a post-processing software equivalent) and the laser to improve effective seeing independent of the brightness of a target, Robo-AO observations show a 39% ± 19% improvement to effective FWHM, without any tip-tilt correction. We also demonstrate that 50% encircled energy performance without tip-tilt correction remains comparable to diffraction-limited, standard Robo-AO performance. Faint-target science programs primarily limited by 50% encircled energy (e.g., those employing integral field spectrographs placed behind the AO system) may see significant benefits to sky coverage from employing laser-only AO.

  4. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S


    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  5. High-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Takayama

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To conduct high-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO. METHODS: AO-SLO images were obtained in 20 normal eyes at multiple locations in the posterior polar area and a circular path with a 3-4-mm diameter around the optic disc. For each eye, images focused on the RNFL were recorded and a montage of AO-SLO images was created. RESULTS: AO-SLO images for all eyes showed many hyperreflective bundles in the RNFL. Hyperreflective bundles above or below the fovea were seen in an arch from the temporal periphery on either side of a horizontal dividing line to the optic disc. The dark lines among the hyperreflective bundles were narrower around the optic disc compared with those in the temporal raphe. The hyperreflective bundles corresponded with the direction of the striations on SLO red-free images. The resolution and contrast of the bundles were much higher in AO-SLO images than in red-free fundus photography or SLO red-free images. The mean hyperreflective bundle width around the optic disc had a double-humped shape; the bundles at the temporal and nasal sides of the optic disc were narrower than those above and below the optic disc (P<0.001. RNFL thickness obtained by optical coherence tomography correlated with the hyperreflective bundle widths on AO-SLO (P<0.001 CONCLUSIONS: AO-SLO revealed hyperreflective bundles and dark lines in the RNFL, believed to be retinal nerve fiber bundles and Müller cell septa. The widths of the nerve fiber bundles appear to be proportional to the RNFL thickness at equivalent distances from the optic disc.

  6. Interferometric adaptive optics for high power laser pointing, wave-front control and phasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K L; Stappaerts, E A; Homoelle, D C; Henesian, M A; Bliss, E S; Siders, C W; Barty, C J


    Implementing the capability to perform fast ignition experiments, as well as, radiography experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) places stringent requirements on the control of each of the beam's pointing and overall wavefront quality. One quad of the NIF beams, 4 beam pairs, will be utilized for these experiments and hydrodynamic and particle-in-cell simulations indicate that for the fast ignition experiments, these beams will be required to deliver 50% (4.0 kJ) of their total energy (7.96 kJ) within a 40 {micro}m diameter spot at the end of a fast ignition cone target. This requirement implies a stringent pointing and overall phase conjugation error budget on the adaptive optics system used to correct these beam lines. The overall encircled energy requirement is more readily met by phasing of the beams in pairs but still requires high Strehl ratios, Sr, and rms tip/tilt errors of approximately one {micro}rad. To accomplish this task we have designed an interferometric adaptive optics system capable of beam pointing, high Strehl ratio and beam phasing with a single pixilated MEMS deformable mirror and interferometric wave-front sensor. We present the design of a testbed used to evaluate the performance of this wave-front sensor below along with simulations of its expected performance level.

  7. Retinal damage in chloroquine maculopathy, revealed by high resolution imaging: a case report utilizing adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. (United States)

    Bae, Eun Jin; Kim, Kyoung Rae; Tsang, Stephen H; Park, Sung Pyo; Chang, Stanley


    A 53-year-old Asian woman was treated with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine for lupus erythematosus. Within a few years, she noticed circle-shaped shadows in her central vision. Upon examination, the patient's visual acuity was 20 / 25 in both eyes. Humphrey visual field (HVF) testing revealed a central visual defect, and fundoscopy showed a ring-shaped area of parafoveal retinal pigment epithelium depigmentation. Fundus autofluorescence imaging showed a hypofluorescent lesion consistent with bull's eye retinopathy. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) revealed patch cone mosaic lesions, in which cones were missing or lost. In addition, the remaining cones consisted of asymmetrical shapes and sizes that varied in brightness. Unlike previous studies employing deformable mirrors for wavefront aberration correction, our AO-SLO approach utilized dual liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulators. Thus, by using AO-SLO, we were able to create a photographic montage consisting of high quality images. Disrupted cone AO-SLO images were matched with visual field test results and functional deficits were associated with a precise location on the montage, which allowed correlation of histological findings with functional changes determined by HVF. We also investigated whether adaptive optics imaging was more sensitive to anatomical changes compared with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

  8. OCAM2S: an integral shutter ultrafast and low noise wavefront sensor camera for laser guide stars adaptive optics systems (United States)

    Gach, Jean-Luc; Feautrier, Philippe; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Stadler, Eric


    To date, the OCAM2 system has demonstrated to be the fastest and lowest noise production ready wavefront sensor, achieving 2067 full frames per second with subelectron readout noise. This makes OCAM2 the ideal system for natural as well as continuous wave laser guide star wavefront sensing. In this paper we present the new gated version of OCAM2 named OCAM2-S, using E2V's CCD219 sensor with integral shutter. This new camera offers the same superb characteristics than OCAM2 both in terms of speed and readout noise but also offers a shutter function that makes the sensor only sensitive to light for very short periods, at will. We will report on gating time and extinction ratio performances of this new camera. This device opens new possibilities for Rayleigh pulsed lasers adaptive optics systems. With a shutter time constant well below 1 microsecond, this camera opens new solutions for pulsed sodium lasers with backscatter suppression or even spot elongation minimization for ELT LGS.

  9. Adaptive Optical Burst Switching


    Bonald, Thomas; Indre, Raluca-Maria; Oueslati, Sara


    International audience; We propose a modified version of Optical Burst Switching (OBS) that adapts the size of switched data units to the network load. Specifically, we propose a two-way reservation OBS scheme in which every active source-destination pair attempts to reserve a lightpath and for every successful reservation, transmits an optical burst whose size is proportional to the number of active data flows. We refer to this technique as Adaptive Optical Burst Switching. We prove that the...

  10. Computational fluid dynamics assisted characterization of parafoveal hemodynamics in normal and diabetic eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Bernabeu, Miguel O; Lammer, Jan; Cai, Charles C; Jones, Martin L; Franco, Claudio A; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Sun, Jennifer K


    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of visual loss in working-age adults worldwide. Previous studies have found hemodynamic changes in the diabetic eyes, which precede clinically evident pathological alterations of the retinal microvasculature. There is a pressing need for new methods to allow greater understanding of these early hemodynamic changes that occur in DR. In this study, we propose a noninvasive method for the assessment of hemodynamics around the fovea (a region of the eye of paramount importance for vision). The proposed methodology combines adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and computational fluid dynamics modeling. We compare results obtained with this technique with in vivo measurements of blood flow based on blood cell aggregation tracking. Our results suggest that parafoveal hemodynamics, such as capillary velocity, wall shear stress, and capillary perfusion pressure can be noninvasively and reliably characterized with this method in both healthy and diabetic retinopathy patients.

  11. Adaptive optical filtering techniques (United States)

    Psaltis, D.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of using optical information processing technology for adaptive antenna beamforming and null steering. The adaptive beamforming/null steering problem consists of estimation of the covariance matrix of the noise field and inversion of the covariance matrix to obtain the antenna element weights which optimize the antenna's directional characteristics (gain pattern). This report examines the adaptive beamforming/nulling problem in view of the capabilities of optics and identifies areas where optics can be used to benefit. Benefits and drawbacks of various optical implementations of open and closed loop adaptive algorithms are discussed as well as the issues involved with optically processing digital binary numbers.

  12. A Miniaturized Adaptive Optic Device for Optical Telecommunications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To advance the state-of-the-art uplink laser communication technology, new adaptive optic beam compensation techniques are needed for removing various time-varying...

  13. Lasers and optical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Das, P


    A textbook on lasers and optical engineering should include all aspects of lasers and optics; however, this is a large undertaking. The objective of this book is to give an introduction to the subject on a level such that under­ graduate students (mostly juniors/seniors), from disciplines like electrical engineering, physics, and optical engineering, can use the book. To achieve this goal, a lot of basic background material, central to the subject, has been covered in optics and laser physics. Students with an elementary knowledge of freshman physics and with no formal courses in electromagnetic theory should be able to follow the book, although for some sections, knowledge of electromagnetic theory, the Fourier transform, and linear systems would be highly beneficial. There are excellent books on optics, laser physics, and optical engineering. Actually, most of my knowledge was acquired through these. However, when I started teaching an undergraduate course in 1974, under the same heading as the title of th...

  14. Wavelength-versatile optical vortex lasers (United States)

    Omatsu, Takashige; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Lee, Andrew J.


    The unique properties of optical vortex beams, in particular their spiral wavefront, have resulted in the emergence of a wide range of unique applications for this type of laser output. These applications include optical tweezing, free space optical communications, microfabrication, environmental optics, and astrophysics. However, much like the laser in its infancy, the adaptation of this type of laser output requires a diversity of wavelengths. We report on recent progress on development of optical vortex laser sources and in particular, focus on their wavelength extension, where nonlinear optical processes have been used to generate vortex laser beams with wavelengths which span the ultraviolet to infrared. We show that nonlinear optical conversion can be used to not only diversify the output wavelength of these sources, but can be used to uniquely engineer the wavefront and spatial properties of the laser output.

  15. Adaptive optics in ophthalmology (United States)

    Iroshnikov, Nikita G.; Larichev, Andrey V.


    We present the experimental implementation of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. The systems feature high speed operation and utilize deformable bimorph mirrors for wavefront correction. The results of aberration measurements and correction are discussed.

  16. Improved laser-based triangulation sensor with enhanced range and resolution through adaptive optics-based active beam control. (United States)

    Reza, Syed Azer; Khwaja, Tariq Shamim; Mazhar, Mohsin Ali; Niazi, Haris Khan; Nawab, Rahma


    Various existing target ranging techniques are limited in terms of the dynamic range of operation and measurement resolution. These limitations arise as a result of a particular measurement methodology, the finite processing capability of the hardware components deployed within the sensor module, and the medium through which the target is viewed. Generally, improving the sensor range adversely affects its resolution and vice versa. Often, a distance sensor is designed for an optimal range/resolution setting depending on its intended application. Optical triangulation is broadly classified as a spatial-signal-processing-based ranging technique and measures target distance from the location of the reflected spot on a position sensitive detector (PSD). In most triangulation sensors that use lasers as a light source, beam divergence-which severely affects sensor measurement range-is often ignored in calculations. In this paper, we first discuss in detail the limitations to ranging imposed by beam divergence, which, in effect, sets the sensor dynamic range. Next, we show how the resolution of laser-based triangulation sensors is limited by the interpixel pitch of a finite-sized PSD. In this paper, through the use of tunable focus lenses (TFLs), we propose a novel design of a triangulation-based optical rangefinder that improves both the sensor resolution and its dynamic range through adaptive electronic control of beam propagation parameters. We present the theory and operation of the proposed sensor and clearly demonstrate a range and resolution improvement with the use of TFLs. Experimental results in support of our claims are shown to be in strong agreement with theory.

  17. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  18. Optics, light and lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Meschede, Dieter


    Starting from the concepts of classical optics, Optics, Light and Lasers introduces in detail the phenomena of linear and nonlinear light matter interaction, the properties of modern laser sources, and the concepts of quantum optics. Several examples taken from the scope of modern research are provided to emphasize the relevance of optics in current developments within science and technology. The text has been written for newcomers to the topic and benefits from the author's ability to explain difficult sequences and effects in a straightforward and easily comprehensible way. To this second, c

  19. High-power optics lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, Victor V


    This book covers the basics, realization and materials for high power laser systems and high power radiation interaction with  matter. The physical and technical fundamentals of high intensity laser optics and adaptive optics and the related physical processes in high intensity laser systems are explained. A main question discussed is: What is power optics? In what way is it different from ordinary optics widely used in cameras, motion-picture projectors, i.e., for everyday use? An undesirable consequence of the thermal deformation of optical elements and surfaces was discovered during studies of the interaction with powerful incident laser radiation. The requirements to the fabrication, performance and quality of optical elements employed within systems for most practical applications are also covered. The high-power laser performance is generally governed by the following: (i) the absorption of incident optical radiation (governed primarily by various absorption mechanisms), (ii) followed by a temperature ...

  20. Solar tomography adaptive optics. (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang


    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  1. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  2. Image quality improvement in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy assisted capillary visualization using B-spline-based elastic image registration. (United States)

    Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Arichika, Shigeta; Yoshimura, Nagahisa


    To investigate the effect of B-spline-based elastic image registration on adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO)-assisted capillary visualization. AO-SLO videos were acquired from parafoveal areas in the eyes of healthy subjects and patients with various diseases. After nonlinear image registration, the image quality of capillary images constructed from AO-SLO videos using motion contrast enhancement was compared before and after B-spline-based elastic (nonlinear) image registration performed using ImageJ. For objective comparison of image quality, contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRS) for vessel images were calculated. For subjective comparison, experienced ophthalmologists ranked images on a 5-point scale. All AO-SLO videos were successfully stabilized by elastic image registration. CNR was significantly higher in capillary images stabilized by elastic image registration than in those stabilized without registration. The average ratio of CNR in images with elastic image registration to CNR in images without elastic image registration was 2.10 ± 1.73, with no significant difference in the ratio between patients and healthy subjects. Improvement of image quality was also supported by expert comparison. Use of B-spline-based elastic image registration in AO-SLO-assisted capillary visualization was effective for enhancing image quality both objectively and subjectively.

  3. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope using liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator: Performance study with involuntary eye movement (United States)

    Huang, Hongxin; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Inoue, Takashi


    The performance of an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) using a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was investigated. The system achieved high-resolution and high-contrast images of human retinas by dynamic compensation for the aberrations in the eyes. Retinal structures such as photoreceptor cells, blood vessels, and nerve fiber bundles, as well as blood flow, could be observed in vivo. We also investigated involuntary eye movements and ascertained microsaccades and drifts using both the retinal images and the aberrations recorded simultaneously. Furthermore, we measured the interframe displacement of retinal images and found that during eye drift, the displacement has a linear relationship with the residual low-order aberration. The estimated duration and cumulative displacement of the drift were within the ranges estimated by a video tracking technique. The AO-SLO would not only be used for the early detection of eye diseases, but would also offer a new approach for involuntary eye movement research.

  4. Adaptive micro axicons for laser applications


    Wallrabe Ulrike; Brunne Jens; Treffer Alexander; Grunwald Ruediger


    We report on the design, fabrication and testing of novel types of low-dispersion axicons for the adaptive shaping of ultrashort laser pulses. An overview is given on the basic geometries and operating principles of our purely reflective adaptive MEMS-type devices based on thermal or piezoelectric actuation. The flexible formation of nondiffracting beams at pulse durations down to a few oscillations of the optical field enables new applications in optical communication, pulse diagnostics, las...

  5. Detection of airbag impact-induced cone photoreceptor damage by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: a case report. (United States)

    Kaizu, Yoshihiro; Nakao, Shintaro; Yamaguchi, Muneo; Murakami, Yusuke; Salehi-Had, Hani; Ishibashi, Tatsuro


    The purpose of this study was to report a case of traumatic maculopathy with para-central visual field defects following an impact by airbag deployment using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). A 51-year-old man was involved in a motor vehicular accident and his left eye was struck by the deployed airbag, resulting in a para-central scotoma. The patient underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and imaging with prototype AO-SLO systems (Canon Inc.) at 14 and 22 months after the injury. Images focused on the photoreceptor layer were recorded in the foveal area, and a montage of AO-SLO images was created. On AO-SLO, focal dark areas could be observed in the left eye at 14 months after the injury. The analysis showed that the cone mosaic (cone density, 16503/mm(2); ratio of hexagonal Voronoi domain, 36.3 %; average nearest-neighbor distance (NND)/expected NND, 0.606) was disordered compared with the normal area of the same eye (cone density, 24821/mm(2); ratio of hexagonal Voronoi domain, 44.1 %; average NND/expected NND, 0.739). The cone defect area corresponded to the area of the scotoma. A second AO-SLO was performed on the patient at 22 months after the injury and although there were still areas with reduced cone reflectivity, partial improvement of cone mosaic was detected by AO-SLO at this time point. Partial recovery of damaged cone photoreceptors following closed globe blunt ocular trauma can be documented using AO-SLO longitudinal tracking.

  6. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S


    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  7. Science with Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandner, Wolfgang; ESO Workshop


    The field of Adaptive Optics (AO) for astronomy has matured in recent years, and diffraction-limited image resolution in the near-infrared is now routinely achieved by ground-based 8 to 10m class telescopes. This book presents the proceedings of the ESO Workshop on Science with Adaptive Optics held in the fall of 2003. The book provides an overview on AO instrumentation, data acquisition and reduction strategies, and covers observations of the sun, solar system objects, circumstellar disks, substellar companions, HII regions, starburst environments, late-type stars, the galactic center, active galaxies, and quasars. The contributions present a vivid picture of the multitude of science topics being addressed by AO in observational astronomy.

  8. Dynamic optics for ultrafast laser processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salter Patrick


    Full Text Available We present a range of dynamic optical methods to control focal fields for material processing using ultrafast lasers. Adaptive aberration correction maintains focal quality when focusing deep into materials. Dynamic parallelisation methods permit independent control of hundreds of fabrication spots. New adaptive methods for control of pulse front tilt are also presented.

  9. Adaptive micro axicons for laser applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallrabe Ulrike


    Full Text Available We report on the design, fabrication and testing of novel types of low-dispersion axicons for the adaptive shaping of ultrashort laser pulses. An overview is given on the basic geometries and operating principles of our purely reflective adaptive MEMS-type devices based on thermal or piezoelectric actuation. The flexible formation of nondiffracting beams at pulse durations down to a few oscillations of the optical field enables new applications in optical communication, pulse diagnostics, laser-matter interaction and particle manipulation. As an example, we show first promising results of adaptive autocorrelation. The combination of excellent pulse transfer, self-reconstruction properties and propagation invariance of nondiffracting beams with an adaptive approach promises to extend the field of practical applications significantly.

  10. Optical Profilometers Using Adaptive Signal Processing (United States)

    Hall, Gregory A.; Youngquist, Robert; Mikhael, Wasfy


    A method of adaptive signal processing has been proposed as the basis of a new generation of interferometric optical profilometers for measuring surfaces. The proposed profilometers would be portable, hand-held units. Sizes could be thus reduced because the adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to substitute lower-power coherent light sources (e.g., laser diodes) for white light sources and would eliminate the need for most of the optical components of current white-light profilometers. The adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to attain scanning ranges of the order of decimeters in the proposed profilometers.

  11. LGS adaptive optics system with long-pulsed sodium laser on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope 2014-2016 observation campaign (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Min; Jiang, Changchun; Wei, Ling; Zheng, Wenjia; Li, Wenru; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Luchun; Jin, Kai; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Junwei; Wang, Pengyuan; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Donghong; Deng, Jijiang; Gao, Yang; Shen, Yu; Bian, Qi; Yao, Ji; Huang, Jiang; Dong, Ruoxi; Deng, Keran; Peng, Qinjun; Rao, Changhui; Xu, Zuyan; Zhang, Yudong


    During 2014-2016, the Laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system observation campaign has been carried out on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope. During the campaign, two generation LGS AO systems have been developed and installed. In 2014, a long-pulsed solid Sodium prototype laser with 20W@400Hz, a beam transfer optical (BTO) system, and a laser launch telescope (LLT) with 300mm diameter were mounted onto the telescope and moved with telescope azimuth journal. At the same time, a 37-elements compact LGS AO system had been mounted on the Bent-Cassegrain focus and got its first light on observing HIP43963 (mV= 8.18mv) and reached Sr=0.27 in J Band after LGS AO compensation. In 2016, the solid Sodium laser has been upgrade to stable 32W@800Hz while D2a plus D2b repumping is used to increase the photon return, and a totally new LGS AO system with 164-elements Deformable Mirror, Linux Real Time Controller, inner closed loop Tip/tilt mirror, Multiple-PMT tracking detector is established and installed on the telescope. And the throughput for the BTO/LLT is improved nearly 20%. The campaign process, the performance of the two LGS AO systems especially the latter one, the characteristics of the BTO/LLT system and the result are present in this paper.

  12. Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine (United States)

    Dainty, Christopher


    pt. 1. Wavefront correctors and control. Liquid crystal lenses for correction of presbyopia (Invited Paper) / Guoqiang Li and Nasser Peyghambarian. Converging and diverging liquid crystal lenses (oral paper) / Andrew X. Kirby, Philip J. W. Hands, and Gordon D. Love. Liquid lens technology for miniature imaging systems: status of the technology, performance of existing products and future trends (invited paper) / Bruno Berge. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer deformable mirrors for high energy laser applications (oral paper) / S. R. Restaino ... [et al.]. Tiny multilayer deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Tatiana Cherezova ... [et al.]. Performance analysis of piezoelectric deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Oleg Soloviev, Mikhail Loktev and Gleb Vdovin. Deformable membrane mirror with high actuator density and distributed control (oral paper) / Roger Hamelinck ... [et al.]. Characterization and closed-loop demonstration of a novel electrostatic membrane mirror using COTS membranes (oral paper) / David Dayton ... [et al.]. Electrostatic micro-deformable mirror based on polymer materials (oral paper) / Frederic Zamkotsian ... [et al.]. Recent progress in CMOS integrated MEMS A0 mirror development (oral paper) / A. Gehner ... [et al.]. Compact large-stroke piston-tip-tilt actuator and mirror (oral paper) / W. Noell ... [et al.]. MEMS deformable mirrors for high performance AO applications (oral paper) / Paul Bierden, Thomas Bifano and Steven Cornelissen. A versatile interferometric test-rig for the investigation and evaluation of ophthalmic AO systems (poster paper) / Steve Gruppetta, Jiang Jian Zhong and Luis Diaz-Santana. Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics (poster paper) / Thomas Farrell and Chris Dainty. Deformable mirrors based on transversal piezoeffect (poster paper) / Gleb Vdovin, Mikhail Loktev and Oleg Soloviev. Low-cost spatial light modulators for ophthalmic applications (poster paper) / Vincente Durán ... [et al.]. Latest MEMS DM developments and the path ahead

  13. High precision laser photometer for laser optics (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan'an; Hu, Guohang; Cao, Zhen; Liu, Shijie; Zhu, Meiping; Shao, Jianda


    Development of laser systems requires optical components with high performance, and a high-precision double-beam laser photometer was designed and established to measure the optical performance at 1064nm. Double beam design and lock-in technique was applied to decrease the impact of light energy instability and electric noise. Pairs of samples were placed symmetrically to eliminate beam displacement, and laser scattering imaging technique was applied to determine the influence of surface defect on the optical performance. Based on the above techniques, transmittance and reflection of pairs of optics were obtained, and the measurement precision was improved to 0.06%. Different types of optical loss, such as total loss, volume loss, residual reflection and surface scattering loss, were obtained from the transmittance and reflection measurement of samples with different thickness. Comparison of optical performance of the test points with and without surface defects, the influence of surface defects on optical performance was determined. The optical performance of Nd-glass at 1064nm were measured as an example. Different types of optical loss and the influence of surface defects on the optical loss was determined.

  14. Free Space Optical Communications Utilizing MEMS Adaptive Optics Correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Flath, L M; Wilks, S C; Young, R A; Johnson, G W; Ruggiero, A J


    Free space optical communications (FSO) are beginning to provide attractive alternatives to fiber-based solutions in many situations. Currently, a handful of companies provide fiberless alternatives specifically aimed at corporate intranet and sporting event video applications. These solutions are geared toward solving the ''last mile'' connectivity issues. There exists a potential need to extend this pathlength to distances much greater than a 1 km, particularly for government and military applications. For cases of long distance optical propagation, atmospheric turbulence will ultimately limit the maximum achievable data rate. In this paper, we propose a method to improve signal quality through the use of adaptive optics. In particular, we show work in progress toward a high-speed, small footprint Adaptive Optics system for horizontal and slant path laser communications. Such a system relies heavily on recent progress in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirrors, as well as improved communication and computational components.

  15. Adaptive optical zoom sensor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweatt, William C.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor


    In order to optically vary the magnification of an imaging system, continuous mechanical zoom lenses require multiple optical elements and use fine mechanical motion to precisely adjust the separations between individual or groups of lenses. By incorporating active elements into the optical design, we have designed and demonstrated imaging systems that are capable of variable optical magnification with no macroscopic moving parts. Changing the effective focal length and magnification of an imaging system can be accomplished by adeptly positioning two or more active optics in the optical design and appropriately adjusting the optical power of those elements. In this application, the active optics (e.g. liquid crystal spatial light modulators or deformable mirrors) serve as variable focal-length lenses. Unfortunately, the range over which currently available devices can operate (i.e. their dynamic range) is relatively small. Therefore, the key to this concept is to create large changes in the effective focal length of the system with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual elements by leveraging the optical power of conventional optical elements surrounding the active optics. By appropriately designing the optical system, these variable focal-length lenses can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length, and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses.

  16. The Giant Magellan Telescope adaptive optics program (United States)

    Bouchez, Antonin H.; Acton, D. Scott; Agapito, Guido; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bennet, Francis; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Brusa-Zappellini, Guido; Busoni, Lorenzo; Carbonaro, Luca; Codona, Johanan L.; Conan, Rodolphe; Connors, Thomas; Durney, Oliver; Espeland, Brady; Esposito, Simone; Fini, Luca; Gardhouse, Rusty; Gauron, Thomas M.; Hart, Michael; Hinz, Philip M.; Kanneganti, Srikrishna; Kibblewhite, Edward J.; Knox, Russell P.; McLeod, Brian A.; McMahon, Thomas; Montoya, Manny; Norton, Timothy J.; Ordway, Mark P.; d'Orgeville, Celine; Parcell, Simon; Piatrou, Piotr K.; Pinna, Enrico; Price, Ian; Puglisi, Alfio; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Roll, John B.; Trancho, Gelys; Uhlendorf, Kristina; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; van Dam, Marcos A.; Weaver, David; Xompero, Marco


    The Giant Magellan Telescope adaptive optics system will be an integral part of the telescope, providing laser guide star generation, wavefront sensing, and wavefront correction to most of the currently envisioned instruments. The system will provide three observing modes: Natural Guidestar AO (NGSAO), Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), and Ground Layer AO (GLAO). Every AO observing mode will use the telescope’s segmented adaptive secondary mirror to deliver a corrected beam directly to the instruments. High-order wavefront sensing for the NGSAO and LTAO modes is provided by a set of wavefront sensors replicated for each instrument and fed by visible light reflected off the cryostat window. An infrared natural guidestar wavefront sensor with open-loop AO correction is also required to sense tip-tilt, focus, segment piston, and dynamic calibration errors in the LTAO mode. GLAO mode wavefront sensing is provided by laser guidestars over a ~5 arcminute field of view, and natural guidestars over wider fields. A laser guidestar facility will project 120 W of 589 nm laser light in 6 beacons from the periphery of the primary mirror. An off-axis phasing camera and primary and secondary mirror metrology systems will ensure that the telescope optics remain phased. We describe the system requirements, overall architecture, and innovative solutions found to the challenges presented by high-order AO on a segmented extremely large telescope. Further details may be found in specific papers on each of the observing modes and major subsystems.

  17. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A


    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  18. Adaptive Optics for the Human Eye (United States)

    Williams, D. R.


    Adaptive optics can extend not only the resolution of ground-based telescopes, but also the human eye. Both static and dynamic aberrations in the cornea and lens of the normal eye limit its optical quality. Though it is possible to correct defocus and astigmatism with spectacle lenses, higher order aberrations remain. These aberrations blur vision and prevent us from seeing at the fundamental limits set by the retina and brain. They also limit the resolution of cameras to image the living retina, cameras that are a critical for the diagnosis and treatment of retinal disease. I will describe an adaptive optics system that measures the wave aberration of the eye in real time and compensates for it with a deformable mirror, endowing the human eye with unprecedented optical quality. This instrument provides fresh insight into the ultimate limits on human visual acuity, reveals for the first time images of the retinal cone mosaic responsible for color vision, and points the way to contact lenses and laser surgical methods that could enhance vision beyond what is currently possible today. Supported by the NSF Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, the National Eye Institute, and Bausch and Lomb, Inc.

  19. Optics assembly for high power laser tools (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  20. The research and development of the adaptive optics in ophthalmology (United States)

    Wu, Chuhan; Zhang, Xiaofang; Chen, Weilin


    Recently the combination of adaptive optics and ophthalmology has made great progress and become highly effective. The retina disease is diagnosed by retina imaging technique based on scanning optical system, so the scanning of eye requires optical system characterized by great ability of anti-moving and optical aberration correction. The adaptive optics possesses high level of adaptability and is available for real time imaging, which meets the requirement of medical retina detection with accurate images. Now the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope and the Optical Coherence Tomography are widely used, which are the core techniques in the area of medical retina detection. Based on the above techniques, in China, a few adaptive optics systems used for eye medical scanning have been designed by some researchers from The Institute of Optics And Electronics of CAS(The Chinese Academy of Sciences); some foreign research institutions have adopted other methods to eliminate the interference of eye moving and optical aberration; there are many relevant patents at home and abroad. In this paper, the principles and relevant technique details of the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope and the Optical Coherence Tomography are described. And the recent development and progress of adaptive optics in the field of eye retina imaging are analyzed and summarized.

  1. Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Clark, Natalie


    Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

  2. Problems of Aero-optics and Adaptive Optical Systems: Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shanin


    Full Text Available The analytical review gives the basic concepts of the aero-optics problem arising from the radiation propagation in the region of the boundary layers of a laser installation carrier aircraft. Estimates the radiation wave front distortions at its propagation in the near and far field. Presents main calculation approaches and methods to solve the gas-dynamic and optical problems in propagating laser radiation. Conducts a detailed analysis of the flows and their generating optical aberrations introduced by the aircraft turret (a projection platform of the on-board laser. Considers the effect of various factors (shock wave, difference in wall and flow temperatures on the flow pattern and the optical aberrations. Provides research data on the aero-optics obtained in the flying laboratory directly while in flight. Briefly considers the experimental research methods, diagnostic equipment, and synthesis of results while studying the aero-optics problem. Discusses some methods for mitigating the aerodynamic effects on the light propagation under flight conditions. Presents data about the passive, active, and hybrid effects on the flow in the boundary layers in order to reduce aberrations through improving the flow aerodynamics.The paper considers operation of adaptive optical systems under conditions of aero-optical distortions. Presents the study results concerning the reduction of the aero-optics effect on the characteristics of radiation in far field. Gives some research results regarding the effect on the efficiency of the adaptive system of a laser beam jitter and a time delay in the feedback signal transmission, which occur under application conditions. Provides data on adaptive correction of aero-optical wave fronts of radiation. Considers some application aspects in control systems of the on-board adaptive optics of adaptive filtration as a way to improve the efficiency of adaptive optical systems. The project in mind is to use obtained results

  3. Design and Adaptation of an Optical System for Slit Lamp Delivery of a CO2 Laser Beam. (United States)


    cutting of corneal buttons in keratoplasty (Ref 1:231); Karlin and his colleagues commented that it may be used to dissolve cataracts (ReF 9:297). Another...the mirror, rotating it counter-clockwise, Pnd holding it in a horizontal posi- tion uiitil the foot switch is released. This action allows the CO2...are not precisely aligned, the laser beam will suffer serious misalignment as it travels through the arm. The swivels were designed to rotate smoothly

  4. The Performance of the Robo-AO Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System at the Kitt Peak 2.1 m Telescope (United States)

    Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Duev, Dmitry A.; Riddle, Reed; Salama, Maïssa; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ramprakash, A. N.


    Robo-AO is an autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) system recently commissioned at the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope. With the ability to observe every clear night, Robo-AO at the 2.1 m telescope is the first dedicated AO observatory. This paper presents the imaging performance of the AO system in its first 18 months of operations. For a median seeing value of 1.″44, the average Strehl ratio is 4% in the i\\prime band. After post processing, the contrast ratio under sub-arcsecond seeing for a 2≤slant i\\prime ≤slant 16 primary star is five and seven magnitudes at radial offsets of 0.″5 and 1.″0, respectively. The data processing and archiving pipelines run automatically at the end of each night. The first stage of the processing pipeline shifts and adds the rapid frame rate data using techniques optimized for different signal-to-noise ratios. The second “high-contrast” stage of the pipeline is eponymously well suited to finding faint stellar companions. Currently, a range of scientific programs, including the synthetic tracking of near-Earth asteroids, the binarity of stars in young clusters, and weather on solar system planets are being undertaken with Robo-AO.

  5. Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Laser Processes (United States)

    Purtonen, Tuomas; Kalliosaari, Anne; Salminen, Antti

    Monitoring of laser processes has been researched actively since the 1980's in several institutes around the world. The goal of process monitoring is to gather information on the process and to improve the understanding of the occurring phenomena, and to use the gathered data to createquality control methods and adaptive, closed loop control of the process. The methods used forlaser process monitoring can be divided into optical and acoustic methods of which the optical methods are more common. Today, monitoring has been commercially applied to even the newest laser processes, e.g. additive manufacturing. For laser welding, the process monitoring has been developed even further and closed-loop systems have been demonstrated several years ago. The improvements in digital camera technology and data processing have resulted in development of systems that use feature recognition for determining certain features of the process. Monitoring systems have developed from simple systems using single sensors to a more sophisticated systems utilizing a multitude of different detectors and detection methods.

  6. Of masers, lasers and optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiglitz, M.R.; Blanchard, C.


    A review is presented of the development and evolution of fiber optics, lasers, and masers. It is noted that lasers and masers are based on quantum mechanical principles in which energy is transferred from a pump source to a paramagnetic material. Attention is given to gas lasers, liquid lasers (dye lasers), semiconductor lasers, and CW lasers. Also condsidered are materials used in the fabrication of optical fibers, optical fiber configurations, step-index multimode fibers, depletion layer photodiodes, and undersea fiber-optic communications links. 8 refs.

  7. Of masers, lasers and optical fiber (United States)

    Stiglitz, Martin R.; Blanchard, Christine


    A review is presented of the development and evolution of fiber optics, lasers, and masers. It is noted that lasers and masers are based on quantum mechanical principles in which energy is transferred from a pump source to a paramagnetic material. Attention is given to gas lasers, liquid lasers (dye lasers), semiconductor lasers, and CW lasers. Also condsidered are materials used in the fabrication of optical fibers, optical fiber configurations, step-index multimode fibers, depletion layer photodiodes, and undersea fiber-optic communications links.

  8. OCAM2S: an integral shutter ultrafast and low noise wavefront sensor camera for laser guide stars adaptive optics systems


    Gach, Jean-Luc; Feautrier, Philippe; Buey, Tristan; Rousset, Gerard; Gendron, Eric; Morris, Tim(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, U.K.); Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard; Vidal, Fabrice; Chemla, Fanny


      To date, the OCAM2 system has demonstrated to be the fastest and lowest noise production ready wavefront sensor, achieving 2067 full frames per second with subelectron readout noise. This makes OCAM2 the ideal system for natural as well as continuous wave laser guide star wavefront sensing. In this paper we present the new gated version of OCAM2 named OCAM2-S, using E2V’s CCD219 sensor with integral shutter. This new camera offers the same superb characteristics than OCAM2 both i...

  9. Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.


    "There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."

  10. Adaptive optical probe design for optical coherence tomography and microscopy using tunable optics. (United States)

    Choi, Minseog; Lee, Seungwan; Chang, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Eunsung; Jung, Kyu-Dong; Kim, Woonbae


    We present a tunable, adaptive optical imaging probe for multimodal imaging such as optical coherence tomography and microscopy. The probe is compatible with forward-looking scanning laser imaging devices such as an endoscope. The lens configuration includes a tunable iris and two varifocal lenses, both driven by microelectrofluidics, as well as several conventional fixed focus lenses. The modulation transfer function and spot size in the focal plane is evaluated, and we show using optical simulations that there are three possible imaging modes with different transverse resolutions and focal depths.

  11. New Adaptive Optics Technique Demonstrated (United States)


    First ever Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics at the VLT Achieves First Light On the evening of 25 March 2007, the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD) achieved First Light at the Visitor Focus of Melipal, the third Unit Telescope of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). MAD allowed the scientists to obtain images corrected for the blurring effect of atmospheric turbulence over the full 2x2 arcminute field of view. This world premiere shows the promises of a crucial technology for Extremely Large Telescopes. ESO PR Photo 19a/07 ESO PR Photo 19a/07 The MCAO Demonstrator Telescopes on the ground suffer from the blurring effect induced by atmospheric turbulence. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way which delights the poets but frustrates the astronomers, since it blurs the fine details of the images. However, with Adaptive Optics (AO) techniques, this major drawback can be overcome so that the telescope produces images that are as sharp as theoretically possible, i.e., approaching space conditions. Adaptive Optics systems work by means of a computer-controlled deformable mirror (DM) that counteracts the image distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence. It is based on real-time optical corrections computed from image data obtained by a 'wavefront sensor' (a special camera) at very high speed, many hundreds of times each second. The concept is not new. Already in 1989, the first Adaptive Optics system ever built for Astronomy (aptly named "COME-ON") was installed on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, as the early fruit of a highly successful continuing collaboration between ESO and French research institutes (ONERA and Observatoire de Paris). Ten years ago, ESO initiated an Adaptive Optics program to serve the needs for its frontline VLT project. Today, the Paranal Observatory is without any doubt one of the most advanced of its kind with respect to AO with no less than 7 systems currently installed (NACO, SINFONI, CRIRES and

  12. ING Workshop on Adaptive-Optics Assisted Integral Field Spectroscopy (United States)

    Rutten, R. G. M.


    In May 2005 a three-day workshop took place on adaptive-optics assisted the above subject. The main reason for organising this workshop was the commissioning of the OASIS integral field spectrograph on the WHT and the latest project to augment the use of AO on the WHT with a laser beacon system.

  13. A Status Report on the Thirty Meter Telescope Adaptive Optics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We provide an update on the recent development of the adaptive optics (AO) systems for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) since mid-2011. The first light AO facility for TMT consists of the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS) and the associated Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF). This order 60 × 60 ...

  14. Laser And Nonlinear Optical Materials For Laser Remote Sensing (United States)

    Barnes, Norman P.


    NASA remote sensing missions involving laser systems and their economic impact are outlined. Potential remote sensing missions include: green house gasses, tropospheric winds, ozone, water vapor, and ice cap thickness. Systems to perform these measurements use lanthanide series lasers and nonlinear devices including second harmonic generators and parametric oscillators. Demands these missions place on the laser and nonlinear optical materials are discussed from a materials point of view. Methods of designing new laser and nonlinear optical materials to meet these demands are presented.

  15. Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Träger, Frank


    The Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics provides fast, up-to-date, comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide fields of optics and lasers. It is written for daily use in the office or laboratory and offers explanatory text, data, and references needed for anyone working with lasers and optical instruments. Each chapter or section is authored by respected experts and contains the basic principles, applications and latest information in the field. Among the subjects covered are geometrical and wave optics, linear and nonlinear optics, optical materials and components, detectors, incoherent and all essential types of coherent light sources, generation of ultrashort pulses, spectroscopic techniques, laser safety as well as current trends in such modern areas as quantum optics, femto- and attosecond physics, and nanooptics as well as optics beyond the diffraction limit. The 21 chapters are grouped into four parts which cover basic principles and materials, fabrication and properties of optical compone...

  16. Linear quadratic Gaussian control for adaptive optics and multiconjugate adaptive optics: experimental and numerical analysis. (United States)

    Petit, Cyril; Conan, Jean-Marc; Kulcsár, Caroline; Raynaud, Henri-François


    We present a comprehensive analysis of the linear quadratic Gaussian control approach applied to adaptive optics (AO) and multiconjugated AO (MCAO) based on numerical and experimental validations. The structure of the control law is presented and its main properties discussed. We then propose an extended experimental validation of this control law in AO and a simplified MCAO configuration. Performance is compared with end-to-end numerical simulations. Sensitivity of the performance regarding tuning parameters is tested. Finally, extension to full MCAO and laser tomographic AO (LTAO) through numerical simulation is presented and analyzed.

  17. Laser-induced damage in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ristau, Detlev


    Dedicated to users and developers of high-powered systems, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials focuses on the research field of laser-induced damage and explores the significant and steady growth of applications for high-power lasers in the academic, industrial, and military arenas. Written by renowned experts in the field, this book concentrates on the major topics of laser-induced damage in optical materials and most specifically addresses research in laser damage that occurs in the bulk and on the surface or the coating of optical components. It considers key issues in the field of hi

  18. Springer handbook of lasers and optics

    CERN Document Server


    The Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics provides fast, up-to-date, comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide fields of optics and lasers. It is written for daily use in the office or laboratory and offers explanatory text, data, and references needed for anyone working with lasers and optical instruments. This second edition features numerous updates and additions. Especially four new chapters on Fiber Optics, Integrated Optics, Frequency Combs, and Interferometry reflect the major changes. In addition, chapters Optical Materials and Their Properties, Optical Detectors, Nanooptics, and Optics far Beyond the Diffraction Limit have been thoroughly revised and updated. The now 25 chapters are grouped into four parts which cover basic principles and materials, fabrication and properties of optical components, coherent and incoherent light sources, and, finally, selected applications and special fields such as terahertz photonics, x-ray optics and holography. Each chapter is authored by respected exp...

  19. The Adaptive Optics Facility: Commissioning Progress and Results (United States)

    Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Vernet, E.; Hackenberg, W.; La Penna, P.; Paufique, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Pirard, J.-F.; Kolb, J.; Hubin, N.


    All the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) subsystems are now in Paranal and the project team is working on commissioning activities on Unit Telescope 4 (UT4) of the Very Large Telescope. Excellent progress has been made; the new secondary mirror unit, the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM), was installed in October 2016 and UT4 is now operating routinely with the DSM in non-adaptive optics mode. The other modules of the AOF, the Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive optiCs for Spectroscopic Imaging (GALACSI), the 4 Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) and the GRound-layer Adaptive optics Assisted by Lasers (GRAAL), have been installed and are being qualified. The coupling with the High Acuity Wide field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) and the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) has been tested and all elements are functional and ready to proceed with their full commissioning. The goal for the AOF is to complete GALACSI wide-field mode technical commissioning by the end of summer 2017 and the GRAAL ground-layer adaptive optics mode by the end of the year.

  20. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye (United States)

    Hofer, Heidi; Sredar, Nripun; Queener, Hope; Li, Chaohong; Porter, Jason


    Wavefront sensor noise and fidelity place a fundamental limit on achievable image quality in current adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes. Additionally, the wavefront sensor ‘beacon’ can interfere with visual experiments. We demonstrate real-time (25 Hz), wavefront sensorless adaptive optics imaging in the living human eye with image quality rivaling that of wavefront sensor based control in the same system. A stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm directly optimized the mean intensity in retinal image frames acquired with a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). When imaging through natural, undilated pupils, both control methods resulted in comparable mean image intensities. However, when imaging through dilated pupils, image intensity was generally higher following wavefront sensor-based control. Despite the typically reduced intensity, image contrast was higher, on average, with sensorless control. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging the living human eye and future refinements of this technique may result in even greater optical gains. PMID:21934779

  1. Coupled optical resonance laser locking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burd, CC


    Full Text Available . The coupled resonance technique discussed here overcomes this obstacle, and works as follows. If the 2S1/2 → 2P1/2 transition is driven at resonance, there will be a net increase of ions in the 2D3/2 state and a decrease in the population of ions in the ground... stream_source_info Burd_2014.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 31258 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Burd_2014.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Coupled optical resonance laser locking S...

  2. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system (United States)

    Yalin, Azer [Fort Collins, CO; Willson, Bryan [Fort Collins, CO; Defoort, Morgan [Fort Collins, CO; Joshi, Sachin [Fort Collins, CO; Reynolds, Adam [Fort Collins, CO


    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  3. The Coming of Age of Adaptive Optics (United States)


    How Ground-Based Astronomers Beat the Atmosphere Adaptive Optics (AO) is the new ``wonder-weapon'' in ground-based astronomy. By means of advanced electro-optical devices at their telescopes, astronomers are now able to ``neutralize'' the image-smearing turbulence of the terrestrial atmosphere (seen by the unaided eye as the twinkling of stars) so that much sharper images can be obtained than before. In practice, this is done with computer-controlled, flexible mirrors which refocus the blurred images up to 100 times per second, i.e. at a rate that is faster than the changes in the atmospheric turbulence. This means that finer details in astronomical objects can be studied and also - because of the improved concentration of light in the telescope's focal plane - that fainter objects can be observed. At the moment, Adaptive Optics work best in the infrared part of spectrum, but at some later time it may also significantly improve observations at the shorter wavelengths of visible light. The many-sided aspects of this new technology and its impact on astronomical instrumentation was the subject of a recent AO conference [1] with over 150 participants from about 30 countries, presenting a total of more than 100 papers. The Introduction of AO Techniques into Astronomy The scope of this meeting was the design, fabrication and testing of AO systems, characterisation of the sources of atmospheric disturbance, modelling of compensation systems, individual components, astronomical AO results, non-astronomical applications, laser guide star systems, non-linear optical phase conjugation, performance evaluation, and other areas of this wide and complex field, in which front-line science and high technology come together in a new and powerful symbiosis. One of the specific goals of the meeting was to develop contacts between AO scientists and engineers in the western world and their colleagues in Russia and Asia. For the first time at a conference of this type, nine Russian



    S. P. Sernov; D. V. Balokhonov; T. V. Kolontaeva; A. V. Zhuravok


    This article describes the main principles of implementation of modern adaptive signal lighting equipment of vehicles, provides an analysis of optical systems are used, the necessity of the use of LEDs. We present the design of adaptive optical system, rear combination LED lamp of a vehicle with several levels of intensity, we discuss the algorithm of its work in different modes. 

  5. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Battu


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified.

  6. Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. (United States)

    Jacob, Julie; Paques, Michel; Krivosic, Valérie; Dupas, Bénédicte; Couturier, Aude; Kulcsar, Caroline; Tadayoni, Ramin; Massin, Pascale; Gaudric, Alain


    To explore the anatomic correlation of the retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. Retrospective nonconsecutive observational case series. A retrospective review of the multimodal imaging charts of 6 patients with focal alteration of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics was performed. Retinal diseases included acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (n = 1), hydroxychloroquine retinopathy (n = 1), and macular telangiectasia type 2 (n = 4). High-resolution retinal images were obtained using a flood-illumination adaptive optics camera. Images were recorded using standard imaging modalities: color and red-free fundus camera photography; infrared reflectance scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. On OCT, in the marginal zone of the lesions, a disappearance of the interdigitation zone was observed, while the ellipsoid zone was preserved. Image recording demonstrated that such attenuation of the interdigitation zone co-localized with the disappearance of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. In 1 case, the restoration of the interdigitation zone paralleled that of the cone mosaic after a 2-month follow-up. Our results suggest that the interdigitation zone could contribute substantially to the reflectance of the cone photoreceptor mosaic. The absence of cones on adaptive optics images does not necessarily mean photoreceptor cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Applications of lasers and electro-optics (United States)

    Tan, B. C.; Low, K. S.; Chen, Y. H.; Ahmad, Harith; Tou, T. Y.

    Supported by the IRPA Programme on Laser Technology and Applications, many types of lasers have been designed, constructed and applied in various areas of science, medicine and industries. Amongst these lasers constructed were high power carbon dioxide lasers, rare gas halide excimer lasers, solid state Neodymium-YAG lasers, nitrogen lasers, flashlamp pumped dye lasers and nitrogen and excimer laser pumped dye lasers. These lasers and the associated electro-optics system, some with computer controlled, are designed and developed for the following areas of applications: (1) industrial applications of high power carbon dioxide lasers for making of i.c. components and other materials processing purposes -- prototype operational systems have been developed; (2) Medical applications of lasers for cancer treatment using the technique of photodynamic therapy -- a new and more effective treatment protocol has been proposed; (3) agricultural applications of lasers in palm oil and palm fruit-fluorescence diagnostic studies -- fruit ripeness signature has been developed and palm oil oxidation level were investigated; (4) development of atmospheric pollution monitoring systems using laser lidar techniques -- laboratory scale systems were developed; and (5) other applications of lasers including laser holographic and interferometric methods for the non destructive testing of materials.

  8. High Power Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers for Sodium Guidestar Applications (United States)

    Hackett, Shawn


    Optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSLs) are shown to provide a much more compact and less expensive source for illumination of the sodium layer of the mesosphere for use as a sodium laser guidestar via single and two photon excitation schemes. This represents a revolution in laser guidestar technology as the cost, size, and power requirements for a laser guidestar system are shown to have been decreased by an order of magnitude with guidestar performance shown to be similar to previous sources. Sodium laser guidestar sources for broadband simultaneous illumination of multiple lines are developed and simulated. Simulations are then compared to actual returns for multi-line sodium laser guidestars. The simultaneous multi-line laser guidestar is shown to be superior to the single line laser guidestar for equal output powers both via modeling and via on sky returns performed at Starfire Optical Range (SOR) with a combination of a legacy narrowband laser guidestars and a broadband OPSL guidestar. The multi-line OPSL guidestars are shown to provide the first continuous wave source for use as a polychromatic laser guidestar (PLGS) to correct for tip and tilt aberrations. Different methods for utilization of the PLGS are simulated and compared showing that the OPSL sources developed are suitable for use as a CW PLGS to correct for tip and tilt with current generation telescopes and adaptive optics systems. Wave optics and Bloch equation simulations are then developed and performed to determine the utility and optimal setup for LGS and PLGS systems which prove OPSL's utility as the next generation of sodium laser guidestars.

  9. 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Wittrock, Ulrich


    This book treats the development and application of adaptive optics for industry and medicine. The contributions describe recently developed components for adaptive-optics systems such as deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, and mirror drivers as well as complete adaptive optical systems and their applications in industry and medicine. Applications range from laser-beam forming and adaptive aberration correction for high-power lasers to retinal imaging in ophthalmology. The contributions are based on presentations made at the 4th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics in Industry and Medicine which took place in Münster, Germany, in October 2003. This highly successful series of workshops on adaptive optics started in 1997 and continues with the 5th workshop in Beijing in 2005.

  10. Adaptive Tunable Laser Spectrometer for Space Applications (United States)

    Flesch, Gregory; Keymeulen, Didier


    An architecture and process for the rapid prototyping and subsequent development of an adaptive tunable laser absorption spectrometer (TLS) are described. Our digital hardware/firmware/software platform is both reconfigurable at design time as well as autonomously adaptive in real-time for both post-integration and post-launch situations. The design expands the range of viable target environments and enhances tunable laser spectrometer performance in extreme and even unpredictable environments. Through rapid prototyping with a commercial RTOS/FPGA platform, we have implemented a fully operational tunable laser spectrometer (using a highly sensitive second harmonic technique). With this prototype, we have demonstrated autonomous real-time adaptivity in the lab with simulated extreme environments.

  11. The aero optics effect on near space laser communication optical system (United States)

    Hu, Yuan; Fu, Yuegang; Jiang, Huilin


    With the developing of the space laser communication link, the performance index including higher transfer speed, extending transfer distance, and environmental adaptability, all ask the system accuracy and indexes improving. Special the developing near space platform, its environmental is extremes, the near space drone and other airplane flight speed is very quickly from the subsonic to supersonic. The aero optics effect caused by high speed will generate a thin turbulent air layer. It affects the performance of laser communication optical system by laser light vibration, deviation and so on, further more affects the performance of laser communication system working performance, even can't communication. Therefore, for achieving optical system indexes, we need do more research in optical system near space aero optics environmental adaptability. In this paper, near space link environmental characteristic are researched. And on the base of the aero optics theory, computer simulating method is applied to analyze the relationship among the altitude, the flight speed and the image dispersion. The result shows that, the aero optics effect cannot be ignored when the terminal is in low altitude or is moving with supersonic speed. The effect must be taken into considered from overall design. The result will provide the basis of research design.

  12. Teaching Optics and Systems Engineering With Adaptive Optics Workbenches

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, David; Hunter, Lisa; Max, Claire; Hoffmann, Mark; Pitts, Mark; Armstrong, J D


    Adaptive optics workbenches are fully functional optical systems that can be used to illustrate and teach a variety of concepts and cognitive processes. Four systems have been funded, designed and constructed by various institutions and people as part of education programs associated with the Center for Adaptive Optics, the Professional Development Program and the Institute for Science and Engineer Educators. Activities can range from first-year undergraduate explorations to professional level training. These workbenches have been used in many venues including the Center for Adaptive Optics AO Summer School, the Maui Community College hosted Akamai Maui Short Course, classrooms, training of new staff in laboratories and other venues. The activity content has focused on various elements of systems thinking, characterization, feedback and system control, basic optics and optical alignment as well as advanced topics such as phase conjugation, wave-front sensing and correction concepts and system design. The work...

  13. Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics (United States)

    Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai


    Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Sernov


    Full Text Available This article describes the main principles of implementation of modern adaptive signal lighting equipment of vehicles, provides an analysis of optical systems are used, the necessity of the use of LEDs. We present the design of adaptive optical system, rear combination LED lamp of a vehicle with several levels of intensity, we discuss the algorithm of its work in different modes. 

  15. Transistor Laser Optical NOR Gate for High Speed Optical Logic Processors (United States)


    Transistor Laser Optical NOR Gate for High Speed Optical Logic Processors Milton Feng, Han Wui...Champaign Urbana, Illinois, U.S.A., 61801 ( Abstract: Three-terminal transistor laser is the key element to forming a...junction transistor lasers (TJ-TLs). Keywords: Optical Logic; Semiconductor Laser; Transistor Laser (TL); Vertical Cavity Transistor Laser (VCTL

  16. Small Optics Laser Damage Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This specification defines the requirements and procedure for laser damage testing of coatings and bare surfaces designated for small optics in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  17. The optical alignment of the Gemini planet imager adaptive optics bench (United States)

    Pazder, John; Bauman, Brian; Dillon, Daren; Fletcher, Murray; Lacoursière, Jean; Reshetov, Vlad


    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a facility instrument under construction for the 8-m Gemini South telescope. This paper describes the methods used for optical alignment of the adaptive optics (AO) bench. The optical alignment of the off-axis paraboloid mirrors was done using a pre-alignment method utilizing a HeNe laser and alignment telescopes followed by a fine-tuning using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a shear plate. A FARO arm measuring system was used to place the fiducials for the alignment. Using these methods the AO bench was aligned to 13nm RMS of wavefront error.

  18. Coupled optical resonance laser locking. (United States)

    Burd, S C; du Toit, P J W; Uys, H


    We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to coupled transitions of ions in the same spectroscopic sample, by detecting only the absorption of the UV laser. Separate signals for locking the different lasers are obtained by modulating each laser at a different frequency and using lock-in detection of a single photodiode signal. Experimentally, we simultaneously lock a 369 nm and a 935 nm laser to the (2)S(1/2) → (2)(P(1/2) and (2)D(3/2) → (3)D([3/2]1/2) transitions, respectively, of Yb(+) ions generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. Stabilized lasers at these frequencies are required for cooling and trapping Yb(+) ions, used in quantum information and in high precision metrology experiments. This technique should be readily applicable to other ion and neutral atom systems requiring multiple stabilized lasers.

  19. Laser and nonlinear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.


    This book contains 21 papers. Some of the titles are: Frequency conversion materials from a device perspective; Recent developments in area; Recent developments in barium borate; Growth of laser crystals at Airtron; Crystal growth and the future of solid state lasers; Faraday rotator materials for laser systems; and Mechanical properties of single crystal ceramics.

  20. Adaptive Optics and NICMOS Uniqueness Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, C.


    As part of the HST Second Decade Study a subgroup consisting of Claire Max, James Beletic, Donald McCarthy, and Keith Noll has analyzed the expected performance of near-infra-red adaptive optics systems on the new generation of 8-10 meter ground-based telescopes, for comparison with HST. In addition the subgroup has polled the adaptive optics community regarding expected adaptive optics performance over the coming five years. Responses have been received from representatives of most of the major telescopes: Gemini, VLT, Keck, LBT, and the MMT, as well as of several operational 3-4 meter telescope AO systems. The present document outlines the conclusions to date, with emphasis on aspects relevant to the NICMOS cryocooler Independent Science Review. In general the near-infra-red capabilities of the new ground-based adaptive optics systems will be complementary to the capabilities of NICMOS. For example NICMOS will have greater H-band sensitivity, broader wavelength coverage, and higher point-spread-function stability, whereas ground-based adaptive optics instruments will have higher spatial and spectral resolution. Section 2 of this report outlines the operational constraints faced by the first generation of adaptive optics (AO) systems on new 8-10 meter telescopes. Section 3 describes the areas of relative strength of near-infra-red observing from the ground via adaptive optics, compared with NICMOS. A Table gives an overview of the main strengths and weaknesses of these current-generation systems. Section 4 gives an indication of ground-based capabilities anticipated in the near future and in five to ten years. Section 5 contains a summary and conclusions.

  1. Laser damage test bench for space optics (United States)

    Riede, Wolfgang; Allenspacher, Paul


    At the German Aerospace Center in Stuttgart a laser damage test bench is run to evaluate damage thresholds of various optical components. The system setup is based on the current ISO standards 11254 [1-3] for single shot and multiple pulse operation. The laser damage test bench contains two repetitively pulsed laser sources, a Ti:Sapphire and a Nd:YAG laser, operating at wavelengths of 775 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. Harmonic wavelength converters to the visible spectral range are available. Both lasers are supplying the same damage testing rig. Online damage assessment techniques like sensitive scatter probe monitoring and video microscopy monitoring are used. The system is suited and has been tested extensively in the past for dielectric coated optics like beam turning mirrors, reflectors and windows, nonlinear optical components, semiconductors, and laser crystals. The damage test bench is located in a class 10,000 cleanroom environment under a laminar flowbox providing an additional isolation factor of >103. The tests can also be performed in sealed optical compartments in partial vacuum and under long term irradiation conditions. All experiments are supported by theoretical simulation of laser-material interactions, down to the sub-ps timescale [4].

  2. Principles of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R


    Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics is an essential textbook for graduate students studying the interaction of optical fields with atoms. It also serves as an ideal reference text for researchers working in the fields of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics. The book provides a rigorous introduction to the prototypical problems of radiation fields interacting with two- and three-level atomic systems. It examines the interaction of radiation with both atomic vapors and condensed matter systems, the density matrix and the Bloch vector, and applications involving linear absorptio

  3. Beam shaping for laser initiated optical primers (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.


    Remington was one of the first firearm manufacturing companies to file a patent for laser initiated firearms, in 1969. Nearly 40 years later, the development of laser initiated firearms has not become a mainstream technology in the civilian market. Requiring a battery is definitely a short coming, so it is easy to see how such a concept would be problematic. Having a firearm operate reliably and the delivery of laser energy in an efficient manner to ignite the shock-sensitive explosive primer mixtures is a tall task indeed. There has been considerable research on optical element based methods of transferring or compressing laser energy to ignite primer charges, including windows, laser chip primers and various lens shaped windows to focus the laser energy. The focusing of laser light needs to achieve igniting temperatures upwards of >400°C. Many of the patent filings covering this type of technology discuss simple approaches where a single point of light might be sufficient to perform this task. Alternatively a multi-point method might provide better performance, especially for mission critical applications, such as precision military firearms. This paper covers initial design and performance test of the laser beam shaping optics to create simultaneous multiple point ignition locations and a circumferential intense ring for igniting primer charge compounds. A simple initial test of the ring beam shaping technique was evaluated on a standard large caliber primer to determine its effectiveness on igniting the primer material. Several tests were conducted to gauge the feasibility of laser beam shaping, including optic fabrication and mounting on a cartridge, optic durability and functional ignition performance. Initial data will be presented, including testing of optically elements and empirical primer ignition / burn analysis.

  4. Multistate optical memory based on serially interconnected lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Owens, D.; Liu, Y.S.; Hill, M. T.; Lenstra, D.; Tzanakaki, A.; Khoe, G.D.; Dorren, H.J.S.


    A multistate optical memory based on serially inter-connected lasers is presented. We show that only one of the lasers can lase at a time, thus, the state of the optical memory is determined by the wavelength of the dominant laser. The light from the dominant laser suppresses its neighboring lasers

  5. Harnessing Adaptive Optics for Space Debris Collision Mitigation (United States)

    Zovaro, A.; Bennet, F.; Copeland, M.; Rigaut, F.; d'Orgeville, C.; Grosse, D.


    Human kind's continued use of space depends upon minimising the build-up of debris in low Earth-orbit (LEO). Preventing collisions between satellites and debris is essential given that a single collision can generate thousands of new debris objects. However, in-orbit manoeuvring of satellites is extremely expensive and shortens their operational life. Adjusting the orbits of debris objects instead of satellites would shift the responsibility of collision avoidance away from satellite operators altogether, thereby offering a superior solution. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the Australian National University, partnered with Electro Optic Systems (EOS) Space Systems, Lockheed Martin Corporation and the Space Environment Research Centre (SERC) Limited, are developing the Adaptive Optics Tracking and Pushing (AOTP) system. AOTP will be used to perturb the orbits of debris objects using photon pressure from a 10 kW IR laser beam launched from the 1.8 m telescope at Mount. Stromlo Observatory, Australia. Initial simulations predict that AOTP will be able to displace debris objects 10 cm in size by up to 100 m with several overhead passes. An operational demonstrator is planned for 2019. Turbulence will distort the laser beam as it propagates through the atmosphere, resulting in a lower photon flux on the target and reduced pointing accuracy. To mitigate these effects, adaptive optics (AO) will be used to apply wavefront correction to the beam prior to launch. A unique challenge in designing the AO system arises from the high slew rate needed to track objects in LEO, which in turn requires laser guide star AO for satisfactory wavefront correction. The optical design and results from simulations of estimated performance of AOTP will be presented. In particular, design considerations associated with the high-power laser will be detailed.

  6. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (United States)

    Agrawal, Govind


    The Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (SOCLBA) project will provide a capability to amplify a laser beam that is received in a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) located in a satellite in low Earth orbit. It will also improve the pointing procedure between Earth and spacecraft terminals. The technology uses laser arrays to strengthen the reflected laser beam from the spacecraft. The results of first year's work (2014) show amplification factors of 60 times the power of the signal beam. MMRs are mirrors that reflect light beams back to the source. In space optical communications, a high-powered laser interrogator beam is directed from the ground to a satellite. Within the satellite, the beam is redirected back to ground using the MMR. In the MMR, the beam passes through modulators, which encode a data signal onto the returning beam. MMRs can be used in small spacecraft for optical communications. The SOCLBA project is significant to NASA and small spacecraft due to its application to CubeSats for optical data transmission to ground stations, as well as possible application to spacecraft for optical data transmission.

  7. Laser and nonlinear optical materials: SPIE volume 681

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.


    This book contains papers arranged under the following session headings: Nonlinear optical crystals; Laser host crystals; Electro-optic and magneto-optic materials; and Characterization of optical materials.

  8. Photonic crystal-adaptive optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas

    through windows into the room. It is shown that gratings with disorder introduced to the period effectively modify the diffraction characteristics from distinct sharp and wavelength dependent orders into a broad distributions over large angular range and with sufficient mixing such that color effects...... are minimized, thus allowing a homogeneous, glare-free, white-light daylighting into the room. Even more functionality can be achieved when the optical effects are tunable or reconfigurable. This is investigated with photonic crystal dye lasers. These lasers combine a photonic crystal resonator with a dye...

  9. Direct Laser Cooling Al{}^{+} Ion Optical Clocks (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Deng, Ke; Luo, Jun; Lu, Ze-Huang


    The Al {}+ ion optical clock is a very promising optical frequency standard candidate due to its extremely small black-body radiation shift. It has been successfully demonstrated with the indirect cooled, quantum-logic-based spectroscopy technique. Its accuracy is limited by second-order Doppler shift, and its stability is limited by the number of ions that can be probed in quantum logic processing. We propose a direct laser cooling scheme of Al {}+ ion optical clocks where both the stability and accuracy of the clocks are greatly improved. In the proposed scheme, two Al {}+ traps are utilized. The first trap is used to trap a large number of Al {}+ ions to improve the stability of the clock laser, while the second trap is used to trap a single Al {}+ ion to provide the ultimate accuracy. Both traps are cooled with a continuous wave 167 nm laser. The expected clock laser stability can reach 9.0× {10}-17/\\sqrt{τ }. For the second trap, in addition to 167 nm laser Doppler cooling, a second stage pulsed 234 nm two-photon cooling laser is utilized to further improve the accuracy of the clock laser. The total systematic uncertainty can be reduced to about 1× {10}-18. The proposed Al {}+ ion optical clock has the potential to become the most accurate and stable optical clock. Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No 2012CB821300, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 91336213, 11304109, 91536116 and 11174095, and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents by the Ministry of Education under Grant No NCET-11-0176.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Baranov


    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of optical deflector for management of laser radiation in physiotherapeutic devices. Design features and operation principles of electro-optical, optical-acoustic and mechanical deflectors, giving the possibility to carry out continuous or discrete scanning of a laser beam are shown. Operation mechanism of the mechanical type deflector on the example of domestic laser therapeutic scanners is described in detail. Application possibility in clinical practice for heating technique of the acupuncture points by volumetric scanning of tissues by the radiation of semiconductor lasers on wave lengths equal to 0,67 and 0,85 μm is investigated. Creation justification of the new type deflector is given. Comparison between stable and labile techniques of radiation is carried out. It is shown that more intensive warming up of a skin surface in acupuncture point projection is observed at volumetric scanning, rather than at planar scanning by laser beams. Temperature increase on a skin surface in projection of acupuncture points is detected at radiation in both the visible spectrum range (0,67 μm and the infrared range (0,85 μm. It gives the possibility to apply this scanning method to thermal photo-activation of the point and to extend an existing arsenal of laser reflexology methods. The optical deflector is offered for medical industry, making it possible to carry out volumetric scanning of a laser beam and to facilitate the medical personnel’s work in laser therapy and reflexology consulting rooms.

  11. Optical simulations of laser focusing for optimization of laser betatron (United States)

    Stanke, L.; Thakur, A.; Šmíd, M.; Gu, Y. J.; Falk, K.


    This work presents optical simulations that are used to design a betatron driven by a short-pulse laser based on the Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) concept. These simulations explore how the optical setup and its components influence the performance of the betatron. The impact of phase irregularities induced by optical elements is investigated. In order to obtain a good estimate of the future performance of this design a combination of two distinct techniques are used - Field Tracing for optical simulations employing a combination of the Zemax and VirtualLab computational platforms for the laser beam propagation and focusing with the given optical system and particle-in-cell simulation (PIC) for simulating the short-pulse laser interaction with a gas target. The result of the optical simulations serves as an input for the PIC simulations. Application of Field Tracing in combination with the PIC for the purposes of high power laser facility introduces the new application for VirtualLab Fusion. Based on the result of these simulations an alternative design with a hole in the final folding mirror coupled with a spherical focusing mirror is considered in favour of more commonly used off-axis parabola focusing setup. Results are demonstrating, that the decrease of the irradiance due to the presence of the central hole in the folding mirror is negligible (9.69× 1019 W/cm2 for the case without the hole vs. 9.73× 1019 W/cm2 for the case with hole). However, decrease caused by the surface irregularities (surface RMS λ/4 , λ/20 and λ/40 ) is more significant and leads to the poor performance of particle production.

  12. Laser and Optical Fiber Metrology in Romania (United States)

    Sporea, Dan; Sporea, Adelina


    The Romanian government established in the last five years a National Program for the improvement of country's infrastructure of metrology. The set goal was to develop and accredit testing and calibration laboratories, as well as certification bodies, according to the ISO 17025:2005 norm. Our Institute benefited from this policy, and developed a laboratory for laser and optical fibers metrology in order to provide testing and calibration services for the certification of laser-based industrial, medical and communication products. The paper will present the laboratory accredited facilities and some of the results obtained in the evaluation of irradiation effects of optical and optoelectronic parts, tests run under the EU's Fusion Program.

  13. The theory of optical black hole lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona-Reyes, José L., E-mail:; Bermudez, David, E-mail:


    The event horizon of black holes and white holes can be achieved in the context of analogue gravity. It was proven for a sonic case that if these two horizons are close to each other their dynamics resemble a laser, a black hole laser, where the analogue of Hawking radiation is trapped and amplified. Optical analogues are also very successful and a similar system can be achieved there. In this work we develop the theory of optical black hole lasers and prove that the amplification is also possible. Then, we study the optical system by determining the forward propagation of modes, obtaining an approximation for the phase difference which governs the amplification, and performing numerical simulations of the pulse propagation of our system. - Highlights: • We develop the conditions to obtain the kinematics of the optical black hole laser. • We prove the amplification of Hawking radiation for the optical case. • We derive the forward propagation of modes and check the result of the backward case. • A model is proposed to calculate the phase difference and the amplification rate. • We perform numerical simulations of a pulse between two solitons forming a cavity.

  14. Aircraft Position Measurement Using Laser Beacon Optics. (United States)


    to within an accuracy of one de- gree. The research for the laser beacon project was initiated by Profesor R. B. Miles in 1978 with respect to...8217 J. Optical Society of Am., Vol. 60, p. 245, 1970. 8. Welford, W. T., tics of Nonimaging Concentrators. New York, Academic Press, T978. 9. Bracewell

  15. Holographic Video Disc And Laser Scanning Optics. (United States)

    Weingartner, I.; Rosenbruch, K. J.


    Holographic optical elements or systems of holographic elements may replace glass optical imaging systems or may be used for the correction of glass optics. The main advantages of such systems are their low weight, small and compact construction, and their simple and inexpensive manufacture. The disadvantages to be overcome are mainly the low light through-put and chromatic aberrations. In the special case of optics for video discs we present an optical imaging system which is capable of giving the required high resolution for illumination with polychromatic radiation of limited bandwidth in the case of semiconductor laser diodes. Optimization programs based on ray tracing yield highly corrected imaging systems by comparably simple holographic means. The use of only two surfaces gives very compact and lightweight systems, the image quality of which is described for monochromatic and polychro-matic irradiance by means of optical transfer functions. The holograms are recorded on photo-resist material with short wavelength laser radiation. Such holograms have almost no scatter light and do not alter their properties with time or under radiation. These holograms generate wavefronts for the correction of aberrations which, in the case of glass optics, could only be achieved by aspherical surfaces.

  16. Continuous adaptive beam pointing and tracking for laser power transmission. (United States)

    Schäfer, Christian A


    The adaptive beam pointing concept has been revisited for the purpose of controlled transmission of laser energy from an optical transmitter to a target. After illumination, a bidirectional link is established by a retro-reflector on the target and an amplifier-phase conjugate mirror (A-PCM) on the transmitter. By setting the retro-reflector's aperture smaller than the diffraction limited spot size but big enough to provide sufficient amount of optical feedback, a stable link can be maintained and light that hits the retro-reflector's surrounded area can simultaneously be reconverted into usable electric energy. The phase conjugate feedback ensures that amplifier's distortions are compensated and the target tracked accurately.After deriving basic arithmetic expressions for the proposed system, a section is devoted for the motivation of free-space laser power transmission which is supposed to find varied applicability in space. As an example, power transmission from a satellite to the earth is described where recently proposed solar power generating structures on high-altitudes receive the power above the clouds to provide constant energy supply.In the experimental part, an A-PCM setup with reflectivity of about R(A-PCM) = 100 was realized using a semiconductor optical amplifier and a photorefractive self-pumped PCM. Simulation results show that a reflectivity of R(A-PCM)>1000 could be obtained by improving the self-pumped PCM's efficiency. That would lead to a transmission efficiency of eta>90%.

  17. RAMICS laser optical bench weight reduction (United States)

    Heberle, Geoffrey


    To increase margins over requirements and improve structural performance, it was desired to reduce the weight of the optical bench in the Laser Transmitter Unit (LTU) of the Rapid Airborne MIne Clearance System (RAMICS) program. First-mode response for both the optical bench and bench/housing combination is of critical importance to the stability and long-term field performance of this system. Several candidate materials were reviewed and analyzed against the previous design in 7075 aluminum. AlBeMet AM162 was chosen for its high Young's modulus, lower density, and a number of other factors as discussed. Finite element modeling is presented which was used in the downselect process. An optical bench weight reduction of 50% was achieved due to material and design changes, as well as an improvement in the first-mode frequency of the laser transmitter based on analysis. Vibration testing results and a comparison of fabrication costs are also presented.

  18. Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges. (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Pengfei; Si, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu


    In this manuscript, we present a new design for an adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by using piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricated a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap's deviation and resonance frequency of the device were measured. Experimental results show that this new AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. As a result, the fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, which makes the new structure ideal for tip-tilt controlling in a high-power fiber laser system.

  19. Easy and versatile adaptive optics setup with deformable lens for high-resolution microscopy (United States)

    Pozzi, P.; Quintavalla, M.; Verstraete, H.; Bijlsma, H.; Bonora, S.; Verhaegen, M.


    It has been widely proven in literature that most optical microscopy techniques can greatly benefit from the application of adaptive optics correction of phase aberrations through an adaptive optical element, such as a deformable mirror or a spatial light modulator. However, adaptive optics is not yet widely adopted in the life sciences community, mostly due to the lack of adaptive commercial microscopy systems, and the inherent technical difficulty in modifying an existing microscopy setup to integrate an adaptive element, both on the software and hardware sides. We present a plug-and-play adaptive optics module for generic optical microscopes, based on a prototype refractive 18 actuators adaptive optical element, which can be inserted in any microscope between the objective and the microscope body. Correction is performed in a sensorless fashion, optimizing image quality metrics of the image presented to the user on screen. The results presented show how an end-user oriented commercial confocal laser scanning microscope (Leica SP5) can be upgraded with adaptive optics with minor hardware modifications, and no changes to the microscope control software.

  20. Optical turbulence parameters characterized via optical measurements over a 2.33 km free-space laser path. (United States)

    Tunick, Arnold


    Optical turbulence research contributes to improved laser communications, adaptive optics, and long-range imaging systems. This paper presents experimental measurements of scintillation and focal spot displacement to obtain optical turbulence information along a near-horizontal 2.33 km free-space laser propagation path. Calculated values for the refractive index structure constant (C(n)(2)) and Fried parameter (r0) are compared to scintillometer-based measurements for several cases in winter and spring. Optical measurements were investigated using two different laser sources for the first and second parts of the experiment. Scintillation index estimates from recorded signal intensities were corrected to account for aperture averaging. As a result, we found that an earlier calculation algorithm based on analysis of log-amplitude intensity variance was the best estimator of optical turbulence parameters over the propagation path considered.

  1. Adaptive optics in digital micromirror based confocal microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozzi, P.; Wilding, D.; Soloviev, O.A.; Vdovine, G.V.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.; Bifano, Thomas G.; Kubby, Joel; Gigan, Sylvain


    This proceeding reports early results in the development of a new technique for adaptive optics in confocal microscopy. The term adaptive optics refers to the branch of optics in which an active element in the optical system is used to correct inhomogeneities in the media through which light

  2. Statistical learning methods for aero-optic wavefront prediction and adaptive-optic latency compensation (United States)

    Burns, W. Robert

    Since the early 1970's research in airborne laser systems has been the subject of continued interest. Airborne laser applications depend on being able to propagate a near diffraction-limited laser beam from an airborne platform. Turbulent air flowing over the aircraft produces density fluctuations through which the beam must propagate. Because the index of refraction of the air is directly related to the density, the turbulent flow imposes aberrations on the beam passing through it. This problem is referred to as Aero-Optics. Aero-Optics is recognized as a major technical issue that needs to be solved before airborne optical systems can become routinely fielded. This dissertation research specifically addresses an approach to mitigating the deleterious effects imposed on an airborne optical system by aero-optics. A promising technology is adaptive optics: a feedback control method that measures optical aberrations and imprints the conjugate aberrations onto an outgoing beam. The challenge is that it is a computationally-difficult problem, since aero-optic disturbances are on the order of kilohertz for practical applications. High control loop frequencies and high disturbance frequencies mean that adaptive-optic systems are sensitive to latency in sensors, mirrors, amplifiers, and computation. These latencies build up to result in a dramatic reduction in the system's effective bandwidth. This work presents two variations of an algorithm that uses model reduction and data-driven predictors to estimate the evolution of measured wavefronts over a short temporal horizon and thus compensate for feedback latency. The efficacy of the two methods are compared in this research, and evaluated against similar algorithms that have been previously developed. The best version achieved over 75% disturbance rejection in simulation in the most optically active flow region in the wake of a turret, considerably outperforming conventional approaches. The algorithm is shown to be

  3. Optical simulations of laser focusing for optimization of laser betatron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanke, Ladislav; Thakur, Anita; Šmíd, Michal; Gu, Yanjun; Falk, Kateřina


    Roč. 12, May (2017), 1-14, č. článku P05004. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : matter * accelerator modelling and simulations * multi-particle dynamics * single-particle dynamics * Beam Optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  4. Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu


    A broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (BAOSO) consisting of four afocal telescopes, formed by pairs of off-axis spherical mirrors in a non-planar arrangement, is presented. The non-planar folding of the telescopes is used to simultaneously reduce pupil and image plane astigmatism. The former improves the adaptive optics performance by reducing the root-mean-square (RMS) of the wavefront and the beam wandering due to optical scanning. The latter provides diffraction limited performance over a 3 diopter (D) vergence range. This vergence range allows for the use of any broadband light source(s) in the 450-850 nm wavelength range to simultaneously image any combination of retinal layers. Imaging modalities that could benefit from such a large vergence range are optical coherence tomography (OCT), multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, single- and multi-photon fluorescence. The benefits of the non-planar telescopes in the BAOSO are illustrated by resolving the human foveal photoreceptor mosaic in reflectance using two different superluminescent diodes with 680 and 796 nm peak wavelengths, reaching the eye with a vergence of 0.76 D relative to each other. PMID:21698035

  5. Specialized wavefront sensors for adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, D.R.; Mansell, J.D.; Gruetzner, J.K. [and others


    The performance of an adaptive optical system is strongly dependent upon correctly measuring the wavefront of the arriving light. The most common wavefront measurement techniques used to date are the shearing interferometer and the Shack-Hartmann sensor. Shack-Hartmann sensors rely on the use of lenslet arrays to sample the aperture appropriately. These have traditionally been constructed using ULM or step and repeat technology, and more recently with binary optics technology. Diffractive optics fabrication methodology can be used to remove some of the limitations of the previous technologies and can allow for low-cost production of sophisticated elements. We have investigated several different specialized wavefront sensor configurations using both Shack-Hartmann and shearing interferometer principles. We have taken advantage of the arbitrary nature of these elements to match pupil shapes of detector and telescope aperture and to introduce magnification between the lenslet array and the detector. We have fabricated elements that facilitate matching the sampling to the current atmospheric conditions. The sensors were designed using a far-field diffraction model and a photolithography layout program. They were fabricated using photolithography and RIE etching. Several different designs will be presented with some experimental results from a small-scale adaptive optics brass-board.

  6. Laser beam propagation in nonlinear optical media

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Shekhar


    ""This is very unique and promises to be an extremely useful guide to a host of workers in the field. They have given a generalized presentation likely to cover most if not all situations to be encountered in the laboratory, yet also highlight several specific examples that clearly illustrate the methods. They have provided an admirable contribution to the community. If someone makes their living by designing lasers, optical parametric oscillators or other devices employing nonlinear crystals, or designing experiments incorporating laser beam propagation through linear or nonlinear media, then

  7. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo


    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections. PMID:22808435

  8. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils. (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo


    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections.

  9. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Katzir, Abraham


    The increasing use of fiber optics in the field of medicine has created a need for an interdisciplinary perspective of the technology and methods for physicians as well as engineers and biophysicists. This book presents a comprehensive examination of lasers and optical fibers in an hierarchical, three-tier system. Each chapter is divided into three basic sections: the Fundamentals section provides an overview of basic concepts and background; the Principles section offers an in-depth engineering approach; and the Advances section features specific information on systems an

  10. Electro-optic and acousto-optic laser beam scanners (United States)

    Heberle, Johannes; Bechtold, Peter; Strauß, Johannes; Schmidt, Michael


    Electro-optical deflectors (EOD) and acousto-optical deflectors (AOD) are based on deflection of laser light within a solid state medium. As they do not contain any moving parts, they yield advantages compared to mechanical scanners which are conventionally used for laser beam deflection. Even for arbitrary scan paths high feed rates can be achieved. In this work the principles of operation and characteristic properties of EOD and AOD are presented. Additionally, a comparison to mirror based mechanical deflectors regarding deflection angles, speed and accuracy is made in terms of resolvable spots and the rate of resolvable spots. Especially, the latter one is up to one order of magnitude higher for EOD and AOD systems compared to conventional systems. Further characteristic properties such as response time, damage threshold, efficiency and beam distortions are discussed. Solid state laser beam deflectors are usually characterized by small deflection angles but high angular deflection velocities. As mechanical deflectors exhibit opposite properties an arrangement of a mechanical scanner combined with a solid state deflector provides a solution with the benefits of both systems. As ultrashort pulsed lasers with average power above 100 W and repetition rates in the MHz range have been available for several years this approach can be applied to fully exploit their capabilities. Thereby, pulse overlap can be reduced and by this means heat affected zones are prevented to provide proper processing results.

  11. In vivo cellular visualization of the human retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Jones, S M; Chen, D C; Zawadzki, R J; Choi, S S; Laut, S P; Werner, J S


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) sees the human retina sharply with adaptive optics. In vivo cellular visualization of the human retina at micrometer-scale resolution is possible by enhancing Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with adaptive optics, which compensate for the eye's optical aberrations.

  12. Adaptive laser link reconfiguration using constraint propagation (United States)

    Crone, M. S.; Julich, P. M.; Cook, L. M.


    This paper describes Harris AI research performed on the Adaptive Link Reconfiguration (ALR) study for Rome Lab, and focuses on the application of constraint propagation to the problem of link reconfiguration for the proposed space based Strategic Defense System (SDS) Brilliant Pebbles (BP) communications system. According to the concept of operations at the time of the study, laser communications will exist between BP's and to ground entry points. Long-term links typical of RF transmission will not exist. This study addressed an initial implementation of BP's based on the Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS) SDI mission. The number of satellites and rings studied was representative of this problem. An orbital dynamics program was used to generate line-of-site data for the modeled architecture. This was input into a discrete event simulation implemented in the Harris developed COnstraint Propagation Expert System (COPES) Shell, developed initially on the Rome Lab BM/C3 study. Using a model of the network and several heuristics, the COPES shell was used to develop the Heuristic Adaptive Link Ordering (HALO) Algorithm to rank and order potential laser links according to probability of communication. A reduced set of links based on this ranking would then be used by a routing algorithm to select the next hop. This paper includes an overview of Constraint Propagation as an Artificial Intelligence technique and its embodiment in the COPES shell. It describes the design and implementation of both the simulation of the GPALS BP network and the HALO algorithm in COPES. This is described using a 59 Data Flow Diagram, State Transition Diagrams, and Structured English PDL. It describes a laser communications model and the heuristics involved in rank-ordering the potential communication links. The generation of simulation data is described along with its interface via COPES to the Harris developed View Net graphical tool for visual analysis of communications

  13. A simple turbulence simulator for adaptive optics (United States)

    Thomas, Sandrine


    In this article, I describe a new, inexpensive way to make transparent phase screens. I list available technologies of physical turbulence simulation and describe the transparent phase-plate screens that were produced by the laquer-spray technique and characterized in the laboratory. The spatial spectrum of phase perturbations is a reasonable match to the Kolmogorov law with r0 around 0.5 mm at 0.633 μm over spatial frequencies from 0.75 to 5 mm-1. A turbulence simulator using two such rotating screens and destined for the adaptive optics instrument for the 4.1-m SOAR telescope is described.

  14. Laser controlled atom source for optical clocks (United States)

    Kock, Ole; He, Wei; Świerad, Dariusz; Smith, Lyndsie; Hughes, Joshua; Bongs, Kai; Singh, Yeshpal


    Precision timekeeping has been a driving force in innovation, from defining agricultural seasons to atomic clocks enabling satellite navigation, broadband communication and high-speed trading. We are on the verge of a revolution in atomic timekeeping, where optical clocks promise an over thousand-fold improvement in stability and accuracy. However, complex setups and sensitivity to thermal radiation pose limitations to progress. Here we report on an atom source for a strontium optical lattice clock which circumvents these limitations. We demonstrate fast (sub 100 ms), cold and controlled emission of strontium atomic vapours from bulk strontium oxide irradiated by a simple low power diode laser. Our results demonstrate that millions of strontium atoms from the vapour can be captured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Our method enables over an order of magnitude reduction in scale of the apparatus. Future applications range from satellite clocks testing general relativity to portable clocks for inertial navigation systems and relativistic geodesy.

  15. Femtosecond Laser Structuring in Optical Fiber and Transparent Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Peter R.


    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser processing is optimized for writing optical circuits, optical resonators, and microfluidic devices inside the cladding of single-mode optical fiber that couple efficiently with the fiber core waveguide. The laser processes open new directions towards Labon-a-Fiber.

  16. Extreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager: XAOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B A; Graham, J; Poyneer, L; Sommargren, G; Wilhelmsen, J; Gavel, D; Jones, S; Kalas, P; Lloyd, J; Makidon, R; Olivier, S; Palmer, D; Patience, J; Perrin, M; Severson, S; Sheinis, A; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Troy, M; Wallace, K


    Ground based adaptive optics is a potentially powerful technique for direct imaging detection of extrasolar planets. Turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere imposes some fundamental limits, but the large size of ground-based telescopes compared to spacecraft can work to mitigate this. We are carrying out a design study for a dedicated ultra-high-contrast system, the eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager (XAOPI), which could be deployed on an 8-10m telescope in 2007. With a 4096-actuator MEMS deformable mirror it should achieve Strehl >0.9 in the near-IR. Using an innovative spatially filtered wavefront sensor, the system will be optimized to control scattered light over a large radius and suppress artifacts caused by static errors. We predict that it will achieve contrast levels of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} at angular separations of 0.2-0.8 inches around a large sample of stars (R<7-10), sufficient to detect Jupiter-like planets through their near-IR emission over a wide range of ages and masses. We are constructing a high-contrast AO testbed to verify key concepts of our system, and present preliminary results here, showing an RMS wavefront error of <1.3 nm with a flat mirror.

  17. Grating THz laser with optical pumping (United States)

    Khoury, Jed; Haji-saeed, Bahareh; Woods, Charles; Kierstead, John


    In this paper, we present a design for a widely tunable solid-state optically and electrically pumped THz laser based on the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser. In the free-electron laser, an energetic electron beam pumps a metallic grating to generate surface plasmons. Our solid-state optically pumped design consists of a thin layer of dielectic, such as SiNx, sandwiched between a corrugated structure and a thin metal or semiconductor layer. The lower layer is for current streaming, and replaces the electron beam in the original design. The upper layer consists of one micro-grating for coupling the electromagnetic field in, another for coupling out, and a nano-grating for coupling with the current in the lower layer for electromagnetic field generation. The surface plasmon waves generated from the upper layer by an external electromagnetic field, and the lower layer by the applied current, are coupled. Emission enhancement occurs when the plasmonic waves in both layers are resonantly coupled.

  18. Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo


    We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized.......We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized....

  19. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Buchhold


    Full Text Available This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD. The downstream microcontroller’s software identifies the geometric shape’s center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels, the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user’s range of motion (stroke and force. This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability.

  20. System technology for laser-assisted milling with tool integrated optics (United States)

    Hermani, Jan-Patrick; Emonts, Michael; Brecher, Christian


    High strength metal alloys and ceramics offer a huge potential for increased efficiency (e. g. in engine components for aerospace or components for gas turbines). However, mass application is still hampered by cost- and time-consuming end-machining due to long processing times and high tool wear. Laser-induced heating shortly before machining can reduce the material strength and improve machinability significantly. The Fraunhofer IPT has developed and successfully realized a new approach for laser-assisted milling with spindle and tool integrated, co-rotating optics. The novel optical system inside the tool consists of one deflection prism to position the laser spot in front of the cutting insert and one focusing lens. Using a fiber laser with high beam quality the laser spot diameter can be precisely adjusted to the chip size. A high dynamic adaption of the laser power signal according to the engagement condition of the cutting tool was realized in order not to irradiate already machined work piece material. During the tool engagement the laser power is controlled in proportion to the current material removal rate, which has to be calculated continuously. The needed geometric values are generated by a CAD/CAM program and converted into a laser power signal by a real-time controller. The developed milling tool with integrated optics and the algorithm for laser power control enable a multi-axis laser-assisted machining of complex parts.

  1. Optically sensitive Medipix2 detector for adaptive optics wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, John; Tremsina, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; CERN. Geneva


    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused microchannel plate (MCP) read out by multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ("Medipix2") with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 256 x 256 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting), can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates and is abutable on 3 sides. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 ns. When used in a Shack-Hartmann style wavefront sensor, a detector with 4 Medipix chips should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7 x 7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest.

  2. Optical Material Researches for Frontier Optical Ceramics and Visible Fiber Laser Technologies (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0059 Optical material researches for frontier optical ceramics and visible fiber laser technologies Yasushi Fujimoto Osaka...07-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 18 Apr 2013 to 17 Apr 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optical material researches for frontier...are very useful for scientific and industrial applications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fibre Lasers, Laser Dynamics, Nonlinear Optical Materials 16. SECURITY

  3. Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials: A Handbook (United States)

    Nikogosyan, David N.


    Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials-A Handbook offers the reader a self-contained, concise and up-to-date collection of the key properties of 125 of the most common and important optical materials used in modern optics, laser physics and technology, spectroscopy and laser spectroscopy, nonlinear optics, quantum electronics and laser applications. This comprehensive volume presents not only the classical properties but also those that have appeared in the three decades since the invention of the laser. The presentation of the material is given in a clear tabular form with more than 1000 references. A wide variety of readers, ranging from workers in both industry and academia, to lecturers and students at postgraduate and undergraduate levels, will find Properties of Optical and Laser-Related Materials-A Handbook an invaluable resource.

  4. International Conference on Laser Physics and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Shengwu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Scully, Marlan


    Since the advent of the laser about 40 years ago, the field of laser physics and quantum optics have evolved into a major discipline. The early studies included the optical coherence theory and the semiclassical and quantum mechanical theories of the laser. More recently many new and interesting effects have been predicted. These include the role of coherent atomic effects in lasing without inversion and electromagnetically induced transparency, atom optics, laser cooling and trapping, teleportation, the single-atom micromaser and its role in quantum measurement theory, to name a few. The International Conference on Laser Physics and Quantum Optics was held in Shanghai from August 25 to August 28, 1999, to discuss these and many other exciting developments in laser physics and quantum optics. The international character of the conference was manifested by the fact that scientists from over 13 countries participated and lectured at the conference. There were four keynote lectures delivered by Nobel laureate Wi...

  5. Receding-horizon adaptive contyrol of aero-optical wavefronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesch, J.; Gibson, S.; Verhaegen, M.


    A new method for adaptive prediction and correction of wavefront errors in adaptive optics (AO) is introduced. The new method is based on receding-horizon control design and an adaptive lattice filter. Experimental results presented illustrate the capability of the new adaptive controller to predict

  6. Adaptive interferometric null testing for unknown freeform optics metrology. (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Choi, Heejoo; Zhao, Wenchuan; Graves, Logan R; Kim, Dae Wook


    We report an adaptive interferometric null testing method for overcoming the dynamic range limitations of conventional null testing approaches during unknown freeform optics metrology or optics manufacturing processes that require not-yet-completed surface measurements to guide the next fabrication process. In the presented adaptive method, a deformable mirror functions as an adaptable null component for an unknown optical surface. The optimal deformable mirror's shape is determined by the stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm and controlled by a deflectometry system. An adaptive interferometric null testing setup was constructed, and its metrology data successfully demonstrated superb adaptive capability in measuring an unknown surface.

  7. Phase retrieval techniques for adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C. J., LLNL


    We have developed and tested a method for minimizing static aberrations in adaptive optics systems. In order to correct the static phase aberrations, we need to measure the aberrations through the entire system. We have employed various phase retrieval algorithms to detect these aberrations. We have performed simulations of our experimental setup demonstrating that phase retrieval can improve the static aberrations to below the 20 nm rms level, with the limiting factor being local turbulence in the A0 system. Experimentally thus far, we have improved the static aberrations down to the 50 nm level, with the limiting factor being the ability to adjust the deformable mirror. This should be improved with better control algorithms now being implemented.

  8. Adaptive distributed Kalman filtering with wind estimation for astronomical adaptive optics. (United States)

    Massioni, Paolo; Gilles, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent


    In the framework of adaptive optics (AO) for astronomy, it is a common assumption to consider the atmospheric turbulent layers as "frozen flows" sliding according to the wind velocity profile. For this reason, having knowledge of such a velocity profile is beneficial in terms of AO control system performance. In this paper we show that it is possible to exploit the phase estimate from a Kalman filter running on an AO system in order to estimate wind velocity. This allows the update of the Kalman filter itself with such knowledge, making it adaptive. We have implemented such an adaptive controller based on the distributed version of the Kalman filter, for a realistic simulation of a multi-conjugate AO system with laser guide stars on a 30 m telescope. Simulation results show that this approach is effective and promising and the additional computational cost with respect to the distributed filter is negligible. Comparisons with a previously published slope detection and ranging wind profiler are made and the impact of turbulence profile quantization is assessed. One of the main findings of the paper is that all flavors of the adaptive distributed Kalman filter are impacted more significantly by turbulence profile quantization than the static minimum mean square estimator which does not incorporate wind profile information.

  9. Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field. (United States)

    Marcos, Susana; Werner, John S; Burns, Stephen A; Merigan, William H; Artal, Pablo; Atchison, David A; Hampson, Karen M; Legras, Richard; Lundstrom, Linda; Yoon, Geungyoung; Carroll, Joseph; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan; Dubis, Adam M; Dubra, Alfredo; Elsner, Ann; Jonnal, Ravi; Miller, Donald T; Paques, Michel; Smithson, Hannah E; Young, Laura K; Zhang, Yuhua; Campbell, Melanie; Hunter, Jennifer; Metha, Andrew; Palczewska, Grazyna; Schallek, Jesse; Sincich, Lawrence C


    Adaptive optics is a relatively new field, yet it is spreading rapidly and allows new questions to be asked about how the visual system is organized. The editors of this feature issue have posed a series of question to scientists involved in using adaptive optics in vision science. The questions are focused on three main areas. In the first we investigate the use of adaptive optics for psychophysical measurements of visual system function and for improving the optics of the eye. In the second, we look at the applications and impact of adaptive optics on retinal imaging and its promise for basic and applied research. In the third, we explore how adaptive optics is being used to improve our understanding of the neurophysiology of the visual system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptive Optics for Satellite Imaging and Space Debris Ranging (United States)

    Bennet, F.; D'Orgeville, C.; Price, I.; Rigaut, F.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    Earth's space environment is becoming crowded and at risk of a Kessler syndrome, and will require careful management for the future. Modern low noise high speed detectors allow for wavefront sensing and adaptive optics (AO) in extreme circumstances such as imaging small orbiting bodies in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) at the Australian National University have been developing AO systems for telescopes between 1 and 2.5m diameter to image and range orbiting satellites and space debris. Strehl ratios in excess of 30% can be achieved for targets in LEO with an AO loop running at 2kHz, allowing the resolution of small features (system developed at RSAA consists of a high speed EMCCD Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror (DM), and realtime computer (RTC), and an imaging camera. The system works best as a laser guide star system but will also function as a natural guide star AO system, with the target itself being the guide star. In both circumstances tip-tilt is provided by the target on the imaging camera. The fast tip-tilt modes are not corrected optically, and are instead removed by taking images at a moderate speed (>30Hz) and using a shift and add algorithm. This algorithm can also incorporate lucky imaging to further improve the final image quality. A similar AO system for space debris ranging is also in development in collaboration with Electro Optic Systems (EOS) and the Space Environment Management Cooperative Research Centre (SERC), at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia. The system is designed for an AO corrected upward propagated 1064nm pulsed laser beam, from which time of flight information is used to precisely range the target. A 1.8m telescope is used for both propagation and collection of laser light. A laser guide star, Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and DM are used for high order correction, and tip-tilt correction provided by reflected sunlight from the target. The

  11. Adaptive laser focusing head design for the 3D free surface in parallel kinematic machining (United States)

    Ye, K. H.; Lee, B. S.; Choi, H. W.


    An adaptive laser head was designed for microscale patterning and welding applications. An optical design for laser head was performed by using ray tracing technique with commercial software. Setting the focal length of the lens at 100mm the calculated focus beam diameter was offset to be 10 μm for the CFRP welding applications. To perform an auto-focusing calibration an LRF(Laser Range Finder) distance sensor was used to measure the distance to the target surface. Using a DC Motor with PID control loop, the distance was kept at constant between the laser head and the target material. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for auto-focusing calibration function and detail schematics of laser head design..

  12. Design of the Dual Conjugate Adaptive Optics Test-bed (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Bell, K.; Crampton, D.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Herriot, Glen; Jolissaint, Laurent; Lee, B.; Richardson, H.; van der Kamp, D.; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    In this paper, we describe the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics laboratory test-bed presently under construction at the University of Victoria, Canada. The test-bench will be used to support research in the performance of multi-conjugate adaptive optics, turbulence simulators, laser guide stars and miniaturizing adaptive optics. The main components of the test-bed include two micro-machined deformable mirrors, a tip-tilt mirror, four wavefront sensors, a source simulator, a dual-layer turbulence simulator, as well as computational and control hardware. The paper will describe in detail the opto-mechanical design of the adaptive optics module, the design of the hot-air turbulence generator and the configuration chosen for the source simulator. Below, we present a summary of these aspects of the bench. The optical and mechanical design of the test-bed has been largely driven by the particular choice of the deformable mirrors. These are continuous micro-machined mirrors manufactured by Boston Micromachines Corporation. They have a clear aperture of 3.3 mm and are deformed with 140 actuators arranged in a square grid. Although the mirrors have an open-loop bandwidth of 6.6 KHz, their shape can be updated at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In our optical design, the mirrors are conjugated at 0km and 10 km in the atmosphere. A planar optical layout was achieved by using four off-axis paraboloids and several folding mirrors. These optics will be mounted on two solid blocks which can be aligned with respect to each other. The wavefront path design accommodates 3 monochromatic guide stars that can be placed at either 90 km or at infinity. The design relies on the natural separation of the beam into 3 parts because of differences in locations of the guide stars in the field of view. In total four wavefront sensors will be procured from Adaptive Optics Associates (AOA) or built in-house: three for the guide stars and the fourth to collect data from the science source output in

  13. Versatile optical manipulation system for inspection, laser processing, and isolation of individual living cells (United States)

    Stuhrmann, B.; Jahnke, H.-G.; Schmidt, M.; Jähn, K.; Betz, T.; Müller, K.; Rothermel, A.; Käs, J.; Robitzki, A. A.


    Isolation of individual cells from a heterogeneous cell population is an invaluable step in the analysis of single cell properties. The demands in molecular and cellular biology as well as molecular medicine are the selection, isolation, and monitoring of single cells and cell clusters of biopsy material. Of particular interest are methods which complement a passive optical or spectroscopic selection with a variety of active single cell processing techniques such as mechanical, biochemical, or genetic manipulation prior to isolation. Sophisticated laser-based cell processing systems are available which can perform single cell processing in a contact-free and sterile manner. Until now, however, these multipurpose turnkey systems offer only basic micromanipulation and are not easily modified or upgraded, whereas laboratory situations often demand simple but versatile and adaptable solutions. We built a flexible laser micromanipulation platform combining contact-free microdissection and catapulting capabilities using a pulsed ultraviolet (337nm) laser with simultaneous generation of optical tweezing forces using a continuous wave infrared (1064nm) laser. The potential of our platform is exemplified with techniques such as local laser-induced injection of biomolecules into individual living cells, laser surgery, isolation of single cells by laser catapulting, and control of neuronal growth using optical gradient forces. Arbitrary dynamic optical force patterns can be created by fast laser scanning with acousto-optical deflectors and galvanometer mirrors, allowing multibeam contact-free micromanipulation, a prerequisite for reliable handling of material in laboratory-on-a-chip applications. All common microscopy techniques can be used simultaneously with the offered palette of micromanipulation methods. Taken together, we show that advanced optical micromanipulation systems can be designed which combine quality, cost efficiency, and adaptability.

  14. Linear diode laser bar optical stretchers for cell deformation (United States)

    Sraj, Ihab; Marr, David W.M.; Eggleton, Charles D.


    To investigate the use of linear diode laser bars to optically stretch cells and measure their mechanical properties, we present numerical simulations using the immersed boundary method (IBM) coupled with classic ray optics. Cells are considered as three-dimensional (3D) spherical elastic capsules immersed in a fluid subjected to both optical and hydrodynamic forces in a periodic domain. We simulate cell deformation induced by both single and dual diode laser bar configurations and show that a single diode laser bar induces significant stretching but also induces cell translation of speed diode laser bar configuration, however, can be used to both stretch and optically trap cells at a fixed position. The net cell deformation was found to be a function of the total laser power and not the power distribution between single or dual diode laser bar configurations. PMID:21258483

  15. The Laser Level as an Optics Laboratory Tool (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey


    For decades now, the laser has been used as a handy device for performing ray traces in geometrical optics demonstrations and laboratories. For many ray- trace applications, I have found the laser level 3 to be even more visually compelling and easy for student use than the laser pointer.

  16. Bifurcation Analysis of a Spatially Extended Laser with Optical Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, K.; Krauskopf, B.; Marten, F.; Lenstra, D.


    Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are a new type of semiconductor laser characterized by the spatial extent of their disk-shaped output apertures. As a result, a VCSEL supports several optical modes (patterns of light) transverse to the direction of light propagation. When any laser

  17. Proposed Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics Experiment at Lick Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B J; Gavel, D T; Flath, L M; Hurd, R L; Max, C E; Olivier, S S


    While the theory behind design of multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems is growing, there is still a paucity of experience building and testing such instruments. We propose using the Lick adaptive optics (AO) system as a basis for demonstrating the feasibility/workability of MCAO systems, testing underlying assumptions, and experimenting with different approaches to solving MCAO system issues.

  18. Development of Miniaturized Intra-Cavity DFG, Fiber-Optic, and Quantum Cascade Laser Systems in Conjunction with Integrated Electronics for Global Studies of Climate Forcing and Response using UASs as a Partner with Satellite and Adaptive Models (United States)

    Witinski, M. F.; Demusz, J. N.; Rivero, M.; Tuozzolo, C.; Anderson, J. G.


    The 2007 National Research Council (NRC) report, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, delineates an array of challenges facing society as the global climate system passes through a period of unprecedented changes. The Decadal Survey goes further, recommending specific science missions that will concentrate NASA's tremendous technical resources on meeting these challenges. Central to completing these science missions will be the effective union of advancing laser, electro-optical, and computing technologies with emerging Uninhabited Aerial Systems (UAS), allowing for satellite validation and independent science missions of unprecedented duration and scientific capability, in effect linking NASA's orbital and sub-orbital programs to each other and to the objectives of society as a whole. In order to harness the power of UASs for in situ atmospheric monitoring of tracers such as CO2, N2O, and CH4 as a precursor for extending detection limits to encompass sub-ppb level species, we have developed small, lightweight, single mode laser systems with co-developed integrated electronics. The laser sources are of various types, including newly developed cavity-enhanced difference frequency generation (CE DFG), distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB QCLs), and new types of commercially available DFB diode lasers. All are continuous wave (cw) and thermo-electrically cooled, ensuring a high instrument duty cycle in a compact, low maintenance package. The light sources are collimated with miniature aspherical lenses and coupled into a custom-built astigmatic Herriott cell for detection of the various targets using direct absorption. In parallel with the optical components, we have developed integrated electronic systems for laser control, data processing, and acquisition. A prototype instrument suite is described that illustrates the importance of parallel development of optical and electronic components in

  19. Femtosecond laser processing of optical fibres for novel sensor development (United States)

    Kalli, Kyriacos; Theodosiou, Antreas; Ioannou, Andreas; Lacraz, Amedee


    We present results of recent research where we have utilized a femtosecond laser to micro-structure silica and polymer optical fibres in order to realize versatile optical components such as diffractive optical elements on the fibre end face, the inscription of integrated waveguide circuits in the fibre cladding and novel optical fibre sensors designs based on Bragg gratings in the core. A major hurdle in tailoring or modifying the properties of optical fibres is the development of an inscription method that can prove to be a flexible and reliable process that is generally applicable to all optical fibre types; this requires careful matching of the laser parameters and optics in order to examine the spatial limits of direct laser writing, whether the application is structuring at the surface of the optical fibre or inscription in the core and cladding of the fibre. We demonstrate a variety of optical components such as two-dimensional grating structures, Bessel, Airy and vortex beam generators; moreover, optical bridging waveguides inscribed in the cladding of single-mode fibre as a means to selectively couple light from single-core to multi-core optical fibres, and demonstrate a grating based sensor; finally, we have developed a novel femtosecond laser inscription method for the precise inscription of tailored Bragg grating sensors in silica and polymer optical fibres. We also show that this novel fibre Bragg grating inscription technique can be used to modify and add versatility to an existing, encapsulated optical fibre pressure sensor.

  20. Adaptive optics ophthalmologic systems using dual deformable mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S; Olivier, S; Chen, D; Sadda, S; Joeres, S; Zawadzki, R; Werner, J S; Miller, D


    Adaptive Optics (AO) have been increasingly combined with a variety of ophthalmic instruments over the last decade to provide cellular-level, in-vivo images of the eye. The use of MEMS deformable mirrors in these instruments has recently been demonstrated to reduce system size and cost while improving performance. However, currently available MEMS mirrors lack the required range of motion for correcting large ocular aberrations, such as defocus and astigmatism. In order to address this problem, we have developed an AO system architecture that uses two deformable mirrors, in a woofer/tweeter arrangement, with a bimorph mirror as the woofer and a MEMS mirror as the tweeter. This setup provides several advantages, including extended aberration correction range, due to the large stroke of the bimorph mirror, high order aberration correction using the MEMS mirror, and additionally, the ability to ''focus'' through the retina. This AO system architecture is currently being used in four instruments, including an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system and a retinal flood-illuminated imaging system at the UC Davis Medical Center, a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) at the Doheny Eye Institute, and an OCT system at Indiana University. The design, operation and evaluation of this type of AO system architecture will be presented.

  1. The simulation study on optical target laser active detection performance (United States)

    Li, Ying-chun; Hou, Zhao-fei; Fan, Youchen


    According to the working principle of laser active detection system, the paper establishes the optical target laser active detection simulation system, carry out the simulation study on the detection process and detection performance of the system. For instance, the performance model such as the laser emitting, the laser propagation in the atmosphere, the reflection of optical target, the receiver detection system, the signal processing and recognition. We focus on the analysis and modeling the relationship between the laser emitting angle and defocus amount and "cat eye" effect echo laser in the reflection of optical target. Further, in the paper some performance index such as operating range, SNR and the probability of the system have been simulated. The parameters including laser emitting parameters, the reflection of the optical target and the laser propagation in the atmosphere which make a great influence on the performance of the optical target laser active detection system. Finally, using the object-oriented software design methods, the laser active detection system with the opening type, complete function and operating platform, realizes the process simulation that the detection system detect and recognize the optical target, complete the performance simulation of each subsystem, and generate the data report and the graph. It can make the laser active detection system performance models more intuitive because of the visible simulation process. The simulation data obtained from the system provide a reference to adjust the structure of the system parameters. And it provides theoretical and technical support for the top level design of the optical target laser active detection system and performance index optimization.

  2. Development of adaptive resonator techniques for high-power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, J; Brase, J; Carrano, C; Dane, C B; Flath, L; Fochs, S; Hurd, R; Kartz, M; Sawvel, R


    The design of an adaptive wavefront control system for a high-power Nd:Glass laser will be presented. Features of this system include: an unstable resonator in confocal configuration, a multi-module slab amplifier, and real-time intracavity adaptive phase control using deformable mirrors and high-speed wavefront sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the adaptive correction of an aberrated passive resonator (no gain).

  3. Optical Injection into Laser Wake Field Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cary, John R; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron G R; Giacone, Rodolfo; Leemans, Wim; Nieter, Chet


    The accelerating gradient of laser-generated wake fields in plasmas can be orders of magnitude greater than the gradients obtainable in traditional, rf structures. One of the hurdles to overcome on the road to practical utilization of said plasma wake fields for production of high energy particles is the creation of quality beams having significant charge, low emittance, and narrow energy spread. To generate appropriate beams, various injection methods have been proposed. Injection by conventional means of beam prepartion using conventional technology is very difficult, as the accelerating buckets are only tens of microns long. Therefore, the field has turned to all-optical injection schemes, which include injection by colliding pulses, plasma ramps, wave breaking, and self-trapping through pulse evolution. This talk will review the various concepts proposed for injection, including plasma ramps, colliding pulses, and self trapping. The results of simulations and experiments will be discussed along with propo...

  4. Experimental AMO physics in undergraduate optics and lasers courses (United States)

    Hoyt, Chad


    This talk will describe experimental AMO research projects in undergraduate Lasers and Optics courses at Bethel University. The courses, which include a comprehensive lecture portion, are built on open-ended projects that have a novel aspect. Classes begin with four weeks of small student groups rotating between several standard laser and optics laboratory exercises. These may include, for example, alignment and characterization of a helium neon laser and measurements with a Michelson interferometer or a scanning Fabry-Pérot optical cavity. During the following seven weeks of the course, student groups (2-4 people) choose and pursue research questions in the lab. Their work culminates in a group manuscript and a twenty-minute presentation to the class. Projects in the spring, 2016 Optics course included experiments with ultracold lithium atoms in a magneto-optical trap, a prototype, portable, mode-locked erbium fiber laser, a home-built fiber laser frequency comb, double-slit imaging with single photons, and digital holographic tweezers (led by Nathan Lindquist). Projects in the spring, 2015 Lasers course included ultrafast optics with a mode-locked erbium fiber laser, quantum optics, surface plasmon lasers (led by Nathan Lindquist) and a low-cost, near-infrared spectrometer. Several of these projects are related to larger scale, funded research in the physics department. The format and experience in Lasers and Optics is representative of other upper-level courses at Bethel, including Fluid Mechanics and Computer Methods. A physics education research group from the University of Colorado evaluated the spring, 2015 Lasers and 2016 Optics courses. They focused on student experimental attitudes and measurements of student project ownership.

  5. Temporal laser pulse manipulation using multiple optical ring-cavities (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Kojima, Jun (Inventor)


    An optical pulse stretcher and a mathematical algorithm for the detailed calculation of its design and performance is disclosed. The optical pulse stretcher has a plurality of optical cavities, having multiple optical reflectors such that an optical path length in each of the optical cavities is different. The optical pulse stretcher also has a plurality of beam splitters, each of which intercepts a portion of an input optical beam and diverts the portion into one of the plurality of optical cavities. The input optical beam is stretched and a power of an output beam is reduced after passing through the optical pulse stretcher and the placement of the plurality of optical cavities and beam splitters is optimized through a model that takes into account optical beam divergence and alignment in the pluralities of the optical cavities. The optical pulse stretcher system can also function as a high-repetition-rate (MHz) laser pulse generator, making it suitable for use as a stroboscopic light source for high speed ballistic projectile imaging studies, or it can be used for high speed flow diagnostics using a laser light sheet with digital particle imaging velocimetry. The optical pulse stretcher system can also be implemented using fiber optic components to realize a rugged and compact optical system that is alignment free and easy to use.

  6. Nonlinear optics with coherent free electron lasers (United States)

    Bencivenga, F.; Capotondi, F.; Mincigrucci, R.; Cucini, R.; Manfredda, M.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Simoncig, A.; Masciovecchio, C.


    We interpreted the recent construction of free electron laser (FELs) facilities worldwide as an unprecedented opportunity to bring concepts and methods from the scientific community working with optical lasers into the domain of x-ray science. This motivated our efforts towards the realization of FEL-based wave-mixing applications. In this article we present new extreme ultraviolet transient grating (X-TG) data from vitreous SiO2, collected using two crossed FEL pulses (photon frequency 38 eV) to generate the X-TG and a phase matched optical probing pulse (photon frequency 3.1 eV). This experiment extends our previous investigation, which was carried out on a nominally identical sample using a different FEL photon frequency (45 eV) to excite the X-TG. The present data are featured by a peak intensity of the X-TG signal substantially larger than that previously reported and by slower modulations of the X-TG signal at positive delays. These differences could be ascribed to the different FEL photon energy used in the two experiments or to differences in the sample properties. A systematic X-TG study on the same sample as a function of the FEL wavelength is needed to draw a consistent conclusion. We also discuss how the advances in the performance of the FELs, in terms of generation of fully coherent photon pulses and multi-color FEL emission, may push the development of original experimental strategies to study matter at the femtosecond-nanometer time-length scales, with the unique option of element and chemical state specificity. This would allow the development of advanced experimental tools based on wave-mixing processes, which may have a tremendous impact in the study of a large array of phenomena, ranging from nano-dynamics in complex materials to charge and energy transfer processes.

  7. Simulation of DKIST solar adaptive optics system (United States)

    Marino, Jose; Carlisle, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Dirk


    Solar adaptive optics (AO) simulations are a valuable tool to guide the design and optimization process of current and future solar AO and multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) systems. Solar AO and MCAO systems rely on extended object cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to measure the wavefront. Accurate solar AO simulations require computationally intensive operations, which have until recently presented a prohibitive computational cost. We present an update on the status of a solar AO and MCAO simulation tool being developed at the National Solar Observatory. The simulation tool is a multi-threaded application written in the C++ language that takes advantage of current large multi-core CPU computer systems and fast ethernet connections to provide accurate full simulation of solar AO and MCAO systems. It interfaces with KAOS, a state of the art solar AO control software developed by the Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, that provides reliable AO control. We report on the latest results produced by the solar AO simulation tool.

  8. Effect of Quartic Phase Optical Aberration on Laser Beam Quality (United States)

    Bencheikh, A.; Bouafia, M.; Boubetra, Dj.


    Laser beam quality is related to the aberration effect. Quartic phase aberration, more commonly known as spherical aberration, can result from aberrated optical components such as beam expanding telescopes, focusing or collimating lenses, or other conventional optical elements; from thermal focusing or thermal blooming in high power laser windows, lenses, amplifier rods, optical isolators, and other absorbing media. In general any kind of quartic aberration will lead to increased far field beam spread, degraded laser beam focusability and increased values of the beam quality. Currently, a well established quality parameter for laser beams is the M2 factor. This paper presents a new mathematical set for the spherical aberration coefficient C4 of Gaussian beams. The main idea comes from the estimation of the laser beam quality factor M2 given by Siegman. We show that this coefficient concerns only the case of geometrical optics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Egorov


    Full Text Available Simulation results for on-board optical system of a space mini-vehicle with laser propulsion are presented. This system gives the possibility for receiving theremote laser radiation power independently of a system telescope mutual orientation to the vehicle orbiting direction. The on-board optical system is designed with the use of such optical elements as optical hinges and turrets. The system incorporates the optical switch that is a special optical system adapting optically both receiving telescope and laser propulsion engines. Modeling and numerical simulation of the system have been performed with the use of ZEMAX software (Radiant Ltd. The object matter of calculations lied in size definition of system optical elements, requirements to accuracy of their manufacturing and reciprocal adjusting to achieve an efficient radiation energy delivery to laser propulsion engine. Calculations have been performed with account to the limitations on the mini-vehicle mass, its overall dimensions, and radiation threshold density of the optical elements utilized. The requirements to the laser beam quality at the entrance aperture of laser propulsion engine have been considered too. State-of-the-art optical technologies make it possible to manufacture space reflectors made of CO-115M glassceramics with weight-reducing coefficient of 0.72 and the radiation threshold of 5 J/cm2 for the radiation with a 1.064 microns wavelength at 10-20 ns pulse duration. The optimal diameter of a receiving telescope primary mirror has been 0.5 m when a coordinated transmitting telescope diameter is equal to 1 m. This provides the reception of at least 84% of laser energy. The main losses of radiation energy are caused by improper installation of receiving telescope mirrors and by in-process errors arising at manufacturing the telescope mirrors with a parabolic surface. It is shown that requirements to the in-process admissible errors for the on-board optical system elements

  10. Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye (United States)

    Geng, Ying; Dubra, Alfredo; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Sharma, Robin; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.


    Correction of the eye’s monochromatic aberrations using adaptive optics (AO) can improve the resolution of in vivo mouse retinal images [Biss et al., Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659 (2007) and Alt et al., Proc. SPIE 7550, 755019 (2010)], but previous attempts have been limited by poor spot quality in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS). Recent advances in mouse eye wavefront sensing using an adjustable focus beacon with an annular beam profile have improved the wavefront sensor spot quality [Geng et al., Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717 (2011)], and we have incorporated them into a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The performance of the instrument was tested on the living mouse eye, and images of multiple retinal structures, including the photoreceptor mosaic, nerve fiber bundles, fine capillaries and fluorescently labeled ganglion cells were obtained. The in vivo transverse and axial resolutions of the fluorescence channel of the AOSLO were estimated from the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the line and point spread functions (LSF and PSF), and were found to be better than 0.79 μm ± 0.03 μm (STD)(45% wider than the diffraction limit) and 10.8 μm ± 0.7 μm (STD)(two times the diffraction limit), respectively. The axial positional accuracy was estimated to be 0.36 μm. This resolution and positional accuracy has allowed us to classify many ganglion cell types, such as bistratified ganglion cells, in vivo. PMID:22574260

  11. Advanced metaheuristic algorithms for laser optimization in optical accelerator technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomizawa, Hiromitsu, E-mail: [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), XFEL Joint Project/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo (Japan)


    Lasers are among the most important experimental tools for user facilities, including synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers (FEL). In the synchrotron radiation field, lasers are widely used for experiments with Pump-Probe techniques. Especially for X-ray-FELs, lasers play important roles as seed light sources or photocathode-illuminating light sources to generate a high-brightness electron bunch. For future accelerators, laser-based techonologies such as electro-optic (EO) sampling to measure ultra-short electron bunches and optical-fiber-based femtosecond timing systems have been intensively developed in the last decade. Therefore, controls and optimizations of laser pulse characteristics are strongly required for many kinds of experiments and improvement of accelerator systems. However, people believe that lasers should be tuned and customized for each requirement manually by experts. This makes it difficult for laser systems to be part of the common accelerator infrastructure. Automatic laser tuning requires sophisticated algorithms, and the metaheuristic algorithm is one of the best solutions. The metaheuristic laser tuning system is expected to reduce the human effort and time required for laser preparations. I have shown some successful results on a metaheuristic algorithm based on a genetic algorithm to optimize spatial (transverse) laser profiles, and a hill-climbing method extended with a fuzzy set theory to choose one of the best laser alignments automatically for each machine requirement.

  12. Adaptive optical microspectrometers and spectra-selective sensing (United States)

    Bhalotra, Sameer R.

    The demand for miniaturized optical spectrometer systems is steadily increasing, for applications such as biochemical material identification, atmosphere monitoring, and military target tracking. Unfortunately, sensing front-ends typically generate a burdensome amount of data that must be processed by large computing systems; the required processing back-ends often limit the compactness and efficiency of complete systems. Ideally, we would design new devices that enable easy implementation of data filtering in a miniaturized front-end, with the capability to adapt to a wide range of sensing tasks. Here we present a new micro spectrometer and compatible information processing system, for applications requiring a flexible, portable, complete sensing system. The standing-wave spectrometer enjoys the advantages of a traditional Fourier transform spectrometer, including spectral multiplexing and simple interferogram output; however it has a compact, linear optical design requiring only two components, a partially transmitting photodetector and a movable mirror. We discuss development of a low power, continuously scanning, miniature Si mirror-actuator, and Si and GaAs photodiodes with thin active regions, for visible and near-infrared devices as small as 17 x 13 x 1 mm. We demonstrate spectral resolution of 100 cm-1 (4 run at lambda = 633 nm), and the unique ability to adapt resolution in real time to optimize signal-to-noise ratio. For spectral data processing, we present a new time-domain filtering concept that minimizes computing requirements. For discrimination among a set of known spectra, we directly use the interferograms generated by a Fourier transform spectrometer to calculate inner products in the time domain. Our method efficiently uses prior knowledge of the known spectra to relax data handling requirements, typically by factors of 10--100, enabling real-time spectra-selective imaging. We can also directly identify optical source types by their spectral

  13. LGSD/NGSD: high speed optical CMOS imagers for E-ELT adaptive optics (United States)

    Downing, Mark; Kolb, Johann; Balard, Philippe; Dierickx, Bart; Defernez, Arnaud; Feautrier, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Fryer, Martin; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guillaume, Christian; Hubin, Norbert; Jerram, Paul; Jorden, Paul; Meyer, Manfred; Payne, Andrew; Pike, Andrew; Reyes, Javier; Simpson, Robert; Stadler, Eric; Stent, Jeremy; Swift, Nick


    The success of the next generation of instruments for ELT class telescopes will depend upon improving the image quality by exploiting sophisticated Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. One of the critical components of the AO systems for the E-ELT has been identified as the optical Laser/Natural Guide Star WFS detector. The combination of large format, 1760×1680 pixels to finely sample the wavefront and the spot elongation of laser guide stars, fast frame rate of 700 frames per second (fps), low read noise ( 90%) makes the development of this device extremely challenging. Design studies concluded that a highly integrated Backside Illuminated CMOS Imager built on High Resistivity silicon as the most likely technology to succeed. Two generations of the CMOS Imager are being developed: a) the already designed and manufactured NGSD (Natural Guide Star Detector), a quarter-sized pioneering device of 880×840 pixels capable of meeting first light needs of the E-ELT; b) the LGSD (Laser Guide Star Detector), the larger full size device. The detailed design is presented including the approach of using massive parallelism (70,400 ADCs) to achieve the low read noise at high pixel rates of ~3 Gpixel/s and the 88 channel LVDS 220Mbps serial interface to get the data off-chip. To enable read noise closer to the goal of 1e- to be achieved, a split wafer run has allowed the NGSD to be manufactured in the more speculative, but much lower read noise, Ultra Low Threshold Transistors in the unit cell. The NGSD has come out of production, it has been thinned to 12μm, backside processed and packaged in a custom 370pin Ceramic PGA (Pin Grid Array). First results of tests performed both at e2v and ESO are presented.

  14. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers for atomic and molecular physics (United States)

    Burd, S.; Leibfried, D.; Wilson, A. C.; Wineland, D. J.


    Experiments in atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics rely on lasers at many different wavelengths and with varying requirements on spectral linewidth, power and intensity stability. Optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSLs), when combined with nonlinear frequency conversion, can potentially replace many of the laser systems currently in use. We are developing a source for laser cooling and spectroscopy of Mg+ ions at 280 nm, based on a frequency quadrupled OPSL with the gain chip fabricated at the ORC at Tampere Univ. of Technology, Finland. This OPSL system could serve as a prototype for many other sources used in atomic and molecular physics.

  15. Ultrafast Optics: Vector Cavity Fiber Lasers - Physics and Technology (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0065 Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers: Physics and Technology Dingyuan Tang NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final...REPORT TYPE      Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      28 Mar 2013 to 27 Mar 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers...Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vector Cavity Fiber Laser 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION OF       ABSTRACT SAR 18.  NUMBER        OF

  16. Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers: Physics and Technology (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0065 Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers: Physics and Technology Dingyuan Tang NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final...REPORT TYPE      Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      28 Mar 2013 to 27 Mar 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers...Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vector Cavity Fiber Laser 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION OF       ABSTRACT SAR 18.  NUMBER        OF

  17. Ultrafast Optics: Vector Cavity Laser - Physics and Technology (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0065 Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers: Physics and Technology Dingyuan Tang NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final...REPORT TYPE      Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      28 Mar 2013 to 27 Mar 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrafast Optics - Vector Cavity Lasers...Nonlinear Optical Materials, Vector Cavity Fiber Laser 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION OF       ABSTRACT SAR 18.  NUMBER        OF

  18. Modelling the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system of the European Extremely Large Telescope (United States)

    Schreiber, L.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bregoli, G.; Diolaiti, E.; Butler, R. C.; Foppiani, I.; Lombini, M.; Patti, M.; Ciliegi, P.

    MAORY is the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Module for the E-ELT. The baseline design assumes six sodium Laser Guide Stars and three Natural Guide Stars for wavefront sensing. Three deformable mirrors, including the telescope adaptive mirror M4, are optically conjugated to different altitudes in the atmosphere to achieve compensation of the atmospheric turbulence effects over an extended Field of View. In preparation for the project phase-B we are analyzing different critical aspects of such a system. We are developing a versatile and modular end-to-end simulation code that makes use of GPUs to obtain high-fidelity modelling of the system performance and, in parallel, a semplified code for the analysis of the effects induced by the temporal variation of the sodium layer where the artificial laser guide stars are generated. An overview of the work in progress will be given.

  19. IR-laser assisted additive freeform optics manufacturing. (United States)

    Hong, Zhihan; Liang, Rongguang


    Computer-controlled additive manufacturing (AM) processes, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, create 3D objects by the successive adding of a material or materials. While there have been tremendous developments in AM, the 3D printing of optics is lagging due to the limits in materials and tight requirements for optical applicaitons. We propose a new precision additive freeform optics manufacturing (AFOM) method using an pulsed infrared (IR) laser. Compared to ultraviolet (UV) curable materials, thermally curable optical silicones have a number of advantages, such as strong UV stability, non-yellowing, and high transmission, making it particularly suitable for optical applications. Pulsed IR laser radiation offers a distinct advantage in processing optical silicones, as the high peak intensity achieved in the focal region allows for curing the material quickly, while the brief duration of the laser-material interaction creates a negligible heat-affected zone.

  20. Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Ashley J


    The second edition of 'Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue' maintains the standard of excellence established in the first edition, while adjusting the content to reflect changes in tissue optics and medical applications since 1995. The material concerning light propagation now contains new chapters devoted to electromagnetic theory for coherent light. The material concerning thermal laser-tissue interactions contains a new chapter on pulse ablation of tissue. The medical applications section now includes several new chapters on Optical Coherent Tomography, acoustic imaging, molecular imaging, forensic optics and nerve stimulation. A detailed overview is provided of the optical and thermal response of tissue to laser irradiation along with diagnostic and therapeutic examples including fiber optics. Sufficient theory is included in the book so that it is suitable for a one or two semester graduate or for senior elective courses. Material covered includes: 1. light propagation and diagnostic appl...

  1. Laser diodes for sensing applications: adaptive cruise control and more (United States)

    Heerlein, Joerg; Morgott, Stefan; Ferstl, Christian


    Adaptive Cruise Controls (ACC) and pre-crash sensors require an intelligent eye which can recognize traffic situations and deliver a 3-dimensional view. Both microwave RADAR and "Light RADAR" (LIDAR) systems are well suited as sensors. In order to utilize the advantages of LIDARs -- such as lower cost, simpler assembly and high reliability -- the key component, the laser diode, is of primary importance. Here, we present laser diodes which meet the requirements of the automotive industry.


    Querques, Giuseppe; Kamami-Levy, Cynthia; Georges, Anouk; Pedinielli, Alexandre; Capuano, Vittorio; Blanco-Garavito, Rocio; Poulon, Fanny; Souied, Eric H


    To describe adaptive optics (AO) imaging of foveal sparing in geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Flood-illumination AO infrared (IR) fundus images were obtained in four consecutive patients with GA using an AO retinal camera (rtx1; Imagine Eyes). Adaptive optics IR images were overlaid with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence images to allow direct correlation of en face AO features with areas of foveal sparing. Adaptive optics appearance of GA and foveal sparing, preservation of functional photoreceptors, and cone densities in areas of foveal sparing were investigated. In 5 eyes of 4 patients (all female; mean age 74.2 ± 11.9 years), a total of 5 images, sized 4° × 4°, of foveal sparing visualized on confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence were investigated by AO imaging. En face AO images revealed GA as regions of inhomogeneous hyperreflectivity with irregularly dispersed hyporeflective clumps. By direct comparison with adjacent regions of GA, foveal sparing appeared as well-demarcated areas of reduced reflectivity with less hyporeflective clumps (mean 14.2 vs. 3.2; P = 0.03). Of note, in these areas, en face AO IR images revealed cone photoreceptors as hyperreflective dots over the background reflectivity (mean cone density 3,271 ± 1,109 cones per square millimeter). Microperimetry demonstrated residual function in areas of foveal sparing detected by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence. Adaptive optics allows the appreciation of differences in reflectivity between regions of GA and foveal sparing. Preservation of functional cone photoreceptors was demonstrated on en face AO IR images in areas of foveal sparing detected by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope near-IR autofluorescence.

  3. Precision laser processing for micro electronics and fiber optic manufacturing (United States)

    Webb, Andrew; Osborne, Mike; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Dinkel, Duane W.


    The application of laser based materials processing for precision micro scale manufacturing in the electronics and fiber optic industry is becoming increasingly widespread and accepted. This presentation will review latest laser technologies available and discuss the issues to be considered in choosing the most appropriate laser and processing parameters. High repetition rate, short duration pulsed lasers have improved rapidly in recent years in terms of both performance and reliability enabling flexible, cost effective processing of many material types including metal, silicon, plastic, ceramic and glass. Demonstrating the relevance of laser micromachining, application examples where laser processing is in use for production will be presented, including miniaturization of surface mount capacitors by applying a laser technique for demetalization of tracks in the capacitor manufacturing process and high quality laser machining of fiber optics including stripping, cleaving and lensing, resulting in optical quality finishes without the need for traditional polishing. Applications include telecoms, biomedical and sensing. OpTek Systems was formed in 2000 and provide fully integrated systems and sub contract services for laser processes. They are headquartered in the UK and are establishing a presence in North America through a laser processing facility in South Carolina and sales office in the North East.

  4. Laser optical information recording in photosensitive silver-containing glasses (United States)

    Gorbyak, V. V.; Sidorov, A. I.


    It is shown experimentally that laser action on silver-containing photosensitive glasses can be used for optical information recording in octal code. The change of irradiation dose results in the change of luminescence or absorption intensity in irradiated zones.

  5. Electro-optic and Acousto-optic Laser Beam Scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Bechtold, P.


    Optical solid state deflectors rely on the electro-optical or acousto-optic effect. These Electro-Optical Deflectors (EODs) and Acousto-Optical Deflectors (AODs) do not contain moving parts and therefore exhibit high deflection velocities and are free of drawbacks associated with mechanical scanners. A


    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaolin; Godara, Pooja; Zhang, Tianjiao; Clark, Mark E; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Spaide, Richard F; Owsley, Cynthia; Curcio, Christine A


    To investigate the natural history of dot subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) in age-related macular degeneration, using high-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Six eyes of four patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration were studied at baseline and 1 year later. Individual dot SDD within the central 30° retina were examined with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography. A total of 269 solitary SDD were identified at baseline. Over 12.25 ± 1.18 months, all 35 Stage 1 SDD progressed to advanced stages. Eighteen (60%) Stage 2 lesions progressed to Stage 3 and 12 (40%) remained at Stage 2. Of 204 Stage 3 SDD, 12 (6.4%) disappeared and the rest remained. Twelve new SDD were identified, including 6 (50%) at Stage 1, 2 (16.7%) at Stage 2, and 4 (33.3%) at Stage 3. The mean percentage of the retina affected by dot SDD, measured by the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, increased in 5/6 eyes (from 2.31% to 5.08% in the most changed eye) and decreased slightly in 1/6 eye (from 10.67% to 10.54%). Dynamism, the absolute value of the areas affected by new and regressed lesions, ranged from 0.7% to 9.3%. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy reveals that dot SDD, like drusen, are dynamic.

  7. Astronomy Applications of Adaptive Optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B J; Gavel, D T


    Astronomical applications of adaptive optics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a history that extends from 1984. The program started with the Lick Observatory Adaptive Optics system and has progressed through the years to lever-larger telescopes: Keck, and now the proposed CELT (California Extremely Large Telescope) 30m telescope. LLNL AO continues to be at the forefront of AO development and science.

  8. Laser Transmitters for the optical link systems used in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    In the CMS experiment of the now new flagship LHC optical links will be used for the tracker readout system. One part of this components will be semiconductor laser (~50.000 !!!), named correctly: 1310 nm InGaAsP (DCPBH-MQW) edge-emitting laser. They are foreseen as transmitter in the Tx Hybrid part of the optical link system.

  9. Antireflective surface structures on optics for high energy lasers (United States)

    Busse, Lynda E.; Florea, Catalin M.; Shaw, L. Brandon; Frantz, Jesse; Bayya, Shyam; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Joshi, Rajendra; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Sanghera, Jas S.


    We report results for antireflective surface structures (ARSS) fabricated directly into the surface of optics and lenses which are important as high energy (multi-kW) laser components, including fused silica windows and lenses, YAG crystals and ceramics and spinel ceramics. Very low reflection losses as well as high laser damage thresholds have been measured for optics with ARSS. Progress to scale up the process for large size windows will also be presented..

  10. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.


    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting, antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation.

  11. Mathematical model of an optically pumped molecular laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR


    Full Text Available µm laser ring oscillator & pre-amplifier 1.9 µm Optically Pumped Molecular laser @ 4 µm 95:5 HBr Absorption cell Fast detector 2.064 µm ± 1 nm Feedback control box Feedback loop 1 P ie zo m o u nt Fast detector Feedback loop 2 Gas...

  12. Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parametric study of optical emission from two successive laser pulses produced chromium and magnesium plasma is presented. The line emission from chromium and magnesium plasma showed an increase by more than six times for double laser pulse excitation than for single-pulse excitation. An optimum increase in ...

  13. Optical Waveguide Structures for CO(2) Lasers. (United States)

    Cheo, P K; Berak, J M; Oshinsky, W; Swindal, J L


    Thin-film waveguide structures consisting of epitaxially grown low-carrier-concentration GaAs and having two distinct index profiles have been investigated with a 10.6-microm C0(2) laser. Results of Schottky barrier and Hall measurements show that the carrier concentration of some of these films is less than 10(12) cm(-3), and the resistivity can be as high as 1.4 x 10(5) ?-cm. Guided-wave modes were excited by means of a germanium prism or phase grating coupler. When the index difference Deltan between the undoped film and the substrate is approximately 0.3 (strong guide), a number of modes can be obtained with a typical angular full width at half maximum intensity Delta(theta) (1/2) of coupler with a typical Deltatheta((1/2)) of approximately degrees . Measurements were also made of the transmission and cutoff characteristics of the TE and TM modes in weak guides as a function of the guide thickness that varied between 20 micro and 50 micro Results indicate that optical transmission decreases rapidly as the thickness of the weak guide decreases toward the cutoff value.

  14. Optically Pumped Subwavelength Lasers Operated at Room Temperature (United States)


    laser with a tunable emission wavelength. The semiconductor nanoring laser is suitable for the optical interconnect application because it possesses...focal-length monochrometer and detected by a cooled InGaAs photodetector. Results of the measurement are shown in Fig. 2. Progression of a lasing...emission into competing Fabry-Perot (FP) modes in the microdisk cavity. We propose a new type of photonic crystal microdisk ( PCM ) laser to

  15. Optical properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) during nanosecond laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, N.E., E-mail: [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Boul., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasov, P.A.; Nikov, Ru.G.; Nikov, R.G.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Stoyanchov, T.R. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Boul., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Fukata, N. [International Center for Materials for NanoArchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Kolev, K.N.; Valova, E.I.; Georgieva, J.S.; Armyanov, St.A. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)


    Highlights: • Ns-laser (266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) processing of medical grade PDMS is performed. • Investigation of the optical transmittance as a function of the laser beam parameters. • Analyses of laser treated area by optical & laser microscope and μ-Raman spectrometry. • Application as (MEAs) neural interface for monitor and stimulation of neural activity. - Abstract: This article presents experimental investigations of effects of the process parameters on the medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer processed by laser source with irradiation at UV (266 and 355 nm), VIS (532 nm) and NIR (1064 nm). Systematic experiments are done to characterize how the laser beam parameters (wavelength, fluence, and number of pulses) affect the optical properties and the chemical composition in the laser treated areas. Remarkable changes of the optical properties and the chemical composition are observed. Despite the low optical absorption of the native PDMS for UV, VIS and NIR wavelengths, successful laser treatment is accomplished due to the incubation process occurring below the polymer surface. With increasing of the fluence and the number of the pulses chemical transformations are revealed in the entire laser treated area and hence decreasing of the optical transmittance is observed. The incubation gets saturation after a certain number of pulses and the laser ablation of the material begins efficiently. At the UV and VIS wavelengths the number of the initial pulses, at which the optical transmittance begins to reduce, decreases from 16 up to 8 with increasing of the laser fluence up to 1.0, 2.5 and 10 J cm{sup −2} for 266, 355 and 532 nm, respectively. In the case of 1064 nm the optical transmittance begins to reduce at 11th pulse incident at a fluence of 13 J cm{sup −2} and the number of the pulses decreases to 8 when the fluence reaches value of 16 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold laser fluence needed to induce incubation process after certain

  16. Laser optical equipment; Le Ottiche per i laser: un mercato difficile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliani, G.


    The Italian laser optics market is currently experiencing difficulties in providing a satisfactory response to demand by national industry and research institutes for unconventional laser optical equipment, e.g., high reflectance metallic mirrors for CO/sub 2/ lasers, and optics for laser cavities. This paper analyzes the underlying reasons for this situation, examines the industry`s requirements for improved products (e.g., greater flexibility on the part of equipment designers, designer skills up-grading, advanced materials research, new laboratories, etc.), offers some suggestions with regard to R&D investment planning in this sector, and outlines the role to be played by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in laser optics equipment commercialization.

  17. Novel adaptive fiber-optics collimator for coherent beam combination. (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Pengfei; Ma, Yanxing; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei


    In this manuscript, we experimentally validate a novel design of adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC), which utilizes two levers to enlarge the movable range of the fiber end cap. The enlargement of the range makes the new AFOC possible to compensate the end-cap/tilt aberration in fiber laser beam combining system. The new AFOC based on flexible hinges and levers was fabricated and the performance of the new AFOC was tested carefully, including its control range, frequency response and control accuracy. Coherent beam combination (CBC) of two 5-W fiber amplifiers array with simultaneously end-cap/tilt control and phase-locking control was implemented successfully with the novel AFOC. Experimental results show that the average normalized power in the bucket (PIB) value increases from 0.311 to 0.934 with active phasing and tilt aberration compensation simultaneously, and with both controls on, the fringe contrast improves to more than 82% from 0% for the case with both control off. This work presents a promising structure for tilt aberration control in high power CBC system.

  18. A Status Report on the Thirty Meter Telescope Adaptive Optics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adaptive Optics Program. B. L. Ellerbroek. TMT Observatory Corporation, 1111 S. Arroyo Pkwy., Ste. 200, Pasadena, CA 91107, USA. e-mail: Received 15 March 2013; accepted 24 May 2013. Abstract. We provide an update on the recent development of the adap- tive optics (AO) systems for the Thirty ...

  19. Adaptive Forward Error Correction for Energy Efficient Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert


    In this paper we propose a novel scheme for on the fly code rate adjustment for forward error correcting (FEC) codes on optical links. The proposed scheme makes it possible to adjust the code rate independently for each optical frame. This allows for seamless rate adaption based on the link state...

  20. Electro-Optic Tunable Laser Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop a compact, rugged, rapidly and widely tunable laser based on a quantum cascade diode laser at...

  1. Optical physics: Clear directions for random lasers (United States)

    Wiersma, Diederik S.


    Random lasers use disordered structures to produce light, which is usually emitted in many directions. A random laser that can produce a collimated beam offers a wide range of applications, from imaging to security scanning.

  2. Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Sang [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications.

  3. Research and Analysis Laser Target Optics Characteristics and Signal Recognition Processing in Detection Screen System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanshan Li; Yanran Li


      In order to improve the measurement accuracy of the laser measurement distance system, this paper studies the laser target optics characteristics based on the laser detection principle in the laser...

  4. Characterization of the Los Alamos IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser using multiple optical paths and laser focusing optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, John O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bernal, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Fiber laser technology has been identified as the replacement power source for the existing Los Alamos TA-55 production laser welding system. An IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser was purchased, installed at SM-66 R3, and accepted in February 2008. No characterization of the laser and no welding was performed in the Feb 2008 to May 2009 interval. T. Lienert and J. Bernal (Ref. 1, July 2009) determined the existing 200 mm Rofin collimator and focus heads used with the Rofin diode pumped lasers were inadequate for use with the IPG laser due to clipping of the IPG laser beam. Further efforts in testing of the IPG laser with Optoskand fiber delivery optics and a Rofin 120 mm collimator proved problematic due to optical fiber damage. As a result, IPG design optical fibers were purchased as replacements for subsequent testing. Within the same interval, an IPG fiber-to-fiber (F2F) connector, custom built for LANL, (J. Milewski, S. Gravener, Ref.2) was demonstrated and accepted at IPG Oxford, MA in August 2009. An IPG service person was contracted to come to LANL to assist in the installation, training, troubleshooting and characterization of the multiple beam paths and help perform laser head optics characterization. The statement of work is provided below: In summary the laser system, optical fibers, F2F connector, Precitec head, and a modified Rofin type (w/120mm Optoskand collimator) IWindowIBoot system focus head (Figure 1) were shown to perform well at powers up to 6 kW CW. Power measurements, laser spot size measurements, and other characterization data and lessons learned are contained within this report. In addition, a number of issues were identified that will require future resolution.

  5. Skin optical clearing for improvement of laser tattoo removal (United States)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.


    The possibility of improvement of laser tattoo removal due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that previously perforation of skin stratum corneum allows increasing tattoo image contrast at topical administration of immersion agent in contrast with non-perforated skin. Computer Monte Carlo simulation shows that at the optical clearing of upper skin layers the tattoo image contrast and the photon fraction absorbed in the tattoo area at the depths of 0.5 or 1.0 mm increase, that allows significant decreasing of the power of laser radiation used at laser thermolysis.

  6. Virtual Mie particle model of laser damage to optical elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Hirata


    Full Text Available In recent years, devices being developed for application systems have used laser beams that have high average power, high peak power, short pulse width, and short wavelength. Therefore, optical elements using such application systems require a high laser damage threshold. The laser damage threshold is provided by International Organization for Standardization 11254 (ISO11254. One of the measurement methods of the laser damage threshold provided by ISO11254 is an online method to measure the intensity of light scattering due to a laser damage trace. In this paper, we propose a measurement method for the laser damage threshold that realizes high sensitivity and high accuracy by using polarized light and lock-in detection. Since the scattering light with laser damage is modeled on the asperity of the optical element-surface as Mie particles (virtual Mie particles, we consider the intensity change of scattering light as a change in the radius of a virtual Mie particle. To evaluate this model, the laser damage trace on the optical element-surface was observed by an atomic force microscopy (AFM. Based on the observed AFM image, we analyzed the frequency domain by the Fourier transform, and estimated the dominant virtual Mie particle radius in the AFM measurement area. In addition, we measured the laser damage threshold. The light source was the fifth generation of a Nd:YAG laser (λ =213nm. The specifications of the laser were: repetition frequency 10Hz, pulse width 4ns, linear type polarization, laser pulse energy 4mJ, and laser transverse mode TEM00. The laser specifications were a repetition frequency, pulse width, pulse energy and beam diameter of 10Hz, 4ns, 4mJ and 13mm, respectively. The laser damage thresholds of an aluminum coated mirror and a dielectric multi-layer mirror designed at a wavelength of 213nm as measured by this method were 0.684 J/cm2 and 0.998J/cm2, respectively. These laser damage thresholds were 1/4 the laser damage

  7. Optical bistability via an external control laser in an erbium-doped-fiber laser (United States)

    Ge, Qiang; Li, Shili; Wang, Zhiping; Zhen, Shenglai; Martín, Juan Carlos; Yu, Benli


    We demonstrate a new scheme for realizing the Optical Bistability (OB) in an erbium-doped-fiber laser with an external control laser. It is found that the OB can be significantly modified by changing the power and the wavelength of the control laser. We give an explanation of the bistability phenomenon based on numerical simulations, which are agreed very well with our experimental results. Our scheme provides a guideline for optimizing and controlling the OB in an erbium-doped-fiber laser, which might be useful for optical communications.

  8. A microring multimode laser using hollow polymer optical fibre

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 75; Issue 5. A microring ... Keywords. Dye-doped optical fibre; fibre laser; microcavity; whispering gallery mode. ... Cylindrical microcavities with diameters 155, 340 and 615 m were fabricated from a dye-doped hollow polymer optical fibre preform. An average mode ...


    Roberts, Philipp K; Nesper, Peter L; Onishi, Alex C; Skondra, Dimitra; Jampol, Lee M; Fawzi, Amani A


    To characterize lesions of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) by multimodal imaging including adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). We included patients with APMPPE at different stages of evolution of the placoid lesions. Color fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, and AOSLO images were obtained and registered to correlate microstructural changes. Eight eyes of four patients (two women) were included and analyzed by multimodal imaging. Photoreceptor reflectivity within APMPPE lesions was more heterogeneous than in adjacent healthy areas. Hyperpigmentation on color fundus photography appeared hyperreflective on infrared reflectance and on AOSLO. Irregularity of the interdigitation zone and the photoreceptor inner and outer segment junctions (IS/OS) on spectral domain optical coherence tomography was associated with photoreceptor hyporeflectivity on AOSLO. Interruption of the interdigitation zone or IS/OS was associated with loss of photoreceptor reflectivity on AOSLO. Irregularities in the reflectivity of the photoreceptor mosaic are visible on AOSLO even in inactive APMPPE lesions, where the photoreceptor bands on spectral domain optical coherence tomography have recovered. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy combined with multimodal imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of photoreceptor involvement in APMPPE.

  10. Adaptive Volterra equalizer for optical OFDM modem (United States)

    Mhatli, Sofien; Nsiri, Bechir; Jarajreh, Mutsam A.; Channoufi, Malek; Attia, Rabah


    This paper addresses OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) transmission over optical links with high spectral efficiency, i.e. by using high-order QAM-modulation schemes as a mapping method prior to the OFDM multicarrier representation. Here we address especially coherent optical OFDM modem in long distance which is affected by a nonlinear distortion caused by fiber nonlinearity as a major performance-limiting factor in advanced optical communication systems. We proposed a nonlinear electrical equalization scheme based on the Volterra model. Compared with other popular linear compensation technique such as the LMS (least Mean Square) and RLS (Recursive Least square), simulation results are presented to demonstrate the capability of a Volterra model based electrical equalizer used in a coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system. It is shown that the Volterra model based equalizer can significantly reduce nonlinear distortion.

  11. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, A.


    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  12. Amplitude variations on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J; Thomas, S; Dillon, D; Gavel, D; Phillion, D; Macintosh, B


    High-contrast adaptive optics systems, such as those needed to image extrasolar planets, are known to require excellent wavefront control and diffraction suppression. At the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics on the Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed, we have already demonstrated wavefront control of better than 1 nm rms within controllable spatial frequencies. Corresponding contrast measurements, however, are limited by amplitude variations, including those introduced by the micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror. Results from experimental measurements and wave optic simulations of amplitude variations on the ExAO testbed are presented. We find systematic intensity variations of about 2% rms, and intensity variations with the MEMS to be 6%. Some errors are introduced by phase and amplitude mixing because the MEMS is not conjugate to the pupil, but independent measurements of MEMS reflectivity suggest that some error is introduced by small non-uniformities in the reflectivity.

  13. Optical response in a laser-driven quantum pseudodot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, D. Gul [Physics Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S., E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U. [Department of Optical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Kasapoglu, E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sari, H. [Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sokmen, I. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey)


    We investigate theoretically the intense laser-induced optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a two-dimensional quantum pseudodot system under an uniform magnetic field. The effects of non-resonant, monochromatic intense laser field upon the system are treated within the framework of high-frequency Floquet approach in which the system is supposed to be governed by a laser-dressed potential. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients and relative changes in the refractive index are obtained by means of the compact-density matrix approach and iterative method. The results of numerical calculations for a typical GaAs quantum dot reveal that the optical response depends strongly on the magnitude of external magnetic field and characteristic parameters of the confinement potential. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the intense laser field modifies the confinement and thereby causes remarkable changes in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the system.

  14. Mode profiling of optical fibers at high laser powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Pedersen, David Bue; Simonsen, R.B.


    is obtained. Choosing a highly reflective rod material and a sufficiently high rotation speed, these measurements can be done with high laser powers, without any additional optical elements between the fiber and analyzer. The performance of the analyzer was evaluated by coupling laser light into different......This paper describes the development of a measuring equipment capable of analysing the beam profile at high optical powers emitted by delivery fibers used in manufacturing processes. Together with the optical delivery system, the output beam quality from the delivery fiber and the shape...... of the focused spot can be determined. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating wire being swept though the laser beam, while the reflected signal is recorded [1]. By changing the incident angle of the rotating rod from 0° to 360° in relation to the fiber, the full profile of the laser beam...

  15. Laser Brazing metallic embedding technique for fiber optic sensors (United States)

    Grandal, Tania; Fraga, Sergio; Castro, Gemma; Vazquez, Esteban; Zornoza, Ander


    In this paper a fiber optic metallic embedding technique is presented based on laser Brazing manufacturing process. The embedding strategy to follow by the laser Brazing, which consists in three steps, minimizes the thermal stress of the embedded fiber, relaxes microbending strains and reduces damage on the fiber. The minimum embedded fiber optic Ni coating total diameter is 237 μm for a successful process with negligible optical loss on the fiber. Fiber Bragg Gratings were successfully embedded in metallic specimens and their strain response was in accordance with their specifications.

  16. Quantum confined laser devices optical gain and recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Blood, Peter


    The semiconductor laser, invented over 50 years ago, has had an enormous impact on the digital technologies that now dominate so many applications in business, commerce and the home. The laser is used in all types of optical fibre communication networks that enable the operation of the internet, e-mail, voice and skype transmission. Approximately one billion are produced each year for a market valued at around $5 billion. Nearly all semiconductor lasers now use extremely thin layers of light emitting materials (quantum well lasers). Increasingly smaller nanostructures are used in the form of quantum dots. The impact of the semiconductor laser is surprising in the light of the complexity of the physical processes that determine the operation of every device. This text takes the reader from the fundamental optical gain and carrier recombination processes in quantum wells and quantum dots, through descriptions of common device structures to an understanding of their operating characteristics. It has a consistent...

  17. Optic pit maculopathy after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Coleman, Hanna; Schiff, William M; Hwang, John C; Speaker, Mark G


    Optic disc pit is an embryological malformation of the optic nerve that occurs in less than one in 10,000 people. It is 10%-15% bilateral, and 25% to 70% of patients develop a neurosensory macular detachment within the 2nd to 4th decade. We report a case of unilateral optic disc pit maculopathy 2 months after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) revision.

  18. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Microwave generation in an optical breakdown plasma created by modulated laser radiation (United States)

    Antipov, A. A.; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z.; Losev, Leonid L.; Soskov, V. I.


    It was established that when laser radiation, intensity modulated at a frequency of 2.2 GHz, interacted with an optical breakdown plasma which it had created, a microwave component appeared in the thermal emf of the plasma. The amplitude of the microwave thermal emf reached 0.7 V for a laser radiation intensity of 6 GW/cm2. Laser radiation with λL = 1.06 μm was converted to the microwave range with λmω = 13 cm in the optical breakdown plasma. A microwave signal power of ~ 0.5 W was obtained from a laser power of ~ 5 MW.

  19. Thulium-doped optical fibers for fiber lasers (United States)

    Kamrádek, M.; Aubrecht, J.; Peterka, P.; Podrazký, O.; Honzátko, P.; Cajzl, J.; Mrázek, J.; Kubeček, V.; Kašík, I.


    We present preparation and characterization of thulium-doped silica-based optical fibers for fiber lasers. The fibers were prepared by modified chemical vapor deposition process and doped with alumina and thulium ions. Alumina co-doping was achieved through two different methods - solution doping and nanoparticle doping method. Prepared preforms were characterized in terms of refractive index profiles and dopants distribution. For the drawn fibers, their spectral attenuation, fluorescence lifetime and laser performance were measured. In the case of nanoparticle doping, better laser characteristics were observed. Discussion and explanation of the trends for laser efficiency improvement is given.

  20. Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers. (United States)

    Shelton, R K; Ma, L S; Kapteyn, H C; Murnane, M M; Hall, J L; Ye, J


    We generated a coherently synthesized optical pulse from two independent mode-locked femtosecond lasers, providing a route to extend the coherent bandwidth available for ultrafast science. The two separate lasers (one centered at 760 nanometers wavelength, the other at 810 nanometers) are tightly synchronized and phase-locked. Coherence between the two lasers is demonstrated via spectral interferometry and second-order field cross-correlation. Measurements reveal a coherently synthesized pulse that has a temporally narrower second-order autocorrelation width and that exhibits a larger amplitude than the individual laser outputs. This work represents a new and flexible approach to the synthesis of coherent light.

  1. Towards multiple quantum well optically pumped far infrared lasers


    Tan, H.A.


    Optically pumped lasers based on GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) structures are a potential coherent source in the far infrared (FIR) wavelengths. The FIR (~ 30 to 300 µm) is a region within the electromagnetic spectrum that has seen relatively little development. No practical solid-state lasers have been possible in the FIR, which is also referred to as the terahertz (THz) wave, until the very recent demonstration of THz quantum cascade lasers. Other existing FIR lasers are either bu...

  2. A three-photon microscope with adaptive optics for deep-tissue in vivo structural and functional brain imaging (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Lu, Ju; Lam, Tuwin; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Zuo, Yi; Kubby, Joel


    We developed a three-photon adaptive optics add-on to a commercial two-photon laser scanning microscope. We demonstrated its capability for structural and functional imaging of neurons labeled with genetically encoded red fluorescent proteins or calcium indicators deep in the living mouse brain with cellular and subcellular resolution.

  3. Laser guide stars for optical free-space communications (United States)

    Mata-Calvo, Ramon; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Barrios, Ricardo; Centrone, Mauro; Giggenbach, Dirk; Lombardi, Gianluca; Becker, Peter; Zayer, Igor


    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) performed a measurement campaign together in April and July 2016 at Teide-Observatory (Tenerife), with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), to investigate the use of laser guide stars (LGS) in ground to space optical communications. Atmospheric turbulence causes strong signal fluctuations in the uplink, due to scintillation and beam wander. In space communications, the use of the downlink channel as reference for pointing and for pre-distortion adaptive optics is limited by the size of the isokinetic and isoplanatic angle in relation to the required point-ahead angle. Pointing and phase errors due to the decorrelation between downward and upward beam due to the point-ahead angle may have a severe impact on the required transmit power and the stability of the communications link. LGSs provide a self-tailored reference to any optical ground-to-space link, independently of turbulence conditions and required point-ahead angle. In photon-starved links, typically in deep-space scenarios, LGSs allow dedicating all downlink received signal to communications purposes, increasing the available link margin. The scope of the joint DLR-ESO measurement campaign was, first, to measure the absolute value of the beam wander (uplink-tilt) using a LGS, taking a natural star as a reference, and, second, to characterize the decrease of correlation between uplink-tilt and downlink-tilt with respect to the angular separation between both sources. This paper describes the experiments performed during the measurement campaigns, providing an overview of the measured data and the first outcomes of the data post-processing.

  4. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems (United States)

    Downie, John D.


    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  5. Improved optical planar waveguides for lasers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate efficacy of a novel growth technique for planar waveguides (PWG) Enable PWG laser technology with improved performance, efficiency and manufacturability....

  6. Adaptive optical beam shaping for compensating projection-induced focus deformation (United States)

    Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter


    Scanner-based applications are already widely used for the processing of surfaces, as they allow for highly dynamic deflection of the laser beam. Particularly, the processing of three-dimensional surfaces with laser radiation initiates the development of highly innovative manufacturing techniques. Unfortunately, the focused laser beam suffers from deformation caused by the involved projection mechanisms. The degree of deformation is field variant and depends on both the surface geometry and the working position of the laser beam. Depending on the process sensitivity, the deformation affects the process quality, which motivates a method of compensation. Current approaches are based on a local adaption of the laser power to maintain constant intensity within the interaction zone. For advanced manufacturing, this approach is insufficient, as the residual deformation of the initial circular laser spot is not taken into account. In this paper, an alternative approach is discussed. Additional beam-shaping devices are integrated between the laser source and the scanner, and allow for an in situ compensation to ensure a field-invariant circular focus spot within the interaction zone. Beyond the optical design, the approach is challenging with respect to the control theory's point of view, as both the beam deflection and the compensation have to be synchronized.

  7. Silver nanoprisms/silicone hybrid rubber materials and their optical limiting property to femtosecond laser (United States)

    Li, Chunfang; Liu, Miao; Jiang, Nengkai; Wang, Chunlei; Lin, Weihong; Li, Dongxiang


    Optical limiters against femtosecond laser are essential for eye and sensor protection in optical processing system with femtosecond laser as light source. Anisotropic Ag nanoparticles are expected to develop into optical limiting materials for femtosecond laser pulses. Herein, silver nanoprisms are prepared and coated by silica layer, which are then doped into silicone rubber to obtain hybrid rubber sheets. The silver nanoprisms/silicone hybrid rubber sheets exhibit good optical limiting property to femtosecond laser mainly due to nonlinear optical absorption.

  8. Analysis of laser-induced heating in optical neuronal guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Christian L.; Bruus, Henrik


    Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to control the growth direction of neuronal growth cones by stimulation with weak laser light; an effect dubbed optical neuronal guidance. The effect exists for a broad range of laser wavelengths, spot sizes, spot intensities, optical intensity...... of the guided neuron have been neglected in the optical neuronal guidance literature. The results of our finite-element-method simulations show the relevance of the temperature field in optical guidance experiments and are consistent with published experimental results and modeling in the field of optical traps....... Furthermore, we propose two experiments designed to test this hypotheses experimentally. For one of these experiments, we have designed a microfluidic platform, to be made using standard microfabrication techniques, for incubation of neurons in temperature gradients on micrometer lengthscales....

  9. Very Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Community Days Report on the ESO Workshop (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Kasper, M.; Kuntschner, H.


    The future of adaptive optics (AO) instruments at the VLT was discussed during a two-day workshop. Three major directions emerged from these discussions: adaptive optics in the optical; multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO); and extreme adaptive optics (XAO). The science cases for these three options were presented and the discussions are summarised. ESO is now planning to provide detailed science cases for an optical AO system and to prepare upgrade plans for XAO and MOAO.

  10. Extragalactic Fields Optimized for Adaptive Optics (United States)


    Universidade do Porto. Rua"das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal. S Canada-Prance-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, 65-1238 Mamalahoa High- way, Kamuela, HI...poses it suffices to note that MCAO’s purpose is to deliver high image quality over a wider area than conventional adaptive op- tics systems, and it does

  11. Optimization-based adaptive optics for optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, H.R.G.W.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique for non-invasive imaging based on low coherence interferometry. Its main application is found in ophthalmology, where it is used for 3D in vivo imaging of the cornea and the retina. OCT has evolved over the past decade as one of the most important

  12. Noninvasive optical control of complex semiconductor laser dynamics (United States)

    Dahms, T.; Flunkert, V.; Henneberger, F.; Hövel, P.; Schikora, S.; Schöll, E.; Wünsche, H.-J.


    Time-delayed feedback control (TDFC) is transferred to the optical domain and applied to complex multisection semiconductor lasers as used in optical communication. Pyragas-type control is provided by purely optical feedback from an external Fabry-Pérot interferometer. This all-optical setup needs no time-consuming signal processing and, thus, has practically no speed limit. Proof-of-principle experiments demonstrate noninvasive stabilization of unstable steady states, chaos control, and suppression of noise-induced oscillations on picosecond time scales. A Lang-Kobayashi type model with optical TDFC is investigated taking into account the dynamic details of the device as well as all-optical time-delayed feedback. The parameter regimes that allow for stabilization of stationary emission are mapped out in good agreement with the experiments. Including noise, an analytical expression for the power spectral density is derived, which is confirmed by the experimental all-optical suppression of noise-induced relaxation oscillations.

  13. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe


    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. PMID:23271600

  14. Advances in optical materials for large aperture lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokowski, S.E.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Marchi, F.T.; Swain, J.E.; Wallerstein, E.P.; Wirtenson, G.R.


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is using large aperture Nd: glass lasers to investigate the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion. In our experiments high power laser light is focussed onto a small (100 to 500 micron) target containing a deuterium-tritium fuel mixture. During the short (1 to 5 ns) laser pulse the fuel is compressed and heated, resulting in fusion reactions. The generation and control of the powerful laser pulses for these experiments is a challenging scientific and engineering task, which requires the development of new optical materials, fabrication techniques, and coatings. LLNL with the considerable cooperation and support from the optical industry, where most of the research and development and almost all the manufacturing is done, has successfully applied several new developments in these areas.

  15. Improve power conversion efficiency of slab coupled optical waveguide lasers. (United States)

    Fan, Jiahua; Zhu, Lin; Dogan, Mehmet; Jacob, Jonah


    The slab coupled optical waveguide laser (SCOWL) is a promising candidate for high power, single mode emitter for a number of reasons, including its near diffraction limited optical quality, large modal size and near circular output pattern. Current SCOWL designs have limited electrical-optical power conversion efficiency (PCE) around 40%, which is lower than conventional RWG laser and broad area laser that are known to have much higher PCEs. To improve the SCOWL PCE, we theoretically optimize its structure by reducing Al content, increasing doping concentration and introducing a GRIN layer to prevent carrier leakage. Numerical simulations predict that an optimized SCOWL design has a maximum PCE of about 57% at room temperature.

  16. Frequency based design of modal controllers for adaptive optics systems. (United States)

    Agapito, Guido; Battistelli, Giorgio; Mari, Daniele; Selvi, Daniela; Tesi, Alberto; Tesi, Pietro


    This paper addresses the problem of reducing the effects of wavefront distortions in ground-based telescopes within a "Modal-Control" framework. The proposed approach allows the designer to optimize the Youla parameter of a given modal controller with respect to a relevant adaptive optics performance criterion defined on a "sampled" frequency domain. This feature makes it possible to use turbulence/vibration profiles of arbitrary complexity (even empirical power spectral densities from data), while keeping the controller order at a moderate value. Effectiveness of the proposed solution is also illustrated through an adaptive optics numerical simulator.

  17. Adaptive optics simulation performance improvements using reconfigurable logic. (United States)

    Basden, Alastair


    A technique used to accelerate an adaptive optics simulation platform using reconfigurable logic is described. The performance of parts of this simulation has been improved by up to 600 times (reducing computation times by this factor) by implementing algorithms within hardware and enables adaptive optics simulations to be carried out in a reasonable time scale. This demonstrates that it is possible to use reconfigurable logic to accelerate computational codes by very large factors when compared with conventional software approaches, and this has relevance for many computationally intensive applications. The use of reconfigurable logic for high performance computing is currently in its infancy and has never before been applied to this field.

  18. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics. (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K


    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  19. Characterization and Operation of Liquid Crystal Adaptive Optics Phoropter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A; Bauman, B; Gavel, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Hardy, J L; Barnes, T; Werner, J S


    Adaptive optics (AO), a mature technology developed for astronomy to compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence, can also be used to correct the aberrations of the eye. The classic phoropter is used by ophthalmologists and optometrists to estimate and correct the lower-order aberrations of the eye, defocus and astigmatism, in order to derive a vision correction prescription for their patients. An adaptive optics phoropter measures and corrects the aberrations in the human eye using adaptive optics techniques, which are capable of dealing with both the standard low-order aberrations and higher-order aberrations, including coma and spherical aberration. High-order aberrations have been shown to degrade visual performance for clinical subjects in initial investigations. An adaptive optics phoropter has been designed and constructed based on a Shack-Hartmann sensor to measure the aberrations of the eye, and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to compensate for them. This system should produce near diffraction-limited optical image quality at the retina, which will enable investigation of the psychophysical limits of human vision. This paper describes the characterization and operation of the AO phoropter with results from human subject testing.

  20. Adaptive optical microscope for brain imaging in vivo (United States)

    Wang, Kai


    The optical heterogeneity of biological tissue imposes a major limitation to acquire detailed structural and functional information deep in the biological specimens using conventional microscopes. To restore optimal imaging performance, we developed an adaptive optical microscope based on direct wavefront sensing technique. This microscope can reliably measure and correct biological samples induced aberration. We demonstrated its performance and application in structural and functional brain imaging in various animal models, including fruit fly, zebrafish and mouse.

  1. Surface Plasmon Wave Adapter Designed with Transformation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Wubs, Martijn


    On the basis of transformation optics, we propose the design of a surface plasmon wave adapter which confines surface plasmon waves on non-uniform metal surfaces and enables adiabatic mode transformation of surface plasmon polaritons with very short tapers. This adapter can be simply achieved...... with homogeneous anisotropic naturally occurring materials or subwavelength grating-structured dielectric materials. Full wave simulations based on a finite-element method have been performed to validate our proposal....

  2. Synchronization of laser oscillators, associative memory, and optical neurocomputing (United States)

    Hoppensteadt; Izhikevich


    We investigate here possible neurocomputational features of networks of laser oscillators. Our approach is similar to classical optical neurocomputing where artificial neurons are lasers and connection matrices are holographic media. However, we consider oscillatory neurons communicating via phases rather than amplitudes. Memorized patterns correspond to synchronized states where the neurons oscillate with equal frequencies and with prescribed phase relations. The mechanism of recognition is related to phase locking.

  3. Generalized Synchronization in Laser Devices with Electro-Optical Feedback


    Shahverdiev, E. M.; Shore, K. A.


    We report on partial and global generalized synchronization in exemplar bidirectionally coupled non-identical chaotic systems with multiple time delays. We derive conditions for such synchronization regimes. The general approach is applied to the case of multiple time delay laser systems with electro-optical feedback. We also study the effect of signal sampling on the signatures of time delays in the autocorrelation function of the multiple time delay laser output.

  4. Skin optical clearing for improvement of laser tattoo removal (United States)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Gavrilova, Anna A.; Pravdin, Alexander B.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.


    The removal of tattoo pigments by laser energy is effected through a process of selective photothermolysis. Dehydration and optical immersion based on refractive index matching of scattering centers with that of surrounding matter through introduction of an exogenous index-matching agent can improve laser tattoo removal by providing increased efficiency of laser delivery to embedded ink particles and enabling the use of shorter wavelength visible lasers more effective on certain inks. Effectiveness of a method of accelerating penetration of the index-matching compounds by enhancing skin permeability through creating a lattice of micro-zones of limited thermal damage in the stratum corneum was studied. As optical clearing agents 100% and 88%-aqueous glycerol solutions were used. The effect of stratum corneum perforation on the rate of the immersion clearing of skin was studied. Dynamics of refractive index alteration of glycerol solution during its interaction with skin samples was monitored. Improvement of tattoo visualization was observed. The results of the experiments have shown that the lattice of island damage method the is effective for transepidermal delivery of optical clearing agents and could be used successfully in in vivo conditions for the enhancement of optical clearing of treated skin area and as enabling improvement of laser tattoo removal.

  5. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 6th ASTM Symposium. (United States)

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H


    The Sixth ASTM-ONR-NBS Symposium on Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado on 22-23 May 1974. Over 150 attendees at the Symposium heard thirty-one papers on topics relating to laser induced damage in crystalline and nonlinear optical materials, at dielectric surfaces, and in thin film coatings as well as discussions of damage problems in the ir region due both to cw and pulsed irradiation. In addition, several reports on the theoretical analysis of laser-materials interaction relative to the damage progress were given, along with tabulations of fundamental materials properties of importance in evaluation of optical material response to high-power laser radiation. Attention was given to high-power laser system design considerations that relate to improved system performance and reliability when various damage mechanisms are operable in such systems. A workshop on the machining of optics was held, and nine papers on various facets of the topic were presented dealing with machining procedures, surface characterization of machined elements, coating of machined components, and the polishing and damage resistance of polished, coated, and bare metal reflectors.

  6. Solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics based on high order ground layer adaptive optics and low order high altitude correction. (United States)

    Zhang, Lanqiang; Guo, Youming; Rao, Changhui


    Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) is the most promising technique currently developed to enlarge the corrected field of view of adaptive optics for astronomy. In this paper, we propose a new configuration of solar MCAO based on high order ground layer adaptive optics and low order high altitude correction, which result in a homogeneous correction effect in the whole field of view. An individual high order multiple direction Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is employed in the configuration to detect the ground layer turbulence for low altitude correction. Furthermore, the other low order multiple direction Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor supplies the wavefront information caused by high layers' turbulence through atmospheric tomography for high altitude correction. Simulation results based on the system design at the 1-meter New Vacuum Solar Telescope show that the correction uniform of the new scheme is obviously improved compared to conventional solar MCAO configuration.

  7. Adaptive ultrasonic sensor using a fiber ring laser with tandem fiber Bragg gratings. (United States)

    Liu, Tongqing; Hu, Lingling; Han, Ming


    We propose and demonstrate an intensity-demodulated fiber-optic ultrasonic sensor system that can be self-adaptive to large quasi-static background strain perturbations. The sensor system is based on a fiber ring laser (FRL) whose laser cavity includes a pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). Self-adaptive ultrasonic detection is achieved by a tandem design where the two FBGs are engineered to have differential spectral responses to ultrasonic waves and are installed side-by-side at the same location on a structure. As a result, ultrasonic waves lead to relative spectral shifts of the FBGs and modulations to the cold-cavity loss of the FRL. Ultrasonic waves can then be detected directly from the laser intensity variations in response to the cold-cavity loss modulation. The sensor system is insensitive to quasi-static background strains because they lead to identical responses of the tandem FBGs. Based on the principle, a FRL sensor system was demonstrated and tested for adaptive ultrasonic detection when large static strains as well as dynamic sinusoidal vibrations were applied to the sensor.

  8. Sensitivity of synthetic aperture laser optical feedback imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Glastre, Wilfried; Jacquin, Olivier; Hugon, Olivier; De Chatellus, Hugues Guillet


    In this paper we compare the sensitivity of two imaging configurations both based on Laser Optical Feedback Imaging (LOFI). The first one is direct imaging, which uses conventional optical focalisation on target and the second one is made by Synthetic Aperture (SA) Laser, which uses numerical focalisation. We show that SA configuration allows to obtain good resolutions with high working distance and that the drawback of SA imagery is that it has a worse photometric balance in comparison to conventional microscope. This drawback is partially compensated by the important sensitivity of LOFI. Another interest of SA relies on the capacity of getting a 3D information in a single x-y scan.

  9. Colliding laser produced plasmas as novel sources: Optical diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, P; McLoughlin, C; Kelly, T J; Hayden, P; Mosnier, J P; Costello, J T [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Harilal, S, E-mail: [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 40707 (United States)


    We have developed a new laboratory facility to investigate and explore the potential applications of colliding laser produced plasmas. Specifically we have employed optical diagnostics such as laser interferometry, spectrally resolved fast photography and optical emission spectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of the collisions between electrons, atoms and ions. Very different collisional behaviors are observed for the different plasma constituents. We present first results on work aimed at exploiting the stagnation layer created at the collision front between the two plasmas as a new optimised source of nano-particles/clusters. A substantial increase in nano-particle deposition is observed with the presence of the stagnation layer.

  10. Optical monitoring of the chorioretinal status during retinal laser thermotherapy (United States)

    Rovati, Luigi; Zambelli, Nicola; Cattini, Stefano; Viola, Francesco; Staurenghi, Giovanni


    As a consequence of pigmentation inhomogeneities and/or different vascularizations of the retinal tissue, retinal laser thermo-treatments are often over- or under-exposed. Our study is focused on the determination of suitable parameters to identify a convenient end-point of the laser treatment. The proposed method is based on the analysis of the temporal fluctuations of the scattered light intensity from the spot area. Motion of molecules and thus frequency of the scattered light fluctuations changes during the laser exposure due to variations of temperature, blood flow and optical parameters, i.e. absorption and scattering coefficient.

  11. Medical Applications Of CO2 Laser Fiber Optics (United States)

    McCord, R. C.


    In 1978, Hughes Laboratories reported development of fiber optics that were capable of transmitting CO2 laser energy. These fibers are now being tested for medical applications. Wide ranging medical investigation with CO2 lasers has occurred during the twelve years since the first observations of laser hemostasis. Specialists in ophthalmology, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, otolaryngology, maxillo-facial/plastic surgery, dermatology, and oncology among others, have explored its use. In principle, all these specialists use CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 microns to thermally destroy diseased tissues. As such, CO2 lasers compare and compete with electrosurgical devices. The fundamental difference between these modalities lies in how they generate heat in treated tissue.

  12. Optical coherence tomography angiography findings in laser maculopathy. (United States)

    Tomasso, Livia; Benatti, Lucia; La Spina, Carlo; Lattanzio, Rosangela; Baldin, Giovanni; Carnevali, Adriano; De Vitis, Luigi A; Querques, Lea; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe


    Handheld laser pointer thermal injury affects primarily the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). However, so far no study has reported on the possible effects of laser pointers in the deeper layers, beneath the RPE. Here, we describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography findings in the choriocapillaris of a patient with laser maculopathy. A 13-year-old boy presented to our department with decreased vision in the left eye 12 hours after having stared at the beam of a laser pointer. Structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed 2 focal hyperreflective columns at the fovea extending from the RPE, involving all outer retinal layers, and terminating at the outer plexiform layer. The patient also underwent OCT angiography (OCT-A), which in the choriocapillary segmentation revealed 2 hypointense lesions in correspondence of the focal hyperreflectivities detected on structural OCT. We hypothesize that the OCT-A findings could represent a rarefaction of the choriocapillaris. However, the choriocapillary OCT-A findings could also represent artifacts due to the overlaying hyperreflective lesions. It is known that the RPE is primarily damaged by the laser injury. Our findings suggest that the thermal injury could involve also the choriocapillaris, and thus not limited to the RPE. Multimodal imaging in laser maculopathy including OCT-A may lead to a better comprehension of the pathogenesis of laser retinal damages.

  13. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics versus sensor-based adaptive optics for in vivo fluorescence retinal imaging (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhang, Pengfei; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Zawadzki, Robert J.


    Adaptive optics (AO) is essential for achieving diffraction limited resolution in large numerical aperture (NA) in-vivo retinal imaging in small animals. Cellular-resolution in-vivo imaging of fluorescently labeled cells is highly desirable for studying pathophysiology in animal models of retina diseases in pre-clinical vision research. Currently, wavefront sensor-based (WFS-based) AO is widely used for retinal imaging and has demonstrated great success. However, the performance can be limited by several factors including common path errors, wavefront reconstruction errors and an ill-defined reference plane on the retina. Wavefront sensorless (WFS-less) AO has the advantage of avoiding these issues at the cost of algorithmic execution time. We have investigated WFS-less AO on a fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (fSLO) system that was originally designed for WFS-based AO. The WFS-based AO uses a Shack-Hartmann WFS and a continuous surface deformable mirror in a closed-loop control system to measure and correct for aberrations induced by the mouse eye. The WFS-less AO performs an open-loop modal optimization with an image quality metric. After WFS-less AO aberration correction, the WFS was used as a control of the closed-loop WFS-less AO operation. We can easily switch between WFS-based and WFS-less control of the deformable mirror multiple times within an imaging session for the same mouse. This allows for a direct comparison between these two types of AO correction for fSLO. Our results demonstrate volumetric AO-fSLO imaging of mouse retinal cells labeled with GFP. Most significantly, we have analyzed and compared the aberration correction results for WFS-based and WFS-less AO imaging.

  14. Laser Plasmas: Optical guiding of laser beam in nonuniform plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A plasma channel produced by a short ionising laser pulse is axially nonuniform resulting from the self-defocusing. Through such preformed plasma channel, when a delayed pulse propagates, the phenomena of diffraction, refraction and self-phase modulation come into play. We have solved the nonlinear parabolic partial ...

  15. Monte Carlo modelling of multi-object adaptive optics performance on the European Extremely Large Telescope (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Morris, T. J.


    The performance of a wide-field adaptive optics (AO) system depends on input design parameters. Here we investigate the performance of a multi-object AO system design for the European Extremely Large Telescope, using an end-to-end Monte Carlo AO simulation tool, Durham adaptive optics simulation platform, with relevance for proposed instruments such as MOSAIC. We consider parameters such as the number of laser guide stars, sodium layer depth, wavefront sensor pixel scale, actuator pitch and natural guide star availability. We provide potential areas where costs savings can be made, and investigate trade-offs between performance and cost, and provide solutions that would enable such an instrument to be built with currently available technology. Our key recommendations include a trade-off for laser guide star wavefront sensor pixel scale of about 0.7 arcsec per pixel, and a field of view of at least 7 arcsec, that electron multiplying CCD technology should be used for natural guide star wavefront sensors even if reduced frame rate is necessary, and that sky coverage can be improved by a slight reduction in natural guide star sub-aperture count without significantly affecting tomographic performance. We find that AO correction can be maintained across a wide field of view, up to 7 arcmin in diameter. We also recommend the use of at least four laser guide stars, and include ground-layer and multi-object AO performance estimates.

  16. Novel fiber optic tip designs and devices for laser surgery (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas Clifton

    Fiber optic delivery of laser energy has been used for years in various types of surgical procedures in the human body. Optical energy provides several benefits over electrical or mechanical surgery, including the ability to selectively target specific tissue types while preserving others. Specialty fiber optic tips have also been introduced to further customize delivery of laser energy to the tissue. Recent evolution in lasers and miniaturization has opened up opportunities for many novel surgical techniques. Currently, ophthalmic surgeons use relatively invasive mechanical tools to dissect retinal deposits which occur in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. By using the tight focusing properties of microspheres combined with the short optical penetration depth of the Erbium:YAG laser and mid-IR fiber delivery, a precise laser scalpel can be constructed as an alternative, less invasive and more precise approach to this surgery. Chains of microspheres may allow for a self limiting ablation depth of approximately 10 microm based on the defocusing of paraxial rays. The microsphere laser scalpel may also be integrated with other surgical instruments to reduce the total number of handpieces for the surgeon. In current clinical laser lithotripsy procedures, poor input coupling of the Holmium:YAG laser energy frequently damages and requires discarding of the optical fiber. However, recent stone ablation studies with the Thulium fiber laser have provided comparable results to the Ho:YAG laser. The improved spatial beam profile of the Thulium fiber laser can also be efficiently coupled into a fiber approximately one third the diameter and reduces the risk of damaging the fiber input. For this reason, the trunk optical fiber minus the distal fiber tip can be preserved between procedures. The distal fiber tip, which degrades during stone ablation, could be made detachable and disposable. A novel, low-profile, twist-locking, detachable distal fiber tip interface was designed

  17. Data-based online nonlinear extremum-seeker for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics OCT (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Jian, Yifan; Verstraete, Hans R. G. W.; Heisler, Morgan; Ju, Myeong Jin; Wahl, Daniel J.; Bliek, Laurens; Kalkman, Jeroen; Bonora, Stefano; Verhaegen, Michel; Sarunic, Marinko V.


    Adaptive optics has been successfully applied to cellular resolution imaging of the retina, enabling visualization of the characteristic mosaic patterns of the outer retina. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) is a novel technique that facilitates high resolution ophthalmic imaging; it replaces the Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor with an image-driven optimization algorithm and mitigates some the challenges encountered with sensor-based designs. However, WSAO generally requires longer time to perform aberrations correction than the conventional closed-loop adaptive optics. When used for in vivo retinal imaging applications, motion artifacts during the WSAO optimization process will affect the quality of the aberration correction. A faster converging optimization scheme needs to be developed to account for rapid temporal variation of the wavefront and continuously apply corrections. In this project, we investigate the Databased Online Nonlinear Extremum-seeker (DONE), a novel non-linear multivariate optimization algorithm in combination with in vivo human WSAO OCT imaging. We also report both hardware and software updates of our compact lens based WSAO 1060nm swept source OCT human retinal imaging system, including real time retinal layer segmentation and tracking (ILM and RPE), hysteresis correction for the multi-actuator adaptive lens, precise synchronization control for the 200kHz laser source, and a zoom lens unit for rapid switching of the field of view. Cross sectional images of the retinal layers and en face images of the cone photoreceptor mosaic acquired in vivo from research volunteers before and after WSAO optimization are presented.

  18. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array (United States)

    Freitas, Barry L.


    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  19. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev


    Full Text Available In the development of optical telescopes, striving to increase the penetrating power of a telescope has been always the main trend. A real way to solve this problem is to raise the quality of the image (reduction of the image angular size under real conditions of distorting factor and increase a diameter of the main mirror. This is counteracted by the various distorting factors or interference occurring in realtime use of telescopes, as well as by complicated manufacturing processes of large mirrors.It is shown that the most effective method to deal with the influence of distorting factors on the image quality in the telescope is the minimization (through selecting the place to mount a telescope and choosing the rational optical scheme, creating materials and new technologies, improving a design, unloading the mirrors, mounting choice, etc., and then the adaptive compensation of remaining distortions.It should be noted that a domestic concept to design large-sized telescopes allows us to use, in our opinion, the most efficient ways to do this. It means to abandon the creation of "an absolutely rigid and well-ordered" design, providing the passively aligned state telescope optics under operating conditions. The design must just have such a level of residual deformations that their effect can be efficiently compensated by the adaptive system using the segmented elements of the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a corrector.It has been found that in the transmission optical systems to deliver laser power to a remote object, it is necessary not only to overcome the distorting effect of factors inherent in optical information systems, but, additionally, find a way to overcome a number of new difficulties. The main ones have been identified to be as follows:• the influence of laser radiation on the structure components and the propagation medium and, as a consequence, the opposite effect of the structure components and the propagation

  20. Selective Plane Illumination Differential Dynamic Microscopy with Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Wulstein, Devynn; McGorty, Ryan

    We measure the dynamics of colloidal particles and DNA molecules using differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) on images captured through selective-plane illumination microscopy (SPIM). Combining DDM, a digital Fourier microscopy method, and SPIM, an optical sectioning microscopy technique, we can analyze the dynamics of concentrated suspensions of colloids and biopolymers. Further, selective-plane illumination differential dynamic microscopy (SPIDDM) exploits the spatial variations of the Gaussian light-sheet to obtain diffusion data over a wide range of spatial frequencies. Presented work focuses on in vitro measurements of colloids, DNA molecules and cytoskeleton networks. We have measured the collective dynamics of DNA in actin and microtubule networks spanning an order of magnitude in spatial frequencies. This work could easily extend to living samples given SPIDDM's sparing use of excitation light. We are currently adding adaptive optics into our light-sheet microscope with a deformable mirror. We discuss using adaptive optics for multiple purposes. The mirror corrects optical aberrations due to the sample holder and the sample. We are also using adaptive optics to optimize the three-dimensional point spread function for DDM measurements. Using the deformable mirror to purposefully introduce known aberrations could allow for a more precise measurement of colloidal or molecular dynamics in three-dimensions.

  1. The AVES adaptive optics spectrograph for the VLT: status report (United States)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Delabre, Bernard; Pasquini, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Santin, Paolo; Damiani, Francesco; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Spano, Paolo; Bonifacio, P.; Catalano, Santo; Molaro, Paolo P.; Randich, S.; Rodono, Marcello


    We report on the status of AVES, the Adaptive-optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph proposed for the secondary port of the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) recently installed at the VLT. AVES is an intermediate resolution (R ≍ 16,000) high-efficiency fixed- format echelle spectrograph which operates in the spectral band 500 - 1,000 nm. In addition to a high intrinsic efficiency, comparable to that of ESI at Keck II, it takes advantage of the adaptive optics correction provided by NAOS to reduce the sky and detector contribution in background-limited observations of weak sources, thus allowing a further magnitude gain with respect to comparable non-adaptive optics spectrographs. Simulations show that the instrument will be capable of reaching a magnitude V = 22.5 at S/N > 10 in two hours, two magnitudes weaker than GIRAFFE at the same resolution and 3 magnitudes weaker than the higher resolution UVES spectrograph. Imaging and coronographic functions have also been implemented in the design. We present the results of the final design study and we dicuss the technical and operational issues related to its implementation at the VLT as a visitor instrument. We also discuss the possibility of using a scaled-up non-adaptive optics version of the same design as an element of a double- or triple-arm intermediate-resolution spectrograph for the VLT. Such an option looks attractive in the context of a high-efficiency large-bandwidth (320 - 1,500 nm) spectrograph ("fast-shooter") being considered by ESO as a 2nd-generation VLT instrument.

  2. Adaptive slab laser beam quality improvement using a weighted least-squares reconstruction algorithm. (United States)

    Chen, Shanqiu; Dong, LiZhi; Chen, XiaoJun; Tan, Yi; Liu, Wenjin; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing; Ye, YuTang


    Adaptive optics is an important technology for improving beam quality in solid-state slab lasers. However, there are uncorrectable aberrations in partial areas of the beam. In the criterion of the conventional least-squares reconstruction method, it makes the zones with small aberrations nonsensitive and hinders this zone from being further corrected. In this paper, a weighted least-squares reconstruction method is proposed to improve the relative sensitivity of zones with small aberrations and to further improve beam quality. Relatively small weights are applied to the zones with large residual aberrations. Comparisons of results show that peak intensity in the far field improved from 1242 analog digital units (ADU) to 2248 ADU, and beam quality β improved from 2.5 to 2.0. This indicates the weighted least-squares method has better performance than the least-squares reconstruction method when there are large zonal uncorrectable aberrations in the slab laser system.

  3. Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N


    High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

  4. Computing Temperatures In Optically Pumped Laser Rods (United States)

    Farrukh, Usamah O.


    Computer program presents new model solving temperature-distribution problem for laser rods of finite length and calculates both radial and axial components of temperature distributions in these rods. Contains several self-checking schemes to prevent over-writing of memory blocks and to provide simple tracing of information in case of trouble. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  5. Fibre-laser-pumped femtosecond PPLN optical parametric oscillator


    O'Connor, M.V.; Watson, M A.; Hanna, D.C.; Shepherd, D. P.; Lefort, L.; Price, J.H.V.; Malinowski, A.; Nilsson, J.; Broderick, N.G.R.; Richardson, D.J.


    The performance of a fibre-laser-pumped femtosecond PPLN optical parametric oscillator is described. The parametric oscillator exhibits a low threshold of 21mW, a high signal slope efficiency of 35% and generates broadly tunable 330fs pulses.

  6. Developing a more useful surface quality metric for laser optics (United States)

    Turchette, Quentin; Turner, Trey


    Light scatter due to surface defects on laser resonator optics produces losses which lower system efficiency and output power. The traditional methodology for surface quality inspection involves visual comparison of a component to scratch and dig (SAD) standards under controlled lighting and viewing conditions. Unfortunately, this process is subjective and operator dependent. Also, there is no clear correlation between inspection results and the actual performance impact of the optic in a laser resonator. As a result, laser manufacturers often overspecify surface quality in order to ensure that optics will not degrade laser performance due to scatter. This can drive up component costs and lengthen lead times. Alternatively, an objective test system for measuring optical scatter from defects can be constructed with a microscope, calibrated lighting, a CCD detector and image processing software. This approach is quantitative, highly repeatable and totally operator independent. Furthermore, it is flexible, allowing the user to set threshold levels as to what will or will not constitute a defect. This paper details how this automated, quantitative type of surface quality measurement can be constructed, and shows how its results correlate against conventional loss measurement techniques such as cavity ringdown times.

  7. Research on optic antenna of space laser communication networking (United States)

    Meng, Li-Xin; Li, Long; Zhang, Li-zhong; Zhao, Shan-shan; Jiang, Hui-lin


    With the highlights of the high transmission rate, large capacity, strong anti-interference and anti-capture ability, good security and small light, space laser communication becomes an important hotspot. At present, the focus of research of the laser communication system is point to point communication structure. However, from the application point of view, both the realization of space laser communication among multiple points and the establishment of the information transmission network can really have the practical value. Aiming at the problem of space laser communication network, this article puts forward the general idea about optical antenna to achieve multiple tracking goals at the same time. Through the analysis of the optical antenna, and the comparing of the current commonly used mirror driving mechanism, a new mirror driving mechanism is designed. The azimuth motion, containing circular grating feedback, is driven by torque motor,voice coil motor of fan produces pitch motion that has fan-shaped grating feedback, so that compression of the structure size to improve the efficiency of the reflector assembly. Through the establishment of the driving mechanism and the kinematic model of 3D entity, the relationship between the single drive azimuth and pitch angle following the angle of incident light is explained. The biggest ideal view area affecting the optical antenna is obtained by the simulation analysis of the kinematics model using MATLAB. The several factors of field overlap area and blind area offers a theoretical basis for structure optimization and control system for the subsequent optical antenna design.

  8. Effective Linewidth of Semiconductor Lasers for Coherent Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Pang, Xiaodan; Schatz, Richard


    name “Effective Linewidth”. We derive this figure of merit analytically, explore it by numerical simulations and experimentally validate our results by transmitting a 28 Gbaud DP-16QAM over an optical link. Our investigations cover the use of semiconductor lasers both in the transmitter side...

  9. the analysis of an optical fibre communication system using laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE ANALYSIS OF AN OPTICAL FIBRE. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM USING LASER RATE. EQUATIONS. HN Kundaeli. Department of Physics, University of Dar-es-Salaam,. P. O. Box 35063, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ABSTRACT. Fibre dispersion has been the main limitation to high-speed data transmissions employing ...

  10. High precision optical fiber alignment using tube laser bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Herder, Justus Laurens


    In this paper, we present a method to align optical fibers within 0.2 μm of the optimal position, using tube laser bending and in situ measuring of the coupling efficiency. For near-UV wavelengths, passive alignment of the fibers with respect to the waveguides on photonic integrated circuit chips

  11. Optical process model for laser-assisted tape winding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Akkerman, Remko; Reichardt, J.M.; Drechsler, K.


    The present work is part of the EU-funded ambliFibre project in which a model-based on-line monitoring solution is being developed for the laser assisted tape winding (LATW) process of tubular fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite parts. Within this framework, an optical process simulation tool

  12. Optical glucose monitoring using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) (United States)

    Talebi Fard, Sahba; Hofmann, Werner; Talebi Fard, Pouria; Kwok, Ezra; Amann, Markus-Christian; Chrostowski, Lukas


    Diabetes Mellitus is a common chronic disease that has become a public health issue. Continuous glucose monitoring improves patient health by stabilizing the glucose levels. Optical methods are one of the painless and promising methods that can be used for blood glucose predictions. However, having accuracies lower than what is acceptable clinically has been a major concern. Using lasers along with multivariate techniques such as Partial Least Square (PLS) can improve glucose predictions. This research involves investigations for developing a novel optical system for accurate glucose predictions, which leads to the development of a small, low power, implantable optical sensor for diabetes patients.

  13. Holograms for laser diode: Single mode optical fiber coupling (United States)

    Fuhr, P. L.


    The low coupling efficiency of semiconductor laser emissions into a single mode optical fibers place a severe restriction on their use. Associated with these conventional optical coupling techniques are stringent alignment sensitivities. Using holographic elements, the coupling efficiency may be increased and the alignment sensitivity greatly reduced. Both conventional and computer methods used in the generation of the holographic couplers are described and diagrammed. The reconstruction geometries used are shown to be somewhat restrictive but substantially less rigid than their conventional optical counterparts. Single and double hologram techniques are examined concerning their respective ease of fabrication and relative merits.

  14. Test Port for Fiber-Optic-Coupled Laser Altimeter (United States)

    Ramos Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley; Rinis, Haris; Cavanaugh, John


    A test port designed as part of a fiber optic coupled laser altimeter receiver optical system allows for the back-illumination of the optical system for alignment verification, as well as illumination of the detector(s) for testing the receiver electronics and signal-processing algorithms. Measuring the optical alignment of a laser altimeter instrument is difficult after the instrument is fully assembled. The addition of a test port in the receiver aft-optics allows for the back-illumination of the receiver system such that its focal setting and boresight alignment can be easily verified. For a multiple-detector receiver system, the addition of the aft-optics test port offers the added advantage of being able to simultaneously test all the detectors with different signals that simulate the expected operational conditions. On a laser altimeter instrument (see figure), the aft-optics couple the light from the receiver telescope to the receiver detector(s). Incorporating a beam splitter in the aft-optics design allows for the addition of a test port to back-illuminate the receiver telescope and/or detectors. The aft-optics layout resembles a T with the detector on one leg, the receiver telescope input port on the second leg, and the test port on the third leg. The use of a custom beam splitter with 99-percent reflection, 1-percent transmission, and a mirrored roof can send the test port light to the receiver telescope leg as well as the detector leg, without unduly sacrificing the signal from the receiver telescope to the detector. The ability to test the receiver system alignment, as well as multiple detectors with different signals without the need to disassemble the instrument or connect and reconnect components, is a great advantage to the aft-optics test port. Another benefit is that the receiver telescope aperture is fully back-illuminated by the test port so the receiver telescope focal setting vs. pressure and or temperature can be accurately measured (as

  15. Adaptive metal mirror for high-power CO2 lasers (United States)

    Jarosch, Uwe-Klaus


    Spherical mirrors with a variable radius of curvature are used inside laser resonators as well as in the beam path between the laser and the workpiece. Commercially-available systems use piezoelectric actuators, or the pressure of the coolant, to deform the mirror surface. In both cases, the actuator and the cooling system influence each other. This interaction is avoided through the integration of the cooling system with the flexible mirror membrane. A multi- channel design leads to an optimized cooling effect, which is necessary for high power applications. The contour of the variable metal mirror depends on the mounting between the membrane and the mirror body and on the distribution of forces. Four cases of deformation can be distinguished for a circular elastic membrane. The realization of an adaptive metal mirror requires a technical compromise to be made. A mechanical construction is presented which combines an elastic hinge with the inlet and outlet of the coolant. For the deformation of the mirror membranes two actuators with different character of deformation are used. The superposition of the two deformations results in smaller deviations from the spherical surface shape than can be achieved using a single actuator. DC proportional magnets have been introduced as cheap and rigid actuators. The use of this adaptive mirror, either in a low pressure atmosphere of a gas laser resonator, or in an extra-cavity beam path is made possible through the use of a ventilation system.

  16. Two-laser optical tweezers with a blinking beam (United States)

    Lamperska, Weronika; Masajada, Jan; Drobczyński, Sławomir; Gusin, Paweł


    We report on a two-laser holographic optical tweezers setup and present its two major advantages over single-laser one. First, the trap stiffness of a weak trapping beam can be measured with a considerable accuracy. Second, a novel method of examining local viscosity of fluid is proposed. Both measurements are performed based on forcing the oscillations of a microscopic polystyrene bead placed between two optical traps. The two beams are generated by separate laser sources and therefore their trapping power can vary. Moreover, a stronger trap 'blinks', modulated by an electronic shutter. The blinking frequency can be precisely adjusted to the experimental conditions, which results in high accuracy of the measurements.

  17. The passive optically pumped Rb frequency standard: the laser approach (United States)

    Vanier, J.; Mandache, C.


    This paper outlines the progress made during the last few decades in the implementation of a frequency standard using the optical-microwave double resonance technique and laser optical pumping in a sealed cell containing an alkali atom vapor in a microwave cavity. An analysis is presented based on a three-level model, describing the basic phenomena taking place in that approach. The expected frequency stability is calculated. The various frequency shifts taking place are described and their importance is evaluated. Several laser systems generally used in this context are described as well as the various techniques for stabilizing them. The results obtained by several research groups are outlined, compared to the analysis, and evaluated in the context of the implementation of a practical frequency standard. Conclusions are drawn relative to the future of a realistic implementation of such a laser pumped frequency standard.

  18. Effective Linewidth of Semiconductor Lasers for Coherent Optical Data Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Iglesias Olmedo


    Full Text Available We discuss the implications of using monolithically integrated semiconductor lasers in high capacity optical coherent links suitable for metro applications, where the integration capabilities of semiconductor lasers make them an attractive candidate to reduce transceiver cost. By investigating semiconductor laser frequency noise profiles we show that carrier induced frequency noise plays an important role in system performance. We point out that, when such lasers are employed, the commonly used laser linewidth fails to estimate system performance, and we propose an alternative figure of merit that we name “Effective Linewidth”. We derive this figure of merit analytically, explore it by numerical simulations and experimentally validate our results by transmitting a 28 Gbaud DP-16QAM over an optical link. Our investigations cover the use of semiconductor lasers both in the transmitter side and as a local oscillator at the receiver. The obtained results show that our proposed “effective linewidth” is easy to measure and accounts for frequency noise more accurately, and hence the penalties associated to phase noise in the received signal.

  19. Laser ranging based on electro-optic effect in crystal (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Liu, Liren; Wang, Jiming; Pan, Weiqing


    Based on electro-optic effect in crystal, a novel laser ranging method is proposed. A special designed mono-block LiNbO3 crystal is laid after the laser transmitter. The CW-laser emitted from the transmitter propagates through the crystal and travels forward to the measured target. After being reflected by the target, the laser goes back and crosses the same crystal. Electric pulses with the steep enough edges are loaded on the crystal. Based on electro-optic effect, double refraction and internal double reflection effect in crystal, the crystal cuts off the round-trip light beams, and reflects a light pulse cut out by the crystal to a detector aside from the original beam path. The pulse width T is the period that laser goes forward and back between the crystal and the target. From the T one can get the measured range R. The feasibility of this method is proved by our experiments and a brand-new way for the laser ranging is provided.

  20. Optical diagnostics for laser wakefields in plasma channels (United States)

    Gaul, E. W.; Le Blanc, S. P.; Downer, M. C.


    Laser wakefield accelerators can excite large amplitude electrostatic fields (E >= 100 GV/m) which are potentially suitable for compact accelerators and advanced high energy colliders. An accurate diagnostic tool is necessary to test the physical effects in the wakefield predicted by theory and numerical simulations, and to have control over experiments. Frequency domain interferometry (FDI) (C. W. Siders et. al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570 (1995) has been developed in previous work. We experimentally demonstrate single-shot FDI as a sensitive diagnostic technique for probing laser wakefields. To generate wakefields longer than the diffraction limit, optical guiding of the laser pulse is necessary. An optical guide is formed by the hydrodynamic expansion of a cylindrical shock wave driven by a laser heated plasma, which is generated by laser pulse focused with an axicon lens (C. G. Durfee and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2409 (1993)) to intensities of ~= 10^13 W/cm^2. These are too low to reach multi-photon ionization or significant collisional ionization in <= 1 atm helium. We preionize Helium gas with an electrical discharge for efficient inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of the laser pulse and formation of a plasma channel. Spatially resolved chirped pulse interferometry is used to measure the radial electron density profile of the channel.

  1. MICADO: the E-ELT adaptive optics imaging camera : The E-ELT adaptive optics imaging camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, Richard; Ageorges, N.; Barl, L.; Bedin, L. R.; Bender, R.; Bernardi, P.; Chapron, F.; Clenet, Y.; Deep, A.; Deul, E.; Drost, M.; Eisenhauer, F.; Falomo, R.; Fiorentino, G.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Gendron, E.; Genzel, R.; Gratadour, D.; Greggio, L.; Grupp, F.; Held, E.; Herbst, T.; Hess, H.-J.; Hubert, Z.; Jahnke, K.; Kuijken, K.; Lutz, D.; Magrin, D.; Muschielok, B.; Navarro, R.; Noyola, E.; Paumard, T.; Piotto, G.; Ragazzoni, R.; Renzini, A.; Rousset, G.; Rix, H.-W.; Saglia, R.; Tacconi, L.; Thiel, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Trippe, S.; Tromp, N.; Valentijn, E. A.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Wegner, M.; McLean, I.S.; Ramsay, S.K.; Takami, H.

    MICADO is the adaptive optics imaging camera for the E-ELT. It has been designed and optimised to be mounted to the LGS-MCAO system MAORY, and will provide diffraction limited imaging over a wide (~1 arcmin) field of view. For initial operations, it can also be used with its own simpler AO module

  2. Digital and optical systolic architectures for airborne adaptive radars (United States)

    Lis, Stanley; Vannicola, Vincent C.; Graniero, John A.; Medoff, Barry P.; Penn, William A.


    Systolic architectures for digital and analog, electronic and optical signal processing are presented along with specific applications to adaptive nulling. It is shown how the various architectures provide for the implementation of adaptive algorithms and how technologies affect performance. Their effects on adaptive degrees of freedom, convergence time, null depth, signal to noise ratio are presented along with size, weight, and required power. Adaptive algorithms covered are of two basic types: feedback/iterative and direct methods. Examples of each include the least mean square (LMS) for the iterative type and the QU factorization based on the Givens method for the direct method. Simulation results have verified the performance of the least squares and the systolic array for QU factorization by Givens method. Improved performance was obtained using the modified minimum variance distortionless response algorithm based on the maximum likelihood criteria. An optical implementation of the least squares algorithm over a continuously adaptive multi-path was experimentally evaluated. Thus far, 24 dB of cancellation was achieved over a 7 micro-second multi-path window for 10 mega-Hertz instantaneous bandwidth. Adaptivity in the spatial, temporal and Doppler domains are illustrated and their embodiment into the various architectures are presented. For example, an analog optical processor which generates weights in the spatial and temporal (multi-path) domains for broadband systems is shown. Also shown is a digital systolic architecture which is applied to a direct decomposition method for generation of adaptive weights in the spatial and Doppler domains. A description of brassboard models representing both architectures is included.

  3. Laser backlight unit based on a leaky optical fiber (United States)

    Okuda, Yuuto; Onoda, Kousuke; Fujieda, Ichiro


    A backlight unit is constructed by laying out an optical fiber on a two-dimensional plane and letting the light leak out in a controlled manner. In experiment, we formed multiple grooves on the surface of a plastic optical fiber by pressing a heated knife edge. The depth of the groove determined the percentage of the optical power leaking out. The optical fiber with multiple grooves was embedded in an acrylic plate with a spiral trench, and a diffuser sheet was placed over it. When we injected laser light into the end of the optical fiber, this configuration successfully worked as an area illuminator. However, the coherent nature of the laser light caused severe speckle noise. We evaluated the speckle contrast under darkness, and it varied from 80% to 23%, depending on the lens aperture used to capture the images of the illuminator. We glued an ultrasound generator to the optical fiber to introduce phase modulation for the light propagating inside the optical fiber. In this way, the speckle contrast was reduced by a factor of seven to four. Under room lighting, the speckle noise was made barely noticeable by turning on the ultrasound generator.

  4. Femtosecond laser inscription of optical circuits in the cladding of optical fibers (United States)

    Grenier, Jason R.

    The aim of this dissertation was to address the question of whether the cladding of single-mode fibers (SMFs) could be modified to enable optical fibers to serve as a more integrated, highly functional platform for optical circuit devices that can efficiently interconnect with the pre-existing fiber core waveguide. The approach adopted in this dissertation was to employ femtosecond laser direct writing (FLDW), an inherently 3D fabrication technique that harnesses non-linear laser-material interactions to modify the fused silica fiber cladding. A fiber mounting and alignment technique was developed along with oil-immersion focusing to address the strong aberrations caused by the cylindrical fiber shape. The development of real-time device monitoring during the FLDW was instrumental to overcome the acute coupling sensitivity to laser alignment errors of +/-1 ?m positional uncertainty, and thereby opened a new practical direction for the precise fabrication of optical devices inside optical fibers. These powerful and flexible laser fabrication and characterization techniques were successfully employed to optimize optical waveguiding devices positioned within the core and cladding of optical fibers. X-, S-Bend, and directional couplers were developed to enable efficient coupling between the laser-formed cladding devices and the pre-existing core waveguide, enabling up to 62% power transfer over bandwidths up to 300 nm at telecommunication wavelengths. Precise alignment of femtosecond laser modification tracks were positioned inside or near the core waveguide of SMFs was further shown to enable a flexible reshaping of the optical properties to create multimode guiding sections arbitrarily along the fiber length. This core waveguide modification facilitated the precise formation of multimode interferometers along the core waveguide to precisely tailor the modal profiles, and control the spectral and polarization response. In-fiber multimode interference (MMI) splitters

  5. Proton irradiation of liquid crystal based adaptive optical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buis, E.J., E-mail: [cosine Science and Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Berkhout, G.C.G. [cosine Science and Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huygens Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Love, G.D.; Kirby, A.K.; Taylor, J.M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hannemann, S.; Collon, M.J. [cosine Research BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)


    To assess its radiation hardness, a liquid crystal based adaptive optical element has been irradiated using a 60 MeV proton beam. The device with the functionality of an optical beam steerer was characterised before, during and after the irradiation. A systematic set of measurements on the transmission and beam deflection angles was carried out. The measurements showed that the transmission decreased only marginally and that its optical performance degraded only after a very high proton fluence (10{sup 10}p/cm{sup 2}). The device showed complete annealing in the functionality as a beam steerer, which leads to the conclusion that the liquid crystal technology for optical devices is not vulnerable to proton irradiation as expected in space.

  6. Bulk diamond optical waveguides fabricated by focused femtosecond laser pulses (United States)

    Hadden, J. P.; Sotillo, Belén.; Bharadwaj, Vibhav; Rampini, Stefano; Bosia, Federico; Picollo, Federico; Sakakura, Masaaki; Chiappini, Andrea; Fernandez, Toney T.; Osellame, Roberto; Miura, Kiyotaka; Ferrari, Maurizio; Ramponi, Roberta; Olivero, Paolo; Barclay, Paul E.; Eaton, Shane M.


    Diamond's nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers show great promise in sensing applications and quantum computing due to their long electron spin coherence time and their ability to be located, manipulated and read out using light. The electrons of the NV center, largely localized at the vacancy site, combine to form a spin triplet, which can be polarized with 532- nm laser light, even at room temperature. The NV's states are isolated from environmental perturbations making their spin coherence comparable to trapped ions. An important breakthrough would be in connecting, using waveguides, multiple diamond NVs together optically. However, the inertness of diamond is a significant hurdle for the fabrication of integrated optics similar to those that revolutionized silicon photonics. In this work we show the possibility of buried waveguide fabrication in diamond, enabled by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. We use μRaman spectroscopy to gain better insight into the structure and refractive index profile of the optical waveguides.

  7. Optic flow improves adaptability of spatiotemporal characteristics during split-belt locomotor adaptation with tactile stimulation. (United States)

    Eikema, Diderik Jan A; Chien, Jung Hung; Stergiou, Nicholas; Myers, Sara A; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Mukherjee, Mukul


    Human locomotor adaptation requires feedback and feed-forward control processes to maintain an appropriate walking pattern. Adaptation may require the use of visual and proprioceptive input to decode altered movement dynamics and generate an appropriate response. After a person transfers from an extreme sensory environment and back, as astronauts do when they return from spaceflight, the prolonged period required for re-adaptation can pose a significant burden. In our previous paper, we showed that plantar tactile vibration during a split-belt adaptation task did not interfere with the treadmill adaptation however, larger overground transfer effects with a slower decay resulted. Such effects, in the absence of visual feedback (of motion) and perturbation of tactile feedback, are believed to be due to a higher proprioceptive gain because, in the absence of relevant external dynamic cues such as optic flow, reliance on body-based cues is enhanced during gait tasks through multisensory integration. In this study, we therefore investigated the effect of optic flow on tactile-stimulated split-belt adaptation as a paradigm to facilitate the sensorimotor adaptation process. Twenty healthy young adults, separated into two matched groups, participated in the study. All participants performed an overground walking trial followed by a split-belt treadmill adaptation protocol. The tactile group (TC) received vibratory plantar tactile stimulation only, whereas the virtual reality and tactile group (VRT) received an additional concurrent visual stimulation: a moving virtual corridor, inducing perceived self-motion. A post-treadmill overground trial was performed to determine adaptation transfer. Interlimb coordination of spatiotemporal and kinetic variables was quantified using symmetry indices and analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Marked changes of step length characteristics were observed in both groups during split-belt adaptation. Stance and swing time symmetries were

  8. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beams (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)


    A system for communicating between an object in space and a ground station, between objects in space, or between ground stations, includes a telecentric lens. Photodetectors positioned upon a focal plane of the telecentric lens detect an inbound light beam, received from a source, that has passed through the telecentric lens to the focal plane. Lasers positioned upon the focal plane transmit light beams from the focal plane through the telecentric lens to an area that includes the source of the inbound light beam. A processor detect signals from individual photodetectors corresponding to light detected, and selectively signals individual lasers that are close to those photodetectors, resulting in a returning beam that arrives close to the source, and which carries encoded data.

  9. Electrically controllable ionic polymeric gels as adaptive optical lenses (United States)

    Salehpoor, Karim; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Mojarrad, Mehran


    Reversible change in optical properties of ionic polymeric gels, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (PAMPS) and polyacrylic acid plus sodium acrylate cross-linked with bisacrylamide (PAAM), under the effect of an electric field is reported. The shape of a cylindrical piece of the gel, with flat top and bottom surfaces, changed when affected by an electric field. The top surface became curved and the sense of the curvature (whether concave or convex) depended on the polarity of the applied electric field. The curvature of the surface changed from concave to convex and vice versa by changing the polarity of the electric field. By the use of an optical apparatus, focusing capability of the curved surface was verified and the focal length of the deformed gel was measured. The effect of the intensity of the applied electric field on the surface curvature and thus, on the focal length of the gel are tested. Different mechanisms are discussed; either of them or their combination may explain the surface deformation and curvature. Practical difficulties in the test procedure and the future potential of the electrically adaptive and active optical lenses are also discussed. These adaptive lenses may be considered as smart adaptive lenses for contact lens or other optical applications requiring focal point undulation.

  10. Laser cooling and optical diagnostics for relativistic ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, Michael; Stuhr, Uwe; Siebold, Matthias [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Winters, Danyal; Kuehl, Thomas; Kozhuharov, Christophor; Dimopoulou, Christina; Nolden, Fritz; Steck, Markus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Geppert, Christopher; Sanchez Alarcon, Rodolfo Marcelo; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Stoehlker, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Beck, Tobias; Walther, Thomas; Tichelmann, Sascha; Birkl, Gerhard [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Wen, Weiqiang; Ma, Xinwen [IMPCAS Lanzhou (China)


    Cooling of ion beams is essential for precision experiments at future storage rings. Laser cooling is one of the most promising techniques to reach high phase space densities at relativistic ion energies for all ion species which provide suitable atomic cooling transitions. Establishing laser cooling as a standard technique at future storage rings requires laser sources that can address ion beams with large initial velocity spreads. Without optical diagnostics however, the dynamics of ions at very low temperatures cannot be resolved, as conventional beam diagnostics reach their resolution limits. We discuss concepts and techniques that pave the way for making laser cooling a reliable tool at future storage rings, some of which can already be tested at the ESR at GSI.

  11. Amplitude Noise Reduction of Ion Lasers with Optical Feedback (United States)

    Herring, Gregory C.


    A reduction in amplitude noise on the output of a multi-mode continuous-wave Ar-ion laser was previously demonstrated when a fraction of the output power was retroreflected back into the laser cavity. This result was reproduced in the present work and a Fabry-Perot etalon was used to monitor the longitudinal mode structure of the laser. A decrease in the number of operating longitudinal cavity modes was observed simultaneously with the introduction of the optical feedback and the onset of the amplitude noise reduction. The noise reduction is a result of a reduced number of lasing modes, resulting in less mode beating and amplitude fluctuations of the laser output power.

  12. Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten


    The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. The properties of pulse sources and characterization methods are described as well as requirements for application in communication systems. Especially, the importance of...... as the first 10 GHz all-active monolithic laser with both short pulses and low jitter.Results from external cavity mode-locked lasers are also reported along with an investigation of the influence of the operating conditions on the performance of the device. Antireflection coatings are a critical limiting...... factor for external cavity devices and a chapter is devoted to calculations on coating design.The fabrication process for the lasers is outlined and solutions to the challenges encountered in realizing the proposed structures are reported....

  13. Optical property change of blood on an optical window boundary by 660-nm band laser irradiation (United States)

    Takahashi, Mei; Ito, Arisa; Arai, Tsunenori


    We studied an optical interaction on an optical window and blood boundary during the CW laser irradiation in 660 nm band until blood charring occurrence. We previously reported that a pre-charring optical behavior may be detected by diffuse-reflected-light power time-history. The aim of this study is to measure absorption coefficient (μa) and reduced scattering coefficient (μ's) of a blood model to explain this pre-charring optical behavior. The blood model sandwiched between 2 glass slides to simulate the interface between blood and the optical window was used. A double integrating sphere system was constructed. The red laser in 660 nm band was irradiated to the sandwiched blood model. Fourty W/cm2 in irradiance was used as the maximum irradiance during irradiation via the laser catheter in vivo. μa and μ's in the irradiated laser wavelength were measured continuously until blood charring occurrence using inverse adding doubling analysis. Continuous μa increase of 5-10% from the initial value until charring was observed. Decrease of μ's with 8-10% during 15-30 s before charring following broad peak was obtained. We think these μa and μ's changes may explain the pre-charring optical behavior detected by the diffuse-reflected-light power time-history in our reported study.

  14. Adaptive phase compensation for ultracompact laser scanning endomicroscopy. (United States)

    Thompson, Alex J; Paterson, Carl; Neil, Mark A A; Dunsby, Chris; French, Paul M W


    We present an approach to laser scanning endomicroscopy that requires no moving parts and can be implemented with no distal scanners or optics, permitting extremely compact endoscopic probes to be developed. Our approach utilizes a spatial light modulator to correct for phase variations across a fiber imaging bundle and to encode for arbitrary wavefronts at the distal end of the fiber bundle. Thus, it is possible to realize both focusing and beam scanning at the output of the fiber bundle with no distal components. We present proof of principle results to illustrate three-dimensional scanning of the focal spot and exemplar images of a United States Air Force resolution test chart.

  15. Optical flip-flop: Based on two-coupled mode-locked ring lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangdiongga, E.; Yang, X.X.; Li, Z.; Liu, Y.S.; Lenstra, D.; Khoe, G.D.; Dorren, H.J.S.


    We report an all-optical flip-flop that is based on two coupled actively mode-locked fiber ring lasers. The lasers are coupled so that when one of the lasers lases, it quenches lasing in the other laser. The state of the flip-flop is determined by the wavelength of the laser that is currently

  16. Laser & Fiber Optics: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project. (United States)

    Eickhoff, Luvern R.

    This instructional manual contains 20 learning activity packets for use in a workshop on lasers and fiber optics. The lessons cover the following topics: what a laser; coherent light; setting up the laser; characteristics of the laser beam; scattering of light; laser beam divergence, intensity, color, ophthalmology, and reflections; directivity of…

  17. Adaptive optics for improved retinal surgery and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humayun, M S; Sadda, S R; Thompson, C A; Olivier, S S; Kartz, M W


    It is now possible to field a compact adaptive optics (AO) system on a surgical microscope for use in retinal diagnostics and surgery. Recent developments in integrated circuit technology and optical photonics have led to the capability of building an AO system that is compact and significantly less expensive than traditional AO systems. It is foreseen that such an AO system can be integrated into a surgical microscope while maintaining a package size of a lunchbox. A prototype device can be developed in a manner that lends itself well to large-scale manufacturing.

  18. Adaptive and real-time optimal control for adaptive optics systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, N.J.; Fraanje, P.R.; Houtzager, I.; Verhaegen, M.


    An optimal control method to reject turbulence-induced wavefront distortions in an Adaptive Optics system is discussed. Details of a data-driven control approach are presented where the emphasis is put on the estimation of the optimal predictor of the wavefront disturbance. Several algorithms

  19. Micro-optic fabrication using laser ablation process (United States)

    Chang, Won-Seok; Yoon, Kyung-Ku; Kim, Jaegu; Shin, Bosung; Whang, Kyung-Hyun


    The feasibility of laser ablation in micro-machining of 3D structure of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) parts, specifically micro optics was studied in this paper. The micro-machining characteristics of polymer such as etching rate vs. energy fluence, number of pulse are investigated experimentally. The threshold energy density of polyurethane is about 30 mJ/cm2 and ablated depth per pulse can be precisely controlled in the range of 0.1-0.8μm by the attenuation of energy fluence. By mask moving technique, the micro prism, cylindrical lens and inclined surface were fabricated. These 3D structures can be used as master in electro-plating mold. This paper also summarized the work on the development of a simulation program for modeling the process of machining quasi-three dimensional shapes with the excimer laser beam on a constant moving polymer. Relatively simple masks of rectangle, triangle and half circle shape are considered. The etching depth is calculated by considering the number of laser pulses and the wavelength of laser beam irradiated on the various specimen surface such as PMMA, polyurethane and PI. It was found that similar shapes as experimental results, mask shape was designed to gain-lens surface which we want. As another method to manufacture micro lens the mask is made circular type and rotated during laser beam illumination. Opened mask area and scanning speed determine the surface shape of lens. Precise control of various parameters is admitted to fabricate micro optics.

  20. Laser ranging based on electro-optic switch (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Liu, Liren; Wang, Jiming; Lang, Haitao; Pan, Weiqing


    Based on electro-optic switch effect in crystal, a novel laser ranging method is proposed. CW-laser emitted by laser transmitter propagates forward to the measured target, after being reflected by the target, and then goes back to the transmitter. Close to the transmitter, a special mono-block LiNbO3 crystal is added into the round-trip light beams. High-voltage pulses with the sharp enough changes in rising edges are loaded on the crystal. Based on electro-optic effect, double refraction and internal double reflection effect in crystal, the crystal cuts off the round-trip light beams, and reflects a light pulse cut out by the crystal to a detector aside from the original beam path. The pulse width T is the period that laser propagates forward and back between the crystal and the target. The feasibility of the new idea is proved by our experiments and a brand-new way for the laser ranging is provided.

  1. Laser Metrology for an Optical-Path-Length Modulator (United States)

    Gursel, Yekta


    Laser gauges have been developed to satisfy requirements specific to monitoring the amplitude of the motion of an optical-path-length modulator that is part of an astronomical interferometer. The modulator includes a corner-cube retroreflector driven by an electromagnetic actuator. During operation of the astronomical interferometer, the electromagnet is excited to produce linear reciprocating motion of the corner-cube retroreflector at an amplitude of 2 to 4 mm at a frequency of 250, 750, or 1,250 Hz. Attached to the corner-cube retroreflector is a small pick-off mirror. To suppress vibrations, a counterweight having a mass equal to that of the corner-cube retroreflector and pick-off mirror is mounted on another electromagnetic actuator that is excited in opposite phase. Each gauge is required to measure the amplitude of the motion of the pick-off mirror, assuming that the motions of the pick-off mirror and the corner-cube retroreflector are identical, so as to measure the amplitude of motion of the corner- cube retroreflector to within an error of the order of picometers at each excitation frequency. Each gauge is a polarization-insensitive heterodyne interferometer that includes matched collimators, beam separators, and photodiodes (see figure). The light needed for operation of the gauge comprises two pairs of laser beams, the beams in each pair being separated by a beat frequency of 80 kHz. The laser beams are generated by an apparatus, denoted the heterodyne plate, that includes stabilized helium-neon lasers, acousto-optical modulators, and associated optical and electronic subsystems. The laser beams are coupled from the heterodyne plate to the collimators via optical fibers.

  2. Characterization of novel optical fibers for use in laser detonators (United States)

    Bowden, M. D.; Drake, R. C.; Singleton, C. A.


    A system for launching flyers using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser has been developed for shock initiation of secondary explosives. Flyers have been launched at velocities approaching 6 km s -1. Optical fibers are used to transport the optical energy from the laser to the detonator. The launch of these flyers with sufficient velocity requires a fluence in the region of 35 J cm -2, significantly above the damage threshold of most optical fibers. This damage is typically caused by laser absorption at the input face due to imperfections in the surface polishing. A variety of optical fibers with high quality input faces have been tested at fluences up to 50 J cm -2, and their damage thresholds and beam profiles have been measured. The standard fiber used in this system is a low hydroxyl (-OH) content, 400μm diameter core silica fiber, with CO2 laser polished faces. In addition to this, fibers tapering down to 300μm and 200μm core diameter were investigated, as a means of increasing the efficiency of the system, along with mechanically polished fibers. The fiber currently enters the detonator body from the rear. Depending on the application, it may be required for the fiber to enter from the side. To facilitate this, fibers with a machined output face, designed to produce an output at approximately 90 degrees to the fiber axis were tested. Finally, a 2:1 fiber splitter was tested, as a first step to enable simultaneous firing of several detonators. Multiple initiation points are desirable for applications such as programmable initiation, and it is intended to study fiber splitters with a higher split ratio, such as 4:1 and 8:1. The results of these experiments are presented, and assessments made of suitability for transmission of high-power Qswitched Nd:YAG laser pulses.

  3. Optical microdevices fabricated using femtosecond laser processing (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Otuka, Adriano J. G.; Tomázio, Nathália B.; Tribuzi, Vinicius; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique D.; De Boni, Leonardo; Mendonça, Cleber R.


    Femtosecond laser processing techniques have been widely employed to produce micro or nanodevices with special features. These devices can be selectively doped with organic dyes, biological agents, nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes, increasing the range of applications. Acrylate polymers can be easily doped with various compounds, and therefore, they are interesting materials for laser fabrication techniques. In this work, we use multiphoton absorption polymerization (MAP) and laser ablation to fabricate polymeric microdevices for optical applications. The polymeric sample used in this work is composed in equal proportions of two three-acrylate monomers; while tris(2-hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate triacrylate gives hardness to the structure, the ethoxylated(6) trimethyl-lolpropane triacrylate reduces the shrinkage tensions upon polymerization. These monomers are mixed with a photoinitiator, the 2,4,6-trimetilbenzoiletoxifenil phosphine oxide, enabling the sample polymerization after laser irradiation. Using MAP, we fabricate three-dimensional structures doped with fluorescent dyes. These structures can be used in several optical applications, such as, RGB fluorescent microdevices or microresonators. Using azo compounds like dopant in the host resin, we can apply these structures in optical data storage devices. Using laser ablation technique, we can fabricate periodic microstructures inside polymeric bulks doped with xanthene dyes and single-walled carbon nanotubes, aiming applications in random laser experiments. In structured bulks we observed multi-narrow emission peaks over the xanthene fluorescence emission. Furthermore, in comparison with non-structured bulks, we observed that the periodic structure decreased the degree of randomness, reducing the number of peaks, but defining their position.

  4. Optical properties of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium cells investigated with adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin

    Human vision starts when photoreceptors collect and respond to light. Photoreceptors do not function in isolation though, but share close interdependence with neighboring photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. These cellular interactions are essential for normal function of the photoreceptor-RPE complex, but methods to assess these in the living human eye are limited. One approach that has gained increased promise is high-resolution retinal imaging that has undergone tremendous technological advances over the last two decades to probe the living retina at the cellular level. Pivotal in these advances has been adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that together allow unprecedented spatial resolution of retinal structures in all three dimensions. Using these high-resolution systems, cone photoreceptor are now routinely imaged in healthy and diseased retina enabling fundamental structural properties of cones to be studied such as cell spacing, packing arrangement, and alignment. Other important cell properties, however, have remained elusive to investigation as even better imaging performance is required and thus has resulted in an incomplete understanding of how cells in the photoreceptor-RPE complex interact with light. To address this technical bottleneck, we expanded the imaging capability of AO-OCT to detect and quantify more accurately and completely the optical properties of cone photoreceptor and RPE cells at the cellular level in the living human retina. The first objective of this thesis was development of a new AO-OCT method that is more precise and sensitive, thus enabling a more detailed view of the 3D optical signature of the photoreceptor-RPE complex than was previously possible (Chapter 2). Using this new system, the second objective was quantifying the waveguide properties of individual cone photoreceptor inner and outer segments across the macula (Chapter 3). The third objective extended the AO

  5. Optical power allocation for adaptive transmissions in wavelength-division multiplexing free space optical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou


    Full Text Available Attracting increasing attention in recent years, the Free Space Optics (FSO technology has been recognized as a cost-effective wireless access technology for multi-Gigabit rate wireless networks. Radio on Free Space Optics (RoFSO provides a new approach to support various bandwidth-intensive wireless services in an optical wireless link. In an RoFSO system using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM, it is possible to concurrently transmit multiple data streams consisting of various wireless services at very high rate. In this paper, we investigate the problem of optical power allocation under power budget and eye safety constraints for adaptive WDM transmission in RoFSO networks. We develop power allocation schemes for adaptive WDM transmissions to combat the effect of weather turbulence on RoFSO links. Simulation results show that WDM RoFSO can support high data rates even over long distance or under bad weather conditions with an adequate system design.

  6. Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Bui, Bang; Nguyen, Christine T O; He, Zheng; Metha, Andrew


    Conventional adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes use wavefront sensing methods to characterize ocular aberrations for real-time correction. However, there are important situations in which the wavefront sensing step is susceptible to difficulties that affect the accuracy of the correction. To circumvent these, wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (or non-wavefront sensing AO; NS-AO) imaging has recently been developed and has been applied to point-scanning based retinal imaging modalities. In this study we show, for the first time, contrast-based NS-AO ophthalmoscopy for full-frame in vivo imaging of human and animal eyes. We suggest a robust image quality metric that could be used for any imaging modality, and test its performance against other metrics using (physical) model eyes.

  7. Modified Acousto-Optic Adaptive Processor (Mod-AOAP) (United States)

    Keefer, Christopher W.; Malowicki, John E.; Payson, Paul M.


    Multipath jamming noise introduced into a radar antenna's sidelobes effectively reduces the radar's target detection capability. The acousto-optic adaptive processor (AOAP) was developed to demonstrate an optical implementation of the least mean square (LMS) algorithm for adaptively cancelling noise jamming. The AOAP system demonstrated 30 dB cancellation of monotone CW signals, with degraded performance as the bandwidth increased. The liquid crystal light valve (LCLV), used as the integrator/ spatial light modulator in the AOAP, has been identified as limiting system performance. In this report we report on modifications to the AOAP. Specifically, the LCLV has been replaced with a photorefractive crystal. Cancellation performance and cancellation speed of the mod-AOAP are presented and compared to the original results.


    Farrukh, U. O.


    Managing the thermal energy that accumulates within a solid-state laser material under active pumping is of critical importance in the design of laser systems. Earlier models that calculated the temperature distribution in laser rods were single dimensional and assumed laser rods of infinite length. This program presents a new model which solves the temperature distribution problem for finite dimensional laser rods and calculates both the radial and axial components of temperature distribution in these rods. The modeled rod is either side-pumped or end-pumped by a continuous or a single pulse pump beam. (At the present time, the model cannot handle a multiple pulsed pump source.) The optical axis is assumed to be along the axis of the rod. The program also assumes that it is possible to cool different surfaces of the rod at different rates. The user defines the laser rod material characteristics, determines the types of cooling and pumping to be modeled, and selects the time frame desired via the input file. The program contains several self checking schemes to prevent overwriting memory blocks and to provide simple tracing of information in case of trouble. Output for the program consists of 1) an echo of the input file, 2) diffusion properties, radius and length, and time for each data block, 3) the radial increments from the center of the laser rod to the outer edge of the laser rod, and 4) the axial increments from the front of the laser rod to the other end of the rod. This program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN77 and implemented on a Tandon AT with a 287 math coprocessor. The program can also run on a VAX 750 mini-computer. It has a memory requirement of about 147 KB and was developed in 1989.

  9. Protecting the entanglement of twisted photons by adaptive optics (United States)

    Leonhard, Nina; Sorelli, Giacomo; Shatokhin, Vyacheslav N.; Reinlein, Claudia; Buchleitner, Andreas


    We study the efficiency of adaptive optics (AO) correction for the free-space propagation of entangled photonic orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) qubit states to reverse moderate atmospheric turbulence distortions. We show that AO can significantly reduce crosstalk to modes within and outside the encoding subspace and thereby stabilize entanglement against turbulence. This method establishes a reliable quantum channel for OAM photons in turbulence, and it enhances the threshold turbulence strength for secure quantum communication by at least a factor 2.

  10. Adaptive-optics Optical Coherence Tomography Processing Using a Graphics Processing Unit*


    Shafer, Brandon A.; Kriske, Jeffery E.; Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Turner, Timothy L.; Liu, Zhuolin; Lee, John Jaehwan; Miller, Donald T.


    Graphics processing units are increasingly being used for scientific computing for their powerful parallel processing abilities, and moderate price compared to super computers and computing grids. In this paper we have used a general purpose graphics processing unit to process adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT) images in real time. Increasing the processing speed of AOOCT is an essential step in moving the super high resolution technology closer to clinical viability.

  11. Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography processing using a graphics processing unit. (United States)

    Shafer, Brandon A; Kriske, Jeffery E; Kocaoglu, Omer P; Turner, Timothy L; Liu, Zhuolin; Lee, John Jaehwan; Miller, Donald T


    Graphics processing units are increasingly being used for scientific computing for their powerful parallel processing abilities, and moderate price compared to super computers and computing grids. In this paper we have used a general purpose graphics processing unit to process adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT) images in real time. Increasing the processing speed of AOOCT is an essential step in moving the super high resolution technology closer to clinical viability.

  12. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging. (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris


    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  13. All-optical noninvasive control of semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Schikora, Sylvia; Wünsche, Hans-Jürgen; Henneberger, Fritz


    All-optical noninvasive control of a multi-section semiconductor laser by means of time-delayed feedback from an external Fabry-Perot cavity is realized experimentally. The role of the optical phase as a specific new control parameter of this type of delayed-feedback control is stressed. Using phase-dependent feedback from a resonant plane Fabry-Perot interferometer, the stabilization of unstable steady states and unstable self-pulsations is achieved, including experimental demonstration of all-optical chaos control. In the latter experiment, optical chaos is transformed into a regular 12.9 GHz self-pulsation. This result is the fastest realization of chaos control ever reported. The control is noninvasive, only less than one per mille feedback keeps the stabilized states stable.

  14. Modeling and analysis of laser active interference optical path (United States)

    Shan, Cong-miao; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Chen, Jian-biao; Ren, Jian-ying


    By using the geometrical optics and physical optics method, the models of wedge plate interference optical path, Michelson interferometer and Mach Zehnder interferometer thus three different active interference pattern are built. The optical path difference (OPD) launched by different interference patterns, fringe spacing and contrast expression have been derived. The results show that far field interference peak intensity of the wedge plate interference is small, so the detection distance is limited, Michelson interferometer with low contrast affects the performance of detection system, Mach Zehnder interferometer has greater advantages in peak intensity, the variable range of interference fringe spacing and contrast ratio. The results of this study are useful for the theoretical research and practical application of laser active interference detection.

  15. Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer J.; Masella, Benjamin; Dubra, Alfredo; Sharma, Robin; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Williams, David R.


    In vivo two-photon imaging through the pupil of the primate eye has the potential to become a useful tool for functional imaging of the retina. Two-photon excited fluorescence images of the macaque cone mosaic were obtained using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, overcoming the challenges of a low numerical aperture, imperfect optics of the eye, high required light levels, and eye motion. Although the specific fluorophores are as yet unknown, strong in vivo intrinsic fluorescence allowed images of the cone mosaic. Imaging intact ex vivo retina revealed that the strongest two-photon excited fluorescence signal comes from the cone inner segments. The fluorescence response increased following light stimulation, which could provide a functional measure of the effects of light on photoreceptors. PMID:21326644

  16. Concept for SAMOS: SOAR Adaptive-optics Multi-object Spectrograph (United States)

    Robberto, Massimo; Donahue, M.; Tokovinin, A.; Smee, S.; Barkhauser, R.; Deustua, S.; Gennaro, M.; Kalirai, J.; MacKenty, J.; Pontoppidan, K.


    We present the concept design of SAMOS, a Multi-Object Spectrograph for the laser-guided adaptive-optics module SAM of the 4.2m telescope SOAR at Cerro Pachon (Chile). SAMOS exploits the improved optical quality at visible wavelength over a 3'x3' field of view delivered by SAM to simultaneously acquire hundreds of spectra of rich, crowded fields. Slits are generated "on-the-fly" using a MEMS device, namely a last-generation Digital Micro-Mirror Device (DMD) produced by Texas Instrument. The use of a DMD allows optimization of the slit width to the local seeing conditions and to the variable, field-dependent image sharpness. We illustrate a sample of the science investigations enabled by SAMOS and a baseline scheme of the system at the SAM station.

  17. Free space optical communication based on pulsed lasers (United States)

    Drozd, Tadeusz; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Zygmunt, Marek; Wojtanowski, Jacek


    Most of the current optical data transmission systems are based on continuous wave (cw) lasers. It results from the tendency to increase data transmission speed, and from the simplicity in implementation (straightforward modulation). Pulsed lasers, which find many applications in a variety of industrial, medical and military systems, in this field are not common. Depending on the type, pulsed lasers can generate instantaneous power which is many times greater when compared with cw lasers. As such, they seem to be very attractive to be used in data transmission technology, especially due to the potentially larger ranges of transmission, or in adverse atmospheric conditions where low power cw-lasersbased transmission is no longer feasible. It is also a very practical idea to implement data transmission capability in the pulsed laser devices that have been around and already used, increasing the functionality of this type of equipment. At the Institute of Optoelectronics at Military University of Technology, a unique method of data transmission based on pulsed laser radiation has been developed. This method is discussed in the paper in terms of both data transmission speed and transmission range. Additionally, in order to verify the theoretical assumptions, modules for voice and data transmission were developed and practically tested which is also reported, including the measurements of Bit Error Rate (BER) and performance vs. range analysis.

  18. Optically pumped room-temperature GaAs nanowire lasers (United States)

    Saxena, Dhruv; Mokkapati, Sudha; Parkinson, Patrick; Jiang, Nian; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati


    Near-infrared lasers are important for optical data communication, spectroscopy and medical diagnosis. Semiconductor nanowires offer the possibility of reducing the footprint of devices for three-dimensional device integration and hence are being extensively studied in the context of optoelectronic devices. Although visible and ultraviolet nanowire lasers have been demonstrated widely, progress towards room-temperature infrared nanowire lasers has been limited because of material quality issues and Auger recombination. (Al)GaAs is an important material system for infrared lasers that is extensively used for conventional lasers. GaAs has a very large surface recombination velocity, which is a serious issue for nanowire devices because of their large surface-to-volume ratio. Here, we demonstrate room-temperature lasing in core-shell-cap GaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires by properly designing the Fabry-Pérot cavity, optimizing the material quality and minimizing surface recombination. Our demonstration is a major step towards incorporating (Al)GaAs nanowire lasers into the design of nanoscale optoelectronic devices operating at near-infrared wavelengths.

  19. Optical video projection using laser beam scanning technology (United States)

    Clynick, Tony J.


    Various techniques are currently used to project video images. One of these, described in a previous paper by the author, operates by mechanical scanning of a laser beam with acousto- optic modulation, and has been proven suitable for high definition television and computer display scan rates by use of novel electronic and optical compensation methods. The requirement for improved image intensity with greater efficiency has led to a re-appraisal of the selection of the light source and the relationship between the light source, the form of the modulator, and the method of scanning. The electrical input to visible radiation output ratio of the Argon-ion lasers currently used in the projector shows efficiency to be as low as 0.001%, a factor limiting the commercial exploitation of the projector. Recent developments in acousto- optics can be applied to the projector's optical system allowing alternative light sources to be used. These help to reduce the complexity of both the optical and signal processing stages as well as improve efficiency.

  20. Hybrid Ray/Wave Optics for Laser-Plasma Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratowsky, R.P.; Kallman, J.S.; Afeyan, B.B.; Feit, M.D.


    This aim of this FY 1998 LDRD project was to create a computational tool which bridges the gap between wave and ray optical regimes, important for application areas such as laser propagation in plasma and multimode photonics. We used phase space methods, where a set of rays distributed in a particular way in position and angle retain many essential features of wave optics. To characterize and enhance our understanding of the method, we developed a GUI-based photonics tool which can analyze light propagation in systems with a variety of axial and transverse refractive index distributions.

  1. Optical Fiber Sensing Based on Reflection Laser Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gagliardi


    Full Text Available An overview on high-resolution and fast interrogation of optical-fiber sensors relying on laser reflection spectroscopy is given. Fiber Bragg-gratings (FBGs and FBG resonators built in fibers of different types are used for strain, temperature and acceleration measurements using heterodyne-detection and optical frequency-locking techniques. Silica fiber-ring cavities are used for chemical sensing based on evanescent-wave spectroscopy. Various arrangements for signal recovery and noise reduction, as an extension of most typical spectroscopic techniques, are illustrated and results on detection performances are presented.

  2. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.


    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  3. Modeling of Laser Induced Damage in NIF UV Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A M


    Controlling damage to nominally transparent optical elements such as lenses, windows and frequency conversion crystals on high power lasers is a continuing technical problem. Scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms of laser energy absorption, material heating and vaporization and resultant mechanical damage is especially important for UV lasers with large apertures such as NIF. This LDRD project was a single year effort, in coordination with associated experimental projects, to initiate theoretical descriptions of several of the relevant processes. In understanding laser damage, we distinguish between damage initiation and the growth of existent damage upon subsequent laser irradiation. In general, the effect of damage could be ameliorated by either preventing its initiation or by mitigating its growth. The distinction comes about because initiation is generally due to extrinsic factors such as contaminants, which provide a means of local laser energy absorption. Thus, initiation tends to be local and stochastic in nature. On the other hand, the initial damaging event appears to modify the surrounding material in such a way that multiple pulse damage grows more or less regularly. More exactly, three ingredients are necessary for visible laser induced damage. These are adequate laser energy, a mechanism of laser energy absorption and mechanical weakness. For damage growth, the material surrounding a damage site is already mechanically weakened by cracks and probably chemically modified as well. The mechanical damage can also lead to electric field intensification due to interference effects, thus increasing the available laser energy density. In this project, we successfully accounted for the pulselength dependence of damage threshold in bulk DKDP crystals with the hypothesis of small absorbers with a distribution of sizes. We theoretically investigated expected scaling of damage initiation craters both to baseline detailed numerical simulations

  4. Correcting the aero-optical aberration of the supersonic mixing layer with adaptive optics: concept validation. (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Jiang, Zongfu; Yi, Shihe; Xie, Wenke; Liao, Tianhe


    We describe an adaptive optics (AO) system for correcting the aero-optical aberration of the supersonic mixing layer and test its performance with numerical simulations. The AO system is based on the measurement of distributed Strehl ratios and the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The aero-optical aberration is computed by the direct numerical simulation of a two-dimensional supersonic mixing layer. When the SPGD algorithm is applied directly, the AO cannot give effective corrections. This paper suggests two strategies to improve the performance of the SPGD algorithm for use in aero-optics. The first one is using an iteration process keeping finite memory, and the second is based on the frozen hypothesis. With these modifications, the performance of AO is improved and the aero-optical aberration can be corrected to some noticeable extent. The possibility of experimental implementation is also discussed.

  5. Diode lasers for direct application by utilizing a trepanning optic for remote oscillation welding of aluminum and copper (United States)

    Fritsche, Haro; Müller, Norbert; Ferrario, Fabio; Fetissow, Sebastian; Grohe, Andreas; Hagen, Thomas; Steger, Ronny; Katzemaikat, Tristan; Ashkenasi, David; Gries, Wolfgang


    We report the first direct diode laser module integrated with a trepanning optic for remote oscillation welding. The trepanning optic is assembled with a collimated DirectProcess 900 laser engine. This modular laser is based on single emitters and beam combiners to achieve fiber coupled modules with a beam parameter product or BPP design consists in vertically stacking several diodes in the fast axis which leads to a rectangular output of about 100 W with BPP of design principle provides the option to adapt the wavelength configuration to match a broad set of applications, from the UV to the visible and to the far IR depending on the commercial availability of laser diodes. This opens numerous additional applications like laser pumping, scientific and medical applications, as well as materials processing applications such as cutting and welding of copper aluminum or steel. Furthermore, the module's short lead lengths enable very short pulses. Integrated with electronics, the module's pulse width can be adjusted from micro-seconds to cw mode operation by simple software commands. An optical setup can be directly attached instead of a fiber to the laser module thanks to its modular design. This paper's experimental results are based on a trepanning optic attached to the laser module. Alltogether the setup approximately fits in a shoe box and weighs less than 20 kg which allows for direct mounting onto a 3D-gantry system. The oscillating weld performance of the 500 W direct diode laser utilizing a novel trepanning optic is discussed for its application to aluminum/aluminum and aluminum/copper joints.

  6. Analytic functions of optical choppers for Gaussian laser beams (United States)

    Pop, Nicolina; Cira, Octavian; Duma, Virgil-Florin


    The paper presents a report on our current work on obtaining the analytic functions of the laser impulses generated by optical choppers with disks in their classical configuration - with windows that have linear margins. With regard to our previous researches, focused on choppers working with top-hat (i.e., with constant intensity) laser beams, in the present work Gaussian laser beam distributions of the light beams to be chopped have been considered, for the most common case, of a light bundle of a sufficient small diameter in the plane of the disk; this type of section can therefore be completely obscured and uncovered by the chopper wings and windows, respectively. The functions of the transmitted light flux of the device are approached. This allows for the designing calculus of choppers for different applications, taking into account their specific requirements. A comparison between analytical results obtained in this work and results from our previous numerical modeling is pointed out.

  7. 2nd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Maria


    This collection of the selected papers presented to the Second International Conference on Photonics, Optics and laser technology PHOTOPTICS 2014 covers the three main conference scientific areas of “Optics”, “Photonics” and “Lasers”. The selected papers, in two classes full and short, result from a double blind review carried out by conference Program Committee members who are highly qualified experts in the conference topic areas.

  8. 3rd International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Maria


    The book provides a collection of selected papers presented to the third International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology PHOTOPTICS 2015, covering the three main conference scientific areas of “Optics”, “Photonics” and “Lasers”. The selected papers, in two classes full and short, result from a double blind review carried out by the conference program committee members which are highly qualified experts in conference topic areas.

  9. All-optical, Three-axis Fiber Laser Magnetometer (United States)


    force acting on a current carrying bridge in the presence of a magnetic field, which drives its oscillation measured with a fiber laser strain sensor... strain between two cores as a function of rotation for difference inclinations and (b) reported inclination vs. actual inclination for a bend angle of...such as those based on SQUIDS, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), scalar resonance magnetometers, and flux-gates; however, a fiber optic sensor enables

  10. Optical fundamentals of an adaptive substance-on-surface chemical recognizer (United States)

    Fauconier, Richard; Ndoye, Mandoye; Montlouis, Webert


    The objective is to identify the chemical composition of (isotropic and homogeneous) thin liquid and gel films on various surfaces by their infrared reflectance spectra. A bistatic optical sensing concept is proposed here in which a multi-wavelength laser source and a detector are physically displaced from each other. With the aid of the concept apparatus proposed, key optical variables can be measured in real time. The variables in question (substance thickness, refractive index, etc.) are those whose un-observability causes many types of monostatic sensor (in use today) to give ambiguous identifications. Knowledge of the aforementioned key optical variables would allow an adaptive signal-processing algorithm to make unambiguous identifications of the unknown chemicals by their infrared spectra, despite their variable presentations. The proposed bistatic sensor system consists of an optical transmitter and an optical receiver. The whole system can be mounted on a stable platform. Both the optical transmitter subsystem and the optical receiver subsystem contain auxiliary sensors to determine their relative spatial positions and orientations. For each subsystem, these auxiliary sensors include an orientation sensor, and rotational sensors for absolute angular position. A profilometer-and-machine-vision subsystem is also included. An important aspect of determining the necessary optical variables is an aperture that limits the interrogatory beams to a coherent pair, rejecting those resulting from successive multiple reflections. A set of equations is developed to characterize the propagation of a coherent pair of frequency-modulated thin beams through the system. It is also shown that frequency modulation can produce easily measurable beat frequencies for determination of sample thicknesses on the order of microns to millimeters. Also shown is how the apparatus's polarization features allow it to measure the refractive index of any isotropic, homogeneous dielectric

  11. Frequency-doubled telecom fiber laser for a cold atom interferometer using optical lattices (United States)

    Theron, Fabien; Bidel, Yannick; Dieu, Emily; Zahzam, Nassim; Cadoret, Malo; Bresson, Alexandre


    A compact and robust frequency-doubled telecom laser system at 780 nm is presented for a rubidium cold atom interferometer using optical lattices. Adopting an optical switch at 1.5 μm and a dual-wavelength second harmonic generation system, only one laser amplifier is required for the laser system. Our system delivers a 900 mW laser beam with a detuning of 110 GHz for the optical lattice and a 650 mW laser beam with an adjustable detuning between 0 and -1 GHz for the laser cooling, the detection and the Raman transitions.

  12. Frequency doubled telecom fiber laser for a cold atom interferometer using optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Theron, Fabien; Dieu, Emily; Zahzam, Nassim; Cadoret, Malo; Zahzam, Nassim; Bresson, Alexandre


    A compact and robust laser system, based on a frequency-doubled telecom laser, providing all the lasers needed for a rubidium cold atom interferometer using optical lattices is presented. Thanks to an optical switch at 1.5 \\mu m and a dual-wavelength second harmonic generation system, only one laser amplifier is needed for all the laser system. Our system delivers at 780 nm a power of 900 mW with a detuning of 110 GHz for the optical lattice and a power of 650 mW with an adjustable detuning between 0 and -1 GHz for the laser cooling, the detection and the Raman transitions.

  13. All-optical noninvasive delayed feedback control of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Schikora, Sylvia


    The stabilization of unstable states hidden in the dynamics of a system, in particular the control of chaos, has received much attention in the last years. Sylvia Schikora for the first time applies a well-known control method called delayed feedback control entirely in the all-optical domain. A multisection semiconductor laser receives optical feedback from an external Fabry-Perot interferometer. The control signal is a phase-tunable superposition of the laser signal and provokes the laser to operate in an otherwise unstable periodic state with a period equal to the time delay. The control is noninvasive, because the reflected signal tends to zero when the target state is reached.   The work has been awarded the Carl-Ramsauer-Prize 2012.   Contents ·         All-Optical Control Setup ·         Stable States with Resonant Fabry-Perot Feedback ·         Control of an Unstable Stationary State and of Unstable Selfpulsations ·         Controlling Chaos ·         Con...

  14. Deformation of multilayers and optical surfaces in soft x-ray adaptive optics (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Wylie-van Eerd, Benjamin J.; Yuan, Huiyu; Houwman, Evert; Antonov, Oleksandr; Louis, Eric; Yakshin, Andrey E.; Rijnders, Guus J. H. M.; Bijkerk, Fred


    Adaptive optics are of great utility in improving the resolving power of imaging and projection systems. In EUV lithography systems, for example, an adaptive optic can correct for wavefront deformation and decrease the feature size of integrated circuits that the system is in practice able to print. Piezoelectric thin films can be shown to accurately deform their surface with the sub-Angstrom precision required in order to compensate for wavefront deformation in EUV lithographic systems. However, in order to develop this from concept to working device, reflective coatings must be grown on top of the piezoelectric layer. Normal incidence EUV adaptive optics must meet the challenge of manipulating multilayer reflective coatings, while simultaneously preserving over many cycles the finely tuned structural properties that result in high XUV reflectivity. At this moment there are many unanswered questions in the literature about the behavior of an EUV multilayer under strain and the interaction of piezoelectric elements with multilayers. In this talk, we will present modelling of the response of multilayers to inhomogeneous strains that may be expected in a normal-incidence EUV adaptive optic, and preliminary experimental results.

  15. PREFACE: Third International Conference on Optical and Laser Diagnostics (United States)

    Arcoumanis, C.; Grattan, K. T. V.


    The International Conference on Optical and Laser Diagnostics (ICOLAD 2007), held at City University in May 2007, was the third meeting in this well established series, following upon the first in 2002 and the second in 2005. During that time the area of optical and laser diagnostics has continued to develop and to expand with both the changes seen in the technology and the availability of new optical components and laser systems. The field remains one of the most interdisciplinary of the topics of today's research, impacting upon areas from fundamental physics to IT and encompassing a number of different areas in engineering today. These proceedings are a record of current practice in this area from a Conference which remains an international forum for new ideas and developments in this exciting branch of optical engineering. It builds upon the foundation of research in the broad field of optical diagnostics in a number of industrial and biomedical application areas at the City University, London. The Conference was structured into a number of sessions reflecting topical developments in engine research, optical sensing and measurement and biomedical engineering held over three days in London, with the contributed talks led by invited papers from many internationally known and respected experts in their field from mainland Europe, the United States and Japan and the UK. The material covered encompasses such major themes as laser diagnostics, reciprocating engine-related applications and flow velocity measurement, extending to include biomedical and structural monitoring using advanced optical techniques. The papers at this Conference continue to draw their authority from the reputations of the authors and the groups and companies internationally that they represent. This volume brings together a valuable cross-section of world-leading research at the time. The local Organizing Committee would like to acknowledge and thank the industrial sponsors of the Conference

  16. Advances in lasers and optical micro-nano-systems (United States)

    Laurell, F.; Fazio, E.


    Lasers represent a well consolidated technology: nevertheless, research in this field remains very active and productive, in both basic and applied directions. At the moment significant attention is given to those sources that bring together high power and compactness. Such high power lasers find important applications for material treatments and such applications are presented by Ehsani et al and Saiedeh Saghafi et al, in the treatment of dielectric thin films (Alteration of optical and morphological properties of polycarbonate illuminated by visible/IR laser beams) or of biological tissues like pistachio seeds (Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis). In particular the latter paper show how laser sources can find very important applications in new domains, preserving goods and food without the need for preservatives or pesticides by simply sterilizing them using light. Optical Micro and Nano Systems presents a new domain for exploration. In this framework this special issue is very attractive, because it assembles papers reporting new results in three directions: new techniques for monitoring integrated micro- and nano-systems, new integrated systems and novel high performance metamaterial configurations. Integrated micro-components can be monitored and controlled using reflectance measurements as presented by Piombini et al (Toward the reflectance measurement of micro components). Speckle formation during laser beam reflection can also be a very sophisticated tool for detecting ultra-precise displacements, as presented by Filter et al (High resolution displacement detection with speckles : accuracy limits in linear displacement speckle metrology). Three dimensional integrated optical structures is indeed a big challenge and a peculiarity of photonics, they can be formed through traditional holography or using more sophisticated and novel ! technologies. Thus, special

  17. Graphite/Cyanate Ester Face Sheets for Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Bennett, Harold; Shaffer, Joseph; Romeo, Robert


    It has been proposed that thin face sheets of wide-aperture deformable mirrors in adaptive-optics systems be made from a composite material consisting of cyanate ester filled with graphite. This composite material appears to offer an attractive alternative to low-thermal-expansion glasses that are used in some conventional optics and have been considered for adaptive-optics face sheets. Adaptive-optics face sheets are required to have maximum linear dimensions of the order of meters or even tens of meters for some astronomical applications. If the face sheets were to be made from low-thermal-expansion glasses, then they would also be required to have thicknesses of the order of a millimeter so as to obtain the optimum compromise between the stiffness needed for support and the flexibility needed to enable deformation to controlled shapes by use of actuators. It is difficult to make large glass sheets having thicknesses less than 3 mm, and 3-mm-thick glass sheets are too stiff to be deformable to the shapes typically required for correction of wavefronts of light that has traversed the terrestrial atmosphere. Moreover, the primary commercially produced candidate low-thermal-expansion glass is easily fractured when in the form of thin face sheets. Graphite-filled cyanate ester has relevant properties similar to those of the low-expansion glasses. These properties include a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the order of a hundredth of the CTEs of other typical mirror materials. The Young s modulus (which quantifies stiffness in tension and compression) of graphite-filled cyanate ester is also similar to the Young's moduli of low-thermal-expansion glasses. However, the fracture toughness of graphite-filled cyanate ester is much greater than that of the primary candidate low-thermal-expansion glass. Therefore, graphite-filled cyanate ester could be made into nearly unbreakable face sheets, having maximum linear dimensions greater than a meter and thicknesses of

  18. Wavelength tuneable laser beam shaping optics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A


    Full Text Available Shaping Theory Page 3 © CSIR 2006 - 15 - 10 - 5 5 10 15 RadiusHmmL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 HeightHmmL 2 4 6 8 10 SizeHmmL 1000 2000 3000 4000 FocalLengthHmmL - 10 - 5 5 10 RadiusHmmL 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Sag... beam sizes, misaligned optics etc 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Y Axis In te n si ty [ar b u n its ] X A xis -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Model: NIC GLAD I n t e n s i t y [ a r b...

  19. Optical Testing Using Portable Laser Coordinate Measuring Instruments (United States)

    Khreishi, M.; Ohl, R.; Mclean, K.; Hadjimichael, T.; Hayden, J.


    High precision, portable coordinate measuring instruments (CMI) such as laser radars (LR) and laser trackers (LT) have been used for optical system alignment and integration. The LRs ability to perform a non-contact scan of surfaces was previously utilized to characterize large spherical and aspheric mirrors. In this paper, we explore the use of a CMI as an accurate, fast, robust, and non-contact tool for prescription characterization of powered optical surfaces. Using Nikons MV-224350 LR and Leicas Absolute Tracker AT401402 instruments, proof of concept measurements were performed to characterize a variety of optical components by measuring the actual and apparent, or equivalently the direct and through (DT), coordinates of calibrated metrology targets. Custom macros in metrology software and other data reduction code were developed to compute surface-ray intercepts and surface slopes from the DT shots. The calculated data is fit to an aspheric surface formula to obtain the optimum prescription. The results were compared to the nominal parameters and were crosschecked using LR scans or other approaches. We discuss potential applications across the fields of optical component fabrication and system alignment and testing.

  20. Adapting smartphones for low-cost optical medical imaging (United States)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José D.; Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Blanco, Kate; Inada, Natalia M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina


    Optical images have been used in several medical situations to improve diagnosis of lesions or to monitor treatments. However, most systems employ expensive scientific (CCD or CMOS) cameras and need computers to display and save the images, usually resulting in a high final cost for the system. Additionally, this sort of apparatus operation usually becomes more complex, requiring more and more specialized technical knowledge from the operator. Currently, the number of people using smartphone-like devices with built-in high quality cameras is increasing, which might allow using such devices as an efficient, lower cost, portable imaging system for medical applications. Thus, we aim to develop methods of adaptation of those devices to optical medical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence. Particularly, smartphones covers were adapted to connect a smartphone-like device to widefield fluorescence imaging systems. These systems were used to detect lesions in different tissues, such as cervix and mouth/throat mucosa, and to monitor ALA-induced protoporphyrin-IX formation for photodynamic treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. This approach may contribute significantly to low-cost, portable and simple clinical optical imaging collection.

  1. A pupil tracking system for adaptive optics retinal imaging (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Harms, Fabrice; Lamory, Barbara; Vabre, Laurent


    High-resolution imaging of the retina is a challenge due to the optical aberrations introduced by the eye, a living system in constant change and motion. Adaptive Optics (AO) is particularly suited to the continuous, dynamic correction of aberrations as they change over time. In particular, eye pupil displacements induce fast-changing wave front errors which lead to a need for faster wave front sensors. We propose a new approach for ocular adaptive optics by adding a Pupil Tracking System (PTS) into the AO loop. This system is different from the existing eye tracking devices by its speed, high precision in a short range and therefore its suitability for integration in an AO loop. Performance tests done using an artificial eye with a pupil diameter of 7 mm have shown promising results. These tests have demonstrated that the device achieves an accuracy of <15 μm in a +/-2 mm range of eye movements with a standard deviation <10 μm, and requires less than 12 ms for each detection.

  2. Femtosecond laser writing of optical edge filters in fused silica optical waveguides. (United States)

    Grenier, Jason R; Fernandes, Luís A; Herman, Peter R


    The positional alignment of femtosecond laser written Bragg grating waveguides within standard and coreless optical fiber has been exploited to vary symmetry and open strong optical coupling to a high density of asymmetric cladding modes. This coupling was further intensified with tight focusing of the laser pulses through an oil-immersion lens to control mode size against an asymmetric refractive index profile. By extending this Bragg grating waveguide writing into bulk fused silica glass, strong coupling to a continuum of radiation-like modes facilitated a significant broadening to over hundreds of nanometers bandwidth that blended into the narrow Bragg resonance to form into a strongly isolating (43 dB) optical edge filter. This Bragg resonance defined exceptionally steep edge slopes of 136 dB/nm and 185 dB/nm for unpolarized and linearly polarized light, respectively, that were tunable through the 1450 nm to 1550 nm telecommunication band.

  3. Laser camp: shining a light on optics careers (United States)

    Donnelly, Judith; Goyette, Donna; Magnani, Nancy; Wosczyna-Birch, Karen


    Three Rivers Community College offers two associate degree programs in optics/photonics, and graduates have their choice of jobs in New England and across the United States. Nonetheless, students, their parents, teachers and guidance counselors are largely unaware of the career opportunities in the photonics industry. To promote optics/photonics career awareness, we hosted two versions of "Laser Camp" in 2007 and 2008. Hands-on activities were chosen to promote awareness of optical science and technology careers and to provide "take home" information and souvenirs to share with family and friends. In this paper, we discuss the logistics of funding, marketing, permissions, transportation and food service and share our student-tested activities.

  4. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R.; Rossi, Ethan A.


    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2–3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5–0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05–0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3–5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7–1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07–0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing. PMID:26114033

  5. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R; Rossi, Ethan A


    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2-3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5-0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05-0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3-5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7-1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07-0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing.

  6. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.


    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  7. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy (United States)

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas


    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy – or rather nanoscopy – to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem. PMID:26124194

  8. Six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashko, R V; Bezruk, M N; Kamshilin, A A; Kulchin, Yurii N


    We have proposed and analysed a scheme for the multiplexing of orthogonal dynamic holograms in photorefractive crystals which ensures almost zero cross talk between the holographic channels upon phase demodulation. A six-channel adaptive fibre-optic interferometer was built, and the detection limit for small phase fluctuations in the channels of the interferometer was determined to be 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} rad W{sup 1/2} Hz{sup -1/2}. The channel multiplexing capacity of the interferometer was estimated. The formation of 70 channels such that their optical fields completely overlap in the crystal reduces the relative detection limit in the working channel by just 10 %. We found conditions under which the maximum cross talk between the channels was within the intrinsic noise level in the channels (-47 dB).

  9. Adaptive Optics Imaging of a Double Stellar Occultation by Titan (United States)

    Bouchez, A. H.; West, R. A.; Brown, M. E.; Troy, M.; Burrus, R. S.; Dekany, R. G.


    We present resolved images of the occultation of a binary star by Titan, recorded with the Palomar Observatory adaptive optics system on 20 December 2001 UT. These constitute the first resolved observations of a stellar occultation by a small body, and demonstrate many unique phenomena not previously observed. Multiple refracted stellar images are visible on Titan's limb throughout both events, and precise astrometry has allowed us to use these to map the oblateness of Titan's atmosphere at the millibar level. Furthermore, the haze optical depth at two altitudes over each pole of Titan is sampled by the refracted starlight, allowing a unique comparison of the haze structure above the summer and winter poles to be made. We will present a movie of the imaging sequence.

  10. Electro-Optic Laser Scanners for Space-Based Lidar Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this phase II SBIR is to design and build new non-mechanical, electro-optic (EO) laser scanners that will be suitable for space based laser ranging,...

  11. Self-characterization of linear and nonlinear adaptive optics systems. (United States)

    Hampton, Peter J; Conan, Rodolphe; Keskin, Onur; Bradley, Colin; Agathoklis, Pan


    We present methods used to determine the linear or nonlinear static response and the linear dynamic response of an adaptive optics (AO) system. This AO system consists of a nonlinear microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror (DM), a linear tip-tilt mirror (TTM), a control computer, and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The system is modeled using a single-input-single-output structure to determine the one-dimensional transfer function of the dynamic response of the chain of system hardware. An AO system has been shown to be able to characterize its own response without additional instrumentation. Experimentally determined models are given for a TTM and a DM.

  12. High resolution observations using adaptive optics: Achievements and future needs (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, K.; Rimmele, T.


    Over the last few years, several interesting observations were obtained with the help of solar Adaptive Optics (AO). In this paper, few observations made using the solar AO are enlightened and briefly discussed. A list of disadvantages with the current AO system are presented. With telescopes larger than 1.5 m expected during the next decade, there is a need to develop the existing AO technologies for large aperture telescopes. Some aspects of this development are highlighted. Finally, the recent AO developments in India are also presented.

  13. Wavefront reconstruction in adaptive optics systems using nonlinear multivariate splines. (United States)

    de Visser, Cornelis C; Verhaegen, Michel


    This paper presents a new method for zonal wavefront reconstruction (WFR) with application to adaptive optics systems. This new method, indicated as Spline based ABerration REconstruction (SABRE), uses bivariate simplex B-spline basis functions to reconstruct the wavefront using local wavefront slope measurements. The SABRE enables WFR on nonrectangular and partly obscured sensor grids and is not subject to the waffle mode. The performance of SABRE is compared to that of the finite difference (FD) method in numerical experiments using data from a simulated Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The results show that SABRE offers superior reconstruction accuracy and noise rejection capabilities compared to the FD method.

  14. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V


    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.

  15. Adaptive spectral window sizes for feature extraction from optical spectra (United States)

    Kan, Chih-Wen; Lee, Andy Y.; Pham, Nhi; Nieman, Linda T.; Sokolov, Konstantin; Markey, Mia K.


    We propose an approach to adaptively adjust the spectral window size used to extract features from optical spectra. Previous studies have employed spectral features extracted by dividing the spectra into several spectral windows of a fixed width. However, the choice of spectral window size was arbitrary. We hypothesize that by adaptively adjusting the spectral window sizes, the trends in the data will be captured more accurately. Our method was tested on a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy dataset obtained in a study of oblique polarization reflectance spectroscopy of oral mucosa lesions. The diagnostic task is to classify lesions into one of four histopathology groups: normal, benign, mild dysplasia, or severe dysplasia (including carcinoma). Nine features were extracted from each of the spectral windows. We computed the area (AUC) under Receiver Operating Characteristic curve to select the most discriminatory wavelength intervals. We performed pairwise classifications using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) with leave-one-out cross validation. The results showed that for discriminating benign lesions from mild or severe dysplasia, the adaptive spectral window size features achieved AUC of 0.84, while a fixed spectral window size of 20 nm had AUC of 0.71, and an AUC of 0.64 is achieved with a large window size containing all wavelengths. The AUCs of all feature combinations were also calculated. These results suggest that the new adaptive spectral window size method effectively extracts features that enable accurate classification of oral mucosa lesions.


    Onishi, Alex C; Roberts, Philipp K; Jampol, Lee M; Nesper, Peter L; Fawzi, Amani A


    To describe features characteristic of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Six women (seven eyes) who presented with MEWDS between June 2014 and April 2017 underwent ophthalmologic examinations and multimodal imaging including infrared, AOSLO, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Bright hyperreflective lesions on AOSLO throughout the course of MEWDS could be correlated to the hyperreflective dots of foveal granularity on infrared imaging without apparent corresponding changes on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. During the acute phase of MEWDS, extrafoveal hyperreflective dots were also visible on AOSLO and infrared and were associated with accumulations of hyperreflective material above the retinal pigment epithelium on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Foveal granularity on conventional fundus imaging could be correlated with hyperreflective lesions visible on AOSLO. We hypothesize that these hyperreflective lesions, "Jampol dots," are the foveal corollaries of the same process associated with the classic "dot" lesions in MEWDS. Based on the intact photoreceptor mosaic on AOSLO, we surmise that this material is accumulating at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium.

  17. High power coatings for line beam laser optics of up to 2-meter in length (United States)

    Mende, Mathias; Kohlhaas, Jürgen; Ebert, Wolfgang


    Laser material processing plays an important role in the fabrication of the crucial parts for state-of-the-art smartphones and tablets. With industrial line beam systems a line shaped beam with a length above one meter and an average power of several thousand watts can be realized. To ensure excellent long axis beam homogeneity, demanding specifications regarding the substrate surface form tolerances and the coating uniformity have to be achieved for each line beam optic. In addition, a high laser damage threshold and a low defect density are required for the coatings. In order to meet these requirements, the MAXIMA ion beam sputtering machine was developed and built by LASEROPTIK. This contribution describes the functional principle of MAXIMA deposition machine, which adapts the ion beam sputtering technology with its highest coating quality to the field of large area deposition. Furthermore, recent developments regarding the process control by optical broadband monitoring are discussed. Finally experimental results on different thin film characteristics as for example the coating uniformity, the microstructure and the laser damage resistance of multilayers are presented.

  18. K-space linear Fourier domain mode locked laser and applications for optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Palte, Gesa; Huber, Robert


    We report on a Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) wavelength swept laser source with a highly linear time-frequency sweep characteristic and demonstrate OCT imaging without k-space resampling prior to Fourier transformation. A detailed theoretical framework is provided and different strategies how to determine the optimum drive waveform of the piezo-electrically actuated optical bandpass-filter in the FDML laser are discussed. An FDML laser with a relative optical frequency deviation ??nu/nu smaller than 8 x10(-5) over a 100 nm spectral bandwidth at 1300 nm is presented, enabling high resolution OCT over long ranging depths. Without numerical time-to-frequency resampling and without spectral apodization a sensitivity roll off of 4 dB over 2 mm, 12.5 dB over 4 mm and 26.5 dB over 1 cm at 3.5 mus sweep duration and 106.6 dB maximum sensitivity at 9.2 mW average power is achieved. The axial resolution in air degrades from 14 to 21 mum over 4 mm imaging depth. The compensation of unbalanced dispersion in the OCT sample arm by an adapted tuning characteristic of the source is demonstrated. Good stability of the system without feedback-control loops is observed over hours.

  19. Measurement of optical path length change following pulsed laser irradiation using differential phase optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Oh, Junghwan; Milner, Thomas E


    Differential phase optical coherence tomography (DPOCT) is introduced to measure optical path length changes in response to pulsed laser irradiation (585 nm). An analytical equation that includes thermoelastic surface displacement and thermorefractive index change is derived to predict optical path length change in response to pulsed laser irradiation for both "confined surface" and "free surface" model systems. The derived equation is tested by comparing predicted values with data recorded from experiments using two model systems. Thermorefractive index change and the thermal expansion coefficient are deduced from differential phase change (dDeltaphi) and temperature increase (DeltaT0) measurements. The measured n(T0)beta(T0)+dndT[=1.7410(-4)+/-1.710(-6) (1K)] in the free surface experiment matches with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) data value [=1.7710(-4) (1K)]. Exclusion of lateral thermal expansion in the analytical model for the confined surface experiment causes difference between the measured dndT[=-2.310(-4)+/-7.310(-6)(1K)] and the NIST value [=-9.4510(-5) (1K)]. In spite of the difference in the confined surface experiment, results of our studies indicate DPOCT can detect dynamic optical path length change in response to pulsed laser irradiation with high sensitivity, and applications to tissue diagnostics may be possible.

  20. Synchronous pumping of picosecond dye laser using high efficiency second harmonic generation from optical fibres (United States)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Bernardin, J. P.; Macdonald, R. L.; Demouchy, G.


    The stable operation of a mode-locked dye laser synchronously pumped by the second harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser produced in an Nd codoped germanosilicate optical fiber is reported. The optical fiber preparation technique, which results in a second harmonic conversion efficiency of 2 percent, is described. This optical fiber SHG conversion efficiency is the highest reported to date using a continuous-wave mode-locked laser.

  1. Low-threshold terahertz molecular laser optically pumped by a quantum cascade laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pagies


    Full Text Available We demonstrate a low-threshold, compact, room temperature, and continuous-wave terahertz molecular laser optically pumped by a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser. These characteristics are obtained, thanks to large dipole transitions of the active medium: NH3 (ammonia in gas state. The low-power (<60 mW laser pumping excites the molecules, thanks to intense mid-infrared transitions around 10.3 μm. The molecules de-excite by stimulated emission on pure inversion “umbrella-mode” quantum transitions allowed by the tunnel effect. The tunability of the quantum cascade laser gives access to several pure inversion transitions with different rotation states: we demonstrate the continuous-wave generation of ten laser lines around 1 THz. At 1.07 THz, we measure a power of 34 μW with a very low-threshold of 2 mW and a high differential efficiency of 0.82 mW/W. The spectrum was measured showing that the linewidth is lower than 1 MHz. To our knowledge, this is the first THz molecular laser pumped by a solid-state source and this result opens the way for compact, simple, and efficient THz source at room temperature for imaging applications.

  2. Multi-DOF Incremental Optical Encoder with Laser Wavelength Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha'o-Kuang Chen


    Full Text Available This study used a reflective diffraction grating as the medium to develop a multi-DOF incremental optical encoder for motion stage. The optical encoder can measure three angular displacements, roll, yaw and pitch of the motion stage simultaneously, as well as the horizontal straightness and linear displacement, summed to five DOF errors of motion stage by only using the positive and negative first-order diffracted light. The grating diffraction theory, Doppler effect, and optical interference technique were used. Two quadrant photodetectors were used to measure the changes in three-dimensional space of diffraction direction of diffracted light, in order to construct a multi-DOF incremental optical encoder. Considering the working stability of a laser diode and preventing the influence of the zeroth-order diffracted light returning to the laser diode, an additional optical isolation system was designed and a wavelength variation monitoring module was created. The compensation for the light source wavelength variation could be 0.001 nm. The multi-DOF verification results showed that the roll error is ±0.7/60 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.025 arcsec; the yaw error is ±0.7/30 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.05 arcsec; the pitch error is ±0.8/90 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.18 arcsec, the horizontal straightness error is ±0.5/250 μm, the standard deviation is 0.05 μm and the linear displacement error is ±1/20000 μm, the standard deviation is 12 nm.

  3. Extended depth of focus adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki


    We present an adaptive optics spectral domain optical coherence tomography (AO-SDOCT) with a long focal range by active phase modulation of the pupil. A long focal range is achieved by introducing AO-controlled third-order spherical aberration (SA). The property of SA and its effects on focal range are investigated in detail using the Huygens-Fresnel principle, beam profile measurement and OCT imaging of a phantom. The results indicate that the focal range is extended by applying SA, and the direction of extension can be controlled by the sign of applied SA. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo human retinal imaging by altering the applied SA. PMID:23082278

  4. Laser-matter structuration of optical and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallo, L., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Mezel, C., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); CEA Le Ripault, 37260 Monts (France); Guillemot, F., E-mail: [UMR 577 INSERM, Universite Bordeaux 2 (France); Chimier, B., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Bourgeade, A., E-mail: [CEA-CESTA, Le Barp (France); Regan, C., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Duchateau, G., E-mail: [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Souquet, A., E-mail: [UMR 577 INSERM, Universite Bordeaux 2 (France); Hebert, D., E-mail: [CEA-CESTA, Le Barp (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study we model nanomaterial structuring. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser energy deposition is discussed first. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full and approximate models are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic material response is addressed via hydrodynamics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sild effects are accounted for - Abstract: Interaction of ultrafast laser, i.e. from the femtosecond (fs) to the nanosecond (ns) regime, with initially transparent matter may produce very high energy density hot spots in the bulk as well as at the material surface, depending on focusing conditions. In the fs regime, absorption is due to ionisation of the dielectric, which enables absorption process to begin, and then hydrodynamic to take place. In the ns regime both absorption and hydrodynamic are coupled to each other, which complexifies considerably the comprehension but matter structuration looks similar. A numerical tool including solution of 3D Maxwell equations and a rate equation for free electrons is first compared to some available simple models of laser energy absorption. Then, subsequent material deformation, i.e. structuration, is determined by solving hydrodynamic equations, including or not solid behaviour. We show that nature of the final structures strongly depends on the amount of deposited energy and on the shape of the absorption zone. Then we address some problems related to laser-matter structuration of optical and biological materials in the fs, ps and ns regimes.

  5. Wavelength-tunable laser based on nonlinear dispersive-wave generation in a tapered optical waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method and a wavelength tunable laser comprising a first laser source configured to emit a first optical pulse having a pump wavelength, the first optical pulse being emitted in a first longitudinal direction. Furthermore, the wavelength tunable laser comprises...... a waveguide extending in the first longitudinal direction, the waveguide having longitudinally varying phase matching conditions, the waveguide being configured to generate a second optical pulse with a centre wavelength upon receiving the first optical pulse, wherein the wavelength tunable laser...

  6. Very-Narrow-Line Semiconductor Laser and Optical Clocks Based on Spectral Hole Burning Frequency Standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cone, Rufus


    .... The achieved frequency stabilization provides ideal lasers for high-resolution spectroscopy, real time optical signal processing based on spectral holography, and other applications requiring ultra...

  7. Photometric Calibration of the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (United States)

    Stevenson, Sarah Anne; Rodrigo Carrasco Damele, Eleazar; Thomas-Osip, Joanna


    The Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is an instrument available on the Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, utilizing the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). In order to allow users to easily perform photometry with this instrument and to monitor any changes in the instrument in the future, we seek to set up a process for performing photometric calibration with standard star observations taken across the time of the instrument’s operation. We construct a Python-based pipeline that includes IRAF wrappers for reduction and combines the AstroPy photutils package and original Python scripts with the IRAF apphot and photcal packages to carry out photometry and linear regression fitting. Using the pipeline, we examine standard star observations made with GSAOI on 68 nights between 2013 and 2015 in order to determine the nightly photometric zero points in the J, H, Kshort, and K bands. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, processed using the Gemini IRAF and gemini_python packages, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  8. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A


    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  9. AVES: an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph for the VLT (United States)

    Pasquini, Luca; Delabre, Bernard; Avila, Gerardo; Bonaccini, Domenico


    We present the preliminary study of a low cost, high performance spectrograph for the VLT, for observations in the V, R and I bands. This spectrograph is meant for intermediate (R equals 16,000) resolution spectroscopy of faint (sky and/or detector limited) sources, with particular emphasis on the study of solar-type (F-G) stars belonging to the nearest galaxies and to distant (or highly reddened) galactic clusters. The spectrograph is designed to use the adaptive optics (AO) systems at the VLT Telescope. Even if these AO systems will not provide diffraction limited images in the V, R and I bands, the photon concentration will still be above approximately 60% of the flux in an 0.3 arcsecond aperture for typical Paranal conditions. This makes the construction of a compact, cheap and efficient echelle spectrograph possible. AVES will outperform comparable non adaptive optic instruments by more than one magnitude for sky- and/or detector-limited observations, and it will be very suitable for observations in crowded fields.

  10. Error analysis on assembly and alignment of laser optical unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiong


    Full Text Available As one of largest optical units used in high-power laser inertial confinement fusion facility, the large-aperture transport mirror’s misalignment error can have a very negative impact on the targeting performance of laser beams. In this article, we have carried out a fundamental analysis on the mounting and misalignment errors of transport mirror. An integrated simulated assembly station is proposed to align the mirror precisely, and the design of transport mirror unit is optimized to satisfy the stringent specifications. Finally, methods that integrated theoretical modeling, numerical simulation, and field experiments are used to evaluate the mirror’s alignment, and the results indicate a more robust and precise alignment performance of new design.

  11. Borate Crystals for Nonlinear Optical and Laser Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun Kumar


    Full Text Available The development of borate-based single crystals for laser and frequency conversion applications is reviewed. The basic idea behind nonlinear optics and the role of anionic groups in the borate crystals are summarized. The properties of borate crystals—BBO, LBO, CBO, KBBF, SBBO, CLBO, YCOB, GdCOB, GdYCOB, KAB and LCB—are discussed. The growth and characterization of several rare earth-based borate crystals are mainly focused. Several borate crystals are grown from the melt techniques and a few crystals are grown adopting the flux technique. Many rare earth-based borate crystals are extensively used in device applications as they exhibit the frequency conversion ability along with high laser-induced damage tolerance.

  12. Return-map for semiconductor lasers with optical feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne; Sabbatier, H.


    recently. These results give insight into the behavior observed on a short time-scale, but do not explain some of the pronounced features of the LFF seen for moderate feedback levels; namely the stepwise build-up and its characteristic time of about 15 steps close to the solitary laser threshold. We......It is well known that a semiconductor laser exposed to moderate optical feedback and biased near threshold exhibits the phenomenon of low-frequency intensity fluctuations (LFF). While this behavior can be numerically simulated using the so-called Lang-Kobayshi model, the interpretation...... present new results related to the slow time-scale behaviour of LFF which give a simple explanation of these general characteristics, as well as providing a new tool for studying the statistics of the LFF....

  13. Growth behavior of laser-induced damage on fused silica optics under UV, ns laser irradiation. (United States)

    Negres, Raluca A; Norton, Mary A; Cross, David A; Carr, Christopher W


    The growth behavior of laser-induced damage sites is affected by a large number of laser parameters as well as site morphology. Here we investigate the effects of pulse duration on the growth rate of damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Results demonstrate a significant dependence of the growth parameters on laser pulse duration at 351 nm from 1 ns to 15 ns, including the observation of a dominant exponential versus linear, multiple-shot growth behavior for long and short pulses, respectively. These salient behaviors are tied to the damage morphology and suggest a shift in the fundamental growth mechanisms for pulses in the 1-5 ns range.

  14. Laser diode fiber optic apparatus for acupuncture treatment by the Oriental method (United States)

    Pham, Van Hoi; Phung, Huu A.; Bui, Huy; Hoang, Cao D.; Vu, Duc T.; Tran, Minh T.; Nguyen, Minh H.


    The laser acupuncture equipment using laser diodes of 850, 1300 nm and optical fibers as light needles is presented. The double-frequency modulation of laser beam gives the high efficiency treatment of the low-power laser therapy by the oriental acupuncture method. The laser spot from optical fiber of 50 microns is suitable for the irradiation into special points on body or auricular by the acupuncture treatment schema. The laser intensity in pulse regime of 5 - 40 W/cm2 and irradiation time of 5 - 15 minutes are optimum for treatment of neurosis symptoms and pain-relieving.

  15. Investigation of diffractive optical element femtosecond laser machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrol, Grégoire R., E-mail: [ECAM Strasbourg-Europe, Espace Européen de l’entreprise, 2, rue de Madrid – 67300 SCHILTIGHEIM, CS. 20013, 67012 Strasbourg CEDEX (France); Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Ciceron, Adline [ECAM Strasbourg-Europe, Espace Européen de l’entreprise, 2, rue de Madrid – 67300 SCHILTIGHEIM, CS. 20013, 67012 Strasbourg CEDEX (France); Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Twardowski, Patrice; Pfeiffer, Pierre [Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7357, 300 bld Sébastien Brant, CS 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex (France); Télécom Physique Strasbourg – Pôle API – 300 Bd Sébastien Brant – CS 10413, Illkirch Graffenstaden F 67400 (France); and others


    Highlights: • A method for rapid manufacturing of optical diffractive element in BK7 is proposed. • A binary grating in BK7 was successfully machined by femtosecond laser pulses. • Process relying on nonlinear absorption in the dielectric due to photoionization. • The binary grating was analysed by SEM and interferometric microscopy. • Simulations by Fourier modal method supported the measured diffractive efficiency. - Abstract: This paper presents an explorative study on the machining of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in transparent materials using a femtosecond laser source. A simple form of DOE, a binary phase grating with a period of 20.85 μm (σ = 0.5 μm), a groove depth and width of 0.7 μm (σ = 0.2 μm) and 8.8 μm (σ = 0.5 μm) respectively, was successfully machined in BK7. The topographic characteristics were measured by white light interferometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The processing was carried out on high precision stages with an ultrafast fibre laser (350 fs) emitting a 343 nm pulse focused onto the sample with a stationary microscope objective. A diffracted efficiency of 27%, obtained with a spectro goniometer, was corroborated by the theoretical results obtained by the Fourier modal method (FMM), taking into account the measured topographic values. These encouraging results demonstrate that high-speed femtosecond laser manufacturing of DOE in bulk glasses can be achieved, opening the way to rapid prototyping of multi-layered-DOEs.

  16. An Alternative Method of Evaluating 1540NM Exposure Laser Damage using an Optical Tissue Phantom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jindra, Nichole M; Figueroa, Manuel A; Rockwell, Benjamin A; Chavey, Lucas J; Zohner, Justin J


    An optical phantom was designed to physically and optically resemble human tissue, in an effort to provide an alternative for detecting visual damage resulting from inadvertent exposure to infrared lasers...

  17. All-Optical Flip-Flop Based on an SOA/DFB-Laser Diode Optical Feedback Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Oosterlinck, W.; Buron, Jakob Due; Öhman, Filip


    We report on the dynamic all-optical flip-flop (AOFF) operation of an optical feedback scheme consisting of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), bidirectionally coupled to each other. The operation of the AOFF relies on the interplay between...

  18. An optical FSK transmitter based on an integrated DFB laser-EA modulator and its application in optical labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva


    An optical frequency-shift-keying (FSK) transmitter based on an integrated distributed feedback laser-electroabsorption modulator is proposed and demonstrated. The feasibility of its application in optical labeling is also validated by the experimental results. The generated optical signal, consi...

  19. All-optical noninvasive chaos control of a semiconductor laser (United States)

    Schikora, S.; Wünsche, H.-J.; Henneberger, F.


    We demonstrate experimentally control of a chaotic system on time scales much shorter than in any previous study. Combining a multisection laser with an external Fabry-Perot etalon, the chaotic output transforms into a regular intensity self-pulsation with a frequency in the 10-GHz range. The control is noninvasive as the feedback from the etalon is minimum when the target state is reached. The optical phase is identified as a crucial control parameter. Numerical simulations agree well with the experimental data and uncover global control properties.

  20. Strongly interacting atom lasers in three-dimensional optical lattices. (United States)

    Hen, Itay; Rigol, Marcos


    We show that the dynamical melting of a Mott insulator in a three-dimensional lattice leads to condensation at nonzero momenta, a phenomenon that can be used to generate strongly interacting atom lasers in optical lattices. For infinite on-site repulsion, the case considered here, the momenta at which bosons condense are determined analytically and found to have a simple dependence on the hopping amplitudes. The occupation of the condensates is shown to scale linearly with the total number of atoms in the initial Mott insulator. Our results are obtained by using a Gutzwiller-type mean-field approach, gauged against exact-diagonalization solutions of small systems.

  1. Optics designs and system MTF for laser scanning displays (United States)

    Urey, Hakan; Nestorovic, Ned; Ng, Baldwin S.; Gross, Abraham A.


    The Virtual Retinal DisplayTM (VRDTM) technology is a new display technology being developed at Microvision Inc. The displayed image is scanned onto the viewer's retina using low- power red, green, and blue light sources. Microvision's proprietary miniaturized scanner designs make VRD system very well suited for head-mounted displays. In this paper we discuss some of the advantages of the VRD technology, various ocular designs for HMD and other applications, and details of constructing a system MTF budget for laser scanning systems that includes electronics, modulators, scanners, and optics.

  2. Optical monitoring of scoliosis by 3D medical laser scanner (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Julio C.; Sergiyenko, Oleg Yu.; Preciado, Luis C. Basaca; Tyrsa, Vera V.; Gurko, Alexander G.; Podrygalo, Mikhail A.; Lopez, Moises Rivas; Balbuena, Daniel Hernandez


    Three dimensional recording of the human body surface or anatomical areas have gained importance in many medical applications. In this paper, our 3D Medical Laser Scanner is presented. It is based on the novel principle of dynamic triangulation. We analyze the method of operation, medical applications, orthopedically diseases as Scoliosis and the most common types of skin to employ the system the most proper way. It is analyzed a group of medical problems related to the application of optical scanning in optimal way. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed system and its method uncertainty.

  3. Erbium Doped GaN Lasers by Optical Pumping (United States)


    thermal properties . The thermal conductivity GaN is very high (κ = 230 W/mK) and is more than one order of magnitude higher than YAG (κ = 14 W/mK...the ground state to a higher-lying inner 4f manifold in Er3+ ions without invoking a non- radiative energy transfer , hence generating a much smaller...installation of a high power 980 laser. The system is dedicated to the studies of the optical and lasing properties of Er:GaN crystals. The views

  4. Control algorithms and applications of the wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Yuanshen; Yang, Huizhen


    Compared with the conventional adaptive optics (AO) system, the wavefront sensorless (WFSless) AO system need not to measure the wavefront and reconstruct it. It is simpler than the conventional AO in system architecture and can be applied to the complex conditions. Based on the analysis of principle and system model of the WFSless AO system, wavefront correction methods of the WFSless AO system were divided into two categories: model-free-based and model-based control algorithms. The WFSless AO system based on model-free-based control algorithms commonly considers the performance metric as a function of the control parameters and then uses certain control algorithm to improve the performance metric. The model-based control algorithms include modal control algorithms, nonlinear control algorithms and control algorithms based on geometrical optics. Based on the brief description of above typical control algorithms, hybrid methods combining the model-free-based control algorithm with the model-based control algorithm were generalized. Additionally, characteristics of various control algorithms were compared and analyzed. We also discussed the extensive applications of WFSless AO system in free space optical communication (FSO), retinal imaging in the human eye, confocal microscope, coherent beam combination (CBC) techniques and extended objects.

  5. Light propagation studies on laser modified waveguides using scanning near-field optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrise, X.; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Jimenez, D.


    microscope (SNOM) has been used. The laser modifications locally changes the optical properties of the waveguide. The change in the effective refractive index is attributed to a TE to TM mode conversion, Thus, the laser modification might be a new way to fabricate optical mode converters.......By means of direct laser writing on Al, a new method to locally modify optical waveguides is proposed. This technique has been applied to silicon nitride waveguides, allowing modifications of the optical propagation along the guide. To study the formed structures, a scanning near-held optical...

  6. Development of adaptive optics elements for solar telescope (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kopulov, E. A.; Skomorovsky, V. I.; Trifonov, V. D.; Chuprakov, S. A.


    The devices and components of adaptive optical system ANGARA, which is developed for image correction in the Big solar vacuum telescope (BSVT) at Baykal astrophysical observatory are described. It is shown that the use of modernized adaptive system on BSVT not only reduces the turbulent atmospheric distortions of image, but also gives a possibility to improve the telescope developing new methods of solar observations. A high precision Shack-Hartmann wavefront (WF) sensor has been developed on the basis of a low-aperture off-axis diffraction lens array. The device is capable of measuring WF slopes at array sub-apertures of size 640X640 μm with an error not exceeding 4.80 arc.sec. Also the modification of this sensor for adaptive system of solar telescope using extended scenes as tracking objects, such as sunspot, pores, solar granulation and limb, is presented. The software package developed for the proposed WF sensors includes three algorithms of local WF slopes estimation (modified centroids, normalized cross-correlation and fast Fourier-demodulation), as well as three methods of WF reconstruction (modal Zernike polynomials expansion, deformable mirror response functions expansion and phase unwrapping), that can be selected during operation with accordance to the application.

  7. Linear laser diode arrays for improvement in optical disk recording (United States)

    Alphonse, G. A.; Carlin, D. B.; Connolly, J. C.


    The development of individually addressable laser diode arrays for multitrack magneto-optic recorders for space stations is discussed. Three multi-element channeled substrate planar (CSP) arrays with output power greater than 30 mW with linear light vs current characteristics and stable single mode spectra were delivered to NASA. These devices have been used to demonstrate for the first time the simultaneous recording of eight data tracks on a 14-inch magneto-optic erasable disk. The yield of these devices is low, mainly due to non-uniformities inherent to the LPE growth that was used to fabricate them. The authors have recently developed the inverted CSP, based on the much more uniform MOCVD growth techniques, and have made low threshold quantum well arrays requiring about three times less current than the CSP to deliver 30 mW CW in a single spatial mode. The inverted CSP is very promising for use in space flight recorder applications.

  8. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Fiber Ring Laser Demodulation Technology. (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Peng-Zhao; Wang, Jian-Zhang


    A review for optical fiber sensors based on fiber ring laser (FRL) demodulation technology is presented. The review focuses on the principles, main structures, and the sensing performances of different kinds of optical fiber sensors based on FRLs. First of all, the theory background of the sensors has been discussed. Secondly, four different types of sensors are described and compared, which includes Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) typed sensors, Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) typed sensors, Sagnac typed sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) typed sensors. Typical studies and main properties of each type of sensors are presented. Thirdly, a comparison of different types of sensors are made. Finally, the existing problems and future research directions are pointed out and analyzed.

  9. Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 Laser and Electro-Optic Technology for Space-Based Sodium Lidar Instrument (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Janches, Diego; Jones, Sarah L.; Blagojevic, Branimir; Chen, Jeffrey


    We are developing a laser and electro-optic technology to remotely measure Sodium (Na) by adapting existing lidar technology with space flight heritage. The developed instrumentation will serve as the core for the planning of an Heliophysics mission targeted to study the composition and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere based on a spaceborne lidar that will measure the mesospheric Na layer. We present performance results from our diode-pumped tunable Q-switched self-Raman c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with intra-cavity frequency doubling that produces multi-watt 589 nm wavelength output. The c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has a fundamental wavelength that is tunable from 1063-1067 nanometers. A CW (Continuous Wave) External Cavity diode laser is used as a injection seeder to provide single-frequency grating tunable output around 1066 nanometers. The injection-seeded self-Raman shifted Nd:VO4 laser is tuned across the sodium vapor D2 line at 589 nanometers. We will review technologies that provide strong leverage for the sodium lidar laser system with strong heritage from the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). These include a space-qualified frequency-doubled 9 watts-at-532-nanometer wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser, a tandem interference filter temperature-stabilized fused-silica-etalon receiver and high-bandwidth photon-counting detectors.

  10. Binary stars observed with adaptive optics at the starfire optical range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, Jack D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, RDSAM, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States)


    In reviewing observations taken of binary stars used as calibration objects for non-astronomical purposes with adaptive optics on the 3.5 m Starfire Optical Range telescope over the past 2 years, one-fifth of them were found to be off-orbit. In order to understand such a high number of discrepant position angles and separations, all previous observations in the Washington Double Star Catalog for these rogue binaries were obtained from the Naval Observatory. Adding our observations to these yields new orbits for all, resolving the discrepancies. We have detected both components of γ Gem for the first time, and we have shown that 7 Cam is an optical pair, not physically bound.

  11. Compact MEMS-based Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Zawadzki, R; Evans, J; Choi, S; Werner, J


    We describe a compact MEMS-based adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography system with improved AO performance and ease of clinical use. A typical AO system consists of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror that measures and corrects the ocular and system aberrations. Because of the limitation on the current deformable mirror technologies, the amount of real-time ocular-aberration compensation is restricted and small in the previous AO-OCT instruments. In this instrument, we proposed to add an optical apparatus to correct the spectacle aberrations of the patients such as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. This eliminated the tedious process of the trial lenses in clinical imaging. Different amount of spectacle aberration compensation was achieved by motorized stages and automated with the AO computer for ease of clinical use. In addition, the compact AO-OCT was optimized to have minimum system aberrations to reduce AO registration errors and improve AO performance.

  12. A Review of Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography: Technical Advances, Scientific Applications, and the Future. (United States)

    Jonnal, Ravi S; Kocaoglu, Omer P; Zawadzki, Robert J; Liu, Zhuolin; Miller, Donald T; Werner, John S


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled "virtual biopsy" of the living human retina, revolutionizing both basic retina research and clinical practice over the past 25 years. For most of those years, in parallel, adaptive optics (AO) has been used to improve the transverse resolution of ophthalmoscopes to foster in vivo study of the retina at the microscopic level. Here, we review work done over the last 15 years to combine the microscopic transverse resolution of AO with the microscopic axial resolution of OCT, building AO-OCT systems with the highest three-dimensional resolution of any existing retinal imaging modality. We surveyed the literature to identify the most influential antecedent work, important milestones in the development of AO-OCT technology, its applications that have yielded new knowledge, research areas into which it may productively expand, and nascent applications that have the potential to grow. Initial efforts focused on demonstrating three-dimensional resolution. Since then, many improvements have been made in resolution and speed, as well as other enhancements of acquisition and postprocessing techniques. Progress on these fronts has produced numerous discoveries about the anatomy, function, and optical properties of the retina. Adaptive optics OCT continues to evolve technically and to contribute to our basic and clinical knowledge of the retina. Due to its capacity to reveal cellular and microscopic detail invisible to clinical OCT systems, it is an ideal companion to those instruments and has the demonstrable potential to produce images that can guide the interpretation of clinical findings.

  13. Methods for determining optical power, for power-normalizing laser measurements, and for stabilizing power of lasers via compliance voltage sensing (United States)

    Taubman, Matthew S; Phillips, Mark C


    A method is disclosed for power normalization of spectroscopic signatures obtained from laser based chemical sensors that employs the compliance voltage across a quantum cascade laser device within an external cavity laser. The method obviates the need for a dedicated optical detector used specifically for power normalization purposes. A method is also disclosed that employs the compliance voltage developed across the laser device within an external cavity semiconductor laser to power-stabilize the laser mode of the semiconductor laser by adjusting drive current to the laser such that the output optical power from the external cavity semiconductor laser remains constant.

  14. Robo-AO KP: A new era in robotic adaptive optics (United States)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Duev, Dmitry; Ziegler, Carl; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.; Atkinson, Dani Eleanor; Tanner, Angelle M.; Zhang, Celia; Ray, Amy


    Robo-AO is the first and only fully automated adaptive optics laser guide star AO instrument. It was developed as an instrument for 1-3m robotic telescopes, in order to take advantage of their availability to pursue large survey programs and target of opportunity observations that aren't possible with other AO systems. Robo-AO is currently the most efficient AO system in existence, and it can achieve an observation rate of 20+ science targets per hour. In more than three years of operations at Palomar Observatory, it has been quite successful, producing technology that is being adapted by other AO systems and robotic telescope projects, as well as several high impact scientific publications. Now, Robo-AO has been selected to take over operation of the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1m telescope. This will give Robo-AO KP the opportunity to pursue multiple science programs consisting of several thousand targets each during the three years it will be on the telescope. One-sixth of the observing time will be allocated to the US community through the NOAO TAC process. This presentation will discuss the process adapting Robo-AO to the KPNO 2.1m telescope, the plans for integration and initial operations, and the science operations and programs to be pursued.

  15. Kalman filtering to suppress spurious signals in Adaptive Optics control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyneer, L; Veran, J P


    In many scenarios, an Adaptive Optics (AO) control system operates in the presence of temporally non-white noise. We use a Kalman filter with a state space formulation that allows suppression of this colored noise, hence improving residual error over the case where the noise is assumed to be white. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new filter in the case of the estimated Gemini Planet Imager tip-tilt environment, where there are both common-path and non-common path vibrations. We discuss how this same framework can also be used to suppress spatial aliasing during predictive wavefront control assuming frozen flow in a low-order AO system without a spatially filtered wavefront sensor, and present experimental measurements from Altair that clearly reveal these aliased components.

  16. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics temporal focusing-based multiphoton microscopy (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Chung; Su, Hung-Wei; Hu, Yvonne Yuling; Cho, Keng-Chi; Yen, Wei-Chung; Xu, Chris; Dong, Chen Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen


    Temporal profile distortions reduce excitation efficiency and image quality in temporal focusing-based multiphoton microscopy. In order to compensate the distortions, a wavefront sensorless adaptive optics system (AOS) was integrated into the microscope. The feedback control signal of the AOS was acquired from local image intensity maximization via a hill-climbing algorithm. The control signal was then utilized to drive a deformable mirror in such a way as to eliminate the distortions. With the AOS correction, not only is the axial excitation symmetrically refocused, but the axial resolution with full two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) intensity is also maintained. Hence, the contrast of the TPEF image of a R6G-doped PMMA thin film is enhanced along with a 3.7-fold increase in intensity. Furthermore, the TPEF image quality of 1μm fluorescent beads sealed in agarose gel at different depths is improved. PMID:24940539

  17. Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive optics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, M A; Mignant, D L; Macintosh, B A


    In this paper, the adaptive optics (AO) system at the W.M. Keck Observatory is characterized. The authors calculate the error budget of the Keck AO system operating in natural guide star mode with a near infrared imaging camera. By modeling the control loops and recording residual centroids, the measurement noise and band-width errors are obtained. The error budget is consistent with the images obtained. Results of sky performance tests are presented: the AO system is shown to deliver images with average Strehl ratios of up to 0.37 at 1.58 {micro}m using a bright guide star and 0.19 for a magnitude 12 star.

  18. Low-cost solar adaptive optics in the infrared (United States)

    Keller, Christoph U.; Plymate, Claude; Ammons, S. M.


    We have developed a low-cost adaptive optics system for solar observations in the infrared between 1 and 28 μm with the 1.5-m McMath-Pierce solar telescope. The 37-actuator membrane mirror and a fast tip-tilt mirror are controlled by a PC running Linux RedHat 7.1 that analyzes images from a 256 by 256 pixel, 1 kHz frame rate CCD camera. The total hardware cost is less than $25,000, and the system provides diffraction-limited performance under median seeing conditions above 2.3 μm. The single Pentium III processor provides enough computing power to analyze the 200 subapertures of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in real time. We describe the hardware and software implementations and show results from the first tests at the telescope.

  19. Method for Compensation of Eye Movements in Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Karitans, V.; Ozolinsh, M.


    The benefit of correction of aberrations in the human eye with adaptive optics is strongly reduced by eye movements. Although devices for compensation of eye movements have already been developed, these are very advanced and expensive. We are working on the development of a novel method for eye movement compensation based on the detection of a corneal reflex by a linear profile sensor. Electronic circuits for controlling the profile sensor and stepper motors have already been designed. Next, a circuit must be designed so that the profile sensor controls the stepper motor. One of the shortcomings of this method is that a stepper motor runs at low speed. Another shortcoming is that the profile sensor operates in only one dimension. However, these problems can be solved by using a two-dimensional profile sensor and piezo-mounts working at much higher frequencies.

  20. Active optics: variable curvature mirrors for ELT laser guide star refocusing systems (United States)

    Challita, Zalpha; Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Vivès, Sébastien; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel


    The future generation of Extremely Large Telescopes will require a complex combination of technologies for adaptive optics (AO) systems assisted by laser guide stars (LGS). In this context, the distance from the LGS spot to the telescope pupil ranges from about 80 to 200 km, depending on the Sodium layer altitude and the elevation of the telescope. This variation leads to a defocusing effect on the LGS wave-front sensor which needs to be compensated. We propose an active mirror able to compensate for this variation, based on an original optical design including this active optics component. This LGS Variable Curvature Mirror (LGS-VCM) is a 120 mm spherical active mirror able to achieve 820 μm deflection sag with an optical quality better than 150 nm RMS, allowing the radius of curvature variation from F/12 to F/2. Based on elasticity theory, the deformation of the metallic mirror is provided by an air pressure applied on a thin meniscus with a variable thickness distribution. In this article, we detail the analytical development leading to the specific geometry of the active component, the results of finite element analysis and the expected performances in terms of surface error versus the range of refocalisation. Three prototypes have been manufactured to compare the real behavior of the mirror and the simulations data. Results obtained on the prototypes are detailed, showing that the deformation of the VCM is very close to the simulation, and leads to a realistic active concept.

  1. Optical systems for high-power laser applications: principles and design aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, L.H.J.F.; Ehrlichmann, D.


    Starting from the optical properties of laser beams, the requirements of optical systems for manipulating laser radiation in industrial applications are derived. The relevant parameters, relations to the diffraction limit and the state-of-the-art design techniques are discussed. The three important

  2. Laser Communications and Fiber Optics Lab Manual. High-Technology Training Module. (United States)

    Biddick, Robert

    This laboratory training manual on laser communications and fiber optics may be used in a general technology-communications course for ninth graders. Upon completion of this exercise, students achieve the following goals: match concepts with laser communication system parts; explain advantages of fiber optic cable over conventional copper wire;…

  3. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.


    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  4. A Bayesian regularized artificial neural network for adaptive optics forecasting (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Chen, Ying; Li, Xinyang; Qin, Xiaolin; Wang, Huiyong


    Real-time adaptive optics is a technology for enhancing the resolution of ground-based optical telescopes and overcoming the disturbance of atmospheric turbulence. The performance of the system is limited by delay errors induced by the servo system and photoelectrons noise of wavefront sensor. In order to cut these delay errors, this paper proposes a novel model to forecast the future control voltages of the deformable mirror. The predictive model is constructed by a multi-layered back propagation network with Bayesian regularization (BRBP). For the purpose of parallel computation and less disturbance, we adopt a number of sub-BP neural networks to substitute the whole network. The Bayesian regularized network assigns a probability to the network weights, allowing the network to automatically and optimally penalize excessively complex models. The simulation results show that the BRBP introduces smaller mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and mean square errors (MSE) than other typical algorithms. Meanwhile, real data analysis results show that the BRBP model has strong generalization capability and parallelism.

  5. Optical identification of sea-mines - Gated viewing three-dimensional laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens


    A gated viewing high accuracy mono-static laser radar has been developed for the purpose of improving the optical underwater sea-mine identification handled by the Navy. In the final stage of the sea-mine detection, classification and identification process the Navy applies a remote operated...... vehicle for optical identification of the bottom seamine. The experimental results of the thesis indicate that replacing the conventional optical video and spotlight system applied by the Navy with the gated viewing two- and three-dimensional laser radar can improve the underwater optical sea......-mine identification. The laser radar has also a number of applications on land, for example, face recognition at several hundred meters range. The main components of the laser radar system are a green pulsed laser and a fast gating intensified CCD camera. The laser radar system innovation is a combination...

  6. Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator placed inside a ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben


    A cw singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) was built and placed inside the cavity of a ring laser. The system consists of a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 ring laser with intracavity periodically poled lithium niobate as the nonlinear gain medium of the SRO. When the laser was operated...

  7. Computer-Controlled 3D Laser Scanning Microscope Based On Optical Disk Technology. (United States)

    Schweizer, P.; Neveux, L.; Chiaramello, M.; Monteil, P.; Ostrowsky, D. B...


    We describe RASCALS* (RAster SCAn Laser System) a 2D and 3D scanning laser microscope and outline it's performance. This system, based on optical disk technology and a PC compatible computer offers an interesting cost/performance ratio compared to existing laser scanning microscopes.

  8. Adaptive compressed sensing for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Ting; Li, Hongxiao; Yu, Daoyin


    Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a non-contact and non-invasive method for measuring the change of biological tissues caused by pathological changes of body. CCD with huge number of pixels is usually used in SD-OCT to increase the detecting depth, thus enhancing the hardness of data transmission and storage. The usage of compressed sensing (CS) in SD-OCT is able to reduce the trouble of large data transfer and storage, thus eliminating the complexity of processing system. The traditional CS uses the same sampling model for SD-OCT images of different tissue, leading to reconstruction images with different quality. We proposed a CS with adaptive sampling model. The new model is based on uniform sampling model, and the interference spectral of SD-OCT is considered to adjust the local sampling ratio. Compared with traditional CS, adaptive CS can modify the sampling model for images of different tissue according to different interference spectral, getting reconstruction images with high quality without changing sampling model.

  9. Optical and physical properties of ceramic crystal laser materials (United States)

    Simmons, Jed A.

    Historically ceramic crystal laser material has had disadvantages compared to single crystal laser material. However, progress has been made in the last decade and a half to overcome the disadvantages associated with ceramic crystal. Today, because of the promise of ceramic crystal as a high power laser material, investigation into its properties, both physical and optical, is warranted and important. Thermal expansion was measured in this thesis for Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) ceramic crystal using an interferometric method. The interferometer employed a spatially filtered HeNe at 633 nm wavelength. Thermal expansion coefficients measured for the ceramic crystal samples were near the reported values for single crystal Nd:YAG. With a similar experimental setup as that for the thermal expansion measurements, dn/dT for ceramic crystal Nd:YAG was measured and found to be slightly higher than the reported value for single crystal. Depolarization loss due to thermal gradient induced stresses can limit laser performance. As a result this phenomenon was modeled for ceramic crystal materials and compared to single crystals for slab and rod shaped gain media. This was accomplished using COMSOL Multiphysics, and MATLAB. Results indicate a dependence of the depolarization loss on the grain size where the loss decreases with decreased grain size even to the point where lower loss may be expected in ceramic crystals than in single crystal samples when the grain sizes in the ceramic crystal are sufficiently small. Deformation-induced thermal lensing was modeled for a single crystal slab and its relevance to ceramic crystal is discussed. Data indicates the most notable cause of deformation-induced thermal lensing is a consequence of the deformation of the top and bottom surfaces. Also, the strength of the lensing along the thickness is greater than the width and greater than that due to other causes of lensing along the thickness of the slab. Emission spectra, absorption

  10. New electro-optic laser scanners for small-sat to ground laser communication links (United States)

    Davis, Scott R.; Johnson, Seth T.; Rommel, Scott D.; Anderson, Michael H.; Chen, Jimmy; Chao, Tien-Hsin


    In this paper we present new electro-optic beam steering technology and propose to combine it with optical telecommunication technology, thereby enabling low cost, compact, and rugged free space optical (FSO) communication modules for small-sat applications. Small satellite applications, particularly those characterized as "micro-sats" are often highly constrained by their ability to provide high bandwidth science data to the ground. This will often limit the relevance of even highly capable payloads due to the lack of data availability. FSO modules with unprecedented cost and size, weight, and power (SWaP) advantages will enable multi-access FSO networks to spread across previously inaccessible platforms. An example system would fit within a few cubic inch volume, require less than 1 watt of power and be able to provide ground station tracking (including orbital motion over wide angles and jitter correction) with a 50 to 100 Mbps downlink and no moving parts. This is possible, for the first time, because of emergent and unprecedented electro-optic (EO) laser scanners which will replace expensive, heavy, and power-consuming gimbal mechanisms. In this paper we will describe the design, construction, and performance of these new scanners. Specific examples to be discussed include an all electro-optic beamsteer with a 60 degree by 40 degree field of view. We will also present designs for a cube-sat to ground flight demonstration. This development would provide a significant enhancement in capabilities for future NASA and other Government and industry space projects.

  11. Acute Solar Retinopathy Imaged With Adaptive Optics, Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography. (United States)

    Wu, Chris Y; Jansen, Michael E; Andrade, Jorge; Chui, Toco Y P; Do, Anna T; Rosen, Richard B; Deobhakta, Avnish


    Solar retinopathy is a rare form of retinal injury that occurs after direct sungazing. To enhance understanding of the structural changes that occur in solar retinopathy by obtaining high-resolution in vivo en face images. Case report of a young adult woman who presented to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary with symptoms of acute solar retinopathy after viewing the solar eclipse on August 21, 2017. Results of comprehensive ophthalmic examination and images obtained by fundus photography, microperimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy, OCT angiography, and en face OCT. The patient was examined after viewing the solar eclipse. Visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS. The patient was left-eye dominant. Spectral-domain OCT images were consistent with mild and severe acute solar retinopathy in the right and left eye, respectively. Microperimetry was normal in the right eye but showed paracentral decreased retinal sensitivity in the left eye with a central absolute scotoma. Adaptive optics images of the right eye showed a small region of nonwaveguiding photoreceptors, while images of the left eye showed a large area of abnormal and nonwaveguiding photoreceptors. Optical coherence tomography angiography images were normal in both eyes. En face OCT images of the right eye showed a small circular hyperreflective area, with central hyporeflectivity in the outer retina of the right eye. The left eye showed a hyperreflective lesion that intensified in area from inner to middle retina and became mostly hyporeflective in the outer retina. The shape of the lesion on adaptive optics and en face OCT images of the left eye corresponded to the shape of the scotoma drawn by the patient on Amsler grid. Acute solar retinopathy can present with foveal cone photoreceptor mosaic disturbances on adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy imaging. Corresponding reflectivity changes can be seen on en face OCT, especially

  12. Optical and laser spectroscopic diagnostics for energy applications (United States)

    Tripathi, Markandey Mani

    The continuing need for greater energy security and energy independence has motivated researchers to develop new energy technologies for better energy resource management and efficient energy usage. The focus of this dissertation is the development of optical (spectroscopic) sensing methodologies for various fuels, and energy applications. A fiber-optic NIR sensing methodology was developed for predicting water content in bio-oil. The feasibility of using the designed near infrared (NIR) system for estimating water content in bio-oil was tested by applying multivariate analysis to NIR spectral data. The calibration results demonstrated that the spectral information can successfully predict the bio-oil water content (from 16% to 36%). The effect of ultraviolet (UV) light on the chemical stability of bio-oil was studied by employing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. To simulate the UV light exposure, a laser in the UV region (325 nm) was employed for bio-oil excitation. The LIF, as a signature of chemical change, was recorded from bio-oil. From this study, it was concluded that phenols present in the bio-oil show chemical instability, when exposed to UV light. A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-based optical sensor was designed, developed, and tested for detection of four important trace impurities in rocket fuel (hydrogen). The sensor can simultaneously measure the concentrations of nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and helium in hydrogen from storage tanks and supply lines. The sensor had estimated lower detection limits of 80 ppm for nitrogen, 97 ppm for argon, 10 ppm for oxygen, and 25 ppm for helium. A chemiluminescence-based spectroscopic diagnostics were performed to measure equivalence ratios in methane-air premixed flames. A partial least-squares regression (PLS-R)-based multivariate sensing methodology was investigated. It was found that the equivalence ratios predicted with the PLS-R-based multivariate calibration model matched with the

  13. Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy with adaptive optics controlled multiplexed beams. (United States)

    Samim, Masood; Sandkuijl, Daaf; Tretyakov, Ian; Cisek, Richard; Barzda, Virginijus


    Differential polarization nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential to become an indispensable tool for structural investigations of ordered biological assemblies and microcrystalline aggregates. Their microscopic organization can be probed through fast and sensitive measurements of nonlinear optical signal anisotropy, which can be achieved with microscopic spatial resolution by using time-multiplexed pulsed laser beams with perpendicular polarization orientations and photon-counting detection electronics for signal demultiplexing. In addition, deformable membrane mirrors can be used to correct for optical aberrations in the microscope and simultaneously optimize beam overlap using a genetic algorithm. The beam overlap can be achieved with better accuracy than diffraction limited point-spread function, which allows to perform polarization-resolved measurements on the pixel-by-pixel basis. We describe a newly developed differential polarization microscope and present applications of the differential microscopy technique for structural studies of collagen and cellulose. Both, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence-detected nonlinear absorption anisotropy are used in these investigations. It is shown that the orientation and structural properties of the fibers in biological tissue can be deduced and that the orientation of fluorescent molecules (Congo Red), which label the fibers, can be determined. Differential polarization microscopy sidesteps common issues such as photobleaching and sample movement. Due to tens of megahertz alternating polarization of excitation pulses fast data acquisition can be conveniently applied to measure changes in the nonlinear signal anisotropy in dynamically changing in vivo structures.

  14. Linewidth Enhancement Factor Measurement of a Fabry Perot Laser Diode through Narrowband Optical FM Generation (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Taraprasad; Bhattacharyya, Prosenjit; Ghosh, Chiranjib


    This paper presents a simple method of linewidth enhancement factor (LEF) measurement of a semiconductor laser through narrowband optical frequency modulation (FM) generation by direct modulation. The narrowband optical FM is generated by using small-amplitude direct-current modulation, thereby limiting the resultant optical intensity modulation index level typically within 10%. The LEF is found to decrease linearly with the increase in bias current of the laser diode above threshold.

  15. Coherent Frequency Shifter, Optical Isolator, Lasers on an Integrated Platform for Cold Atom Microsystems (United States)


    Thomas R. Caudill, Acting Chief Program Manager, AFRL/RVBYE AFRL Battlespace Environment Division This report is published in the interest of...power operation of optical frequency shifter; (7) a new design and theoretical analysis of frequency shifter with larger electro-optical coefficients...integrated laser. 15. SUBJECT TERMS coherent frequency shifter, optical isolation, integrated photonics, 780nm laser design and fabrication 16

  16. Surface Contaminant Control Technologies to Improve Laser Damage Resistance of Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Cheng


    Full Text Available The large high-power solid lasers, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF of America and the Shenguang-III (SG-III laser facility of China, can output over 2.1 MJ laser pulse for the inertial confinement fusion (ICF experiments. Because of the enhancement of operating flux and the expansion of laser driver scale, the problem of contamination seriously influences their construction period and operation life. During irradiation by intense laser beams, the contaminants on the metallic surface of beam tubes can be transmitted to the optical surfaces and lead to damage of optical components. For the high-power solid-state laser facilities, contamination control focuses on the slab amplifiers, spatial filters, and final-optical assemblies. In this paper, an effective solution to control contaminations including the whole process of the laser driver is put forward to provide the safe operation of laser facilities, and the detailed technical methods of contamination control such as washing, cleanliness metrology, and cleanliness protecting are also introduced to reduce the probability of laser-induced damage of optics. The experimental results show that the cleanliness level of SG-III laser facility is much better to ensure that the laser facility can safely operate at high energy flux.

  17. Semiconductor ring lasers subject to both on-chip filtered optical feedback and external conventional optical feedback (United States)

    Khoder, Mulham; Van der Sande, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Verschaffelt, Guy


    It is well known that the performance of semiconductor lasers is very sensitive to external optical feedback. This feedback can lead to changes in lasing characteristics and a variety of dynamical effects including chaos and coherence collapse. One way to avoid this external feedback is by using optical isolation, but these isolators and their packaging will increase the cost of the total system. Semiconductor ring lasers nowadays are promising sources in photonic integrated circuits because they do not require cleaved facets or mirrors to form a laser cavity. Recently, some of us proposed to combine semiconductor ring lasers with on chip filtered optical feedback to achieve tunable lasers. The feedback is realized by employing two arrayed waveguide gratings to split/recombine light into different wavelength channels. Semiconductor optical amplifier gates are used to control the feedback strength. In this work, we investigate how such lasers with filtered feedback are influenced by an external conventional optical feedback. The experimental results show intensity fluctuations in the time traces in both the clockwise and counterclockwise directions due to the conventional feedback. We quantify the strength of the conventional feedback induced dynamics be extracting the standard deviation of the intensity fluctuations in the time traces. By using filtered feedback, we can shift the onset of the conventional feedback induced dynamics to larger values of the feedback rate [ Khoder et al, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2016.2522184]. The on-chip filtered optical feedback thus makes the semiconductor ring laser less senstive to the effect of (long) conventional optical feedback. We think these conclusions can be extended to other types of lasers.

  18. Multifunctional optical correlator for picosecond ultraviolet laser pulse measurement. (United States)

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Wang, Yang; Garcia, Frances; Long, Cary; Huang, Chunning; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Liu, Yun


    A compact multifunctional optical correlator system for pulse width measurement of ultrashort ultraviolet (UV) pulses has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. Both autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions are measured using a single nonlinear crystal, and the switching between two measurements requires no adjustment of phase matching and detector. The system can measure UV pulse widths from sub-picoseconds to 100 ps, and it involves no auxiliary pulse in the measurement. The measurement results on a burst-mode picosecond UV laser show a high-quality performance on speed, accuracy, resolution, and dynamic range. The proposed correlator can be applied to measure any ultrashort UV pulses produced through sum-frequency generation or second-harmonic generation.

  19. Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited]. (United States)

    Pircher, Michael; Zawadzki, Robert J


    In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention. Optical retinal imaging modalities rely on the optical elements of the eye itself (mainly the cornea and lens) to produce retinal images and are therefore affected by the specific arrangement of these elements and possible imperfections in curvature. Thus, aberrations are introduced to the imaging light and image quality is degraded. To compensate for these aberrations, adaptive optics (AO), a technology initially developed in astronomy, has been utilized. However, the axial sectioning provided by retinal AO-based fundus cameras and scanning laser ophthalmoscope instruments is limited to tens of micrometers because of the rather small available numerical aperture of the eye. To overcome this limitation and thus achieve much higher axial sectioning in the order of 2-5µm, AO has been combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) into AO-OCT. This enabled for the first time in vivo volumetric retinal imaging with high isotropic resolution. This article summarizes the technical aspects of AO-OCT and provides an overview on its various implementations and some of its clinical applications. In addition, latest developments in the field, such as computational AO-OCT and wavefront sensor less AO-OCT, are covered.

  20. Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited (United States)

    Pircher, Michael; Zawadzki, Robert J


    In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention. Optical retinal imaging modalities rely on the optical elements of the eye itself (mainly the cornea and lens) to produce retinal images and are therefore affected by the specific arrangement of these elements and possible imperfections in curvature. Thus, aberrations are introduced to the imaging light and image quality is degraded. To compensate for these aberrations, adaptive optics (AO), a technology initially developed in astronomy, has been utilized. However, the axial sectioning provided by retinal AO-based fundus cameras and scanning laser ophthalmoscope instruments is limited to tens of micrometers because of the rather small available numerical aperture of the eye. To overcome this limitation and thus achieve much higher axial sectioning in the order of 2-5µm, AO has been combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) into AO-OCT. This enabled for the first time in vivo volumetric retinal imaging with high isotropic resolution. This article summarizes the technical aspects of AO-OCT and provides an overview on its various implementations and some of its clinical applications. In addition, latest developments in the field, such as computational AO-OCT and wavefront sensor less AO-OCT, are covered. PMID:28663890

  1. Optical coherence tomography in optic pit maculopathy managed with vitrectomy-laser-gas. (United States)

    García-Arumí, José; Guraya, Borja Corcóstegui; Espax, Ana Boixadera; Castillo, Vicente Martínez; Ramsay, Laura Sararols; Motta, R Max


    Optic disc pit (ODP) maculopathy has a poor visual prognosis if left to its natural course. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted. The cases of 11 patients evaluated with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and treated with vitrectomy-laser-gas and their functional and anatomical outcomes are presented. Retrospective interventional consecutive case series, including 11 eyes with ODP maculopathy. Pre- and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), OCT and angiography were recorded. All patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid dissection peripapillary diode laser prior to retinal reapplication and C(3)F(8) 15% injection. Mean preoperative BCVA was 20/126. Median preoperative BCVA was 1.0 LogMAR (range 1.3-0.4) . Eighty-two per cent of patients gained 2 or more Snellen lines of vision (mean 4.4 lines gained). Mean final BCVA was 20/32, and median final BCVA was 20/30 in Snellen VA and 0.2 in LogMAR (range 0.7-0) Preoperative OCT in all but one case confirmed the bilaminar structure of the macular detachment. Postoperative OCT helped in monitoring reabsorption of the macular detachment, which was achieved in all cases after an average of 6.5 months post-surgery. BCVA increased progressively as the subretinal fluid was reabsorbed (P=0.006). Mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 15 months. Recurrence was observed in two cases. In our series, the vitrectomy-laser-gas procedure for ODP maculopathy improved vision and achieved satisfactory anatomic results in all 11 cases. OCT was useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of this pathology. However, the low incidence of this entity makes it difficult to obtain series large enough to determine the efficacy of the vitrectomy-laser-gas procedure and other treatment modalities and be able to suggest a procedure of choice.

  2. Modelling MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics (United States)

    Blain, Celia

    As of July 2012, 777 exoplanets have been discovered utilizing mainly indirect detection techniques. The direct imaging of exoplanets is the next goal for astronomers, because it will reveal the diversity of planets and planetary systems, and will give access to the exoplanet's chemical composition via spectroscopy. With this spectroscopic knowledge, astronomers will be able to know, if a planet is terrestrial and, possibly, even find evidence of life. With so much potential, this branch of astronomy has also captivated the general public attention. The direct imaging of exoplanets remains a challenging task, due to (i) the extremely high contrast between the parent star and the orbiting exoplanet and (ii) their small angular separation. For ground-based observatories, this task is made even more difficult, due to the presence of atmospheric turbulence. High Contrast Imaging (HCI) instruments have been designed to meet this challenge. HCI instruments are usually composed of a coronagraph coupled with the full onaxis corrective capability of an Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) system. An efficient coronagraph separates the faint planet's light from the much brighter starlight, but the dynamic boiling speckles, created by the stellar image, make exoplanet detection impossible without the help of a wavefront correction device. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system is a high performance HCI instrument developed at Subaru Telescope. The wavefront control system of SCExAO consists of three wavefront sensors (WFS) coupled with a 1024- actuator Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM). MEMS DMs offer a large actuator density, allowing high count DMs to be deployed in small size beams. Therefore, MEMS DMs are an attractive technology for Adaptive Optics (AO) systems and are particularly well suited for HCI instruments employing ExAO technologies. SCExAO uses coherent light modulation in the focal plane introduced by the DM, for

  3. All-Optical flip-flop operation using a SOA and DFB laser diode optical feedback combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Oosterlinck, W.; Öhman, Filip; Buron, Jakob Due


    We report on the switching of an all-optical flip-flop consisting of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a distributed feedback laser diode (DFB), bidirectionally coupled to each other. Both simulation and experimental results are presented. Switching times as low as 50ps, minimal required...

  4. Optimized Optical Rectification and Electro-optic Sampling in ZnTe Crystals with Chirped Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erschens, Dines Nøddegaard; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    We report on optimization of the intensity of THz signals generated and detected by optical rectification and electro-optic sampling in dispersive, nonlinear media. Addition of a negative prechirp to the femtosecond laser pulses used in the THz generation and detection processes in 1-mm thick Zn...

  5. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier (United States)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun


    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  6. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  7. Optical phase dynamics in mutually coupled diode laser systems exhibiting power synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Vishwa; Ghosh, R


    We probe the physical mechanism behind the known phenomenon of power synchronization of two diode lasers that are mutually coupled via their delayed optical fields. In a diode laser, the amplitude and the phase of the optical field are coupled by the so-called linewidth enhancement factor, $\\alpha$. In this work, we explore the role of optical phases of the electric fields in amplitude (and hence power) synchronization through $\\alpha$ in such mutually delay-coupled diode laser systems. Our numerical results show that the synchronization of optical phases drives the powers of lasers to synchronized death regimes. We also find that as $\\alpha$ varies for different diode lasers, the system goes through a sequence of in-phase amplitude-death states. Within the windows between successive amplitude-death regions, the cross-correlation between the field amplitudes exhibits a universal power-law behaviour with respect to $\\alpha$.

  8. DRAGON, the Durham real-time, tomographic adaptive optics test bench: progress and results (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard M.; Morris, Timothy J.; Basden, Alastair G.; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Rolt, Stephen; Bramall, David G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Younger, Edward J.


    DRAGON is a real-time, tomographic Adaptive Optics test bench currently under development at Durham University. Optical and mechanical design work for DRAGON is now complete, and the system is close to becoming fully operational. DRAGON emulates current 4.2 m and 8 m telescopes, and can also be used to investigate ELT scale issues. The full system features 4 Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wavefront Sensors (WFS), 3 Natural Guide Star (NGS) WFSs and one Truth Sensor, all of which are 31 × 31 sub-aperture Shack-Hartmann WFS. Two Deformable Mirrors (DMs), a Boston MEMS Kilo DM and a Xinetics 97 actuator DM, correct for turbulence induced aberrations and these can be configured to be either open or closed loop of the WFS. A novel method of LGS emulation is implemented which includes the effects of uplink turbulence and elongation in real-time. The atmosphere is emulated by 4 rotating phase screens which can be translated in real-time to replicate altitude evolution of turbulent layers. DRAGON will be used to extensively study tomographic AO algorithms, such as those required for Multi-Object AO. As DRAGON has been designed to be compatible with CANARY, the MOAO demonstrator, results can be compared to those from the CANARY MOAO demonstrator on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. We present here an overview of the current status of DRAGON and some early results, including investigations into the validity of the LGS emulation method.

  9. Multi-platform laser communication networking optical antenna system design (United States)

    Zhang, Tao


    In this paper, a new conclusion based on rotating parabolic model and a different scheme of laser communication networking antenna system has been put forward in the paper. Based on rotating parabolic antenna, a new theory of the optical properties have been deduced, which can realize larger dynamic, duplex, networking communications among multiple platforms in 360° azimuth and pitch range. Meanwhile, depending on the operation mode of the system, multiple mathematical optimization models have been established. Tracking communication range, emission energy efficiency and receiving energy efficiency have been analyzed and optimized. Relationship among opening up and low apertures, the lens unit aperture, focal length of lens unit as well as rotating parabolic focal length have been analyzed. Tracking pitching range and emission energy utilization has carried on the theoretical derivation and optimization and networking platform link between energy receiver and transmitter has been analyzed. Taking some parameters of this new system into calculation, optimized results can be utilized with MATLAB software for its application and system of communication engineering. The rotating parabolic internal can form a hollow structure, which is utilized for miniaturization, light-weighted design and realize duplex communication in a wide range and distance. Circular orbit guidance is the modern way used in dynamic tracking system. The new theory and optical antenna system has widespread applications value as well.

  10. DLR's free space experimental laser terminal for optical aircraft downlinks (United States)

    Fuchs, Christian; Schmidt, Christopher; Rödiger, Benjamin; Shrestha, Amita; Brechtelsbauer, Martin; Ramirez Molina, Julio; Pacheco, Jorge; Gstaiger, Veronika


    The German Aerospace Center's Institute of Communications and Navigation developed the Free Space Experimental Laser Terminal II and has been using it for optical downlink experiments since 2008. It has been developed for DLR's Dornier 228 aircraft and is capable of performing optical downlink as well as inter-platform experiments. After more than 5 years of successful operation, it has been refurbished with up-to-date hardware and is now available for further aircraft-experiments. The system is a valuable resource for carrying out measurements of the atmospheric channel, for testing new developments, and of course to transmit data from the aircraft to a ground station with a very high data rate. This paper will give an overview about the system and describe the capabilities of the flexible platform. The current status of the system will be described and measurement results of a recent flight campaign will be presented. Finally, an outlook to future use of the system will be given.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of enhanced laser tattoo removal by skin optical clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihua Liu


    Full Text Available Lasers have been widely used for tattoo removal, but the limited light penetration depth caused by high skin scattering property restricts the therapeutic outcome of deep tattoo. Skin optical clearing method, by introducing optical clearing agent (OCA into skin, has shown some improvement in the effect of laser tattoo removal. In this study, the enhanced laser tattoo removal has been quantitatively assessed. OCA was applied to the skin of tattoo animal model and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm irradiation was used to remove the tattoo. The skin evaluation instrument (Mexameter probe, MPA580 was applied to measure the content of tattoo pigment before and after laser treatment, and then the clearance rate of pigment was calculated. Further, Monte Carlo (MC method was utilized to simulate the effect of skin optical clearing on light transmission in tattoo skin model. By comparing the pigment change of tattoo areas respectively treated with OCA plus laser and single laser, it was found that pigment clearance of the former tattoo area was increased by 1.5-fold. Further, the MC simulation verified that the reduced light scattering in skin could increase the effective dose of luminous flux reaching to the deep tattoo regions. It can be concluded from both experiment and theoretical simulations that skin optical clearing technique could improve the outcome of laser tattoo removal, which should be beneficial for clinical laser tattoo removal and other laser pigment elimination.

  12. Effect of laser treatment on the optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films (United States)

    Zahedi, Shima; Dorranian, Davoud


    In this work, the effect of laser pulse treatment on the optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films has been studied experimentally. The second harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 6 ns pulse width with 10 Hz repetition rate was used to modify the surface of red-BS-dye-doped PMMA films. Samples were ablated with 50 and 100 laser pulses. Optical reflectance and transmittance spectra were obtained in the range of 200-2000 nm. The optical properties of the films were influenced by the pulse number significantly. The oscillator and dispersion energies of the films were determined using the Wemple-Didomenico model. The optical band gap energy was extracted using the Tauc method. Results show that the optical parameters of the films were changed significantly after laser treatment.

  13. Wide-Field Optic for Autonomous Acquisition of Laser Link (United States)

    Page, Norman A.; Charles, Jeffrey R.; Biswas, Abhijit


    An innovation reported in Two-Camera Acquisition and Tracking of a Flying Target, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 8 (August 2008), p. 20, used a commercial fish-eye lens and an electronic imaging camera for initially locating objects with subsequent handover to an actuated narrow-field camera. But this operated against a dark-sky background. An improved solution involves an optical design based on custom optical components for the wide-field optical system that directly addresses the key limitations in acquiring a laser signal from a moving source such as an aircraft or a spacecraft. The first challenge was to increase the light collection entrance aperture diameter, which was approximately 1 mm in the first prototype. The new design presented here increases this entrance aperture diameter to 4.2 mm, which is equivalent to a more than 16 times larger collection area. One of the trades made in realizing this improvement was to restrict the field-of-view to +80 deg. elevation and 360 azimuth. This trade stems from practical considerations where laser beam propagation over the excessively high air mass, which is in the line of sight (LOS) at low elevation angles, results in vulnerability to severe atmospheric turbulence and attenuation. An additional benefit of the new design is that the large entrance aperture is maintained even at large off-axis angles when the optic is pointed at zenith. The second critical limitation for implementing spectral filtering in the design was tackled by collimating the light prior to focusing it onto the focal plane. This allows the placement of the narrow spectral filter in the collimated portion of the beam. For the narrow band spectral filter to function properly, it is necessary to adequately control the range of incident angles at which received light intercepts the filter. When this angle is restricted via collimation, narrower spectral filtering can be implemented. The collimated beam (and the filter) must be relatively large to

  14. Piezoelectric deformable mirror for intra-cavity laser adaptive optics.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS


    Full Text Available -constant Zernike polynomials are reported in the comparison, even though 6 polynomials were extracted. Table 1 presents the coefficients of the first three non-constant Zernike polynomials, extracted from the experimental results and the finite element model...OC, then reverse propagating the field to the DOE yields [6]: rdrrf ikrL ik L rkJruL ikikLLkiLu nOCnDOE ⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛−⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛−= ∫∞+ 22 0 21 2 exp 2 exp)( 2 exp)exp()/(),( ρρρ (1) where we have assumed that the resonator...

  15. Control code for laboratory adaptive optics teaching system (United States)

    Jin, Moonseob; Luder, Ryan; Sanchez, Lucas; Hart, Michael


    By sensing and compensating wavefront aberration, adaptive optics (AO) systems have proven themselves crucial in large astronomical telescopes, retinal imaging, and holographic coherent imaging. Commercial AO systems for laboratory use are now available in the market. One such is the ThorLabs AO kit built around a Boston Micromachines deformable mirror. However, there are limitations in applying these systems to research and pedagogical projects since the software is written with limited flexibility. In this paper, we describe a MATLAB-based software suite to interface with the ThorLabs AO kit by using the MATLAB Engine API and Visual Studio. The software is designed to offer complete access to the wavefront sensor data, through the various levels of processing, to the command signals to the deformable mirror and fast steering mirror. In this way, through a MATLAB GUI, an operator can experiment with every aspect of the AO system's functioning. This is particularly valuable for tests of new control algorithms as well as to support student engagement in an academic environment. We plan to make the code freely available to the community.

  16. Deblurring adaptive optics retinal images using deep convolutional neural networks. (United States)

    Fei, Xiao; Zhao, Junlei; Zhao, Haoxin; Yun, Dai; Zhang, Yudong


    The adaptive optics (AO) can be used to compensate for ocular aberrations to achieve near diffraction limited high-resolution retinal images. However, many factors such as the limited aberration measurement and correction accuracy with AO, intraocular scatter, imaging noise and so on will degrade the quality of retinal images. Image post processing is an indispensable and economical method to make up for the limitation of AO retinal imaging procedure. In this paper, we proposed a deep learning method to restore the degraded retinal images for the first time. The method directly learned an end-to-end mapping between the blurred and restored retinal images. The mapping was represented as a deep convolutional neural network that was trained to output high-quality images directly from blurry inputs without any preprocessing. This network was validated on synthetically generated retinal images as well as real AO retinal images. The assessment of the restored retinal images demonstrated that the image quality had been significantly improved.

  17. [Reproducibility of goniometry with slitlamp-adapted optical coherence tomography]. (United States)

    Karandish, A; Wirbelauer, C; Häberle, H; Pham, D T


    Visualization of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) is an important diagnostic part of evaluating patients with glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and interobserver variability and reliability of the ACA and angle opening distance (AOD) measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT). To evaluate the intra- and interobserver variability, ACA and AOD were both measured five times and in three consecutive images in 22 patients (24 eyes) by two experienced observers. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a measure of reliability was determined to estimate the intra- and interobserver variability. The main outcome measures were accuracy, reproducibility assessed with the coefficient of variation (CV), and the limits of agreement of ACA and AOD. The intraobserver variability of five replicate measurements was +/-1.4 degrees for ACA (CV 6.2%) and +/-11 micro m for AOD (CV 4%). The ICC for the intraobserver reliability was 0.99 for both ACA and AOD. The interobserver variability of three intersessional measurements was +/-2.5 degrees for ACA (CV 10.9%) and +/-24 micro m (CV 8.3%) for AOD. The ICC was 0.95 for ACA and 0.98 for AOD. There was no difference ( p>0.05) between the two observers measuring ACA and AOD. Two-dimensional visualization of the ACA and its assessment with slitlamp-adapted OCT yielded reliable ACA and AOD measurements in a clinical setting. Thus, OCT goniometry could provide an objective method to assess the anterior chamber angle.

  18. Packetisation in Optical Packet Switch Fabrics using adaptive timeout values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brian Bach


    Hybrid electro-optical packet switches utilize optics in the backplane to switch optical packets from inputs to outputs on electronic line cards. The optical packets are traditionally considerably larger than minimum size IP packets. IP packets entering the switch must be formatted (segmented...... delay and throughput in hybrid electro-optical packet switching. Furthermore, it is investigated how large a speedup is required in order to provide 100% throughput....

  19. Low-power laser therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: effective optical power. (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhao, Cheng-Qiang; Ye, Gang; Liu, Can-Dong; Xu, Wen-Dong


    Low-power laser therapy has been used for the non-surgical treatment of mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome, although its efficacy has been a long-standing controversy. The laser parameters in low-power laser therapy are closely related to the laser effect on human tissue. To evaluate the efficacy of low-power laser therapy, laser parameters should be accurately measured and controlled, which has been ignored in previous clinical trials. Here, we report the measurement of the effective optical power of low-power laser therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome. By monitoring the backside reflection and scattering laser power from human skin at the wrist, the effective laser power can be inferred. Using clinical measurements from 30 cases, we found that the effective laser power differed significantly among cases, with the measured laser reflection coefficient ranging from 1.8% to 54%. The reflection coefficient for 36.7% of these 30 cases was in the range of 10-20%, but for 16.7% of cases, it was higher than 40%. Consequently, monitoring the effective optical power during laser irradiation is necessary for the laser therapy of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  20. New fiber laser design for application in phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (United States)

    Bueno Escobedo, J. L.; Spirin, V. V.; López-Mercado, C. A.; Marquez Lucero, A.; Mégret, P.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Fotiadi, A. A.


    We have employed a new injection locking DFB laser configuration for detection and localization of the perturbations in phase sensitive OTDR system. The spectral performance of available DFB laser source has been significantly improved with implementation of self-injection locking mechanism. To provide the effect, a part of the optical radiation emitted by the laser is returned back into the laser cavity through an external fiber optic ring resonator. Self-injection locking of DFB laser coupled with the ring cavity in the under-coupled, critically coupled, and over-coupled regimes has been tested bringing us to the conclusion that the best locked laser stability and narrower linewidth is observed with the critical coupling. With the laser operating in this regime an accurate localization of 50 Hz harmonic perturbation with the spatial resolution of 10 m at the distance of 9270 m is experimentally demonstrated with phase sensitive OTDR technique.

  1. Investigation of nanodefect properties in optical coatings by coupling measured and simulated laser damage statistics (United States)

    Gallais, Laurent; Capoulade, Jérémie; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandré, Mireille


    We propose a model to link laser damage initiator properties (such as nature, size distribution, and density) to measured laser damage probabilities in optical materials. The model is based on the calculation of light absorption in nanoabsorbers and subsequent heating, coupled to laser damage statistics, and allows to obtain the laser damage probability as a function of laser fluence. Applications to the case of optical coatings irradiated in the nanosecond regime are presented. Laser damage probability curves are measured in hafnia single layer coatings made under different conditions: electron beam deposition and reactive low voltage ion plating. By studying the influence of the laser irradiation parameters (wavelength and beam size) and coating properties on the simulations, we show with our methodology that initiating defects (hafnium inclusions) can be identified. The implications of this approach for physical understanding and metrology applications are discussed.

  2. Nonlinear optics and solid-state lasers advanced concepts, tuning-fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianquan


    This book covers the complete spectrum of nonlinear optics and all solid state lasers.The book integrates theory, calculations and practical design, technology, experimental schemes and applications. With the expansion and further development of Laser technology, the wavelength spectrum of Lasers had to be enlarged, even to be tunable which requires the use of nonlinear optical and Laser tunable technology. It systematically summarizes and integrates the analysis of international achievements within the last 20 years in this field. It will be helpful for university teachers, graduate students as well as engineers.

  3. Modeling and analysis of novel laser weld joint designs using optical ray tracing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J. O. (John O.)


    Reflection of laser energy presents challenges in material processing that can lead to process inefficiency or process instability. Understanding the fundamentals of non-imaging optics and the reflective propagation of laser energy can allow process and weld joint designs to take advantage of these reflections to enhance process efficiency or mitigate detrimental effects. Optical ray tracing may be used within a 3D computer model to evaluate novel joint and fixture designs for laser welding that take advantage of the reflective propagation of laser energy. This modeling work extends that of previous studies by the author and provides comparison with experimental studies performed on highly reflective metals. Practical examples are discussed.

  4. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode. (United States)

    Maeda, Y


    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  5. Development of laser marking system with electro-optic Q-switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Kwang Suk; Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon


    We developed a high repetition electro-optic Q switch Nd:YAG laser and scan system for laser marking. We localized the scan mirrors and their mounts. We made the database for the optical properties of commercial flat-field lenses with our optics design software. We fabricated the detailed network between the galvanometer based beam scanning system and the laser generator. To accelerate the commercialization by the joint company, the training and transfer of technology were pursued in the joint participation by company researchers from the early stage. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 27 figs.

  6. Adaptive optical versus spherical aberration corrections for in vivo brain imaging. (United States)

    Turcotte, Raphaël; Liang, Yajie; Ji, Na


    Adjusting the objective correction collar is a widely used approach to correct spherical aberrations (SA) in optical microscopy. In this work, we characterized and compared its performance with adaptive optics in the context of in vivo brain imaging with two-photon fluorescence microscopy. We found that the presence of sample tilt had a deleterious effect on the performance of SA-only correction. At large tilt angles, adjusting the correction collar even worsened image quality. In contrast, adaptive optical correction always recovered optimal imaging performance regardless of sample tilt. The extent of improvement with adaptive optics was dependent on object size, with smaller objects having larger relative gains in signal intensity and image sharpness. These observations translate into a superior performance of adaptive optics for structural and functional brain imaging applications in vivo, as we confirmed experimentally.

  7. Fiber optics and microprocessors: a control-system solution for the laser-fusion environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuot, M.E.


    The use of fiber optics and microprocessors in a distributed computer control system for a 100-kJ CO/sub 2/ laser fusion facility is described. Gas-laser control systems must operate in an environment in which megavolt Marx circuits generate megampere discharges in the laser amplifiers, with attendant high electromagnetic fields. By linking the distributed controls with fiber optics we minimize the adverse effect of these fields on the hard-wired controls and gain the additional advantage of ground isolation. Our fiber-optic subsystems and interfaces include low-error-rate digital communication links between computers; nanosecond timing and trigger links; fiber-optic parameter monitors with dc-to-10 MHz bandwidths; binary fiber-optic power control for valves, motors, and contractors; and binary fiber-optic status interfaces to monitor the system response to control outputs.

  8. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems. (United States)

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S


    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm 2 of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm 2 to 9.5 J/cm 2 of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  9. Energy loss in gas lasers operating in hollow-core optical fibers (United States)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Madden, Timothy J.


    The output of solid core fiber lasers is constrained in the mid-infrared due to the absorption properties of silica. Optically pumped gas lasers can reach the mid-infrared but require long path lengths for interaction between the pump light and gain medium. Optically pumped gas lasers where the gain medium is contained in a hollow-core optical fiber may provide a robust and compact platform that combines advantages of fiber and optically-pumped gas lasers. Experimental demonstrations of gas-filled-fiber lasers have been reported. The energy output of a molecular gas laser operating in a hollow-core optical fiber is computationally modeled using rate equations. The rate equations include terms for various physical processes including molecular self-collisions, molecular collisions with the fiber walls, and fiber attenuation. The rate equations are solved for a time-dependent, one-dimensional fiber model with an acetylene gain medium that lases along rotation-vibrational transitions. The energy output and losses are computed for multiple configurations. Model correspondence with reported experiments is shown. The computed energy losses due to backwards propagating light, fiber losses, and molecular collisions are applied to pulsed, continuous wave, and synchronously pumped gas lasers operating in hollow-core optical fibers. Energy losses due to molecular collisions are used to estimate heating in the gain medium.

  10. Validation of Optical Turbulence Simulations from a Numerical Weather Prediction Model in Support of Adaptive Optics Design (United States)

    Alliss, R.; Felton, B.

    Optical turbulence (OT) acts to distort light in the atmosphere, degrading imagery from large astronomical telescopes and possibly reducing data quality of air to air laser communication links. Some of the degradation due to turbulence can be corrected by adaptive optics. However, the severity of optical turbulence, and thus the amount of correction required, is largely dependent upon the turbulence at the location of interest. Therefore, it is vital to understand the climatology of optical turbulence at such locations. In many cases, it is impractical and expensive to setup instrumentation to characterize the climatology of OT, so simulations become a less expensive and convenient alternative. The strength of OT is characterized by the refractive index structure function Cn2, which in turn is used to calculate atmospheric seeing parameters. While attempts have been made to characterize Cn2 using empirical models, Cn2 can be calculated more directly from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) simulations using pressure, temperature, thermal stability, vertical wind shear, turbulent Prandtl number, and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). In this work we use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) NWP model to generate Cn2 climatologies in the planetary boundary layer and free atmosphere, allowing for both point-to-point and ground-to-space seeing estimates of the Fried Coherence length (ro) and other seeing parameters. Simulations are performed using the Maui High Performance Computing Centers Jaws cluster. The WRF model is configured to run at 1km horizontal resolution over a domain covering the islands of Maui and the Big Island. The vertical resolution varies from 25 meters in the boundary layer to 500 meters in the stratosphere. The model top is 20 km. We are interested in the variations in Cn2 and the Fried Coherence Length (ro) between the summits of Haleakala and Mauna Loa. Over six months of simulations have been performed over this area. Simulations indicate that

  11. Level crossing statistics for optical beam wander in a turbulent atmosphere with applications to ground-to-space laser communications. (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Fields, Renny A


    Level crossing statistics is applied to the complex problem of atmospheric turbulence-induced beam wander for laser propagation from ground to space. A comprehensive estimate of the single-axis wander angle temporal autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum is used to develop, for the first time to our knowledge, analytic expressions for the mean angular level crossing rate and the mean duration of such crossings. These results are based on an extension and generalization of a previous seminal analysis of the beam wander variance by Klyatskin and Kon. In the geometrical optics limit, we obtain an expression for the beam wander variance that is valid for both an arbitrarily shaped initial beam profile and transmitting aperture. It is shown that beam wander can disrupt bidirectional ground-to-space laser communication systems whose small apertures do not require adaptive optics to deliver uniform beams at their intended target receivers in space. The magnitude and rate of beam wander is estimated for turbulence profiles enveloping some practical laser communication deployment options and suggesting what level of beam wander effects must be mitigated to demonstrate effective bidirectional laser communication systems.

  12. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.


    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  13. Electron optical injection with head-on and countercrossing colliding laser pulses. (United States)

    Kotaki, H; Daito, I; Kando, M; Hayashi, Y; Kawase, K; Kameshima, T; Fukuda, Y; Homma, T; Ma, J; Chen, L-M; Esirkepov, T Zh; Pirozhkov, A S; Koga, J K; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Kiriyama, H; Okada, H; Shimomura, T; Nakai, Y; Tanoue, M; Sasao, H; Wakai, D; Matsuura, H; Kondo, S; Kanazawa, S; Sugiyama, A; Daido, H; Bulanov, S V


    A high stability electron bunch is generated by laser wakefield acceleration with the help of a colliding laser pulse. The wakefield is generated by a laser pulse; the second laser pulse collides with the first pulse at 180 degrees and at 135 degrees realizing optical injection of an electron bunch. The electron bunch has high stability and high reproducibility compared with single pulse electron generation. In the case of 180 degrees collision, special measures have been taken to prevent damage. In the case of 135 degrees collision, since the second pulse is countercrossing, it cannot damage the laser system.

  14. Dynamic aberration correction for conformal optics using model-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (United States)

    Han, Xinli; Dong, Bing; Li, Yan; Wang, Rui; Hu, Bin


    For missiles and airplanes with high Mach number, traditional spherical or flat window can cause a lot of air drag. Conformal window that follow the general contour of surrounding surface can substantially decrease air drag and extend operational range. However, the local shape of conformal window changes across the Field Of Regard (FOR), leading to time-varying FOR-dependent wavefront aberration and degraded image. So the correction of dynamic aberration is necessary. In this paper, model-based Wavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics (WSAO) algorithm is investigated both by simulation and experiment for central-obscured pupil. The algorithm is proved to be effective and the correction accuracy of using DM modes is higher than Lukosz modes. For dynamic aberration in our system, the SR can be better than 0.8 when the change of looking angle is less than 2° after t seconds which is the time delay of the control system.

  15. The National Ignition Facility: the World's Largest Optics and Laser System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E I; Campbell, J H; Stolz, C J; Wuest, C R


    The National Ignition Facility, a center for the study of high energy density plasma physics and fusion energy ignition, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The heart of the NIF is a frequency tripled, flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass laser system comprised of 192 independent laser beams. The laser system is capable of generating output energies of 1.8MJ at 351nm and at peak powers of 500 TW in a flexible temporal pulse format. A description of the NIF laser system and its major components is presented. We also discuss the manufacture of nearly 7500 precision large optics required by the NIF including data on the manufactured optical quality vs. specification. In addition, we present results from an on-going program to improve the operational lifetime of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm section of the laser.

  16. Atmospheric refractivity effects on mid-infrared ELT adaptive optics (United States)

    Kendrew, Sarah; Jolissaint, Laurent; Mathar, Richard J.; Stuik, Remko; Hippler, Stefan; Brandl, Bernhard


    We discuss the effect of atmospheric dispersion on the performance of a mid-infrared adaptive optics assisted instrument on an extremely large telescope (ELT). Dispersion and atmospheric chromaticity is generally considered to be negligible in this wavelength regime. It is shown here, however, that with the much-reduced diffraction limit size on an ELT and the need for diffraction-limited performance, refractivity phenomena should be carefully considered in the design and operation of such an instrument. We include an overview of the theory of refractivity, and the influence of infrared resonances caused by the presence of water vapour and other constituents in the atmosphere. 'Traditional' atmospheric dispersion is likely to cause a loss of Strehl only at the shortest wavelengths (L-band). A more likely source of error is the difference in wavelengths at which the wavefront is sensed and corrected, leading to pointing offsets between wavefront sensor and science instrument that evolve with time over a long exposure. Infrared radiation is also subject to additional turbulence caused by the presence of water vapour in the atmosphere not seen by visible wavefront sensors, whose effect is poorly understood. We make use of information obtained at radio wavelengths to make a first-order estimate of its effect on the performance of a mid-IR ground-based instrument. The calculations in this paper are performed using parameters from two different sites, one 'standard good site' and one 'high and dry site' to illustrate the importance of the choice of site for an ELT.

  17. Enhancing Stellar Spectroscopy with Extreme Adaptive Optics and Photonics (United States)

    Jovanovic, N.; Schwab, C.; Cvetojevic, N.; Guyon, O.; Martinache, F.


    Extreme adaptive optics (AO) systems are now in operation across the globe. These systems, capable of high order wavefront correction, deliver Strehl ratios of ˜ 90 % in the near-infrared. Originally intended for the direct imaging of exoplanets, these systems are often equipped with advanced coronagraphs that suppress the on-axis-star, interferometers to calibrate wavefront errors, and low order wavefront sensors to stabilize any tip/tilt residuals to a degree never seen before. Such systems are well positioned to facilitate the detailed spectroscopic characterization of faint substellar companions at small angular separations from the host star. Additionally, the increased light concentration of the point-spread function and the unprecedented stability create opportunities in other fields of astronomy as well, including spectroscopy. With such Strehl ratios, efficient injection into single-mode fibers (SMFs) or photonic lanterns becomes possible. With diffraction-limited components feeding the instrument, calibrating a spectrograph’s line profile becomes considerably easier, as modal noise or imperfect scrambling of the fiber output are no longer an issue. It also opens up the possibility of exploiting photonic technologies for their advanced functionalities, inherent replicability, and small, lightweight footprint to design and build future instrumentation. In this work, we outline how extreme AO systems will enable advanced photonic and diffraction-limited technologies to be exploited in spectrograph design and the impact it will have on spectroscopy. We illustrate that the precision of an instrument based on these technologies, with light injected from an efficient SMF feed would be entirely limited by the spectral content and stellar noise alone on cool stars and would be capable of achieving a radial velocity precision of several m/s; the level required for detecting an exo-Earth in the habitable zone of a nearby M-dwarf.

  18. Probing other solar systems with current and future adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; Marois, C; Phillion, D; Poyneer, L; Graham, J; Zuckerman, B; Gavel, D; Veran, J; Wilhelmsen-Evans, J; Mellis, C


    Over the past decade, the study of extrasolar planets through indirect techniques--primarily Doppler measurements--has revolutionized our understanding of other solar systems. The next major step in this field will be the direct detection and characterization, via imaging and spectroscopy, of the planets themselves. To achieve this, we must separate the light from the faint planet from the extensive glare of its parent star. We pursued this goal using the current generation of adaptive optics (AO) systems on large ground-based telescopes, using infrared imaging to search for the thermal emission from young planets and developing image processing techniques to distinguish planets from telescope-induced artifacts. Our new Angular Differential Imaging (ADI) technique, which uses the sidereal rotation of the Earth and telescope, is now standard for ground-based high-contrast imaging. Although no young planets were found in our surveys, we placed the strongest limits yet on giant planets in wide orbits (>30 AU) around young stars and characterized planetary companion candidates. The imaging of planetary companions on solar-system-like scales (5-30 AU) will require a new generation of advanced AO systems that are an order of magnitude more powerful than the LLNL-built Keck AO system. We worked to develop and test the key technologies needed for these systems, including a spatially-filtered wavefront sensor, efficient and accurate wavefront reconstruction algorithms, and precision AO wavefront control at the sub-nm level. LLNL has now been selected by the Gemini Observatory to lead the construction of the Gemini Planet Imager, a $24M instrument that will be the most advanced AO system in the world.

  19. Electrostatic polymer-based microdeformable mirror for adaptive optics (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Conedera, Veronique; Granier, Hugues; Liotard, Arnaud; Lanzoni, Patrick; Salvagnac, Ludovic; Fabre, Norbert; Camon, Henri


    Future adaptive optics (AO) systems require deformable mirrors with very challenging parameters, up to 250 000 actuators and inter-actuator spacing around 500 μm. MOEMS-based devices are promising for the development of a complete generation of new deformable mirrors. Our micro-deformable mirror (MDM) is based on an array of electrostatic actuators with attachments to a continuous mirror on top. The originality of our approach lies in the elaboration of layers made of polymer materials. Mirror layers and active actuators have been demonstrated. Based on the design of this actuator and our polymer process, realization of a complete polymer-MDM has been done using two process flows: the first involves exclusively polymer materials while the second uses SU8 polymer for structural layers and SiO II and sol-gel for sacrificial layers. The latest shows a better capability in order to produce completely released structures. The electrostatic force provides a non-linear actuation, while AO systems are based on linear matrices operations. Then, we have developed a dedicated 14-bit electronics in order to "linearize" the actuation, using a calibration and a sixth-order polynomial fitting strategy. The response is nearly perfect over our 3×3 MDM prototype with a standard deviation of 3.5 nm; the influence function of the central actuator has been measured. First evaluation on the cross non-linarities has also been studied on OKO mirror and a simple look-up table is sufficient for determining the location of each actuator whatever the locations of the neighbor actuators. Electrostatic MDM are particularly well suited for open-loop AO applications.

  20. Using Adaptive Optics Follow-up to Characterize Microlensing Exoplanets (United States)

    Henderson, Calen; Beichman, Charles; Shvartzvald, Yossi


    The mass and distance of a microlens are degenerate, thus requiring at least two relations to yield a unique solution. Measuring the finite-source effect from the light curve helps provide one mass-distance relation for the lens system. Currently, the primary avenue for establishing a second relation and thus uniquely solving for the mass and distance of the lens is by measuring the microlens parallax. One specific implementation is the satellite parallax technique, which involves taking observations simultaneously from two locations separated by a significant fraction of an AU, and which has been employed by Spitzer and K2's Campaign 9, transforming this methodology from a cottage industry to a booming economy. However, the majority of microlensing exoplanets to be discovered in the coming decades, up to and including the detections predicted for WFIRST, will not have a measurement of the satellite parallax, requiring another avenue for converting microlensing observables into physical parameters. Enter the lens flux characterization technique, through which a microlensing target is observed with a high-resolution facility, facilitating a constraint on the flux from the lens system. This yields a third mass-distance relation for the lens and can be combined with that from the detection of finite-source effects and/or the microlens parallax to determine the mass of the lens system as well as its distance from Earth. I will highlight recent programs using NIRC2 on Keck that are designed to make lens flux measurements for a myriad of exoplanetary lenses, including: (A) systems with high blend flux, which adaptive optics is perfectly suited to resolve; (B) systems with high relative lens-source proper motion; (C) free-floating planet candidates; and (D) bound exoplanets.

  1. Efficient optical trapping of CdTe quantum dots by femtosecond laser pulses

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Weiyi


    The development in optical trapping and manipulation has been showing rapid progress, most of it is in the small particle sizes in nanometer scales, substituting the conventional continuous-wave lasers with high-repetition-rate ultrashort laser pulse train and nonlinear optical effects. Here, we evaluate two-photon absorption in optical trapping of 2.7 nm-sized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with high-repetition-rate femtosecond pulse train by probing laser intensity dependence of both Rayleigh scattering image and the two-photon-induced luminescence spectrum of the optically trapped QDs. The Rayleigh scattering imaging indicates that the two-photon absorption (TPA) process enhances trapping ability of the QDs. Similarly, a nonlinear increase of the two-photon-induced luminescence with the incident laser intensity fairly indicates the existence of the TPA process.

  2. Laser-Based Optical Trap for Remote Sampling of Interplanetary and Atmospheric Particulate Matter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase 1 of this study intends to leverage advances in laser optical trapping technology in order to study the feasibility of a system that could remotely capture a...

  3. Manipulation of cells with laser microbeam scissors and optical tweezers: a review (United States)

    Greulich, Karl Otto


    The use of laser microbeams and optical tweezers in a wide field of biological applications from genomic to immunology is discussed. Microperforation is used to introduce a well-defined amount of molecules into cells for genetic engineering and optical imaging. The microwelding of two cells induced by a laser microbeam combines their genetic outfit. Microdissection allows specific regions of genomes to be isolated from a whole set of chromosomes. Handling the cells with optical tweezers supports investigation on the attack of immune systems against diseased or cancerous cells. With the help of laser microbeams, heart infarction can be simulated, and optical tweezers support studies on the heartbeat. Finally, laser microbeams are used to induce DNA damage in living cells for studies on cancer and ageing.

  4. Continuous-wave single-frequency 295 nm laser source by a frequency-quadrupled optically pumped semiconductor laser. (United States)

    Kaneda, Yushi; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Hader, Jörg; Moloney, Jerome V; Koch, Stephan W; Kunert, Bernardette; Stoltz, Wolfgang


    Up to 136 mW of cw single-frequency output at 295 nm was obtained from a frequency-quadrupled optically pumped semiconductor laser. The highly strained InGaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser operates at 1178 nm in a single frequency. The single-frequency intracavity-doubled 589 nm output is further converted to 295 nm in an external resonator using beta-BaB(2)O(4).

  5. Performance analysis of an adaptive optics system for free-space optics communication through atmospheric turbulence. (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang


    The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0  = 10, f G  = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB  = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.

  6. Visualization of micro-capillaries using optical coherence tomography angiography with and without adaptive optics. (United States)

    Salas, Matthias; Augustin, Marco; Ginner, Laurin; Kumar, Abhishek; Baumann, Bernhard; Leitgeb, Rainer; Drexler, Wolfgang; Prager, Sonja; Hafner, Julia; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Pircher, Michael


    The purpose of this work is to investigate the benefits of adaptive optics (AO) technology for optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). OCTA has shown great potential in non-invasively enhancing the contrast of vessels and small capillaries. Especially the capability of the technique to visualize capillaries with a lateral extension that is below the transverse resolution of the system opens unique opportunities in diagnosing retinal vascular diseases. However, there are some limitations of this technology such as shadowing and projection artifacts caused by overlying vasculature or the inability to determine the true extension of a vessel. Thus, the evaluation of the vascular structure and density based on OCTA alone can be misleading. In this paper we compare the performance of AO-OCT, AO-OCTA and OCTA for imaging retinal vasculature. The improved transverse resolution and the reduced depth of focus of AO-OCT and AO-OCTA greatly reduce shadowing artifacts allowing for a better differentiation and segmentation of different vasculature layers of the inner retina. The comparison is done on images recorded in healthy volunteers and in diabetic patients with distinct pathologies of the retinal microvasculature.

  7. Adaptive optics-assisted optical coherence tomography for imaging of patients with age related macular degeneration (United States)

    Sudo, Kenta; Cense, Barry


    We developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) prototype with a sample arm that uses a 3.4 mm beam, which is considerably larger than the 1.2 to 1.5 mm beam that is used in commercialized OCT systems. The system is equipped with adaptive optics (AO), and to distinguish it from traditional AO-OCT systems with a larger 6 mm beam we have coined this concept AO-assisted OCT. Compared to commercialized OCT systems, the 3.4 mm aperture combined with AO improves light collection efficiency and imaging lateral resolution. In this paper, the performance of the AOa-OCT system was compared to a standard OCT system and demonstrated for imaging of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Measurements were performed on the retinas of three human volunteers with healthy eyes and on one eye of a patient diagnosed with AMD. The AO-assisted OCT system imaged retinal structures of healthy human eyes and a patient eye affected by AMD with higher lateral resolution and a 9° by 9° field of view. This combination of a large isoplanatic patch and high lateral resolution can be expected to fill a gap between standard OCT with a 1.2 mm beam and conventional AO-OCT with a 6 mm beam and a 1.5° by 1.5° isoplanatic patch.

  8. Method for optical pumping of thin laser media at high average power (United States)

    Zapata, Luis E [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA; Honea, Eric C [Sunol, CA; Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA


    A thin, planar laser material is bonded to a light guide of an index-matched material forming a composite disk. Diode array or other pump light is introduced into the composite disk through the edges of the disk. Pump light trapped within the composite disk depletes as it multi-passes the laser medium before reaching an opposing edge of the disk. The resulting compound optical structure efficiently delivers concentrated pump light and to a laser medium of minimum thickness. The external face of the laser medium is used for cooling. A high performance cooler attached to the external face of the laser medium rejects heat. Laser beam extraction is parallel to the heat flux to minimize optical distortions.

  9. All-Optical Noninvasive Control of Unstable Steady States in a Semiconductor Laser (United States)

    Schikora, S.; Hövel, P.; Wünsche, H.-J.; Schöll, E.; Henneberger, F.


    All-optical noninvasive control of a multisection semiconductor laser by means of time-delayed feedback from an external Fabry-Perot cavity is realized experimentally. A theoretical analysis, in both a generic model as well as a device-specific simulation, points out the role of the optical phase. Using phase-dependent feedback we demonstrate stabilization of the continuous-wave laser output and noninvasive suppression of intensity pulsations.

  10. Possibility of increasing the efficiency of laser-induced tattoo removal by optical skin clearing (United States)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.; Yaroslavskii, I. V.


    The possibility of selective laser photothermolysis improvement for the removal of tattoo pigments due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the optical skin clearing increases the tattoo image contrast. Computer Monte Carlo simulations show that by decreasing the laser beam scattering in upper skin layers, it is possible to reduce the radiation power required for tattoo removal by 30%—40% and, therefore, to increase the the photothermolysis efficiency.

  11. Formation of the active medium in lasers with rare-gas mixtures pumped by optical breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonov, V.V.; Derzhavin, S.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.; Sirotkin, A.A.


    A study was made of the parameters of the active media of lasers utilizing He--Xe (lambda = 2.03 and 2.65 and He--Ar (lambda = 1.79 mixtures of gases pumped by optical breakdown due to exposure to CO/sub 2/ laser radiation. It was found that lasing was the result of the combined effects of ultraviolet radiation and of a shock wave formed because of optical breakdown.

  12. Laser- and gamma-induced transformations of optical spectra of indium-doped sodium borate glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kopyshinsky, O V; Zelensky, S E; Danilchenko, B A; Shakhov, O P


    The optical absorption and luminescence properties of indium-doped sodium borate glass irradiated by gamma-rays and by powerful UV lasers within the impurity-related absorption band are investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that both the laser- and gamma-irradiation cause similar transformations of optical spectra in the UV and visible regions. The changes of the spectra observed are described with the use of a model which includes three types of impurity centres formed by differently charged indium ions.

  13. Optical fiber cable for transmission of high power laser energy over great distances (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.; Koblick, Yeshaya


    There is provided a system and apparatus for the transmission of high power laser energy over great distances without substantial power loss and without the presence of stimulated Raman scattering. There is further provided systems and optical fiber cable configurations and optical fiber structures for the delivering high power laser energy over great distances to a tool or surface to perform an operation or work with the tool or upon the surface.

  14. Optical Properties of Lithium Terbium Fluoride and Implications for Performance in High Power Lasers (Postprint) (United States)



  15. Tuning Optical Nonlinearity of Laser-Ablation-Synthesized Silicon Nanoparticles via Doping Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianwei Chen


    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles at different doping concentrations are investigated for tuning their optical nonlinear performance. The silicon nanoparticles are synthesized from doped silicon wafers by pulsed laser ablation. Their dispersions in water are studied for both nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction properties. It is found that the optical nonlinear performance can be modified by the doping concentration. Nanoparticles at a higher doping concentration exhibit better saturable absorption performance for femtosecond laser pulse, which is ascribed to the free carrier absorption mechanism.

  16. Laser Setup for Volume Diffractive Optical Elements Recording in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass (United States)


    published in non peer-reviewed journals : Final Report: Laser Setup for Volume Diffractive Optical Elements Recording in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass...enhancement of lasers brightness and fine spectral filtering. However, further increase of size of holographic optical elements , which are required for high...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - Approved for Public Release

  17. Tracking dynamics of photoreceptor disc shedding with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Zhang, Furu; Liu, Zhuolin; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Miller, Donald T.


    Absorption of light by photoreceptors initiates vision, but also leads to accumulation of toxic photo-oxidative compounds in the photoreceptor outer segment (OS). To prevent this buildup, small packets of OS discs are periodically pruned from the distal end of the OS, a process called disc shedding. Unfortunately dysfunction in any part of the shedding event can lead to photoreceptor and RPE dystrophy, and has been implicated in numerous retinal diseases, including age related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. While much is known about the complex molecular and signaling pathways that underpin shedding, all of these advancements have occurred in animal models using postmortem eyes. How these translate to the living retina and to humans remain major obstacles. To that end, we have recently discovered the optical signature of cone OS disc shedding in the living human retina, measured noninvasively using optical coherence tomography equipped with adaptive optics in conjunction with post processing methods to track and monitor individual cones in 4D. In this study, we improve on this method in several key areas: increasing image acquisition up to MHz A-scan rates, improving reliability to detect disc shedding events, establishing system precision, and developing cone tracking for use across the entire awake cycle. Thousands of cones were successfully imaged and tracked over the 17 hour period in two healthy subjects. Shedding events were detected in 79.5% and 77.4% of the tracked cones. Similar to previous animal studies, shedding prevalence exhibited a diurnal rhythm. But we were surprised to find that for these two subjects shedding occurred across the entire day with broad, elevated frequency in the morning and decreasing frequency as the day progressed. Consistent with this, traces of the average cone OS length revealed shedding dominated in the morning and afternoon and renewal in the evening.

  18. Fiber Optic Cables for Transmission of High-Power Laser Pulses in Spaceflight Applications (United States)

    Thomes, W. J., Jr.; Ott, M. N.; Chuska, R. F.; Switzer, R. C.; Blair, D. E.


    Lasers with high peak power pulses are commonly used in spaceflight missions for a wide range of applications, from LIDAR systems to optical communications. Due to the high optical power needed, the laser has to be located on the exterior of the satellite or coupled through a series of free space optics. This presents challenges for thermal management, radiation resistance, and mechanical design. Future applications will require multiple lasers located close together, which further complicates the design. Coupling the laser energy into a fiber optic cable allows the laser to be relocated to a more favorable position on the spacecraft. Typical fiber optic termination procedures are not sufficient for injection of these high-power laser pulses without catastrophic damage to the fiber endface. In the current study, we will review the causes of fiber damage during high-power injection and discuss our new manufacturing procedures that overcome these issues to permit fiber use with high reliability in these applications. We will also discuss the proper methods for launching the laser pulses into the fiber to avoid damage and how this is being implemented for current spaceflight missions.

  19. Silica Optical Fibers Doped with Nanoparticles for Fiber Lasers and Broadband Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašík, Ivan; Peterka, Pavel; Mrázek, Jan; Honzátko, Pavel


    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2016), s. 277-290 ISSN 1573-4137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-37368P; GA ČR GA14-35256S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber laser * Ceramics * Nanocrystal Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.062, year: 2016

  20. Non-solid non-rigid optics for high-power laser systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Michaelis, MM


    Full Text Available Non-solid and non-rigid optics employ gas and liquid transmission and reflection, as well as flexible membranes to influence laser beams, laser driven particle beams and harmonic generators. Some examples are acoustic gratings, phase conjugate...