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Sample records for adaptive growth strategy

  1. Adaptive strategies for graph state growth in the presence of monitored errors

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, E T; Benjamin, S C; Kok, P; Campbell, Earl T.; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Benjamin, Simon C.; Kok, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    Graph states, also known as cluster states, are the entanglement resource that enables one-way quantum computing. They can be grown by a series of projective measurements on the component qubits. Such measurements typically carry a significant failure probability. Moreover, even upon success they may generate imperfect entanglement. Here we describe strategies to adapt growth operations in order to cancel incurred errors. Nascent states that initially deviate from the ideal graph states evolve toward the desired high fidelity resource without incurring an impractical overhead. Our analysis extends the diagrammatic language of graph states to include characteristics such as tilted vertices, weighted edges, and partial fusion, which may arise due to experimental imperfections. The strategies we present are relevant to parity projection schemes such as optical `path erasure' with distributed matter qubits.

  2. Understanding the adaptive growth strategy of Lactobacillus plantarum by in silico optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusink, Bas; Wiersma, Anne; Jacobs, Leo; Notebaart, Richard A; Smid, Eddy J

    2009-06-01

    In the study of metabolic networks, optimization techniques are often used to predict flux distributions, and hence, metabolic phenotype. Flux balance analysis in particular has been successful in predicting metabolic phenotypes. However, an inherent limitation of a stoichiometric approach such as flux balance analysis is that it can predict only flux distributions that result in maximal yields. Hence, previous attempts to use FBA to predict metabolic fluxes in Lactobacillus plantarum failed, as this lactic acid bacterium produces lactate, even under glucose-limited chemostat conditions, where FBA predicted mixed acid fermentation as an alternative pathway leading to a higher yield. In this study we tested, however, whether long-term adaptation on an unusual and poor carbon source (for this bacterium) would select for mutants with optimal biomass yields. We have therefore adapted Lactobacillus plantarum to grow well on glycerol as its main growth substrate. After prolonged serial dilutions, the growth yield and corresponding fluxes were compared to in silico predictions. Surprisingly, the organism still produced mainly lactate, which was corroborated by FBA to indeed be optimal. To understand these results, constraint-based elementary flux mode analysis was developed that predicted 3 out of 2669 possible flux modes to be optimal under the experimental conditions. These optimal pathways corresponded very closely to the experimentally observed fluxes and explained lactate formation as the result of competition for oxygen by the other flux modes. Hence, these results provide thorough understanding of adaptive evolution, allowing in silico predictions of the resulting flux states, provided that the selective growth conditions favor yield optimization as the winning strategy.

  3. Understanding the adaptive growth strategy of Lactobacillus plantarum by in silico optimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Teusink

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the study of metabolic networks, optimization techniques are often used to predict flux distributions, and hence, metabolic phenotype. Flux balance analysis in particular has been successful in predicting metabolic phenotypes. However, an inherent limitation of a stoichiometric approach such as flux balance analysis is that it can predict only flux distributions that result in maximal yields. Hence, previous attempts to use FBA to predict metabolic fluxes in Lactobacillus plantarum failed, as this lactic acid bacterium produces lactate, even under glucose-limited chemostat conditions, where FBA predicted mixed acid fermentation as an alternative pathway leading to a higher yield. In this study we tested, however, whether long-term adaptation on an unusual and poor carbon source (for this bacterium would select for mutants with optimal biomass yields. We have therefore adapted Lactobacillus plantarum to grow well on glycerol as its main growth substrate. After prolonged serial dilutions, the growth yield and corresponding fluxes were compared to in silico predictions. Surprisingly, the organism still produced mainly lactate, which was corroborated by FBA to indeed be optimal. To understand these results, constraint-based elementary flux mode analysis was developed that predicted 3 out of 2669 possible flux modes to be optimal under the experimental conditions. These optimal pathways corresponded very closely to the experimentally observed fluxes and explained lactate formation as the result of competition for oxygen by the other flux modes. Hence, these results provide thorough understanding of adaptive evolution, allowing in silico predictions of the resulting flux states, provided that the selective growth conditions favor yield optimization as the winning strategy.

  4. [Individual adaptation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldasheva, A A

    2014-01-01

    The article looks at the relation between adaptation strategy and individual style of activity based on the doctrine of human adaptation of V.I. Medvedev that enables opening up characteristics of professional activity in diverse environments. It illustrates a role and the relation between physiological and psychological mechanisms, which can vary, depending on individual adaptation strategies of a person. Theoretical and practical studies based on activity paradigm allow us to look at the basic principles of human interaction with the environment from a new perspective. Based on the law on the conceptual model of adaptation proposed by V.I. Medvedev, the article illustrates that humans are active figures in adaptation situations, modeling their own adaption strategies, using different individual styles manifested in the programs of adaptive behaviour.

  5. Seedling growth dynamic of Haloxylon ammodendron and its adaptation strategy to habitat condition in hinterland of desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jiang; ZHANG XiMing; SHAN LiShan; YAN HaiLong; LIANG ShaoMing

    2007-01-01

    Through measuring the above/below-ground growth data of Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings at different stages in hinterland of the desert the results show that the H. ammodendron seedling growth has demonstrated different adaptation characteristics in the continued arid environment with time and space. In May, July, September and October, the growth speed of vertical root is 0.607 cm/d, 0.809 cm/d, 0.155 cm/d and 0.394 cm/d, respectively; the growth speed of height is 0.093 cm/d, 0.076 cm/d,0.408 cm/d and 136 cm/d, respectively. It is explained that seedlings root system has the growth superiority in space. The maximum growth speed of below-ground (vertical root and horizontal root) of seedling is earlier than that of above-ground (height and horizontal of shoot). In the different periods,the vertical growth speed and the horizontal growth speed of below-ground is 2-10 times and 3-5 times than the height increase speed and the shoot growth speed, respectively. In the whole season,the growth speed of above/below-ground of seedlings shows the alternation growth tendency. At the different periods, the root/shoot ratio of H. ammodendron seedlings is 0.41, 0.3, 0.39 and 0.88. All these characteristics are the comprehensive performance of seedlings' strategy selection to adapt to the continued arid environment.

  6. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  7. Analysis of different strategies adapted by two cassava cultivars in response to drought stress: ensuring survival or continuing growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pingjuan; Liu, Pei; Shao, Jiaofang; Li, Chunqiang; Wang, Bin; Guo, Xin; Yan, Bin; Xia, Yiji; Peng, Ming

    2015-03-01

    Cassava is one of the most drought-tolerant crops, however, the underlying mechanism for its ability to survive and produce under drought remains obscure. In this study, two cassava cultivars, SC124 and Arg7, were treated by gradually reducing the soil water content. Their responses to the drought stress were examined through their morphological and physiological traits and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis. SC124 plants adapted a 'survival' mode under mild drought stress as evidenced by early stomatal closure and a reduction in the levels of various photosynthetic proteins and photosynthetic capacity, resulting in early growth quiescence. In contrast, Arg7 plants underwent senescence of older leaves but continued to grow, although at a reduced rate, under mild drought. SC124 plants were more capable of surviving prolonged severe drought than Arg7. The iTRAQ analysis identified over 5000 cassava proteins. Among the drought-responsive proteins identified in the study were an aquaporin, myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthases, and a number of proteins involved in the antioxidant systems and secondary metabolism. Many proteins that might play a role in signalling or gene regulation were also identified as drought-responsive proteins, which included several protein kinases, two 14-3-3 proteins, several RNA-binding proteins and transcription factors, and two histone deacetylases. Our study also supports the notion that linamarin might play a role in nitrogen reallocation in cassava under drought.

  8. Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing, Jana; Koidl, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Abbing, J. & Koidl, K. (2006). Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  9. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.;

    2010-01-01

    in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper concludes that even...

  10. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...

  11. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  12. Protandry, sexual size dimorphism, and adaptive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbey, Yolanda E

    2013-12-21

    Adaptive growth refers to the strategic adjustment of growth rate by individuals to maximize some component of fitness. The concept of adaptive growth proliferated in the 1990s, in part due to an influential theoretical paper by Peter Abrams and colleagues. In their 1996 paper, Abrams et al. explored the effects of time stress on optimal growth rate, development time, and adult size in seasonal organisms. In this review, I explore how the concept of adaptive growth informs our understanding of protandry (the earlier arrival of males to sites of reproduction than females) and sexual size dimorphism in seasonal organisms. I conclude that growth rate variation is an important mechanism that helps to conserve optimal levels of protandry and sexual size dimorphism in changing environments.

  13. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  14. Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e

  15. Growth and innovation Strategies In Global Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a model of firm dynamics in global competition and experimentally analyzes multinational growth strategies and optimal coordination of innovative activities. It shows that growth and innovation strategies of operatively engaged headquarters (business or corporate) with a geocentr

  16. Adapting RRT growth for heterogeneous environments

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) are effective for a wide range of applications ranging from kinodynamic planning to motion planning under uncertainty. However, RRTs are not as efficient when exploring heterogeneous environments and do not adapt to the space. For example, in difficult areas an expensive RRT growth method might be appropriate, while in open areas inexpensive growth methods should be chosen. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, Adaptive RRT, that adapts RRT growth to the current exploration area using a two level growth selection mechanism. At the first level, we select groups of expansion methods according to the visibility of the node being expanded. Second, we use a cost-sensitive learning approach to select a sampler from the group of expansion methods chosen. Also, we propose a novel definition of visibility for RRT nodes which can be computed in an online manner and used by Adaptive RRT to select an appropriate expansion method. We present the algorithm and experimental analysis on a broad range of problems showing not only its adaptability, but efficiency gains achieved by adapting exploration methods appropriately. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Adapting MCH strategies for the nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, R

    1994-01-01

    Brief overview was given for strategies in maternal and child health (MCH) in India that were used in the 1980s and adapted for the 1990s in the following areas: perinatal outcomes, empowerment of women, immunization, oral rehydration, adolescent girls, anthropometric measurement, health education, management, and coordination with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In order to assure a healthy baby weighing 2.5 kg, monitoring of maternal health is occurring. Iron and folic acid and tetanus toxoid vaccine are provided to pregnant mothers, and fetal growth is monitored. Training of traditional birth attendants and multipurpose health workers will contribute to clean deliveries and referral of complicated pregnancies. During the 1990s, women's health in addition to maternal health has received attention. The empowerment of women to care for themselves, to learn how to mix oral rehydration packets (ORS) at home, and to receive the knowledge and skills were deemed more important than the 1980s focus on the delivery system and inputs of MCH. An excellent cold chain for delivery of vaccines has been put in place, which provides the vehicle for the 1990s to maintain high vaccine coverage. The emphasis on oral rehydration in the 1990s will be on teaching mothers about the importance of ORS treatment of diarrhea. During the 1990s, educating the adolescent girl before she becomes married and pregnant will be the focus. Greater emphasis will be placed on stunting or height for age measurements, as a measure of long term nutritional change; age weight for height for measurement of wasting; and maternal nutritional monitoring of arm circumference. Sustained health education, more media exposure to disease conditions and treatment, and social marketing in health will be better coordinated and more cost effective. Accountability for manpower, materials, and money will be in place within management. Management will focus on motivation and training, and other, newer management

  18. An adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹一家; 张红先

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic systems. By employing the phase space reconstruction technique in nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the proposed strategy transforms the nonlinear system into canonical form, and employs a nonlinear observer to estimate the uncertainties and disturbances of the nonlinear system, and then establishes a state-error-like feedback law. The developed control scheme allows chaos control in spite of modeling errors and parametric variations. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through its applications to two well-known chaotic systems : Duffing oscillator and Rǒssler chaos.

  19. An adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi-Jia; Hang, Hong-Xian

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic systems. By employing the phase space reconstruction technique in nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the proposed strategy transforms the nonlinear system into canonical form, and employs a nonlinear observer to estimate the uncertainties and disturbances of the nonlinear system, and then establishes a state-error-like feedback law. The developed control scheme allows chaos control in spite of modeling errors and parametric variations. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through its applications to two well-known chaotic systems: Duffing oscillator and Rössler chaos.

  20. An adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹一家; 张红先

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic systems. By employing the phase space reconstruction technique in nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the proposed strategy transforms the nonlinear system into canonical form, and employs a nonlinear observer to estimate the uncertainties and disturbances of the nonlinear system, and then establishes a state-error-like feedback law. The developed control scheme allows chaos control in spite of modeling errors and parametric variations. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through its applications to two well-known chaotic systems: Duffing oscillator and Rossler chaos.

  1. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  2. Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Gregg; Jacobs, Katharine; Buizer, James

    2008-06-01

    Climate Change Adaptation for Water Managers; Oracle, Arizona, 4-5 February 2008; The most visible manifestation of climate change in the American Southwest is its effects on water resources. Since 1999, the region's water supplies and major rivers have been tested by burgeoning population growth and drought. Model projections suggest increasing drought severity and duration due to rising temperatures, increased evapotranspiration, and enhanced atmospheric circulation from the tropics (Hadley circulation).

  3. Design strategies for irregularly adapting parallel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Sing, Jaswinder Pal

    2000-11-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance of dynamically adapting computations. In this work, we examine two major classes of adaptive applications, under five competing programming methodologies and four leading parallel architectures. Results indicate that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory programming techniques by carefully following the same high level strategies. Adaptive applications have computational work loads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines. Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications are therefore a challenging task. This work examines the implementation of two typical adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, across various programming paradigms and architectural platforms. We compare several critical factors of the parallel code development, including performance, programmability, scalability, algorithmic development, and portability.

  4. Categorizing the Growth Strategies of Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Mika Westerlund; Seppo Leminen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the link between a small firm’s investment in R&D and its growth strategy. A firm’s growth strategy refers to the means by which the organization plans to achieve its objective to grow in volume and turnover. We categorize firm growth strategies into eight distinctive clusters: opportunity explorers, radical innovators, business developers, business expanders, profit makers, business rebuilders, stagnators, and downsizers. We argue that understanding a firm’s growth or...

  5. Categorizing the Growth Strategies of Small Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Westerlund

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the link between a small firm’s investment in R&D and its growth strategy. A firm’s growth strategy refers to the means by which the organization plans to achieve its objective to grow in volume and turnover. We categorize firm growth strategies into eight distinctive clusters: opportunity explorers, radical innovators, business developers, business expanders, profit makers, business rebuilders, stagnators, and downsizers. We argue that understanding a firm’s growth orientation provides a way to assess the returns of its R&D investments, because an organization’s intangible growth strategies and tangible inputs are connected.

  6. Marketing aspects of steady growth business strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Gonchar, V.; Kalinin, O.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzed the importance of marketing to achieve steady business growth, the main strategy of internal development and marketing of its level of development, achieving competitive advantage and the main directions of marketing management. The examples of marketing strategies for leading corporations were described. The problems and prospects of the business strategy of extensive growth and diversification were made.

  7. Adaptive Strategies in the Iterated Exchange Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraov, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We argue for clear separation of the exchange problem from the exchange paradox to avoid confusion about the subject matter of these two distinct problems. The exchange problem in its current format belongs to the domain of optimal decision making—it doesn't make any sense as a game of competition. But it takes just a tiny modification in the statement of the problem to breathe new life into it and make it a practicable and meaningful game of competition. In this paper, we offer an explanation for paradoxical priors and discuss adaptive strategies for both the house and the player in the restated exchange problem.

  8. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information

  9. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  10. Biometeorology - a science supporting adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzarakis, A.; Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    Biometeorology as an interdisciplinary science deals with the interactions between atmospheric processes and living organisms (plants, animals and humans). If and in what way weather and climate affect the well-being of all the living creatures? This is the most important question biometeorology is answering. The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has built an international forum for the promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration between meteorologists, health professionals, biologists, climatologists, ecologists and other scientists. The Society acts as a community of scientists with similar interests, and fulfills an important role in providing information, expertise and advice for international organizations requiring this assistance. The ISB represents the most comprehensive organization, which brings together people with expertise in these areas. Another specific aim of the ISB is the stimulation of research. Therefore, groups of members are working on several topics organized in commissions for specific targets. The recent five commissions are working in the several fields including climate change issues. Some of examples will be presented, which have been initiated by the members of the ISB and how they can be included as a solid scientific basis to develop efficient adaptation strategies. One such example is a project combining natural and social sciences (in the fields of cooperation processes, tourism analysis and strategy, weather and climate change analysis, information and communication and knowledge transfer) in a transdisciplinary approach that includes players from tourism policy and business and which focuses on the North Sea Coast and the Black Forest. The project "Climate trends and sustainable development of tourism in coastal and mountain range regions was divided into four phases - diagnosis, assessment, strategy/design of solutions, and evaluation - where scientific subprojects and practical partners meet regularly to discuss the

  11. Growth and innovation Strategies In Global Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Weitzel, U.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a model of firm dynamics in global competition and experimentally analyzes multinational growth strategies and optimal coordination of innovative activities. It shows that growth and innovation strategies of operatively engaged headquarters (business or corporate) with a geocentric focus dominate alternative concepts, like ethnocentric, financial or flexible headquarters. The analysis identifies two crucial strategic advantages for successful multinational companies: econo...

  12. Health, growth and psychosocial adaptation of immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Toselli, Stefania; Masotti, Sabrina; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The increasing population diversity in Europe demands clarification of possible ethnic influences on the growth and health of immigrant children and their psychosocial adaptation to the host countries. This article assesses recent data on immigrant children in Europe in comparison to European natives by means of a systematic review of the literature on growth patterns and data on children's health and adaptation. There were wide variations across countries in growth patterns and development of immigrant children and natives, with different trends in Central and Northern Europe with respect to Southern Europe. In general, age at menarche was lower in immigrant girls, while male pubertal progression seemed faster in immigrants than in European natives, even when puberty began after. Owing to the significant differences in anthropometric traits (mainly stature and weight), new reference growth curves for immigrant children were constructed for the largest minority groups in Central Europe. Possible negative effects on growth, health and psychosocial adaptation were pointed out for immigrant children living in low income, disadvantaged communities with a high prevalence of poor lifestyle habits. In conclusion, this review provides a framework for the health and growth of immigrant children in Europe in comparison to native-born children: the differences among European countries in growth and development of migrants and non-migrants are closely related to the clear anthropological differences among the ethnic groups due to genetic influences. Higher morbidity and mortality was frequently associated with the minority status of these children and their low socio-economic status. The observed ethnic differences in health reveal the need for adequate health care in all groups. Therefore, we provide suggestions for the development of health care strategies in Europe.

  13. Entry and Growth Strategies for Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Yen Thi Thu

    2004-01-01

    have to develop a portfolio of local and/or global brands that matches their competences with local needs. If they aim for market leadership they may pursue a multi-tier strategy, but this needs to be supported by an appropriate foundation of global and local resources. This strategy in particular...... to adapt their strategies, most notably their marketing and acquisition strategies, to the local context. In this paper, we outline why globalisation drives MNEs into emerging economies, and we provide conceptual frameworks that may aid investors to adapt their strategies to emerging economy contexts. MNEs......Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are expanding their global reach, carrying their products and brands to ever more remote corners of the world. They encounter business environments that vary not only from their country of origin, but also vary greatly amongst each other. Thus foreign investors have...

  14. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management. Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adapta...

  15. Adaptive growth strategies of Leymus chinesis population in response to shading%羊草种群对遮荫的适应性生长对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪义; 王正文

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1950s,the short-waved solar radiation that the earth received has been reduced by 2.7% every decade,and this phenomenon is called “global dimming”,which may impact plants and their inhabitant ecosystems.However,no consensus concerning such impacts has been reached.In this paper,different degrees (0,30%,50% and 70%) of shading were installed to simulate the global dimming effect to study the population density,morphological features (shoot height,leaf area,and heading rate),and photosynthetic physiology (stomatal conductance,photosynthetic rate,and transpiration rate) of Leymus chinensis in response to shading.Shading decreased the shoot density somewhat,but increased the shoot height obviously,enlarged the leaf area significantly,and promoted the heading rate.Shading also significantly reduced the PAR that L.chinensis received.Under 0,30%,and 50% shading,the afternoon depression in stomatal conductance,photosynthetic rate,and transpiration rate occurred.Under 70% shading,the stomatal conductance,photosynthetic rate,and transpiration rate at 11:00-16:00 were higher than those in other shading treatments,and the afternoon depression of photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate did not occur.The absence of the afternoon depression of photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate under 70% shading could be one of the main reasons of the increased productivity of some vegetation types after being shaded or being exposed to global dimming.To more precisely predict the responses of various ecosystems to global dimming,it would be necessary to conduct more empirical studies about the responses of plants to shading in more regions,with more habitat types and more plant functional types,and at more growth stages,and do more model studies and meta-analyses to incorporate the empirical data.%自20世纪50年代以来,太阳到达整个地球的短波光能辐射量每10年减少2.7%,即“全球变暗”,这会对植物及其所在的生态系统

  16. A New Adaptive Checkpointing Strategy for Mobile Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENChaoguang; ZUODecheng; YANGXiaozong

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive checkpointing strategy is an efficient recovery scheme, which is suitable for mobile computing system. However, all existing adaptive checkpointing schemes are not correct to recover system when failure occurs in some special period. In this paper, the issues that will lead to system inconsistency are first discussed and then a new adaptive strategy that can recover system to correct consistent state is proposed. Our algorithm improves system recovery performance because only failure process needs rollback through logging.

  17. Strategy correlations and timing of adaptation in Minority Games

    OpenAIRE

    Galla, Tobias; Sherrington, David

    2005-01-01

    We study the role of strategy correlations and timing of adaptation for the dynamics of Minority Games, both simulationally and analytically. Using the exact generating functional approach a la De Dominicis we compute the phase diagram and the behaviour of batch and on-line games with correlated strategies, complementing exisiting replica studies of their statics. It is shown that the timing of adaptation can be relevant; while conventional games with uncorrelated strategies are nearly insens...

  18. Assessment of governance strategies for climate adaptation in Flanders / Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Verhofstede, Björn; Leinfelder, Hans; Allaert, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Climate discourse in recent decades has mainly focused on the issue of mitigation. Through a better understanding and assessment of climate challenges, adaptation arises as a complementary strategy to mitigation. Vulnerability in relation to climate change is seen as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Adaptation can influence sensitivity while mitigating impacts on the exposure to climate change. (IPCC, 2007). Adaptation requires space for climate on a local scale and ...

  19. Climate Changea Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Mwendwa; Richard A. Giliba

    2012-01-01

    To determine the climate changes that are due to natural variability and those due to human activities is quite challenging, just like delineating the impacts. Moreover, it is equally difficult to ascertain the adaptive strategies for coping with the climate chang- es and in particular for developing countries like Kenya. While climate change is a global phenomenon, the impacts are more or less specific to local areas such as observed in Kenyan case. There- fore climate change impacts adaptation strategies are appropriately applicable to a given local perspective. The study investigated the main indicators of climate change and effective adaptive strategies that can be employed in Kenya. Based on online questionnaire survey, the study established unpredictable rainfall patterns as the major indicator of climate change in the country, while water harvesting and change of cropping methods are the best adaptive strategies.

  20. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  1. Sustaining an Acquisition-based Growth Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme

    complementarity, c) directing and governing the integration process, and d) post-acquisition evaluation of the achieved integration and proposing ways forward. Using the EA capability in the acquisition process improves Cisco’s ability to rapidly capture value from its acquisitions and to sustain its acquisition......-based growth strategy over time....

  2. The Contextual Adaptation of English Teachers' Questioning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hong-mei; Li, Wang-zi; Lei, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In order to guarantee an interactive classroom atmosphere, English teachers pay much attention to the questioning strategies when they use question-answer teaching method. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis on English teachers' questioning strategies from the perspective of adaptation theory. It shows that the utilization of teachers'…

  3. Adapting Heuristic Mastermind Strategies to Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Runarsson, Tomas Philip

    2009-01-01

    The art of solving the Mastermind puzzle was initiated by Donald Knuth and is already more than 30 years old; despite that, it still receives much attention in operational research and computer games journals, not to mention the nature-inspired stochastic algorithm literature. In this paper we try to suggest a strategy that will allow nature-inspired algorithms to obtain results as good as those based on exhaustive search strategies; in order to do that, we first review, compare and improve current approaches to solving the puzzle; then we test one of these strategies with an estimation of distribution algorithm. Finally, we try to find a strategy that falls short of being exhaustive, and is then amenable for inclusion in nature inspired algorithms (such as evolutionary or particle swarm algorithms). This paper proves that by the incorporation of local entropy into the fitness function of the evolutionary algorithm it becomes a better player than a random one, and gives a rule of thumb on how to incorporate t...

  4. Strategies for adaptation of mAb-producing CHO cells to serum-free medium

    OpenAIRE

    Costa A; Rodrigues M.; Henriques Mariana; Oliveira Rosário; Azeredo Joana

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals commonly requires the use of serum-free medium, for safety and cost reasons. However, serum is essential to most mammalian cells growth, and its removal implies a very time-consuming process for cell adaptation. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate different strategies for cell adaptation to serum-free medium. Three cell types were used to assess the impact of transfection on adaptation: one common CHO-K1 cell line and two CHO-K1 cells tr...

  5. Parallel Programming Strategies for Irregular Adaptive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance for such computations. In this work, we examine two typical irregular adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, under competing programming methodologies and across various parallel architectures. The Dynamic Remeshing application simulates flow over an airfoil, and refines localized regions of the underlying unstructured mesh. The N-Body experiment models two neighboring Plummer galaxies that are about to undergo a merger. Both problems demonstrate dramatic changes in processor workloads and interprocessor communication with time; thus, dynamic load balancing is a required component.

  6. A generic mechanism for adaptive growth rate regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikara Furusawa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available How can a microorganism adapt to a variety of environmental conditions despite the existence of a limited number of signal transduction mechanisms? We show that for any growing cells whose gene expression fluctuate stochastically, the adaptive cellular state is inevitably selected by noise, even without a specific signal transduction network for it. In general, changes in protein concentration in a cell are given by its synthesis minus dilution and degradation, both of which are proportional to the rate of cell growth. In an adaptive state with a higher growth speed, both terms are large and balanced. Under the presence of noise in gene expression, the adaptive state is less affected by stochasticity since both the synthesis and dilution terms are large, while for a nonadaptive state both the terms are smaller so that cells are easily kicked out of the original state by noise. Hence, escape time from a cellular state and the cellular growth rate are negatively correlated. This leads to a selection of adaptive states with higher growth rates, and model simulations confirm this selection to take place in general. The results suggest a general form of adaptation that has never been brought to light--a process that requires no specific mechanisms for sensory adaptation. The present scheme may help explain a wide range of cellular adaptive responses including the metabolic flux optimization for maximal cell growth.

  7. A generic mechanism for adaptive growth rate regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2008-01-01

    How can a microorganism adapt to a variety of environmental conditions despite the existence of a limited number of signal transduction mechanisms? We show that for any growing cells whose gene expression fluctuate stochastically, the adaptive cellular state is inevitably selected by noise, even without a specific signal transduction network for it. In general, changes in protein concentration in a cell are given by its synthesis minus dilution and degradation, both of which are proportional to the rate of cell growth. In an adaptive state with a higher growth speed, both terms are large and balanced. Under the presence of noise in gene expression, the adaptive state is less affected by stochasticity since both the synthesis and dilution terms are large, while for a nonadaptive state both the terms are smaller so that cells are easily kicked out of the original state by noise. Hence, escape time from a cellular state and the cellular growth rate are negatively correlated. This leads to a selection of adaptive states with higher growth rates, and model simulations confirm this selection to take place in general. The results suggest a general form of adaptation that has never been brought to light--a process that requires no specific mechanisms for sensory adaptation. The present scheme may help explain a wide range of cellular adaptive responses including the metabolic flux optimization for maximal cell growth.

  8. Strategies for adapting to high rates of employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowday, R T

    1984-01-01

    For many organizations facing high rates of employee turnover, strategies for increasing employee retention may not be practical because employees leave for reasons beyond the control of management or the costs of reducing turnover exceed the benefits to be derived. In this situation managers need to consider strategies that can minimize or buffer the organization from the negative consequences that often follow from turnover. Strategies organizations can use to adapt to uncontrollably high employee turnover rates are presented in this article. In addition, suggestions are made for how managers should make choices among the alternative strategies.

  9. Event driven adaptation, land use and human coping strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Fog, Bjarne

    The paper focuses on assessing the wider perspectives of adaptive resource management strategies in former subsistence agriculture societies in the SW Pacific. Firstly, we will briefly introduce the theoretical context related to the livelihood framework, adaptation to socio-environmental change...... on the entire household livelihood portfolio and reveal that the natural resources remains a widespread activity, yet increasingly supplemented by other income generating activities( ex. shop keeping, private business, government employment). Group interviews have been employed to reveal how local farmers...

  10. The adaptation study of oral communication strategy inventory into Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saziye Yaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals use a variety of strategies in the course of speaking which can be identified via measurement tools. In the literature, strategy inventories are regarded as the most commonly used measurement tools. However, most of the strategy inventories lack the reliability and validity studies. Furthermore, most of them represent strategies that the learner could use throughout the language learning process and they are not directly relevant to the skill of speaking. Moreover, in the literature, most of the studies carried out on speaking strategies are based on the inventories developed for learners learning English as a second language. With respect to other measurement tools, Oral Communication Strategy Inventory (OCSI developed by Nakatani (2006 for Japanese learning English as a foreign language had a clear factor structure and it seemed less problematic. Thus, the purpose of this study was to adapt OCSI into Turkish. Our concern in the adaptation study of OCSI is to investigate whether oral communication strategies classified in OCSI developed by Nakatani (2006 would also measure Turkish EFL students’ speaking strategy use. Within the scope of adaptation study, the inventory was translated to Turkish and evaluated with the method of back translation. The equivalence between English form and Turkish form, construct validity and internal consistency were examined. The research was conducted with 808 students studying English as a foreign language at ELT departments of three different universities and Anatolian High schools. Based on the findings concerning the reliability and validity studies, it can be concluded that the classification of the original form of OCSI differs from the adapted version to some extent in that the Turkish form is made up of seven factors in contrast to the original inventory consisting of eight factors. Non verbal strategies which existed in Nakatani’s original inventory did not appear in the adaptation form

  11. Climate Change Adaptation. Challenges and Opportunities for a Smart Urban Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galderisi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the main environmental issues challenging cities in the 21th century. At present, more than half of the world population lives in cities and the latter are responsible for 60% to 80% of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which are the main causes of the change in climate conditions. In the meantime, they are seriously threatened by the heterogeneous climate-related phenomena, very often exacerbated by the features of the cities themselves. In the last decade, international and European efforts have been mainly focused on mitigation rather than on adaptation strategies. Europe is one of the world leaders in global mitigation policies, while the issue of adaptation has gained growing importance in the last years. As underlined by the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change, even though climate change mitigation still remains a priority for the global community, large room has to be devoted to adaptation measures, in order to effectively face the unavoidable impacts and related economic, environmental and social costs of climate change (EC, 2013. Thus, measures for adaptation to climate change are receiving an increasing financial support and a growing number of European countries are implementing national and urban adaptation strategies to deal with the actual and potential climate change impacts. According to the above considerations, this paper explores strengths and weaknesses of current adaptation strategies in European cities. First the main suggestions of the European Community to improve urban adaptation to climate change are examined; then, some recent Adaptation Plans are analyzed, in order to highlight challenges and opportunities arising from the adaptation processes at urban level and to explore the potential of Adaptation Plans to promote a smart growth in the European cities.

  12. Representing adaptive eLearning strategies in IMS Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Representing adaptive eLearning strategies in IMS Learning Design. In R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development (pp. 54-60). March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgar

  13. Real-Time Adaptation of Influence Strategies in Online Selling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on r

  14. Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution Algorithm With Zoning Evolution of Control Parameters and Adaptive Mutation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qinqin; Yan, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the differential evolution (DE) algorithm is significantly affected by the choice of mutation strategies and control parameters. Maintaining the search capability of various control parameter combinations throughout the entire evolution process is also a key issue. A self-adaptive DE algorithm with zoning evolution of control parameters and adaptive mutation strategies is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the mutation strategies are automatically adjusted with population evolution, and the control parameters evolve in their own zoning to self-adapt and discover near optimal values autonomously. The proposed algorithm is compared with five state-of-the-art DE algorithm variants according to a set of benchmark test functions. Furthermore, seven nonparametric statistical tests are implemented to analyze the experimental results. The results indicate that the overall performance of the proposed algorithm is better than those of the five existing improved algorithms.

  15. Strategy Uniform Crossover Adaptation Evolution in a Minority Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟松; 汪秉宏; 全宏俊; 胡进锟

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new adaptation minority game for understanding the complex dynamical behaviour characterized by agent interactions competing limited resources in many natural and social systems. Intelligent agents may modify a part of their strategies periodically, depending on the strategyperformances. In the present model, the strategies will be updated according to a uniform-crossover variation process inspired by genetic evolution algorithm in biology. The performances of the agents in our model are calculated for different parameter conditions. It has been found that the new system may evolve via the strategy uniform crossover adaptation mechanism into a frozen equilibrium state in which the performance of the system may reach the best limit, implying the strongest cooperation among agents and the most effective utilization of the social resources.

  16. Paradigms for adaptive statistical information designs: practical experiences and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sue-Jane; Hung, H M James; O'Neill, Robert

    2012-11-10

    design. We highlight the substantial risk of planning the sample size for confirmatory trials when information is very uninformative and stipulate the advantages of adaptive statistical information designs for planning exploratory trials. Practical experiences and strategies as lessons learned from more recent adaptive design proposals will be discussed to pinpoint the improved utilities of adaptive design clinical trials and their potential to increase the chance of a successful drug development.

  17. An unsupervised adaptive strategy for constructing probabilistic roadmaps

    KAUST Repository

    Tapia, L.

    2009-05-01

    Since planning environments are complex and no single planner exists that is best for all problems, much work has been done to explore methods for selecting where and when to apply particular planners. However, these two questions have been difficult to answer, even when adaptive methods meant to facilitate a solution are applied. For example, adaptive solutions such as setting learning rates, hand-classifying spaces, and defining parameters for a library of planners have all been proposed. We demonstrate a strategy based on unsupervised learning methods that makes adaptive planning more practical. The unsupervised strategies require less user intervention, model the topology of the problem in a reasonable and efficient manner, can adapt the sampler depending on characteristics of the problem, and can easily accept new samplers as they become available. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that in a wide variety of environments, the regions automatically identified by our technique represent the planning space well both in number and placement.We also show that our technique has little overhead and that it out-performs two existing adaptive methods in all complex cases studied.© 2009 IEEE.

  18. National strategy for climate change adaptation; Strategie nationale d'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  19. BUSINESS GROWTH STRATEGIES OF ILLINOIS FARMS: A QUANTILE REGRESSION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Hennings, Enrique; Katchova, Ani L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the business strategies employed by Illinois farms to maintain equity growth using quantile regression analysis. Using data from the Farm Business Farm Management system, this study finds that the effect of different business strategies on equity growth rates differs between quantiles. Financial management strategies have a positive effect for farms situated in the highest quantile of equity growth, while for farms in the lowest quantile the effect on equity growth is nega...

  20. Controls on Extreme Droughts and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Cook, C.; Fernando, D. N.; LeBlanc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing vulnerability to droughts with reduced per capita water storage, particularly in semiarid regions, underscores the need for predictive understanding of drought controls and development of adaptation strategies for water resources management. In this study we evaluate causes of major droughts in southwest and southcentral US (California and Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin). Impacts of climate cycles (ENSO, PDO, AMO, NAO, IOD) and atmospheric circulation on drought initiation and persistence are examined. Effects of drought on surface water reservoir storage, groundwater storage, irrigation, and crop production are compared. Adaptation strategies being evaluated include water transfers among sectors, particularly from irrigated agriculture to other groups, increasing storage using managed aquifer recharge, water reuse, and development of new water sources (e.g. seawater desalination). It is critical to develop a broad portfolio of water sources to increase resilience to future droughts.

  1. What Is Green Growth Strategy for Government Link Company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilah Asha'ari, Maryam; Daud, Salina; Hassan, Hasmaizan

    2016-03-01

    Disasters around the world are very extreme because of the global warming and climate change. Malaysia firms have to play their role in handling the challenging of environmental problems in order to sustain. The feature of the new strategy which is green growth strategy has been identified. The study focuses on the features of the green growth strategy which discuss on the keys to sustaining the strategy, marketing emphasis, production emphasis, product line, basis of competitive advantage and strategic target. Business had contributed to the industrialisation era positively or negatively and therefore there is a must for business people to use the best strategy in reducing the environmental risks. By 2020, Malaysia will achieve the target in becoming an advanced economy by applying the right strategy. The objective of this paper is to propose a feature for new strategy known as green growth strategy. Future study is to propose to conduct an empirical analysis to confirm the green growth strategy features.

  2. Adaptation to optimal cell growth through self-organized criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-05-18

    A simple cell model consisting of a catalytic reaction network is studied to show that cellular states are self-organized in a critical state for achieving optimal growth; we consider the catalytic network dynamics over a wide range of environmental conditions, through the spontaneous regulation of nutrient transport into the cell. Furthermore, we find that the adaptability of cellular growth to reach a critical state depends only on the extent of environmental changes, while all chemical species in the cell exhibit correlated partial adaptation. These results are in remarkable agreement with the recent experimental observations of the present cells.

  3. Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidanti-Malunga, J.

    Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

  4. A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat for fish, shellfish, and wildlife, including species of concern, such as the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). We present a climate change adaptation strategy (CCAS) adopted by scientific, management, and policy stakeholders for managing coastal marshes and enhancing system resiliency. A common adaptive management approach previously used for restoration projects was modified to identify climate-related vulnerabilities and plan climate change adaptive actions. As an example of implementation of the CCAS, we describe the stakeholder plans and management actions the US Fish and Wildlife Service and partners developed to build coastal resiliency in the Narrow River Estuary, RI, in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. When possible, an experimental BACI (before-after, control-impact) design, described as pre- and post-sampling at the impact site and one or more control sites, was incorporated into the climate change adaptation and implementation plans. Specific climate change adaptive actions and monitoring plans are described and include shoreline stabilization, restoring marsh drainage, increasing marsh elevation, and enabling upland marsh migration. The CCAS provides a framework and methodology for successfully managing coa

  5. Readapting the adaptive immune response - therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Andrew P; Mallat, Ziad

    2017-01-04

    Cardiovascular diseases remain a major global health issue, with the development of atherosclerosis as a major underlying cause. Our treatment of cardiovascular disease has improved greatly over the past three decades, but much remains to be done reduce disease burden. Current priorities include reducing atherosclerosis advancement to clinically significant stages and preventing plaque rupture or erosion. Inflammation and involvement of the adaptive immune system influences all these aspects and therefore is one focus for future therapeutic development. The atherosclerotic vascular wall is now recognized to be invaded from both sides (arterial lumen and adventitia), for better or worse, by the adaptive immune system. Atherosclerosis is also affected at several stages by adaptive immune responses, overall providing many opportunities to target these responses and to reduce disease progression. Protective influences that may be defective in diseased individuals include humoral responses to modified LDL and regulatory T cell responses. There are many strategies in development to boost these pathways in humans, including vaccine-based therapies. The effects of various existing adaptive immune targeting therapies, such as blocking critical co-stimulatory pathways or B cell depletion, on cardiovascular disease are beginning to emerge with important consequences for both autoimmune disease patients and the potential for wider use of such therapies. Entering the translation phase for adaptive immune targeting therapies is an exciting and promising prospect.

  6. Proximate causes of adaptive growth rates: growth efficiency variation among latitudinal populations of Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, B; Laurila, A

    2005-07-01

    In ectothermic organisms, declining season length and lower temperature towards higher latitudes often select for latitudinal variation in growth and development. However, the energetic mechanisms underlying this adaptive variation are largely unknown. We investigated growth, food intake and growth efficiency of Rana temporaria tadpoles from eight populations along a 1500 km latitudinal gradient across Sweden. To gain an insight into the mechanisms of adaptation at organ level, we also examined variation in tadpole gut length. The tadpoles were raised at two temperatures (16 and 20 degrees C) in a laboratory common garden experiment. We found increased growth rate towards higher latitudes, regardless of temperature treatment. This increase in growth was not because of a higher food intake rate, but populations from higher latitudes had higher growth efficiency, i.e. they were more efficient at converting ingested food into body mass. Low temperature reduced growth efficiency most strongly in southern populations. Relative gut length increased with latitude, and tadpoles at low temperature tended to have longer guts. However, variation in gut length was not the sole adaptive explanation for increased growth efficiency as latitude and body length still explained significant amounts of variation in growth efficiency. Hence, additional energetic adaptations are probably involved in growth efficiency variation along the latitudinal gradient.

  7. A literature review on growth models and strategies: The missing link in entrepreneurial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Fida Hussain Shah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the importance of growth models, growth strategies, role of knowledge management system in the formulation of effective strategy for the enterprises following growth. Choice of an appropriate growth strategy is at the heart of any successful entrepreneurial venture. Selection of a strategy may be effective for one entrepreneur while it is not for other. Choice of Growth Strategy depends on various different factors, organisational context and environment which may vary from enterprise to enterprise. Resource based view is very important consideration for the entrepreneurs on the path of growth. Evaluation of all kind of resources helps them to grow their enterprises successfully. Selection of an appropriate growth strategy allows the entrepreneurs in overcoming growth challenges and avoiding the growth reversals and setbacks.

  8. Keys for successful growth strategies for entrepreneurs after economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta Ilie

    2011-01-01

    Entrepreneurs are important drivers of economic and social progress and change. The paper represents a systematic look inside the growth mechanism of early-stage companies from the perspective of eight different growth strategies for new business enterprises, underlining the opportunities and risks, growth accelerators, and growth challenges.

  9. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  10. Running training and adaptive strategies of locomotor-respiratory coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, William J; Van Emmerik, Richard E A; Hamill, Joseph

    2003-06-01

    It has been suggested that stronger coupling between locomotory and breathing rhythms may occur as a result of training in the particular movement pattern and also may reduce the perceived workload or metabolic cost of the movement. Research findings on human locomotor-respiratory coordination are equivocal, due in part to the fact that assessment techniques range in sensitivity to important aspects of coordination (e.g. temporal ordering of patterns, half-integer couplings and changes in frequency and phase coupling). An additional aspect that has not received much attention is the adaptability of this coordination to changes in task constraints. The current study investigated the effect of running training on the locomotor-respiratory coordination and the adaptive strategies observed across a wide range of walking and running speeds. Locomotor-respiratory coordination was evaluated by the strength and variability of both frequency and phase coupling patterns that subjects displayed within and across the speed conditions. Male subjects (five runners, five non-runners) locomoted at seven different treadmill speeds. Group results indicated no differences between runners and non-runners with respect to breathing parameters, stride parameters, as well as the strength and variability of the coupling at each speed. Individual results, however, showed that grouping subjects masks large individual differences and strategies across speeds. Coupling strategies indicated that runners show more stable dominant couplings across locomotory speeds than non-runners do. These findings suggest that running training does not change the strength of locomotor-respiratory coupling but rather how these systems adapt to changing speeds.

  11. Adaptive strategy for multi-user robotic rehabilitation games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caurin, Glauco A P; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Andrade, Kleber O; Joaquim, Ricardo C; Krebs, Hermano I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a strategy for the adaptation of the "difficulty level" in games intended to include motor planning during robotic rehabilitation. We consider concurrently the motivation of the user and his/her performance in a Pong game. User motivation is classified in three levels (not motivated, well motivated and overloaded). User performance is measured as a combination of knowledge of results--achieved goals and score points in the game--and knowledge of performance--joint displacement, speed, aiming, user work, etc. Initial results of a pilot test with unimpaired healthy young volunteers are also presented showing a tendency for individualization of the parameter values.

  12. Strategies of Adaptation: A Soviet Enterprise Under Perestroika and Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    the early 1970’s (see Il’in, 1973; Gorlin , 1976), we have referred to it as an enterprise throughout this paper. Strateaies of Adaptation 5 convinced...fact, some refer to it as "Shop 1." "See Il’in (1973) and Gorlin (1976) for a discussion of the policy of consolidating enterprises into production...34edineniia. ( Gorlin , 1976; Il’in, 1973) This was encouraged by the state but it also complemented the enterprise strategy of increasing bargaining power

  13. Segmented bimorph mirrors for adaptive optics: morphing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaits, Renaud; Alaluf, David; Belloni, Edoardo; Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Preumont, André

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the concept of a light weight segmented bimorph mirror for adaptive optics. It focuses on the morphing strategy and addresses the ill-conditioning of the Jacobian of the segments, which are partly outside the optical pupil. Two options are discussed, one based on truncating the singular values and one called damped least squares, which minimizes a combined measure of the sensor error and the voltage vector. A comparison of various configurations of segmented mirrors was conducted; it is shown that segmentation sharply increases the natural frequency of the system with limited deterioration of the image quality.

  14. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lasage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings. A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD. Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr–1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr–1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD −107 to −1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different

  15. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by

  16. Longitudinal Control Strategy for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-jun; LIU Zhao-du; MA Yue-feng

    2007-01-01

    A new longitudinal control strategy for vehicle adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems is presented.The running relationship between the ACC vehicle and the detected target vehicle is described by the relative velocity and the deviation between the actual headway distance and the prescribed safety distance.Based on this,two state space models are built and the linear quadratic optimal control theory is used to yield desired velocity for the ACC-equipped vehicle when with the target vehicle detected.By switching among four control modes,the desired velocity profile is designed to deal with different running situations.A velocity controller,which includes a PID controller for throttle openness and a neural network controller for brake application,is developed to achieve the desired velocity profile.The proposed control strategy is applied to a non-linear vehicle model in a simulation environment and is shown to provide the ACC vehicle comfortable ride and satisfying safety.

  17. Climate Variability and Household Adaptation Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassie Berhanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants and implied economic impacts of climate change adaptation strategies in the context of traditional pastoralism. It is based on econometric analysis of survey data generated from household level interviews in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Pastoralists’ perception of climate change in the region is found to be very consistent with the actually recorded trends of increased temperature and the evident secular declines in precipitation. Not only long-term declines, trends in the region’s rainfall also appear to have taken a shift towards the direction of more unpredictability. Pastoralist adaptation response strategies broadly involve adjustments in pastoral practices and shifts to non-pastoral livelihoods. Results of the estimated models confirm that pastoral mobility is still quite essential in the present context of climate-induced household vulnerabilities. Increased mobility and diversification of pastoral herd portfolios in favor of a drought-tolerant species (camel are found to be positively associated with pastoral household net income. A policy stance that ignores the detrimental impacts of the currently pervasive private rangeland enclosures or intends to hasten pastoralist sedentarization in the area is simply untenable in the present context of climate-induced risks and pastoral livelihood vulnerability.

  18. Design of Sequentially Randomized Trials for Testing Adaptive Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbagaber, Semhar B.; Karp, Jordan; Wahed, Abdus S.

    2016-01-01

    An adaptive treatment strategy (ATS) is an outcome-guided algorithm that allows personalized treatment of complex diseases based on patients’ disease status and treatment history. Conditions such as AIDS, depression, and cancer usually require several stages of treatment due to the chronic, multifactorial nature of illness progression and management. Sequential multiple assignment randomized (SMAR) designs permit simultaneous inference about multiple ATSs, where patients are sequentially randomized to treatments at different stages depending upon response status. The purpose of the article is to develop a sample size formula to ensure adequate power for comparing two or more ATSs. Based on a Wald-type statistic for comparing multiple ATSs with a continuous endpoint, we develop a sample size formula and test it through simulation studies. We show via simulation that the proposed sample size formula maintains the nominal power. The proposed sample size formula is not applicable to designs with time-to-event endpoints but the formula will be useful for practitioners while designing SMAR trials to compare adaptive treatment strategies. PMID:26412033

  19. Alternative adaptive immunity strategies: coelacanth, cod and shark immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Francesco; Gerdol, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The advent of high throughput sequencing has permitted to investigate the genome and the transcriptome of novel non-model species with unprecedented depth. This technological advance provided a better understanding of the evolution of adaptive immune genes in gnathostomes, revealing several unexpected features in different fish species which are of particular interest. In the present paper, we review the current understanding of the adaptive immune system of the coelacanth, the elephant shark and the Atlantic cod. The study of coelacanth, the only living extant of the long thought to be extinct Sarcopterygian lineage, is fundamental to bring new insights on the evolution of the immune system in higher vertebrates. Surprisingly, coelacanths are the only known jawed vertebrates to lack IgM, whereas two IgD/W loci are present. Cartilaginous fish are of great interest due to their basal position in the vertebrate tree of life; the genome of the elephant shark revealed the lack of several important immune genes related to T cell functions, which suggest the existence of a primordial set of TH1-like cells. Finally, the Atlantic cod lacks a functional major histocompatibility II complex, but balances this evolutionary loss with the expansion of specific gene families, including MHC I, Toll-like receptors and antimicrobial peptides. Overall, these data point out that several fish species present an unconventional adaptive immune system, but the loss of important immune genes is balanced by adaptive evolutionary strategies which still guarantee the establishment of an efficient immune response against the pathogens they have to fight during their life.

  20. Climate factors play a limited role for past adaptation strategies in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Nielsen, Jonas Østergaard;

    2010-01-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa has experienced recurrent droughts since the mid-1970s and today there is considerable concern for how this region will be able to adapt to future climate change. To develop well targeted adaptation strategies, the relative importance of climate factors...... to be reflected in national adaptation strategies in the region....

  1. Hedging Medical Spending Growth: An Adaptive Expectations Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberthal, Robert D

    2016-08-01

    Long-term health insurance provides consumers with protection against persistent, negative health shocks. While the stochastic rise in medical spending growth may make some health risks harder to insure, financial assets could act as a hedge for medical spending growth risk. The purpose of this research was to determine whether such hedges exist. The results of this study were two-fold. First, the asset classes with the strongest statistical evidence as hedges were bonds, not stocks. Second, any strategy to hedge medical spending growth involved shorting assets i.e. betting against the bond or stock market. Health insurers writing long-term contracts should combine the use of hedges in the bond market with of portfolio diversification, and may benefit from health policies to moderate the uncertainty of medical spending growth.

  2. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as well as control strategies. But complexity also means costs and risks, and we need to discuss the means and effects. This discussion in particular is very interesting because here science and practice meet. The Journal of Facade Design and Engineering JFDE will actively follow and stimulate by providing high quality contributions. Four of the paper contributions have their origins in the Conference ‘Facades 2014’, held in November 2014 in Lucerne. The contributions have been carefully selected and have been subjected to the regular double blind review process of the journal. We want to thank Prof. Dr. Andres Luible for the help in making this issue happen. We are proud that JFDE is the scientific partner for a number of conferences such as ‘The Future Envelope’ Conference on Building Envelopes held yearly in Delft (NL or Bath (UK, the ICAE International Congress on Architectural Envelopes in San Sebastian (ES and the above mentioned conference ‘Facades’ in Lucerne (CH and Detmold (D. Our latest partner is the ICBEST 2017 - International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies in Istanbul. The growing number of partners indicates the relevance of JFDE for our growing discipline and will assure the continuity of the journal. Facade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ‘open access’ as the future publishing model

  3. International experiences on the formulation and implementation of transboundary climate change adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.; Ly, T.; Nguyen Huong Thuy, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Mekong River Commission’s (MRC) Climate Change and Adaptation Initiative (CCAI) aims at formulating the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the Lower Mekong Basin. An important first step in developing this strategy is to review international experiences of existing strategies, to learn from

  4. Global Isotope Metabolomics Reveals Adaptive Strategies for Nitrogen Assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczy, Michael E; Forsberg, Erica M; Thorgersen, Michael P; Poole, Farris L; Benton, H Paul; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Tran, Minerva L; Wall, Judy D; Elias, Dwayne A; Adams, Michael W W; Siuzdak, Gary

    2016-06-17

    Nitrogen cycling is a microbial metabolic process essential for global ecological/agricultural balance. To investigate the link between the well-established ammonium and the alternative nitrate assimilation metabolic pathways, global isotope metabolomics was employed to examine three nitrate reducing bacteria using (15)NO3 as a nitrogen source. In contrast to a control (Pseudomonas stutzeri RCH2), the results show that two of the isolates from Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Pseudomonas N2A2 and N2E2) utilize nitrate and ammonia for assimilation concurrently with differential labeling observed across multiple classes of metabolites including amino acids and nucleotides. The data reveal that the N2A2 and N2E2 strains conserve nitrogen-containing metabolites, indicating that the nitrate assimilation pathway is a conservation mechanism for the assimilation of nitrogen. Co-utilization of nitrate and ammonia is likely an adaption to manage higher levels of nitrite since the denitrification pathways utilized by the N2A2 and N2E2 strains from the Oak Ridge site are predisposed to the accumulation of the toxic nitrite. The use of global isotope metabolomics allowed for this adaptive strategy to be investigated, which would otherwise not have been possible to decipher.

  5. Adaptive strategy for the statistical analysis of connectomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalel Eddine Meskaldji

    Full Text Available We study an adaptive statistical approach to analyze brain networks represented by brain connection matrices of interregional connectivity (connectomes. Our approach is at a middle level between a global analysis and single connections analysis by considering subnetworks of the global brain network. These subnetworks represent either the inter-connectivity between two brain anatomical regions or by the intra-connectivity within the same brain anatomical region. An appropriate summary statistic, that characterizes a meaningful feature of the subnetwork, is evaluated. Based on this summary statistic, a statistical test is performed to derive the corresponding p-value. The reformulation of the problem in this way reduces the number of statistical tests in an orderly fashion based on our understanding of the problem. Considering the global testing problem, the p-values are corrected to control the rate of false discoveries. Finally, the procedure is followed by a local investigation within the significant subnetworks. We contrast this strategy with the one based on the individual measures in terms of power. We show that this strategy has a great potential, in particular in cases where the subnetworks are well defined and the summary statistics are properly chosen. As an application example, we compare structural brain connection matrices of two groups of subjects with a 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, distinguished by their IQ scores.

  6. An Eden model for the growth of adaptive networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Paul

    1991-12-01

    An adaptive growth model based on the Eden model has been investigated using computer simulations. In this model a “score” associated with all the sites along the shortest path from the newly added site to the initial seed or growth site is incremented by an amount δ 1 ( δ1=1/( l+1) η where l is the path length) and the score associated with all the sites in the cluster is decreased by a fixed amount δ2 ( δ2=1/ Nm) after each growth event. If the score associated with a site falls below zero it is removed from the cluster. In the asymptotic limit ( t→∞ where t is the number of growth events) the cluster size fluctuates about a constant value proportional to N vm where the exponent v is given by the empirical relationship v=2/(2+ η), which is supported by simple theoretical considerations. The growth of the number of occupied sites, s( t), can be represented by the scaling form s( t) = N vm ƒ(t/N vm) .

  7. Adapting to Population Growth: The Evolutionary Alternative to Malthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Kristinsson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing debate on the dynamics of population growth in human history has become polarized between a Malthusian stance and a Boserupian one. The former tends to view population growth as limited by carrying capacity, dependent on environment and technology, whereas the latter sees population growth itself as a major inducement to social, economic and technological developments. In this paper the authors experiment with approaching this debate by using recent developments in evolutionary theory. According to these, evolutionary principles, as expounded by Charles Darwin and subsequent evolutionary scientists, apply not only to biological evolution but also to social or cultural evolution. Here, the role of genes is taken over by culture and, since culture is much more pliable than our DNA, evolution speeds up. As the only organisms on Earth whose evolution relies as heavily on culture as on genes, humans have become extremely adaptable. Their hyper-adaptability suggest that humans, through their cultural evolution, have managed increasingly to adapt to their own growing population, thus succeeding in accommodating ever-growing numbers. This hypothesis fits the Boserupian approach to population very well but less so the Malthusian one, perhaps indicating a gradual shift from a Malthusian regime to a Boserupian one in human history. The hypothesis is discussed and examined through four case studies: The beginning of farming around Göbekli Tepe in southeast Turkey, the productive farming systems of Tiwanaku in South America, the population crisis of late medieval and early modern Iceland, and the ‘collapse’ of Rapa Nui (Easter Island.

  8. Time-adaptive versus history-adaptive strategies for multicriterion routing in stochastic time-dependent networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretolani, Daniele; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan;

    We compare two different models for multicriterion routing in stochastic time-dependent networks: the  classic "time-adaptive'' route choice and the more flexible "history-adaptive'' route choice. We point out some interesting properties of the sets of efficient solutions ("strategies'') found...... under the two models. We also suggest possible directions for improving computational techniques....

  9. Climate adaptation in NVE's areas of responsibility - Strategy 2010 - 2014; Klimatilpasning innen NVEs ansvarsomraader - Strategi 2010 - 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamarsland, Arne T. (ed.)

    2010-09-15

    NVE has developed a comprehensive climate change strategies within their areas of responsibility. There is a systematic review of how a future climate change will affect NVE management areas; how to meet challenges, vulnerabilities, opportunities and proposals for adaptation measures. Climate adaptation is a dynamic process. It is therefore necessary to follow up the work continuously and correct direction at regular intervals. Climate change adaptation strategy of adaptation measures is a foundation and a direction sensor in NVE's business planning. (AG)

  10. Ecological adaptation strategies of annual plants in artificial vegetation-stabilized sand dune in Shapotou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingguang; LI Xinrong; WANG Xinping; WANG Gang

    2004-01-01

    Taking annual plant Eragrostis poaeides in the artificial vegetation-stabilized sand dune in the Shapotou Experimental Research Station as example, study has been done on the adaptation strategies of annual plants to random environment through fixed quadrat observations of population changes and fixed plant determinations of individual growth, seed germination,population dynamics, spatial distribution pattern of population, competition and regulation. During the growing season, the survival rate of annual plants depends on the precipitation intensity and precipitation duration which activate the germination of seeds. The optimal germination strategy of annual plants in this habitat during the growing season appears as continuous germination under suitable conditions. Such continuous germination is an adaptive characteristic of annual plants to random environment. In addition, the variation processes of population size and regulation mechanism of E. poaeoides are studied. Statistical results of natural population in four consecutive years show that water condition in the habitat is the leading factor affecting the population dynamics of E. poaeoides. During the establishment period E. poaeoides had a higher death rate, but in the middle to later period they could survive stably. Due to the limitation of soil moisture, the competition among individuals for water inevitably led to self-thinning phenomena. Under very arid condition, the survival curve of annual herbs entirely appears as Deevey Ⅲ type (C type), but under relatively adequate precipitation condition, the survival curve appears as intermediate type. The strategy of life history obviously appears as r-strategy. Plant species of r-strategy often occurs in the early succession stage of the communities. In the relatively adequate and evenly-distributed rainfall years, E. poaeoides population exhibited a density-dependent, i. e., survival rate increased with decrease in population density. The main pattern to

  11. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  12. Floral thermogenesis: An adaptive strategy of pollination biology in Magnoliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruohan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Floral thermogenesis plays a crucial role in pollination biology, especially in plant-pollinator interactions. We have recently explored how thermogenesis is related to pollinator activity and odour release in Magnolia sprengeri. By analyzing flower temperatures, emission of volatiles, and insect visitation, we found that floral blends released during pistillate and staminate stages were similar and coincided with sap beetle visitation. Thus, odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers may occur during the pistillate stage and may be an adaptive strategy of Magnolia species to attract pollinators during both stages, ensuring successful pollination. In addition to the biological significance of floral thermogenesis in Magnolia species, we explored the underlying regulatory mechanisms via profiling miRNA expression in M. denudata flowers during thermogenic and non-thermogenic stages. We identified 17 miRNAs that may play regulatory roles in floral thermogenesis. Functional annotation of their target genes indicated that these miRNAs regulate floral thermogenesis by influencing cellular respiration and light reactions. These findings increase our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions and the regulatory mechanisms in thermogenic plants.

  13. Ensemble analysis of adaptive compressed genome sequencing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acquiring genomes at single-cell resolution has many applications such as in the study of microbiota. However, deep sequencing and assembly of all of millions of cells in a sample is prohibitively costly. A property that can come to rescue is that deep sequencing of every cell should not be necessary to capture all distinct genomes, as the majority of cells are biological replicates. Biologically important samples are often sparse in that sense. In this paper, we propose an adaptive compressed method, also known as distilled sensing, to capture all distinct genomes in a sparse microbial community with reduced sequencing effort. As opposed to group testing in which the number of distinct events is often constant and sparsity is equivalent to rarity of an event, sparsity in our case means scarcity of distinct events in comparison to the data size. Previously, we introduced the problem and proposed a distilled sensing solution based on the breadth first search strategy. We simulated the whole process which constrained our ability to study the behavior of the algorithm for the entire ensemble due to its computational intensity. Results In this paper, we modify our previous breadth first search strategy and introduce the depth first search strategy. Instead of simulating the entire process, which is intractable for a large number of experiments, we provide a dynamic programming algorithm to analyze the behavior of the method for the entire ensemble. The ensemble analysis algorithm recursively calculates the probability of capturing every distinct genome and also the expected total sequenced nucleotides for a given population profile. Our results suggest that the expected total sequenced nucleotides grows proportional to log of the number of cells and proportional linearly with the number of distinct genomes. The probability of missing a genome depends on its abundance and the ratio of its size over the maximum genome size in the sample. The modified resource

  14. Roles of State Strategy of Adaptation to Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Can; Huang Shanfeng; Zhang Mengheng

    2007-01-01

    For the adverse impacts of climate change,China government should place the problem of adaptation to climate change on the agenda.It is time to institute and implement a State adaptive strategy to reduce the adverse impacts on economy,community and people's health and life by international cooperation and our own endeavor.A state strategyofadaptationto cfimate change should be closely linked with other current interrelated national strategies,and they should be supplemented and improved by each other.This paper discusses the roles of the state strategy of adaptation to climate change in the State climate change integrative strategy,the environmental protection strategy,and the sustainable development strategy in China.Furthermore,it proposes the main aims of the State adaptive strategy of China.

  15. Adaptive hybrid optimization strategy for calibration and parameter estimation of physical models

    CERN Document Server

    Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2011-01-01

    A new adaptive hybrid optimization strategy, entitled squads, is proposed for complex inverse analysis of computationally intensive physical models. The new strategy is designed to be computationally efficient and robust in identification of the global optimum (e.g. maximum or minimum value of an objective function). It integrates a global Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) strategy with a local Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization strategy using adaptive rules based on runtime performance. The global strategy optimizes the location of a set of solutions (particles) in the parameter space. The LM strategy is applied only to a subset of the particles at different stages of the optimization based on the adaptive rules. After the LM adjustment of the subset of particle positions, the updated particles are returned to the APSO strategy. The advantages of coupling APSO and LM in the manner implemented in squads is demonstrated by comparisons of squads performance against Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), Particl...

  16. Adaptive Management as an Effective Strategy: Interdisciplinary Perceptions for Natural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Lindsay M.; Hessenauer, Jan-Michael; Nathan, Lucas R.; O'Connor, Kelly M.; Liberati, Marjorie R.; Kloster, Danielle P.; Barclay, Janet R.; Vokoun, Jason C.; Morzillo, Anita T.

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive management is a well-established approach to managing natural resources, but there is little evidence demonstrating effectiveness of adaptive management over traditional management techniques. Peer-reviewed literature attempts to draw conclusions about adaptive management effectiveness using social perceptions, but those studies are largely restricted to employees of US federal organizations. To gain a more comprehensive insight into perceived adaptive management effectiveness, this study aimed to broaden the suite of disciplines, professional affiliations, and geographic backgrounds represented by both practitioners and scholars. A questionnaire contained a series of questions concerning factors that lead to or inhibit effective management, followed by another set of questions focused on adaptive management. Using a continuum representing strategies of both adaptive management and traditional management, respondents selected those strategies that they perceived as being effective. Overall, characteristics (i.e., strategies, stakeholders, and barriers) identified by respondents as contributing to effective management closely aligned with adaptive management. Responses were correlated to the type of adaptive management experience rather than an individual's discipline, occupational, or regional affiliation. In particular, perceptions of characteristics contributing to adaptive management effectiveness varied between respondents who identified as adaptive management scholars (i.e., no implementation experience) and adaptive management practitioners. Together, these results supported two concepts that make adaptive management effective: practitioners emphasized adaptive management's value as a long-term approach and scholars noted the importance of stakeholder involvement. Even so, more communication between practitioners and scholars regarding adaptive management effectiveness could promote interdisciplinary learning and problem solving for improved

  17. Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    permafrost areas. Overall, Russia should expect a disproportionate escalation of fire regimes compared to increasing climatic fire danger. Thus, development and implementation of an efficient adaptation strategy is a pressing problem of current forest management of the country. An appropriate system of forest fire protection which would be able to meet challenges of future climates is a corner stone of such a strategy. We consider possible systems solutions of this complex problem including (1) integrated ecological and socio-economic analysis of current and future fire regimes; (2) regional requirements to and specific features of a new paradigm of forest fire protection in the boreal zone of Northern Eurasia; (3) anticipatory strategy of the prevention of large-scale disturbances in forests, including adaptation of forest landscapes to the future climates (regulation of tree composition; setup of relevant spatial structure of forest landscapes; etc.); (4) implementation of an effective system of forest monitoring as part of integrated observing systems; (5) transition to ecologically-friendly systems of industrial development of northern territories; (6) development of new/ improvement of existing legislation and institutional frameworks of forest management which would be satisfactory to react on challenges of climate change; and (6) international cooperation.

  18. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  19. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance among Dutch Dual Earners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda-Boer, Hilde H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Vermulst, Ad A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies may harm individuals' work-family balance,…

  20. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance Among Dutch Dual Earners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda-Boer, H.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies m

  1. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MUSCLE GROWTH AND ADAPTATION TO PHYSICAL EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Yurkevych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In a few last decades oxidative stress detected in a variety of physiological processes where reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS play a central role. They are directly involved in oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. In certain concentrations they are necessary for cell division, proliferation and apoptosis. Contractile muscle tissue at aerobic conditions form high ROS flow that may modulate a variety of cell functions, for example proliferation. However, slight increase in ROS level provide hormetic effect which may participate in adaptation to heavy weight training resulted in hypertrophy and proliferation of skeletal muscle fibers. This review will discuss ROS types, sites of generation, strategies to increase force production and achieve skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  2. Heterocyst placement strategies to maximize growth of cyanobacterial filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Aidan I

    2012-01-01

    Under conditions of limited fixed-nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria develop a regular pattern of heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen for the remaining vegetative cells. We examine three different heterocyst placement strategies by quantitatively modelling filament growth while varying both external fixed-nitrogen and leakage from the filament. We find that there is an optimum heterocyst frequency which maximizes the growth rate of the filament; the optimum frequency decreases as the external fixed-nitrogen concentration increases but increases as the leakage increases. In the presence of leakage, filaments implementing a local heterocyst placement strategy grow significantly faster than filaments implementing random heterocyst placement strategies. With no extracellular fixed-nitrogen, consistent with recent experimental studies of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the modelled heterocyst spacing distribution using our local heterocyst placement strategy is qualitatively similar to experimentally observed patterns...

  3. How will the EU climate adaptation strategy affect EU agricultural policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Karali, Eleni; Castellari, Sergio;

    A key objective in the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM (2013) 216 final) is to ensure mainstreaming, i.e. integration, of adaptation measures into European sectoral policies. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one such sectoral policy which is prioritised in the strategy...... to adaptation in agricultural production and analyses to what extent the reformed CAP as currently proposed will provide the tools to deal with the key vulnerabilities and adaptation needs. Specifically, the paper analyses the policy instruments available in the CAPs 1st and 2nd pillars and assesses......, the paper will also analyze the institutional mechanisms available in the adaptation strategy in order to assess their strength with regards to mainstreaming adaptation into agricultural policy. The paper is based on analysis of key EU policy documents and compares the policy instruments...

  4. The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-08-01

    Putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., acceptance, problem solving, reappraisal) show weaker associations with psychopathology than putatively maladaptive strategies (e.g., avoidance, self-criticism, hiding expression, suppression of experience, worry, rumination). This is puzzling, given the central role that adaptive strategies play in a wide range of psychotherapeutic approaches. We explored this asymmetry by examining the effects of context (i.e., emotion intensity, type of emotion, social vs. academic circumstances) on the implementation of adaptive and maladaptive strategies. We asked 111 participants to describe 8 emotion-eliciting situations and identify which strategies they used in order to regulate their affect. We found support for a contextual model of emotion regulation, in which adaptive strategies were implemented with more cross-situational variability than maladaptive strategies. In addition, the variability in implementation of two adaptive strategies (acceptance, problem solving) predicted lower levels of psychopathology, suggesting that flexible implementation of such strategies in line with contextual demands is associated with better mental health. We discuss these findings by underscoring the importance of adopting a functional approach to the delineation of contextual factors that influence the implementation of emotion regulation strategies.

  5. Rice LTG1 is involved in adaptive growth and fitness under low ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangwen; Wu, Fu-Qing; Wu, Weixun; Wang, Hong-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Yunhui; Chen, Xiuling; Zhou, Kunneng; Jin, Mingna; Cheng, Zhijun; Li, Xueyong; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    Low temperature (LT) is one of the most prevalent factors limiting the productivity and geographical distribution of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the effect of LT on seed germination and reproductive development in rice, the genetic component affecting vegetative growth under LT remains poorly understood. Here, we report that rice cultivars harboring the dominant LTG1 (Low Temperature Growth 1) allele are more tolerant to LT (15-25°C, a temperature range prevalent in high-altitude, temperate zones and high-latitude areas), than those with the ltg1 allele. Using a map-based cloning strategy, we show that LTG1 encodes a casein kinase I. A functional nucleotide polymorphism was identified in the coding region of LTG1, causing a single amino acid substitution (I357K) that is associated with the growth rate, heading date and yield of rice plants grown at LT. We present evidence that LTG1 affects rice growth at LT via an auxin-dependent process(es). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of this locus suggests that the ltg1 haplotype arose before the domestication of rice in tropical climates. Together, our data demonstrate that LTG1 plays an important role in the adaptive growth and fitness of rice cultivars under conditions of low ambient temperature.

  6. A hybrid adaptive control strategy for a smart prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hung; Naidu, D Subbaram; Perez-Gracia, Alba; Schoen, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid of a soft computing technique of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a hard computing technique of adaptive control for a two-dimensional movement of a prosthetic hand with a thumb and index finger. In particular, ANFIS is used for inverse kinematics, and the adaptive control is used for linearized dynamics to minimize tracking error. The simulations of this hybrid controller, when compared with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller showed enhanced performance. Work is in progress to extend this methodology to a five-fingered, three-dimensional prosthetic hand.

  7. Flood risk and adaptation strategies in Indonesia: a probabilistic analysis using globally available data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Sanne; Güneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, global flood losses are increasing due to socio-economic development and climate change, with the largest risk increases in developing countries such as Indonesia. For countries to undertake effective risk-management, an accurate understanding of both current and future risk is required. However, detailed information is rarely available, particularly for developing countries. We present a first of its kind country-scale analysis of flood risk using globally available data that combines a global inundation model with a land use change model and more local data on flood damages. To assess the contribution and uncertainty of different drivers of future risk, we integrate thousands of socio-economic and climate projections in a probabilistic way and include multiple adaptation strategies. Indonesia is used as a case-study as it a country that already faces high flood risk, and is undergoing rapid urbanization. We developed probabilistic and spatially-explicit urban expansion projections from 2000 to 2030 that show that the increase in urban extent ranges from 215% to 357% (5th and 95th percentile). We project rapidly rising flood risk, both for coastal and river floods. This increase is largely driven by economic growth and urban expansion (i.e. increasing exposure). Whilst sea level rise will amply this trend, the response of river floods to climate change is uncertain with the impact of the mean ensemble of 20 climate projections (5 GCMs and 4 RCPs) being close to zero. However, as urban expansion is the main driving force of future risk, we argue that the implementation of adaptation measures is increasingly pressing, regardless of the wide uncertainty in climate projections. Hence, we evaluated the effectiveness of two adaptation measures: spatial planning in flood prone areas and enhanced flood protection. Both strategies have a large potential to effectively offset the increasing risk trend. The risk reduction is in the range of 22-85% and 53

  8. Interfrm Cooperation Strategy of Hyper-Growth and Stable-Growth ICT Firms in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Golonka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to compare the phenomenon of interfrm cooperation strategy in both hyper-growth, and stable-growth knowledge and technology–intensive frms, in a country characterized by a high level of generalized trust: Sweden. Methodology: Qualitative methods were incorporated: direct semistructured interviews with top managers in 13 ICT frms (8 hyper-growth and 5 stable-growth, analyzis of reports, corporate websites and press releases. Furthermore, interviews in 3 expert frms in the industry were conducted, facilitating interfrm cooperation. Conclusions: There were signifcant differences in interfrm cooperation strategy in two distinguished groups of the frms: hyper-growth, and stable-growth. Managers’ individual approaches to uncertainty, strategy and cooperation might be more important than institutional settings. The ICT frms operate in a constantly changing global environment and local context seems to have only a minor impact on the rules of the game in the industry. Research limitations: This study was a qualitative explorative approach as an introduction to further empirical research. Originality: The study presents an interfrm cooperation phenomenon incorporating different perspectives and settings. It contributes to alliance portfolio literature (forming and managing of alliance portfolio in a different context/country/industry, and enhances understanding of frm strategies characterized by different growth rates.

  9. The QoE implications of ultra-high definition video adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, James; Awobuluyi, Olatunde; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    As the capabilities of high-end consumer devices increase, streaming and playback of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) is set to become commonplace. The move to these new, higher resolution, video services is one of the main factors contributing to the predicted continuation of growth in video related traffic in the Internet. This massive increases in bandwidth requirement, even when mitigated by the use of new video compression standards such as H.265, will place an ever-increasing burden on network service providers. This will be especially true in mobile environments where users have come to expect ubiquitous access to content. Consequently, delivering UHD and Full UHD (FUHD) video content is one of the key drivers for future Fifth Generation (5G) mobile networks. One often voiced, but as yet unanswered question, is whether users of mobile devices with modest screen sizes (e.g. smartphones or smaller tablet) will actually benefit from consuming the much higher bandwidth required to watch online UHD video, in terms of an improved user experience. In this paper, we use scalable H.265 encoded video streams to conduct a subjective evaluation of the impact on a user's perception of video quality across a comprehensive range of adaptation strategies, covering each of the three adaptation domains, for UHD and FUHD video. The results of our subjective study provide insightful and useful indications of which methods of adapting UHD and FUHD streams have the least impact on user's perceived QoE. In particular, it was observed that, in over 70% of cases, users were unable to distinguish between full HD (1080p) and UHD (4K) videos when they were unaware of which version was being shown to them. Our results from this evaluation can be used to provide adaptation rule sets that will facilitate fast, QoE aware in-network adaptation of video streams in support of realtime adaptation objectives. Undoubtedly they will also promote discussion around how network service providers manage

  10. Improved probabilistic neural networks with self-adaptive strategies for transformer fault diagnosis problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Hong Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic neural network has successfully solved all kinds of engineering problems in various fields since it is proposed. In probabilistic neural network, Spread has great influence on its performance, and probabilistic neural network will generate bad prediction results if it is improperly selected. It is difficult to select the optimal manually. In this article, a variant of probabilistic neural network with self-adaptive strategy, called self-adaptive probabilistic neural network, is proposed. In self-adaptive probabilistic neural network, Spread can be self-adaptively adjusted and selected and then the best selected Spread is used to guide the self-adaptive probabilistic neural network train and test. In addition, two simplified strategies are incorporated into the proposed self-adaptive probabilistic neural network with the aim of further improving its performance and then two versions of simplified self-adaptive probabilistic neural network (simplified self-adaptive probabilistic neural networks 1 and 2 are proposed. The variants of self-adaptive probabilistic neural networks are further applied to solve the transformer fault diagnosis problem. By comparing them with basic probabilistic neural network, and the traditional back propagation, extreme learning machine, general regression neural network, and self-adaptive extreme learning machine, the results have experimentally proven that self-adaptive probabilistic neural networks have a more accurate prediction and better generalization performance when addressing the transformer fault diagnosis problem.

  11. Competition and time-dependent behavior in spatial iterated prisoner’s dilemma incorporating adaptive zero-determinant strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Xu, Chen; Liu, Jie; Hui, Pak Ming

    2016-10-01

    We propose and study the competitiveness of a class of adaptive zero-determinant strategies (ZDSs) in a population with spatial structure against four classic strategies in iterated prisoner’s dilemma. Besides strategy updating via a probabilistic mechanism by imitating the strategy of a better performing opponent, players using the ZDSs can also adapt their strategies to take advantage of their local competing environment with another probability. The adapted ZDSs could be extortionate-like to avoid being continually cheated by defectors or to take advantage of unconditional cooperators. The adapted ZDSs could also be a compliance strategy so as to cooperate with the conditionally cooperative players. This flexibility makes adaptive ZDSs more competitive than nonadaptive ZDSs. Results show that adaptive ZDSs can either dominate over other strategies or at least coexist with them when the ZDSs are allowed to adapt more readily than to imitate other strategies. The effectiveness of the adaptive ZDSs relies on how fast they can adapt to the competing environment before they are replaced by other strategies. The adaptive ZDSs generally work well as they could adapt gradually and make use of other strategies for suppressing their enemies. When adaptation happens more readily than imitation for the ZDSs, they outperform other strategies over a wide range of cost-to-benefit ratios.

  12. Optimal resting-growth strategies of microbial populations in fluctuating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Nico; Vilar, Jose M G; Rubi, J Miguel

    2011-04-15

    Bacteria spend most of their lifetime in non-growing states which allow them to survive extended periods of stress and starvation. When environments improve, they must quickly resume growth to maximize their share of limited nutrients. Cells with higher stress resistance often survive longer stress durations at the cost of needing more time to resume growth, a strong disadvantage in competitive environments. Here we analyze the basis of optimal strategies that microorganisms can use to cope with this tradeoff. We explicitly show that the prototypical inverse relation between stress resistance and growth rate can explain much of the different types of behavior observed in stressed microbial populations. Using analytical mathematical methods, we determine the environmental parameters that decide whether cells should remain vegetative upon stress exposure, downregulate their metabolism to an intermediate optimum level, or become dormant. We find that cell-cell variability, or intercellular noise, is consistently beneficial in the presence of extreme environmental fluctuations, and that it provides an efficient population-level mechanism for adaption in a deteriorating environment. Our results reveal key novel aspects of responsive phenotype switching and its role as an adaptive strategy in changing environments.

  13. Optimal resting-growth strategies of microbial populations in fluctuating environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Geisel

    Full Text Available Bacteria spend most of their lifetime in non-growing states which allow them to survive extended periods of stress and starvation. When environments improve, they must quickly resume growth to maximize their share of limited nutrients. Cells with higher stress resistance often survive longer stress durations at the cost of needing more time to resume growth, a strong disadvantage in competitive environments. Here we analyze the basis of optimal strategies that microorganisms can use to cope with this tradeoff. We explicitly show that the prototypical inverse relation between stress resistance and growth rate can explain much of the different types of behavior observed in stressed microbial populations. Using analytical mathematical methods, we determine the environmental parameters that decide whether cells should remain vegetative upon stress exposure, downregulate their metabolism to an intermediate optimum level, or become dormant. We find that cell-cell variability, or intercellular noise, is consistently beneficial in the presence of extreme environmental fluctuations, and that it provides an efficient population-level mechanism for adaption in a deteriorating environment. Our results reveal key novel aspects of responsive phenotype switching and its role as an adaptive strategy in changing environments.

  14. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Phillipo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of information. The collected information were analysed by using content analysis. This paper found that smallholder farmers use a variety of practices to adapt to climate variability and change. These practices include: crop management, livestock management, diversification of livelihood strategies and land use management. Availability of extension services, climate change information and membership to social networks were among the factors identified dictating smallholder farmers adaptation to climate variability and change. The paper recommends to the Government of sub-Saharan Africa and development partners to come up with adaptation framework that takes into consideration differences in geographical location. They are needed also to provide enabling conditions to smallholder farmers through strengthening farmers’ supportive services to enhance their adaptive capacities.

  15. Pockets of opportunity: multicultural marketing strategies for BEP growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Ranked among the 50 largest food service corporations in America, the Randolph-Sheppard Business Enterprise Program (BEP) represents a challenging and rewarding career opportunity for Americans who are legally blind. In recent years, however, the number of facilities and facility managers has declined. Multicultural consumers represent a major emerging growth market. The multicultural market is one of the most overlooked retail markets in the United States--and the one with the most buying power and growth potential. Multicultural marketing is among the least understood strategies available to facility managers, vocational rehabilitation counselors and BEP directors. Four major minority markets are discussed and marketing strategies are offered to help BEPs target and serve these unique consumers.

  16. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  17. Evaluating adaptive cruise control strategies in worst-case scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, W.H. van; Schut, M.C.; Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with safety in (cooperative) adaptive cruise control systems. In these systems, the speed of the cars is maintained automatically, based on the preferred speed of the driver and the speed of the preceding car. Technologies that are used in these systems, such as radar and rad

  18. How climate compatible are livelihood adaptation strategies and development programs in rural Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Wise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving climate compatible development (CCD is a necessity in developing countries, but there are few examples of requisite planning processes, or manifestations of CCD. This paper presents a multi-stakeholder, participatory planning process designed to screen and prioritise rural livelihood adaptation strategies against nine CCD criteria. The process also integrated three principles of adaptation pathways: interventions should be (1 ‘no regrets’ and maintain reversibility to avoid mal-adaptation; (2 address both proximate and underlying systemic drivers of community vulnerability; and (3 linked across spatial scales and jurisdictional levels to promote coordination. Using examples of two rural sub-districts in Indonesia, we demonstrate the process and resulting CCD strategies. Priority strategies varied between the sub-districts but all reflected standard development interventions: water management, intensification or diversification of agriculture and aquaculture, education, health, food security and skills-building for communities. Strategies delivered co-benefits for human development and ecosystem services and hence adaptive capacity, but greenhouse mitigation co-benefits were less significant. Actions to deliver the strategies’ objectives were screened for reversibility, and a minority were potentially mal-adaptive (i.e. path dependent, disproportionately burdening the most vulnerable, reducing incentives to adapt, or increasing greenhouse gas emissions yet highly feasible. These related to infrastructure, which paradoxically is necessary to deliver ‘soft’ adaptation benefits (i.e. road access to health services. Only a small minority of transformative strategies addressed the systemic (i.e. institutional and political drivers of vulnerability. Strategies were well-matched by development programs, suggesting that current interventions mirror CCD. However, development programs tackled fewer systemic drivers, were poorly

  19. Bone Microstructure of the Stereospondyl Lydekkerina Huxleyi Reveals Adaptive Strategies to the Harsh Post Permian-Extinction Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canoville, Aurore; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2015-07-01

    The small-bodied stereospondyl Lydekkerina huxleyi, dominated the amphibian fauna of the South African Lower Triassic. Even though the anatomy of this amphibian has been well described, its growth strategies and lifestyle habits have remained controversial. Previous studies attributed the relative uniformity in skull sizes to a predominance of subadult and adult specimens recovered in the fossil record. Anatomical and taphonomic data suggested that the relatively small body-size of this genus, as compared to its Permo-Triassic relatives, could be linked to a shortened, rapid developmental period as an adaptation to maintain successful breeding populations under harsh environmental conditions. Moreover, Lydekkerina's habitat has been hypothesized to be either aquatic or mainly terrestrial. The current study, utilizes bone microstructure to reassess previous hypotheses pertaining to the biology and ecology of Lydekkerina. Various skeletal elements of different-sized specimens are analyzed to understand its growth dynamics, intraskeletal variability, and lifestyle adaptations. Bone histology revealed that our sample comprises individuals at different ontogenetic stages i.e., juveniles to mature individuals. Our results show that these amphibians, despite exhibiting plasticity in growth, experienced an overall faster growth during early ontogeny (thereby attaining sexual maturity sooner), as compared to most other temnospondyls. The microanatomy of the long bones with their thick bone walls and distinctive medullary cavity suggests that Lydekkerina may have been amphibious with a tendency to be more terrestrial. Our study concludes that Lydekkerina employed a peculiar growth strategy and lifestyle adaptations, which enabled it to endure the harsh, dry conditions of the Early Triassic.

  20. F:ACTS! : Forms for adapting to climate change through territorial strategies : the handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.M.; Ónega, J.; Crecente, R.; Holst, van F.; Abts, E.; Timmermans, W.; Stolk, M.

    2014-01-01

    The F:ACTS! project contributed to generating knowledge on how to develop territorial strategies to adapt to climate change, facilitating the interchange of experience and information among its 14 partners across 8 countries. Integrated territorial strategies incorporate local diversity since they e

  1. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  2. Effects of Self-Statements and Coping Strategies on Adaptational Outcomes of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Max R.; Plater, Sharon A.

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of self-statements and coping strategies on adaptational outcomes of stress in female subjects (N=62). Results indicated self-statements did not discriminate significantly between individuals who effectively or ineffectively handled stressful encounters. Only information-seeking coping strategy showed a trend toward a significant…

  3. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Hasen Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effects of climate change and to identify factors that affect the choice of climate change adaptation strategies in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To address this objective, Multivariate Probit model was used. The results of the model indicated that the likelihood of households to adapt improved varieties of crops, adjust planting date, crop diversification and soil conservation practices were 58.73%, 57.72%, 35.61% and 41.15%, respectively. The Simulated Maximum Likelihood estimation of the Multivariate Probit model results suggested that there was positive and significant interdependence between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and using improved varieties of crops; and between adjusting planting date and using improved varieties of crops. The results also showed that there was a negative and significant relationship between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and soil conservation practices. The paper also recommended household, socioeconomic, institutional and plot characteristics that facilitate and impede the probability of choosing those adaptation strategies.

  4. Key Parameters Estimation and Adaptive Warning Strategy for Rear-End Collision of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rear-end collision warning system requires reliable warning decision mechanism to adapt the actual driving situation. To overcome the shortcomings of existing warning methods, an adaptive strategy is proposed to address the practical aspects of the collision warning problem. The proposed strategy is based on the parameter-adaptive and variable-threshold approaches. First, several key parameter estimation algorithms are developed to provide more accurate and reliable information for subsequent warning method. They include a two-stage algorithm which contains a Kalman filter and a Luenberger observer for relative acceleration estimation, a Bayesian theory-based algorithm of estimating the road friction coefficient, and an artificial neural network for estimating the driver’s reaction time. Further, the variable-threshold warning method is designed to achieve the global warning decision. In the method, the safety distance is employed to judge the dangerous state. The calculation method of the safety distance in this paper can be adaptively adjusted according to the different driving conditions of the leading vehicle. Due to the real-time estimation of the key parameters and the adaptive calculation of the warning threshold, the strategy can adapt to various road and driving conditions. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through simulation and field tests. The experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  5. Analysis of the mitigation and adaptation strategies of the transport industry in the city of Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelia Melero Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an analysis of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the transport sector in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Based on the methodology of the Programs of Action on Climate Change (PACC, we analyzed the Mexicali emissions inventory and generated a diagnosis. Once we analyzed the current situation, we studied mitigation strategies such as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT, the smog check, new importation legislation for used cars, biofuel production, the promotion of lower–emission vehicles and urban planning. On adaptation strategies vehicle recycling and the use of non–motorized transport were studied as an alternative of sustainable mobility.

  6. Resilience, human agency and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

      In the Arctic, indigenous peoples, researchers and governments are working to develop climate change adaptation strategies due to the rapid changes in sea ice extent, weather conditions and in the ecosystem as such. These strategies are often based on specific perceptions of vulnerability...... the political processes taking place in the Arctic: one aspect emphasises stakeholder participation and integration while the other aspect emphasises rightholder possibilites and self-determination. The focus is thus on how adaptation strategies relate to political and legal processes at different scales...

  7. Intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in rats with ileal-jejunal transposition or small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, Jesper; Hartmann, B.; Kissow, H.;

    2001-01-01

    Anatomy, glucagon-like peptide 2, small intestine, short bowel, intestinal adaptation, growth factors, rat......Anatomy, glucagon-like peptide 2, small intestine, short bowel, intestinal adaptation, growth factors, rat...

  8. An adaptive fusion strategy of polarization image based on NSCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-xia; Duan, Jin; Mo, Chun-he; Chen, Guang-qiu; Fu, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    An improved image fusion algorithm based on the NSCT is proposed in this paper. After decomposition NSCT method of multi-scale and multiple directions, polarization image was decomposed into two parts: low frequency sub-band and high frequency band-pass images. The fusion strategy of combining local regional energy and gradient structure similarity were used in low-frequency coefficients. While in the high-frequency band-pass coefficients part, the fusion strategy of the location spatial frequency as the correlation coefficient was used. The intensity image and polarization degree image are fused for improving the sharpness and contrast of the image. The experiments show that the algorithm is effective to improve the imaging quality in the turbid medium.

  9. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  10. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Boeckmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  11. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  12. The lag-phase during diauxic growth is a trade-off between fast adaptation and high growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dominique; Barnes, David J.

    2016-04-01

    Bi-phasic or diauxic growth is often observed when microbes are grown in a chemically defined medium containing two sugars (for example glucose and lactose). Typically, the two growth stages are separated by an often lengthy phase of arrested growth, the so-called lag-phase. Diauxic growth is usually interpreted as an adaptation to maximise population growth in multi-nutrient environments. However, the lag-phase implies a substantial loss of growth during the switch-over. It therefore remains unexplained why the lag-phase is adaptive. Here we show by means of a stochastic simulation model based on the bacterial PTS system that it is not possible to shorten the lag-phase without incurring a permanent growth-penalty. Mechanistically, this is due to the inherent and well established limitations of biological sensors to operate efficiently at a given resource cost. Hence, there is a trade-off between lost growth during the diauxic switch and the long-term growth potential of the cell. Using simulated evolution we predict that the lag-phase will evolve depending on the distribution of conditions experienced during adaptation. In environments where switching is less frequently required, the lag-phase will evolve to be longer whereas, in frequently changing environments, the lag-phase will evolve to be shorter.

  13. Growth Strategies of Mobile Virtual Network Operators in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr N.P. Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oman telecom market consists of five Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs and two Mobile Network Operators (MNOs. MVNOs have also sealed their deals with MNOs, technology providers, advertising and marketing agencies, SIM and re-charge coupon distribution channels. All the five MVNOs in Oman have already launched their operations and are providing services. The article is an attempt to understand many facets of MVNO business in Oman. The article discusses the present status of operations of MVNOs, their growth in Oman and w orld, their tariff plans, SIM card distribution channels and marketing strategies to survive in a highly competitive Omani telecom market. A set of propositions are also identified related to success of MVNOs which are proved either true or false using secondary data collected from various sources. The article concluded in the form of synthesis of data and possible new future strategies for MVNOs in Oman.

  14. Numerous strategies but limited implementation guidance in US local adaptation plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sierra C.; Stults, Missy

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation planning offers a promising approach for identifying and devising solutions to address local climate change impacts. Yet there is little empirical understanding of the content and quality of these plans. We use content analysis to evaluate 44 local adaptation plans in the United States and multivariate regression to examine how plan quality varies across communities. We find that plans draw on multiple data sources to analyse future climate impacts and include a breadth of strategies. Most plans, however, fail to prioritize impacts and strategies or provide detailed implementation processes, raising concerns about whether adaptation plans will translate into on-the-ground reductions in vulnerability. Our analysis also finds that plans authored by the planning department and those that engaged elected officials in the planning process were of higher quality. The results provide important insights for practitioners, policymakers and scientists wanting to improve local climate adaptation planning and action.

  15. An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie [Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Electronic Information and Control Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China) and School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l{sub 2} data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used

  16. Recruitment of hard-to-reach population subgroups via adaptations of the snowball sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Lee, Hau-Chen; Lim, Rod Seung-Hwan; Fullerton, Judith

    2010-09-01

    Nurse researchers and educators often engage in outreach to narrowly defined populations. This article offers examples of how variations on the snowball sampling recruitment strategy can be applied in the creation of culturally appropriate, community-based information dissemination efforts related to recruitment to health education programs and research studies. Examples from the primary author's program of research are provided to demonstrate how adaptations of snowball sampling can be used effectively in the recruitment of members of traditionally underserved or vulnerable populations. The adaptation of snowball sampling techniques, as described in this article, helped the authors to gain access to each of the more-vulnerable population groups of interest. The use of culturally sensitive recruitment strategies is both appropriate and effective in enlisting the involvement of members of vulnerable populations. Adaptations of snowball sampling strategies should be considered when recruiting participants for education programs or for research studies when the recruitment of a population-based sample is not essential.

  17. Climate change effects and adaptation strategies in the wine sector: a quantitative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sacchelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative literature review focusing on how scientific research analysed climate change impact on wine chain as well as potential adaptation strategies. The work is based on content analysis and text mining and takes into account researches from 1990 to 2015. A particular emphasis was given to the evaluation of suggested or implemented adaptation strategies at both global and national levels. Data were analysed using cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling and specificity evaluation. Results show that the study of climate change impacts on the wine sector is a recently emerging research topic. Adaptation strategies have not yet been explored thoroughly in the literature, and in-depth uncertainty quantification is also needed. Finally, additional research gaps and potential future issues are suggested.

  18. Leaf Area Adjustment As an Optimal Drought-Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Beyer, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Vico, G.; Weih, M.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf phenology plays a major role in land-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges. Much work has focused on phenological responses to light and temperature, but less to leaf area changes during dry periods. Because the duration of droughts is expected to increase under future climates in seasonally-dry as well as mesic environments, it is crucial to (i) predict drought-related phenological changes and (ii) to develop physiologically-sound models of leaf area dynamics during dry periods. Several optimization criteria have been proposed to model leaf area adjustment as soil moisture decreases. Some theories are based on the plant carbon (C) balance, hypothesizing that leaf area will decline when instantaneous net photosynthetic rates become negative (equivalent to maximization of cumulative C gain). Other theories draw on hydraulic principles, suggesting that leaf area should adjust to either maintain a constant leaf water potential (isohydric behavior) or to avoid leaf water potentials with negative impacts on photosynthesis (i.e., minimization of water stress). Evergreen leaf phenology is considered as a control case. Merging these theories into a unified framework, we quantify the effect of phenological strategy and climate forcing on the net C gain over the entire growing season. By accounting for the C costs of leaf flushing and the gains stemming from leaf photosynthesis, this metric assesses the effectiveness of different phenological strategies, under different climatic scenarios. Evergreen species are favored only when the dry period is relatively short, as they can exploit most of the growing season, and only incur leaf maintenance costs during the short dry period. In contrast, deciduous species that lower maintenance costs by losing leaves are advantaged under drier climates. Moreover, among drought-deciduous species, isohydric behavior leads to lowest C gains. Losing leaves gradually so as to maintain a net C uptake equal to zero during the driest period in

  19. Life Strategies and Adaptations in Bryophytes from the Near and Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    KÜRSCHNER, Harald

    2014-01-01

    A review article on life strategies and ecomorphological adaptations (xerothalloid and xeropottioid life syndromes) of bryophytes is given, based on the hitherto known and analysed terrestrial, saxicolous and epiphytic communities of the Near and Middle East. The examples given impressively demonstrate common adaptive trends that arise convergently but independently in unrelated taxa when they evolve under similar habitat conditions. These functional types are important for the establishment,...

  20. Impacts of climate change on Brazilian agriculture: an analysis of irrigation as an adaptation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Denis Antonio da; Coelho, Alexandre Braganca; Feres, Jose; Braga, Marcelo Jose

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effects of climate change on Brazilian agriculture considering irrigation adoption as an adaptation strategy. Investigation on how climatic variability influences irrigation adoption was performed as well as whether this adaptation measure actually reduces producers’ vulnerability to climate change. We used matching methods to analyze the choice of irrigation in the first stage and the land values for two types of farmer (irrigators or dryland) in the second sta...

  1. Synergies, Conflicts, and Trade-offs of C40 Cities Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur; De Rosa, Michele; Lehmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature in the field of urban climate change adaptation planning that indicate a need to address climate change planning measures from a more holistic sustainable development perspective. This paper presents the findings from a recently completed study that indicates...... there remain significant unresolved tensions between the development pathways and the climate change adaptation strategies of the 58 cities within the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group....

  2. Adaptive Work Strategy for Evaluating a Conceptual Site Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, P.; Utom, A. U.; Werban, U.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive, diagnostic, procedural and adaptive scheme involving a combination of geophysical and direct push methods was developed and applied in the Wurmlingen study site situated within the region of Baden-Württemberg (southwest Germany). The goal of the study was to test the applicability of electrical resistivity method in imaging resistivity contrasts, and mapping the depth to and lateral extent of field-scale subsurface structures and existence of flow paths that may control concentration gradients of groundwater solution contents. Based on a relatively fast and cost-effective areal mapping with vertical electrical sounding technique, a northwest-southeast trending stream-channel-like depression (low apparent resistivity feature) through a Pleistocene aquifer was detected. For a more detailed characterization, we implemented electrical resistivity tomography method followed by direct push (DP) technologies. Beside the use of DP for verification of structures identified by geophysical tools, we used it for multi-level groundwater sampling. Results from groundwater chemistry indicate zones of steep nitrate concentration gradients associated with the feature.

  3. Adaptation to low pH and lignocellulosic inhibitors resulting in ethanolic fermentation and growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Venkatachalam; Sànchez I Nogué, Violeta; van Niel, Ed W J; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

    2016-12-01

    Lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow aerobically, ferment anaerobically (glucose exhaustion by 19 ± 5 h to yield 0.45 ± 0.01 g ethanol g glucose(-1)) and portray significant detoxification of inhibitors at pH 3.7, when compared to non-adapted cells. ALE was performed to investigate whether a stable strain could be developed to grow and ferment at low pH with lignocellulosic inhibitors in a continuous suspension culture. Though a robust population was obtained after 3600 h with an ability to grow and ferment at pH 3.7 with inhibitors, inhibitor robustness was not stable as indicated by the characterisation of the evolved culture possibly due to phenotypic plasticity. With further research, this short-term adaptation and low pH strategy could be successfully applied in lignocellulosic ethanol plants to prevent bacterial contamination.

  4. Multilevel Optimization Framework for Hierarchical Stiffened Shells Accelerated by Adaptive Equivalent Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Tian, Kuo; Zhao, Haixin; Hao, Peng; Zhu, Tianyu; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Yunlong

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the post-buckling optimization efficiency of hierarchical stiffened shells, a multilevel optimization framework accelerated by adaptive equivalent strategy is presented in this paper. Firstly, the Numerical-based Smeared Stiffener Method (NSSM) for hierarchical stiffened shells is derived by means of the numerical implementation of asymptotic homogenization (NIAH) method. Based on the NSSM, a reasonable adaptive equivalent strategy for hierarchical stiffened shells is developed from the concept of hierarchy reduction. Its core idea is to self-adaptively decide which hierarchy of the structure should be equivalent according to the critical buckling mode rapidly predicted by NSSM. Compared with the detailed model, the high prediction accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model is highlighted. On the basis of this adaptive equivalent model, a multilevel optimization framework is then established by decomposing the complex entire optimization process into major-stiffener-level and minor-stiffener-level sub-optimizations, during which Fixed Point Iteration (FPI) is employed to accelerate convergence. Finally, the illustrative examples of the multilevel framework is carried out to demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness to search for the global optimum result by contrast with the single-level optimization method. Remarkably, the high efficiency and flexibility of the adaptive equivalent strategy is indicated by compared with the single equivalent strategy.

  5. Adapting to climate change in forest based land use systems: A guide to strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrett, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect of climate change and sea level rise as a result of greenhouse gas emissions presents a serious challenge to decision-makers concerned with ensuring sustainable development. This report provides a guide to means of reducing the potential impact of the global warming problem on the forest sector whilst ensuring that more immediate development priorities are met. The most effective response strategy will be one that simultaneously brings both immediate development and longer-term adaptive benefits. This report outlines ways of constructing an adaptive response strategy that can help achieve these ends. The approach is referred to as sustainable adaptation. A prototype methodological framework of the sustainable adaptation approach has been provided with the summary. The first priority of sustainable adaption is to base climate change responses on actions that meet basic ecological and social needs now and in the future. Solutions should necessarily include relieving current development pressures in the tropical forest sector. The key is to couple adaptive responses to climate change with sustainable development solutions to present-day forest use problems. Implementing adaptive land-use policies and management practices which are likely to minimise the adverse impacts of anticipated climate change should meet current sustainable management goals. Implementing sustainable land-use and forestry management practices should meet adaptation goals. This report presents a discussion of the fundamental issues underlying the development of a sustainable adaptation strategy and a prototype methodological framework. The findings are based on case studies conducted in Central America (Costa Rica and Nicaragua); SADCC countries in Africa (Zimbabwe, Botswana, Tanzania); and Asia (Vietnam). 450 refs

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapts its iron uptake strategies in function of the type of infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eCornelis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative -Proteobacterium which is known for its capacity to colonize various niches, including some invertebrate and vertebrate hosts, making it one of the most frequent bacteria causing opportunistic infections. P. aeruginosa is able to cause acute as well as chronic infections and it uses different colonization and virulence factors to do so. Infections range from septicemia, urinary infections, burn wound colonization, and chronic colonization of the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Like the vast majority of organisms, P. aeruginosa needs iron to sustain growth. P. aeruginosa utilizes different strategies to take up iron, depending on the type of infection it causes. Two siderophores are produced by this bacterium, pyoverdine and pyochelin, characterized by high and low affinities for iron respectively. P. aeruginosa is also able to utilize different siderophores from other microorganisms (siderophore piracy. It can also take up heme from hemoproteins via two different systems. Under microaerobic or anaerobic conditions, P. aeruginosa is also able to take up ferrous iron via its Feo system using redox-cycling phenazines. Depending on the type of infection, P. aeruginosa can therefore adapt by switching from one iron uptake system to another as we will describe in this short review.

  7. MarketBusting: strategies for exceptional business growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Rita Gunther; MacMillan, Ian C

    2005-03-01

    If company leaders were granted a single wish, it would surely be for a reliable way to create new growth businesses. Business practitioners'overwhelming interest in this subject prompted the authors to conduct a three-year study of organizational growth--specifically, to find out which growth strategies were most successful. They discovered, somewhat to their surprise, that even companies in mature industries found rich new sources of growth when they reconfigured their unit of business (what they bill customers for) or their key metrics (how they measure success). In this article, the authors outline these and other moves companies can make to redefine their profit drivers and realize low-risk growth. They offer plenty of real-world examples. For instance: CHANGING YOUR UNIT OF BUSINESS: Once a conventional printing house, Madden Communications not only prints promotional materials for customers but also manages the distribution and installation of those materials on-site. Its revenues grew from dollars 1o million in 1990 to dollars 133 million in 2004, in an industry that many had come to regard as hopelessly mature. IMPROVING YOUR KEY METRICS-PARTICULARLY PRODUCTIVITY: Lamons Gasket, with dollars 80 million in revenues, built a Web site that radically improved its customers' ability to find, order, and pay for goods. The firm's market share rose along with its customer retention rate. The authors also suggest ways to identify your unit of business and associated key metrics and recognize the obstacles to changing them; review the key customer segments you serve; assess the need for new capabilities and the potential for internal resistance to change; and communicate to internal and external constituencies the changes you wish to make in your unit of business or key metrics.

  8. The environment matters: Comparing individuals and dyads in their adaptive use of decision strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane E. Kaemmer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals have been shown to adaptively select decision strategies depending on the environment structure. Two experiments extended this research to the group level. Subjects (N = 240 worked either individually or in two-person groups, or dyads, on a multi-attribute paired-comparison task. They were randomly assigned to two different environments that favored one of two prototypical decision strategies---weighted additive or take-the-best (between-subjects design in Experiment 1 and within-subject design in Experiment 2. Performance measures revealed that both individuals and dyads learned to adapt over time. A higher starting and overall performance rate in the environment in which weighted additive performed best led to the conclusion that weighted additive served as a default strategy. When this default strategy had to be replaced, because the environmental structure favored take-the-best, the superior adaptive capacity of dyads became observable in the form of a steeper learning rate. Analyses of nominal dyads indicate that real dyads performed at the level of the best individuals. Fine-grained analyses of information-search data are presented. Results thus point to the strong moderating role of the environment structure when comparing individual with group performance and are discussed within the framework of adaptive strategy selection.

  9. Multiagents-based wide area protection with best-effort adaptive strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yongli; Wang, Dewen [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China); Song, Shaoqun [Fuzhou Electric Power Industry Bureau, Fujian Province (China)

    2009-02-15

    Abstract - Multi-trips of circuit breakers often occur within a short period in a severe blackout, and the tripping usually relates to relays' mal-operations. In fact, when two ore more electric primary devices are isolated by circuit breakers, the settings of most relays to protect their power system are getting infeasible and uncoordinated. Adaptive settings are needed to prevent them from wrong operation. This paper presents an adaptive protection scheme based on wide area information with best-effort protection strategy, and the outline of multiagents and WAN Based Adaptive Protection System (MAWAPS). In the scheme, the best-effort adaptive strategy is used to guarantee the adaptive settings to operate safely and effectively in most situations. The IP/SDH-based wide area network (WAN) is used to realize real-time wide area information exchange in the proposed protection scheme. Adaptive setting algorithms for the second stage zero-sequence current and phase overcurrent relays are proposed, which can provide larger line coverage than traditional relays. Moreover, multiagent techniques and IEC 61850 are employed to realize the fast communication between different agents, and MMS plays a prominent role in real-time remote communication. A simulating system has been developed according to the above ideas and approaches, and the experimental results show that the proposed adaptive protection scheme is feasible from the view of protective performance including the executing time. (author)

  10. Developmental prosopagnosia and adaptative compensatory strategies: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anair Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Prosopagnosia is a type of visual agnosia with inability to identify faces, usually secondary to brain lesion in associative cortex areas, but there is also a congenital form known as developmental prosopagnosia. Objectives: To describe a case of developmental prosopagnosia that illustrates the specificity of the pathways for perception of faces in the visual system. Also, we will describe possible mechanisms of recognition used by this patient. Methods: R.S., a 50 year-old woman, was referred for neuropsychological assessment due to difficulties in perception of familiar faces since childhood, unexplained by any loss of visual acuity. Results: The exam showed good performance for comprehension, reasoning, concept formation, constructional abilities, criticism, judgment, mental control, memory and visual perception for other kinds of stimuli. No difficulties were seen regarding identification of ethnicity, age and types of animals. The patient was able to match celebrities' faces in different positions, but could not identify the matching pictures for unknown people. Conclusions: These findings indicate the patient had developed strategies, throughout life, to recognize familiar faces (relatives, celebrities from memorized fragments, but still had difficulties in identifying non-familiar faces holistically.

  11. Community development strategies codification (physical - spatial using smart growth approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Majedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban management structure in recent decades, associated with features and constraints such as nonparticipatory, focus, system of scheduling, planning top-down, bureaucratic and politicization of the urban development process lacks practical commitment to the principles and applications urban development programs. Hence, it has paused the management strategies developed to resolve these issues and problems at the micro level and neighborhoods. However, despite years of planning, today's cities are growing sporadically. In the past decades, a large amount of agricultural land, gardens and green spaces around the city in order to grow the city is dedicated to building and the day following cities and have been moving more and more toward scattering phenomena and the increasing use of private cars fueled by the fragmentation and is involved on environment quality degradation. Urban Village, new-urbanism, sustainable development, smart growth and the increasing development of all new concepts and approaches that the today's urban problems and uncontrolled expansion of urban areas and put up a new way of development in open areas of the old, the potential uses, increased density and….and each one is complement each loan different from the experiences and achievements of former approaches. the methodology is descriptive-analytical.in this research we try that new approaches are presented in the discussion of urban development and smart growth theory as the main approach to explain the research is and concepts developed and compression is needed to analyze and eventually the criticisms and pudding on smart growth and enumerate the benefits of local sustainable development strategies will be described.

  12. Stakeholder perspectives on land-use strategies for adapting to climate-change-enhanced coastal hazards: Sarasota, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable land-use planning requires decision makers to balance community growth with resilience to natural hazards. This balance is especially difficult in many coastal communities where planners must grapple with significant growth projections, the persistent threat of extreme events (e.g., hurricanes), and climate-change-driven sea level rise that not only presents a chronic hazard but also alters the spatial extent of sudden-onset hazards such as hurricanes. We examine these stressors on coastal, long-term land-use planning by reporting the results of a one-day community workshop held in Sarasota County, Florida that included focus groups and participatory mapping exercises. Workshop participants reflected various political agendas and socioeconomic interests of five local knowledge domains: business, environment, emergency management and infrastructure, government, and planning. Through a series of alternating domain-specific focus groups and interactive plenary sessions, participants compared the county 2050 comprehensive land-use plan to maps of contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazard zones and projected storm-surge hazard zones enlarged by sea level rise scenarios. This interactive, collaborative approach provided each group of domain experts the opportunity to combine geographically-specific, scientific knowledge on natural hazards and climate change with local viewpoints and concerns. Despite different agendas, interests, and proposed adaptation strategies, there was common agreement among participants for the need to increase community resilience to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to explore adaptation strategies to combat the projected, enlarged storm-surge hazard zones.

  13. Heat shock proteins and hypometabolism: adaptive strategy for proteome preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey KB

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth B Storey, Janet M StoreyDepartments of Biology and Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, CanadaAbstract: To survive under harsh environmental conditions many organisms retreat into hypometabolic states where metabolic rate may be reduced by 80% or more and energy use is reprioritized to emphasize key functions that sustain viability and provide cytoprotection. ATP-expensive activities, such as gene expression, protein turnover (synthesis and degradation, and the cell cycle, are largely shut down. As a consequence, mechanisms that stabilize the existing cellular proteome can become critical for long-term survival. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are well-known for their actions as chaperones that act to fold new proteins or refold proteins that are damaged. Indeed, they are part of the “minimal stress proteome” that appears to be a ubiquitous response by all cells as they attempt, successfully or unsuccessfully, to deal with stress. The present review summarizes evidence that HSPs are also a conserved feature of natural animal hypometabolism including the phenomena of estivation, hibernation, diapause, cold-hardiness, anaerobiosis, and anhydrobiosis. That is, organisms that retreat into dormant or torpid states in anticipation that environmental conditions may become too difficult for normal life also integrate the use of HSPs to protect their proteome while hypometabolic. Multiple studies show a common upregulation of expression of hsp genes and/or HSP proteins prior to or during hypometabolism in organisms as diverse as ground squirrels, turtles, land snails, insects, and brine shrimp and in situations of both preprogrammed dormancies (eg, seasonal or life stage specific and opportunistic hypometabolism (eg, triggered by desiccation or lack of oxygen. Hence, HSPs are not just a “shock” response that attempts to rescue cells from damaging stress but are a key protective strategy that is an integral component of natural states of

  14. Growth and adaptation of microorganisms on the cheese surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Christophe; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Swennen, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities living on cheese surfaces are composed of various bacteria, yeasts and molds that interact together, thus generating the typical sensory properties of a cheese. Physiological and genomic investigations have revealed important functions involved in the ability of microorganisms to establish themselves at the cheese surface. These functions include the ability to use the cheese's main energy sources, to acquire iron, to tolerate low pH at the beginning of ripening and to adapt to high salt concentrations and moisture levels. Horizontal gene transfer events involved in the adaptation to the cheese habitat have been described, both for bacteria and fungi. In the future, in situ microbial gene expression profiling and identification of genes that contribute to strain fitness by massive sequencing of transposon libraries will help us to better understand how cheese surface communities function.

  15. Adaptation of Lactococcus lactis to high growth temperature leads to a dramatic increase in acidification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Hellgren, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is essential for most cheese making, and this mesophilic bacterium has its growth optimum around 30 °C. We have, through adaptive evolution, isolated a mutant TM29 that grows well up to 39 °C, and continuous growth at 40 °C is possible if pre-incubated at a slightly lower...

  16. Pathways for psychological adjustment in breast cancer: a longitudinal study on coping strategies and posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia Martins; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the role of coping strategies and posttraumatic growth (PTG) on the psychological adjustment to breast cancer trajectory. The participants were 50 women assessed at the time of surgery (T1), during adjuvant treatment (T2) and six months after the end of treatment (T3). Women completed questionnaires assessing coping strategies, PTG and psychological adjustment (psychological quality of life, anxiety and depression). Results showed that the greatest impact of breast cancer on women's adjustment occurred at T1, when patients were significantly more anxious than in the other phases of the disease. The type of surgery and adjuvant treatment did not account for the course of PTG and adjustment. Coping through seeking social support and using cognitive strategies at T1 were linked to psychological quality of life and depression at T3 via PTG dimension of personal resources and skills at T2. Findings emphasise the value of promoting adaptive coping strategies and PTG in order to improve psychological adjustment in breast cancer patients.

  17. Crop management in greenhouses: adapting the growth conditions to the plant needs or adapting the plant to the growth conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Pascale, De S.

    2009-01-01

    Strategies for improving greenhouse crop production should target both developing advanced technological systems and designing improved plants. Based on greenhouse experiments, crop models and biotechnological tools, this paper will discuss the physiology of plant-greenhouse interactions. It is disc

  18. The importance of training strategy adaptation: a learner-oriented approach for improving older adults' memory and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena; Dunlosky, John; Vecchi, Tomaso; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the benefits of strategy-adaptation training for promoting transfer effects. This learner-oriented approach--which directly encourages the learner to generalize strategic behavior to new tasks--helps older adults appraise new tasks and adapt trained strategies to them. In Experiment 1, older adults in a strategy-adaptation training group used 2 strategies (imagery and sentence generation) while practicing 2 tasks (list and associative learning); they were then instructed on how to do a simple task analysis to help them adapt the trained strategies for 2 different unpracticed tasks (place learning and text learning) that were discussed during training. Two additional criterion tasks (name-face associative learning and grocery-list learning) were never mentioned during training. Two other groups were included: A strategy training group (who received strategy training and transfer instructions but not strategy-adaptation training) and a waiting-list control group. Both training procedures enhanced older adults' performance on the trained tasks and those tasks that were discussed during training, but transfer was greatest after strategy-adaptation training. Experiment 2 found that strategy-adaptation training conducted via a manual that older adults used at home also promoted transfer. These findings demonstrate the importance of adopting a learner-oriented approach to promote transfer of strategy training.

  19. An extension of the classification of evolutionary singular strategies in Adaptive Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldin, Barbara; Diekmann, Odo

    2014-01-01

    The existing classification of evolutionarily singular strategies in Adaptive Dynamics (Geritz et al. in Evol Ecol 12:35–57, 1998; Metz et al. in Stochastic and spatial structures of dynamical systems, pp 183–231, 1996) assumes an invasion exponent that is differentiable twice as a function of both

  20. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  1. Assessment of Model Predictive and Adaptive Glucose Control Strategies for People with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses overnight blood glucose stabilization in people with type 1 diabetes using a Model Predictive Controller (MPC). We use a control strategy based on an adaptive ARMAX model in which we use a Recursive Extended Least Squares (RELS) method to estimate parameters of the stochastic...

  2. Endopolyploidy as a potential alternative adaptive strategy for Arabidopsis leaf size variation in response to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegas, Vasilis C; Wargent, Jason J; Pesquet, Edouard; Granqvist, Emma; Paul, Nigel D; Doonan, John H

    2014-06-01

    The extent of endoreduplication in leaf growth is group- or even species-specific, and its adaptive role is still unclear. A survey of Arabidopsis accessions for variation at the level of endopolyploidy, cell number, and cell size in leaves revealed extensive genetic variation in endopolyploidy level. High endopolyploidy is associated with increased leaf size, both in natural and in genetically unstructured (mapping) populations. The underlying genes were identified as quantitative trait loci that control endopolyploidy in nature by modulating the progression of successive endocycles during organ development. This complex genetic architecture indicates an adaptive mechanism that allows differential organ growth over a broad geographic range and under stressful environmental conditions. UV-B radiation was identified as a significant positive climatic predictor for high endopolyploidy. Arabidopsis accessions carrying the increasing alleles for endopolyploidy also have enhanced tolerance to UV-B radiation. UV-absorbing secondary metabolites provide an additional protective strategy in accessions that display low endopolyploidy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that high constitutive endopolyploidy is a significant predictor for organ size in natural populations and is likely to contribute to sustaining plant growth under high incident UV radiation. Endopolyploidy may therefore form part of the range of UV-B tolerance mechanisms that exist in natural populations.

  3. APPLICATION OF RESTART COVARIANCE MATRIX ADAPTATION EVOLUTION STRATEGY (RCMA-ES TO GENERATION EXPANSION PLANNING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karthikeyan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of an evolutionary algorithm, Restart Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (RCMA-ES to the Generation Expansion Planning (GEP problem. RCMA-ES is a class of continuous Evolutionary Algorithm (EA derived from the concept of self-adaptation in evolution strategies, which adapts the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal search distribution. The original GEP problem is modified by incorporating Virtual Mapping Procedure (VMP. The GEP problem of a synthetic test systems for 6-year, 14-year and 24-year planning horizons having five types of candidate units is considered. Two different constraint-handling methods are incorporated and impact of each method has been compared. In addition, comparison and validation has also made with dynamic programming method.

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantin, Audrey; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis, E-mail: louis.archambault@phy.ulaval.ca [Département de Physique, de génie Physique et d’optique et Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Lachance, Bernard; Foster, William [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Goudreault, Julie [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie, CSSS de Gatineau–Hôpital de Gatineau, 909 Boulevard La Vérendrye, Gatineau, Québec J8P 7H2 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D{sub 95%} is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D{sub 95%} remains constant across the

  5. ERK activation is required for CCK-mediated pancreatic adaptive growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Bryan J; Lodewyk, Kevin B; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S; Ernst, Stephen A; Williams, John A

    2014-10-01

    High levels of cholecystokinin (CCK) can stimulate pancreatic adaptive growth in which mature acinar cells divide, leading to enhanced pancreatic mass with parallel increases in protein, DNA, RNA, and digestive enzyme content. Prolonged release of CCK can be induced by feeding trypsin inhibitor (TI) to disrupt normal feedback control. This leads to exocrine growth in a CCK-dependent manner. The extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway regulates many proliferative processes in various tissues and disease models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ERK signaling in pancreatic adaptive growth using the MEK inhibitors PD-0325901 and trametinib (GSK-1120212). It was determined that PD-0325901 given two times daily by gavage or mixed into powdered chow was an effective and specific inhibitor of ERK signaling in vivo. TI-containing chow led to a robust increase in pancreatic mass, protein, DNA, and RNA content. This pancreatic adaptive growth was blocked in mice fed chow containing the MEK inhibitors. PD-0325901 blocked TI-induced ERK-regulated early response genes, cell-cycle proteins, and mitogenesis by acinar cells. It was determined that ERK signaling is necessary for the initiation of pancreatic adaptive growth but not necessary to maintain it. PD-0325901 blocked adaptive growth when given before cell-cycle initiation but not after mitogenesis had been established. Furthermore, GSK-1120212, a chemically distinct inhibitor of the ERK pathway that is now approved for clinical use, inhibited growth similar to PD-0325901. These data demonstrate that the ERK pathway is required for CCK-stimulated pancreatic adaptive growth.

  6. Management Strategy, the CEO's Cognitive Style and Organizational Growth/Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Yoram; Finaly-Neumann, Edith

    1994-01-01

    Develops a model linking organizational growth and decline to competitive strategy, the strategy-making process, and the chief executive officer's personal characteristics. The model was empirically tested for private liberal arts colleges. Enrollment growth is associated with focused strategy, the CEO's innovative style, differentiation, and…

  7. Adaptive growth responses of Listeria monocytogenes to acid and osmotic shifts above and across the growth boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belessi, C-I A; Le Marc, Y; Merkouri, S I; Gounadaki, A S; Schvartzman, S; Jordan, K; Drosinos, E H; Skandamis, P N

    2011-01-01

    The effect of acid and osmotic shifts on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated at 10°C. Two types of shifts were tested: (i) within the range of pH and water activity (a(w)) levels that allow growth of L. monocytogenes and (ii) after habituation at no-growth conditions back to growth-permitting conditions. A L. monocytogenes cheese isolate, with high survival capacity during cheesemaking, was inoculated (10(2) CFU/ml) in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract at six pH levels (5.1 to 7.2; adjusted with lactic acid) and 0.5% NaCl (a(w) 0.995), or four a(w) levels (0.995 to 0.93, adjusted with 0.5 to 10.5% NaCl) at pH 7.2 and grown to early stationary phase. L. monocytogenes was then shifted (at 10(2) CFU/ml) to each of the aforementioned growth-permitting pH and a(w) levels and incubated at 10°C. Shifts from no-growth to growth-permitting conditions were carried out by transferring L. monocytogenes habituated at pH 4.9 or a(w) 0.90 (12.5% NaCl) for 1, 5, and 10 days to all pH and a(w) levels permitting growth. Reducing a(w) or pH at different levels in the range of 0.995 to 0.93 and 7.2 to 5.1, respectively, decreased the maximum specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes. The lag time of the organism increased with all osmotic downshifts, as well as by the reduction of pH to 5.1. Conversely, any type of shift within pH 5.5 to 7.2 did not markedly affect the lag times of L. monocytogenes. The longer the cells were incubated at no-growth a(w) (0.90), the faster they initiated growth subsequently, suggesting adaptation to osmotic stress. Conversely, extended habituation at pH 4.9 had the opposite effect on subsequent growth of L. monocytogenes, possibly due to cell injury. These results suggest that there is an adaptation or injury rate induced at conditions inhibiting the growth of the pathogen. Thus, quantifying adaptation phenomena under growth-limiting environments, such as in fermented dairy and meat products or products preserved in

  8. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts......We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level...

  9. A novel adaptive modulation and coding strategy based on partial feedback for enhanced MBMS network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Yu; PENG Mu-gen; WANG Wen-bo

    2008-01-01

    The difference in link condition of broadcast/multicast users and the limitation of uplink resource, make itdifficult to utilize adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) in theenhanced multimedia broadcast and multicast service (E-MBMS)network. To obtain the improvement of system throughput, thisstudy proposes an adaptive modulation and coding schemebased on partial feedback, by which only partial users whosechannel qualities are lower than the system threshold need tomake a response to the modulation coding scheme (MCS)adaptation procedure. By this investigation, an adaptive schemecan be introduced in the E-MBMS network. Both the theoreticalanalysis and simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of theproposed strategy, in which the performance is close to the idealone and has a significant throughput improvement whencompared with that of the fixed MCS transmission scheme.

  10. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Matthew D; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-08

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism's internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving "interoceptively," i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms.

  11. Genetic basis of growth adaptation of Escherichia coli after deletion of pgi, a major metabolic gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charusanti, Pep; Conrad, Tom M; Knight, Eric M; Venkataraman, Karthik; Fong, Nicole L; Xie, Bin; Gao, Yuan; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2010-11-04

    Bacterial survival requires adaptation to different environmental perturbations such as exposure to antibiotics, changes in temperature or oxygen levels, DNA damage, and alternative nutrient sources. During adaptation, bacteria often develop beneficial mutations that confer increased fitness in the new environment. Adaptation to the loss of a major non-essential gene product that cripples growth, however, has not been studied at the whole-genome level. We investigated the ability of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 to overcome the loss of phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi) by adaptively evolving ten replicates of E. coli lacking pgi for 50 days in glucose M9 minimal medium and by characterizing endpoint clones through whole-genome re-sequencing and phenotype profiling. We found that 1) the growth rates for all ten endpoint clones increased approximately 3-fold over the 50-day period; 2) two to five mutations arose during adaptation, most frequently in the NADH/NADPH transhydrogenases udhA and pntAB and in the stress-associated sigma factor rpoS; and 3) despite similar growth rates, at least three distinct endpoint phenotypes developed as defined by different rates of acetate and formate secretion. These results demonstrate that E. coli can adapt to the loss of a major metabolic gene product with only a handful of mutations and that adaptation can result in multiple, alternative phenotypes.

  12. The MRL proteins: adapting cell adhesion, migration and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coló, Georgina P; Lafuente, Esther M; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    MIG-10, RIAM and Lamellipodin (Lpd) are the founding members of the MRL family of multi-adaptor molecules. These proteins have common domain structures but display distinct functions in cell migration and adhesion, signaling, and in cell growth. The binding of RIAM with active Rap1 and with talin provides these MRL molecules with important regulatory roles on integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration. Furthermore, RIAM and Lpd can regulate actin dynamics through their binding to actin regulatory Ena/VASP proteins. Recent data generated with the Drosophila MRL ortholog called Pico and with RIAM in melanoma cells indicate that these proteins can also regulate cell growth. As MRL proteins represent a relatively new family, many questions on their structure-function relationships remain unanswered, including regulation of their expression, post-translational modifications, new interactions, involvement in signaling and their knockout mice phenotype.

  13. Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willroth, P.; Massmann, F.; Wehrhahn, R.; Revilla Diez, J.

    2012-08-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 impacted large areas of Thailand's coastline and caused severe human and economic losses. The recovery period revealed differences in the vulnerabilities of communities affected. An understanding of the causal factors of vulnerability is crucial for minimising the negative effects of future threats and developing adaptive capacities. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities and the development of adaptation strategies in the booming tourist area of Khao Lak and in the predominantly fishing and agricultural area of Ban Nam Khem through a comprehensive vulnerability framework. The results show that social networks played a crucial role in coping with the disaster. Social cohesion is important for strengthening the community and developing successful adaptation strategies. The development of tourism and the turning away from traditional activities have a significant positive influence on the income situation, but create a dependency on a single business sector. It could be shown that households generating their income in the tourism sector were vulnerable unless they had diversified their income previously. Income diversification decreased the vulnerability in the study areas. Adaptation strategies and processes developed in the aftermath clearly address these issues.

  14. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  15. Adaptive terminal sliding-mode control strategy for DC-DC buck converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komurcugil, Hasan

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an adaptive terminal sliding mode control (ATSMC) strategy for DC-DC buck converters. The idea behind this strategy is to use the terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) approach to assure finite time convergence of the output voltage error to the equilibrium point and integrate an adaptive law to the TSMC strategy so as to achieve a dynamic sliding line during the load variations. In addition, the influence of the controller parameters on the performance of closed-loop system is investigated. It is observed that the start up response of the output voltage becomes faster with increasing value of the fractional power used in the sliding function. On the other hand, the transient response of the output voltage, caused by the step change in the load, becomes faster with decreasing the value of the fractional power. Therefore, the value of fractional power is to be chosen to make a compromise between start up and transient responses of the converter. Performance of the proposed ATSMC strategy has been tested through computer simulations and experiments. The simulation results of the proposed ATSMC strategy are compared with the conventional SMC and TSMC strategies. It is shown that the ATSMC exhibits a considerable improvement in terms of a faster output voltage response during load changes.

  16. GROWTH STRATEGIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES STUDY CASE: PRECIOUS METALS JEWELRY RETAIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent start of the new century has brought new challenges for firms, industries and countries. This paper investigates business and growth strategies of multinational companies within the precious metals jewelry retail industry. The main objective is to identify whether a company’s performance is determined by its growth strategy or not. The purposes for the research are: to understand what kind of business models and strategies global precious metals jewelry retailers pursue, what growth strategies global jewelry retailers pursue and if there is a link between a company’s growth strategy and its profitability. Least but not last, the findings are reviewed on their transferability to other industries. The findings regarding the business models and growth strategies pursued are that all of them are based on Porter’s generic strategies as well as internationalization and diversification but there is no specific preference given to any of the strategic elements.

  17. Cautious but committed: moving toward adaptive planning and operation strategies for renewable energy's wildlife implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppel, Johann; Dahmen, Marie; Helfrich, Jennifer; Schuster, Eva; Bulling, Lea

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife planning for renewable energy must cope with the uncertainties of potential wildlife impacts. Unfortunately, the environmental policies which instigate renewable energy and those which protect wildlife are not coherently aligned-creating a green versus green dilemma. Thus, climate mitigation efforts trigger renewable energy development, but then face substantial barriers from biodiversity protection instruments and practices. This article briefly reviews wind energy and wildlife interactions, highlighting the lively debated effects on bats. Today, planning and siting of renewable energy are guided by the precautionary principle in an attempt to carefully address wildlife challenges. However, this planning attitude creates limitations as it struggles to negotiate the aforementioned green versus green dilemma. More adaptive planning and management strategies and practices hold the potential to reconcile these discrepancies to some degree. This adaptive approach is discussed using facets of case studies from policy, planning, siting, and operational stages of wind energy in Germany and the United States, with one case showing adaptive planning in action for solar energy as well. This article attempts to highlight the benefits of more adaptive approaches as well as the possible shortcomings, such as reduced planning security for renewable energy developers. In conclusion, these studies show that adaptive planning and operation strategies can be designed to supplement and enhance the precautionary principle in wildlife planning for green energy.

  18. Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies are not created equal: Assessment of Impacts and Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Matei

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable urban expansion requires an extension of contemporary approaches that focus nearly exclusively on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have proposed biophysical approaches to urban heat island mitigation (e.g., via deployment of cool or green roofs) but little is known how these technologies vary with place and season and what impacts are beyond those of near surface temperature. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations for the United States, we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion (to the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures and compare those to contemporary urban extent. Adaptation approaches include widespread adoption of cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs). Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependent. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming of 3°C can be completely offset by the adaptation approaches examined. For other regions and seasons, widespread adoption of some adaptation strategies can result in significant reduction in precipitation. Finally, implications of large-scale urbanization for seasonal energy demand will be examined.

  19. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  20. Adaptive Agent Model with Hybrid Routing Selection Strategy for Improving the Road-Network Congestion Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Jiang; Chao Yang; Takao Terano

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive agent model with a hybrid routing selection strategy for studying the road⁃network congestion problem. We focus on improving those severely congested links. Firstly, a multi⁃agent system is built, where each agent stands for a vehicle, and it makes its routing selection by considering the shortest path and the minimum congested degree of the target link simultaneously. The agent⁃based model captures the nonlinear feedback between vehicle routing behaviors and road⁃network congestion status. Secondly, a hybrid routing selection strategy is provided, which guides the vehicle routes adapting to the real⁃time road⁃network congestion status. On this basis, we execute simulation experiments and compare the simulation results of network congestion distribution, by Floyd agent with shortest path strategy and our proposed adaptive agent with hybrid strategy. The simulation results show that our proposed model has reduced the congestion degree of those seriously congested links of road⁃network. Finally, we execute our model on a real road map. The results finds that those seriously congested roads have some common features such as located at the road junction or near the unique road connecting two areas. And, the results also show an effectiveness of our model on reduction of those seriously congested links in this actual road network. Such a bottom⁃up congestion control approach with a hybrid congestion optimization perspective will have its significance for actual traffic congestion control.

  1. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R; O'Malley, Robin; Ojima, Dennis S

    2009-10-01

    The scientific literature contains numerous descriptions of observed and potential effects of global climate change on species and ecosystems. In response to anticipated effects of climate change, conservation organizations and government agencies are developing "adaptation strategies" to facilitate the adjustment of human society and ecological systems to altered climate regimes. We reviewed the literature and climate-change adaptation plans that have been developed in United States, Canada, England, México, and South Africa and found 16 general adaptation strategies that relate directly to the conservation of biological diversity. These strategies can be grouped into four broad categories: land and water protection and management; direct species management; monitoring and planning; and law and policy. Tools for implementing these strategies are similar or identical to those already in use by conservationists worldwide (land and water conservation, ecological restoration, agrienvironment schemes, species translocation, captive propagation, monitoring, natural resource planning, and legislation/regulation). Although our review indicates natural resource managers already have many tools that can be used to address climate-change effects, managers will likely need to apply these tools in novel and innovative ways to meet the unprecedented challenges posed by climate change.

  2. A comparison of three different adaptive strategies in image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Soendergaard, Jimmi; Petersen, Joergen B. (Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)), E-mail: annveste@rm.dk; Hoeyer, Morten; Muren, Ludvig Paul (Dept. of Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark))

    2010-10-15

    The urinary bladder shows considerable individual variation in shape and position during a course of radiotherapy (RT). In this study we have developed and compared three different adaptive RT (ART) strategies for bladder cancer involving daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging and plan selection. Material and methods. Ten patients treated for bladder cancer had daily CBCTs acquired that were registered online using bony anatomy registration. Seven patients received intensity modulated RT (IMRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique to the bladder and pelvic lymph nodes. Three patients received treatment to the bladder only. Retrospectively, we compared three ART strategies that were all based on daily selection of the most suitable plan from a library consisting of three IMRT-plans corresponding to a small, medium and large target volume. ART method A utilised population-based margins while methods B and C used the bladder as seen on CBCT-scans from the first week of treatment; method B without delineation of the bladder on CBCT and method C with delineation of the bladder. Total dose distributions were calculated using the planning CT. For each patient, we calculated ratios of the dose volume histograms (DVHs) for the three ART strategies relative to non-adaptive therapy. Results. The inter-patient variation was large for all three ART strategies. The mean ratios of the volumes receiving 57 Gy or more (corresponding to 95% of prescribed dose) for methods A, B and C were 0.66 (SD: 0.11), 0.67 (SD: 0.13) and 0.67 (SD: 0.16) respectively when compared to the non-adaptive plan. Conclusion. When using any of the ART strategies, it is possible to reduce significantly the volumes receiving high doses compared to the use of a standard non-adaptive plan. The differences in dose volume parameters between the three methods were small compared with the differences from the standard plan.

  3. FRANCHISING AS A GROWTH STRATEGY. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways in which businesses can growth. Aim of this article is to make the business owner aware of the scope of the franchise and business opportunity law and how they may affect growth strategy tried to be employed by the business owner. For this purpose we present a list of advantages and disadvantages of franchising for the franchisee and for the franchisor and examined the status and trends of the Romanian market franchise, especially in clothing, which are available for prospective franchisees in Romania. We find out that although it is increasing its level of development is much lower than in EU, (according to Romanian Franchise Association in Romania are slightly over 400 franchises, with various business fields, while in the Europe there are about 10,000 franchise networks. Reasons for slower development of the textile franchise business in Romania can be found in the effects of economic crisis on the Romanian economy, which shifted the structure the consumer spending of the people of Romania, expenditures for clothing and footwear have decreased and have reached at 5.3% of total household expenditure. In these conditions, the clothing franchises who had suffered most in Romania were those whose offer to address at high-income consumers (Escada, Esprit, Etam and medium (Debenhams, Gap. Less affected were franchises for which targets are low-income consumers and who besides the low price of products offers a wide range of products and models with a very short life cycle (fast fashion. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the analysis financial indicators of the different companies and by Internet

  4. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-05-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD.

  5. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J

    2012-05-01

    Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal production in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat production. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal production in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate heat stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate heat stress in the context of tropical livestock production systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic heat production, those enhancing heat-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for heat tolerance. Under heat stress, improved production should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive heat load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance heat exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit heat stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and production traits to evaluate

  6. Nutritional strategies to support adaptation to high-intensity interval training in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are characterized by intermittent high-intensity activity patterns. Typically, play consists of short periods of very intense or all-out efforts interspersed with longer periods of low-intensity activity. Fatigue is a complex, multi-factorial process, but intense intermittent exercise performance can potentially be limited by reduced availability of substrates stored in skeletal muscle and/or metabolic by-products associated with fuel breakdown. High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that enhance the capacity for both oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Nutrient availability is a potent modulator of many acute physiological responses to exercise, including various molecular signaling pathways that are believed to regulate cellular adaptation to training. Several nutritional strategies have also been reported to acutely alter metabolism and enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise performance. However, relatively little is known regarding the effect of chronic interventions, and whether supplementation over a period of weeks or months augments HIT-induced physiological remodeling and promotes greater performance adaptations. Theoretically, a nutritional intervention could augment HIT adaptation by improving energy metabolism during exercise, which could facilitate greater total work and an enhanced chronic training stimulus, or promoting some aspect of the adaptive response during recovery, which could lead to enhanced physiological adaptations over time.

  7. The diversity of gendered adaptation strategies to climate change of Indian farmers: A feminist intersectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Federica; Martín-López, Berta; Pascual, Unai; Drucker, Adam

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines climate change adaptation and gender issues through an application of a feminist intersectional approach. This approach permits the identification of diverse adaptation responses arising from the existence of multiple and fragmented dimensions of identity (including gender) that intersect with power relations to shape situation-specific interactions between farmers and ecosystems. Based on results from contrasting research cases in Bihar and Uttarakhand, India, this paper demonstrates, inter alia, that there are geographically determined gendered preferences and adoption strategies regarding adaptation options and that these are influenced by the socio-ecological context and institutional dynamics. Intersecting identities, such as caste, wealth, age and gender, influence decisions and reveal power dynamics and negotiation within the household and the community, as well as barriers to adaptation among groups. Overall, the findings suggest that a feminist intersectional approach does appear to be useful and worth further exploration in the context of climate change adaptation. In particular, future research could benefit from more emphasis on a nuanced analysis of the intra-gender differences that shape adaptive capacity to climate change.

  8. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  9. An Image Enhancement Method Using the Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with an Adaptive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement techniques are very important to image processing, which are used to improve image quality or extract the fine details in degraded images. In this paper, two novel objective functions based on the normalized incomplete Beta transform function are proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of grayscale image enhancement and color image enhancement, respectively. Using these objective functions, the parameters of transform functions are estimated by the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO. We also propose an improved QPSO with an adaptive parameter control strategy. The QPSO and the AQPSO algorithms, along with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO, are tested on several benchmark grayscale and color images. The results show that the QPSO and AQPSO perform better than GA and PSO for the enhancement of these images, and the AQPSO has some advantages over QPSO due to its adaptive parameter control strategy.

  10. An adaptive feedback linearization strategy for variable speed wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciaga, F.; Puleston, P.F.; Battaiotto, P.E.; Mantz, R.J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Depto. de Electrotecnia, La Plata (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a control strategy based on adaptive feedback linearization intended for variable speed grid-connected wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The proposed adaptive control law accomplishes energy capture maximization by tracking the wind speed fluctuations. In addition, it linearizes the system even in the presence of turbine model uncertainties, allowing the closed-loop dynamic behaviour to be determined by a simple tuning of the controller parameters. Particularly, the attention is focused on WECS with slip power recovery, which use a power conversion stage as a rotor-controlled double-output induction generator. However, the concepts behind the proposed control strategy are general and can be easily extended to other WECS configurations. (Author)

  11. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptive Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-li; Shu Geng

    2013-01-01

    China is the world’s most populous country and a major emitter of greenhouse gases. Consequently, China’s role in climate change has received a great deal of attention, whereas the impact of climate change on China has been largely ignored. Studies on the impacts of climate change on agriculture and adaptation strategies are increasingly becoming major areas of scientific concern. However, the clear warming that has been sounded in China in recent decades has not been matched with a clear assessment of the impact of climate change on China’s water resources and agriculture. In the present study, we review observations on climate change, hydrology, and agriculture in China and relate these observations to likely future changes. We also analyse the adaptive strategies in China’s agriculture.

  12. Psychrophilic yeasts from worldwide glacial habitats: diversity, adaptation strategies and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Pietro; Branda, Eva; Goretti, Marta; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2012-11-01

    Glacial habitats (cryosphere) include some of the largest unexplored and extreme biospheres on Earth. These habitats harbor a wide diversity of psychrophilic prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. These highly specialized microorganisms have developed adaptation strategies to overcome the direct and indirect life-endangering influence of low temperatures. For many years Antarctica has been the geographic area preferred by microbiologists for studying the diversity of psychrophilic microorganisms (including yeasts). However, there have been an increasing number of studies on psychrophilic yeasts sharing the non-Antarctic cryosphere. The present paper provides an overview of the distribution and adaptation strategies of psychrophilic yeasts worldwide. Attention is also focused on their biotechnological potential, especially on their exploitation as a source of cold-active enzymes and for bioremediation purposes.

  13. A Particle Swarm Optimization with Adaptive Multi-Swarm Strategy for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui-Ting CHEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacitated vehicle routing problem with pickups and deliveries (CVRPPD is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization problems which include goods delivery/pickup optimization, vehicle number optimization, routing path optimization and transportation cost minimization. The conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO is difficult to find an optimal solution of the CVRPPD due to its simple search strategy. A PSO with adaptive multi-swarm strategy (AMSPSO is proposed to solve the CVRPPD in this paper. The proposed AMSPSO employs multiple PSO algorithms and an adaptive algorithm with punishment mechanism to search the optimal solution, which can deal with large-scale optimization problems. The simulation results prove that the proposed AMSPSO can solve the CVRPPD with the least number of vehicles and less transportation cost, simultaneously.

  14. An interdisciplinary approach to identify adaptation strategies that enhance flood resilience and urban liveability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, B. C.; Bertram, N.; Gunn, Alex;

    This paper provides guidance on how to identify and design the most suitable climate adaptation strategies for enhancing the liveability and flood resilience of urban catchments. It presents findings from a case study of Elwood, a coastal Melbourne suburb regularly affected by flooding....... The research integrates social science, architecture and environmental engineering to co-develop technical, design and policy solutions that respond to the local community’s vision for the future and are robust under a range of future climate, population and urban development scenarios. The paper shows...... that ensuring a city’s flood resilience involves a range of measures to retreat from, adapt to and defend against flooding; this necessarily requires an integrated approach and interdisciplinary expertise to develop adaptation pathways that are grounded in community aspirations and priorities, inspired by novel...

  15. Adaptation Strategies of Translating English News Lead——From the Perspective of Discourse Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清华

    2009-01-01

    Despite the common ground of outlining the news story and attracting reader's attention,the English News lead differs largely from the Chinese counterpart in terms of the news structures and news elements.Based on Eugene Nida's Functional Equivalence Theory and the analysis of the discourse differences between English and Chinese,three corresponding adaptation strategies of news translation can be summarized--omitting news elements,restructuring news information,and rearranging the attributions.

  16. Placebo-free designs for evaluating new mental health treatments: the use of adaptive treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ree; Lavori, Philip W

    2004-11-15

    The dominant pre-marketing clinical trial in psychopharmacology is a non-equivalence design that randomizes patients to one of three treatments: an accepted standard, the innovation (new drug), or placebo, with the main efficacy comparison being innovation vs placebo. The reasons behind the choice of placebo control in new drug development include anticipated small effect size for active-controlled comparisons and the sufficiency of demonstrated treatment effect (new drug vs placebo) for regulatory approval. These reasons have led to great reliance on placebo control in drug evaluation studies, despite the ethical controversy over the use of placebo when there are known effective standard treatments. While the use of placebo controls has been widely debated, a less considered aspect of the usual placebo-controlled non-equivalence design is the disparity between the decisions that it supports and those that pervade clinical practice. We propose an alternative approach that randomizes one group of patients to an adaptive treatment strategy that exemplifies the adaptive nature of clinical decision-making in the treatment of ongoing mental health disorders. The basic idea is to compare the adaptive strategy, which uses a patient's outcomes to date to determine when to switch from an initial treatment (e.g. an accepted standard) to an alternative (e.g. the new) treatment, to fixed trials of either treatment option. We state the conditions under which the adaptive treatment RCT is attractive to implement and the requirements for doing so.

  17. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  18. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  19. Adaptive radiation with regard to nutrient sequestration strategies in the carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovič, Andrej

    2012-02-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved a great diversity of pitcher morphologies. Selective pressures for maximizing nutrient uptake have driven speciation and diversification of the genus in a process known as adaptive radiation. This leads to the evolution of pitchers adapted to specific and often bizarre source of nutrients, which are not strictly animal-derived. One example is Nepenthes ampullaria with unusual growth pattern and pitcher morphology what enables the plant to capture a leaf litter from the canopy above. We showed that the plant benefits from nitrogen uptake by increased rate of photosynthesis and growth what may provide competitive advantage over others co-habiting plants. A possible impact of such specialization toward hybridization, an important mechanism in speciation, is discussed.

  20. Patterns of Growth in Adaptive Social Abilities among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah K.; Oti, Rosalind S.; Lord, Catherine; Welch, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive social skills were assessed longitudinally at approximately ages 2, 3, 5, 9, and 13 years in a sample of 192 children with a clinical diagnosis of autism (n = 93), PDD-NOS (n = 51), or nonspectrum developmental disabilities (n = 46) at age 2. Growth curve analyses with SAS proc mixed were used to analyze social trajectories over time.…

  1. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens Juul

    2006-01-01

    Small bowel resection stimulates intestinal adaptive growth by a neuroendocrine process thought to involve both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation and enterotrophic hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We investigated whether capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferent neurons are es...

  2. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  3. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  4. Research of Ant Colony Optimized Adaptive Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management control strategy of hybrid electric vehicle has a great influence on the vehicle fuel consumption with electric motors adding to the traditional vehicle power system. As vehicle real driving cycles seem to be uncertain, the dynamic driving cycles will have an impact on control strategy’s energy-saving effect. In order to better adapt the dynamic driving cycles, control strategy should have the ability to recognize the real-time driving cycle and adaptively adjust to the corresponding off-line optimal control parameters. In this paper, four types of representative driving cycles are constructed based on the actual vehicle operating data, and a fuzzy driving cycle recognition algorithm is proposed for online recognizing the type of actual driving cycle. Then, based on the equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy, an ant colony optimization algorithm is utilized to search the optimal control parameters “charge and discharge equivalent factors” for each type of representative driving cycle. At last, the simulation experiments are conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed fuzzy recognition algorithm and the validity of the designed control strategy optimization method.

  5. Traffic-Adaptive Proactive Sp ectrum Handoff Strategy for Graded Secondary Users in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; SONG Tiecheng; WU Ming; BAO Xu; GUO Jie; HU Jing

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet diff erent delay require-ments of various communication services in Cognitive ra-dio (CR) networks, Secondary users (SUs) are divided into two classes according to the priority of accessing to spec-trum in this paper. Based on the proactive spectrum hand-off scheme, the Preemptive resume priority (PRP) M/G/1 queueing is used to characterize multiple spectrum hand-off s under two diff erent spectrum handoff strategies. The traffic-adaptive spectrum handoff strategy is proposed for graded SUs so as to minimize the average cumulative hand-off delay. Simulation results not only verify that our theo-retical analysis is valid, but also show that the strategy we proposed can reduce the average cumulative handoff delay evidently. The eff ect of service rate on the proposed spec-trum switching point and the admissible access region are provided.

  6. AN EFFICIENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR ADAPTIVE OFDM CELLULAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Guanding; Zhang Zhaoyang; Qiu Peiliang

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient Radio Resource Management (RRM) strategy for adaptive Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) cellular systems. In the proposed strategy, only those users who have the same distance from their base stations can reuse a same subcarrier. This can guarantee the received Carrier-to-Interference ratio (C/I) of each subcarrier to be acceptable as required by system planning. Then by employing different modulation scheme on each subcarrier according to its received C/I, system spectral efficiency can be gracefully increased. Analytical and simulation results show that the spectral efficiency is improved by 40% without sacrificing the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance and call blocking probability and system capacity of the proposed strategy is better than conventional systems.

  7. Adaptive and qualitative changes in encoding strategy with experience: evidence from the test-expectancy paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason R; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners' abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study-test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study-test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants' metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests.

  8. Mixed-gender groups: coping strategies and factors of psychological adaptation in a polar environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnet, Elisabeth; Jurion, Sylvie; Cazes, Geneviève; Bachelard, Claude

    2004-07-01

    The polar environment is often seen as a good analog for long-term space missions in terms of isolation and confinement. This paper focuses on the psychological adaptation of both the men and women in mixed-gender groups in the French polar station Dumont d'Urville. The first 49 expeditions to this station were composed of men only in groups of 25-30. In 2000, two women were included in the first mixed-gender wintering group, followed by five women in 2001. This study on coping strategies and psychological adaptation was included in an end-of-mission debriefing performed by a psychologist. Data were collected using a few quantitative tools and a semi-structured interview, and focused on adaptation to wintering, coping strategies, and information on interpersonal relationships. Including women in a wintering group seems to have had positive effects on the general climate of the group by reducing men's rude behavior, but it also seems to be an important stressor for both men and women when the females' average age is close to the males' because seduction behaviors appear and rivalry, frustration, and sexual harassment frequently result. The use of problem-oriented strategies helps women to adapt. There are strong arguments indicating that living in an isolated and confined environment magnifies the usual difficulties that arise in mixed-gender relationships. Difficulties may be magnified in space since the group size is smaller and the confinement more extreme. This implies the need for rigorous select-in criteria for both men and women, especially for relational criteria, and for group training after selection.

  9. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  10. Farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ajao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate is changing and global mean temperatures have increased this is expected to have profound effects on food security. Long-term changes in climate will disproportionately affect tropical regions, meaning poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa will likely bear the brunt of adverse impacts. Adaptation plays an important role in reducing vulnerability to climate change and is therefore critical and of concern in developing countries, particularly in Africa where vulnerability is high because ability to adapt is low. This study examined farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo State of Nigeria. One hundred and fifty farmers were interviewed to obtain information from using a multistage sampling procedure. The results of the study showed that the types of climate change identified in the study area were delayed on-set of rainfall (38.0 percent, higher temperature (20.0 percent and less rain (17.3 percent. The outcome of climate change were food shortage (41.3percent, decline in livestock yield (30.7 percent, decline in crop yield (28.7 percent and death of livestock (16.0 percent. The identified actions taken to address climate change are growing a new crop (57.4 percent, adoption of drought tolerant/ resistance crop varieties (50.0 percent, diversification from crops to livestock production (40.7 percent and using of new land management practices. The long-term improvement investments commonly adapted in the study area were tree planting/agroforestry, mulching/surface cover, improved fallowing and fallowing.The study concluded that household size, extension visits and non-farm income significantly impact on the various strategies used in adaptation to climate change.

  11. Delayed feedback during sensorimotor learning selectively disrupts adaptation but not strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudner, Samuel N; Kethidi, Nikhit; Graeupner, Damaris; Ivry, Richard B; Taylor, Jordan A

    2016-03-01

    In sensorimotor adaptation tasks, feedback delays can cause significant reductions in the rate of learning. This constraint is puzzling given that many skilled behaviors have inherently long delays (e.g., hitting a golf ball). One difference in these task domains is that adaptation is primarily driven by error-based feedback, whereas skilled performance may also rely to a large extent on outcome-based feedback. This difference suggests that error- and outcome-based feedback may engage different learning processes, and these processes may be associated with different temporal constraints. We tested this hypothesis in a visuomotor adaptation task. Error feedback was indicated by the terminal position of a cursor, while outcome feedback was indicated by points. In separate groups of participants, the two feedback signals were presented immediately at the end of the movement, after a delay, or with just the error feedback delayed. Participants learned to counter the rotation in a similar manner regardless of feedback delay. However, the aftereffect, an indicator of implicit motor adaptation, was attenuated with delayed error feedback, consistent with the hypothesis that a different learning process supports performance under delay. We tested this by employing a task that dissociates the contribution of explicit strategies and implicit adaptation. We find that explicit aiming strategies contribute to the majority of the learning curve, regardless of delay; however, implicit learning, measured over the course of learning and by aftereffects, was significantly attenuated with delayed error-based feedback. These experiments offer new insight into the temporal constraints associated with different motor learning processes.

  12. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods.Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  13. GROWTH STRATEGIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES STUDY CASE: PRECIOUS METALS JEWELRY RETAIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent start of the new century has brought new challenges for firms, industries and countries. This paper investigates business and growth strategies of multinational companies within the precious metals jewelry retail industry. The main objective is to identify whether a company’s performance is determined by its growth strategy or not. The purposes for the research are: to understand what kind of business models and strategies global precious metals jewelry retailers pursue, what gr...

  14. Future tendencies of climate indicators important for adaptation and mitigation strategies in forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, Borbala; Hänsler, Andreas; Gulyas, Krisztina; Bidlo, Andras; Czimber, Kornel

    2014-05-01

    impact analyses and build an important basis of the future adaptation strategies in forestry, agriculture and water management. Funding: The research is supported by the TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0013 and TÁMOP-4.1.1.C-12/1/KONV-2012-0012 (ZENFE) joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate indices, climate change impacts, forestry, regional climate modelling

  15. Reducing the time complexity of the derandomized evolution strategy with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nikolaus; Müller, Sibylle D; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel evolutionary optimization strategy based on the derandomized evolution strategy with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES). This new approach is intended to reduce the number of generations required for convergence to the optimum. Reducing the number of generations, i.e., the time complexity of the algorithm, is important if a large population size is desired: (1) to reduce the effect of noise; (2) to improve global search properties; and (3) to implement the algorithm on (highly) parallel machines. Our method results in a highly parallel algorithm which scales favorably with large numbers of processors. This is accomplished by efficiently incorporating the available information from a large population, thus significantly reducing the number of generations needed to adapt the covariance matrix. The original version of the CMA-ES was designed to reliably adapt the covariance matrix in small populations but it cannot exploit large populations efficiently. Our modifications scale up the efficiency to population sizes of up to 10n, where n is the problem dimension. This method has been applied to a large number of test problems, demonstrating that in many cases the CMA-ES can be advanced from quadratic to linear time complexity.

  16. Adaptive Optics Facility: control strategy and first on-sky results of the acquisition sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, P.-Y.; Kolb, J.; Oberti, S.; Paufique, J.; La Penna, P.; Hackenberg, W.; Kuntschner, H.; Argomedo, J.; Kiekebusch, M.; Donaldson, R.; Suarez, M.; Arsenault, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility is an ESO project aiming at converting Yepun, one of the four 8m telescopes in Paranal, into an adaptive telescope. This is done by replacing the current conventional secondary mirror of Yepun by a Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and attaching four Laser Guide Star (LGS) Units to its centerpiece. In the meantime, two Adaptive Optics (AO) modules have been developed incorporating each four LGS WaveFront Sensors (WFS) and one tip-tilt sensor used to control the DSM at 1 kHz frame rate. The four LGS Units and one AO module (GRAAL) have already been assembled on Yepun. Besides the technological challenge itself, one critical area of AOF is the AO control strategy and its link with the telescope control, including Active Optics used to shape M1. Another challenge is the request to minimize the overhead due to AOF during the acquisition phase of the observation. This paper presents the control strategy of the AOF. The current control of the telescope is first recalled, and then the way the AO control makes the link with the Active Optics is detailed. Lab results are used to illustrate the expected performance. Finally, the overall AOF acquisition sequence is presented as well as first results obtained on sky with GRAAL.

  17. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Farm-level Efficiency in Food Crop Production in Southwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otitoju, MA.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food crop yields depend largely on prevailing climate conditions, especially in Africa, where rain-fed agriculture predominate. The extent to which climate impacts are felt depends principally on the adaptation measures used by farmers. This study focused on the effect of climate change adaptation strategies on farm-level technical efficiency. The study used primary data collected from 360 randomly selected farmers in Southwest Nigeria. Cobb-Douglass stochastic frontier production model was used to analyse the data. Multiple cropping, land fragmentation, multiple planting dates, mulching and cover cropping were the major climate change adaptation strategies employed by the farmers. While land fragmentation and multiple planting dates had significant positive relationships, years of climate change awareness and social capital had significant inverse relationships, with technical inefficiency. This may be because while land fragmentation may hinder farm mechanization, multiple planting dates may increase the monotonousness and drudgery of farming. On the other hand, social capital and climate change awareness could help ameliorate the effects of, particularly, land fragmentation through resource pooling. It is therefore recommended that the farmers be encouraged to form cooperative societies so as to leverage their resource status through collective efforts.

  18. Plasma membrane proteomics in the maize primary root growth zone: novel insights into root growth adaptation to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voothuluru, Priyamvada; Anderson, Jeffrey C; Sharp, Robert E; Peck, Scott C

    2016-09-01

    Previous work on maize (Zea mays L.) primary root growth under water stress showed that cell elongation is maintained in the apical region of the growth zone but progressively inhibited further from the apex. These responses involve spatially differential and coordinated regulation of osmotic adjustment, modification of cell wall extensibility, and other cellular growth processes that are required for root growth under water-stressed conditions. As the interface between the cytoplasm and the apoplast (including the cell wall), the plasma membrane likely plays critical roles in these responses. Using a simplified method for enrichment of plasma membrane proteins, the developmental distribution of plasma membrane proteins was analysed in the growth zone of well-watered and water-stressed maize primary roots. The results identified 432 proteins with differential abundances in well-watered and water-stressed roots. The majority of changes involved region-specific patterns of response, and the identities of the water stress-responsive proteins suggest involvement in diverse biological processes including modification of sugar and nutrient transport, ion homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and cell wall composition. Integration of the distinct, region-specific plasma membrane protein abundance patterns with results from previous physiological, transcriptomic and cell wall proteomic studies reveals novel insights into root growth adaptation to water stress.

  19. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Varrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs, able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitable and stable MMC, trying to overcome inhibition problems and enhance substrate degradation efficiency, as well as generation of soluble fermentation products. Repeated transfers in small batches and fed-batch conditions have been applied, comparing the use of different inoculum, growth media, and Kinetic Control. The adaptation of activated sludge inoculum was performed successfully and continued unhindered for several months. The best results showed a substrate degradation efficiency of almost 100% (about 10 g/L glycerol in 21 h and different dominant metabolic products were obtained, depending on the selection strategy (mainly 1,3-propanediol, ethanol, or butyrate. On the other hand, anaerobic sludge exhibited inactivation after a few transfers. To circumvent this problem, fed-batch mode was used as an alternative adaptation strategy, which led to effective substrate degradation and high 1,3-propanediol and butyrate production. Changes in microbial composition were monitored by means of Next Generation Sequencing, revealing a dominance of glycerol consuming species, such as Clostridium, Klebsiella, and Escherichia.

  20. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrone, C.; Heggeset, T. M. B.; Le, S. B.; Haugen, T.; Markussen, S.; Skiadas, I. V.; Gavala, H. N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs), able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitable and stable MMC, trying to overcome inhibition problems and enhance substrate degradation efficiency, as well as generation of soluble fermentation products. Repeated transfers in small batches and fed-batch conditions have been applied, comparing the use of different inoculum, growth media, and Kinetic Control. The adaptation of activated sludge inoculum was performed successfully and continued unhindered for several months. The best results showed a substrate degradation efficiency of almost 100% (about 10 g/L glycerol in 21 h) and different dominant metabolic products were obtained, depending on the selection strategy (mainly 1,3-propanediol, ethanol, or butyrate). On the other hand, anaerobic sludge exhibited inactivation after a few transfers. To circumvent this problem, fed-batch mode was used as an alternative adaptation strategy, which led to effective substrate degradation and high 1,3-propanediol and butyrate production. Changes in microbial composition were monitored by means of Next Generation Sequencing, revealing a dominance of glycerol consuming species, such as Clostridium, Klebsiella, and Escherichia. PMID:26509171

  1. Key techniques and applications of adaptive growth method for stiffener layout design of plates and shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaohong; Ji, Xuerong; Ma, Man; Hou, Jianyun

    2013-11-01

    The application of the adaptive growth method is limited because several key techniques during the design process need manual intervention of designers. Key techniques of the method including the ground structure construction and seed selection are studied, so as to make it possible to improve the effectiveness and applicability of the adaptive growth method in stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Three schemes of ground structures, which are comprised by different shell elements and beam elements, are proposed. It is found that the main stiffener layouts resulted from different ground structures are almost the same, but the ground structure comprised by 8-nodes shell elements and both 3-nodes and 2-nodes beam elements can result in clearest stiffener layout, and has good adaptability and low computational cost. An automatic seed selection approach is proposed, which is based on such selection rules that the seeds should be positioned on where the structural strain energy is great for the minimum compliance problem, and satisfy the dispersancy requirement. The adaptive growth method with the suggested key techniques is integrated into an ANSYS-based program, which provides a design tool for the stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Typical design examples, including plate and shell structures to achieve minimum compliance and maximum bulking stability are illustrated. In addition, as a practical mechanical structural design example, the stiffener layout of an inlet structure for a large-scale electrostatic precipitator is also demonstrated. The design results show that the adaptive growth method integrated with the suggested key techniques can effectively and flexibly deal with stiffener layout design problem for plates and shells with complex geometrical shape and loading conditions to achieve various design objectives, thus it provides a new solution method for engineering structural topology design optimization.

  2. Driving Difficulties and Adaptive Strategies: The Perception of Individuals Having Sustained a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bottari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. After a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, individuals quickly resume driving. However, relatively little is known about the impact of mTBI on driving ability and, notably, on the perceived influence of postconcussive symptoms on driving. Hence, the objective of this study was to document the perception of driving abilities in individuals with mTBI. Method. Twenty-seven drivers with mTBI were interviewed to document their perception regarding their driving abilities. Both driving-related difficulties and compensatory strategies used to increase driving safety were documented. A mixed quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data was completed. Results. 93% of participants reported at least one difficulty perceived as having an impact on everyday activities. Most frequently named problems affecting driving were fatigue and reduced concentration. In addition, 74% of participants had adapted their driving or developed strategies to compensate for driving difficulties. Discussion/Conclusion. Postconcussive symptoms have repercussions on driving ability. However, people with mTBI tend to be aware of their difficulties and develop, over time, adaptive strategies. Preventive measures are thus warranted to increase health care professionals' awareness of the potential consequences of mTBI on driving ability and to promote guidelines for the safe resumption of driving after injury.

  3. Adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO): a digital amplification strategy for hearing aids and cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) is an amplification strategy that uses digital signal processing techniques to improve the audibility, comfort, and intelligibility of sounds for people who use cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. The strategy uses statistical analysis to select the most information-rich section of the input dynamic range in multiple-frequency channels. Fuzzy logic rules control the gain in each frequency channel so that the selected section of the dynamic range is presented at an audible and comfortable level. The ADRO processing thus adaptively optimizes the dynamic range of the signal in multiple-frequency channels. Clinical studies show that ADRO can be fitted easily to all degrees of hearing loss for hearing aids and cochlear implants in a direct and intuitive manner, taking the preferences of the listener into account. The result is high acceptance by new and experienced hearing aid users and strong preferences for ADRO compared with alternative amplification strategies. The ADRO processing is particularly well suited to bimodal and hybrid stimulation which combine electric and acoustic stimulation in opposite ears or in the same ear, respectively.

  4. Climate Change and Variability: Farmers’ Perception, Experience and Adaptation Strategies in Makueni County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirina T. Kitinya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of climate change and variability (CCV from the farmer’s perspective is a key to prioritizing measures to address and prepare for its consequences. A survey involving 150 farmers was thus conducted in Makueni County, Kenya to document farmers’; perception, experience and adaptation strategies to CCV. About 86% of farmers perceived CCV as a major challenge with 53% indicating that significant changes in climate would manifest in 10-20 years. Significant changes in rainfall amounts and distribution had occurred over the years and were rated by 60% of farmers as the frequently experienced aspect of CCV. About 33% of farmers had heard of but not used decision support tools (DST to inform their agricultural activities. Workshops and seminars were reported by 67% of farmers as principal sources of information on CCV. Additionally, 50% of farmers relied on traditional knowledge for weather prediction. Only 20% of farmers had alternative strategies; agroforestry and growing drought tolerant crops particularly sorghum and cowpea, to minimize effects of CCV. Another 67% of farmers prioritized; terracing, ridging and water harvesting as adaptation strategies to minimize negative effects of CCV. The farmers were thus aware of CCV and through experience, backed with traditional technical knowledge, had gained prerequisite skills for addressing its negative effects. Nevertheless farmers’ agricultural practices could be improved by use of forecasted weather data and application of DST. Consequently enhancing farmers’ preparedness to tackle challenges posed by CCV.

  5. Epidemic propagation on adaptive coevolutionary networks with preferential local-world reconnecting strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping; Gong Yong-Wang

    2013-01-01

    In the propagation of an epidemic in a population,individuals adaptively adjust their behavior to avoid the risk of an epidemic.Differently from existing studies where new links are established randomly,a local link is established preferentially in this paper.We propose a new preferentially reconnecting edge strategy depending on spatial distance (PRSD).For the PR-SD strategy,the new link is established at random with probability p and in a shortest distance with the probability 1-p.We establish the epidemic model on an adaptive network using Cellular Automata,and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model by numerical simulations.The results show that the smaller the value of parameter p,the more difficult the epidemic spread is.The PR-SD strategy breaks long-range links and establishes as many short-range links as possible,which causes the network efficiency to decrease quickly and the propagation of the epidemic is restrained effectively.

  6. Adaptability of sheep and strategies to minimize the effects of climate in tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Assis Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adapt to a particular region is of great importance when it comes to animal production, since the interaction between animals and the environment should be taken into consideration when you want to have maximum productivity. In this study we observed that several experiments evaluating physiological parameters, structures of the integument, hormonal and behavioral changes have been performed in order to verify the adaptability of sheep to a tropical climate. Several breeds have been studied in different types of environment and time of year, however, most of these works alone comes to matters related to adaptability. Therefore, we intended to make this review a junction of several major papers in the literature, in order to facilitate the understanding of how the climate and can interfere with the adaptation and its effects on sheep production in tropical regions, as well as reporting on the use of some strategies that can be used to minimize the climatic effects on productivity, which is the main goal of those working with livestock.

  7. Defining Old Growth for Fire-adapted Forests of the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill R. Kaufmann

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There are varying definitions of old-growth forests because of differences in environment and differing fire influence across the Intermountain West. Two general types of forests reflect the role of fire: 1 forests shaped by natural changes in structure and species makeup - plant succession - that are driven by competitive differences among species and individual trees and by small-scale disturbances, and 2 forests where plant succession processes are disrupted by major biological disturbances (fire, insects, wind, or drought extending across larger areas. Some case examples of old-growth forests where fire was historically frequent are used. The examples sketch out the typical biophysical settings, fire regime, natural disturbance factors, spatial features of patches, and the processes and conditions that produce spatial changes of the landscape over time. These examples confirm the complexity of describing or defining old growth in frequent-fire forests. We define fire-adapted forests at three spatial scales, whereas the standard definition of old growth refers to a patch or stand condition. Our definition is based on ecological principles rather than on the cultural aspects of old growth. It focuses on central tendencies, given all the possible combinations of conditions and processes, that move forests toward old growth in the fire-adapted forests of the Intermountain West.

  8. Reliability and Validity Test of Questionnaire on the Adaptation Strategy of Cryosphere Changes in Arid Inland River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to test the reliability and validity of questionnaire on the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin. [Method] A questionnaire on "the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin" was carried out in Urumchi River basin and Aksu River basin, and its reliability and validity were tested by means of statistical method, so as to investigate the stability and accuracy of questionnaire. [Result] Reliability analysis of questionnaire sho...

  9. Flood risk and adaptation strategies under climate change and urban expansion: A probabilistic analysis using global data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Sanne; Güneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Ward, Philip J

    2015-12-15

    An accurate understanding of flood risk and its drivers is crucial for effective risk management. Detailed risk projections, including uncertainties, are however rarely available, particularly in developing countries. This paper presents a method that integrates recent advances in global-scale modeling of flood hazard and land change, which enables the probabilistic analysis of future trends in national-scale flood risk. We demonstrate its application to Indonesia. We develop 1000 spatially-explicit projections of urban expansion from 2000 to 2030 that account for uncertainty associated with population and economic growth projections, as well as uncertainty in where urban land change may occur. The projections show that the urban extent increases by 215%-357% (5th and 95th percentiles). Urban expansion is particularly rapid on Java, which accounts for 79% of the national increase. From 2000 to 2030, increases in exposure will elevate flood risk by, on average, 76% and 120% for river and coastal floods. While sea level rise will further increase the exposure-induced trend by 19%-37%, the response of river floods to climate change is highly uncertain. However, as urban expansion is the main driver of future risk, the implementation of adaptation measures is increasingly urgent, regardless of the wide uncertainty in climate projections. Using probabilistic urban projections, we show that spatial planning can be a very effective adaptation strategy. Our study emphasizes that global data can be used successfully for probabilistic risk assessment in data-scarce countries.

  10. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N. (eds.) [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  11. An adaptive fuzzy-sliding lateral control strategy of automated vehicles based on vision navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinghua; Li, Linhui; Li, Keqiang; Wang, Rongben

    2013-10-01

    Lateral control is considered to be one of the toughest challenges in the development of automated vehicles due to their features of nonlinearities, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In order to overcome these difficulties, an adaptive fuzzy-sliding mode control strategy used for lateral control of vision-based automated vehicles is proposed in this paper. First, a vision algorithm is designed to provide accurate location information of vehicle relative to reference path. Then, an adaptive fuzzy-sliding mode lateral controller is proposed to counteract parametric uncertainties and strong nonlinearities, and the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop lateral control system is proven by the Lyapunov theory. Finally, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can achieve favourable tracking performance, and it has strong robustness.

  12. Social strategy games in communicating trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation in cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhola, Sirkku; Driscoll, Patrick Arthur; Suarez, Pablo;

    2013-01-01

    and mitigation strategies and what kinds of negative and positive synergies can be identified between them. This paper explores how social games can help people to understand the trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation measures in an urban environment and examines the possibilities of using social gaming......Cities are becoming the locus of climate change policy and planning, both for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change. These actions involve a number of trade-offs, including densification of the urban structure, concerns over social equity and the proper...... as a research method. Data was collected from Denmark, Finland and the US through organized gaming sessions. The conclusion of the study is that social games are a promising method to understand complex planning problems....

  13. Link adaptation strategies for multi-antenna assisted WiMAX-like system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra Sekhar; Wang, Yuanye;

    2007-01-01

    . Contrary to this popular belief, we have found that in some scenarios and in some system conditions, bit and power allocations across OFDM sub-channels are required together for efficient system performance. We have studied a novel link adaptation algorithm in different multi-antenna systems. We have found......In this work, we have studied bit and power allocation strategies for multi-antenna assisted Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Popularly it is believed that simultaneous bit and power allocation at the same rate is not very much useful in terms of system throughput...... that, if we cannot find the exact Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) thresholds due to different reasons, such as reduced Link Adaptation (LA) rate, Channel State Information (CSI) error, feedback delay etc., it is better to fix the transmit power across all sub-channels to guarantee the target Frame Error...

  14. The conflict adaptation is affected by attentional strategies: evidence from the arrow flanker task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia; LI Chang; HE ChunHong; CHEN AnTao

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several studies have considered factors affecting the occurrence of congruency sequence effect (CSE) in the arrow flanker task. In the present study, the influence of the following factors was examined: the presentation of a fixation and the intertrial interval (ITI) were considered. Results of the study showed that the CSE was significant when there was no fixation and when the ITI was long for response repetitions and response changes, but disappeared for response change trials in other conditions. These results showed that, even in the arrow flanker task, the conflict adaptation effect did contribute to the CSE. The current results suggested that the conflict adaptation effect in the arrow flanker task was based on the appropriate application of attention strategies.

  15. An adaptation strategy of using LDA classifier for EMG pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoshi; Zhao, Yaonan; Yao, Fuan; Xu, Lisheng; Shang, Peng; Li, Guanglin

    2013-01-01

    The time-varying character of myoelectric signal usually causes a low classification accuracy in traditional supervised pattern recognition method. In this work, an unsupervised adaptation strategy of linear discriminant analysis (ALDA) based on probability weighting and cycle substitution was suggested in order to improve the performance of electromyography (EMG)-based motion classification in multifunctional myoelectric prostheses control in changing environment. The adaptation procedure was firstly introduced, and then the proposed ALDA classifier was trained and tested with surface EMG recordings related to multiple motion patterns. The accuracies of the ALDA classifier and traditional LDA classifier were compared when the EMG recordings were added with different degrees of noise. The experimental results showed that compared to the LDA method, the suggested ALDA method had a better performance in improving the classification accuracy of sEMG pattern recognition, in both stable situation and noise added situation.

  16. Adaptive strategies using standard and mixed finite elements for wind field adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, G.; Montero, G.; Montenegro, R. [Univ. of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, FL (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In order to find a map of wind velocities, this study tries to obtain an incompressible wind field that adjusts to an experimental one: also verifying the corresponding boundary conditions of physical interest. This problem has been solved by several authors using finite differences or standard finite element techniques. In this paper, this problem is solved by two different adaptive finite element methods. The first makes use of standard finite element techniques, using linear interpolation of a potential function. In the second, a direct computation of the velocity field is undertaken by means of a mixed finite element method. Several error indicators are proposed for both formulations together with an adaptive strategy. We have applied both methods to several typical test problems, as well as to realistic data corresponding to the Island of Fuerteventura, with satisfactory results from a numerical point of view. 13 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Climate Change Effects on Agricultural Production of Iran: II. Predicting Productivity of Field Crops and Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent evidences confirm that during the next few decades, many agroclimatic indices of Iran would be affected by global climate change. Koocheki et al. using two General Circulation Models showed that the mean annual temperature of the country will increase between 3.5-4.5°C while mean precipitation will reduce by 7-15% to 2050. It is well established that crop growth and development would drastically affect by the future global warming and its consequences because yield determining processes such as photosynthesis and crop phenology are directly related to temperature. On the other hands, the combined effects of CO2 enrichment and temperature rise on crop growth are complicated and should be studied using crop simulation models. Furthermore, adapting to climatic variability will have a substantially greater effect in reducing impacts than willing mitigation. However, such impacts on crop productivity at national scale and adaptive measures for future conditions are rarely studied in Iran. In this research crop development and yield of wheat, corn, chickpea and sugar beet were simulated for the target year of 2050 and the results are compared with the current yield as the baseline. Materials and Methods Future climatic variables were predicted using A1f (business as usual scenario by GFDL general circulation model and the results were used as weather inputs in the SUCROS model which was previously validated against measured data of the four crops. To account for the effect of CO2 enrichment on crop growth the photosynthesis routine of the model was adopted for increased CO2 concentration using a scaling factor. Changes in developmental stages of each crop were estimated for the future conditions and the relation between duration of these stages and yield was determined. Predicted crop yields for the year 2050 were compared with the current potential yields considering some adaptation strategies. Results and Discussion Results

  18. A method for evaluating climate change adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers using survey, experimental and modeled data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.; Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.; Thornton, P.K.; Herrero, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is predicted to experience considerable negative impacts of climate change. The IPCC Fourth Assessment emphasizes that adaptation strategies are essential. Addressing adaptation in thecontext of small-scale, semi-subsistence agriculture raises special challenges. High data d

  19. An adaptive differential evolution algorithm with novel mutation and crossover strategies for global numerical optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sk Minhazul; Das, Swagatam; Ghosh, Saurav; Roy, Subhrajit; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam

    2012-04-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is one of the most powerful stochastic real parameter optimizers of current interest. In this paper, we propose a new mutation strategy, a fitness-induced parent selection scheme for the binomial crossover of DE, and a simple but effective scheme of adapting two of its most important control parameters with an objective of achieving improved performance. The new mutation operator, which we call DE/current-to-gr_best/1, is a variant of the classical DE/current-to-best/1 scheme. It uses the best of a group (whose size is q% of the population size) of randomly selected solutions from current generation to perturb the parent (target) vector, unlike DE/current-to-best/1 that always picks the best vector of the entire population to perturb the target vector. In our modified framework of recombination, a biased parent selection scheme has been incorporated by letting each mutant undergo the usual binomial crossover with one of the p top-ranked individuals from the current population and not with the target vector with the same index as used in all variants of DE. A DE variant obtained by integrating the proposed mutation, crossover, and parameter adaptation strategies with the classical DE framework (developed in 1995) is compared with two classical and four state-of-the-art adaptive DE variants over 25 standard numerical benchmarks taken from the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation 2005 competition and special session on real parameter optimization. Our comparative study indicates that the proposed schemes improve the performance of DE by a large magnitude such that it becomes capable of enjoying statistical superiority over the state-of-the-art DE variants for a wide variety of test problems. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate that, if one or more of our proposed strategies are integrated with existing powerful DE variants such as jDE and JADE, their performances can also be enhanced.

  20. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to balance water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    -allocation takes place. The strategy is to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, and reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  1. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    allocated, and where the flow regime is then protected before over-allocation takes place. The strategy has been to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, imbalance of the man-made, global changes, and thus to reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  2. Environmental impacts of flood control measures in climate change adaptation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    of different storm water management strategies. It is tested with two different adaptation strategies for the Nørrebro catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Cloudburst Management Plan (CMP), which uses a multi-functional approach and combines green infrastructure with subsurface pipes, and a Subsurface scenario...... depletion, eutrophication and acidification. The case study shows significantly lower impacts for the multi-functional, green infrastructure CMP, compared to the SSA. Among the installations, those measures which are installed to ensure no water on the surface during rain events with a return period of 10......Because of climatic changes, large investments are needed to keep flood risk at an acceptable level in urban areas. Increasing dimensions of underground sewer systems and retention basins are increasingly supplemented with multi-functional approaches, aimed at managing water locally and/or route...

  3. Research on Adaptive Dual-Mode Switch Control Strategy for Vehicle Maglev Flywheel Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the jamming signal is real-time changeable and control algorithm cannot timely tracking control flywheel rotor, this paper takes vehicle maglev flywheel battery as the research object. One kind of dual-model control strategy is developed based on the analysis of the vibration response impact of the flywheel battery control system. In view of the complex foundation vibration problems of electric vehicles, the nonlinear dynamic simulation model of vehicle maglev flywheel battery is solved. Through analyzing the nonlinear vibration response characteristics, one kind of dual-mode adaptive hybrid control strategy based on H∞ control and unbalance displacement feed-forward compensation control is presented and a real-time switch controller is designed. The reliable hybrid control is implemented, and the stability in the process of real-time switch is solved. The results of this project can provide important basic theory support for the research of vehicle maglev flywheel battery control system.

  4. TRENDS OF TAKING INTO ACCOUNT OF INTERNATIONAL FACTORS IN MARKETING ADAPTATIONAL STRATEGIES OF REGIONAL CENTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna BUDNIKEVYCH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the impact of international factors to formation of marketing adaptation strategies of regional centres development; regards influence of “regional revolution” to strategic trends of cities of Chernivtsi and Suceava; forms a list of factors that can either open additional opportunities for a city or, on the contrary, become potential bearers of threats for implementation of sustainable development strategy; attention is paid to threats and advantages for regional economy of activation processes of activity of global trade networks; examples of cooperation in geo-space direction are given; the role of regional marketing technologies is determined in provision of complex long-term cross-border effect of cooperation of Chernivtsi and Suceava as regional centres of Bukovyna.

  5. Pre-allocation Strategies of Computational Resources in Cloud Computing using Adaptive Resonance Theory-2

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges of cloud computing is the management of request-response coupling and optimal allocation strategies of computational resources for the various types of service requests. In the normal situations the intelligence required to classify the nature and order of the request using standard methods is insufficient because the arrival of request is at a random fashion and it is meant for multiple resources with different priority order and variety. Hence, it becomes absolutely essential that we identify the trends of different request streams in every category by auto classifications and organize preallocation strategies in a predictive way. It calls for designs of intelligent modes of interaction between the client request and cloud computing resource manager. This paper discusses about the corresponding scheme using Adaptive Resonance Theory-2.

  6. Application of Multi-Model CMIP5 Analysis in Future Drought Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, M.; Luo, L.; Lang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    specified criteria (SPI/SPEI value, time scale, RCP, etc.) can provide professionals in a variety of disciplines with necessary climatic insight to develop adaptation strategies.

  7. A hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Wu, Qiuwen

    2010-04-01

    Offline adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been used to effectively correct and compensate for prostate motion and reduce the required margin. The efficacy depends on the characteristics of the patient setup error and interfraction motion through the whole treatment; specifically, systematic errors are corrected and random errors are compensated for through the margins. In online image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer, the translational setup error and inter-fractional prostate motion are corrected through pre-treatment imaging and couch correction at each fraction. However, the rotation and deformation of the target are not corrected and only accounted for with margins in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the offline ART strategy is necessary for an online IGRT protocol and to evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy. First, to investigate the rationale of the hybrid strategy, 592 cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after each fraction for an online IGRT protocol from 16 patients were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of prostate rotation were analyzed. It was found that there exist systematic inter-fractional prostate rotations, and they are patient specific. These rotations, if not corrected, are persistent through the treatment fraction, and rotations detected in early fractions are representative of those in later fractions. These findings suggest that the offline adaptive replanning strategy is beneficial to the online IGRT protocol with further margin reductions. Second, to quantitatively evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy, 412 repeated helical CT scans from 25 patients during the course of treatment were included in the replanning study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, clinical target volume, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were included in the simulation. The contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were

  8. A hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Yu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Wu Qiuwen [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West 13 Mile Rd, Royal Oak, MI 48073 (United States)], E-mail: Qiuwen.Wu@Duke.edu

    2010-04-21

    Offline adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been used to effectively correct and compensate for prostate motion and reduce the required margin. The efficacy depends on the characteristics of the patient setup error and interfraction motion through the whole treatment; specifically, systematic errors are corrected and random errors are compensated for through the margins. In online image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer, the translational setup error and inter-fractional prostate motion are corrected through pre-treatment imaging and couch correction at each fraction. However, the rotation and deformation of the target are not corrected and only accounted for with margins in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the offline ART strategy is necessary for an online IGRT protocol and to evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy. First, to investigate the rationale of the hybrid strategy, 592 cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after each fraction for an online IGRT protocol from 16 patients were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of prostate rotation were analyzed. It was found that there exist systematic inter-fractional prostate rotations, and they are patient specific. These rotations, if not corrected, are persistent through the treatment fraction, and rotations detected in early fractions are representative of those in later fractions. These findings suggest that the offline adaptive replanning strategy is beneficial to the online IGRT protocol with further margin reductions. Second, to quantitatively evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy, 412 repeated helical CT scans from 25 patients during the course of treatment were included in the replanning study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, clinical target volume, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were included in the simulation. The contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were

  9. Dynamical Allocation of Cellular Resources as an Optimal Control Problem: Novel Insights into Microbial Growth Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Giordano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial physiology exhibits growth laws that relate the macromolecular composition of the cell to the growth rate. Recent work has shown that these empirical regularities can be derived from coarse-grained models of resource allocation. While these studies focus on steady-state growth, such conditions are rarely found in natural habitats, where microorganisms are continually challenged by environmental fluctuations. The aim of this paper is to extend the study of microbial growth strategies to dynamical environments, using a self-replicator model. We formulate dynamical growth maximization as an optimal control problem that can be solved using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. We compare this theoretical gold standard with different possible implementations of growth control in bacterial cells. We find that simple control strategies enabling growth-rate maximization at steady state are suboptimal for transitions from one growth regime to another, for example when shifting bacterial cells to a medium supporting a higher growth rate. A near-optimal control strategy in dynamical conditions is shown to require information on several, rather than a single physiological variable. Interestingly, this strategy has structural analogies with the regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis by ppGpp in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. It involves sensing a mismatch between precursor and ribosome concentrations, as well as the adjustment of ribosome synthesis in a switch-like manner. Our results show how the capability of regulatory systems to integrate information about several physiological variables is critical for optimizing growth in a changing environment.

  10. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  11. Joint Subcarrier Pairing and Resource Allocation for Cognitive Network and Adaptive Relaying Strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2012-05-01

    Recent measurements show that the spectrum is under-utilized by licensed users in wireless communication. Cognitive radio (CR) has been proposed as a suitable solution to manage the inefficient usage of the spectrum and increase coverage area of wireless networks. The concept is based on allowing a group of secondary users (SUs) to share the unused radio spectrum originally owned by the primary user (PUs). The operation of CR should not cause harmful interference to the PUs. In the other hand, relayed transmission increases the coverage and achievable capacity of communication systems and in particular in CR systems. In fact there are many types of cooperative communications, however the two main ones are decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). Adaptive relaying scheme is a relaying technique by which the benefits of the amplifying or decode and forward techniques can be achieved by switching the forwarding technique according to the quality of the signal. In this dissertation, we investigate the power allocation for an adaptive relaying protocol (ARP) scheme in cognitive system by maximizing the end-to-end rate and searching the best carriers pairing distribution. The optimization problem is under the interference and power budget constraints. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques, and the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy.

  12. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens J; Raybould, Helen E; Ney, Denise M

    2006-11-01

    Small bowel resection stimulates intestinal adaptive growth by a neuroendocrine process thought to involve both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation and enterotrophic hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We investigated whether capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferent neurons are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal growth. Rats received systemic or perivagal capsaicin or ganglionectomy before 70% midjejunoileal resection or transection and were fed orally or by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 7 days after surgery. Growth of residual bowel was assessed by changes in mucosal mass, protein, DNA, and histology. Both systemic and perivagal capsaicin significantly attenuated by 48-100% resection-induced increases in ileal mucosal mass, protein, and DNA in rats fed orally. Villus height was significantly reduced in resected rats given capsaicin compared with vehicle. Sucrase specific activity in jejunal mucosa was not significantly different; ileal mucosal sucrase specific activity was significantly increased by resection in capsaicin-treated rats. Capsaicin did not alter the 57% increase in ileal proglucagon mRNA or the 150% increase in plasma concentration of bioactive GLP-2 resulting from resection in orally fed rats. Ablation of spinal/splanchnic innervation by ganglionectomy failed to attenuate resection-induced adaptive growth. In TPN rats, capsaicin did not attenuate resection-induced mucosal growth. We conclude that vagal afferents are not essential for GLP-2 secretion when the ileum has direct contact with luminal nutrients after resection. In summary, vagal afferent neurons are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptation through a mechanism that appears to involve stimulation by luminal nutrients.

  13. Adaptational strategy of a tropical shrub Carissa Carandas L. to urban air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, J; Pandey, U

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports the adaptational response of a tropical shrub Carissa Carandas L. to urban air pollution stress in Varanasi, India. Saplings of C. carandas were grown at a density of one per pot and kept for two years at 25 selected sites in the urban environment. Different sites received different levels of air pollution input. Changes in vegetative growth pattern (leafing and branching), in morphological features and in the distribution of biomass to above and below ground structures were considered in relation to the ambient air quality.Different levels of air pollution input produced different sets of harmful effects. Although the air pollution level at Varanasi reduced the plant height, basal diameter, canopy area, leaf area and total plant biomass of C. carandas, this species retained a major fraction of its photosynthate to above-ground plant parts where foliage assumes predominance. Since carbon gain is dependent not only on the rate of carbon acquisition per unit leaf tissue but also on the amount of photosynthetic tissue present, a shift in relative contribution of photosynthate to leaf production and shoot growth appears to be a pollution-induced adaptive response in C. carandas.

  14. GH3-mediated auxin homeostasis links growth regulation with stress adaptation response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Eun; Park, Ju-Young; Kim, Youn-Sung; Staswick, Paul E; Jeon, Jin; Yun, Ju; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Jungmook; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Chung-Mo

    2007-03-30

    Plants constantly monitor environmental fluctuations to optimize their growth and metabolism. One example is adaptive growth occurring in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we demonstrate that GH3-mediated auxin homeostasis is an essential constituent of the complex network of auxin actions that regulates stress adaptation responses in Arabidopsis. Endogenous auxin pool is regulated, at least in part, through negative feedback by a group of auxin-inducible GH3 genes encoding auxin-conjugating enzymes. An Arabidopsis mutant, wes1-D, in which a GH3 gene WES1 is activated by nearby insertion of the (35)S enhancer, exhibited auxin-deficient traits, including reduced growth and altered leaf shape. Interestingly, WES1 is also induced by various stress conditions as well as by salicylic acid and abscisic acid. Accordingly, wes1-D was resistant to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and stress-responsive genes, such as pathogenesis-related genes and CBF genes, were upregulated in this mutant. In contrast, a T-DNA insertional mutant showed reduced stress resistance. We therefore propose that GH3-mediated growth suppression directs reallocation of metabolic resources to resistance establishment and represents the fitness costs of induced resistance.

  15. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  16. Growth strategies to control tapering in Ge nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Periwal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of PH3 on the morphology of Au catalyzed Ge nanowires (NWs. Ge NWs were grown on Si (111 substrate at 400 °C in the presence of PH3, using vapor-liquid-solid method by chemical vapor deposition. We show that high PH3/GeH4 ratio causes passivation at NW surface. At high PH3 concentration phosphorous atoms attach itself on NW surface and form a self-protection coating that prevents conformal growth and leads to taper free nanostructures. However, in case of low PH3 flux the combination of axial and radial growth mechanism occurs resulting in conical structure. We have also investigated axial PH3-intrinsic junctions in Ge NWs. The unusual NW shape is attributed to a combination of catalyzed, uncatalyzed and diffusion induced growth.

  17. An Incremental Target-Adapted Strategy for Active Geometric Calibration of Projector-Camera Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Jen Chien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of a projector-camera system is an essential step toward accurate 3-D measurement and environment-aware data projection applications, such as augmented reality. In this paper we present a two-stage easy-to-deploy strategy for robust calibration of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a projector. Two key components of the system are the automatic generation of projected light patterns and the incremental calibration process. Based on the incremental strategy, the calibration process first establishes a set of initial parameters, and then it upgrades these parameters incrementally using the projection and captured images of dynamically-generated calibration patterns. The scene-driven light patterns allow the system to adapt itself to the pose of the calibration target, such that the difficulty in feature detection is greatly lowered. The strategy forms a closed-loop system that performs self-correction as more and more observations become available. Compared to the conventional method, which requires a time-consuming process for the acquisition of dense pixel correspondences, the proposed method deploys a homography-based coordinate computation, allowing the calibration time to be dramatically reduced. The experimental results indicate that an improvement of 70% in reprojection errors is achievable and 95% of the calibration time can be saved.

  18. Complementing institutional with localised strategies for climate change adaptation: a South-North comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsler, Christine; Lawson, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and disasters pose a serious risk to sustainable development. In the South, local coping strategies are an important element of adaptation to climate and disaster risk. Such strategies have emerged because of the limited assistance provided by urban actors and associated social security and governance systems. In the North, in contrast, local coping strategies are comparatively poorly developed. However, the extent of the changing climatic conditions is also reducing the capacity of Northern institutions to deal with climatic extremes and variability, which emphasises the need for more local-level engagement in the North. This paper analyses the differences in local and institutional responses to climate change and disasters in a Southern and a Northern city (San Salvador, El Salvador, and Manchester, United Kingdom, respectively), and highlights how the lessons learned might be translated into an improved distributed governance system; that is, an 'integrated engagement model', where local and institutionalised responses support rather than hinder each other, as is currently the case.

  19. Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nisarg J; Hyder, Md Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration.

  20. Communities of Opportunity: Smart Growth Strategies for Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbey, Matthew; Nelson, Kevin; Bagnoli, Peggy; Bagnoli, David; Droge, Martha; Cirino, Anna Marie

    2007-01-01

    Colleges and universities are growing, and they need new facilities to accommodate this growth. Whether it's space for new academic classrooms, laboratories, dormitories, research centers, business incubators, or space for retail and services necessary for a campus to thrive, college and university business officers are involved in decision-making…

  1. Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government

  2. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

  3. Climate change, adaptation strategies and mobility: evidence from four settlements in Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sall, Mohamadou [Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (Senegal); Tall, Serigne Mansour [ONU-Habitat (UN); Tandian, Aly [Universite Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis (Senegal); Samb, Al Assane

    2011-11-15

    This research investigates the impact of climate change on the mobility of people in four settlements in Senegal: Ngueye Ngueye, Gandiole, the Senegal River delta and Ourossogui. A qualitative approach involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups was used to determine how daily life in these communities is being affected by environmental change. Some migrants spend long periods as far afield as Mauritania, the Gambia or Spain, while others stay closer to home, going to places like Saint-Louis, Dakar and Mbour for short periods. Mobility is an opportunity for migrants to generate funds and send money home. It is a key factor in adaptation to climate change, as a strategy for survival and for diversifying incomes. The problems encountered in the ecological study zones are not entirely due to climate change, for migration is also triggered by factors such as the opening of the breach in Saint-Louis or lack of support for rural development. However, climate change is certainly accelerating disruptions and transformations in the study sites. Moreover, while migrants' financial transfers help improve daily life for some families, they also increase socio-economic inequalities between households that include migrants and those that do not. People are moving away from (but not necessarily abandoning) purely agricultural livelihoods and seeking to diversify their sources of income. This may come from migration, or from artisanal activities undertaken in the locality - such as metalwork, woodwork, sewing or hairdressing. Another option that many women have taken is using micro-credit facilities to start processing local produce, crushing groundnuts and preparing cereals to sell at the weekly markets. Other adaptation strategies are developed and adopted through technical innovations or awareness-raising and educational activities. These activities often require institutional support from the State or from NGOs involved in implementing projects and helping

  4. Simulation and Evaluation of Urban Growth for Germany Including Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hoymann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers in the fields of urban and regional planning in Germany face new challenges. High rates of urban sprawl need to be reduced by increased inner-urban development while settlements have to adapt to climate change and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at the same time. In this study, we analyze conflicts in the management of urban areas and develop integrated sustainable land use strategies for Germany. The spatial explicit land use change model Land Use Scanner is used to simulate alternative scenarios of land use change for Germany for 2030. A multi-criteria analysis is set up based on these scenarios and based on a set of indicators. They are used to measure whether the mitigation and adaptation objectives can be achieved and to uncover conflicts between these aims. The results show that the built-up and transport area development can be influenced both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Strengthening the inner-urban development is particularly effective in terms of reducing built-up and transport area development. It is possible to reduce built-up and transport area development to approximately 30 ha per day in 2030, which matches the sustainability objective of the German Federal Government for the year 2020. In the case of adaptation to climate change, the inclusion of extreme flood events in the context of spatial planning requirements may contribute to a reduction of the damage potential.

  5. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  6. Monitoring changes in proteome during stepwise adaptation of a MDCK cell line from adherence to growth in suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Sabine; Benndorf, Dirk; Genzel, Yvonne; Scharfenberg, Klaus; Rapp, Erdmann; Reichl, Udo

    2015-08-20

    Adaptation of continuous cell lines to growth in suspension in a chemically defined medium has significant advantages for design and optimization in manufacturing of biologicals. In this work, changes in the protein expression level during a step-wise adaptation of an adherent Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line to suspension growth were analyzed. Therefore, three cell line adaptations were performed independently. Two adaptations were monitored closely to characterize short term changes in protein expression levels after serum deprivation. In addition, initial stages of suspension growth were analyzed for both adaptations. The third adaptation involved MDCK suspension cells (MDCKSUS2) grown over an extended time period to achieve robust growth characteristics. Here, cells of the final stage of adaptation were compared with their parental cell line (MDCKADH). A combination of two dimensional differential gel electrophoresis for relative protein quantification and tandem mass spectrometry for protein identification enabled insights into cellular physiology. The two closely monitored cell line adaptations followed different routes regarding specific changes in protein expression but resulted in similar proteome profiles at the initial stages of suspension growth analyzed. Compared to the MDCKADH cells more than 90% of all changes in the protein expression level were identified after serum deprivation and were related to cytoskeletal structure, genetic information processing and cellular metabolism. Myosin proteins, involved in cellular detachment by actin-myosin contractile mechanisms were also differentially expressed. Interestingly, for both of the two adaptations, proteins linked for tumorigenicity, like lactoylglutathione lyase and sulfotransferase 1A1 were differentially expressed. In contrast, none of these proteins were differentially expressed for the MDCKSUS2 cell line. Overall, proteomic monitoring allowed identification of key proteins involved in

  7. Assessing indigenous knowledge systems and climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture: A case study of Chagaka Village, Chikhwawa, Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomwa, Emmanuel Charles; Joshua, Miriam Kalanda; Ngongondo, Cosmo; Monjerezi, Maurice; Chipungu, Felistus

    In Malawi, production from subsistence rain fed agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. In response to the adverse effects of climate change and variability, a National Adaptation Programme of Action is used as framework for implementing adaptation programmes. However, this framework puts limited significance on indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). In many parts of the world, IKS have shown potential in the development of locally relevant and therefore sustainable adaptation strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the role of IKS in adaptation to climate change and variability in the agricultural sector in a rural district of Chikhwawa, southern Malawi. The study used both qualitative data from focus group and key informant interviews and quantitative data from household interviews and secondary data to address the research objectives. The study established that the local communities are able to recognise the changes in their climate and local environment. Commonly mentioned indicators of changing climatic patterns included delayed and unpredictable onset of rainfall, declining rainfall trends, warming temperatures and increased frequency of prolonged dry spells. An analysis of empirical data corroborates the people's perception. In addition, the community is able to use their IKS to adapt their agricultural systems to partially offset the effects of climate change. Like vulnerability to climate change, IKS varies over a short spatial scale, providing locally relevant adaptation to impacts of climate change. This paper therefore advocates for the integration of IKS in programmes addressing adaptation to climate change and vulnerability. This will serve to ensure sustainable and relevant adaptation strategies.

  8. Relationship termination in emerging adulthood: Coping strategies as predictors of posttraumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zgaga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship termination happens relatively often in emerging adulthood but is nevertheless as distressing then as it is later in life. We examined the relationship between coping strategies and posttraumatic growth in a sample of 260 emerging adults whose heterosexual romantic relationships were terminated at most two years before participating in the study. Participants completed The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, The COPE Inventory and Emotion Approach Coping scale. For the purposes of the study we also conceptualized a new coping inventory, related specifically to coping with relationship termination. While controlling for gender and age the coping strategies explained 34 % of variability in posttraumatic growth. Statistically significant predictors of posttraumatic growth were problem-oriented coping strategies, coping strategies, oriented towards emotions and other people, acceptance and positive self-motivation as well as coping strategies that allow some distancing from the stressor. Results indicate that posttraumatic growth is related to problem-oriented and also to emotion-oriented coping strategies, which is reasonable since relationship termination is a stressor that cannot be eliminated. It is important that an individual who is facing it can cope well with the unpleasant emotions deriving from relationship termination.

  9. Design Of Multivariable Fractional Order Pid Controller Using Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananaithaperumal Sudalaiandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic tuning of multivariable Fractional-Order Proportional, Integral and Derivative controller (FO-PID parameters using Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMAES algorithm. Decoupled multivariable FO-PI and FO-PID controller structures are considered. Oustaloup integer order approximation is used for the fractional integrals and derivatives. For validation, two Multi-Input Multi- Output (MIMO distillation columns described byWood and Berry and Ogunnaike and Ray are considered for the design of multivariable FO-PID controller. Optimal FO-PID controller is designed by minimizing Integral Absolute Error (IAE as objective function. The results of previously reported PI/PID controller are considered for comparison purposes. Simulation results reveal that the performance of FOPI and FO-PID controller is better than integer order PI/PID controller in terms of IAE. Also, CMAES algorithm is suitable for the design of FO-PI / FO-PID controller.

  10. Adaptive robust vibration control with input shaping as a flexible maneuver strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yoon Gyeoung [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    An adaptive robust control is presented for the vibration reduction of a flexible spacecraft by combining the input shaping technique with the sliding-mode control. The combined approach appears to be robust in the presence of a severe disturbance and an unknown parameter which will be estimated by on-line least-square method. As a maneuver strategy, it is found that a synthesized trajectory with a combination of low-frequency mode and rigid-body mode results in better performance and is more efficient than the traditional rigid-body trajectory alone which many researchers have employed. The feasibility of the vibration control approach is demonstrated by applying it to a benchmark problem in aerospace. For the applications of the proposed technique to realistic flexible spacecraft systems, several requirements are discussed such as mode stabilization and enormously large system order.

  11. An adaptive, object oriented strategy for base calling in DNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, M C; Brumley, R L; Haker, M; Smith, L M

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for the determination of nucleotide sequence from data produced in fluorescence-based automated DNA sequencing instruments employing the four-color strategy. This algorithm takes advantage of object oriented programming techniques for modularity and extensibility. The algorithm is adaptive in that data sets from a wide variety of instruments and sequencing conditions can be used with good results. Confidence values are provided on the base calls as an estimate of accuracy. The algorithm iteratively employs confidence determinations from several different modules, each of which examines a different feature of the data for accurate peak identification. Modules within this system can be added or removed for increased performance or for application to a different task. In comparisons with commercial software, the algorithm performed well. Images PMID:8233787

  12. Farmers´ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette;

    2009-01-01

    of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind...... and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context......, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change...

  13. Adaptive strategies of remote systems operators exposed to perturbed camera-viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Manahan, Meera K.; Bierschwale, John M.; Sampaio, Carlos E.; Legendre, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a preliminary investigation of the use of perturbed visual feedback during the performance of simulated space-based remote manipulation tasks. The primary objective of this NASA evaluation was to determine to what extent operators exhibit adaptive strategies which allow them to perform these specific types of remote manipulation tasks more efficiently while exposed to perturbed visual feedback. A secondary objective of this evaluation was to establish a set of preliminary guidelines for enhancing remote manipulation performance and reducing the adverse effects. These objectives were accomplished by studying the remote manipulator performance of test subjects exposed to various perturbed camera-viewing conditions while performing a simulated space-based remote manipulation task. Statistical analysis of performance and subjective data revealed that remote manipulation performance was adversely affected by the use of perturbed visual feedback and performance tended to improve with successive trials in most perturbed viewing conditions.

  14. Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa: Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; McCusker, Brent

    2008-11-01

    As climate change has emerged as a significant threat, there is much concern about how vulnerable agricultural communities will adapt, particularly as global population continues to rise. Much of the current lack of productivity and economic marginalization of African agriculture arises from global trade regimes that give a competitive advantage to Western farmers, from low use of agricultural inputs, and from a dearth of infrastructure and services for the agriculture sector. For centuries, African farmers have used a wide variety of risk-reducing livelihood strategies, including diversifying income sources, switching crops, and investing in marketing. However, improving their productivity to ``modern'' levels has remained a distant dream, resulting in a continual reduction in investment in the sector over the past five decades.

  15. Adaptive Formation Control and Collision Avoidance Using a Priority Strategy for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Dai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents four novel collision avoidance processes for nonholonomic mobile robots to generate effective collision‐free trajectories when forming and maintaining a formation. A collision priority strategy integrates the static and dynamic collision priorities to avoid a collision efficiently and effectively. In addition, it minimizes the turning angle of the follower robot and decreases system computation time. When avoiding collisions between robots, a novel collision avoidance algorithm is used to find a safe waypoint for the robot, based on the velocity of each robot. An adaptive tracking control algorithm, using the Lyapunov analysis, guarantees that the robotʹs trajectory and velocity tracking errors converge to zero considering parametric uncertainties of both the kinematic and dynamic models. The simulation and experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Selection and adaptation of microalgae to growth in 100% unfiltered coal-fired flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Mughal, Tahira Aziz; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae have been considered for biological carbon capture and sequestration to offset carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study shows that mixed biodiverse microalgal communities can be selected for and adapted to tolerate growth in 100% flue gas from an unfiltered coal-fired power plant that contained 11% CO2. The high SOx and NOx emissions required slow adaptation of microalgae over many months, with step-wise increases from 10% to 100% flue gas supplementation and phosphate buffering at higher concentrations. After a rapid decline in biodiversity over the first few months, community profiling revealed Desmodesmus spp. as the dominant microalgae. To the authors' knowledge this work is the first to demonstrate that up 100% unfiltered flue gas from coal-fired power generation can be used for algae cultivation. Implementation of serial passages over a range of photobioreactors may contribute towards the development of microalgal-mediated carbon capture and sequestration processes.

  17. A Self-adaptive Dynamic Evaluation Model for Diabetes Mellitus, Based on Evolutionary Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Jiang Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate diabetes mellitus objectively and accurately, this paper builds a self-adaptive dynamic evaluation model for diabetes mellitus, based on evolutionary strategies. First of all, on the basis of a formalized description of the evolutionary process of diabetes syndromes, using a state transition function, it judges whether a disease is evolutionary, through an excitation parameter. It then, provides evidence for the rebuilding of the evaluation index system. After that, by abstracting and rebuilding the composition of evaluation indexes, it makes use of a heuristic algorithm to determine the composition of the evolved evaluation index set of diabetes mellitus, It then, calculates the weight of each index in the evolved evaluation index set of diabetes mellitus by building a dependency matrix and realizes the self-adaptive dynamic evaluation of diabetes mellitus under an evolutionary environment. Using this evaluation model, it is possible to, quantify all kinds of diagnoses and treatment experiences of diabetes and finally to adopt ideal diagnoses and treatment measures for different patients with diabetics.

  18. Climate Variability, Andean Livelihood Strategies, Development and Adaptation in the Andean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, C.; Quiroz, R.; Zorogastua, P.; Baigorrea, G.

    2002-05-01

    Development programs in the Andes have failed to recognize climate variability as an element that is crucial to the adoption of new alternatives. Dairy, potatoes, improved sheep, forages are all part of the history of development in this region. A combination of climate variability, changes in the economy, the political environment, and land tenure reform shape rural livelihoods and welfare. Diversification, linking to markets, and networking are some elements that contribute to the resilience of families in the Andes. Strategies change, are flexible, and may incorporate non-agricultural activities. While some farmers are able to improve their welfare through the life cycle, others become poorer. Climate variability increases the vulnerability of some groups; in other cases, because of diversification and assets, households build economic portfolios that are more resilient to the elements. The many projects provide insights into how in the long run households improve their environment, hinting at mechanisms to adapt to climate change. In order to understand changing composition of portfolios in future scenarios of spatial heterogeneous areas such as mountains (Andes), estimates of models predicting climate change at a global scale are not useful because their resolution. Therefore, downscaling tools are useful. Spatial heterogeneity is assessed through agroecozoning. Both production and the impact on some environmental indicators are simulated through process-based models, for the Ilave-Huenque watershed in Peru that help in discussing scenarios of adaptation.

  19. Ca2+ cycling in heart cells from ground squirrels: adaptive strategies for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Li

    Full Text Available Heart tissues from hibernating mammals, such as ground squirrels, are able to endure hypothermia, hypoxia and other extreme insulting factors that are fatal for human and nonhibernating mammals. This study was designed to understand adaptive mechanisms involved in intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes from the mammalian hibernator, ground squirrel, compared to rat. Electrophysiological and confocal imaging experiments showed that the voltage-dependence of L-type Ca(2+ current (I(Ca was shifted to higher potentials in ventricular myocytes from ground squirrels vs. rats. The elevated threshold of I(Ca did not compromise the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, because a higher depolarization rate and a longer duration of action potential compensated the voltage shift of I(Ca. Both the caffeine-sensitive and caffeine-resistant components of cytosolic Ca(2+ removal were more rapid in ground squirrels. Ca(2+ sparks in ground squirrels exhibited larger amplitude/size and much lower frequency than in rats. Due to the high I(Ca threshold, low SR Ca(2+ leak and rapid cytosolic Ca(2+ clearance, heart cells from ground squirrels exhibited better capability in maintaining intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis than those from rats and other nonhibernating mammals. These findings not only reveal adaptive mechanisms of hibernation, but also provide novel strategies against Ca(2+ overload-related heart diseases.

  20. Multiple symbiont acquisition strategies as an adaptive mechanism in the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Kristen A; Carmi-Veal, Maya; Fine, Maoz; Goulet, Tamar L

    2013-01-01

    In obligate symbioses, the host's survival relies on the successful acquisition and maintenance of symbionts. Symbionts can either be transferred from parent to offspring via direct inheritance (vertical transmission) or acquired anew each generation from the environment (horizontal transmission). With vertical symbiont transmission, progeny benefit by not having to search for their obligate symbionts, and, with symbiont inheritance, a mechanism exists for perpetuating advantageous symbionts. But, if the progeny encounter an environment that differs from that of their parent, they may be disadvantaged if the inherited symbionts prove suboptimal. Conversely, while in horizontal symbiont acquisition host survival hinges on an unpredictable symbiont source, an individual host may acquire genetically diverse symbionts well suited to any given environment. In horizontal acquisition, however, a potentially advantageous symbiont will not be transmitted to subsequent generations. Adaptation in obligate symbioses may require mechanisms for both novel symbiont acquisition and symbiont inheritance. Using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR, we identified the dinoflagellate symbionts (genus Symbiodinium) hosted by the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata throughout its ontogenesis and over depth. We present evidence that S. pistillata juvenile colonies may utilize both vertical and horizontal symbiont acquisition strategies. By releasing progeny with maternally derived symbionts, that are also capable of subsequent horizontal symbiont acquisition, coral colonies may acquire physiologically advantageous novel symbionts that are then perpetuated via vertical transmission to subsequent generations. With symbiont inheritance, natural selection can act upon the symbiotic variability, providing a mechanism for coral adaptation.

  1. Multiple symbiont acquisition strategies as an adaptive mechanism in the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Byler

    Full Text Available In obligate symbioses, the host's survival relies on the successful acquisition and maintenance of symbionts. Symbionts can either be transferred from parent to offspring via direct inheritance (vertical transmission or acquired anew each generation from the environment (horizontal transmission. With vertical symbiont transmission, progeny benefit by not having to search for their obligate symbionts, and, with symbiont inheritance, a mechanism exists for perpetuating advantageous symbionts. But, if the progeny encounter an environment that differs from that of their parent, they may be disadvantaged if the inherited symbionts prove suboptimal. Conversely, while in horizontal symbiont acquisition host survival hinges on an unpredictable symbiont source, an individual host may acquire genetically diverse symbionts well suited to any given environment. In horizontal acquisition, however, a potentially advantageous symbiont will not be transmitted to subsequent generations. Adaptation in obligate symbioses may require mechanisms for both novel symbiont acquisition and symbiont inheritance. Using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR, we identified the dinoflagellate symbionts (genus Symbiodinium hosted by the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata throughout its ontogenesis and over depth. We present evidence that S. pistillata juvenile colonies may utilize both vertical and horizontal symbiont acquisition strategies. By releasing progeny with maternally derived symbionts, that are also capable of subsequent horizontal symbiont acquisition, coral colonies may acquire physiologically advantageous novel symbionts that are then perpetuated via vertical transmission to subsequent generations. With symbiont inheritance, natural selection can act upon the symbiotic variability, providing a mechanism for coral adaptation.

  2. Effect of a large gaming neighborhood and a strategy adaptation neighborhood for bolstering network reciprocity in a prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-12-01

    In 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma (PD) games, network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, leading to a cooperative equilibrium. In this paper, we explain how gaming neighborhoods and strategy-adaptation neighborhoods affect network reciprocity independently in spatial PD games. We explore an appropriate range of strategy adaptation neighborhoods as opposed to the conventional method of making the gaming and strategy adaptation neighborhoods coincide to enhance the level of cooperation. In cases of expanding gaming neighborhoods, network reciprocity falls to a low level relative to the conventional setting. In the discussion below, which is based on the results of our simulation, we explore how these enhancements come about. Essentially, varying the range of the neighborhoods influences how cooperative clusters form and expand in the evolutionary process.

  3. Relation of spontaneous transformation in cell culture to adaptive growth and clonal heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, A L; Yao, A; Rubin, H

    1990-01-01

    Cell transformation in culture is marked by the appearance of morphologically altered cells that continue to multiply to form discrete foci in confluent sheets when the surrounding cells are inhibited. These foci occur spontaneously in early-passage NIH 3T3 cells grown to confluency in 10% calf serum (CS) but are not seen in cultures grown to confluency in 2% CS. However, repeated passage of the cells at low density in 2% CS gives rise to an adapted population that grows to increasingly higher saturation densities and produces large numbers of foci in 2% CS. The increased saturation density of the adapted population in 2% CS is retained upon repeated passage in 10% CS, but the number and size of the foci produced in 2% CS gradually decrease under this regime. Clonal analysis confirms that the focus-forming potential of most if not all of the cells in a population increases in response to a continuously applied growth constraint, although only a small fraction of the population may actually form foci in a given assay. The acquired capacity for focus formation varies widely in clones derived from the adapted population and changes in diverse ways upon further passage of the clones. We propose that the adaptive changes result from progressive selection of successive phenotypic variations in growth capacity that occur spontaneously. The process designated progressive state selection resolves the apparent dichotomy between spontaneous mutation with selection on the one hand and induction on the other, by introducing selection among fluctuating states or metabolic patterns rather than among genetically altered cells.

  4. Survival and growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) rangewide provenances and their implications for climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pengxin; Parker, William H; Cherry, Marilyn; Colombo, Steve; Parker, William C; Man, Rongzhou; Roubal, Ngaire

    2014-06-01

    Intraspecific assisted migration (ISAM) through seed transfer during artificial forest regeneration has been suggested as an adaptation strategy to enhance forest resilience and productivity under future climate. In this study, we assessed the risks and benefits of ISAM in white spruce based on long-term and multilocation, rangewide provenance test data. Our results indicate that the adaptive capacity and growth potential of white spruce varied considerably among 245 range-wide provenances sampled across North America; however, the results revealed that local populations could be outperformed by nonlocal ones. Provenances originating from south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec, Canada, close to the southern edge of the species' natural distribution, demonstrated superior growth in more northerly environments compared with local populations and performed much better than populations from western Canada and Alaska, United States. During the 19-28 years between planting and measurement, the southern provenances have not been more susceptible to freezing damage compared with local populations, indicating they have the potential to be used now for the reforestation of more northerly planting sites; based on changing temperature, these seed sources potentially could maintain or increase white spruce productivity at or above historical levels at northern sites. A universal response function (URF), which uses climatic variables to predict provenance performance across field trials, indicated a relatively weak relationship between provenance performance and the climate at provenance origin. Consequently, the URF from this study did not provide information useful to ISAM. The ecological and economic importance of conserving white spruce genetic resources in south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec for use in ISAM is discussed.

  5. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    María Baca; Peter Läderach; Jeremy Haggar; Götz Schroth; Oriana Ovalle

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic ...

  6. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  7. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Baca

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of

  8. The acquisition of phototrophy: adaptive strategies of hosting endosymbionts and organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D

    2011-01-01

    Many non-photosynthetic species of protists and metazoans are capable of hosting viable algal endosymbionts or their organelles through adaptations of phagocytic pathways. A form of mixotrophy combining phototrophy and heterotrophy, acquired phototrophy (AcPh) encompasses a suite of endosymbiotic and organelle retention interactions, that range from facultative to obligate. AcPh is a common phenomenon in aquatic ecosystems, with endosymbiotic associations generally more prevalent in nutrient poor environments, and organelle retention typically associated with more productive ones. All AcPhs benefit from enhanced growth due to access to photosynthetic products; however, the degree of metabolic integration and dependency in the host varies widely. AcPh is found in at least four of the major eukaryotic supergroups, and is the driving force in the evolution of secondary and tertiary plastid acquisitions. Mutualistic resource partitioning characterizes most algal endosymbiotic interactions, while organelle retention is a form of predation, characterized by nutrient flow (i.e., growth) in one direction. AcPh involves adaptations to recognize specific prey or endosymbionts and to house organelles or endosymbionts within the endomembrane system but free from digestion. In many cases, hosts depend upon AcPh for the production of essential nutrients, many of which remain obscure. The practice of AcPh has led to multiple independent secondary and tertiary plastid acquisition events among several eukaryote lineages, giving rise to the diverse array of algae found in modern aquatic ecosystems. This article highlights those AcPhs that are model research organisms for both metazoans and protists. Much of the basic biology of AcPhs remains enigmatic, particularly (1) which essential nutrients or factors make certain forms of AcPh obligatory, (2) how hosts regulate and manipulate endosymbionts or sequestered organelles, and (3) what genomic imprint, if any, AcPh leaves on non

  9. Adaptation strategies of the sheathed cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula to ultraviolet-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sikha; Rath, Jnanendra; Adhikary, Siba Prasad

    2011-02-01

    Lyngbya majuscula is a dominant organism in the east coast of India forming characteristic mat in dried saline soils simultaneously exposed to solar radiation of the tropics. Studies on the growth response, changes in the spectral properties of the methanolic extract and protein profile of this estuarine sheathed cyanobacterium to UV-B revealed existence of effective adaptation mechanism to withstand prolonged UV-B radiation. Carotenoids along with MAAs of the organism was increased with increase in UV irradiation. Increase in thickness of the mucilaginous sheath layer as well as cellular carbohydrate content was observed upon exposure to prolonged UV-B dose. Induction of 21 and 33 kDa low molecular weight proteins, and a 99 kDa protein together with formation of distinct multilayered sheath embedding trichomes with granulated cells were the adaptive features of the organism to cope with UV-B stress. The organism was considerably revived after incubating the irradiated cells in mineral medium under florescent light and in the dark suggesting existence of photoreactivation and dark repair in this cyanobacterium. However more experiments are needed to establish the existence of photoreactivation and dark repair mechanism in the studied cyanobacterium.

  10. Intestinal adaptation after extensive small bowel resection: differential changes in growth and insulin-like growth factor system messenger ribonucleic acids in jejunum and ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, T R; Mantell, M P; Chow, J C; Rombeau, J L; Smith, R J

    1998-07-01

    The distal small bowel exhibits greater adaptive growth than proximal segments after partial small intestine resection. To explore this process, we evaluated adaptive cellularity, intestinal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts, and effects of recombinant IGF-I treatment in jejunum and ileum of adult rats. Gastrostomy-fed animals underwent 80% jejuno-ileal resection or intestinal transection and reanastomosis without resection, followed by infusion of human recombinant IGF-I (2.4 mg/kgXday) or vehicle. After 7 days, resected rats demonstrated modest adaptive growth in jejunum and marked cell proliferation in ileum. Resection increased IGF-I mRNA in both jejunum (183%) and ileum (249%) and up-regulated IGFBP-4 mRNA levels in both tissues. IGFBP-3 mRNA fell significantly in ileum after resection. IGF-I infusion modestly increased ileal cellularity after resection, but had no effect in jejunum. IGF-I markedly increased IGFBP-3 mRNA levels in jejunum after both transection and resection. These data confirm that bowel resection induces greater adaptive growth in ileum than jejunum. IGF-I administration modestly increases ileal, but not jejunal, growth after resection. Increased levels of intestinal IGF-I and IGFBP-4 mRNA suggest roles for IGF-I and IGFBP-4 in mediating small bowel adaptation. Higher levels of jejunal IGFBP-3 mRNA may be related to limited jejunal vs. ileal growth after extensive jejuno-ileal resection.

  11. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Folkedal, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar......) in aquaculture as a model to explore this stance of evolutionary-based medicine, for which empirical evidence has been lacking. Growth-stunted (GS) farmed fish were characterized by elevated brain serotonergic activation, increased cortisol production and behavioural inhibition. We make the novel observation...

  12. The Active Side of Stereopsis: Fixation Strategy and Adaptation to Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaldi, Agostino; Canessa, Andrea; Sabatini, Silvio P.

    2017-01-01

    Depth perception in near viewing strongly relies on the interpretation of binocular retinal disparity to obtain stereopsis. Statistical regularities of retinal disparities have been claimed to greatly impact on the neural mechanisms that underlie binocular vision, both to facilitate perceptual decisions and to reduce computational load. In this paper, we designed a novel and unconventional approach in order to assess the role of fixation strategy in conditioning the statistics of retinal disparity. We integrated accurate realistic three-dimensional models of natural scenes with binocular eye movement recording, to obtain accurate ground-truth statistics of retinal disparity experienced by a subject in near viewing. Our results evidence how the organization of human binocular visual system is finely adapted to the disparity statistics characterizing actual fixations, thus revealing a novel role of the active fixation strategy over the binocular visual functionality. This suggests an ecological explanation for the intrinsic preference of stereopsis for a close central object surrounded by a far background, as an early binocular aspect of the figure-ground segregation process. PMID:28317909

  13. Hybrid collaborative optimization based on selection strategy of initial point and adaptive relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Aimin; Yin, Xu; Yuan, Minghai [Hohai University, Changzhou (China)

    2015-09-15

    There are two problems in Collaborative optimization (CO): (1) the local optima arising from the selection of an inappropriate initial point; (2) the low efficiency and accuracy root in inappropriate relaxation factors. To solve these problems, we first develop the Latin hypercube design (LHD) to determine an initial point of optimization, and then use the non-linear programming by quadratic Lagrangian (NLPQL) to search for the global solution. The effectiveness of the initial point selection strategy is verified by three benchmark functions with some dimensions and different complexities. Then we propose the Adaptive relaxation collaborative optimization (ARCO) algorithm to solve the inconsistency between the system level and the disciplines level, and in this method, the relaxation factors are determined according to the three separated stages of CO respectively. The performance of the ARCO algorithm is compared with the standard collaborative algorithm and the constant relaxation collaborative algorithm with a typical numerical example, which indicates that the ARCO algorithm is more efficient and accurate. Finally, we propose a Hybrid collaborative optimization (HCO) approach, which integrates the selection strategy of initial point with the ARCO algorithm. The results show that HCO can achieve the global optimal solution without the initial value and it also has advantages in convergence, accuracy and robustness. Therefore, the proposed HCO approach can solve the CO problems with applications in the spindle and the speed reducer.

  14. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors.

  15. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  16. Development of a viewing strategy during adaptation to an artificial central scotoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsori, Michael; Perez-Fornos, Angelica; Safran, Avinoam B; Whatham, Andrew R

    2004-10-01

    without guided training; (2) two distinctly separate retinal areas can be used in an integrated manner during reading; (4) stimulus position in visual space can influence viewing strategy; (5) in general, reading encourages a preference for the inferior over the superior visual field, but not the left over right visual field. Letter/word/text recognition and reading speeds increased progressively across sessions, even after scotoma lateralisation appeared stabilised suggesting that multiple mechanism are involved in adaptive changes.

  17. Time constraints and flexibility of growth strategies: geographic variation in catch-up growth responses in amphibian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Emma; Orizaola, Germán; Nicieza, Alfredo G; Laurila, Anssi; Meiri, Shai

    2012-11-01

    1. As size is tightly associated with fitness, compensatory strategies for growth loss can be vital for restoring individual fitness. However, immediate and delayed costs of compensatory responses may prevent their generalization, and the optimal strategy may depend on environmental conditions. Compensatory responses may be particularly important in high-latitude habitats with short growing seasons, and thus, high-latitude organisms might be more efficient at compensating after periods of unfavourable growth conditions than low-latitude organisms. 2. We investigated geographical differences in catch-up growth strategies of populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria) from southern and northern Sweden in two factorial common garden experiments involving predation risk and two different causes of growth arrest (nutritional stress and low temperatures) to evaluate how the compensatory strategies can be affected by context-dependent costs of compensation. Larval and metamorphic traits, and post-metamorphic performance were used as response variables. 3. Only northern tadpoles exposed to low food completely caught up in terms of metamorphic size, mainly by extending the larval period. Low food decreased survival and post-metamorphic jumping performance in southern, but not in northern tadpoles, suggesting that northern tadpoles have a better ability to compensate after periods of restricted food. 4. Both northern and southern tadpoles were able to metamorphose at the same size as control tadpoles after being exposed to low temperatures, indicating that consequences of variation in temperature and food availability differed for tadpoles. However, the combination of low temperatures and predation risk reduced survival in both southern and northern tadpoles. Also, predation risk decreased energy storage in both experiments. 5. Our results highlight the influence of climatic variation and the type of stressor as selective factors shaping compensatory strategies.

  18. Alternative growth and defensive strategies reveal potential and gender specific trade-offs in dioecious plants Salix paraplesia to nutrient availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Population sex ratios of many dioecious plants in nature are biased. This may be attributed to sexually different resource demands and adaptive capacity. In male-biased Populus, males often display stronger physiological adaptation than females. Interestingly, Populus and Salix, belonging to Salicaceae, display an opposite biased sex ratio, especially in nutrient-poor environmental conditions. Do female willows have a greater tolerance to nutrient deficiency than males? In this study, we investigated the growth and defensive strategies of Salix paraplesia cuttings, which were grown with high and low soil fertility for about 140 days over one growing season. Results suggest that different strategies for biomass allocation may result in sexually different defence capacities and trade-offs between growth and defence. Females are likely to adopt radical strategies, overdrawing on available resources to satisfy both growth and defence, which seems to be more like a gamble compared with males. It is also suggested that females may have an extra mechanism to compensate for the investment in growth under nutrient-poor conditions. In summary, the results may help focus restoration efforts on sex selection such that a moderate increase in female willow quantity could increase the resistance and resilience of willow populations to early sporadic desertification.

  19. Alternative Growth and Defensive Strategies Reveal Potential and Gender Specific Trade-Offs in Dioecious Plants Salix paraplesia to Nutrient Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Sheng; Lei, Yanbao; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Population sex ratios of many dioecious plants in nature are biased. This may be attributed to sexually different resource demands and adaptive capacity. In male-biasedPopulus, males often display stronger physiological adaptation than females. Interestingly, Populus and Salix, belonging to Salicaceae, display an opposite biased sex ratio, especially in nutrient-poor environmental conditions. Do female willows have a greater tolerance to nutrient deficiency than males? In this study, we investigated the growth and defensive strategies of Salix paraplesia cuttings, which were grown with high and low soil fertility for about 140 days over one growing season. Results suggest that different strategies for biomass allocation may result in sexually different defense capacities and trade-offs between growth and defense. Females are likely to adopt radical strategies, overdrawing on available resources to satisfy both growth and defense, which seems to be more like a gamble compared with males. It is also suggested that females may have an extra mechanism to compensate for the investment in growth under nutrient-poor conditions. In summary, the results may help focus restoration efforts on sex selection such that a moderate increase in female willow quantity could increase the resistance and resilience of willow populations to early sporadic desertification.

  20. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overkamp, W.; Ercan, O.; Herber, M.; Maris, van A.J.; Kleerebezem, M.; Kuipers, O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h-1) are an unexplored research area in B. subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. T

  1. Analysis prediction of Indonesian banks (BCA, BNI, MANDIRI) using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and investment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, Andriantama Budi; Hadi, I. M.; Liong, The Houw; Purqon, Acep

    2015-09-01

    Indonesian economical development is growing well. It has effect for their invesment in Banks and the stock market. In this study, we perform prediction for the three blue chips of Indonesian bank i.e. BCA, BNI, and MANDIRI by using the method of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with Takagi-Sugeno rules and Generalized bell (Gbell) as the membership function. Our results show that ANFIS perform good prediction with RMSE for BCA of 27, BNI of 5.29, and MANDIRI of 13.41, respectively. Furthermore, we develop an active strategy to gain more benefit. We compare between passive strategy versus active strategy. Our results shows that for the passive strategy gains 13 million rupiah, while for the active strategy gains 47 million rupiah in one year. The active investment strategy significantly shows gaining multiple benefit than the passive one.

  2. Climate change adaptation: Uncovering constraints to the use of adaptation strategies among food crop farmers in South-west, Nigeria using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradeyo Adebanjo Otitoju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies in South-west Nigeria. Multistage random technique was employed to select the location and the respondents. Descriptive statistics and principal component analysis (PCA were the analytical tools engaged in this study. The constraints to climate variability and change examined before did not use PCA but generalized factor analysis. Hence, there is need to examine these constraints extensively using PCA. Uncovering the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies among crop framers is important to give a realistic direction in the development of farmer-inclusive climate policies in Nigeria. The PCA result showed that the principal constraints that the farmers faced in climate change adaptation were public, institutional and labour constraint; land, neighbourhood norms and religious beliefs constraint; high cost of inputs, technological and information constraint; farm distance, access to climate information, off-farm job and credit constraint; and poor agricultural programmes and service delivery constraint. These findings pointed out the need for both the government and non-government organizations to intensify efforts on institutional, technological and farmers’ friendly land tenure and information systems as effective measures to guide inclusive climate change adaptation policies and development in South-west Nigeria.

  3. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  4. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  5. Chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism as adaptive strategies during citrus canker induction by Xanthomonas citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Facincani, Agda Paula; Ferreira, Cristiano Barbalho; Ferreira, Rafael Marine; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboshi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Soares, Márcia Regina

    2015-03-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri strain 306 pathotype A (Xac) was completely sequenced more than 10 years; to date, few studies involving functional genomics Xac and its host compatible have been developed, specially related to adaptive events that allow the survival of Xac within the plant. Proteomic analysis of Xac showed that the processes of chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism are key adaptive strategies during the interaction of a pathogenic bacterium with its plant host. The results also indicate the importance of a group of proteins that may not be directly related to the classical virulence factors, but that are likely fundamental to the success of the initial stages of the infection, such as methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (Mcp) and phosphate specific transport (Pst). Furthermore, the analysis of the mutant of the gene pstB which codifies to an ABC phosphate transporter subunit revealed a complete absence of citrus canker symptoms when inoculated in compatible hosts. We also conducted an in silico analysis which established the possible network of genes regulated by two-component systems PhoPQ and PhoBR (related to phosphate metabolism), and possible transcriptional factor binding site (TFBS) motifs of regulatory proteins PhoB and PhoP, detaching high degree of conservation of PhoB TFBS in 84 genes of Xac genome. This is the first time that chemotaxis signal transduction and phosphate metabolism were therefore indicated to be fundamental to the process of colonization of plant tissue during the induction of disease associated with Xanthomonas genus bacteria.

  6. Graded-threshold parametric response maps: towards a strategy for adaptive dose painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, A.; Jensen, N.; Chen, J.; Lee, T. Y.; Lock, M.; Wong, E.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To modify the single-threshold parametric response map (ST-PRM) method for predicting treatment outcomes in order to facilitate its use for guidance of adaptive dose painting in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods: Multiple graded thresholds were used to extend the ST-PRM method (Nat. Med. 2009;15(5):572-576) such that the full functional change distribution within tumours could be represented with respect to multiple confidence interval estimates for functional changes in similar healthy tissue. The ST-PRM and graded-threshold PRM (GT-PRM) methods were applied to functional imaging scans of 5 patients treated for hepatocellular carcinoma. Pre and post-radiotherapy arterial blood flow maps (ABF) were generated from CT-perfusion scans of each patient. ABF maps were rigidly registered based on aligning tumour centres of mass. ST-PRM and GT-PRM analyses were then performed on overlapping tumour regions within the registered ABF maps. Main findings: The ST-PRMs contained many disconnected clusters of voxels classified as having a significant change in function. While this may be useful to predict treatment response, it may pose challenges for identifying boost volumes or for informing dose-painting by numbers strategies. The GT-PRMs included all of the same information as ST-PRMs but also visualized the full tumour functional change distribution. Heterogeneous clusters in the ST-PRMs often became more connected in the GT-PRMs by voxels with similar functional changes. Conclusions: GT-PRMs provided additional information which helped to visualize relationships between significant functional changes identified by ST-PRMs. This may enhance ST-PRM utility for guiding adaptive dose painting.

  7. Adaptation Strategies to Combating Climate Variability and Extremity among Farmers in Selected Farm Settlements in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOROKINI T.I

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of climate variability and extremities on agriculture in Africa have been widely reported. This calls for adaptive strategies in farming so as to reduce vulnerability and ensure food security. This study was therefore conducted to evaluate the awareness of farmers to climate variability and their adaptation strategies in four selected farm settlements in Oyo State, Nigeria. . Structured questionnaires were administered to 120 farmers using a stratified random sampling method. The results showed very high awareness of climate variability among the farmers. However, majority of the farmers acquired their land by lease, while local farm tools are still used by most of the farmers. Sole cropping, mixed cropping and crop rotation were mostly practiced by the farmers. The farmers reported prevalence of crops pests and diseases, flooding, disappearance of bi-modal rainfall, increased temperature and drought in their farmlands, leading to increase in poverty, higher production costs and poor crop harvests as evidences of harsh climatic conditions. Adaptation strategies used by the farmers were changing planting dates, planting new varieties, intercropping and alternative income generating activities. The farmers are encouraged to acquire more efficient farming system and equipment, while they should strongly consider other adaptation strategies such as agricultural insurance, agroforestry, water conservation methods, soil conservation farming, irrigation farming, organic farming and mechanized farming. Furthermore, land tenure policy that could constrain the farmers should be reviewed, while they should be given proper training.

  8. Expanding Acculturation Theory: Are Acculturation Models and the Adaptiveness of Acculturation Strategies Generalizable in a Colonial Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung-Blunden, Violet L.; Juang, Linda P.

    2008-01-01

    Most acculturation research has been conducted in immigrant settings. The present study examined the generalizability of acculturation models and the adaptiveness of acculturation strategies in another bicultural environment--a colonial setting. The sample included 138 girls (M = 13.8 years) and their parents from Hong Kong, a former British…

  9. ESTABLISHMENT, SURVIVAL, SALES GROWTH AND ENTRY STRATEGIES OF JAPANESE MNCs SUBSIDIARIES IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDI RASOULI GHAHROUDI; YASUO HOSHINO

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study explores first the relationship between operating years and entry strategies based on wholly-owned and joint venture companies. Second, we examine the effects of equity ownership, size, entry strategy and subsidiary age on the sales growth ratio and the subsidiary's survival. Our findings show that in recent periods, the multi-national companies (MNCs) prefer to acquire high levels of equity ownership, including full ownership subsidiaries, especially when the subsidiary ...

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health and Adaptation Strategies in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; WANG Xian-Wei; YANG Xiao-Feng; MA Wen-Jun; AI Hui; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews the impacts of climate change on human health and presents corresponding adaptation strategies in South China. The daily mean surface air temperatures above or below 26.4◦C increase the death risk for the people in Guangzhou, especially the elderly are vulnerable to variations in temperature. Heat waves can cause insomnia, fatigue, clinical exacerbation, or death from heatstroke etc., while cold spells show increases in patients with fractures. During a cold spell period, the rates of both on-site emergency rescues and non-implementable rescues increase, and the risk of non-accidental deaths and respiratory disease deaths significantly rise as well. Both time series of hazy days and ozone concentrations have significant positive correlations with the number of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Both malaria and dengue fever reach higher altitudes and mountainous areas due to climate warming. Climate change is likely to bring stronger heat waves in the future, thereby increasing heat wave-related illnesses and deaths, particularly in the metropolitan areas of the Pearl River Delta. The projected increase of continuous cold days in Guangdong province and parts of northern Guangxi province will affect residents’ health in the future. The rising temperature exaggerates ozone pollution, but it is not clear whether climate change is aggravating or mitigating haze pollution. The transmission potential of malaria in South China will increase by 39%-140% and the transmission season will extend by 1-2 months with an air temperature increase of 1-2◦C. By 2050, most areas in Hainan province are projected to convert from non-endemic dengue into endemic dengue areas. The aging population will cause more vulnerable people. To mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change on human health, sound and scientific adaptation strategies must be adopted in advance, such as strengthening the surveillance of epidemic diseases in potential transmission areas

  11. Adaptation Strategy of Seaweed Cultivation to Face the Climate Change (Case Study in Segoro Anakan Bay Ngadirojo, Pacitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrial Nur Amri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The damage of coastal ecosystems are no longer dominated by human activity, but the condition of global climate change were also influenced. Climate change impact on the environment influencing the coastal management paradigm. This study emphasizes on how to develop a adaptation strategy of coastal zone management due to the impact of climate change through remote sensing approach, Geographic Information Systems (GIS, and adaptation strategies analysis. Location of research conducted in the Region of Segoro Anakan Bay, District Ngadirojo Pacitan. The results showed the impact of climate change is affecting the area and production of seaweed culture in the form of tectonic conditions aggravated by silting waters. To combat the effects of climate change, the adaptation scenario is implemented to intensification and extensification of land use, alternative livelihoods, minawisata as a combination of all three.

  12. Using AQUACROP to model the impacts of future climates on crop production and possible adaptation strategies in Sardinia and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    A work package in the FP-7 funded CLIMB Project - Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins Reducing Uncertainty and Quantifying Risk through an Integrated Monitoring and Modeling System had the goal of assessing socioeconomic vulnerability in two super-sites in future climates (2040-2070). The work package had deliverables to describe of agricultural adaptation measures appropriate to each site under future water availability scenarios and assess the risk of income losses due to water shortages in agriculture. The FAO model AQUACROP was used to estimate losses of agricultural productivity and indicate possible adaptation strategies. The presentation will focus on two interesting crops which show extreme vulnerability to expected changes in climate; irrigated lettuce in Sardinia and irrigated tomatoes in Tunisia. Modelling methodology, results and possible adaptation strategies will be presented.

  13. Transcriptome adaptation of group B Streptococcus to growth in human amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus is a bacterial pathogen that causes severe intrauterine infections leading to fetal morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of GBS infection in this environment is poorly understood, in part because we lack a detailed understanding of the adaptation of this pathogen to growth in amniotic fluid. To address this knowledge deficit, we characterized the transcriptome of GBS grown in human amniotic fluid (AF and compared it with the transcriptome in rich laboratory medium. METHODS: GBS was grown in Todd Hewitt-yeast extract medium and human AF. Bacteria were collected at mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic and stationary growth phase. We performed global expression microarray analysis using a custom-made Affymetrix GeneChip. The normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates at each growth point were obtained. AF/THY transcript ratios representing greater than a 2-fold change and P-value exceeding 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have discovered that GBS significantly remodels its transcriptome in response to exposure to human amniotic fluid. GBS grew rapidly in human AF and did not exhibit a global stress response. The majority of changes in GBS transcripts in AF compared to THY medium were related to genes mediating metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides. The majority of the observed changes in transcripts affects genes involved in basic bacterial metabolism and is connected to AF composition and nutritional requirements of the bacterium. Importantly, the response to growth in human AF included significant changes in transcripts of multiple virulence genes such as adhesins, capsule, and hemolysin and IL-8 proteinase what might have consequences for the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides extensive new information about how the transcriptome of GBS responds

  14. Optimal resting-growth strategies of microbial populations in fluctuating environments

    OpenAIRE

    Nico Geisel; Vilar, Jose M. G.; J. Miguel Rubi

    2011-01-01

    11 p. Bacteria spend most of their lifetime in non-growing states which allow them to survive extended periods of stress and starvation. When environments improve, they must quickly resume growth to maximize their share of limited nutrients. Cells with higher stress resistance often survive longer stress durations at the cost of needing more time to resume growth, a strong disadvantage in competitive environments. Here we analyze the basis of optimal strategies that microorganisms can use ...

  15. Behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation: a physiological strategy when mice behaviorally thermoregulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher J; Aydin, Cenk; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Johnstone, Andrew F M

    2014-08-01

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of ~22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller internal organs and longer tails compared to mice raised at 22°C. Since mice prefer Tas equal to their TNZ when housed in a thermocline, we hypothesized that mice reared for long periods (e.g., months) in a thermocline would undergo significant changes in organ development and tail length as a result of their thermoregulatory behavior. Groups of three female BALB/c mice at an age of 37 days were housed together in a thermocline consisting of a 90cm long aluminum runway with a floor temperature ranging from 23 to 39°C. Two side-by-side thermoclines allowed for a total of 6 mice to be tested simultaneously. Control mice were tested in isothermal runways maintained at a Ta of 22°C. All groups were given cotton pads for bedding/nest building. Mass of heart, lung, liver, kidney, brain, and tail length were assessed after 73 days of treatment. Mice in the thermocline and control (isothermal) runways were compared to cage control mice housed 3/cage with bedding under standard vivarium conditions. Mice in the thermocline generally remained in the warm end throughout the daytime with little evidence of nest building, suggesting a state of thermal comfort. Mice in the isothermal runway built elaborate nests and huddled together in the daytime. Mice housed in the thermocline had significantly smaller livers and kidneys and an increase in tail length compared to mice in the isothermal runway as well as when compared to the cage controls. These patterns of organ growth and tail length of mice in the thermocline are akin to warm adaptation. Thus, thermoregulatory behavior altered organ development, a process we term behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation. Moreover, the data suggest that the standard

  16. Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity in metabolism and rate of growth: rapid adaptation to a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Corey A; Broder, E Dale; Dalton, Christopher M; Ruell, Emily W; Myrick, Christopher A; Reznick, David N; Ghalambor, Cameron K

    2013-12-01

    Novel environments often impose directional selection for a new phenotypic optimum. Novel environments, however, can also change the distribution of phenotypes exposed to selection by inducing phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity can produce phenotypes that either align with or oppose the direction of selection. When plasticity and selection are parallel, plasticity is considered adaptive because it provides a better pairing between the phenotype and the environment. If the plastic response is incomplete and falls short of producing the optimum phenotype, synergistic selection can lead to genetic divergence and bring the phenotype closer to the optimum. In contrast, non-adaptive plasticity should increase the strength of selection, because phenotypes will be further from the local optimum, requiring antagonistic selection to overcome the phenotype-environment mismatch and facilitate adaptive divergence. We test these ideas by documenting predator-induced plasticity for resting metabolic rate and growth rate in populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) adapted to high and low predation. We find reduced metabolic rates and growth rates when cues from a predator are present during development, a pattern suggestive of adaptive and non-adaptive plasticity, respectively. When we compared populations recently transplanted from a high-predation environment into four streams lacking predators, we found evidence for rapid adaptive evolution both in metabolism and growth rate. We discuss the implications for predicting how traits will respond to selection, depending on the type of plasticity they exhibit.

  17. The evolutionary strategies of plant defenses have a dynamic impact on the adaptations and interactions of vectors and pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ordom Brian Huot; Punya Nachappa; Cecilia Tamborindeguy

    2013-01-01

    Plants have evolved and diversified to reduce the damages imposed by infectious pathogens and herbivorous insects.Living in a sedentary lifestyle,plants are constantly adapting to their environment.They employ various strategies to increase performance and fitness.Thus,plants developed cost-effective strategies to defend against specific insects and pathogens.Plant defense,however,imposes selective pressure on insects and pathogens.This selective pressure provides incentives for pathogens and insects to diversify and develop strategies to counter plant defense.This results in an evolutionary arms race among plants,pathogens and insects.The ever-changing adaptations and physiological alterations among these organisms make studying plant-vector-pathogen interactions a challenging and fascinating field.Studying plant defense and plant protection requires knowledge of the relationship among organisms and the adaptive strategies each organism utilize.Therefore,this review focuses on the integral parts of plant-vectorpathogen interactions in order to understand the factors that affect plant defense and disease development.The review addresses plant-vector-pathogen co-evolution,plant defense strategies,specificity of plant defenses and plant-vector-pathogen interactions.Improving the comprehension of these factors will provide a multi-dimensional perspective for the future research in pest and disease management.

  18. E. coli 6S RNA: a universal transcriptional regulator within the centre of growth adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissen, René; Steuten, Benedikt; Polen, Tino; Wagner, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial 6S RNA has been shown to bind with high affinity to σ(70)-containing RNA polymerase, suppressing σ(70)-dependent transcription during stationary phase, when 6S RNA concentrations are highest. We recently reported a genome-wide transcriptional comparison of wild-type and 6S RNA deficient E. coli strains. Contrary to the expected σ(70)- and stationary phase-specific regulatory effect of 6S RNA it turned out that mRNA levels derived from many alternative sigma factors, including σ(38) or σ(32), were affected during exponential and stationary growth. Among the most noticeably down-regulated genes at stationary growth are ribosomal proteins and factors involved in translation. In addition, a striking number of mRNA levels coding for enzymes involved in the purine metabolism, for transporters and stress regulators are altered both during log- and stationary phase. During the study we discovered a link between 6S RNA and the general stress alarmone ppGpp, which has a higher basal level in cells deficient in 6S RNA. This finding points to a functional interrelation of 6S RNA and the global network of stress and growth adaptation.

  19. Key physiological properties contributing to rhizosphere adaptation and plant growth promotion abilities of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibach-Paldi, Sharon; Burdman, Saul; Okon, Yaacov

    2012-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that is being increasingly used in agriculture in a commercial scale. Recent research has elucidated key properties of A. brasilense that contribute to its ability to adapt to the rhizosphere habitat and to promote plant growth. They include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, nitric oxide, carotenoids, and a range of cell surface components as well as the ability to undergo phenotypic variation. Storage and utilization of polybetahydroxyalkanoate polymers are important for the shelf life of the bacteria in production of inoculants, products containing bacterial cells in a suitable carrier for agricultural use. Azospirillum brasilense is able to fix nitrogen, but despite some controversy, as judging from most systems evaluated so far, contribution of fixed nitrogen by this bacterium does not seem to play a major role in plant growth promotion. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of physiological properties of A. brasilense that are important for rhizosphere performance and successful interactions with plant roots.

  20. SU-F-BRF-07: Impact of Different Patient Setup Strategies in Adaptive Radiation Therapy with Simultaneous Integrated Volume-Adapted Boost of NSCLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balik, S [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Weiss, E; Sleeman, W; Wu, Y; Hugo, G [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Dogan, N [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Fatyga, M [Mayo Clinic, AZ, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of several setup error correction strategies on a proposed image-guided adaptive radiotherapy strategy for locally advanced lung cancer. Methods: Daily 4D cone-beam CT and weekly 4D fan-beam CT images were acquired from 9 lung cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Initial planning CT was deformably registered to daily CBCT images to generate synthetic treatment courses. An adaptive radiation therapy course was simulated using the weekly CT images with replanning twice and a hypofractionated, simultaneous integrated boost to a total dose of 66 Gy to the original PTV and either a 66 Gy (no boost) or 82 Gy (boost) dose to the boost PTV (ITV + 3mm) in 33 fractions with IMRT or VMAT. Lymph nodes (LN) were not boosted (prescribed to 66 Gy in both plans). Synthetic images were rigidly, bony (BN) or tumor and carina (TC), registered to the corresponding plan CT, dose was computed on these from adaptive replans (PLAN) and deformably accumulated back to the original planning CT. Cumulative D98% of CTV of PT (ITV for 82Gy) and LN, and normal tissue dose changes were analyzed. Results: Two patients were removed from the study due to large registration errors. For the remaining 7 patients, D98% for CTV-PT (ITV-PT for 82 Gy) and CTV-LN was within 1 Gy of PLAN for both 66 Gy and 82 Gy plans with both setup techniques. Overall, TC based setup provided better results, especially for LN coverage (p = 0.1 for 66Gy plan and p = 0.2 for 82 Gy plan, comparison of BN and TC), though not significant. Normal tissue dose constraints violated for some patients if constraint was barely achieved in PLAN. Conclusion: The hypofractionated adaptive strategy appears to be deliverable with soft tissue alignment for the evaluated margins and planning parameters. Research was supported by NIH P01CA116602.

  1. Redox state, reactive oxygen species and adaptive growth in colonial hydroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, N W

    2001-06-01

    Colonial metazoans often encrust surfaces over which the food supply varies in time or space. In such an environment, adaptive colony development entails adjusting the timing and spacing of feeding structures and gastrovascular connections to correspond to this variable food supply. To investigate the possibility of such adaptive growth, within-colony differential feeding experiments were carried out using the hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Indeed, such colonies strongly exhibited adaptive growth, developing dense arrays of polyps (feeding structures) and gastrovascular connections in areas that were fed relative to areas that were starved, and this effect became more consistent over time. To investigate mechanisms of signaling between the food supply and colony development, measurements were taken of metabolic parameters that have been implicated in signal transduction in other systems, particularly redox state and levels of reactive oxygen species. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy of P. carnea cells in vivo, simultaneous measurements of redox state [using NAD(P)H] and hydrogen peroxide (using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) were taken. Both measures focused on polyp epitheliomuscular cells, since these exhibit the greatest metabolic activity. Colonies 3-5h after feeding were relatively oxidized, with low levels of peroxide, while colonies 24h after feeding were relatively reduced, with high levels of peroxide. The functional role of polyps in feeding and generating gastrovascular flow probably produced this dichotomy. Polyps 3-5h after feeding contract maximally, and this metabolic demand probably shifts the redox state in the direction of oxidation and diminishes levels of reactive oxygen species. In contrast, 24h after feeding, polyps are quiescent, and this lack of metabolic demand probably shifts the redox state in the direction of reduction and increases levels of reactive oxygen species. Within-colony differential feeding experiments were carried out on

  2. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B. subtilis sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006 h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions.

  3. A Near-Hover Adaptive Attitude Control Strategy of a Ducted Fan Micro Aerial Vehicle with Actuator Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic parameters of ducted fan micro aerial vehicles (MAVs are difficult and expensive to precisely measure and are, therefore, not available in most cases. Furthermore, the actuator dynamics with risks of potentially destabilizing the overall system are important but often neglected consideration factors in the control system design of ducted fan MAVs. This paper presents a near-hover adaptive attitude control strategy of a prototype ducted fan MAV with actuator dynamics and without any prior information about the behavior of the MAV. The proposed strategy consists of an online parameter estimation algorithm and an adaptive gain scheduling algorithm, with the former accommodating parametric uncertainties, and the latter approximately eliminating the coupling among axes and guaranteeing the control quality of the MAV. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified numerically and experimentally.

  4. Avoided heat-related mortality through climate adaptation strategies in three US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Habeeb, Dana; DeLucia, Anthony; Trail, Marcus; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2014-01-01

    Heat-related mortality in US cities is expected to more than double by the mid-to-late 21st century. Rising heat exposure in cities is projected to result from: 1) climate forcings from changing global atmospheric composition; and 2) local land surface characteristics responsible for the urban heat island effect. The extent to which heat management strategies designed to lessen the urban heat island effect could offset future heat-related mortality remains unexplored in the literature. Using coupled global and regional climate models with a human health effects model, we estimate changes in the number of heat-related deaths in 2050 resulting from modifications to vegetative cover and surface albedo across three climatically and demographically diverse US metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Employing separate health impact functions for average warm season and heat wave conditions in 2050, we find combinations of vegetation and albedo enhancement to offset projected increases in heat-related mortality by 40 to 99% across the three metropolitan regions. These results demonstrate the potential for extensive land surface changes in cities to provide adaptive benefits to urban populations at risk for rising heat exposure with climate change.

  5. Avoided heat-related mortality through climate adaptation strategies in three US cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Stone

    Full Text Available Heat-related mortality in US cities is expected to more than double by the mid-to-late 21st century. Rising heat exposure in cities is projected to result from: 1 climate forcings from changing global atmospheric composition; and 2 local land surface characteristics responsible for the urban heat island effect. The extent to which heat management strategies designed to lessen the urban heat island effect could offset future heat-related mortality remains unexplored in the literature. Using coupled global and regional climate models with a human health effects model, we estimate changes in the number of heat-related deaths in 2050 resulting from modifications to vegetative cover and surface albedo across three climatically and demographically diverse US metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Employing separate health impact functions for average warm season and heat wave conditions in 2050, we find combinations of vegetation and albedo enhancement to offset projected increases in heat-related mortality by 40 to 99% across the three metropolitan regions. These results demonstrate the potential for extensive land surface changes in cities to provide adaptive benefits to urban populations at risk for rising heat exposure with climate change.

  6. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  7. Optimization of an Autonomous Car Controller using a Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Seong Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous cars control the steering wheel, acceleration and the brake pedal, the gears and the clutch using sensory information from multiple sources. Like a human driver, it understands the current situation on the roads from the live streaming of sensory values. The decision‐making module often suffers from the limited range of sensors and complexity due to the large number of sensors and actuators. Because it is tedious and difficult to design the controller manually from trial‐and‐error, it is desirable to use intelligent optimization algorithms. In this work, we propose optimizing the parameters of an autonomous car controller using self‐ adaptive evolutionary strategies (SAESs which co‐evolve solutions and mutation steps for each parameter. We also describe how the most generalized parameter set can be retrieved from the process of optimization. Open‐source car racing simulation software (TORCS is used to test the goodness of the proposed methods on 6 different tracks. Experimental results show that the SAES is competitive with the manual design of authors and a simple ES.

  8. Design and analysis of self-adapted task scheduling strategies in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenzhong; Xiong, Naixue; Chao, Han-Chieh; Hussain, Sajid; Chen, Guolong

    2011-01-01

    In a wireless sensor network (WSN), the usage of resources is usually highly related to the execution of tasks which consume a certain amount of computing and communication bandwidth. Parallel processing among sensors is a promising solution to provide the demanded computation capacity in WSNs. Task allocation and scheduling is a typical problem in the area of high performance computing. Although task allocation and scheduling in wired processor networks has been well studied in the past, their counterparts for WSNs remain largely unexplored. Existing traditional high performance computing solutions cannot be directly implemented in WSNs due to the limitations of WSNs such as limited resource availability and the shared communication medium. In this paper, a self-adapted task scheduling strategy for WSNs is presented. First, a multi-agent-based architecture for WSNs is proposed and a mathematical model of dynamic alliance is constructed for the task allocation problem. Then an effective discrete particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for the dynamic alliance (DPSO-DA) with a well-designed particle position code and fitness function is proposed. A mutation operator which can effectively improve the algorithm's ability of global search and population diversity is also introduced in this algorithm. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed solution can achieve significant better performance than other algorithms.

  9. Design and Analysis of Self-Adapted Task Scheduling Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Hussain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless sensor network (WSN, the usage of resources is usually highly related to the execution of tasks which consume a certain amount of computing and communication bandwidth. Parallel processing among sensors is a promising solution to provide the demanded computation capacity in WSNs. Task allocation and  scheduling is a typical problem in the area of high performance computing. Although task allocation and scheduling in wired processor networks has been well studied in the past, their counterparts for WSNs remain largely unexplored. Existing traditional high performance computing solutions cannot be directly implemented in WSNs due to the limitations of WSNs such as limited resource availability and the shared communication medium. In this paper, a self-adapted task scheduling strategy for WSNs is presented. First, a multi-agent-based architecture for WSNs is proposed and a mathematical model of dynamic alliance is constructed for the task allocation problem. Then an effective discrete particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm for the dynamic alliance (DPSO-DA with a well-designed particle position code and fitness function is proposed. A mutation operator which can effectively improve the algorithm’s ability of global search and population diversity is also introduced in this algorithm. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed solution can achieve significant better performance than other algorithms.

  10. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  11. Private adaptation strategies and implementation in flood risk management: why people do nothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyros; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    In the past decades, vulnerability assessment has emerged as an important field of research in flood risk management, in particular with respect to climate change and necessary adaptation strategies for the society. Probably starting with Chamber's seminal article on vulnerability, coping and policy (Chambers 1989), and further developed as the causal structure of vulnerability by Bohle (2001) and others, at least two research paradigms exist: an internal side focusing on societal resilience and coping capacities, and an external side targeted at a reduction of negative effects in terms of loss reduction (Fuchs 2009). Despite considerable research effects, however, different definitions and concepts still dominate the debate; it is surely that different scientific disciplines are working with this term: natural scientists, engineers, social scientists or economists, to name just a few. Each discipline defines vulnerability in a way which fits to their disciplinary purposes (Fuchs et al. 2011). But why has there been so little progress in our ability to adapt to flood hazards? White et al. (2001) summarised this paradox in an article with the title "Knowing better and losing even more - the use of knowledge in hazard management". One of the fundamental reasons for the lack of progress is the continuing separation of research on natural processes and socio-economic processes without considering interaction between these systems (Fuchs & Keiler 2013), as well as between scientific research results and the policy implementation (Medd & Marvin 2005). Moreover, as many studies were focused on the vulnerability of least developed societies to natural hazards (O'Brien et al. 2008), there is a particular lack in studies targeted at an implementation of existing adaptation frameworks at the level of highly-developed countries (Field et al. 2012; Scolobig et al. 2012). This gap results in a challenge for attempts to develop formal models into practical application and policy

  12. Adaptation strategies to pasture degradation:Gap between government and local nomads in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianzhong; WU Yingying; ZHANG Yili

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade,there has been increasing interest in climate change,pasture degradation and its driving forces,and innovations in nomadic pastoralism on the Tibetan Plateau.However,little is known of indigenous strategies of adaptation to pasture degradation,which limits the effectiveness of adaptation strategies planned by local government.This paper analyzes nomads' strategies of adaptation to pasture degradation on the basis of a field survey of three townships of Dalag County in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers.Pastures there have evidently degraded,with pastures in Wasai mainly in a state of slight or medium degradation and those in Manzhang and Jianshe in a state of medium or severe degradation.With the degradation of pasture,the grazing time is reduced,which affects the livelihoods of nomads.Although the Four-Package Project has commenced in this region,there is still severe fodder shortage in winter and spring.The traditional hay storage strategy does not work because of pasture degradation,and few nomads establish fenced and artificial pastures.Therefore,nomads have employed other strategies,such as renting pasture,providing supplementary feed,and diversifying their livelihoods.Local strategies taken by nomads can provide valuable insights into ecological restoration and livelihood improvement in the region and suggest changes to means promoted by local government.It is necessary to seek new means that combine the best aspects of nomadic pastoralism with modern stockbreeding technologies to help nomads adapt to pasture degeneration and improve their livelihoods.

  13. The Effect of Firm Strategy and Corporate Performance on Software Market Growth in Emerging Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of firm strategies and corporate performance on enterprise software market growth in emerging regions. The emerging regions of Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America, currently represent smaller overall markets for software vendors, but exhibit high growth…

  14. Innovation Vouchers and LEP Structural Funds Strategies. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This factsheet, the first in a series on innovation and growth, provides an overview of the benefits of innovation vouchers, and gives some examples of how universities and Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) are including them in their European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) strategies. [For the second factsheet in the series,…

  15. Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and the Role of Planning Instruments - The Example of the Dresden Region (Saxony/Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J.; Juta, K.; Nobis, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the past, identifying anthropogenic influences on climate change, scenario analyses and issues of climate change mitigation were predominant approaches in climate change research (IPCC 2007). Currently, for instance in Germany, climate impact research on regional level comes to the forefront of research and policy making. Climate change has become an important topic on the agenda of politicians, administration and planning. In order to counteract the (unavoidable) climate change and its impacts it is necessary to develop adaptation strategies. At present, such strategies and guidelines are formulated on international, supranational and national level. The initial point was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 where the contracting states obligated themselves to develop national (and regional) programmes for adaptation. In 2007 the European Commission published its Green Paper called Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe. The paper states that adaptation efforts have to be intensified at different (spatial) levels (local, regional, national, and so forth). Furthermore, coordinating these efforts is of high importance. With the recent agreement on the German Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (DAS 2008) in December 2008, federal government tries to accomplish this task. The German strategy mainly focuses on two elements: decreasing vulnerability and increasing adaptability. While the above mentioned strategies have presented information and policies concerning climate change and adaptation on international, supranational and national level, such documents dońt yet exist on regional level. However, because of their close link to the local level the regions are of high importance for adaptation strategies. Therefore, the Leibniz-Institute of Ecological and Regional Development developed a transdisciplinary project to formulate and implement the so-called Integrated Regional Climate Adaptation Programme (IRCAP) for the Model Region

  16. Adaptive growth of tree root systems in response to wind action and site conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Bruce C.; Ray, Duncan

    1996-01-01

    Soil-root plate dimensions and structural root architecture were examined on 46-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) trees that had been mechanically uprooted. Rooting depth was restricted by a water table, and root system morphology had adapted to resist the wind movement associated with shallow rooting. The spread of the root system and the ratio of root mass to shoot mass (root/shoot ratio) were both negatively related to soil-root plate depth. Root systems had more structural root mass on the leeward side than the windward side of the tree relative to the prevailing wind direction. Cross sections of structural roots were obtained at distances of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 m from the tree center. Buttressed parts of roots had greater lateral and vertical secondary thickening above rather than below the biological center. This uneven growth, which produced a shape similar in cross section to a T-beam, was greater on the leeward side of the tree, and was greatest at 0.5 m from the tree center of shallow rooted trees. Further from the tree, particularly on the windward side, many roots developed eccentric cross-sectional shapes comparable to I-beams, which would efficiently resist vertical flexing. Roots became more ovoid in shape with increasing distance from the tree, especially on deep rooted trees where lateral roots tapered rapidly to a small diameter. We conclude that these forms of adaptive growth in response to wind movement improve the rigidity of the soil-root plate and counteract the increasing vulnerability to windthrow as the tree grows.

  17. Universal approximation of extreme learning machine with adaptive growth of hidden nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Lan, Yuan; Huang, Guang-Bin; Xu, Zong-Ben

    2012-02-01

    Extreme learning machines (ELMs) have been proposed for generalized single-hidden-layer feedforward networks which need not be neuron-like and perform well in both regression and classification applications. In this brief, we propose an ELM with adaptive growth of hidden nodes (AG-ELM), which provides a new approach for the automated design of networks. Different from other incremental ELMs (I-ELMs) whose existing hidden nodes are frozen when the new hidden nodes are added one by one, in AG-ELM the number of hidden nodes is determined in an adaptive way in the sense that the existing networks may be replaced by newly generated networks which have fewer hidden nodes and better generalization performance. We then prove that such an AG-ELM using Lebesgue p-integrable hidden activation functions can approximate any Lebesgue p-integrable function on a compact input set. Simulation results demonstrate and verify that this new approach can achieve a more compact network architecture than the I-ELM.

  18. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek eWierzchos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits – conceptually called rock’s habitable architecture. Additionally self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another

  19. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits-conceptually called "rock's habitable architecture." Additionally, self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another level of adaptation.

  20. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F.; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits—conceptually called “rock's habitable architecture.” Additionally, self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another level of

  1. ADAPTATION TO UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS OF GROWTH: PATHOGENICITY OF ACHOLEPLASMA LAIDLAWII PG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Trushin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:As a result of cultivation of A. laidlawii PG8 cells on the deficient medium during 480 days, the mycoplasma culture adapted in vitro to unfavorable growth conditions was obtained. The culture consisted of cells with sizes less than 0.2 µm and features of A. laidlawii PG8 ultramicroforms, nanocells. A. laidlawii PG8 culture adapted in vitro to unfavorable growth conditions shows more evident phytopathogenicity than the unadapted one. Infecting plants V. minor L. by A. laidlawii PG8 culture adapted in vitro to UGC resulted in the appearance of chloroses in 75%, necrosis – 50%, leaves marcescence – 50% and abnormalities of bine development in 30% of plants through 12 days, while infecting plants by A. laidlawii PG8 culture unadapted to UGC led to respective signs in 40%, 25%, 25% and 0% of samples, respectively, through 30 days. The ability of A. laidlawii PG8 to form UMF resistant to stress factors in UGC with high phytopathogenic potential seems to demand a new approach to investigate the precise mechanisms of interacting the mycoplasma with host organisms.RESUMENComo resultado del cultivo de células de A. laidlawii PG8 en medio deficiente durante 480 días, fue obtenido un cultivo de mycoplasma adaptado in vitro a las condiciones desfavorables del crecimiento. El cultivo consistió en células con tamaño menor de 0.2 µm y características PG8 ultramicroformas de A. laidlawii nanocélulas. El cultivo de A. laidlawii PG8 adaptado in vitro a condiciones desfavorables del crecimiento muestra más evidente fitopatogenicidad que el inadaptado. Plantas infectadas V. minor L. por el cultivo del A. laidlawii PG8 adaptado in vitro a UGC dio como resultado la aparición de clorosis en el 75%, necrosis en el 50%, marcescencia de las hojas en el 50% y anormalidades del desarrollo del bine en el 30% de plantas a los 12 días, mientras que las plantas infectadas por el cultivo del A. laidlawii PG8 inadaptado a UGC, condujo a dichos signos en

  2. An adaptive ARX model to estimate the RUL of aluminum plates based on its crack growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Barraza, Diana; Tercero-Gómez, Víctor G.; Beruvides, Mario G.; Limón-Robles, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    A wide variety of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) techniques deal with the problem of predicting the time for an asset fault. Most statistical approaches rely on historical failure data that might not be available in several practical situations. To address this issue, practitioners might require the use of self-starting approaches that consider only the available knowledge about the current degradation process and the asset operating context to update the prognostic model. Some authors use Autoregressive (AR) models for this purpose that are adequate when the asset operating context is constant, however, if it is variable, the accuracy of the models can be affected. In this paper, three autoregressive models with exogenous variables (ARX) were constructed, and their capability to estimate the remaining useful life (RUL) of a process was evaluated following the case of the aluminum crack growth problem. An existing stochastic model of aluminum crack growth was implemented and used to assess RUL estimation performance of the proposed ARX models through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Point and interval estimations were made based only on individual history, behavior, operating conditions and failure thresholds. Both analytic and bootstrapping techniques were used in the estimation process. Finally, by including recursive parameter estimation and a forgetting factor, the ARX methodology adapts to changing operating conditions and maintain the focus on the current degradation level of an asset.

  3. Stiffener Layout Optimization of Inlet Structure for Electrostatic Precipitator by Improved Adaptive Growth Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The inlet structure is the main part of an electrostatic precipitator, so its mechanical properties, including the static strength, stiffness, and vibration characteristics, play an important role in the structural safety. In order to achieve good mechanical performance and lightweight of the inlet structure, an optimal design method, which is based on growth mechanism of the branching systems in nature and optimality criteria, named the improved adaptive growth method, is suggested. The method is applied to optimize the stiffener layout of the inlet structure, and the multiobjective optimization mathematical model which consists of the minimum compliance and the maximum natural frequency is considered. The optimality criteria method is applied to solve the design problem. The design result shows that the suggested method is effective, compared with the empirical design of the inlet structure, the weight of the optimal structure is reduced by 3.0%, while the global stiffness and the first natural frequency are increased by 18.83% and 4.66%, respectively.

  4. Growth strategies of tropical tree species: disentangling light and size effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Rüger

    Full Text Available An understanding of the drivers of tree growth at the species level is required to predict likely changes of carbon stocks and biodiversity when environmental conditions change. Especially in species-rich tropical forests, it is largely unknown how species differ in their response of growth to resource availability and individual size. We use a hierarchical bayesian approach to quantify the impact of light availability and tree diameter on growth of 274 woody species in a 50-ha long-term forest census plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Light reaching each individual tree was estimated from yearly vertical censuses of canopy density. The hierarchical bayesian approach allowed accounting for different sources of error, such as negative growth observations, and including rare species correctly weighted by their abundance. All species grew faster at higher light. Exponents of a power function relating growth to light were mostly between 0 and 1. This indicates that nearly all species exhibit a decelerating increase of growth with light. In contrast, estimated growth rates at standardized conditions (5 cm dbh, 5% light varied over a 9-fold range and reflect strong growth-strategy differentiation between the species. As a consequence, growth rankings of the species at low (2% and high light (20% were highly correlated. Rare species tended to grow faster and showed a greater sensitivity to light than abundant species. Overall, tree size was less important for growth than light and about half the species were predicted to grow faster in diameter when bigger or smaller, respectively. Together light availability and tree diameter only explained on average 12% of the variation in growth rates. Thus, other factors such as soil characteristics, herbivory, or pathogens may contribute considerably to shaping tree growth in the tropics.

  5. An adaptive coupling strategy for joint inversions that use petrophysical information as constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heincke, Björn; Jegen, Marion; Moorkamp, Max; Hobbs, Richard W.; Chen, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Joint inversion strategies for geophysical data have become increasingly popular as they allow for the efficient combination of complementary information from different data sets. The algorithm used for the joint inversion needs to be flexible in its description of the subsurface so as to be able to handle the diverse nature of the data. Hence, joint inversion schemes are needed that 1) adequately balance data from the different methods, 2) have stable convergence behavior, 3) consider the different resolution power of the methods used and 4) link the parameter models in a way that they are suited for a wide range of applications. Here, we combine active source seismic P-wave tomography, gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) data in a petrophysical joint inversion that accounts for these issues. Data from the different methods are inverted separately but are linked through constraints accounting for parameter relationships. An advantage of performing the inversions separately is that no relative weighting between the data sets is required. To avoid perturbing the convergence behavior of the inversions by the coupling, the strengths of the constraints are readjusted at each iteration. The criterion we use to control the adaption of the coupling strengths is based on variations in the objective functions of the individual inversions from one to the next iteration. Adaption of the coupling strengths makes the joint inversion scheme also applicable to subsurface conditions, where assumed relationships are not valid everywhere, because the individual inversions decouple if it is not possible to reach adequately low data misfits for the made assumptions. In addition, the coupling constraints depend on the relative resolutions of the methods, which leads to an improved convergence behavior of the joint inversion. Another benefit of the proposed scheme is that structural information can easily be incorporated in the petrophysical joint inversion (no additional terms are added

  6. Genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies in four closely related bromeliads adapted to neotropical ‘inselbergs’: Alcantarea glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis (Bromeliaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbará, Thelma; Martinelli, Gustavo; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Fay, Michael F.; Mayo, Simon; Lexer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) adapted to rock outcrops or ‘inselbergs’ in neotropical rain forests have been identified as suitable plant models for studying population divergence and speciation during continental plant radiations. Little is known about genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies within and among inselberg-adapted species, yet knowledge of these parameters is important for understanding divergence processes and for conservation planning. Methods Nuclear microsatellites were used to assess the role of clonal reproduction, estimate genetic diversity and explore genetic relationships and variation in reproductive strategies for a total of 15 populations of four closely related Alcantarea inselberg species in south-eastern Brazil: A. glaziouana, A. regina, A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Key Results Clonal propagation is frequent in coastal populations of A. glaziouana and A. regina, but absent in the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis. Considerable variation in clonal diversity, gene diversity (He), allelic richness, and Wright's inbreeding coefficient (FIS) exists within and between species of Alcantarea. A Bayesian analysis of coastal inselberg species indicated pronounced genetic structure. A neighbor-joining analysis grouped populations of each species together with moderate bootstrap support, except for the high altitude species A. imperialis. Conclusions The coastal inselberg species A. glaziouana and A. regina tend to propagate asexually via vegetative clonal growth, and both reproductive strategies and breeding systems vary greatly between populations and species of Alcantarea. The microsatellite data indicate a history of hybridization and reticulation involving the high-altitude species A. geniculata and A. imperialis in areas of co-occurrence. The results highlight the need to understand similarities and differences in reproductive strategies both within and between related species

  7. Simulating the Impact of Economic and Environmental Strategies on Future Urban Growth Scenarios in Ningbo, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities in China are challenged by multiple growth paths and strategies related to demands in the housing market, economic growth and eco-system protection. This paper examines the effects of conflicting strategies between economic growth and environmental protection on future urban scenarios in Ningbo, China, through logistic-regression-based cellular automata (termed LogCA modeling. The LogCA model is calibrated based on the observed urban patterns in 1990 and 2015, and applied to simulate four future scenarios in 2040, including (a the Norm-scenario, a baseline scenario that maintains the 1990–2015 growth rate; (b the GDP-scenario, a GDP-oriented growth scenario emphasizing the development in city centers and along economic corridors; (c the Slow-scenario, a slow-growth scenario considering the potential downward trend of the housing market in China; and (d the Eco-scenario, a slow-growth scenario emphasizing natural conservation and ecosystem protections. The CA parameters of the Norm- and Slow-scenarios are the same as the calibrated parameters, while the parameters of proximities to economic corridors and natural scenery sites were increased by a factor of 3 for the GDP- and Eco-scenarios, respectively. The Norm- and GDP-scenarios predicted 1950 km2 of new growth for the next 25 years, the Slow-scenario predicted 650 km2, and the Eco-scenario predicted less growth than the Slow-scenario. The locations where the newly built-up area will emerge are significantly different under the four scenarios and the Slow- and Eco-scenarios are preferable to achieve long-term sustainability. The scenarios are not only helpful for exploring sustainable urban development options in China, but also serve as a reference for adjusting the urban planning and land policies.

  8. Human Vulnerability to Climate Variability in the Sahel: Farmers' Adaptation Strategies in Northern Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Bruno; Yacouba, Hamma; Karambiri, Harouna; Zoromé, Malick; Somé, Blaise

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigate farmers’ vulnerability to climate variability and evaluate local adoption of technology and farmers’ perceptions of adaptation strategies to rainfall variability and policies. A survey was conducted in a community in northern Burkina Faso following the crop failure of 2004. In 2006, following a better harvest, another survey was conducted to compare farmers’ actions and reactions during two contrasted rainy seasons. The results confirm that farmers from this community have substantially changed their practices during the last few decades. They have adopted a wide range of techniques that are intended to simultaneously increase crop yield and reduce yield variability. Micro water harvesting (Zaï) techniques have been widely adopted (41%), and a majority of fields have been improved with stone lines (60%). Hay (48%) and sorghum residues are increasingly stored to feed animals during the dry season, making bull and sheep fattening now a common practice. Dry season vegetable production also involves a majority of the population (60%). According to farmers, most of the new techniques have been adopted because of growing land scarcity and new market opportunities, rather than because of climate variability. Population pressure has reached a critical threshold, while land scarcity, declining soil fertility and reduced animal mobility have pushed farmers to intensify agricultural production. These techniques reduce farmers’ dependency on rainfall but are still insufficient to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Thirty-nine percent of the population remains vulnerable after a good rainy season. Despite farmers’ desire to remain in their own communities, migrations are likely to remain a major source of regular income and form of recourse in the event of droughts.

  9. IL-18 inhibits growth of murine orthotopic prostate carcinomas via both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wan-Chi Tse

    Full Text Available Interleukin(IL-18 is a pleiotrophic cytokine with functions in immune modulation, angiogenesis and bone metabolism. In this study, the potential of IL-18 as an immunotherapy for prostate cancer (PCa was examined using the murine model of prostate carcinoma, RM1 and a bone metastatic variant RM1(BM/B4H7-luc. RM1 and RM1(BM/B4H7-luc cells were stably transfected to express bioactive IL-18. These cells were implanted into syngeneic immunocompetent mice, with or without an IL-18-neutralising antibody (αIL-18, SK113AE4. IL-18 significantly inhibited the growth of both subcutaneous and orthotopic RM1 tumors and the IL-18 neutralizing antibody abrogated the tumor growth-inhibition. In vivo neutralization of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ completely eliminated the anti-tumor effects of IL-18 confirming an essential role of IFN-γ as a down-stream mediator of the anti-tumor activity of IL-18. Tumors from mice in which IL-18 and/or IFN-γ was neutralized contained significantly fewer CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells than those with functional IL-18. The essential role of adaptive immunity was demonstrated as tumors grew more rapidly in RAG1(-/- mice or in mice depleted of CD4(+ and/or CD8(+ cells than in normal mice. The tumors in RAG1(-/- mice were also significantly smaller when IL-18 was present, indicating that innate immune mechanisms are involved. IL-18 also induced an increase in tumor infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils but not NK cells. In other experiments, direct injection of recombinant IL-18 into established tumors also inhibited tumor growth, which was associated with an increase in intratumoral macrophages, but not T cells. These results suggest that local IL-18 in the tumor environment can significantly potentiate anti-tumor immunity in the prostate and clearly demonstrate that this effect is mediated by innate and adaptive immune mechanisms.

  10. Intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in rats with ileal--jejunal transposition or small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B; Kissow, Hannelouise;

    2001-01-01

    , and twofold in the distally resected group. Tissue GLP-2 levels were unchanged in resected rats. The data indicate that transposition of a distal part of the small intestine, and thereby exposure of L cells to a more nutrient-rich chyme, leads to intestinal growth. The adaptive intestinal growth is associated......Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), produced by enteroendocrine L-cells, regulates intestinal growth. This study investigates circulating and intestinal GLP-2 levels in conditions with altered L-cell exposure to nutrients. Rats were allocated to the following experimental groups: ileal...... GLP-2 levels in the intestinal segments were unchanged. In resected rats with reduced intestinal capacity, adaptive small bowel growth was more pronounced following proximal resection than distal small bowel resection. Circulating GLP-2 levels increased threefold in proximally resected animals...

  11. Galectin-3 Determines Tumor Cell Adaptive Strategies in Stressed Tumor Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Andrade, Luciana Nogueira de Sousa; Bustos, Silvina Odete; Chammas, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a member of the β-galactoside-binding lectin family, whose expression is often dysregulated in cancers. While galectin-3 is usually an intracellular protein found in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, under certain conditions, galectin-3 can be secreted by an yet unknown mechanism. Under stressing conditions (e.g., hypoxia and nutrient deprivation) galectin-3 is upregulated, through the activity of transcription factors, such as HIF-1α and NF-κB. Here, we review evidence that indicates a positive role for galectin-3 in MAPK family signal transduction, leading to cell proliferation and cell survival. Galectin-3 serves as a scaffold protein, which favors the spatial organization of signaling proteins as K-RAS. Upon secretion, extracellular galectin-3 interacts with a variety of cell surface glycoproteins, such as growth factor receptors, integrins, cadherins, and members of the Notch family, among other glycoproteins, besides different extracellular matrix molecules. Through its ability to oligomerize, galectin-3 forms lectin lattices that act as scaffolds that sustain the spatial organization of signaling receptors on the cell surface, dictating its maintenance on the plasma membrane or their endocytosis. Galectin-3 induces tumor cell, endothelial cell, and leukocyte migration, favoring either the exit of tumor cells from a stressed microenvironment or the entry of endothelial cells and leukocytes, such as monocytes/macrophages into the tumor organoid. Therefore, galectin-3 plays homeostatic roles in tumors, as (i) it favors tumor cell adaptation for survival in stressed conditions; (ii) upon secretion, galectin-3 induces tumor cell detachment and migration; and (iii) it attracts monocyte/macrophage and endothelial cells to the tumor mass, inducing both directly and indirectly the process of angiogenesis. The two latter activities are potentially targetable, and specific interventions may be designed to counteract the protumoral role of extracellular

  12. Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter J; Jian, Jun

    2011-12-13

    The uncertainty associated with predicting extreme weather events has serious implications for the developing world, owing to the greater societal vulnerability to such events. Continual exposure to unanticipated extreme events is a contributing factor for the descent into perpetual and structural rural poverty. We provide two examples of how probabilistic environmental prediction of extreme weather events can support dynamic adaptation. In the current climate era, we describe how short-term flood forecasts have been developed and implemented in Bangladesh. Forecasts of impending floods with horizons of 10 days are used to change agricultural practices and planning, store food and household items and evacuate those in peril. For the first time in Bangladesh, floods were anticipated in 2007 and 2008, with broad actions taking place in advance of the floods, grossing agricultural and household savings measured in units of annual income. We argue that probabilistic environmental forecasts disseminated to an informed user community can reduce poverty caused by exposure to unanticipated extreme events. Second, it is also realized that not all decisions in the future can be made at the village level and that grand plans for water resource management require extensive planning and funding. Based on imperfect models and scenarios of economic and population growth, we further suggest that flood frequency and intensity will increase in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Yangtze catchments as greenhouse-gas concentrations increase. However, irrespective of the climate-change scenario chosen, the availability of fresh water in the latter half of the twenty-first century seems to be dominated by population increases that far outweigh climate-change effects. Paradoxically, fresh water availability may become more critical if there is no climate change.

  13. Growth factor receptors and related signalling pathways as targets for novel treatment strategies of hepatocellular cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Hopfner; Detlef Schuppan; Hans Scherübl

    2008-01-01

    Growth factors and their corresponding receptors are commonly overexpressed and/or dysregulated in many cancers including hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Clinical trials indicate that growth factor receptors and their related signalling pathways play important roles in HCC cancer etiology and progression, thus providing rational targets for innovative cancer therapies. A number of strategies including monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors ("small molecule inhibitors") and antisense oligonucleotides have already been evaluated for their potency to inhibit the activity and downstream signalling cascades of these receptors in HCC. First clinical trials have also shown that multi-kinase inhibition is an effective novel treatment strategy in HCC. In this respect sorafenib, an inhibitor of Raf-, VEGF- and PDGF-signalling, is the first multi-kinase inhibitor that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of advanced HCC. Moreover, the serine-threonine kinase of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) upon which the signalling of several growth factor receptors converge plays a central role in cancer cell proliferation, mTOR inhibition of HCC is currently also being studied in preclinical trials. As HCCs represent hypervascularized neoplasms, inhibition of tumour vessel formation via interfering with the VEGF/VEGFR system is another promising approach in HCC treatment. This review will summarize the current status of the various growth factor receptor-based treatment strategies and in view of the multitude of novel targeted approaches, the rationale for combination therapies for advanced HCC treatment will also be taken into account.

  14. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  15. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesje Coertjens

    Full Text Available The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  16. SELF-ADAPTIVE STRATEGY FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD BASED ON ELEMENT ENERGY PROJECTION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Si; HE Xue-feng

    2006-01-01

    Based on the newly-developed element energy projection (EEP) method for computation of super-convergent results in one-dimensional finite element method (FEM),the task of self-adaptive FEM analysis was converted into the task of adaptive piecewise polynomial interpolation. As a result, a satisfactory FEM mesh can be obtained, and further FEM analysis on this mesh would immediately produce an FEM solution which usually satisfies the user specified error tolerance. Even though the error tolerance was not completely satisfied, one or two steps of further local refinements would be sufficient.This strategy was found to be very simple, rapid, cheap and efficient. Taking the elliptical ordinary differential equation of second order as the model problem, the fundamental idea,implementation strategy and detailed algorithm are described. Representative numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed approach.

  17. A Support Method with Changeable Training Strategies Based on Mutual Adaptation between a Ubiquitous Pet and a Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianzhi; Jing, Lei; Kansen, Mizuo; Wang, Junbo; Ota, Kaoru; Cheng, Zixue

    With the progress of ubiquitous technology, ubiquitous learning presents new opportunities to learners. Situations of a learner can be grasped through analyzing the learner's actions collected by sensors, RF-IDs, or cameras in order to provide support at proper time, proper place, and proper situation. Training for acquiring skills and enhancing physical abilities through exercise and experience in the real world is an important domain in u-learning. A training program may last for several days and has one or more training units (exercises) for a day. A learner's performance in a unit is considered as short term state. The performance in a series of units may change with patterns: progress, plateau, and decline. Long term state in a series of units is accumulatively computed based on short term states. In a learning/training program, it is necessary to apply different support strategies to adapt to different states of the learner. Adaptation in learning support is significant, because a learner loses his/her interests easily without adaptation. Systems with the adaptive support usually provide stimulators to a learner, and a learner can have a great motivation in learning at beginning. However, when the stimulators reach some levels, the learner may lose his/her motivation, because the long term state of the learner changes dynamically, which means a progress state may change to a plateau state or a decline state. In different long term learning states, different types of stimulators are needed. However, the stimulators and advice provided by the existing systems are monotonic without changeable support strategies. We propose a mutual adaptive support. The mutual adaptation means each of the system and the learner has their own states. On one hand, the system tries to change its state to adapt to the learner's state for providing adaptive support. On the other hand, the learner can change its performance following the advice given based on the state of the system

  18. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Han; Wu Qiuwen, E-mail: Qiuwen.Wu@Duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2011-08-07

    For prostate cancer patients, online image-guided (IG) radiotherapy has been widely used in clinic to correct the translational inter-fractional motion at each treatment fraction. For uncertainties that cannot be corrected online, such as rotation and deformation of the target volume, margins are still required to be added to the clinical target volume (CTV) for the treatment planning. Offline adaptive radiotherapy has been implemented to optimize the treatment for each individual patient based on the measurements at early stages of treatment process. It has been shown that offline adaptive radiotherapy can effectively reduce the required margin. Recently a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive replanning and online IG was proposed and the geometric evaluation was performed. It was found that the planning margins can further be reduced by 1-2 mm compared to online IG only strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of such a hybrid strategy on the target and organs at risk. A total of 420 repeated helical computed tomography scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles, SV) were included in the simulation. Two registration methods, based on center-of-mass shift of prostate only and prostate plus SV, were performed for IRP. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in the simulation. Criteria on both cumulative and fractional doses were evaluated. Furthermore, the geometric evaluation was extended to investigate the optimal number of fractions necessary to construct the internal target volume (ITV) for the hybrid strategy. The dosimetric margin improvement was smaller than its geometric counterpart and was in the range of 0-1 mm. The optimal number of fractions necessary for the ITV construction is 2 for LRPs and 3-4 for IRPs in a hypofractionation protocol. A new cumulative index of target volume was proposed

  19. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Wu, Qiuwen

    2011-08-01

    For prostate cancer patients, online image-guided (IG) radiotherapy has been widely used in clinic to correct the translational inter-fractional motion at each treatment fraction. For uncertainties that cannot be corrected online, such as rotation and deformation of the target volume, margins are still required to be added to the clinical target volume (CTV) for the treatment planning. Offline adaptive radiotherapy has been implemented to optimize the treatment for each individual patient based on the measurements at early stages of treatment process. It has been shown that offline adaptive radiotherapy can effectively reduce the required margin. Recently a hybrid strategy of offline adaptive replanning and online IG was proposed and the geometric evaluation was performed. It was found that the planning margins can further be reduced by 1-2 mm compared to online IG only strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric benefits of such a hybrid strategy on the target and organs at risk. A total of 420 repeated helical computed tomography scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles, SV) were included in the simulation. Two registration methods, based on center-of-mass shift of prostate only and prostate plus SV, were performed for IRP. The intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in the simulation. Criteria on both cumulative and fractional doses were evaluated. Furthermore, the geometric evaluation was extended to investigate the optimal number of fractions necessary to construct the internal target volume (ITV) for the hybrid strategy. The dosimetric margin improvement was smaller than its geometric counterpart and was in the range of 0-1 mm. The optimal number of fractions necessary for the ITV construction is 2 for LRPs and 3-4 for IRPs in a hypofractionation protocol. A new cumulative index of target volume was proposed

  20. Predicting long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement: the unique contributions of motivation and cognitive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10; Mage  = 11.7 years at baseline; N = 3,530), latent growth curve modeling was employed to analyze growth in achievement. Results showed that the initial level of achievement was strongly related to intelligence, with motivation and cognitive strategies explaining additional variance. In contrast, intelligence had no relation with the growth of achievement over years, whereas motivation and learning strategies were predictors of growth. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and learning strategies in facilitating adolescents' development of mathematical competencies.

  1. Comparison of mixotrophic to cyclic autotrophic/heterotrophic growth strategies to optimize productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenen, Jonathan Myerson; De Francisci, Davide; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    In addition to providing cheap or free mineral nutrients, wastewaters may contain organic carbon compounds that could increase productivity of algal cultures. This study defined a strategy for the addition of organic carbon to photobioreactors in order to improve their productivity compared...... to autotrophic growth. Chlorella sorokiniana was cultivated in medium supplemented with sodium acetate in concentrations equivalent to the volatile fatty acid concentration found in anaerobic digester effluent. Flat-panel photobioreactors were operated using 16:8 light:dark cycles, with different strategies...... in an increased efficiency of the photobioreactor....

  2. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  3. ADAPTATIONS OF STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES AS ASSISTENCE TO THE PRACTICE OF BADMINTON FOR CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Rebouças de Paiva e Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Children who have intellectual disability plenty of times are deprived from the same opportunities of those who don`t. Concerning sports, these opportunities are still just a few, and in many cases, scarce. In order to make the children learn a sport and use the benefits that it provides, the teacher needs to use teaching strategies and pedagogical resources that give support to the teaching process - learning of the children who have intellectual deficiencies. Having these ideas as the starting point, the project pursued to construct/adapt teaching strategies and pedagogical resources to teach badminton to children with intellectual disabilities. Once week-classes with duration of 50 minutes each (all of them having intellectual deficiency diagnosis have been applied at APAE in Presidente Prudente. Badminton has been developed through the division of its fundaments. Relating to the ability of holding the racquets,it has been observed that 71,4% of the students need an adaptation concerning the pedagogical resources. Relating to the service reception and ball hitting, it has been found out that 100% of the students need adaptation. It was concluded that teaching strategies and pedagogical resources are extremely precious to perfect the teaching/learning process of people with intellectual disabilities.

  4. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive prolonged exercise training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, L.J.C.; Tipton, K.D.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Meeusen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response prolonged exercis

  5. An hp-adaptive strategy for the solution of the exact kernel curved wire Pocklington equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahaye, D.; Hemker, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an adaptive method for the numerical solution of the Pocklington integro-differential equation with exact kernel for the current induced in a smoothly curved thin wire antenna. The hp-adaptive technique is based on the representation of the discrete solution, which is expa

  6. The function of stilt roots in the growth strategy of Socratea exorrhiza (Arecaceae) at two neotropical sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Gregory R; Zahawi, Rakan A

    2007-01-01

    Arboreal palms have developed a variety of structural root modifications and systems to adapt to the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical rain forests. Stilt roots have been proposed to serve a number of functions including the facilitation of rapid vertical growth to the canopy and enhanced mechanical stability. To examine whether stilt roots provide these functions, we compared stilt root characteristics of the neotropical palm tree Socratea exorrhiza on sloped (>20 degrees) and flat locations at two lowland neotropical sites. S. exorrhiza (n=80 trees) did not demonstrate differences in number of roots, vertical stilt root height, root cone circumference, root cone volume, or location of roots as related to slope. However, we found positive relationships between allocation to vertical growth and stilt root architecture including root cone circumference, number of roots, and root cone volume. Accordingly, stilt roots may allow S. exorrhiza to increase height and maintain mechanical stability without having to concurrently invest in increased stem diameter and underground root structure. This strategy likely increases the species ability to rapidly exploit light gaps as compared to non-stilt root palms and may also enhance survival as mature trees approach the theoretical limits of their mechanical stability.

  7. Renewable energy to develop adaptation strategies to the climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadio, Pieranna; Bergonzoli, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Changes in land use and combustion of fossil fuels have been largest human impact on the global carbon cycle and without a complete accounting of net greenhouse-gas (GHG) fluxes, developing and evaluating adaptation strategies are not possible. The major source of GHG fluxes associated with crop production are soil N2O emissions, soil CO2 and methane (CH4) fluxes, and CO2 emission associated with agricultural inputs and farm equipment operation. This study points out the main principles which are at the base of solar energy use for sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Field tests were carried out in order to compare crop yield and solar pump plant performance, for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, connected to drip irrigation and sprinkler system plants during the irrigation season. The system mainly consists of the parts listed here: set of flat photovoltaic panels consisting of 150 panels for a total of 3000 W peak value once installed, connected in serial-parallel to obtain a 120 Vdc operating voltage rating. The panels utilize 36 serially connected single-crystal silicon cells providing a 12 V voltage rating. The serial connection of 10 panels generates the system's operating voltage rating (120 Vdc). The total 3000 W peak value power is obtained by connecting in parallel 15 serial-strings. When the circuit is open, the voltage at the ends of the panels can reach 210 Volts. The photovoltaic system supplies, through an inverter, a three-phase 1.6 kW canned pump located in the artesian well. The relevant hydraulic line connects this pump to the various utilities. The hydraulic capacity of the helium pump has been used during the irrigation season in order to meet the water needs of a corn crop. Therefore, along with the solar pump was used a dispersing wing type drip irrigation system with double chamber hosing (70 kPa operating pressure), with external holes spaced 0.3 m apart, 0.75 m distance between the wings, wing length 120 m and placed

  8. Ancient clam gardens increased shellfish production: adaptive strategies from the past can inform food security today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groesbeck, Amy S; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today.

  9. Ancient clam gardens increased shellfish production: adaptive strategies from the past can inform food security today.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Groesbeck

    Full Text Available Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today.

  10. Analysis of the Connections between EU Economic Growth and the Lisbon Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu MARINAŞ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to offer an explanation for themotivation to implement the Lisbon Strategy, its main failures and itsimpact upon EU economic growth process. The Lisbon Strategy, whichwas adopted in 2000, should have resulted in the structural change of theEuropean Union’s economy until 2010, if taking into consideration thepromotion of a sustainable economic growth, which could encourage theincrease of employment and the provision of economic and socialcohesion. Thus, the European economy should have get its dynamismback which it had before the oil shocks (when it had the “Thirty gloriousyears”, under the terms of the increase in competitiveness within aglobal economy and of the direction towards knowledge based economy.

  11. Climate Change and Waterborne Diarrhoea in Northern India: Impact and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Eddy; Singh, Tanya; Siderius, Christian; Balakrishnan, Sneha; Mishra, Arabinda

    2013-04-01

    Although some studies showed the vulnerability of human health to climate change (e.g. 22.000 to 45.000 excess mortality cases during the heat waves in Europe, or the association of malaria outbreaks with El Niño) a clear quantification of the increased risks attributable to climate change is often lacking. Even more complicated are the assessments of the adaptation measures for this sector. Adaptation measures are in most cases very site specific. We discuss the impact of climate change on diarrhoea as a representative of waterborne disease affecting human health in the Ganges basin of Northern India. India is by far the leading country when it comes to child mortality under five years caused by diarrhoea and accounted for 386.600 deaths in 2007. Estimates on the increased risk of diarrhoea as a result of increased temperature in the 2030ies range between 8-11%. Uncertainties around these estimates mainly relate to the few studies that have characterized the exposure-response relationship and inter-model discrepancy of climate models. The influence of other climate parameters than temperature on diarrhoea in the future has not been assessed. As empirical studies and surveillance data for India are lacking we developed a conceptual framework for climate exposure-response relationships based on a literature review and applied it to future climate projections for the Ganges basin. Four climate variables are analysed: temperature, increased/extreme precipitation, decreased precipitation/droughts and relative humidity. In an analysis of reports on diarrhoea outbreaks we show the spatial and temporal distribution over the subcontinent. Most cases of diarrhoea occur during the hot summer (23%) and the wet and humid monsoon (57%) months. These reports often suggest sewage and pipe leakage as the leading cause of the local outbreaks. We demonstrate the applicability of the conceptual framework for the two districts in West Bengal, North and South 24 Parganas. All climate

  12. Optimal Therapeutic Strategy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Mutated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong SHI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs have been widely used in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, it is still controversial about how to combine EGFR-TKI with chemotherapy and other targeted drugs. We have made a summary on the current therapeutic models of EGFR-TKI combined with chemotherapy/bevacizumab in this review and aimed to find the optimal therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation.

  13. Cis and trans RET signaling control the survival and central projection growth of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Michael S; Vysochan, Anna; Paixão, Sόnia; Niu, Jingwen; Klein, Rüdiger; Savitt, Joseph M; Luo, Wenqin

    2015-04-02

    RET can be activated in cis or trans by its co-receptors and ligands in vitro, but the physiological roles of trans signaling are unclear. Rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) express Ret and the co-receptor Gfrα2 and depend on Ret for survival and central projection growth. Here, we show that Ret and Gfrα2 null mice display comparable early central projection deficits, but Gfrα2 null RA mechanoreceptors recover later. Loss of Gfrα1, the co-receptor implicated in activating RET in trans, causes no significant central projection or cell survival deficit, but Gfrα1;Gfrα2 double nulls phenocopy Ret nulls. Finally, we demonstrate that GFRα1 produced by neighboring DRG neurons activates RET in RA mechanoreceptors. Taken together, our results suggest that trans and cis RET signaling could function in the same developmental process and that the availability of both forms of activation likely enhances but not diversifies outcomes of RET signaling.

  14. Comparison of 3D Adaptive Remeshing Strategies for Finite Element Simulations of Electromagnetic Heating of Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhil Mezghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles are well known, but the study of their thermal behavior is in its infancy. However the local heating of surrounding medium, induced by illuminated nanostructures, opens the way to new sensors and devices. Consequently the accurate calculation of the electromagnetically induced heating of nanostructures is of interest. The proposed multiphysics problem cannot be directly solved with the classical refinement method of Comsol Multiphysics and a 3D adaptive remeshing process based on an a posteriori error estimator is used. In this paper the efficiency of three remeshing strategies for solving the multiphysics problem is compared. The first strategy uses independent remeshing for each physical quantity to reach a given accuracy. The second strategy only controls the accuracy on temperature. The third strategy uses a linear combination of the two normalized targets (the electric field intensity and the temperature. The analysis of the performance of each strategy is based on the convergence of the remeshing process in terms of number of elements. The efficiency of each strategy is also characterized by the number of computation iterations, the number of elements, the CPU time, and the RAM required to achieve a given target accuracy.

  15. Designing Growth Strategies for Romanian Offshore Outsourcing Vendors: Deploying Competitive Intelligence from Indian Software Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta SAMTANI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to derive growth strategies for three Romanian software developers involved in offshore outsourcing, by deploying competitive intelligence on the top offshore players from India. The paper revolves around two key assumptions. One is that Romanian companies are growing the way Indian companies did few years ago and so it would be important to analyse the strategies that they had adopted to reach their present potential. Second, there is a set of factors common to all industry players whether in India or Romania as the industry is global in nature, so it would really be important to collect information about how are these global competitors planning to mitigate the environmental threats and to take advantage of the opportunities being presented by the changes in the external environment. For the three Romanian companies whose managers accepted to be included in our study, the main strategic option they want to pursue is market penetration. Taking cue from the strategies adopted by their Indian counterparts, the study recommends growth strategies for these Romanian players.

  16. ADAPTATION OF CRACK GROWTH DETECTION TECHNIQUES TO US MATERIAL TEST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Joseph Palmer; Sebastien P. Teysseyre; Kurt L. Davis; Gordon Kohse; Yakov Ostrovsky; David M. Carpenter; Joy L. Rempe

    2015-04-01

    A key component in evaluating the ability of Light Water Reactors to operate beyond 60 years is characterizing the degradation of materials exposed to radiation and various water chemistries. Of particular concern is the response of reactor materials to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC). Some test reactors outside the United States, such as the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), have developed techniques to measure crack growth propagation during irradiation. The basic approach is to use a custom-designed compact loading mechanism to stress the specimen during irradiation, while the crack in the specimen is monitored in-situ using the Direct Current Potential Drop (DCPD) method. In 2012 the US Department of Energy commissioned the Idaho National Laboratory and the MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (MIT NRL) to take the basic concepts developed at the HBWR and adapt them to a test rig capable of conducting in-pile IASCC tests in US Material Test Reactors. The first two and half years of the project consisted of designing and testing the loader mechanism, testing individual components of the in-pile rig and electronic support equipment, and autoclave testing of the rig design prior to insertion in the MIT Reactor. The load was applied to the specimen by means of a scissor like mechanism, actuated by a miniature metal bellows driven by pneumatic pressure and sized to fit within the small in-core irradiation volume. In addition to the loader design, technical challenges included developing robust connections to the specimen for the applied current and voltage measurements, appropriate ceramic insulating materials that can endure the LWR environment, dealing with the high electromagnetic noise environment of a reactor core at full power, and accommodating material property changes in the specimen, due primarily to fast neutron damage, which change the specimen resistance without additional crack growth. The project culminated with an in

  17. [Relationships between seed size and seedling growth strategy of herbaceous plant: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gao-lin; Du, Guo-zhen

    2008-01-01

    Seed size and seedling recruitment strategy are of importance in the life-history strategy of plant. In this paper, the current ecological researches at home and aboard on the relationships between seed size and seedling growth were reviewed from the aspects of the effects of seed size on seed germination and seedling emergence, the relationships between seed size and seedling growth traits, and the relationships between seed size and seedling survival and competition ability. Some suggestions on future researches in this field were put forward. There were likely different relationships between seed size and seedling growth in different microenvironments and vegetation types, and the effects of seed size on seedling growth could result in different contributions of different seed-size species to the seedling recruitment of vegetation. The large-scale community level and the small-scale intra- and inter-species level researches on this issue should be strengthened, which would have significance for the recruitment and renewing of natural vegetation.

  18. Developing DNP students as adaptive leaders: a key strategy in transforming health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Gallagher, Deborah; Breslin, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    The success of graduates with a doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree in transforming health care will depend significantly on their leadership ability to think strategically, innovate, and engage stakeholders in meaningful system improvement. Known as adaptive work, these graduates will need a portfolio of adaptive leadership skills that prepare them to move health care from a volume-driven to value-based system. This article describes development of a core DNP leadership course in a postmaster's point of entry DNP program at an academic health science center school of nursing. The course, designed as DNP students' initial step on their professional development journey to becoming adaptive leaders capable of driving transformative change, created an alternative lens for students to undertake strategic adaptive change initiatives within themselves and their organizations.

  19. The Jakobsonian One-Stem Analysis of the Russian Verb: Adaptations and Pedagogical Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Billie D.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of one-stem verb theory since Roman Jakobson's 1948 study of Russian conjugation is outlined, and adaptations of his one-stem conjugation methodology for current classroom use are discussed and compared. (MSE)

  20. Developing an Adaptability Training Strategy and Policy for the DoD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Application Training Course. William M. Darwin , Asymmetric Warfare Group Three briefings addressed specific venues where the Army believes training...Florida; Dr. David Horth , Dr. Bob Rosenfeld, Dr. Gregory B. Laskow, Dr. Kerry Bunker, Dr. Mary Lynne Pulley and Dr. Talula Cartwright from the...Thinking within the Context of Adaptability. Dr. Richard Meinhart, Army War College • Adaptability Learning Symposium. William M. Darwin , Asymmetric Warfare

  1. Adaptation of a digital marketing strategy to attract North American customers

    OpenAIRE

    Cadier, Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Digital marketing has become an integral part of the language schools strategies. Consequently, the massive use of digital channels has created a need to differentiate from the online competition and target leads geographically. The current digital strategy developed by LSF Montpellier has shown a positive impact on sales performance and managers have integrated the challenge to improve the current strategy to increase traffic on the website and generate more conversions. Beyond these objecti...

  2. Effects of ecological differentiation on Lotka-Volterra systems for species with behavioral adaptation and variable growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacitignola, D; Tebaldi, C

    2005-03-01

    We study the properties of a n2-dimensional Lotka-Volterra system describing competing species that include behaviorally adaptive abilities. We indicate as behavioral adaptation a mechanism, based on a kind of learning, which is not viewed in the evolutionary sense but is intended to occur over shorter time scales. We consider a competitive adaptive n species Lotka-Volterra system, n > or = 3, in which one species is made ecologically differentiated with respect to the others by carrying capacity and intrinsic growth rate. The symmetry properties of the system and the existence of a certain class of invariant subspaces allow the introduction of a 7-dimensional reduced model, where n appears as a parameter, which gives full account of existence and stability of equilibria in the complete system. The reduced model is effective also in describing the time-dependent regimes for a large range of parameter values. The case in which one species has a strong ecological advantage (i.e. with a carrying capacity higher than the others), but with a varying growth rate, has been analyzed in detail, and time-dependent behaviors have been investigated in the case of adaptive competition among four species. Relevant questions, as species survival/exclusion, are addressed focusing on the role of adaptation. Interesting forms of species coexistence are found (i.e. competitive stable equilibria, periodic oscillations, strange attractors).

  3. Nutrient allocations and metabolism in two Collembola with contrasting reproduction and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Damgaard, Christian

    2009-01-01

    1.  Physiological mechanisms such as allocation and release of nutrients are keys to understanding an animal's adaptation to a particular habitat. This study investigated how two detrivores with contrasting life-history traits allocated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to growth, reproduction...... and metabolism. As model organisms we used the collembolans, Proisotoma minuta (Tullberg 1871) and Protaphorura fimata (Gisin 1952). 2.  To estimate allocations of C and N in tissue, we changed the isotopic composition of the animal's yeast diets when they became sexually mature and followed isotope turnover...... in tissue, growth and reproduction for 28 days. In addition, we measured the composition of C, N and phosphorus (P) to gain complementary information on the stoichiometry underlying life-history traits and nutrient allocation. 3.  For P. minuta, the smallest and most fecund of the two species, the tissue...

  4. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  5. Insurance as an adaptation strategy for extreme weather events indeveloping countries and economies in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2004-06-30

    The insurance industry can play a material role indecreasing the vulnerability of developing countries and economies intransition to weather-related natural disasters while simultaneouslysupporting both its own market-based objectives and the objectives ofsustainable development. Although insurance is not a "silver bullet" forthe problems posed by natural disasters in emerging markets,public-private partnerships can enhance insurance's ability to spread therisks and manage the costs of weather-related disasters as well as toincrease the pool of people who have access to coverage. (For simplicityin this report, the phrase "emerging markets" is intended to encompassdeveloping countries and economies in transition.) Promising strategiesfor emerging markets involve establishing innovative products and systemsfor delivering insurance and using technologies and practices that bothreduce vulnerability to disaster-related insurance losses and supportsustainable development (including reducing greenhouse gas emissions).These strategies can enhance sustainable development efforts and increasethe insurability of risks, making insurance markets in emerging marketsmore viable. Emerging markets are especially vulnerable to extremeweather events, which impede development by causing physical damage,compromising human and ecosystem health, diverting scarce resources todisaster relief and recovery, and deterring future investment andinsurance availability by amplifying the risks faced by foreigninterests. An average of 300 million people are affected or killed eachyear by weather-related disasters in emerging markets. Characteristics ofemerging markets contributing to their particular vulnerability incontrast to developed nations include: greater frequency of poverty;weaker lifelines (transportation, communication, utilities, emergencyresponse, and hospitals); poorer quality of construction and absence ofor deficiencies in building codes and other regulations; and

  6. COREDAR: COmmunicating Risk of sea level rise and Engaging stakeholDers in framing community based Adaptation stRategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsad Ibrahim Khan, S. K.; Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Andimuthu, R.; Kandasamy, P.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) is a major long term outcome of climate change leading to increased inundation of low-lying areas. Particularly, global cities that are located on or near the coasts are often situated in low lying areas and these locations put global cities at greater risk to SLR. Localized flooding will profoundly impact vulnerable communities located in high-risk urban areas. Building community resilience and adapting to SLR is increasingly a high priority for cities. On the other hand, Article 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change addresses the importance of climate change communication and engaging stakeholders in decision making process. Importantly, Community Based Adaptation (CBA) experiences emphasize that it is important to understand a community's unique perceptions of their adaptive capacities to identify useful solutions and that scientific and technical information on anticipated coastal climate impacts needs to be translated into a suitable language and format that allows people to be able to participate in adaptation planning. To address this challenge, this study has put forth three research questions from the lens of urban community engagement in SLR adaptation, (1) What, if any, community engagement in addressing SLR occurring in urban areas; (2) What information do communities need and how does it need to be communicated, in order to be better prepared and have a greater sense of agency? and (3) How can government agencies from city to federal levels facilitate community engagement and action?. To answer these questions this study has evolved a framework "COREDAR" (COmmunicating Risk of sea level rise and Engaging stakeholDers in framing community based Adaptation StRategies) to communicate and transfer complex climate data and information such as projected SLR under different scenarios of IPCC AR5, predicted impact of SLR, prioritizing vulnerability, etc. to concerned stakeholders and local communities

  7. Adaptive Strategy for Online Gait Learning Evaluated on the Polymorphic Robotic LocoKit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Stoy, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents experiments with a morphologyindependent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits, performed on a quadruped robot constructed from the LocoKit modular robot. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters...

  8. Adaptive Strategy for Online Gait Learning Evaluated on the Polymorphic Robotic LocoKit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johan Christensen, David; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents experiments with a morphologyindependent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits, performed on a quadruped robot build using the LockKit robotic building kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameter...

  9. Occupant comfort in UK offices - How adaptive comfort theories might influence future low energy office refurbishment strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Stuart [De Montfort University, Leicester and Reid Architecture, West End House, 11 Hills Place, London W1F 7SE (United Kingdom); Fiala, Dusan [IESD, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); FBTA, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    With the UK commercial sector replacing buildings at 1-1.5% per year adaptations to existing buildings are needed to maintain comfort levels, while reducing energy use and carbon emissions. In this study, occupants of a refurbished office recorded their thermal sensations, assessment of lighting and air movement, perceptions of comfort and their reactions to adaptive opportunities. The observed mean thermal sensation votes and the overall comfort votes correlated best with mean diurnal internal and external temperatures, respectively. The results appear to indicate heat balance models not fully explaining surveyed responses as occupants reported higher discomfort levels than predicted by the PMV model using on-site temperature and air velocity measurements. In the study opening windows was voted to be the most favourite adaptive opportunity followed by controlling solar glare, turning lights off locally and controlling solar gain. Occupants also expressed desires to intervene with heating and ventilation currently operated centrally. An interesting result of the survey was that the occupants generally did not change their clothing during the day. The study concluded that both passive and active adaptive opportunities are important in future low energy office refurbishment strategies. (author)

  10. Simultaneously selecting appropriate partners for gaming and strategy adaptation to enhance network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium in 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma games. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can be enhanced by using a skewed, rather than a random, selection of partners for either strategy adaptation or the gaming process. Here we show that combining both processes for selecting a gaming partner and an adaptation partner further enhances cooperation, provided that an appropriate selection rule and parameters are adopted. We also show that this combined model significantly enhances cooperation by reducing the degree of activity in the underlying network; we measure the degree of activity with a quantity called effective degree. More precisely, during the initial evolutionary stage in which the global cooperation fraction declines because initially allocated cooperators becoming defectors, the model shows that weak cooperative clusters perish and only a few strong cooperative clusters survive. This finding is the most important key to attaining significant network reciprocity.

  11. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: Are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis...... and L. major, but no other relationships between plant characteristics and habitat conditions were apparent. This implies that within-species differences in plant size can be explained by local nutrient conditions. All together this strongly suggests that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to a wide......Background and Aims: The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important...

  12. Near optimal power allocation algorithm for OFDM-based cognitive using adaptive relaying strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    Relayed transmission increases the coverage and achievable capacity of communication systems. Adaptive relaying scheme is a relaying technique by which the benefits of the amplifying or decode and forward techniques can be achieved by switching the forwarding technique according to the quality of the signal. A cognitive Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based adaptive relaying protocol is considered in this paper. The objective is to maximize the capacity of the cognitive radio system while ensuring that the interference introduced to the primary user is below the tolerated limit. A Near optimal power allocation in the source and the relay is presented for two pairing techniques such that the matching and random pairing. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol, and the consequence of choice of pairing technique. © 2012 ICST.

  13. Implementing smart growth strategies in rural America: development patterns that support public health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbey, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on obesity rates show alarming increases across the entire population. Some of these studies indicate higher rates of obesity in rural populations than urban and suburban populations. Obesity in children in rural places also outpaces their suburban and urban counterparts. Although a number of factors account for these differences, public health professionals and researchers have begun to recognize that conventional development patterns and land use policies in rural areas are playing an important role in the trend. Smart growth alternatives to current rural development patterns also support broad public health goals. Rural communities across America face a number of challenges, yet many are using smart growth development strategies to turn the challenges into opportunities. These strategies are structured in a way that builds on broadly held values in rural communities, ones that build upon the traditional development pattern and support multiple community goals. Public health professionals, managers, and academics will benefit from this discussion because it will explain the strategies that rural decision makers, planners, and citizens are adopting to create places that support multiple community goals including a built environment that sustains and promotes active living.

  14. A plasmonic colorimetric strategy for biosensing through enzyme guided growth of silver nanoparticles on gold nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuehua; Wu, Jie; Li, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-15

    A plasmonic colorimetric strategy was designed for sensitive detection of biomolecules through enzyme guided silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) growth on gold nanostars (AuNS). The growth of AgNPs on AuNS led to a substantial blue shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak and the color change of AuNS from blue to dark blue, purple and ultimately orange. Both the LSPR blueshift wavelength and the color of detection solution containing AuNS, Ag(+) and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) depend on the amount of enzyme that catalyzed the dephosphorylation of AAP to reduce Ag(+) on AuNS surface. Thus this strategy could be used for LSPR and naked-eye detections of both the enzyme such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biomolecules involved in biorecognition events using ALP as a tag. The LSPR detection method for ALP showed a linear range from 1.0 pM to 25 nM with a detection limit of 0.5 pM. Using DNA as a mode target molecule, this technique showed a detection range from 10 fM to 50 pM DNA with a detection limit of 2.6 fM through the convenient combination with hybridization chain reaction amplification. The proposed plasmonic colorimetric strategy could be extended as a general analytical platform for design of immunosensors and aptasensors with ALP as a label.

  15. An adaptive approach to the physical annealing strategy for simulated annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, M.

    2013-02-01

    A new and reasonable method for adaptive implementation of simulated annealing (SA) is studied on two types of random traveling salesman problems. The idea is based on the previous finding on the search characteristics of the threshold algorithms, that is, the primary role of the relaxation dynamics in their finite-time optimization process. It is shown that the effective temperature for optimization can be predicted from the system's behavior analogous to the stabilization phenomenon occurring in the heating process starting from a quenched solution. The subsequent slow cooling near the predicted point draws out the inherent optimizing ability of finite-time SA in more straightforward manner than the conventional adaptive approach.

  16. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Cristiano; Heggeset, T. M. B.; Le, S. B.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs), able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitabl...

  17. Comparison of Different Strategies for Selection/Adaptation of Mixed Microbial Cultures Able to Ferment Crude Glycerol Derived from Second-Generation Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Cristiano; Heggeset, T. M. B.; Le, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this study was the selection and adaptation of mixed microbial cultures (MMCs), able to ferment crude glycerol generated from animal fat-based biodiesel and produce building-blocks and green chemicals. Various adaptation strategies have been investigated for the enrichment of suitable...

  18. The critical size is set at a single-cell level by growth rate to attain homeostasis and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Colomina, Neus; Palmisano, Alida; Garí, Eloi; Gallego, Carme; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Aldea, Martí

    2012-01-01

    Budding yeast cells are assumed to trigger Start and enter the cell cycle only after they attain a critical size set by external conditions. However, arguing against deterministic models of cell size control, cell volume at Start displays great individual variability even under constant conditions. Here we show that cell size at Start is robustly set at a single-cell level by the volume growth rate in G1, which explains the observed variability. We find that this growth-rate-dependent sizer is intimately hardwired into the Start network and the Ydj1 chaperone is key for setting cell size as a function of the individual growth rate. Mathematical modelling and experimental data indicate that a growth-rate-dependent sizer is sufficient to ensure size homeostasis and, as a remarkable advantage over a rigid sizer mechanism, it reduces noise in G1 length and provides an immediate solution for size adaptation to external conditions at a population level.

  19. Investigating Purposeful Science Curriculum Adaptation as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarger, Angela Haydel; Penuel, William R.; Moorthy, Savitha; Beauvineau, Yves; Kennedy, Cathleen A.; Boscardin, Christy Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential and conditions for using curriculum adaptation to support reform of science teaching and learning. With each wave of reform in science education, curriculum has played a central role and the contemporary wave focused on implementation of the principles and vision of the "Framework for K-12 Science…

  20. A strategy for adaptive staffing of hospitals under varying environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, J; Calkin, J; Sanders, J; Thesen, A

    1985-01-01

    With many hospitals facing periods of retrenchment or considerable uncertainty in workload and reimbursement policy, an adaptive management response seems to be required. A model is presented for the development and implementation of a system of flexible resource management that is useful for health service managers.

  1. Adaptive strategy changes as a function of task demands : a study of car drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, F; Meijman, T; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    When drivers perform additional tasks while driving, research shows conflicting results: primary driving performance may deteriorate but adaptive changes such as reducing driving speed have also been noted. We hypothesized that the nature of the secondary task may be important: drivers may give more

  2. Towards an integrated agenda for adaptation research: theory, practice, and policy: Strategy paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL; Patwardhan, Anand [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay; Downing, Tom [Stockholm Environment Institute, UK; Leary, Neil [Dickinson College

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change has been recognized as a priority area for national and international policy. The findings of the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC have reemphasized the urgency of action and the scale of response needed to cope with climate change outcomes. The scientific community has an important role to play in advancing the information and knowledge base that would help in identifying, developing and implementing effective responses to enhance adaptive capacity and reduce vulnerability. This paper examines the way in which science and research could advance the adaptation agenda. To do so, we pose a number of questions aimed at identifying the knowledge gaps and research needs. We argue that in order to address these science and research needs, an integrated approach is necessary, one that combines new knowledge with new approaches for knowledge generation, and where research and practice co-evolve; and that such a learning-by-doing approach is essential to rapidly scale up and implement concrete adaptation actions.

  3. Climate change and waterborne diarrhoea in Northern India: Impact and adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Singh, T.; Siderius, C.; Balakrishnan, S.; Mishra, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies show the vulnerability of human health to climate change, a clear comprehensive quantification of the increased health risks attributable to climate change is lacking. Even more complicated are assessments of adaptation measures for this sector. We discuss the impact of clim

  4. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin

    2013-01-01

    be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts...

  5. Behaviorally Mediated, Warm Adaptation: A Physiological Strategy When Mice Are Allowed to Behaviorally Thermoregulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of -22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller int...

  6. Coping with Work Stressors in Nursing. Effects of Adaptive versus Maladaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Saroj; Hansen, Donna

    1987-01-01

    The effect of coping behaviors on nurses' affective reactions to work-generated stressors was assessed, using data gathered from 215 nurses in a medical center hospital in the Midwest. Adaptive coping, reflecting problem-solving behaviors, was found to moderate the relationships of work overload and resource inadequacy with felt stress. (Author/CH)

  7. Acting locally, developing knowledge globally: a transitions perspective on designing climate change adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grin, J.; Driessen, J.; Leroy, P.; van Vierssen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, from many perspectives and for many reasons, is a complex issue: scientifically, politically, and in terms of global justice. As such, climate change might be the global societal and political challenge of the 21st century. Dealing with it, either via mitigation or via adaptation, wi

  8. Conservation strategies to adapt to projected climate change impacts in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is potential for climate change to have negative effects on agricultural production via extreme events (Pruski and Nearing, 2002b; Zhang et al., 2012; Walthall 2012), and there is a need to implement conservation practices for climate change adaptation (Delgado et al. 2011; 2013). Recent repo...

  9. Embolism resistance as a key mechanism to understand adaptive plant strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Tixier, A.; Cochard, H.; Sperry, J.S.; Jansen, S.; Herbette, S.

    2013-01-01

    One adaptation of plants to cope with drought or frost stress is to develop wood that is able to withstand the formation and distribution of air bubbles (emboli) in its water conducting xylem cells under negative pressure. The ultrastructure of interconduit pits strongly affects drought-induced embo

  10. The Adaptive Basis of Psychosocial Acceleration: Comment on beyond Mental Health, Life History Strategies Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Rickard, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Four of the articles published in this special section of "Developmental Psychology" build on and refine psychosocial acceleration theory. In this short commentary, we discuss some of the adaptive assumptions of psychosocial acceleration theory that have not received much attention. Psychosocial acceleration theory relies on the behavior of…

  11. Using Multiple Adaptively-Weighted Strategies for the Resolution of Demonstratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-10

    proper binding for an anaphor . Its main strategies are extended versions of Wilks’ Preference Semantics [46,47) and Sidner’s anaphor resolution rules...different types. The successful chains thus bind one or more anaphors to candidate antecedents. Carter gives the outline of the overall processing...12. Possible Enhancements 87 12.1. Intrasentential Demonstrative References 87 12.2. Anaphoric Pronouns and NPs 87 12.3. Additional Strategies 88 12.4

  12. Adaptation of resource-market theory to the company’s strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djujzen Ekaterina Jur'evna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the integration of resource and market approaches to strategic planning, the author clarified the steps of forming a strategy, concretized the concept of "strategic potential of the company." Formed a methodical approach to the assessment of the strategic company’s potential considering determination of its internal capacity and stability to the external environment. Developed the mechanism of the determining the strategy, involving construction of the matrix and the use of expert methods.

  13. Understanding the Adaptive Growth Strategy of Lactobacillus plantarum by In Silico Optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, B.; Wiersma, A.; Jacobs, L.; Notebaart, R.A.; Smid, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the study of metabolic networks, optimization techniques are often used to predict flux distributions, and hence, metabolic phenotype. Flux balance analysis in particular has been successful in predicting metabolic phenotypes. However, an inherent limitation of a stoichiometric approach such as f

  14. Understanding the adaptive growth strategy of Lactobacillus plantarum by in silico optimisation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, B.; Wiersma, A.; Jacobs, L.; Notebaart, R.A.; Smid, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the study of metabolic networks, optimization techniques are often used to predict flux distributions, and hence, metabolic phenotype. Flux balance analysis in particular has been successful in predicting metabolic phenotypes. However, an inherent limitation of a stoichiometric approach such as f

  15. Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurvey conducted among 257 managers in Austria and Slovenia,the findings suggest that strategic issue interpretations of the economiccrisis as well as country differences influence whether firms are usingexternally versus internally-directed strategic responses, and pro-activeversus retrenchment strategies. The differences in strategy deploymentbetween the two countries, however, could not be consistently tracedto differences in the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance, thussuggesting that other country-specific factors like institutional or socialdifferences also play an important role.

  16. Plans, Projections and Practitioners: Engaging with Communities to Explore Adaptation Strategies for Transportation Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picketts, I. M.

    2015-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure is a significant climate change adaptation concern because it is: costly; designed for long operational lives; susceptible to both episodic and seasonal deterioration; and a significant safety concern. While examples of adaptation exist in transportation design, many communities do not have the capacity to incorporate climate change considerations into infrastructure planning and management. This presentation will overview the process and outcomes of research conducted in collaboration with the communities of Prince George and Squamish, both located in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Previous research in Prince George (in northern BC) involved applying downscaled climate projection information to assess local climate impacts, and identified transportation infrastructure as the top priority for ongoing study. In Prince George the adaptation process was oriented toward determining how the City could plan, design, and maintain roads and other structures to account for climate change. A local steering committee was formed, and created and evaluated 23 potential research topics. Two focus areas were selected for further investigation and explored during a workshop with practitioners, researchers, consultants and other representatives. The workshop precipitated additional modelling of projected impacts of climate change on road maintenance and road safety, and plans to explore the viability of alternative paving techniques. Outcomes of the case study provide insights regarding how researchers can 'combine' top down and bottom up approaches by using modelling information as part of an engagement process with local experts to explore adaptation. Ongoing research in Squamish seeks to apply lessons learned from the Prince George case study (both related to process and the application of modelling information) to a more temperate coastal region with a more climate-concerned population. In Squamish there also lies an opportunity to explicitly focus

  17. The influence of the social thermoregulation on the cold-adaptive growth of BAT in hairless and furred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmaier, G

    1975-03-26

    When mice were living in groups they developed less brown adipose tissue (BAT) during cold adaptation as compared with single mice. This effect of social aggregation was more pronounced in genetically hairless mice than in furred mice. In both races of mice the most significant difference in BAT growth was found between single mice and pairs of mice, indicating that the formation of pairs causes the relatively most effective improvement of thermal balance.

  18. A comparison of stable caesium uptake by six grass species of contrasting growth strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, N.J. [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Martin, M.H. [Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    1997-05-14

    Six plants in the family Gramineae were used to investigate the relationship between Cs uptake, nutrient regime and plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979: Plant Growth Strategies and Vegetation Processes, John Wiley). The roots of 66 day old Elymus repens (L.) Gould., Bromus sterilis L., Agrostis stolonifera L., Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Festuca ovina L. and Nardus stricta L. plants grown in acid-washed sand at high and low nutrient levels were exposed to a 96 h pulse of stable Cs at 0.05 mM, 0.15 mM, 0.3 mM, 1.0 mM and 3.0 mM concentrations. Different nutrient regimes induced large differences in dry wt in E. repens, B. sterilis and A. stolonifera plants but only small differences in N. stricta and F. ovina plants. At high nutrient concentrations, A. stolonifera, A. odoratum, F. ovina and N. stricta shoots showed significantly greater increases in internal Cs concentration with rising external Cs concentrations than did E. repens and B. sterilis shoots. The relationship between increases in shoot and external Cs concentrations was statistically indistinguishable between species in plants grown at the low nutrient concentration. These patterns of Cs uptake ensured that with long-term high K concentrations the more competitive plants (E. repens and B. sterilis) accumulated higher concentrations of Cs from low external concentrations than did non-competitive plants or competitive plants grown at low nutrient levels. It is suggested that the relationship between plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979) and Cs accumulation patterns may help to explain the different concentrations to which species accumulate radiocaesium from the soil. (author).

  19. A comparison of stable caesium uptake by six grass species of contrasting growth strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, N J; Martin, M H

    1997-01-01

    Six plant species in the family Gramineae were used to investigate the relationship between Cs uptake, nutrient regime and plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979: Plant Growth Strategies and Vegetation Processes, John Wiley). The roots of 66 day old Elymus repens (L.) Gould., Bromus sterilis L., Agrostis stolonifera L., Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Festuca ovina L. and Nardus stricta L. plants grown in acid-washed sand at high and low nutrient levels were exposed to a 96 h pulse of stable Cs at 0.05 mM, 0.15 mM, 0.3 mM, 1.0 mM and 3.0 mM concentrations. Different nutrient regimes induced large differences in dry wt in E. repens, B. sterilis and A. stolonifera plants but only small differences in N. stricta and F. ovina plants. At high nutrient concentrations, A. stolonifera, A. odoratum, F. ovina and N. stricta shoots showed significantly greater increases in internal Cs concentration with rising external Cs concentrations than did E. repens and B. sterilis shoots. The relationship between increases in shoot and external Cs concentrations was statistically indistinguishable between species in plants grown at the low nutrient concentration. These patterns of Cs uptake ensured that with long-term high K concentrations the more competitive plants (E. repens and B. sterilis) accumulated higher concentrations of Cs from low external concentrations than did non-competitive plants or competitive plants grown at low nutrient levels. It is suggested that the relationship between plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979) and Cs accumulation patterns may help to explain the different concentrations to which species accumulate radiocaesium from the soil.

  20. Insurance as an adaptation strategy for extreme weather events indeveloping countries and economies in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2004-06-30

    The insurance industry can play a material role indecreasing the vulnerability of developing countries and economies intransition to weather-related natural disasters while simultaneouslysupporting both its own market-based objectives and the objectives ofsustainable development. Although insurance is not a "silver bullet" forthe problems posed by natural disasters in emerging markets,public-private partnerships can enhance insurance's ability to spread therisks and manage the costs of weather-related disasters as well as toincrease the pool of people who have access to coverage. (For simplicityin this report, the phrase "emerging markets" is intended to encompassdeveloping countries and economies in transition.) Promising strategiesfor emerging markets involve establishing innovative products and systemsfor delivering insurance and using technologies and practices that bothreduce vulnerability to disaster-related insurance losses and supportsustainable development (including reducing greenhouse gas emissions).These strategies can enhance sustainable development efforts and increasethe insurability of risks, making insurance markets in emerging marketsmore viable. Emerging markets are especially vulnerable to extremeweather events, which impede development by causing physical damage,compromising human and ecosystem health, diverting scarce resources todisaster relief and recovery, and deterring future investment andinsurance availability by amplifying the risks faced by foreigninterests. An average of 300 million people are affected or killed eachyear by weather-related disasters in emerging markets. Characteristics ofemerging markets contributing to their particular vulnerability incontrast to developed nations include: greater frequency of poverty;weaker lifelines (transportation, communication, utilities, emergencyresponse, and hospitals); poorer quality of construction and absence ofor deficiencies in building codes and other regulations; and

  1. Sizing the Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus: assessing growth strategy and evolution of ontogenetic scaling of limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Paul J; Lee, Andrew H; Lamm, Ellen-Thérèse

    2006-03-01

    Allosaurus is one of the most common Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs. We present a histological analysis to assess its growth strategy and ontogenetic limb bone scaling. Based on an ontogenetic series of humeral, ulnar, femoral, and tibial sections of fibrolamellar bone, we estimate the ages of the largest individuals in the sample to be between 13-19 years. Growth curve reconstruction suggests that maximum growth occurred at 15 years, when body mass increased 148 kg/year. Based on larger bones of Allosaurus, we estimate an upper age limit of between 22-28 years of age, which is similar to preliminary data for other large theropods. Both Model I and Model II regression analyses suggest that relative to the length of the femur, the lengths of the humerus, ulna, and tibia increase in length more slowly than isometry predicts. That pattern of limb scaling in Allosaurus is similar to those in other large theropods such as the tyrannosaurids. Phylogenetic optimization suggests that large theropods independently evolved reduced humeral, ulnar, and tibial lengths by a phyletic reduction in longitudinal growth relative to the femur.

  2. NPY receptor subtype specification for behavioral adaptive strategies during limited food access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjetri, E; Adan, R A; Herzog, H; de Haas, R; Oppelaar, H; Spierenburg, H A; Olivier, B; Kas, M J

    2012-02-01

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system in the brain regulates a wide variety of behavioral, metabolic and hormonal homeostatic processes required for energy balance control. During times of limited food availability, NPY promotes behavioral hyperactivity necessary to explore and prepare for novel food resources. As NPY can act via 5 different receptor subtypes, we investigated the path through which NPY affects different behavioral components relevant for adaptation to such conditions. We tested NPY Y1 and Y2 receptor knockout mice and their wild-type littermate controls in a daily scheduled limited food access paradigm with unlimited access to running wheel. Here we show that NPY Y1 receptor deficient mice lack the expression of appetitive behavior and that NPY Y2 receptors control the level of hyperactive behavior under these conditions. Thus, receptor specificity determines the differential expression of NPY-mediated behavioral adaptations to overcome a negative energy status.

  3. Effects of somatostatin on the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis and seawater adaptation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, J.; Kittilson, J.; McCormick, S.D.; Sheridan, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to contribute to the seawater (SW) adaptability of euryhaline fish both directly and indirectly through insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). This study examined the role of somatostatin-14 (SS-14), a potent inhibitor of GH, on the GH-IGF-1 axis and seawater adaptation. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected intraperitoneally with SS-14 or saline and transferred to 20??ppt seawater. A slight elevation in plasma chloride levels was accompanied by significantly reduced gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in SS-14-treated fish compared to control fish 12??h after SW transfer. Seawater increased hepatic mRNA levels of GH receptor 1 (GHR 1; 239%), GHR 2 (48%), and IGF-1 (103%) in control fish 12??h after transfer. Levels of GHR 1 (155%), GHR 2 (121%), IGF-1 (200%), IGF-1 receptor A (IGFR1A; 62%), and IGFR1B (157%) increased in the gills of control fish 12??h after transfer. SS-14 abolished or attenuated SW-induced changes in the expression of GHR, IGF-1, and IGFR mRNAs in liver and gill. These results indicate that SS-14 reduces seawater adaptability by inhibiting the GH-IGF-1 axis. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The wanted change against climate change: assessing the role of organic farming as an adaptation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindakshan, Sreejith; Sherief, Aliyaru Kunju

    2010-01-01

    Conventional input intensive agriculture practised over the last century has been a major contributor to climate change, second only to energy sector. The communities engaged in pesticide and synthetic input rich agriculture is most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Many emerging economies including India have had the opportunity to develop National Adaptation Plans of Action in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change but implementation of those pro...

  5. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  6. Adaptation of Decoy Fusion Strategy for Existing Multi-Stage Search Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Mark V.; Levitsky, Lev I.; Gorshkov, Mikhail V.

    2016-09-01

    A number of proteomic database search engines implement multi-stage strategies aiming at increasing the sensitivity of proteome analysis. These approaches often employ a subset of the original database for the secondary stage of analysis. However, if target-decoy approach (TDA) is used for false discovery rate (FDR) estimation, the multi-stage strategies may violate the underlying assumption of TDA that false matches are distributed uniformly across the target and decoy databases. This violation occurs if the numbers of target and decoy proteins selected for the second search are not equal. Here, we propose a method of decoy database generation based on the previously reported decoy fusion strategy. This method allows unbiased TDA-based FDR estimation in multi-stage searches and can be easily integrated into existing workflows utilizing popular search engines and post-search algorithms.

  7. Finite element model for linear-elastic mixed mode loading using adaptive mesh strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive mesh finite element model has been developed to predict the crack propagation direction as well as to calculate the stress intensity factors (SIFs), under linear-elastic assumption for mixed mode loading application. The finite element mesh is generated using the advancing front method. In order to suit the requirements of the fracture analysis, the generation of the background mesh and the construction of singular elements have been added to the developed program. The adaptive remeshing process is carried out based on the posteriori stress error norm scheme to obtain an optimal mesh. Previous works of the authors have proposed techniques for adaptive mesh generation of 2D cracked models. Facilitated by the singular elements, the displacement extrapolation technique is employed to calculate the SIF. The fracture is modeled by the splitting node approach and the trajectory follows the successive linear extensions of each crack increment. The SIFs values for two different case studies were estimated and validated by direct comparisons with other researchers work.

  8. Adaptive Strategies for Controls of Flexible Arms. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bau-San

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive controller for a modern manipulator has been designed based on asymptotical stability via the Lyapunov criterion with the output error between the system and a reference model used as the actuating control signal. Computer simulations were carried out to test the design. The combination of the adaptive controller and a system vibration and mode shape estimator show that the flexible arm should move along a pre-defined trajectory with high-speed motion and fast vibration setting time. An existing computer-controlled prototype two link manipulator, RALF (Robotic Arm, Large Flexible), with a parallel mechanism driven by hydraulic actuators was used to verify the mathematical analysis. The experimental results illustrate that assumed modes found from finite element techniques can be used to derive the equations of motion with acceptable accuracy. The robust adaptive (modal) control is implemented to compensate for unmodelled modes and nonlinearities and is compared with the joint feedback control in additional experiments. Preliminary results show promise for the experimental control algorithm.

  9. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W; Kendall, Anthony D; Grace, Peter R; Robertson, G Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability.

  10. A Framework Approach to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Public Engagement Strategies for Radioactive Waste Management - 13430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Laura [Potomac Communications Group, 1133 20th St NW Washington DC 20035 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The complex interplay of politics, economics and culture undermines attempts to define universal best practices for public engagement in the management of nuclear materials. In the international context, communicators must rely on careful adaptation and creative execution to make standard communication techniques succeed in their local communities. Nuclear professionals need an approach to assess and adapt culturally specific public engagement strategies to meet the demands of their particular political, economic and social structures. Using participant interviews and public sources, the Potomac Communications Group reviewed country-specific examples of nuclear-related communication efforts to provide insight into a proposed approach. The review considered a spectrum of cultural dimensions related to diversity, authority, conformity, proximity and time. Comparisons help to identify cross-cultural influences of various public engagement tactics and to inform a framework for communicators. While not prescriptive in its application, the framework offers a way for communicators to assess the salience of outreach tactics in specific situations. The approach can guide communicators to evaluate and tailor engagement strategies to achieve localized public outreach goals. (authors)

  11. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy) approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Hamid; Street, Kenneth; Bari, Abdallah; Mackay, Michael; Stoddard, Frederick L

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L.) collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  12. Developing Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change in the New York City Infrastructure-Shed: Process, Approach, Tools, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William D.; Blake, Reginald; Bowman, Malcolm; Faris, Craig; Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Jacob, Klaus; LeBlanc, Alice; Leichenko, Robin; Linkin, Megan; Major, David; O'Grady, Megan; Patrick, Lesley; Sussman, Edna; Yohe, Gary; Zimmerman, Rae

    2010-01-01

    While current rates of sea level rise and associated coastal flooding in the New York City region appear to be manageable by stakeholders responsible for communications, energy, transportation, and water infrastructure, projections for sea level rise and associated flooding in the future, especially those associated with rapid icemelt of the Greenland and West Antarctic Icesheets, may be beyond the range of current capacity because an extreme event might cause flooding and inundation beyond the planning and preparedness regimes. This paper describes the comprehensive process, approach, and tools developed by the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) in conjunction with the region s stakeholders who manage its critical infrastructure, much of which lies near the coast. It presents the adaptation approach and the sea-level rise and storm projections related to coastal risks developed through the stakeholder process. Climate change adaptation planning in New York City is characterized by a multi-jurisdictional stakeholder-scientist process, state-of-the-art scientific projections and mapping, and development of adaptation strategies based on a risk-management approach.

  13. Cognitive and Adaptive Advantages of Growth Hormone Treatment in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Roof, Elizabeth; Hunt-Hawkins, Hailee

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) typically have mild to moderate intellectual deficits, compulsivity, hyperphagia, obesity, and growth hormone deficiencies. Growth hormone treatment (GHT) in PWS has well-established salutatory effects on linear growth and body composition, yet cognitive benefits of GHT, seen in other patient…

  14. Diabetic intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B; Nielsen, C;

    1999-01-01

    Dietary fibre influence growth and function of the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study investigates the importance of dietary fibre in intestinal growth in experimental diabetes, and correlates intestinal growth with plasma levels of the intestinotrophic factor, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2)....

  15. Constitutive versus responsive gene expression strategies for growth in changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Geisel

    Full Text Available Microbes respond to changing environments by adjusting gene expression levels to the demand for the corresponding proteins. Adjusting protein levels is slow, consequently cells may reach the optimal protein level only by a time when the demand changed again. It is therefore not a priori clear whether expression "on demand" is always the optimal strategy. Indeed, many genes are constitutively expressed at intermediate levels, which represents a permanent cost but provides an immediate benefit when the protein is needed. Which are the conditions that select for a responsive or a constitutive expression strategy, what determines the optimal constitutive expression level in a changing environment, and how is the fitness of the two strategies affected by gene expression noise? Based on an established model of the lac- and gal-operon expression dynamics, we study the fitness of a constitutive and a responsive expression strategy in time-varying environments. We find that the optimal constitutive expression level differs from the average demand for the gene product and from the average optimal expression level; depending on the shape of the growth rate function, the optimal expression level either provides intermediate fitness in all environments, or maximizes fitness in only one of them. We find that constitutive expression can provide higher fitness than responsive expression even when regulatory machinery comes at no cost, and we determine the minimal response rate necessary for "expression on demand" to confer a benefit. Environmental and inter-cellular noise favor the responsive strategy while reducing fitness of the constitutive one. Our results show the interplay between the demand-frequency for a gene product, the genetic response rate, and the fitness, and address important questions on the evolution of gene regulation. Some of our predictions agree with recent yeast high throughput data, for others we propose the experiments that are needed

  16. Exploration of Teaching Strategies That Stimulate the Growth of Academic Skills of Children with ASD in Special Education School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Eirini; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2013-01-01

    The cognitive growth of children with developmental disorders, like autism, can be seriously impaired due to the disorder. If so, in the Netherlands, these children can attend special schools where they are treated to ameliorate disorder symptoms and to stimulate cognitive growth. The aim of this paper was to identify teaching strategies that…

  17. COMBINED DELAUNAY TRIANGULATION AND ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR CRACK GROWTH ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pramote DECHAUMPHAI; Sutthisak PHONGTHANAPANICH; Thanawat SRICHAROENCHAI

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the utilization of the adaptive Delaunay triangulation in the finite element modeling of two dimensional crack propagation problems, including detailed description of the proposed procedure which consists of the Delaunay triangulation algorithm and an adaptive remeshing technique. The adaptive remeshing technique generates small elements around crack tips and large elements in the other regions. The resulting stress intensity factors and simulated crack propagation behavior are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure. Three sample problems of a center cracked plate, a single edge cracked plate and a compact tension specimen, are simulated and their results assessed.

  18. MULTIPASS, a rice R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, regulates adaptive growth by integrating multiple hormonal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Romy; Schippers, Jos H M; Mieulet, Delphine; Obata, Toshihiro; Fernie, Alisdair R; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    Growth regulation is an important aspect of plant adaptation during environmental perturbations. Here, the role of MULTIPASS (OsMPS), an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor of rice, was explored. OsMPS is induced by salt stress and expressed in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Over-expression of OsMPS reduces growth under non-stress conditions, while knockdown plants display increased biomass. OsMPS expression is induced by abscisic acid and cytokinin, but is repressed by auxin, gibberellin and brassinolide. Growth retardation caused by OsMPS over-expression is partially restored by auxin application. Expression profiling revealed that OsMPS negatively regulates the expression of EXPANSIN (EXP) and cell-wall biosynthesis as well as phytohormone signaling genes. Furthermore, the expression of OsMPS-dependent genes is regulated by auxin, cytokinin and abscisic acid. Moreover, we show that OsMPS is a direct upstream regulator of OsEXPA4, OsEXPA8, OsEXPB2, OsEXPB3, OsEXPB6 and the endoglucanase genes OsGLU5 and OsGLU14. The multiple responses of OsMPS and its target genes to various hormones suggest an integrative function of OsMPS in the cross-talk between phytohormones and the environment to regulate adaptive growth.

  19. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Junichi; Nakajima, Kana; Noda, Takuji; Kimura, Satoko; Kamihata, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Masato; Arai, Nobuaki; Kagawa, Shiro; Kawabata, Yuuki; Yamada, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors), microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness.

  20. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Okuyama

    Full Text Available Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors, microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness.

  1. Strategy of Developing Tomini Bay for Economic Growth of Coastal Community in Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzakir Muzakir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the potential and the strategy of developing Tomini Bay to improve the economic growth of the coastal community in Central Sulawesi. The research is located in four regencies in Central Sulawesi. The method uses the descriptive analysis using SWOT analysis. The research result shows that the potential of fisheries resources in Poso Regency, Parigi Moutong Regency, Tojo Una-Una Regency, and Banggai Regency can support the development of Tomini Bay region based on fisheries in order to accelerate the economic growth of coastal communities in Central Sulawesi. The potential fishery resources that can support the development of Tomini Bay area are the potential of fisheries, marine and coastal infrastructure, social economy and geographic conditions in four regencies. The strategies are building the marketing network for fishery products both the catching and cultivation, improving the fishery human resouce capacity, controlling the fishery product quality, and increasing the social awareness to maintain the ecosystem sustainability. To optimize the utilization of Tomini Bay, it is suggested to improve the involvement of the regional government, the central government, and also the private sector and the whole community.

  2. 78 FR 19514 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporated in the development of this final document. The Strategy is available at http://www... systems provide to people, creating new challenges for human health, infrastructure, agriculture...; wildlife-related tourism and recreation; food and forest production; and, ultimately, our health...

  3. 76 FR 30193 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of Intent: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... impacts of climate change on fish, wildlife, plants, habitats, and our natural resource heritage. It will... effects of climate change. This Strategy will provide a unified approach--reflecting shared principles and science-based practice--for reducing the negative impacts of climate change on fish, wildlife,...

  4. A distributed and morphology-independent strategy for adaptive locomotion in self-reconfigurable modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stoy, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed reinforcement learning strategy for morphology-independent lifelong gait learning for modular robots. All modules run identical controllers that locally and independently optimize their action selection based on the robot’s velocity as a global, shared reward...

  5. Tradeoff Analysis Between Economic Development and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for River Nile Basin Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) briefings have declared that the growing population in the Nile river basin region (about 160 million, or 57% of the entire population of the basin’s ten riparian countries) is at risk of water scarcity. Adjustment strategies in response to cl...

  6. Adaptive livelihood strategies for coping with water scarcity in the drylands of central Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwenga, Emma T.

    In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing

  7. Field phenotyping strategies and breeding for adaptation of rice to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ken S; Fukai, Shu; Kumar, Arvind; Leung, Hei; Jongdee, Boonrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a section of the book "Drought phenotyping in crops: from theory to practice" (Monneveux Philippe and Ribaut Jean-Marcel eds, published by CGIAR Generation Challenge Programme. Texcoco, Mexico). The section describes recent experience in drought phenotyping in rice which is one of the most drought-susceptible crops. The section contains genetic and genomic resources for drought adaptation and methods for selection of drought-resistant varieties in rice. In appendix, there is experience from Thailand on integration of direct selection for grain yield and physiological traits to confer drought resistance.

  8. Field Phenotyping Strategies and Breeding for Adaptation of Rice to Drought†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ken S.; Fukai, Shu; Kumar, Arvind; Leung, Hei; Jongdee, Boonrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a section of the book “Drought phenotyping in crops: from theory to practice” (Monneveux Philippe and Ribaut Jean-Marcel eds, published by CGIAR Generation Challenge Programme. Texcoco, Mexico). The section describes recent experience in drought phenotyping in rice which is one of the most drought-susceptible crops. The section contains genetic and genomic resources for drought adaptation and methods for selection of drought-resistant varieties in rice. In appendix, there is experience from Thailand on integration of direct selection for grain yield and physiological traits to confer drought resistance. PMID:22934036

  9. Field phenotyping strategies and breeding for adaptation of rice to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eFukai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a section of the book ‘Drought phenotyping in crops: from theory to practice (Monneveux Philippe and Ribaut Jean-Marcel eds, published by CGIAR Generation Challenge Programme. Texcoco, Mexico. The section describes recent experience in drought phenotyping in rice which is one of the most drought susceptible crops. The section contains genetic and genomic resources for drought adaptation and methods for selection of drought resistant varieties in rice. In appendix, there is experience from Thailand on integration of direct selection for grain yield and physiological traits to confer drought resistance.

  10. Strategies for competitiveness and sustainability: adaptation of a Brazilian subsidiary of a Swedish multinational corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rita; Wennersten, Ronald; Oliva, Eduardo B L; Leal Filho, Walter

    2009-09-01

    The competitiveness, in terms of macro and micro levels of an enterprise, is often dictated by its capacity to innovate, ability to respond to the needs of the market, and resilience to challenges from competition. This paper reviews the literature on the adaptation of research and development (R&D) units in subsidiaries of multinational corporations. It focuses mainly on the impact of the technological dynamic on sustainability performance of the Brazilian subsidiary of the Swedish multinational Ericsson. Through a conceptual framework, it explores information and communication technologies (ICT) towards a transversal and comprehensive vision of levels of innovation and sustainability.

  11. The Genome Sequence of Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, a Psychroactive Siberian Permafrost Bacterium, Reveals Mechanisms for Adaptation to Low-Temperature Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-del-Rio, Hector L. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Grzymski, Joseph J. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV; Ponder, Monica [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bergholz, Peter [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bartolo, Genevive [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Bakermans, Corien [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Rodrigues, Debora [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Klappenbach, Joel [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Zarka, Dan [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Murray, Alison [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV; Thomashow, Michael [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2010-01-01

    Psychrobacter arcticus strain 273-4, which grows at temperatures as low as -10 degrees C, is the first cold-adapted bacterium from a terrestrial environment whose genome was sequenced. Analysis of the 2.65-Mb genome suggested that some of the strategies employed by P. arcticus 273-4 for survival under cold and stress conditions are changes in membrane composition, synthesis of cold shock proteins, and the use of acetate as an energy source. Comparative genome analysis indicated that in a significant portion of the P. arcticus proteome there is reduced use of the acidic amino acids and proline and arginine, which is consistent with increased protein flexibility at low temperatures. Differential amino acid usage occurred in all gene categories, but it was more common in gene categories essential for cell growth and reproduction, suggesting that P. arcticus evolved to grow at low temperatures. Amino acid adaptations and the gene content likely evolved in response to the long-term freezing temperatures (-10 degrees C to -12 degrees C) of the Kolyma (Siberia) permafrost soil from which this strain was isolated. Intracellular water likely does not freeze at these in situ temperatures, which allows P. arcticus to live at subzero temperatures.

  12. The Evolution of Two-Component Systems in Bacteria RevealsDifferent Strategies for Niche Adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric; Huang, Katherine; Arkin, Adam

    2006-09-13

    Two-component systems including histidine protein kinasesrepresent the primary signal transduction paradigm in prokaryoticorganisms. To understand how these systems adapt to allow organisms todetect niche-specific signals, we analyzed the phylogenetic distributionof nearly 5000 histidine protein kinases from 207 sequenced prokaryoticgenomes. We found that many genomes carry a large repertoire of recentlyevolved signaling genes, which may reflect selective pressure to adapt tonew environmental conditions. Both lineage-specific gene family expansionand horizontal gene transfer play major roles in the introduction of newhistidine kinases into genomes; however, there are differences in howthese two evolutionary forces act. Genes imported via horizontal transferare more likely to retain their original functionality as inferred from asimilar complement of signaling domains, while gene family expansionaccompanied by domain shuffling appears to be a major source of novelgenetic diversity. Family expansion is the dominantsource of newhistidine kinase genes in the genomes most enriched in signalingproteins, and detailed analysis reveals that divergence in domainstructure and changes in expression patterns are hallmarks of recentexpansions. Finally, while these two modes of gene acquisition arewidespread across bacterial taxa, there are clear species-specificpreferences for which mode is used.

  13. Irregular Enemies and the Essence of Strategy: Can the American Way of War Adapt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    consequence was Herman Kahn, On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios, New York: Praeger, 1965. 63. Huntington, American Military Strategy, p. 16. 64...sacrifice mandated by a public culture of unpreparedness is well told in Charles E. Heller and William A. Stofft, eds., America’s First Battles, 1776... Herman Hattaway and Archer Jones, How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1983, p. 720, for

  14. Entice, engage, endure: adapting evidence-based retention strategies to a new generation of nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Broom, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Catherine BroomCatherine Broom Consulting LLC, Lake Forest Park, WA, USAAbstract: Across the globe, the prolonged and expanding nursing shortage threatens dire consequences unless health care leaders can develop successful strategies to entice and engage a new generation of nurses. Over the past 3 decades investigational work regarding workforce attributes and the impact of organizational structures and processes has helped define professional nursing environments that successfully attract, s...

  15. Climate change adaptation via targeted ecosystem service provision: a sustainable land management strategy for the Segura catchment (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaria, Cecilia; de Vente, Joris; Perez-Cutillas, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Topical research investigating climate, land-use and management scenarios in the Segura catchment (SE Spain), depicts a landscape at high-risk of, quite literally, deserting agriculture. Land degradation in the semi-arid region of SE Spain is characterized by water shortage, high erosion rates and salinization, increasingly exacerbated by climatic changes, scarce vegetation cover and detrimental farming practices. Future climate scenarios predict increases in aridity, variability and intensity of rainfall events, leading to increasing pressure on scarce soil and water resources. This study conceptualized the impending crisis of agro-ecological systems of the Segura basin (18800 km2) as a crisis of ecosystem service deterioration. In light of existing land degradation drivers and future climate scenarios, the potential of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies was evaluated to target three priority ecosystem services (water provision, sediment retention and carbon sequestration) as a means to achieve climate change adaptation and mitigation. A preceding thorough process of stakeholder engagement (as part of the EU funded DESIRE project) indicated five SLM technologies for potential implementation, all with a focus upon reducing soil erosion, increasing soil water holding capacity and soil organic matter content. These technologies have been tested for over four years in local experimental field plots, and have provided results on the local effects upon individual environmental parameters. Despite the growing emphasis witnessed in literature upon the context-specificity which characterizes adaptation solutions, the frequent analysis at the field scale is limited in both scope and utility. There is a need to investigate the effects of adaptive SLM solutions at wider, regional scales. Thus, this study modeled the cumulative effect of each of the five selected SLM technologies with InVEST, a spatial analyst tool designed for ecosystem service quantification and

  16. Growth parameter components of adaptive specificity during experimental evolution of the UVR-inducible mutator Pseudomonas cichorii 302959.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Weigand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutagenic DNA repair (MDR transiently increases mutation rate through the activation of low-fidelity repair polymerases in response to specific, DNA-damaging environmental stress conditions such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposure. These repair polymerases also confer UVR tolerance, intimately linking mutability and survival in bacteria that colone habitats subject to regular UVR exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we investigate adaptive specificity in experimental lineages of the highly UVR-mutable epiphytic plant pathogen Pseudomonas cichorii 302959. Relative fitness measurements of isolates and population samples from replicate lineages indicated that adaptive improvements emerged early in all lineages of our evolution experiment and specific increases in relative fitness correlated with distinct improvements in doubling and lag times. Adaptive improvements gained under UVR and non-UVR conditions were acquired preferentially, and differentially contributed to relative fitness under varied growth conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results support our earlier observations that MDR activation may contribute to gains in relative fitness without impeding normal patterns of adaptive specificity in P. cichorii 302959.

  17. Modeling of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) using WRF - Assessment of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the city of Stuttgart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Suppan, Peter; Emeis, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cities are warmer than their surroundings (called urban heat island, UHI). UHI influence urban atmospheric circulation, air quality, and ecological conditions. UHI leads to upward motion and compensating near-surface inflow from the surroundings which import rural trace substances. Chemical and aerosol formation processes are modified due to increased temperature, reduced humidity and modified urban-rural trace substance mixtures. UHIs produce enhanced heat stress for humans, animals and plants, less water availability and modified air quality. Growing cities and Climate Change will aggravate the UHI and its effects and urgently require adaptation and mitigation strategies. Prior to this, UHI properties must be assessed by surface observations, ground- and satellite-based vertical remote sensing and numerical modelling. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is an instrument to simulate and assess this phenomenon based on boundary conditions from observations and global climate models. Three urbanization schemes are available with WRF, which are tested during this study for different weather conditions in central Europe and will be enhanced if necessary. High resolution land use maps are used for this modeling effort. In situ measurements and Landsat thermal images are employed for validation of the results. The study will focus on the city of Stuttgart located in the south western part of Germany that is situated in a caldera-like orographic feature. This municipality has a long tradition in urban climate research and thus is well equipped with climatologic measurement stations. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it is possible to simulate several scenarios for different surface properties. By increasing the albedo of roof and wall layers in the urban canopy model or by replacing urban land use by natural vegetation, simple urban planning strategies can be tested and the effect on urban heat island formation and air quality can be

  18. Targeting GH-1 splicing as a novel pharmacological strategy for growth hormone deficiency type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2017-01-15

    Isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD II) is a rare genetic splicing disorder characterized by reduced growth hormone (GH) secretion and short stature. It is mainly caused by autosomal dominant-negative mutations within the growth hormone gene (GH-1) which results in missplicing at the mRNA level and the subsequent loss of exon 3, producing the 17.5-kDa GH isoform: a mutant and inactive GH protein that reduces the stability and the secretion of the 22-kDa GH isoform, the main biologically active GH form. At present, patients suffering from IGHD II are treated with daily injections of recombinant human GH (rhGH) in order to reach normal height. However, this type of replacement therapy, although effective in terms of growth, does not prevent the toxic effects of the 17.5-kDa mutant on the pituitary gland, which may eventually lead to other hormonal deficiencies. As the severity of the disease inversely correlates with the 17.5-kDa/22-kDa ratio, increasing the inclusion of exon 3 is expected to ameliorate disease symptoms. This review focuses on the recent advances in experimental and therapeutic strategies applicable to treat IGHD II in clinical and preclinical contexts. Several avenues for alternative IGHD II therapy will be discussed including the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs that specifically target the exon 3-deleted transcripts as well as the application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to enhance full-length GH-1 transcription, correct GH-1 exon 3 splicing and manipulate GH pathway.

  19. Different transcriptional responses from slow and fast growth rate strains of Listeria monocytogenes adapted to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoska eCordero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes has become one of the principal foodborne pathogens worldwide. The capacity of this bacterium to grow at low temperatures has opened an interesting field of study in terms of the identification and classification of new strains of L. monocytogenes with different growth capacities at low temperatures. We determined the growth rate at 8 ºC of 110 strains of L. monocytogenes isolated from different food matrices. We identified a group of slow and fast strains according to their growth rate at 8 °C and performed a global transcriptomic assay in strains previously adapted to low temperature. We then identified shared and specific transcriptional mechanisms, metabolic and cellular processes of both groups; bacterial motility was the principal process capable of differentiating the adaptation capacity of L. monocytogenes strains with different ranges of tolerance to low temperatures. Strains belonging to the fast group were less motile, which may allow these strains to achieve a greater rate of proliferation at low temperature.

  20. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    KAUST Repository

    Michoud, Gregoire

    2016-06-02

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  1. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, N.

    2016-09-06

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  2. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  3. [The adaptive strategy of rodent populations living in conditions of radioactive and chemical environmental pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubashevskiĭ, N M; Starichenko, V I

    2010-01-01

    The comparative analysis of demographic, morphological and physiological processes in mouselike rodents in pollution zones (90Sr + 90Y, 137Cs) on East-Ural radioactive track (EURT) and (Cu + Cd + Pb + Zn + SO2) on a site near copper-smelting factory is carried out. The direct (not mediated) defeat of animals by an irradiation leads to inherited adaptation (density preservation, tolerance increase to pollution, migration decrease and so forth). The mediated defeat of animals at pollution by metals influences animals as a result of degradation of a vegetative cover, reducing a forage reserve, shelters and reproduction places. Population is decreasing, migration is increasing. Hence, population reacts onto direct defeat of animals or on inhabitancy locuses degradation, id est unspecifically, without dependence from the physical and chemical nature of pollution.

  4. A novel photosynthetic strategy for adaptation to low-iron aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, D.; Folea, I.M.; Jolley, C.C.; Kouril, R.; Lubner, C.E.; Lin, S.; Kolber, D.; Wolfe-Simon, Felisa; Golbeck, J.H.; Boekema, E.J.; Fromme, P.

    2011-01-01

    Iron (Fe) availability is a major limiting factor for primary production in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria respond to Fe deficiency by derepressing the isiAB operon, which encodes the antenna protein IsiA and flavodoxin. At nanomolar Fe concentrations, a PSI-IsiA supercomplex forms, comprising a PSI trimer encircled by two complete IsiA rings. This PSI-IsiA supercomplex is the largest photosynthetic membrane protein complex yet isolated. This study presents a detailed characterization of this complex using transmission electron microscopy and ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy. Excitation trapping and electron transfer are highly efficient, allowing cyanobacteria to avoid oxidative stress. This mechanism may be a major factor used by cyanobacteria to successfully adapt to modern low-Fe environments. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-09-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  6. Moving Past Curricula and Strategies: Language and the Development of Adaptive Pedagogy for Immersive Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian; Cavagnetto, Andy; Chen, Ying-Chih; Park, Soonhye

    2016-04-01

    Given current concerns internationally about student performance in science and the need to shift how science is being learnt in schools, as a community, we need to shift how we approach the issue of learning and teaching in science. In the future, we are going to have to close the gap between how students construct and engage with knowledge in a media-rich environment, and how school classroom environments engage them. This is going to require a shift to immersive environments where attention is paid to the knowledge bases and resources students bring into the classroom. Teachers will have to adopt adaptive pedagogical approaches that are framed around a more nuanced understanding of epistemological orientation, language and the nature of prosocial environments.

  7. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: A strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Kim, Y.-O.; Woodward, C.J.D.A.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  8. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S; Kim, Yong Ok; Woodward, Claire J D A; Greer, Chris; Espino, Luis; Doty, Sharon L; Rodriguez, Rusty J

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization).These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  9. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina S Redman

    Full Text Available Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization.These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  10. Genetic exchange of fimbrial alleles exemplifies the adaptive virulence strategy of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Kerr

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, a member of the human oral microbiome, and a proposed "keystone" pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the gingiva. P. gingivalis is a genetically diverse species, and is able to exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. In this study, we investigate the role of horizontal DNA transfer as an adaptive process to modify behavior, using the major fimbriae as our model system, due to their critical role in mediating interactions with the host environment. We show that P. gingivalis is able to exchange fimbrial allele types I and IV into four distinct strain backgrounds via natural competence. In all recombinants, we detected a complete exchange of the entire fimA allele, and the rate of exchange varies between the different strain backgrounds. In addition, gene exchange within other regions of the fimbrial genetic locus was identified. To measure the biological implications of these allele swaps we compared three genotypes of fimA in an isogenic background, strain ATCC 33277. We demonstrate that exchange of fimbrial allele type results in profound phenotypic changes, including the quantity of fimbriae elaborated, membrane blebbing, auto-aggregation and other virulence-associated phenotypes. Replacement of the type I allele with either the type III or IV allele resulted in increased invasion of gingival fibroblast cells relative to the isogenic parent strain. While genetic variability is known to impact host-microbiome interactions, this is the first study to quantitatively assess the adaptive effect of exchanging genes within the pan genome cloud. This is significant as it presents a potential mechanism by which opportunistic pathogens may acquire the traits necessary to modify host-microbial interactions.

  11. Development of Efficient Finite Element Software of Crack Propagation Simulation using Adaptive Mesh Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulnaser M. Alshoaibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is on the determination of 2D crack paths and surfaces as well as on the evaluation of the stress intensity factors as a part of the damage tolerant assessment. Problem statement: The evaluation of SIFs and crack tip singular stresses for arbitrary fracture structure are a challenging problem, involving the calculation of the crack path and the crack propagation rates at each step especially under mixed mode loading. Approach: This study was provided a finite element code which produces results comparable to the current available commercial software. Throughout the simulation of crack propagation an automatic adaptive mesh was carried out in the vicinity of the crack front nodes and in the elements which represent the higher stresses distribution. The finite element mesh was generated using the advancing front method. The adaptive remising process carried out based on the posteriori stress error norm scheme to obtain an optimal mesh. The onset criterion of crack propagation was based on the stress intensity factors which provide as the most important parameter that must be accurately estimated. Facilitated by the singular elements, the displacement extrapolation technique is employed to calculate the stress intensity factor. Crack direction is predicted using the maximum circumferential stress theory. The fracture was modeled by the splitting node approach and the trajectory follows the successive linear extensions of each crack increment. The propagation process is driven by Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM approach with minimum user interaction. Results: In evaluating the accuracy of the estimated stress intensity factors and the crack path predictions, the results were compared with sets of experimental data, benchmark analytical solutions as well as numerical results of other researchers. Conclusion/Recommendations: The assessment indicated that the program was highly reliable to evaluate the stress intensity

  12. Antarctic notothenioid fishes: genomic resources and strategies for analyzing an adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrich, H W; Amemiya, Chris T

    2010-12-01

    The perciform suborder Notothenoidei provides a compelling opportunity to study the adaptive radiation of a marine species-flock in the cold Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica. To facilitate genome-level studies of the diversification of these fishes, we present estimates of the genome sizes of 11 Antarctic species and describe the production of high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries for two, the red-blooded notothen Notothenia coriiceps and the white-blooded icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. Our results indicate that evolution of phylogenetically derived notothenioid families (e.g., the crown group Channichthyidae [icefishes]), was accompanied by genome expansion. Six species from the basal family Nototheniidae had C-values between 0.98 and 1.20 pg, a range that is consistent with the genome sizes of proposed outgroups (e.g., percids) of the notothenioid suborder. In contrast, four icefishes had C-values in the range 1.66-1.83 pg. The BAC libraries VMRC-19 (N. coriiceps) and VMRC-21 (C. aceratus) comprise 12× and 10× coverage of the respective genomes and have average insert sizes of 138 and 168 kb. Paired BAC-end reads representing ∼0.1% of each genome showed that the repetitive element landscapes of the two genomes (13.4% of the N. coriiceps genome and 14.5% for C. aceratus) were similar. The availability of these high-quality and well-characterized BAC libraries sets the stage for targeted genomic analyses of the unusual anatomical and physiological adaptations of the notothenioids, some of which mimic human diseases. Here we consider the evolution of secondary pelagicism by various taxa of the group and illustrate the utility of Antarctic icefishes as an evolutionary-mutant model of human osteopenia (low-mineral density of bones).

  13. Adaptations of a Yucatec Maya Multiple-Use Ecological Management Strategy to Ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo García-Frapolli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 40 years, the Yucatan Peninsula has experienced the implementation and promotion of development programs that have economically and ecologically shaped this region of Mexico. Nowadays, tourist development has become the principal catalyst of social, economic, and ecological changes in the region. All these programs, which are based on a specialization rationale, have historically clashed with traditional Yucatec Maya management of natural resources. Using participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews, and life-history interviews, we carried out an assessment of a Yucatec Maya natural resources management system implemented by three indigenous communities located within a natural protected area. The assessment, intended as an examination of the land-use practices and productive strategies currently implemented by households, was framed within an ecological-economic approach to ecosystems appropriation. To examine the influence of tourism on the multiple-use strategy, we contrasted productive activities among households engaged primarily in ecotourism with those more oriented toward traditional agriculture. Results show that households from these communities allocated an annual average of 586 work days to implement a total of 15 activities in five different land-use units, and that those figures vary significantly in accordance with households' productive strategy (agriculture oriented or service oriented. As the region is quickly becoming an important tourist destination and ecotourism is replacing many traditional activities, we discuss the need for a balance between traditional and alternative economic activities that will allow Yucatec Maya communities to diversify their economic options without compromising existing local management practices.

  14. An adaptive control strategy of converter based DG to maintain protection coordination in distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) is increasingly integrated into distribution systems due to its flexible onsite characteristic and low carbon emission. However, DG integration may change the fault current pattern in distribution systems, which may in turn degrade the performance and coordination...... of network protection devices. As a protection measure commonly used in distribution network, recloser-fuse coordination could suffer from this impact. Research work has been conducted to deal with this problem by modifying the control strategy of the DG converters during faults. These solutions generally...

  15. Evidence for shifts to faster growth strategies in the new ranges of invasive alien plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Michelle R; Cooke, Julia; Richardson, David M; Newman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Understanding the processes underlying the transition from introduction to naturalization and spread is an important goal of invasion ecology. Release from pests and pathogens in association with capacity for rapid growth is thought to confer an advantage for species in novel regions. We assessed leaf herbivory and leaf-level traits associated with growth strategy in the native and exotic ranges of 13 invasive plant species from 256 populations. Species were native to either the Western Cape region of South Africa, south-western Australia or south-eastern Australia and had been introduced to at least one of the other regions or to New Zealand. We tested for evidence of herbivore release and shifts in leaf traits between native and exotic ranges of the 13 species. Across all species, leaf herbivory, specific leaf area and leaf area were significantly different between native and exotic ranges while there were no significant differences across the 13 species found for leaf mass, assimilation rate, dark respiration or foliar nitrogen. Analysis at the species- and region-level showed that eight out of 13 species had reduced leaf herbivory in at least one exotic region compared to its native range. Six out of 13 species had significantly larger specific leaf area (SLA) in at least one exotic range region and five of those six species experienced reduced leaf herbivory. Increases in SLA were underpinned by increases in leaf area rather than reductions in leaf mass. No species showed differences in the direction of trait shifts from the native range between different exotic regions. This suggests that the driver of selection on these traits in the exotic range is consistent across regions and hence is most likely to be associated with factors linked with introduction to a novel environment, such as release from leaf herbivory, rather than with particular environmental conditions. Synthesis. These results provide evidence that introduction of a plant species into a

  16. Mucosal adaptation to aspirin induced gastric damage in humans. Studies on blood flow, gastric mucosal growth, and neutrophil activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, J W; Dembinski, A; Stoll, R; Domschke, W; Konturek, S J

    1994-01-01

    The gastropathy associated with the ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin is a common side effect of this class of drugs, but the precise mechanisms by which they cause mucosal damage have not been fully explained. During continued use of an injurious substance, such as aspirin, the extent of gastric mucosal damage decreases and this phenomenon is named gastric adaptation. To assess the extent of mucosal damage by aspirin and subsequent adaptation the effects of 14 days of continuous, oral administration of aspirin (2 g per day) to eight healthy male volunteers was studied. To estimate the rate of mucosal damage, gastroscopy was performed before (day 0) and at days 3, 7, 14 of aspirin treatment. Gastric microbleeding and gastric mucosal blood flow were measured using laser Doppler flowmeter and mucosal biopsy specimens were taken for the estimation of tissue DNA synthesis and RNA and DNA concentration. In addition, the activation of neutrophils in peripheral blood was assessed by measuring their ability to associate with platelets. Aspirin induced acute damage mainly in gastric corpus, reaching at day 3 about 3.5 on the endoscopic Lanza score but lessened to about 1.5 at day 14 pointing to the occurrence of gastric adaptation. Mucosal blood flow increased at day 3 by about 50% in the gastric corpus and by 88% in the antrum. The in vitro DNA synthesis and RNA concentration, an index of mucosal growth, were reduced at day 3 but then increased to reach about 150% of initial value at the end of aspirin treatment. It is concluded that the treatment with aspirin in humans induces gastric adaptation to this agent, which entails the increase in mucosal blood flow, the rise in neutrophil activation, and the enhancement in mucosal growth. PMID:7959223

  17. Understanding Inequalities of Maternal Smoking--Bridging the Gap with Adapted Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Julie; Konkle, Anne T M

    2016-03-04

    Women who are generally part of socially disadvantaged and economically marginalized groups are especially susceptible to smoking during pregnancy but smoking rates are underreported in both research and interventions. While there is evidence to support the short-term efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use in pregnancy, long-term abstinence rates are modest. Current health strategies and interventions designed to diminish smoking in pregnancy have adopted a simplified approach to maternal smoking-one that suggests that they have a similar degree of choice to non-pregnant smokers regarding the avoidance of risk factors, and overlooks individual predictors of non-adherence. As a result, interventions have been ineffective among this high-risk group. For this reason, this paper addresses the multiple and interacting determinants that must be considered when developing and implementing effective strategies that lead to successful smoking cessation: socioeconomic status (SES), nicotine dependence, social support, culture, mental health, and health services. Based on our review of the literature, we conclude that tailoring cessation programs for pregnant smokers may ultimately optimize NRT efficacy and reduce the prevalence of maternal smoking.

  18. SAMPLING ADAPTIVE STRATEGY AND SPATIAL ORGANISATION ESTIMATION OF SOIL ANIMAL COMMUNITIES AT VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVELS OF URBANISED TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljuk J.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In work the algorithm of adaptive strategy of optimum spatial sampling for studying of the spatial organisation of communities of soil animals in the conditions of an urbanization have been presented. As operating variables the principal components obtained as a result of the analysis of the field data on soil penetration resistance, soils electrical conductivity and density of a forest stand, collected on a quasiregular grid have been used. The locations of experimental polygons have been stated by means of program ESAP. The sampling has been made on a regular grid within experimental polygons. The biogeocoenological estimation of experimental polygons have been made on a basis of A.L.Belgard's ecomorphic analysis. The spatial configuration of biogeocoenosis types has been established on the basis of the data of earth remote sensing and the analysis of digital elevation model. The algorithm was suggested which allows to reveal the spatial organisation of soil animal communities at investigated point, biogeocoenosis, and landscape.

  19. GestAqua.AdaPT - Mediterranean river basin modeling and reservoir operation strategies for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Marco, Machado; Aal, Carlo; Carmona Rodrigues, António; Beça, Pedro; Casanova Lino, Rafael; Rocha, João; Carvalho Santos, Cláudia

    2016-04-01

    Climate change (CC) scenarios for the Mediterranean region include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as drought periods. higher average temperatures and evapotranspiration, combined with the decrease of annual precipitation may strongly affect the sustainability of water resources. In face of these risks, improving water management actions? by anticipating necessary operational measures is required to insure water quantity and quality according to the needs of the populations and irrigation in agriculture. This is clearly the case of the Alentejo region, southern Portugal, where present climatic conditions already pose significant challenges to water resources stakeholders, mainly from the agricultural and the urban supply sectors. With this in mind, the GestAqua.AdaPT project is underway during 2015 and 2016, aiming at analyzing CC impacts until 2100 and develop operational procedures to ensure water needs are adequately satisfied in the Monte Novo and Vigia reservoirs, which supply water for the city of Évora and nearby irrigation systems. Specific project objectives include: a) defining management and operational adaptation strategies aiming to ensure resource sustainability, both quantitatively and qualitatively; b) evaluate future potential costs and available alternatives to the regional water transfer infrastructure linked with the large Alqueva reservoir implemented in 2011; c) defining CC adaptation strategies to reduce irrigation water needs and d) identification of CC adaptation strategies which can be suitable also to other similar water supply systems. The methodology is centered on the implementation of a cascade of modeling tools, allowing the integrated simulation of the multiple variables under analysis. The project is based on CC scenarios resulting from the CORDEX project for 10 combinations of Global and regional climate models (GCMs and RCMs). The study follows by using two of these combinations

  20. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  1. The transcriptome of the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583 reveals adaptive responses to growth in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C Vebø

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis plays a dual role in human ecology, predominantly existing as a commensal in the alimentary canal, but also as an opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes nosocomial infections like bacteremia. A number of virulence factors that contribute to the pathogenic potential of E. faecalis have been established. However, the process in which E. faecalis gains access to the bloodstream and establishes a persistent infection is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To enhance our understanding of how this commensal bacterium adapts during a bloodstream infection and to examine the interplay between genes we designed an in vitro experiment using genome-wide microarrays to investigate what effects the presence of and growth in blood have on the transcriptome of E. faecalis strain V583. We showed that growth in both 2xYT supplemented with 10% blood and in 100% blood had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the V583 genome. We identified several immediate changes signifying cellular processes that might contribute to adaptation and growth in blood. These include modulation of membrane fatty acid composition, oxidative and lytic stress protection, acquisition of new available substrates, transport functions including heme/iron transporters and genes associated with virulence in E. faecalis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in blood in vitro has a profound impact on its transcriptome, which includes a number of virulence traits. Observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed new insight into physiological features and metabolic capacities which enable E. faecalis to adapt and grow in blood. A number of the regulated genes might potentially be useful candidates for development of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  2. Temperate heath plant response to dry conditions depends on growth strategy and less on physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Kongstad, J.; Schmidt, I. K.;

    2012-01-01

    The evidence that is currently available demonstrates that future changes in precipitation patterns will affect plant carbon uptake. However, the outcome in terms of success, productivity and fecundity depends upon individual species and different responses of various growth forms. Examination....... In combination with dieback of aboveground biomass and reduction of stomatal conductance reduction during dry conditions, the grass continued to have high carbon uptake in the remaining leaves. The dwarf shrub endured the dry conditions by preserving shoot biomass and reducing stomatal conductance. Soil...... rewetting increased leaf nitrogen and photosynthesis in the grass much more than for the dwarf shrub. These different strategies may have a considerable impact on carbon uptake and on the ability of a species to compete, as future climatic changes are likely to extend the summer drought period together...

  3. Nanofibers implant functionalized by neural growth factor as a strategy to innervate a bioengineered tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eap, Sandy; Bécavin, Thibault; Keller, Laetitia; Kökten, Tunay; Fioretti, Florence; Weickert, Jean-Luc; Deveaux, Etienne; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Kuchler-Bopp, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    Current strategies for jaw reconstruction require multiple procedures, to repair the bone defect, to offer sufficient support, and to place the tooth implant. The entire procedure can be painful and time-consuming, and the desired functional repair can be achieved only when both steps are successful. The ability to engineer combined tooth and bone constructs, which would grow in a coordinated fashion with the surrounding tissues, could potentially improve the clinical outcomes and also reduce patient suffering. A unique nanofibrous and active implant for bone-tooth unit regeneration and also the innervation of this bioengineered tooth are demonstrated. A nanofibrous polycaprolactone membrane is functionalized with neural growth factor, along with dental germ, and tooth innervation follows. Such innervation allows complete functionality and tissue homeostasis of the tooth, such as dentinal sensitivity, odontoblast function, masticatory forces, and blood flow.

  4. Coupling Microbial Growth with Nanoparticles: A Universal Strategy To Produce Functional Fungal Hyphae Macrospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Kun; Cong, Huai-Ping; Guan, Qing-Fang; Yao, Wei-Tang; Liang, Hai-Wei; Wang, Wei; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-25

    Macroscale assembly of nanoscale building blocks is an intriguing way to translate the unique characteristics of individual nanoparticles into macroscopic materials. However, the lack of the efficient universal assembly strategy seriously hinders the possibility of macroscale architectures in practical applications. Herein, we develop a general, environment-friendly, and scalable microbial growth method for the construction of macroscopic composite assemblies with excellent mechanical strength by in situ integrating various types of nanoparticles into fungal hyphae (FH) macrospheres. Notably, the size of the FH-based composite spheres and the loading amount of the nanoparticles with different dimensions can be well tuned by controlling the cultivation time and the dosage of nanoparticles, respectively. Interestingly, bifunctional FH-based core-shell macrospheres can also be achieved by programmed assembling two different kinds of nanoparticles in the cultivation process. The produced multifunctional FH-based composite spheres exhibit wide potential applications in magnetic actuation, photothermal therapy, and contaminant adsorption, etc.

  5. Early and rapid globalization as part of innovation and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Azimi, Zohreh; Tanev, Stoyan

    of technology start-ups as a specific growth strategy (Zijdemans & Tanev, 2014). Our research adopts a dynamic resource perspective according to which the distinction between ex-ante and ex-post value of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) complements the effectual entrepreneurial approach, which is typical...... for start-ups that globalize rapidly in an environment with a high degree of uncertainty (Sarasvathy, Kumar, York, & Bhagavatula, 2014). The ex-ante valuation of resources (Schmidt & Keil, 2012) is related to the ex-post characteristics of BG firms (Tanev, 2012) resulting in a Global Value Generator (GVG......) – a framework linking the ex-ante value drivers and ex-post characteristics of BG firms. Our aim is to use the GVG to help innovative start-ups in making strategic ex-ante decisions contributing to the development of competitive global business models, complementary global resources and differentiated value...

  6. Relation between resiliency and post-traumatic growth in a group of paramedics: The mediating role of coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the research is to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies for stress in the relation between resiliency and post-traumatic growth in a group of paramedics. Material and Methods: Data of 80 paramedics who have experienced traumatic event at their worksites was analyzed. The age range of the participants was 21–67 years old (mean: 35.47, standard deviation: 10.21. The Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, the Assessment Resiliency Scale and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies for Stress – Mini-Cope were used in the study. Results: Venting of negative emotions and denial appeared as suppressors in analyzing the relation, while planning plays mediating role between resiliency and post-traumatic growth. Conclusions: In the process of post-traumatic growth, both avoidance and problem-focused strategies are important. Moreover, controlling such strategies as Venting and Denial may result in a high level of posttraumatic growth in the study group. The data supports that resiliency may have direct or indirect impact on post-traumatic changes. The results allow to understand the mechanisms of resiliency better, that relationship with post-traumatic growth is ambiguous.

  7. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  8. More Water Resources but Less for Irrigation: Adaptation Strategy of the Yellow River in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Q.; Yin, Y. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Yellow River is the primary source of freshwater to the northern China. Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the river basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. Development of adaptation strategies would have significant implications for water and food security of this region. In this study, the outputs of multiple hydrological models forced with the bias-corrected climatic variables from multiple global climate models were used to assess the change in renewable water resources of the river basin in the 21st century. The outputs of multiple crop models were used to assess the change in agricultural water demand. The domestic and industrial water demands were estimated based on the future socio-economic conditions under the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Besides basic ecosystem needs for water which must be met, the water use in domestic and industrial sectors is considered to have a higher priority than the agricultural water use when water is insufficient. The results show that the renewable water resources of the basin would increase as global mean temperature increases while the water demand would grow much more rapidly, largely due to water demand increase in domestic and industrial sectors. In most of the sub-basins of the Yellow River basin, the available water resources can not sustain all the water use sectors starting from the next a few decades. As more water resources would be appropriated by domestic and industrial sectors, a part of irrigated area had to be converted to rainfed agriculture which led to a large reduction in food production. This study highlights the linked water and food security in a changing environment and suggests that the trade-off should be considered when developing regional adaptation strategies.

  9. Fetal hemodynamic adaptive changes related to intrauterine growth the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.O. Verburg (Bero Olof); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground-It has been suggested that an adverse fetal environment increases susceptibility to hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. This increased risk may result from suboptimal development of the heart and main arteries in utero and from adaptive cardiovascular change

  10. The FIGS (focused identification of germplasm strategy approach identifies traits related to drought adaptation in Vicia faba genetic resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khazaei

    Full Text Available Efficient methods to explore plant agro-biodiversity for climate change adaptive traits are urgently required. The focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS is one such approach. FIGS works on the premise that germplasm is likely to reflect the selection pressures of the environment in which it developed. Environmental parameters describing plant germplasm collection sites are used as selection criteria to improve the probability of uncovering useful variation. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of FIGS to search a large faba bean (Vicia faba L. collection for traits related to drought adaptation. Two sets of faba bean accessions were created, one from moisture-limited environments, and the other from wetter sites. The two sets were grown under well watered conditions and leaf morpho-physiological traits related to plant water use were measured. Machine-learning algorithms split the accessions into two groups based on the evaluation data and the groups created by this process were compared to the original climate-based FIGS sets. The sets defined by trait data were in almost perfect agreement to the FIGS sets, demonstrating that ecotypic differentiation driven by moisture availability has occurred within the faba bean genepool. Leaflet and canopy temperature as well as relative water content contributed more than other traits to the discrimination between sets, indicating that their utility as drought-tolerance selection criteria for faba bean germplasm. This study supports the assertion that FIGS could be an effective tool to enhance the discovery of new genes for abiotic stress adaptation.

  11. Performance adaptive training control strategy for recovering wrist movements in stroke patients: a preliminary, feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandini Giulio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last two decades robot training in neuromotor rehabilitation was mainly focused on shoulder-elbow movements. Few devices were designed and clinically tested for training coordinated movements of the wrist, which are crucial for achieving even the basic level of motor competence that is necessary for carrying out ADLs (activities of daily life. Moreover, most systems of robot therapy use point-to-point reaching movements which tend to emphasize the pathological tendency of stroke patients to break down goal-directed movements into a number of jerky sub-movements. For this reason we designed a wrist robot with a range of motion comparable to that of normal subjects and implemented a self-adapting training protocol for tracking smoothly moving targets in order to facilitate the emergence of smoothness in the motor control patterns and maximize the recovery of the normal RoM (range of motion of the different DoFs (degrees of Freedom. Methods The IIT-wrist robot is a 3 DoFs light exoskeleton device, with direct-drive of each DoF and a human-like range of motion for Flexion/Extension (FE, Abduction/Adduction (AA and Pronation/Supination (PS. Subjects were asked to track a variable-frequency oscillating target using only one wrist DoF at time, in such a way to carry out a progressive splinting therapy. The RoM of each DoF was angularly scanned in a staircase-like fashion, from the "easier" to the "more difficult" angular position. An Adaptive Controller evaluated online performance parameters and modulated both the assistance and the difficulty of the task in order to facilitate smoother and more precise motor command patterns. Results Three stroke subjects volunteered to participate in a preliminary test session aimed at verify the acceptability of the device and the feasibility of the designed protocol. All of them were able to perform the required task. The wrist active RoM of motion was evaluated for each patient at the

  12. A Bim-targeting strategy overcomes adaptive bortezomib resistance in myeloma through a novel link between autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Liang; Leng, Yun; Lin, Hui; Kmieciak, Maciej; Pei, Xin-Yan; Jones, Richard; Orlowski, Robert Z; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven

    2014-10-23

    Bim contributes to resistance to various standard and novel agents. Here we demonstrate that Bim plays a functional role in bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and that targeting Bim by combining histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with BH3 mimetics (eg, ABT-737) overcomes bortezomib resistance. BH3-only protein profiling revealed high Bim levels (Bim(hi)) in most MM cell lines and primary CD138(+) MM samples. Whereas short hairpin RNA Bim knockdown conferred bortezomib resistance in Bim(hi) cells, adaptive bortezomib-resistant cells displayed marked Bim downregulation. HDACI upregulated Bim and, when combined with ABT-737, which released Bim from Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, potently killed bortezomib-resistant cells. These events were correlated with Bim-associated autophagy attenuation, whereas Bim knockdown sharply increased autophagy in Bim(hi) cells. In Bim(low) cells, autophagy disruption by chloroquine (CQ) was required for HDACI/ABT-737 to induce Bim expression and lethality. CQ also further enhanced HDACI/ABT-737 lethality in bortezomib-resistant cells. Finally, HDACI failed to diminish autophagy or potentiate ABT-737-induced apoptosis in bim(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Thus, Bim deficiency represents a novel mechanism of adaptive bortezomib resistance in MM cells, and Bim-targeting strategies combining HDACIs