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Sample records for adaptive growth strategy

  1. Understanding the adaptive growth strategy of Lactobacillus plantarum by in silico optimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Teusink

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the study of metabolic networks, optimization techniques are often used to predict flux distributions, and hence, metabolic phenotype. Flux balance analysis in particular has been successful in predicting metabolic phenotypes. However, an inherent limitation of a stoichiometric approach such as flux balance analysis is that it can predict only flux distributions that result in maximal yields. Hence, previous attempts to use FBA to predict metabolic fluxes in Lactobacillus plantarum failed, as this lactic acid bacterium produces lactate, even under glucose-limited chemostat conditions, where FBA predicted mixed acid fermentation as an alternative pathway leading to a higher yield. In this study we tested, however, whether long-term adaptation on an unusual and poor carbon source (for this bacterium would select for mutants with optimal biomass yields. We have therefore adapted Lactobacillus plantarum to grow well on glycerol as its main growth substrate. After prolonged serial dilutions, the growth yield and corresponding fluxes were compared to in silico predictions. Surprisingly, the organism still produced mainly lactate, which was corroborated by FBA to indeed be optimal. To understand these results, constraint-based elementary flux mode analysis was developed that predicted 3 out of 2669 possible flux modes to be optimal under the experimental conditions. These optimal pathways corresponded very closely to the experimentally observed fluxes and explained lactate formation as the result of competition for oxygen by the other flux modes. Hence, these results provide thorough understanding of adaptive evolution, allowing in silico predictions of the resulting flux states, provided that the selective growth conditions favor yield optimization as the winning strategy.

  2. High resolution crop growth simulation for identification of potential adaptation strategies under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. S.; Yoo, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Impact assessment of climate change on crop production would facilitate planning of adaptation strategies. Because socio-environmental conditions would differ by local areas, it would be advantageous to assess potential adaptation measures at a specific area. The objectives of this study was to develop a crop growth simulation system at a very high spatial resolution, e.g., 30 m, and to assess different adaptation options including shift of planting date and use of different cultivars. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) model was used to predict yields of soybean and maize in Korea. Gridded data for climate and soil were used to prepare input data for the DSSAT model. Weather input data were prepared at the resolution of 30 m using bilinear interpolation from gridded climate scenario data. Those climate data were obtained from Korean Meteorology Administration. Spatial resolution of temperature and precipitation was 1 km whereas that of solar radiation was 12.5 km. Soil series data at the 30 m resolution were obtained from the soil database operated by Rural Development Administration, Korea. The SOL file, which is a soil input file for the DSSAT model was prepared using physical and chemical properties of a given soil series, which were available from the soil database. Crop yields were predicted by potential adaptation options based on planting date and cultivar. For example, 10 planting dates and three cultivars were used to identify ideal management options for climate change adaptation. In prediction of maize yield, combination of 20 planting dates and two cultivars was used as management options. Predicted crop yields differed by site even within a relatively small region. For example, the maximum of average yields for 2001-2010 seasons differed by sites In a county of which areas is 520 km2 (Fig. 1). There was also spatial variation in the ideal management option in the region (Fig. 2). These results suggested that local

  3. [Adaptation strategies of seed germination and seedling growth to sand dune environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yajuan; Dong, Ming; Huang, Zhenying

    2006-01-01

    Sand dune plants possess many adaptation strategies to withstand sand environment, e. g., some desert plant seeds are dormant when matured, which helps them to escape from unfeasible environment conditions and be preserved as seed bank. The seed germination and seedling establishment of psammophytes need moderate sand burial, while excessive burial will inhibit seed germination and seedling emergence. Seeds without germination in deeper sand are in enforced dormancy, and form soil seed bank. Sand dune plant seedlings could tolerant finite sand burial by increasing the number of nodes per culm and elongating internodes. When the seedlings are partially buried, they could survive through the maintenance of photosynthesis organism. Once sand burial exceed the threshold of the plant, seedlings growth will be restrained and the growth ability even permanently lost. Other factors such as salt spray, insect herbivory, and lack of soil nutrients also affect seed germination and seedling establishment. The precipitation in desert and sand land is unpredictable and irregular. Sand erosion leads roots be exposed to the air and dehydrated to die. However, seedlings of some desert plant have the ability to tolerate desiccation for a period of time after germination. Once there is rain, the seedlings will rivive.

  4. Behavioural strategy: Adaptability context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piórkowska Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology. Moreover, the paper concerns to some extent a multi-level approach in strategic management involving individual, team, and organizational level. The aim of the paper is to contribute to extend, on one hand, the ascertainment set in the field of behavioural strategy as behavioural strategy encompasses a mindboggling diversity of topics and methods and its conceptual unity has been hard to achieve (Powell, Lovallo, Fox 2011, p. 1371, and on the other hand, to order mixed approaches to adaptability especially to gain insights on micro-level adapting processes (individual adaptability and adaptive performance in terms of the multi-level approach. The method that has been used is literature studies and the interference is mostly deductive. The structure of the manuscript is four-fold. The first part involves the considerations in the field of adaptability and adaptive performance at the individual level. The issues of adaptability and adaptive performance at the team level have been presented in the second part. The third part encompasses the organizational adaptability assertions. Finally, the conclusion, limitations of the considerations highlighted as well as the future research directions have been emphasized. The overarching key finding is that the behavioural strategy concept may constitute the boundary spanner in exploring and explaining adaptability phenomenon at different levels of analysis.

  5. Behavioural strategy: Adaptability context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katarzyna Piórkowska

    2016-01-01

    The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology...

  6. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  7. Comparison of Rooting Strategies to Explore Rock Fractures for Shallow Soil-Adapted Tree Species with Contrasting Aboveground Growth Rates: A Greenhouse Microcosm Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Nie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For tree species adapted to shallow soil environments, rooting strategies that efficiently explore rock fractures are important because soil water depletion occurs frequently. However, two questions: (a to what extent shallow soil-adapted species rely on exploring rock fractures and (b what outcomes result from drought stress, have rarely been tested. Therefore, based on the expectation that early development of roots into deep soil layers is at the cost of aboveground growth, seedlings of three tree species (Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Delavaya toxocarpa, and Acer cinnamomifolium with distinct aboveground growth rates were selected from a typical shallow soil region. In a greenhouse experiment that mimics the basic features of shallow soil environments, 1-year-old seedlings were transplanted into simulated microcosms of shallow soil overlaying fractured bedrock. Root biomass allocation and leaf physiological activities, as well as leaf δ13C values were investigated and compared for two treatments: regular irrigation and repeated cycles of drought stress. Our results show that the three species differed in their rooting strategies in the context of encountering rock fractures, however, these strategies were not closely related to the aboveground growth rate. For the slowest-growing seedling, C. glauca, percentages of root mass in the fractures, as well as in the soil layer between soil and bedrock increased significantly under both treatments, indicating a specialized rooting strategy that facilitated the exploration of rock fractures. Early investment in deep root growth was likely critical to the establishment of this drought-vulnerable species. For the intermediate-growing, A. cinnamomifolium, percentages of root mass in the bedrock and interface soil layers were relatively low and exhibited no obvious change under either treatment. This limited need to explore rock fractures was compensated by a conservative water use strategy. For the fast

  8. Root respiratory costs of ion uptake, root growth, and root maintenance in wetland plants: efficiency and strategy of O2 use for adaptation to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takatoshi; Nakamura, Motoka

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen use in roots is an important aspect of wetland plant ecophysiology, and it depends on the respiratory costs of three major processes: ion uptake, root growth, and root maintenance. However, O2 allocation in wetland plants has received little attention. This study aimed to determine the O2 allocation and specific respiratory cost of each process under hypoxic conditions, to better understand the strategy and efficiency of O2 use in wetland plants. The root respiration rate, nitrogen uptake, and root growth in three Carex species with different growth rates were examined under hypoxic conditions using different N sources, and the respiratory costs of ion uptake, root growth, and root maintenance were statistically estimated. All species exhibited low specific costs and low ratios of O2 allocation for root growth (2.0 ± 0.4 mmol O2 g(-1) and 15.2 ± 2.7 %, respectively). The specific cost of ion uptake was 20-30 % lower in fast-growing species than in slow-growing species. As plant growth rate increased, the O2 allocation ratio for ion uptake increased, and that for root maintenance decreased. The cost was higher when NO3 (-) was fed, than when NH4 (+) was fed, although the pattern of O2 allocation ratios for three processes was similar for NO3 (-) and NH4 (+). Our results indicate that wetland plants primarily employ an O2 use strategy of minimising the respiratory costs of root growth, and fast-growing plants specifically use O2 to maximise ion uptake. These findings provide new insights into ecophysiological behaviours of roots in adaptation to hypoxia.

  9. Adaptation, the Paramount Communication Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastin Georges L.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Translation Studies as well as in any other discipline dealing with human communication, we can assume without any doubts that adaptation is the most efficient communicational strategy. Although it is a tactical tool used to solve isolated communicational problems or conflicts, it is far and foremost a strategy with a long term general purpose closely related to a communicational and even a lifelong project.

  10. Adaptive strategies against drought stress of six plant species with different growth forms from karst habitats of southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Guo, K.; Liu, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Frequent temporary drought in the rain season, as well as long-term drought in the dry season, is one of the most important factors limiting the survival and growth of plants in the harsh karst habitats of southwestern China. The morphological and physiological responses to drought stress of six native woody plant species were investigated under both temporary and prolonged drought stress. The six plant species included Pyracantha fortuneana (evergreen shrub), Rosa cymosa (deciduous shrub), Cinnamomum bodinieri (evergreen tree), and other three deciduous trees, Broussonetia papyrifera, Platycarya longipes and Pteroceltis tatarinowii. Under severe drought stress, the two shrubs with low leaf area ratio (LAR) maintained higher water status, higher photosynthetic capacity and larger percent biomass increase than the most of the trees, owing to their lower specific leaf area, higher intrinsic water use efficiency and thermal dissipation, and higher capacities of osmotic adjustment and antioxidant protection. The evergreen tree, C. bodinieri, exhibited small decrease of water potential and maintained higher leaf mass ratio (LMR) and LAR than the deciduous species under moderate drought stress, due to the high proline accumulation and high activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, it showed high levels of cellular damages, very low photosynthetic capacity, and sharp decreases of water potential and biomass under severe drought stress. After rewatering, C. bodinieri showed a lower ability to recover from severe drought with the successive repeats of severe drought event. The three deciduous trees developed high root mass ratio for maximizing water uptake, and showed higher LAR and biomass than the two shrubs under well-watered condition. However, drought stress resulted in sharp decreases of biomass in the three deciduous trees, which were attributed to the large drought-induced decreases of LMR, LAR and gas exchange. Under drought conditions, the deciduous trees

  11. Food Legumes and Rising Temperatures: Effects, Adaptive Functional Mechanisms Specific to Reproductive Growth Stage and Strategies to Improve Heat Tolerance

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    Kumari Sita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperatures are predicted to rise in the future owing to several reasons associated with global climate changes. These temperature increases can result in heat stress- a severe threat to crop production in most countries. Legumes are well-known for their impact on agricultural sustainability as well as their nutritional and health benefits. Heat stress imposes challenges for legume crops and has deleterious effects on the morphology, physiology, and reproductive growth of plants. High-temperature stress at the time of the reproductive stage is becoming a severe limitation for production of grain legumes as their cultivation expands to warmer environments and temperature variability increases due to climate change. The reproductive period is vital in the life cycle of all plants and is susceptible to high-temperature stress as various metabolic processes are adversely impacted during this phase, which reduces crop yield. Food legumes exposed to high-temperature stress during reproduction show flower abortion, pollen and ovule infertility, impaired fertilization, and reduced seed filling, leading to smaller seeds and poor yields. Through various breeding techniques, heat tolerance in major legumes can be enhanced to improve performance in the field. Omics approaches unravel different mechanisms underlying thermotolerance, which is imperative to understand the processes of molecular responses toward high-temperature stress.

  12. Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing, Jana; Koidl, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Abbing, J. & Koidl, K. (2006). Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  13. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...... adaptation needed. Issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change as impacts emerge are described....

  14. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started...... the development of a national adaptation strategy. Secondly, the scientific and technical support needed for the development and implementation of such a strategy. Thirdly, the role of the strategy in information, communication and awareness-raising of the adaptation issue. Fourthly, new or existing forms...... in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper concludes that even...

  15. FARMERS ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO THE EFFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    ABSTRACT. The study investigated farmers adaptation strategies to the effect of climate variation on yam production in Ekiti State with the specific objectives of assessing the socio-economic characteristics of farmers, farmers' climate related constraints, the adaptation strategies employed by farmers, and yam farmers' level ...

  16. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  17. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  18. DECISION STRATEGIES AND COGNITIVE ADAPTATIONS TO ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poleszczuk Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the concept of adaptive rationality. I present a simple model of ecology and the set of decision rules. The basic structure of the process of cognitive adaptation to ecology is described as a structure comprising (1 perceptual space, (2 a function valuating perceived items, (3 a set of available decision rules and (4 the adaptation process - identification and selection of the best strategies in given ecological conditions. The presented model of ecosystem allows a conclusion that completely opposite strategies may be compatible with the assumption of adaptive rationality.

  19. Adaptation strategies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Bergsma, E.; Jong, P.; Albrecht, E.; Schmidt, M.; Mißler-Behr, M.; Spyra, S.P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change has been prominently featured on the global scientific and political agendas since the World Climate Conference in 1979 (WCC 1979), the specific importance of adaptation to climate change has only been underlined about 20 years later. The Netherlands, because it lies largely

  20. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    It has been a world priority for more than a decade to reduc greenhouse gas emissions within the frame of the Kyoto Protocol. However, since the Kyoto Protocol it has proved difficult to reach an international consensus at the Conference of the Parties on the continuation of a global agreement...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  1. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  2. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions.

  3. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  4. Growth and innovation Strategies In Global Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276323394

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a model of firm dynamics in global competition and experimentally analyzes multinational growth strategies and optimal coordination of innovative activities. It shows that growth and innovation strategies of operatively engaged headquarters (business or corporate) with a

  5. FARMERS ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO THE EFFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    The study investigated farmers adaptation strategies to the effect of climate variation on yam production in Ekiti State with .... infrastructure, access to resources and management abilities. There is need to gain as .... of the farmers in the study area old while young people prefer less climate risk business. The majority of the ...

  6. [Adaptation strategies faced with chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Chronic pain constitutes a challenge for patients. It makes them uneasy with regard to their personality, their corporality and their life balance, and leaves long-lasting effects on their experience as a patient. The development of adaptation strategies and resources to deal with chronic pain is therefore essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge, Perception and Adaptation Strategies to Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change is perhaps the most serious environmental threat facing mankind worldwide. The study was designed to assess the knowledge, perception and adaptation strategies to climate change among farmers in southern agricultural zone of Nasarawa state. The specific objectives were to: identify the sources of ...

  8. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  9. Adapting RRT growth for heterogeneous environments

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) are effective for a wide range of applications ranging from kinodynamic planning to motion planning under uncertainty. However, RRTs are not as efficient when exploring heterogeneous environments and do not adapt to the space. For example, in difficult areas an expensive RRT growth method might be appropriate, while in open areas inexpensive growth methods should be chosen. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, Adaptive RRT, that adapts RRT growth to the current exploration area using a two level growth selection mechanism. At the first level, we select groups of expansion methods according to the visibility of the node being expanded. Second, we use a cost-sensitive learning approach to select a sampler from the group of expansion methods chosen. Also, we propose a novel definition of visibility for RRT nodes which can be computed in an online manner and used by Adaptive RRT to select an appropriate expansion method. We present the algorithm and experimental analysis on a broad range of problems showing not only its adaptability, but efficiency gains achieved by adapting exploration methods appropriately. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  11. Government Expenditure on Growth Strategies and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poverty and government expenditure on growth strategies that have been implemented in Tanzania since the mid 2000s. The paper shows that despite impressive economic growth of about 6 percent per annum that the country has enjoyed in ...

  12. Exploring guideline adaptation strategy for Turkey: Is "ADAPTE" feasible or does it need adaptation as well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan Baser, Duygu; Kahveci, Rabia; Baydar Artantas, Aylin; Yasar, İlknur; Aksoy, Hilal; Koc, Esra Meltem; Kasim, İsmail; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Özkara, Adem

    2017-04-27

    Clinical Practice Guidelines are mostly developed by 3 methods; namely, de novo, adoption, and adaptation. Nonpublished studies and authors experience shows that most guidelines in Turkey are either by adoption or by adaptation. There is no available local tool for adaptation, so the process is not standardized and most of the time not explicitly defined. The objective of this study is to search for international guideline adaptation tools and test their feasibility in Turkish context, to serve a final goal of developing a unique local strategic tool for guideline adaptation. The methodological design of this study includes selection of an international tool for Clinical Practice Guideline adaptation, piloting this tool with selected Turkish guidelines, identifying the feasibility of this tool and exploring the needs for adaptation of the tool, drawing recommendations for adaptation of the strategies, and validation of the process by local experts. The study from planning phase to finalizing the guidance, including pilot studies and panel but excluding translation of ADAPTE, lasted 18 months. Nine researchers were involved in the adaptation process and 15 more experts were involved in the validation panel. Following the suggestions of the research team on modifications and validation through the expert panel; 2 steps of the ADAPTE toolkit were rejected, 2 steps were accepted by modification, 7 steps were accepted by additional recommendations. In addition, 2 tools were suggested to be added to the toolkit. This is the first study on adaptation of guidelines in Turkey. Pilot adaptation of 2 guidelines with ADAPTE revealed that ADAPTE is a useful and feasible tool in Turkish setting, but might require certain changes in recommendations and revision of tools. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  14. Biometeorology - a science supporting adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzarakis, A.; Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    Biometeorology as an interdisciplinary science deals with the interactions between atmospheric processes and living organisms (plants, animals and humans). If and in what way weather and climate affect the well-being of all the living creatures? This is the most important question biometeorology is answering. The International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has built an international forum for the promotion of interdisciplinary collaboration between meteorologists, health professionals, biologists, climatologists, ecologists and other scientists. The Society acts as a community of scientists with similar interests, and fulfills an important role in providing information, expertise and advice for international organizations requiring this assistance. The ISB represents the most comprehensive organization, which brings together people with expertise in these areas. Another specific aim of the ISB is the stimulation of research. Therefore, groups of members are working on several topics organized in commissions for specific targets. The recent five commissions are working in the several fields including climate change issues. Some of examples will be presented, which have been initiated by the members of the ISB and how they can be included as a solid scientific basis to develop efficient adaptation strategies. One such example is a project combining natural and social sciences (in the fields of cooperation processes, tourism analysis and strategy, weather and climate change analysis, information and communication and knowledge transfer) in a transdisciplinary approach that includes players from tourism policy and business and which focuses on the North Sea Coast and the Black Forest. The project "Climate trends and sustainable development of tourism in coastal and mountain range regions was divided into four phases - diagnosis, assessment, strategy/design of solutions, and evaluation - where scientific subprojects and practical partners meet regularly to discuss the

  15. Educational Cognitive Technologies as Human Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Nesterova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity is characterized by profound changes in all spheres of human life caused by the global transformations on macro and micro levels of social reality. These changes allow us to speak about the present as the era of civilizational transition in the mode of uncertainty. Therefore, this situation demands qualitative transformations of human adaptive strategies and educational technologies accordingly. The dominant role in the dynamics of pedagogics and andragogy’s landscape belongs to transformative learning. The transformative learning theory is considered as the relevant approach to education of the individual, which is able to become an autonomous communicative actor of the social complexity. The article considers the cognitive technologies of social cohesion development and perspectives of their implementation in the educational dimension. In addition to implementing the principles of inclusion, equity in education, an important factor for improving social cohesion, stability and unity of society is the development of cognitive educational technologies. The key factors and foundations for the cognitive educational technologies are transversal competencies. They create the conditions for civil, public dialogue, non-violent type of communication. These “21st century skills” are extremely important for better human adaptation. One of the aspects and roots of social adaptation is social cohesion. Mutual determinations and connections between social cohesion development and transversal competences have been shown. The perspective direction of further researches is to find a methodological base for the further development of cognitive education technologies and platform for realization of innovative services for educational programs. New educational paradigm offers the concept of human adaptation as cognitive effectiveness and how to reach it through educational technologies. The article includes topics of creative thinking, teambuilding

  16. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strategies for Host Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Anderson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens must sense and respond to newly encountered host environments to regulate the expression of critical virulence factors that allow for niche adaptation and successful colonization. Among bacterial pathogens, non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica, such as serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm, are a primary cause of foodborne illnesses that lead to hospitalizations and deaths worldwide. S. Tm causes acute inflammatory diarrhea that can progress to invasive systemic disease in susceptible patients. The gastrointestinal tract and intramacrophage environments are two critically important niches during S. Tm infection, and each presents unique challenges to limit S. Tm growth. The intestinal tract is home to billions of commensal microbes, termed the microbiota, which limits the amount of available nutrients for invading pathogens such as S. Tm. Therefore, S. Tm encodes strategies to manipulate the commensal population and side-step this nutritional competition. During subsequent stages of disease, S. Tm resists host immune cell mechanisms of killing. Host cells use antimicrobial peptides, acidification of vacuoles, and nutrient limitation to kill phagocytosed microbes, and yet S. Tm is able to subvert these defense systems. In this review, we discuss recently described molecular mechanisms that S. Tm uses to outcompete the resident microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract. S. Tm directly eliminates close competitors via bacterial cell-to-cell contact as well as by stimulating a host immune response to eliminate specific members of the microbiota. Additionally, S. Tm tightly regulates the expression of key virulence factors that enable S. Tm to withstand host immune defenses within macrophages. Additionally, we highlight the chemical and physical signals that S. Tm senses as cues to adapt to each of these environments. These strategies ultimately allow S. Tm to successfully adapt to these two disparate host environments. It is

  17. Entry and Growth Strategies for Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Tran, Yen Thi Thu

    2004-01-01

    to adapt their strategies, most notably their marketing and acquisition strategies, to the local context. In this paper, we outline why globalisation drives MNEs into emerging economies, and we provide conceptual frameworks that may aid investors to adapt their strategies to emerging economy contexts. MNEs...... requires the acquisition of complementary local resources controlled by local firms. However, acquisitions in emerging economies are inhibited by institutional obstacles and weak local firms. Thus, foreign investors may pursue staged, multiple, indirect, or Brownfield acquisitions to build their projected...

  18. Benin; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Growth Strategy for Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    Benin has been implementing a national poverty reduction strategy for sustainable human development. The government of Benin judiciously stressed the development of the social sector and improved governance to develop human resources and enhance the effectiveness of its actions so as to lay the foundations for sustainable human development. The sectoral strategies and policies growing out of the poverty reduction and growth strategy (SCRP) will be refined and/or readjusted to more clearly del...

  19. Reusable quality of experience aware adaptation strategies for authoring adaptive e-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, Andreea; Hava-Muntean, Cristina; Cristea, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing usage of multimedia in education, videos in particular, the delivery of content becomes difficult on low bandwidth networks. Conversely, the authoring of adaptable courses is still very difficult and time-consuming and no adaptation strategies for multimedia transmission customised for learner have been proposed so far. This paper presents two Quality of Experience aware reusable adaptable strategies for authoring adaptive and personalised content. These strategies are use...

  20. Government Expenditure on Growth Strategies and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the relationship between the reduction in income-poverty and government expenditure on growth strategies that have been implemented in Tanzania since the mid 2000s. The paper shows that despite impressive economic growth of about 6 percent per annum that the country has enjoyed in the course ...

  1. Adaptation strategies and approaches: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Linda Parker; Matt St. Pierre; Leslie. Brandt

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information is available on climate change adaptation, but much of it is very broad and of limited use at the finer spatial scales most relevant to land managers. This chapter contains a "menu" of adaptation actions and provides land managers in northern Wisconsin with a range of options to help forest ecosystems adapt to climate change impacts....

  2. Impacts of climate change and adaptation strategies in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacts of climate change and adaptation strategies in rural communities of Kaduna State, Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... of some selected rural communities of Kaduna state, and the adaptation strategies employed by the people to ameliorate the scourge of climate change.

  3. Growing assisted migration: Synthesis of a climate change adaptation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary I. Williams; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2013-01-01

    Assisted migration may be necessary as a climate change adaptation strategy for native plant species that are less adaptive or mobile. Moving plants has been practiced a long time in human history, but movement of species in response to climate change is a new context. First proposed in 1985, assisted migration has gained attention since 2007 as a strategy to prevent...

  4. Strategies for Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adaptation to climate change should of necessity identify prevailing adaptation strategies with a view to ... agricultural adaptation to climate change are more prevalent than others and whether there is a significant ..... insurance facilities, rearing of hybrid livestock, use of fertilizers/animal dung and shelterbelts have.

  5. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Mikułowski; Łukasz Jankowski

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG) capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~va...

  6. Health, growth and psychosocial adaptation of immigrant children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Toselli, Stefania; Masotti, Sabrina; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The increasing population diversity in Europe demands clarification of possible ethnic influences on the growth and health of immigrant children and their psychosocial adaptation to the host countries...

  7. Europe adapts to climate change: comparing national adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.R.; Swart, R.J.; Carter, T.R.; Cowan, C.; Henrichs, T.; Mela, H.; Morcecroft, M.D.; Rey, D.

    2010-01-01

    For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started to

  8. Sustaining an Acquisition-based Growth Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme

    Value creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. Our case study of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced Enterprise Architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the acquisition process through a) preparing the acquirer to become ‘acquisition ready’, b) identifying resource......-based growth strategy over time....

  9. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. climate changes and farmers' endogenous adaptation strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Adaptation to climate changes. In Benin, Aho. (2006) reported that farmers are developing both curative and preventive practices to face climate risks in their region. Our choice to explore farmers own new land and crop management practices is motivated by a self innovation and sustainability concern which is key in such ...

  11. Chapter 5: Adaptation Strategies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klostermann, J.E.M.; Gupta, J.; Bergsma, E.; Jong, P.

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change has been prominently featured on the global scientific and political agendas since the World Climate Conference in 1979 (WCC 1979), the specific importance of adaptation to climate change has only been underlined about 20 years later. The Netherlands, because it lies largely

  12. Adaptation strategies to climate change to sustain food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Dam, van J.C.; Hoogeveen, J.; Loeve, R.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on the impact of climate change on food and water issues. An overview of global issues and trends is followed by a more in-depth analysis of field-scale impact and adaptation strategies for the seven basins in the ADAPT context

  13. Assessing climate change impacts and adaptation strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a considerable knowledge gap with respect to climate change impact, vulnerability and adaptation to increased climate variability and change. In this paper, using the trade off analysis model, the impact of climate change on peoples' livelihoods and possible adaptation strategies to increase the resilience and ...

  14. Salma Hegga: Identifying adaptation strategies for semi-arid regions ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... Together with teams from Southern, Western, and Eastern Africa, and India, she is working to assess vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in semi-arid regions. The research aims to identify adaptation strategies in these areas and determine which are the most effective. This research will also ...

  15. Climate change adaptation strategies by small-scale farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mburu

    knowledge inherited from ancient Peruvian culture. They adapt though postponing planting season when the rains delay, crop rotation, production diversification, production of native crops and migration to look for jobs among others (Abeka et al., 2012). In china, farmers have implemented their own adaptation strategies ...

  16. Using geodesign to develop a spatial adaption strategy for Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Eikelboom, T.; Brouns, Karlijn; Verhoeven, Jos

    2014-01-01

    The Province and Water board of Friesland have decided to develop a long-term adaptation strategy for the Frisian peat meadow area. A planning process with all stakeholders has been started to develop this strategy. In a workshop setting, the participants were asked to design spatial plans for the

  17. Parallel Programming Strategies for Irregular Adaptive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance for such computations. In this work, we examine two typical irregular adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, under competing programming methodologies and across various parallel architectures. The Dynamic Remeshing application simulates flow over an airfoil, and refines localized regions of the underlying unstructured mesh. The N-Body experiment models two neighboring Plummer galaxies that are about to undergo a merger. Both problems demonstrate dramatic changes in processor workloads and interprocessor communication with time; thus, dynamic load balancing is a required component.

  18. Cultivation strategies for growth of uncultivated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartoukian, Sonia R

    2016-11-01

    The majority of environmental bacteria and around a third of oral bacteria remain uncultivated. Furthermore, several bacterial phyla have no cultivable members and are recognised only by detection of their DNA by molecular methods. Possible explanations for the resistance of certain bacteria to cultivation in purity in vitro include: unmet fastidious growth requirements; inhibition by environmental conditions or chemical factors produced by neighbouring bacteria in mixed cultures; or conversely, dependence on interactions with other bacteria in the natural environment, without which they cannot survive in isolation. Auxotrophic bacteria, with small genomes lacking in the necessary genetic material to encode for essential nutrients, frequently rely on close symbiotic relationships with other bacteria for survival, and may therefore be recalcitrant to cultivation in purity. Since in-vitro culture is essential for the comprehensive characterisation of bacteria, particularly with regard to virulence and antimicrobial resistance, the cultivation of uncultivated organisms has been a primary focus of several research laboratories. Many targeted and open-ended strategies have been devised and successfully used. Examples include: the targeted detection of specific bacteria in mixed plate cultures using colony hybridisation; growth in simulated natural environments or in co-culture with 'helper' strains; and modified media preparation techniques or development of customised media eg. supplementation of media with potential growth-stimulatory factors such as siderophores. Despite significant advances in recent years in methodologies for the cultivation of previously uncultivated bacteria, a substantial proportion remain to be cultured and efforts to devise high-throughput strategies should be a high priority.

  19. Relationship between expansion strategy and growth of charismatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Church strategies were found to be positively correlated to church growth with the most vital strategy being prayer. Other important growth strategies were: evangelism, type of sermon, membership welfare and service structure. The Franchise/ Business model was found to yield better church growth than the Episcopal ...

  20. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

  1. MNC strategy and social adaptation in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Zhao; Seung Ho Park; Nan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Emerging markets experience institutional and social changes over time that present different stakeholder expectations for multinational corporations (MNCs). MNCs are often accused of social misdeeds and experience public crises during the changes, leaving questions on how they adapt to the local social transition to sustain operations. Conventional adaptation strategies put too much emphasis on maximizing economic returns by arbitraging national differences and catering to local market and c...

  2. Coping strategies and adaptation for the disabled elderly in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2011-10-01

    This study explored the relationship between coping strategies and adaptation difficulties for the disabled elderly. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews with the physically disabled elderly in long-term care institutions and in rehabilitation departments in middle Taiwan. Totally, 505 persons were analyzed. The adaptation to disability was evaluated by health care, domestic environment, family relationships, social life and psychological distress as the dependent variables. Factor analysis and multiple regression models were applied for the analysis. Three types of coping strategies were identified: (i) acceptance and action reduced the difficulty in adapting to disability in the health-care and social life dimensions; (ii) venting and avoidance increased the difficulty in adapting in the health-care, domestic environment and psychological distress dimensions; and (iii) seeking support was related to greater adapting to difficulty in terms of family relationships. More effective coping strategies should be offered to the disabled elderly to help them adapt to their disability. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Adaptive Through-Thickness Integration Strategy for Shell Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchitz, I. A.; Meinders, T.; Huétink, J.

    2007-05-01

    Reliable numerical prediction of springback in sheet metal forming is essential for the automotive industry. There are numerous factors that influence the accuracy of springback prediction by using the finite element method. One of the reasons is the through-thickness numerical integration of shell elements. It is known that even for simple problems the traditional integration schemes may require up to 50 integration points to achieve a high accuracy of springback analysis. An adaptive through-thickness integration strategy can be a good alternative. The strategy defines abscissas and weights depending on the integrand's properties and, thus, can adapt itself to improve the accuracy of integration. A concept of the adaptive through-thickness integration strategy for shell elements is presented. It is tested using a simple problem of bending of a beam under tension. Results show that for a similar set of material and process parameters the adaptive Simpson's rule with 7 integration points performs better than the traditional trapezoidal rule with 50 points. The adaptive through-thickness integration strategy for shell elements can improve the accuracy of springback prediction at minimal costs.

  4. Climate Change Adaptation. Challenges and Opportunities for a Smart Urban Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galderisi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the main environmental issues challenging cities in the 21th century. At present, more than half of the world population lives in cities and the latter are responsible for 60% to 80% of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which are the main causes of the change in climate conditions. In the meantime, they are seriously threatened by the heterogeneous climate-related phenomena, very often exacerbated by the features of the cities themselves. In the last decade, international and European efforts have been mainly focused on mitigation rather than on adaptation strategies. Europe is one of the world leaders in global mitigation policies, while the issue of adaptation has gained growing importance in the last years. As underlined by the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change, even though climate change mitigation still remains a priority for the global community, large room has to be devoted to adaptation measures, in order to effectively face the unavoidable impacts and related economic, environmental and social costs of climate change (EC, 2013. Thus, measures for adaptation to climate change are receiving an increasing financial support and a growing number of European countries are implementing national and urban adaptation strategies to deal with the actual and potential climate change impacts. According to the above considerations, this paper explores strengths and weaknesses of current adaptation strategies in European cities. First the main suggestions of the European Community to improve urban adaptation to climate change are examined; then, some recent Adaptation Plans are analyzed, in order to highlight challenges and opportunities arising from the adaptation processes at urban level and to explore the potential of Adaptation Plans to promote a smart growth in the European cities.

  5. climate change adaptation strategies by local farmers in kilombero

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. This article examines current adaptation strategies developed by local farmers against climate change effects in Kilombero District. Research questions guided the study include; what are the past and current climatic stresses? What are local farmers' perception on climate change and response to the adverse.

  6. Adaptation Strategies and Cultural Life Styles of Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Diego

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the adaptation strategies of Mexican American adolescents in order to determine the effect of environment on acculturation. Describes the characteristics and similarities of Mexican-, Chicano-, and Anglo-oriented life-styles. Describes the manifestation of each life-style in an urban and suburban high school setting. (SB)

  7. Impacts of climate change, variability and adaptation strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    Accepted 14 July, 2009. A study was carried in two villages of Kamenyanga and Kintinku of Manyoni District, central Tanzania. The overall objective of this study was to understand local communities' perceptions on climate and variability issues and establish its impacts and adaptation strategies within agricultural sector.

  8. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies Used by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    flooding had increased which is an indication of climate change. Reduction in the use of generator to get power in the farmers' houses (69.1%) and crop rotation practices (67.3%) were mitigation and adaptation strategies employed by the farmers against the effect of climate change. The study recommends that government ...

  9. Climate change and adaptation strategies to water resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change and adaptation strategies to water resources in some parts of Sudano-Sahellian zone of Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. Journal Home ... This study examines the impact of climate change on water resources in some parts of the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Nigeria.

  10. Prioritization of adaptation strategies for water supply and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change and its impact has become a global and prime event of the 21st century. Its effects on almost all spheres of human existence are worrisome and the low awareness and complete disregard for its causes, impacts and adaptation strategies call for an urgent solution. One of its effects is a sharp variability in ...

  11. Adaptive strategies and local innovations of smallholder farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and livelihood crisis (Mbeere South district); experiencing borderline food insecurity (Kirinyaga West District) and those with low resilience (Nyandarua North District) all in Kenya. Results showed that smallholders in these areas use and perpetuate diverse adaptive strategies and innovations for coping with vulnerability, ...

  12. Real-Time Adaptation of Influence Strategies in Online Selling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on

  13. Representing adaptive eLearning strategies in IMS Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Representing adaptive eLearning strategies in IMS Learning Design. In R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development (pp. 54-60). March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia,

  14. Climate change adaptation strategies by local farmers in Kilombero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines current adaptation strategies developed by local farmers against climate change effects in Kilombero District. Research questions guided the study include; what are the past and current climatic stresses? What are local farmers' perception on climate change and response to the adverse climatic ...

  15. Climate change adaptation strategies by small-scale farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change is a great environmental challenge facing humanity today. In Yatta District, residents report frequent crop failures, water shortages and relief food has become a frequent feature of their life. This study examines the adaptation strategies to climate change adopted by the dry-land farming communities in Yatta ...

  16. Laboratory Evolution to Alternating Substrate Environments Yields Distinct Phenotypic and Genetic Adaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Troy E; Lloyd, Colton J; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M

    2017-07-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments are often designed to maintain a static culturing environment to minimize confounding variables that could influence the adaptive process, but dynamic nutrient conditions occur frequently in natural and bioprocessing settings. To study the nature of carbon substrate fitness tradeoffs, we evolved batch cultures of Escherichia coli via serial propagation into tubes alternating between glucose and either xylose, glycerol, or acetate. Genome sequencing of evolved cultures revealed several genetic changes preferentially selected for under dynamic conditions and different adaptation strategies depending on the substrates being switched between; in some environments, a persistent "generalist" strain developed, while in another, two "specialist" subpopulations arose that alternated dominance. Diauxic lag phenotype varied across the generalists and specialists, in one case being completely abolished, while gene expression data distinguished the transcriptional strategies implemented by strains in pursuit of growth optimality. Genome-scale metabolic modeling techniques were then used to help explain the inherent substrate differences giving rise to the observed distinct adaptive strategies. This study gives insight into the population dynamics of adaptation in an alternating environment and into the underlying metabolic and genetic mechanisms. Furthermore, ALE-generated optimized strains have phenotypes with potential industrial bioprocessing applications.IMPORTANCE Evolution and natural selection inexorably lead to an organism's improved fitness in a given environment, whether in a laboratory or natural setting. However, despite the frequent natural occurrence of complex and dynamic growth environments, laboratory evolution experiments typically maintain simple, static culturing environments so as to reduce selection pressure complexity. In this study, we investigated the adaptive strategies underlying evolution to fluctuating

  17. An Adaptive Classification Strategy for Reliable Locomotion Mode Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms for locomotion mode recognition (LMR based on surface electromyography and mechanical sensors have recently been developed and could be used for the neural control of powered prosthetic legs. However, the variations in input signals, caused by physical changes at the sensor interface and human physiological changes, may threaten the reliability of these algorithms. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of applying adaptive pattern classifiers for LMR. Three adaptive classifiers, i.e., entropy-based adaptation (EBA, LearnIng From Testing data (LIFT, and Transductive Support Vector Machine (TSVM, were compared and offline evaluated using data collected from two able-bodied subjects and one transfemoral amputee. The offline analysis indicated that the adaptive classifier could effectively maintain or restore the performance of the LMR algorithm when gradual signal variations occurred. EBA and LIFT were recommended because of their better performance and higher computational efficiency. Finally, the EBA was implemented for real-time human-in-the-loop prosthesis control. The online evaluation showed that the applied EBA effectively adapted to changes in input signals across sessions and yielded more reliable prosthesis control over time, compared with the LMR without adaptation. The developed novel adaptive strategy may further enhance the reliability of neurally-controlled prosthetic legs.

  18. Laboratory Evolution to Alternating Substrate Environments Yields Distinct Phenotypic and Genetic Adaptive Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Troy E.; Lloyd, Colton J.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments are often designed to maintain a static culturing environment to minimize confounding variables that could influence the adaptive process, but dynamic nutrient conditions occur frequently in natural and bioprocessing settings. To study the nature...... applications.IMPORTANCE Evolution and natural selection inexorably lead to an organism's improved fitness in a given environment, whether in a laboratory or natural setting. However, despite the frequent natural occurrence of complex and dynamic growth environments, laboratory evolution experiments typically...... maintain simple, static culturing environments so as to reduce selection pressure complexity. In this study, we investigated the adaptive strategies underlying evolution to fluctuating environments by evolving Escherichia coli to conditions of frequently switching growth substrate. Characterization...

  19. An adaptable navigation strategy for Virtual Microscopy from mobile platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Germán; Romero, Eduardo; Iregui, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    Real integration of Virtual Microscopy with the pathologist service workflow requires the design of adaptable strategies for any hospital service to interact with a set of Whole Slide Images. Nowadays, mobile devices have the actual potential of supporting an online pervasive network of specialists working together. However, such devices are still very limited. This article introduces a novel highly adaptable strategy for streaming and visualizing WSI from mobile devices. The presented approach effectively exploits and extends the granularity of the JPEG2000 standard and integrates it with different strategies to achieve a lossless, loosely-coupled, decoder and platform independent implementation, adaptable to any interaction model. The performance was evaluated by two expert pathologists interacting with a set of 20 virtual slides. The method efficiently uses the available device resources: the memory usage did not exceed a 7% of the device capacity while the decoding times were smaller than the 200 ms per Region of Interest, i.e., a window of 256×256 pixels. This model is easily adaptable to other medical imaging scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An unsupervised adaptive strategy for constructing probabilistic roadmaps

    KAUST Repository

    Tapia, L.

    2009-05-01

    Since planning environments are complex and no single planner exists that is best for all problems, much work has been done to explore methods for selecting where and when to apply particular planners. However, these two questions have been difficult to answer, even when adaptive methods meant to facilitate a solution are applied. For example, adaptive solutions such as setting learning rates, hand-classifying spaces, and defining parameters for a library of planners have all been proposed. We demonstrate a strategy based on unsupervised learning methods that makes adaptive planning more practical. The unsupervised strategies require less user intervention, model the topology of the problem in a reasonable and efficient manner, can adapt the sampler depending on characteristics of the problem, and can easily accept new samplers as they become available. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that in a wide variety of environments, the regions automatically identified by our technique represent the planning space well both in number and placement.We also show that our technique has little overhead and that it out-performs two existing adaptive methods in all complex cases studied.© 2009 IEEE.

  1. What Is Green Growth Strategy for Government Link Company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilah Asha'ari, Maryam; Daud, Salina; Hassan, Hasmaizan

    2016-03-01

    Disasters around the world are very extreme because of the global warming and climate change. Malaysia firms have to play their role in handling the challenging of environmental problems in order to sustain. The feature of the new strategy which is green growth strategy has been identified. The study focuses on the features of the green growth strategy which discuss on the keys to sustaining the strategy, marketing emphasis, production emphasis, product line, basis of competitive advantage and strategic target. Business had contributed to the industrialisation era positively or negatively and therefore there is a must for business people to use the best strategy in reducing the environmental risks. By 2020, Malaysia will achieve the target in becoming an advanced economy by applying the right strategy. The objective of this paper is to propose a feature for new strategy known as green growth strategy. Future study is to propose to conduct an empirical analysis to confirm the green growth strategy features.

  2. Adaptive bridge control strategy for opinion evolution on social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Cao, Jinde; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient opinion control strategy for complex networks, in particular, for social networks. The proposed adaptive bridge control (ABC) strategy calls for controlling a special kind of nodes named bridge and requires no knowledge of the node degrees or any other global or local knowledge, which are necessary for some other immunization strategies including targeted immunization and acquaintance immunization. We study the efficiency of the proposed ABC strategy on random networks, small-world networks, scale-free networks, and the random networks adjusted by the edge exchanging method. Our results show that the proposed ABC strategy is efficient for all of these four kinds of networks. Through an adjusting clustering coefficient by the edge exchanging method, it is found out that the efficiency of our ABC strategy is closely related with the clustering coefficient. The main contributions of this paper can be listed as follows: (1) A new high-order social network is proposed to describe opinion dynamic. (2) An algorithm, which does not require the knowledge of the nodes' degree and other global∕local network structure information, is proposed to control the "bridges" more accurately and further control the opinion dynamics of the social networks. The efficiency of our ABC strategy is illustrated by numerical examples. (3) The numerical results indicate that our ABC strategy is more efficient for networks with higher clustering coefficient.

  3. A literature review on growth models and strategies: The missing link in entrepreneurial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Fida Hussain Shah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the importance of growth models, growth strategies, role of knowledge management system in the formulation of effective strategy for the enterprises following growth. Choice of an appropriate growth strategy is at the heart of any successful entrepreneurial venture. Selection of a strategy may be effective for one entrepreneur while it is not for other. Choice of Growth Strategy depends on various different factors, organisational context and environment which may vary from enterprise to enterprise. Resource based view is very important consideration for the entrepreneurs on the path of growth. Evaluation of all kind of resources helps them to grow their enterprises successfully. Selection of an appropriate growth strategy allows the entrepreneurs in overcoming growth challenges and avoiding the growth reversals and setbacks.

  4. Controls on Extreme Droughts and Adaptation Strategies in Semiarid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Cook, C.; Fernando, D. N.; LeBlanc, M.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing vulnerability to droughts with reduced per capita water storage, particularly in semiarid regions, underscores the need for predictive understanding of drought controls and development of adaptation strategies for water resources management. In this study we evaluate causes of major droughts in southwest and southcentral US (California and Texas) and southeast Australia (Murray Darling Basin). Impacts of climate cycles (ENSO, PDO, AMO, NAO, IOD) and atmospheric circulation on drought initiation and persistence are examined. Effects of drought on surface water reservoir storage, groundwater storage, irrigation, and crop production are compared. Adaptation strategies being evaluated include water transfers among sectors, particularly from irrigated agriculture to other groups, increasing storage using managed aquifer recharge, water reuse, and development of new water sources (e.g. seawater desalination). It is critical to develop a broad portfolio of water sources to increase resilience to future droughts.

  5. Adaptive strategies of the visualization of electronic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Ai, Tinghua

    2006-10-01

    The visualization of electronic map should be dynamic not only in the way of representation but also in the content creation in real time. In on-demand mapping, the user's favorites to map content are the key factor. It means that the design of electronic map has to consider providing several candidate visualizations according to the user's context. To settle on-demand question, the adaptive visualization has been an active topic in the field of map design in recent years. Based on practical experiments, this paper tries to present some adaptive strategies on the visualization of electronic map. Firstly, a conceptual framework of adaptive visualization is proposed, what includes the parts of the context interface, the map behaviors triggering factors, the adaptive mechanism, hierarchy control, output of result map, and the evaluation methods. We consider three main factors associated with the adaptive visualization: (1). the user's interactive map behaviors, (2). the context of the surroundings where the electronic map system stays, (3). the user category under their knowledge and experiences. The map behaviors include the ZOOM OUT, ZOOM IN, PAN, QUERY, ROTATION, and etc, which will result in changes for the contents and structures of map. These changes relate to the aspects about Map Extent, Scale, Location, Quantity, Quality, Direction, Density, and etc. The surroundings of map reading include the screen size, color display or B/W display, brightness, weather, special light scenery, speed of data loading, display sets, sound, time, event, culture, language, and etc. The map design has to provide different strategies to satisfy the periphery environment changes. According to some egocentric conditions, i.e., Location, Moving Orientation, Speed of Motion, and Self Properties, this paper gives some practical illustrations and descriptive maps. The classification of map users considers their knowledge, experience and specialty. We divide users into different levels

  6. Climate Variability and Household Adaptation Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wassie Berhanu; Fekadu Beyene

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants and implied economic impacts of climate change adaptation strategies in the context of traditional pastoralism. It is based on econometric analysis of survey data generated from household level interviews in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Pastoralists’ perception of climate change in the region is found to be very consistent with the actually recorded trends of increased temperature and the evident secular declines in precipitation. Not only long-term decl...

  7. Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidanti-Malunga, J.

    Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

  8. Climate change impacts and adaptive strategies: lessons from the grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Abernethy, Kirsten E; Smart, Richard E; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2016-11-01

    The cultivation of grapevines for winemaking, known as viticulture, is widely cited as a climate-sensitive agricultural system that has been used as an indicator of both historic and contemporary climate change. Numerous studies have questioned the viability of major viticulture regions under future climate projections. We review the methods used to study the impacts of climate change on viticulture in the light of what is known about the effects of climate and weather on the yields and quality of vineyard harvests. Many potential impacts of climate change on viticulture, particularly those associated with a change in climate variability or seasonal weather patterns, are rarely captured. Key biophysical characteristics of viticulture are often unaccounted for, including the variability of grapevine phenology and the exploitation of microclimatic niches that permit successful cultivation under suboptimal macroclimatic conditions. We consider how these same biophysical characteristics permit a variety of strategies by which viticulture can adapt to changing climatic conditions. The ability to realize these strategies, however, is affected by uneven exposure to risks across the winemaking sector, and the evolving capacity for decision-making within and across organizational boundaries. The role grape provenance plays in shaping perceptions of wine value and quality illustrates how conflicts of interest influence decisions about adaptive strategies within the industry. We conclude by considering what lessons can be taken from viticulture for studies of climate change impacts and the capacity for adaptation in other agricultural and natural systems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2008-05-01

    Many decisions concerning long-lived investments need to take into account climate change. But doing so is not easy for at least two reasons. First, due to the rate of climate change, new infrastructure will have to be able to cope with a large range of changing climate conditions, which will make design more difficult and construction more expensive. Second, uncertainty in future climate makes it impossible to directly use the output of a single climate model as an input for infrastructure design, and there are good reasons to think that the needed climate information will not be available soon. Instead of optimizing based on the climate conditions projected by models, therefore, future infrastructure should be made more robust to possible changes in climate conditions. This aim implies that users of climate information must also change their practices and decision-making frameworks, for instance by adapting the uncertainty-management methods they currently apply to exchange rates or R&D outcomes. Five methods are examined: (i) introducing long-term prospective exercises; (ii) selecting "no-regret" strategies; (iii) favouring reversible options; (iv) promoting soft adaptation strategies; (v) reducing decision time horizons. I argue that adaptation strategies should not be assessed in an isolated context. In particular, it is essential to consider both negative and positive side-effects and externalities, and possible changes in future energy costs.

  10. Plasticity in Meristem Allocation as an Adaptive Strategy of a Desert Shrub under Contrasting Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Weiwei; Bai, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yuqing; Qin, Shugao; Liu, Zhen; Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of resource allocation to reproduction vs. vegetative growth is a core component of a plant's life-history strategy. Plants can modify their biomass allocation patterns to adapt to contrasting environments. Meristems can have alternative fates to commit to vegetative growth, reproduction, or remaining inactive (dormant or senescent/dead). However, knowledge about whether meristem fates can interpret adaptive changes in biomass allocation remains largely unknown. We measured aboveground plant biomass (a proxy of plant size) and meristem number of a dominant shrub Artemisia ordosica in three populations occupying different habitats in the Mu Us Desert of northern China. Size-dependent biomass allocation and meristem allocation among habitats were compared. The size-dependent biomass allocation and meristem allocation of A. ordosica strongly varied across habitats. There were significant positive linear relationships between meristem allocation and biomass allocation in all habitats, indicating that meristem allocation is an indicator of the estimated resource allocation to reproductive and vegetative organs in this species. Plasticity in meristem allocation was more likely caused by larger individuals having less active meristems due to environmental stress. Vegetative meristems (VM) were likely more vulnerable to environmental limitation than reproductive ones, resulting in the ratio of resource investment between vegetative and reproductive functions exhibiting plasticity in different habitats. A. ordosica invested a higher fraction of its resource to reproduction in the adverse habitat, while more resource to vegetative growth in the favorable habitat. A. ordosica adopts different resource allocation patterns to adapt to contrasting habitat conditions through altering its meristem fates. Our results suggest that the arid-adapted shrub A. ordosica deactivates more VM than reproductive ones to hedge against environmental stress, representing an important

  11. Plasticity in Meristem Allocation as an Adaptive Strategy of a Desert Shrub under Contrasting Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei She

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of resource allocation to reproduction vs. vegetative growth is a core component of a plant’s life-history strategy. Plants can modify their biomass allocation patterns to adapt to contrasting environments. Meristems can have alternative fates to commit to vegetative growth, reproduction, or remaining inactive (dormant or senescent/dead. However, knowledge about whether meristem fates can interpret adaptive changes in biomass allocation remains largely unknown. We measured aboveground plant biomass (a proxy of plant size and meristem number of a dominant shrub Artemisia ordosica in three populations occupying different habitats in the Mu Us Desert of northern China. Size-dependent biomass allocation and meristem allocation among habitats were compared. The size-dependent biomass allocation and meristem allocation of A. ordosica strongly varied across habitats. There were significant positive linear relationships between meristem allocation and biomass allocation in all habitats, indicating that meristem allocation is an indicator of the estimated resource allocation to reproductive and vegetative organs in this species. Plasticity in meristem allocation was more likely caused by larger individuals having less active meristems due to environmental stress. Vegetative meristems (VM were likely more vulnerable to environmental limitation than reproductive ones, resulting in the ratio of resource investment between vegetative and reproductive functions exhibiting plasticity in different habitats. A. ordosica invested a higher fraction of its resource to reproduction in the adverse habitat, while more resource to vegetative growth in the favorable habitat. A. ordosica adopts different resource allocation patterns to adapt to contrasting habitat conditions through altering its meristem fates. Our results suggest that the arid-adapted shrub A. ordosica deactivates more VM than reproductive ones to hedge against environmental stress

  12. A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat for fish, shellfish, and wildlife, including species of concern, such as the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). We present a climate change adaptation strategy (CCAS) adopted by scientific, management, and policy stakeholders for managing coastal marshes and enhancing system resiliency. A common adaptive management approach previously used for restoration projects was modified to identify climate-related vulnerabilities and plan climate change adaptive actions. As an example of implementation of the CCAS, we describe the stakeholder plans and management actions the US Fish and Wildlife Service and partners developed to build coastal resiliency in the Narrow River Estuary, RI, in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. When possible, an experimental BACI (before-after, control-impact) design, described as pre- and post-sampling at the impact site and one or more control sites, was incorporated into the climate change adaptation and implementation plans. Specific climate change adaptive actions and monitoring plans are described and include shoreline stabilization, restoring marsh drainage, increasing marsh elevation, and enabling upland marsh migration. The CCAS provides a framework and methodology for successfully managing coa

  13. Combined use of leaf size and economics traits allows direct comparison of hydrophyte and terrestrial herbaceous adaptive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Simon; Brusa, Guido; Sartori, Matteo; Cerabolini, Bruno E L

    2012-04-01

    Hydrophytes generally exhibit highly acquisitive leaf economics. However, a range of growth forms is evident, from small, free-floating and rapidly growing Lemniden to large, broad-leaved Nymphaeiden, denoting variability in adaptive strategies. Traits used to classify adaptive strategies in terrestrial species, such as canopy height, are not applicable to hydrophytes. We hypothesize that hydrophyte leaf size traits and economics exhibit sufficient overlap with terrestrial species to allow a common classification of plant functional types, sensu Grime's CSR theory. Leaf morpho-functional traits were measured for 61 species from 47 water bodies in lowland continental, sub-alpine and alpine bioclimatic zones in southern Europe and compared against the full leaf economics spectrum and leaf size range of terrestrial herbs, and between hydrophyte growth forms. Hydrophytes differed in the ranges and mean values of traits compared with herbs, but principal components analysis (PCA) demonstrated that both groups shared axes of trait variability: PCA1 encompassed size variation (area and mass), and PCA2 ranged from relatively dense, carbon-rich leaves to nitrogen-rich leaves of high specific leaf area (SLA). Most growth forms exhibited trait syndromes directly equivalent to herbs classified as R adapted, although Nymphaeiden ranged between C and SR adaptation. Our findings support the hypothesis that hydrophyte adaptive strategy variation reflects fundamental trade-offs in economics and size that govern all plants, and that hydrophyte adaptive strategies can be directly compared with terrestrial species by combining leaf economics and size traits.

  14. Poverty alleviation with economic growth strategy: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty alleviation with economic growth strategy: Prospects and challenges in contemporary Nigeria. ... Journal of Social Development in Africa ... approaches to poverty alleviation in these countries is that they are determined largely by making a choice between growth-promoting policies and poverty-focused strategies.

  15. Adaptive evolution of synthetic cooperating communities improves growth performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Zhang

    Full Text Available Symbiotic interactions between organisms are important for human health and biotechnological applications. Microbial mutualism is a widespread phenomenon and is important in maintaining natural microbial communities. Although cooperative interactions are prevalent in nature, little is known about the processes that allow their initial establishment, govern population dynamics and affect evolutionary processes. To investigate cooperative interactions between bacteria, we constructed, characterized, and adaptively evolved a synthetic community comprised of leucine and lysine Escherichia coli auxotrophs. The co-culture can grow in glucose minimal medium only if the two auxotrophs exchange essential metabolites - lysine and leucine (or its precursors. Our experiments showed that a viable co-culture using these two auxotrophs could be established and adaptively evolved to increase growth rates (by ∼3 fold and optical densities. While independently evolved co-cultures achieved similar improvements in growth, they took different evolutionary trajectories leading to different community compositions. Experiments with individual isolates from these evolved co-cultures showed that changes in both the leucine and lysine auxotrophs improved growth of the co-culture. Interestingly, while evolved isolates increased growth of co-cultures, they exhibited decreased growth in mono-culture (in the presence of leucine or lysine. A genome-scale metabolic model of the co-culture was also constructed and used to investigate the effects of amino acid (leucine or lysine release and uptake rates on growth and composition of the co-culture. When the metabolic model was constrained by the estimated leucine and lysine release rates, the model predictions agreed well with experimental growth rates and composition measurements. While this study and others have focused on cooperative interactions amongst community members, the adaptive evolution of communities with other

  16. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built using both available materials and traditional and academic construction technologies. This paper thoroughly investigates the extant urban conglomerate in Cádiz and analyses, in a qualitative and quantitative manner, which bioclimatic design strategies were applied and the city’s adaptation for future climate scenarios. The results indicate that historic housing in Cádiz is creatively adapted to the local natural conditions by means of a combination of climate responsive strategies, and there is significant scope for improvement in the ongoing response to global warming.

  17. : Water and climate change in Maghreb : which strategy of adaptation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Taabni, Mohamed; El Jihad, Moulay-Driss

    2012-01-01

    25 pages; International audience; Maghrebian countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia) are under Mediterranean climate influence only in a restricted coastal plain. Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development increase needs of water supply while the resource is rare. In the new context of global warming, Maghrebian countries aspire to protect their water resources and to provide a sustainable answer to water supply and management issues. Water strategy constitutes an efficient ...

  18. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  19. Adapting qualitative research strategies to technology savvy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Deanna Marie; Ide, Bette

    2014-05-01

    To adapt research strategies involving adolescents in a grounded theory qualitative research study by conducting email rather than face-to-face interviews. Adolescent culture relies heavily on text-based communication and teens prefer interactions mediated through technology. Traditional qualitative research strategies need to be rethought when working with adolescents. Adapting interviewing strategies to electronic environments is timely and relevant for researching adolescents. Twenty three adolescents (aged 16-21) were interviewed by email. A letter of invitation was distributed. Potential participants emailed the researcher to convey interest in participating. If the inclusion criteria were met, email interviews were initiated. Participants controlled the interviews through their rate of response to interview questions. A grounded theory methodology was employed. Initial contact with participants reiterated confidentiality and the ability to withdraw from the study at any time. Interviews began with the collection of demographic information and a broad opening based on a semi-structured interview guide. All data were permissible, including text, photos, music, videos or outside media, for example YouTube. The participant was allowed to give direction to the interview after initial questions were posed. Email interviews continued until saturation was reached in the data. Participants were enthusiastic about email interviewing. Attrition did not occur. Email interviewing gave participants more control over the research, decreased power differentials between the adolescent and researcher, allowed the study to be adapted to cultural, linguistic and developmental needs, and maintained confidentiality. As participants said that email communication was slow and they preferred instant messaging, replication in faster-paced media is recommended. Repetition in face-to-face settings is warranted to evaluate how technology may have influenced the findings. Implications for

  20. Event driven adaptation, land use and human coping strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Fog, Bjarne

    and the concept of coupled human-environmental timelines. Secondly, with point of departure in a baseline characterization of Bellona Island derived from a comprehensive survey in the late 1960s and resent fieldwork in late 2006, we present the case of Bellona Island. Key issues addressed concern climatic events...... perceive cause-effect relationships between societal and environmental events and their individual and collective management of resources. The coupled human-environment timelines are used to discuss ways in which the local communities' adaptive resource management strategies have been employed in the face...... of main drivers of change, incl. climatic and socio-economic changes in the recent past....

  1. Intermediate Collaborative Adaptive Management Strategies Build Stakeholder Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Monroe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to implement collaborative adaptive management (CAM often suffer from challenges, such as an unwillingness of managers to share power, unresolved conflicts between stakeholders, and lack of capacity among stakeholders. Some aspects considered essential to CAM, e.g., trust and stakeholder capacity, may be more usefully viewed as goals for intermediate strategies rather than a set of initial conditions. From this perspective, intermediate steps that focus on social learning and building experience could overcome commonly cited barriers to CAM. An exploration of Springs Basin Working Groups, organized around major clusters of freshwater springs in north Florida, provides a case study of how these intermediate steps enable participants to become more reasonable and engaged. This strategy may be easily implemented by agencies beginning a CAM process.

  2. Plant growth strategies are remodeled by spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Amalfitano, Claire E; Ferl, Robert J

    2012-12-07

    Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth. The Imaging hardware delivers telemetric data from the ISS, specifically images received in real-time from experiments on orbit, providing science without sample return. Comparable Ground Controls were grown in a sister unit that is maintained in the Orbital Environment Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. One of many types of biological data that can be analyzed in this fashion is root morphology. Arabidopsis seeds were geminated on orbit on nutrient gel Petri plates in a configuration that encouraged growth along the surface of the gel. Photos were taken every six hours for the 15 days of the experiment. In the absence of gravity, but the presence of directional light, spaceflight roots remained strongly negatively phototropic and grew in the opposite direction of the shoot growth; however, cultivars WS and Col-0 displayed two distinct, marked differences in their growth patterns. First, cultivar WS skewed strongly to the right on orbit, while cultivar Col-0 grew with little deviation away from the light source. Second, the Spaceflight environment also impacted the rate of growth in Arabidopsis. The size of the Flight plants (as measured by primary root and hypocotyl length) was uniformly smaller than comparably aged Ground Control plants in both cultivars. Skewing and waving, thought to be gravity dependent phenomena, occur in spaceflight plants. In the presence of an orienting light source, phenotypic trends in skewing are gravity independent, and the general patterns of directional root growth typified by a given genotype in unit gravity are recapitulated on orbit, although overall growth patterns on orbit are less uniform. Skewing appears independent of axial orientation on the ISS - suggesting that other tropisms (such as for oxygen and temperature) do not

  3. Climate Variability and Household Adaptation Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassie Berhanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants and implied economic impacts of climate change adaptation strategies in the context of traditional pastoralism. It is based on econometric analysis of survey data generated from household level interviews in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Pastoralists’ perception of climate change in the region is found to be very consistent with the actually recorded trends of increased temperature and the evident secular declines in precipitation. Not only long-term declines, trends in the region’s rainfall also appear to have taken a shift towards the direction of more unpredictability. Pastoralist adaptation response strategies broadly involve adjustments in pastoral practices and shifts to non-pastoral livelihoods. Results of the estimated models confirm that pastoral mobility is still quite essential in the present context of climate-induced household vulnerabilities. Increased mobility and diversification of pastoral herd portfolios in favor of a drought-tolerant species (camel are found to be positively associated with pastoral household net income. A policy stance that ignores the detrimental impacts of the currently pervasive private rangeland enclosures or intends to hasten pastoralist sedentarization in the area is simply untenable in the present context of climate-induced risks and pastoral livelihood vulnerability.

  4. Computer-Based Adaptive Instructional Strategies for the Improvement of Performance and Reduction of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Robert D.; Tennyson, Carol L.

    Three design strategies for selecting number of instructional instances needed in concept learning were investigated. Two strategies used adaptive procedures for the selection, while a nonadaptive strategy selected instances by number of associated attributes. The data analysis showed that the full adaptive strategy (using pretask and on-task…

  5. Plant growth strategies are remodeled by spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anna-Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth. The Imaging hardware delivers telemetric data from the ISS, specifically images received in real-time from experiments on orbit, providing science without sample return. Comparable Ground Controls were grown in a sister unit that is maintained in the Orbital Environment Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. One of many types of biological data that can be analyzed in this fashion is root morphology. Arabidopsis seeds were geminated on orbit on nutrient gel Petri plates in a configuration that encouraged growth along the surface of the gel. Photos were taken every six hours for the 15 days of the experiment. Results In the absence of gravity, but the presence of directional light, spaceflight roots remained strongly negatively phototropic and grew in the opposite direction of the shoot growth; however, cultivars WS and Col-0 displayed two distinct, marked differences in their growth patterns. First, cultivar WS skewed strongly to the right on orbit, while cultivar Col-0 grew with little deviation away from the light source. Second, the Spaceflight environment also impacted the rate of growth in Arabidopsis. The size of the Flight plants (as measured by primary root and hypocotyl length was uniformly smaller than comparably aged Ground Control plants in both cultivars. Conclusions Skewing and waving, thought to be gravity dependent phenomena, occur in spaceflight plants. In the presence of an orienting light source, phenotypic trends in skewing are gravity independent, and the general patterns of directional root growth typified by a given genotype in unit gravity are recapitulated on orbit, although overall growth patterns on orbit are less uniform. Skewing appears independent of axial orientation on the ISS – suggesting

  6. Framework for Creating a Smart Growth Economic Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This step-by-step guide can help small and mid-sized cities, particularly those that have limited population growth, areas of disinvestment, and/or a struggling economy, build a place-based economic development strategy.

  7. Survival and growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) rangewide provenances and their implications for climate change adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Pengxin; Parker, William H; Cherry, Marilyn; Colombo, Steve; William C. Parker; Man, Rongzhou; Roubal, Ngaire

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific assisted migration (ISAM) through seed transfer during artificial forest regeneration has been suggested as an adaptation strategy to enhance forest resilience and productivity under future climate. In this study, we assessed the risks and benefits of ISAM in white spruce based on long-term and multilocation, rangewide provenance test data. Our results indicate that the adaptive capacity and growth potential of white spruce varied considerably among 245 range-wide provenances sa...

  8. Urban plant physiology: adaptation-mitigation strategies under permanent stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Peñuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-02-01

    Urban environments that are stressful for plant function and growth will become increasingly widespread in future. In this opinion article, we define the concept of 'urban plant physiology', which focuses on plant responses and long term adaptations to urban conditions and on the capacity of urban vegetation to mitigate environmental hazards in urbanized settings such as air and soil pollution. Use of appropriate control treatments would allow for studies in urban environments to be comparable to expensive manipulative experiments. In this opinion article, we propose to couple two approaches, based either on environmental gradients or manipulated gradients, to develop the concept of urban plant physiology for assessing how single or multiple environmental factors affect the key environmental services provided by urban forests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Klein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this issue of JFDE discuss the potential of adaptive building envelopes, component development as well as implementation strategies. The applied practice paper demonstrates decision strategies behind the adaptive sun shading system of the Al-Bahr Towers. Additivity in building envelopes is not only a strategy to fulfil the growing demands for energy efficient buildings and comfort but has great architectural implications as well. In general it asks for more complex components as well as control strategies. But complexity also means costs and risks, and we need to discuss the means and effects. This discussion in particular is very interesting because here science and practice meet. The Journal of Facade Design and Engineering JFDE will actively follow and stimulate by providing high quality contributions. Four of the paper contributions have their origins in the Conference ‘Facades 2014’, held in November 2014 in Lucerne. The contributions have been carefully selected and have been subjected to the regular double blind review process of the journal. We want to thank Prof. Dr. Andres Luible for the help in making this issue happen. We are proud that JFDE is the scientific partner for a number of conferences such as ‘The Future Envelope’ Conference on Building Envelopes held yearly in Delft (NL or Bath (UK, the ICAE International Congress on Architectural Envelopes in San Sebastian (ES and the above mentioned conference ‘Facades’ in Lucerne (CH and Detmold (D. Our latest partner is the ICBEST 2017 - International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technologies in Istanbul. The growing number of partners indicates the relevance of JFDE for our growing discipline and will assure the continuity of the journal. Facade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ‘open access’ as the future publishing model

  10. Climate change adaptation strategy for the Folk Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Khan, Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin; Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, impacts on agriculture from extreme climate are increasingly vulnerable. On the other hand, folk communities are intensely depending on agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate change has already negatively affected the vegetable production by annual recurrent flood in Bangladesh....... This study is an assessment of the new vegetable production system that could adopt in a changing climatic condition. With the popular eight vegetable species, the field experiment consisted of four treatments which were conducted in the bags. However, treatment (TD) which consisted of Coriander (Coriander...... of this study might be helpful for the flood affected folk communities produce vegetables for their own consumption and income. Likewise, new experiments with altered technique and vegetable species are recommended to conclusively develop climate change adaptation strategies for flood prone areas....

  11. An Adaptive Relocation Strategy for heterogeneous sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abdel-Mageid

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous sensor networks (HSNs have grown to be familiar in recent years due to their capabilities to increase network lifetime and reliability without a significant increase in the cost. Deploying sensor nodes in large-scale applications (i.e., battlefields and environmental monitoring requires decentralized solutions. In this paper, we propose a novel decentralized approach enabling us to consider the heterogeneous characteristics of sensor nodes. In the Adaptive Relocation Strategy, new geometric approaches are designed to perfectly deal with the most heterogeneous sensor characteristics. The simulation results are presented to show that the proposed solution achieves the high coverage performance in few rounds with minimum energy consumption and minimum computations. The performance comparison is also introduced to study how the designed parameters affect the network performance in terms of the network cost, the coverage enhancement, and the total energy consumption measured by the computational complexity and the average moving distance.

  12. Africa's Growth and Development Strategies: A Critical Review1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-17

    Dec 17, 2012 ... promouvoir la productivité et de bonnes relations de travail. Introduction2. The growth .... Africa in the context of the neo-liberal growth and development strategies it has adopted over the years. Further ..... buying and selling of foreign exchange is now market-based and abolishing previous restrictions on ...

  13. Adaptive strategies in designing the simultaneous global drug development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhilong; Chen, Gang; Huang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed to account for the potential impact of ethnic/regional factors when extrapolating results from multiregional clinical trials (MRCTs) to targeted ethnic (TE) patients, i.e., "bridging." Most of them either focused on TE patients in the MRCT (i.e., internal bridging) or a separate local clinical trial (LCT) (i.e., external bridging). Huang et al. (2012) integrated both bridging concepts in their method for the Simultaneous Global Drug Development Program (SGDDP) which designs both the MRCT and the LCT prospectively and combines patients in both trials by ethnic origin, i.e., TE vs. non-TE (NTE). The weighted Z test was used to combine information from TE and NTE patients to test with statistical rigor whether a new treatment is effective in the TE population. Practically, the MRCT is often completed before the LCT. Thus to increase the power for the SGDDP and/or obtain more informative data in TE patients, we may use the final results from the MRCT to re-evaluate initial assumptions (e.g., effect sizes, variances, weight), and modify the LCT accordingly. We discuss various adaptive strategies for the LCT such as sample size reassessment, population enrichment, endpoint change, and dose adjustment. As an example, we extend a popular adaptive design method to re-estimate the sample size for the LCT, and illustrate it for a normally distributed endpoint.

  14. Adapting to Population Growth: The Evolutionary Alternative to Malthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Kristinsson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing debate on the dynamics of population growth in human history has become polarized between a Malthusian stance and a Boserupian one. The former tends to view population growth as limited by carrying capacity, dependent on environment and technology, whereas the latter sees population growth itself as a major inducement to social, economic and technological developments. In this paper the authors experiment with approaching this debate by using recent developments in evolutionary theory. According to these, evolutionary principles, as expounded by Charles Darwin and subsequent evolutionary scientists, apply not only to biological evolution but also to social or cultural evolution. Here, the role of genes is taken over by culture and, since culture is much more pliable than our DNA, evolution speeds up. As the only organisms on Earth whose evolution relies as heavily on culture as on genes, humans have become extremely adaptable. Their hyper-adaptability suggest that humans, through their cultural evolution, have managed increasingly to adapt to their own growing population, thus succeeding in accommodating ever-growing numbers. This hypothesis fits the Boserupian approach to population very well but less so the Malthusian one, perhaps indicating a gradual shift from a Malthusian regime to a Boserupian one in human history. The hypothesis is discussed and examined through four case studies: The beginning of farming around Göbekli Tepe in southeast Turkey, the productive farming systems of Tiwanaku in South America, the population crisis of late medieval and early modern Iceland, and the ‘collapse’ of Rapa Nui (Easter Island.

  15. International experiences on the formulation and implementation of transboundary climate change adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.; Ly, T.; Nguyen Huong Thuy, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Mekong River Commission’s (MRC) Climate Change and Adaptation Initiative (CCAI) aims at formulating the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the Lower Mekong Basin. An important first step in developing this strategy is to review international experiences of existing strategies, to learn from

  16. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  17. International EFL/ESL Master Students' Adaptation Strategies for Academic Writing Practices at Tertiary Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manjet Kaur Mehar Singh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present research provides insights into the different forms of adaptation strategies employed by international graduate students to overcome the challenges faced in the academic writing...

  18. Ethnic enclaves and middleman minorities: alternative strategies of immigrant adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobas, J A

    1987-04-01

    This article examines 2 modes or strategies of immigrant adaptation: middleman minorities and ethnic enclaves. Although they have been discussed as if they were disjointed and mutually exclusive, the authors challenge this view. Middleman minorities 1) tend to be self-employed or to work for a coethnic, 2) are usually concentrated in small business, 3) tend to rely on the in-group for resources, and 4) fill a "status gap" in the receiving society. Ethnic enclaves depend on 3 features: 1) recent coethnic arrivals spend a tour of duty at the worst jobs, 2) coethnics provide ethnic entrepreneurs with consumer markets, 3) ethnic businesses rely on each other to supply their operating needs. Ethnic enclaves are concentrated and spatially identifiable. For this study, the authors collected data in a survey of the Cuban exile community of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The sample selection procedure yielded a total of 261 individuals, 220 of whom were interviewed. 10 predictions found in the middleman minority and ethnic enclave perspectives were checked against the researchers' data. 4 of these predictions are hld in common by both approaches: 1) eomployment in an ethnic enterprise increases subsequent chances of self-employment, 2) ethnic firms rely on the in-group for business resources, 3) coethnic workers represent an asset to the ethnic entrepreneur in that they occupy important positions requiring the employer's trust, and 4) there is business competition between locals and minority members. As predicted by the middleman strategy, Cuban businesses in Puerto Rico tend not to be immediately productive and there is no evidence of spatial concentration of these businesses. However, fitting the enclave approach, these firms do not dominate certain business lines, Cuban entrepreneurs do not appear to be sojourners, and they tend to have business backgrounds. The middleman perspective is supported in that some elements of the local elite favor Cuban exiles. Thus, there is no

  19. Adaptive Gaze Strategies for Locomotion with Constricted Visual Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colas N. Authié

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In retinitis pigmentosa (RP, loss of peripheral visual field accounts for most difficulties encountered in visuo-motor coordination during locomotion. The purpose of this study was to accurately assess the impact of peripheral visual field loss on gaze strategies during locomotion, and identify compensatory mechanisms. Nine RP subjects presenting a central visual field limited to 10–25° in diameter, and nine healthy subjects were asked to walk in one of three directions—straight ahead to a visual target, leftward and rightward through a door frame, with or without obstacle on the way. Whole body kinematics were recorded by motion capture, and gaze direction in space was reconstructed using an eye-tracker. Changes in gaze strategies were identified in RP subjects, including extensive exploration prior to walking, frequent fixations of the ground (even knowing no obstacle was present, of door edges, essentially of the proximal one, of obstacle edge/corner, and alternating door edges fixations when approaching the door. This was associated with more frequent, sometimes larger rapid-eye-movements, larger movements, and forward tilting of the head. Despite the visual handicap, the trajectory geometry was identical between groups, with a small decrease in walking speed in RPs. These findings identify the adaptive changes in sensory-motor coordination, in order to ensure visual awareness of the surrounding, detect changes in spatial configuration, collect information for self-motion, update the postural reference frame, and update egocentric distances to environmental objects. They are of crucial importance for the design of optimized rehabilitation procedures.

  20. Climate adaptation in NVE's areas of responsibility - Strategy 2010 - 2014; Klimatilpasning innen NVEs ansvarsomraader - Strategi 2010 - 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamarsland, Arne T. (ed.)

    2010-09-15

    NVE has developed a comprehensive climate change strategies within their areas of responsibility. There is a systematic review of how a future climate change will affect NVE management areas; how to meet challenges, vulnerabilities, opportunities and proposals for adaptation measures. Climate adaptation is a dynamic process. It is therefore necessary to follow up the work continuously and correct direction at regular intervals. Climate change adaptation strategy of adaptation measures is a foundation and a direction sensor in NVE's business planning. (AG)

  1. Heterocyst placement strategies to maximize growth of cyanobacterial filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Aidan I

    2012-01-01

    Under conditions of limited fixed-nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria develop a regular pattern of heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen for the remaining vegetative cells. We examine three different heterocyst placement strategies by quantitatively modelling filament growth while varying both external fixed-nitrogen and leakage from the filament. We find that there is an optimum heterocyst frequency which maximizes the growth rate of the filament; the optimum frequency decreases as the external fixed-nitrogen concentration increases but increases as the leakage increases. In the presence of leakage, filaments implementing a local heterocyst placement strategy grow significantly faster than filaments implementing random heterocyst placement strategies. With no extracellular fixed-nitrogen, consistent with recent experimental studies of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the modelled heterocyst spacing distribution using our local heterocyst placement strategy is qualitatively similar to experimentally observed patterns...

  2. Ensemble analysis of adaptive compressed genome sequencing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acquiring genomes at single-cell resolution has many applications such as in the study of microbiota. However, deep sequencing and assembly of all of millions of cells in a sample is prohibitively costly. A property that can come to rescue is that deep sequencing of every cell should not be necessary to capture all distinct genomes, as the majority of cells are biological replicates. Biologically important samples are often sparse in that sense. In this paper, we propose an adaptive compressed method, also known as distilled sensing, to capture all distinct genomes in a sparse microbial community with reduced sequencing effort. As opposed to group testing in which the number of distinct events is often constant and sparsity is equivalent to rarity of an event, sparsity in our case means scarcity of distinct events in comparison to the data size. Previously, we introduced the problem and proposed a distilled sensing solution based on the breadth first search strategy. We simulated the whole process which constrained our ability to study the behavior of the algorithm for the entire ensemble due to its computational intensity. Results In this paper, we modify our previous breadth first search strategy and introduce the depth first search strategy. Instead of simulating the entire process, which is intractable for a large number of experiments, we provide a dynamic programming algorithm to analyze the behavior of the method for the entire ensemble. The ensemble analysis algorithm recursively calculates the probability of capturing every distinct genome and also the expected total sequenced nucleotides for a given population profile. Our results suggest that the expected total sequenced nucleotides grows proportional to log of the number of cells and proportional linearly with the number of distinct genomes. The probability of missing a genome depends on its abundance and the ratio of its size over the maximum genome size in the sample. The modified resource

  3. Nordic national climate adaptation and tourism strategies – (how) are they interlinked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landauer, Mia; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Juhola, Sirkku

    2017-01-01

    policy is sufficient to support considering adaptation actions. We reviewed national climate strategies of the Nordic countries from the perspectives of tourism, but excluding the transport sector. We also reviewed Nordic national tourism strategies from the perspective of climate change, particularly...... the extent to which they address climate adaptation. We found out that the national climate strategies do not pay enough attention to tourism adaptation needs, nor do the national tourism strategies present adaptation actions that tourism actors could consider. To connect these national-level strategies......The tourism sector is affected by climate change. Nordic tourism destinations have also experienced changes, such as changing precipitation patterns, lack of snow in winter and shifts in seasons. The sector has to implement adaptation strategies but it is unclear whether the current public climate...

  4. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MUSCLE GROWTH AND ADAPTATION TO PHYSICAL EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Yurkevych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In a few last decades oxidative stress detected in a variety of physiological processes where reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS play a central role. They are directly involved in oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. In certain concentrations they are necessary for cell division, proliferation and apoptosis. Contractile muscle tissue at aerobic conditions form high ROS flow that may modulate a variety of cell functions, for example proliferation. However, slight increase in ROS level provide hormetic effect which may participate in adaptation to heavy weight training resulted in hypertrophy and proliferation of skeletal muscle fibers. This review will discuss ROS types, sites of generation, strategies to increase force production and achieve skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  5. Adaptive Management as an Effective Strategy: Interdisciplinary Perceptions for Natural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Lindsay M.; Hessenauer, Jan-Michael; Nathan, Lucas R.; O'Connor, Kelly M.; Liberati, Marjorie R.; Kloster, Danielle P.; Barclay, Janet R.; Vokoun, Jason C.; Morzillo, Anita T.

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive management is a well-established approach to managing natural resources, but there is little evidence demonstrating effectiveness of adaptive management over traditional management techniques. Peer-reviewed literature attempts to draw conclusions about adaptive management effectiveness using social perceptions, but those studies are largely restricted to employees of US federal organizations. To gain a more comprehensive insight into perceived adaptive management effectiveness, this study aimed to broaden the suite of disciplines, professional affiliations, and geographic backgrounds represented by both practitioners and scholars. A questionnaire contained a series of questions concerning factors that lead to or inhibit effective management, followed by another set of questions focused on adaptive management. Using a continuum representing strategies of both adaptive management and traditional management, respondents selected those strategies that they perceived as being effective. Overall, characteristics (i.e., strategies, stakeholders, and barriers) identified by respondents as contributing to effective management closely aligned with adaptive management. Responses were correlated to the type of adaptive management experience rather than an individual's discipline, occupational, or regional affiliation. In particular, perceptions of characteristics contributing to adaptive management effectiveness varied between respondents who identified as adaptive management scholars (i.e., no implementation experience) and adaptive management practitioners. Together, these results supported two concepts that make adaptive management effective: practitioners emphasized adaptive management's value as a long-term approach and scholars noted the importance of stakeholder involvement. Even so, more communication between practitioners and scholars regarding adaptive management effectiveness could promote interdisciplinary learning and problem solving for improved

  6. Adaptation Strategies of Wheat to Climate Change (Case Study: Ahvaz Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Delghandi

    2016-10-01

    P was derived for risk level 0.10 from CDF. Using the measured precipitation for the 30 years baseline period (1971-2000 and LARS-WG model, daily precipitation time series under risk level 0.10 were generated for future periods (2015-2045 and 2070-2100. Mentioned process in above was performed for temperature. Afterwards, wheat growth was simulated during future and baseline periods using DSSAT, CERES-Wheat model. DSSAT, CERES4.5 is a model based on the crop growth module in which crop growth and development are controlled by phenological development processes. The DSSAT model contains the soil water, soil dynamic, soil temperature, soil nitrogen and carbon, individual plant growth module and crop management module (including planting, harvesting, irrigation, fertilizer and residue modules. This model is not only used to simulate the crop yield, but also to explore the effects of climate change on agricultural productivity and irrigated water. For model validation, field data from different years of observations were used in this study. Experimental data for the simulation were collected at the experimental farm of the Khuzestan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center (KANRC, located at Ahwaz in south western Iran. Results and Discussion: Results showed that wheat growth season was shortened under climate change, especially during 2070-2100 periods. Daily evapotranspiration increased and cumulative evapotranspiration decreased due to increasing daily temperatures and shortening of growth season, respectively. Comparing the wheat yield under climate change with base period based on the considered risk value (0.10 showed that wheat yield in 2015-2045 and 2070-2100 was decreased about 4 and 15 percent, respectively. Four adaptation strategies were assessed (shifting in the planting date, changing the amount of nitrogenous fertilizer, irrigation regime and breeding strategies in response to climate change. Results indicated that Nov, 21 and Dec, 11 are the best

  7. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance Among Dutch Dual Earners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda-Boer, H.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies

  8. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance among Dutch Dual Earners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda-Boer, Hilde H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Vermulst, Ad A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies may harm individuals' work-family balance,…

  9. Green infrastructure as a regional climate change adaptation strategy for dispersal-limited species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, J.P.; Vos, C.C.; van Teeffelen, A.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Green Infrastructure has been frequently named as a strategy for making ecological networks robust against climate change. In the CARE Project (Climate Adaptation for Rural arEas, part of the Dutch Knowledge for Climate Programme), we seek integral adaptation strategies, to cope with climate change

  10. Coping strategies and adaptation to coronary artery bypass surgery as experienced by three couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsitt, David R

    2012-01-01

    Coping strategies affect the psychosocial adaptation of couples in which one of the partners has undergone coronary artery bypass grafting. Research has focused on coping strategies of patients and spouses as individuals, but little is known about how couples cope with this procedure. The purpose of this study was to understand couples' coping strategies and their influence on adaptation to bypass surgery. Three couples were recruited from the Cardiac Wellness Institute of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The descriptive phenomenological psychological method was used to analyze data from 2 interviews with each couple. The analysis revealed a single structure that described the couples' lived experiences. The structure and interview data revealed coping strategies and key factors influencing adaptation postsurgery. Coping strategies, such as redefining the illness, seeking spiritual support, and partnering, enhanced psychosocial adaptation for couples. In addition, marital quality, coping congruence, and shared meaning contributed to effective coping and better adaptation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interfrm Cooperation Strategy of Hyper-Growth and Stable-Growth ICT Firms in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Golonka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to compare the phenomenon of interfrm cooperation strategy in both hyper-growth, and stable-growth knowledge and technology–intensive frms, in a country characterized by a high level of generalized trust: Sweden. Methodology: Qualitative methods were incorporated: direct semistructured interviews with top managers in 13 ICT frms (8 hyper-growth and 5 stable-growth, analyzis of reports, corporate websites and press releases. Furthermore, interviews in 3 expert frms in the industry were conducted, facilitating interfrm cooperation. Conclusions: There were signifcant differences in interfrm cooperation strategy in two distinguished groups of the frms: hyper-growth, and stable-growth. Managers’ individual approaches to uncertainty, strategy and cooperation might be more important than institutional settings. The ICT frms operate in a constantly changing global environment and local context seems to have only a minor impact on the rules of the game in the industry. Research limitations: This study was a qualitative explorative approach as an introduction to further empirical research. Originality: The study presents an interfrm cooperation phenomenon incorporating different perspectives and settings. It contributes to alliance portfolio literature (forming and managing of alliance portfolio in a different context/country/industry, and enhances understanding of frm strategies characterized by different growth rates.

  12. Group-work in the design of complex adaptive learning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study where twelve graduate students undertook the demanding role of the adaptive e-course developer and worked collaboratively on an authentic and complex design task in the context of open and distance tertiary education. The students had to work in groups in order to conceptualise and design a learning scenario for adaptive learning, develop learning materials and adaptive learning strategies, implement the respective adaptive e-course and finally, reflect on the...

  13. Employee stress management: An examination of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies on employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E; Chaney, J Don

    2015-01-01

    Employees commonly report feeling stressed at work. Examine how employees cope with work and personal stress, whether their coping strategies are adaptive (protective to health) or maladaptive (detrimental to health), and if the manner in which employees cope with stress influences perceived stress management. In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 2,500 full-time university non-student employees (i.e. faculty, salaried professionals, and hourly non-professionals) were surveyed on health related behaviors including stress and coping. Approximately 1,277 completed the survey (51% ). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the ability of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies to predict self-reported stress management, while controlling for multiple demographic variables. Over half of employees surveyed reported effective stress management. Most frequently used adaptive coping strategies were communication with friend/family member and exercise, while most frequently used maladaptive coping strategies were drinking alcohol and eating more than usual. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies made significant (p stress management. Only adaptive coping strategies (B = 0.265) predicted whether someone would self-identify as effectively managing stress. Use of maladaptive coping strategies decreased likelihood of self-reporting effective stress management. Actual coping strategies employed may influence employees' perceived stress management. Adaptive coping strategies may be more influential than maladaptive coping strategies on perceived stress management. Results illustrate themes for effective workplace stress management programs. Stress management programs focused on increasing use of adaptive coping may have a greater impact on employee stress management than those focused on decreasing use of maladaptive coping. Coping is not only a reaction to stressful experiences but also a consequence of coping resources. Thereby increasing the

  14. Implementation of the German Climate Adaptation Strategy - Two years of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschkeit, A.; Mahrenholz, P.; Haße, C.

    2010-09-01

    The German Federal Government resolved in its 2005 Climate Protection Programme to initiate the necessary steps for development and implementation of a comprehensive national concept on adaptation to climate change in Germany. Allocating responsibilities in the shaping of federal policy and carrying out adaptation measures require close cooperation between the federal government and federal states. For this reason the Conference of the German Federal and State Environment Ministers decided in spring 2007 to support the federal government in its efforts to identify and implement a German adaptation strategy. The road to this decision as well as the current and future process to identify this national adaptation strategy can be considered as a governance process. A lot of actors on different levels and from different sectors participate in this process, among them the German Environment Protection Agency represented by its Competence Centre on Climate Impacts and Adaptation (KomPass). As the German adaptation strategy should help make adaptation management an integral part of all fields of policy and action the challenging work for the current and further phases will be to combine the ongoing formal processes with informal meetings, workshops and expert discussions, preferably focussed on intersectoral or crosscutting issues of relevance. In our contribution we sum up the national experience in implementing the German adaptation strategy and highlight 1. the development of the Adaptation Action Plan (spring 2011) and 2. the role of the Competence Centre on Climate Impacts and Adaptation as the science-policy-interface.

  15. Microorganisms under high pressure--adaptation, growth and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maria J; Lopes, Rita P; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2013-12-01

    Hydrostatic pressure is a well-known physical parameter which is now considered an important variable of life, since organisms have the ability to adapt to pressure changes, by the development of resistance against this variable. In the past decades a huge interest in high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology is increasingly emerging among food and biosciences researchers. Microbial specific stress responses to HHP are currently being investigated, through the evaluation of pressure effects on biomolecules, cell structure, metabolic behavior, growth and viability. The knowledge development in this field allows a better comprehension of pressure resistance mechanisms acquired at sub-lethal pressures. In addition, new applications of HHP could arise from these studies, particularly in what concerns to biotechnology. For instance, the modulation of microbial metabolic pathways, as a response to different pressure conditions, may lead to the production of novel compounds with potential biotechnological and industrial applications. Considering pressure as an extreme life condition, this review intends to present the main findings so far reported in the scientific literature, focusing on microorganisms with the ability to withstand and to grow in high pressure conditions, whether they have innated or acquired resistance, and show the potential of the application of HHP technology for microbial biotechnology. © 2013.

  16. Adaptive control strategies for interlimb coordination in legged robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoi, Shinya; Manoonpong, Poramate; Ambe, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Walking animals produce adaptive interlimb coordination during locomotion in accordance with their situation. Interlimb coordination is generated through the dynamic interactions of the neural system, the musculoskeletal system, and the environment, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear....... Recently, investigations of the adaptationmechanisms of living beings have attracted attention, and bio-inspired control systems based on neurophysiological findings regarding sensorimotor interactions are being developed for legged robots. In this review, we introduce adaptive interlimb coordination...... for legged robots induced by various factors (locomotion speed, environmental situation, body properties, and task). In addition, we show characteristic properties of adaptive interlimb coordination, such as gait hysteresis and different time-scale adaptations. We also discuss the underlying mechanisms...

  17. Support Fund for Local Adaptation Strategies | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Eau, santé et adaptation aux changements climatiques en Afrique. En Afrique de l'Ouest et en Afrique du Nord, les conséquences de la variabilité du climat sur les aspects de la santé humaine touchés par la quantité et la qualité de l'eau se font de... Voir davantageEau, santé et adaptation aux changements climatiques en ...

  18. Flood risk and adaptation strategies in Indonesia: a probabilistic analysis using globally available data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Sanne; Güneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, global flood losses are increasing due to socio-economic development and climate change, with the largest risk increases in developing countries such as Indonesia. For countries to undertake effective risk-management, an accurate understanding of both current and future risk is required. However, detailed information is rarely available, particularly for developing countries. We present a first of its kind country-scale analysis of flood risk using globally available data that combines a global inundation model with a land use change model and more local data on flood damages. To assess the contribution and uncertainty of different drivers of future risk, we integrate thousands of socio-economic and climate projections in a probabilistic way and include multiple adaptation strategies. Indonesia is used as a case-study as it a country that already faces high flood risk, and is undergoing rapid urbanization. We developed probabilistic and spatially-explicit urban expansion projections from 2000 to 2030 that show that the increase in urban extent ranges from 215% to 357% (5th and 95th percentile). We project rapidly rising flood risk, both for coastal and river floods. This increase is largely driven by economic growth and urban expansion (i.e. increasing exposure). Whilst sea level rise will amply this trend, the response of river floods to climate change is uncertain with the impact of the mean ensemble of 20 climate projections (5 GCMs and 4 RCPs) being close to zero. However, as urban expansion is the main driving force of future risk, we argue that the implementation of adaptation measures is increasingly pressing, regardless of the wide uncertainty in climate projections. Hence, we evaluated the effectiveness of two adaptation measures: spatial planning in flood prone areas and enhanced flood protection. Both strategies have a large potential to effectively offset the increasing risk trend. The risk reduction is in the range of 22-85% and 53

  19. Pockets of opportunity: multicultural marketing strategies for BEP growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Ranked among the 50 largest food service corporations in America, the Randolph-Sheppard Business Enterprise Program (BEP) represents a challenging and rewarding career opportunity for Americans who are legally blind. In recent years, however, the number of facilities and facility managers has declined. Multicultural consumers represent a major emerging growth market. The multicultural market is one of the most overlooked retail markets in the United States--and the one with the most buying power and growth potential. Multicultural marketing is among the least understood strategies available to facility managers, vocational rehabilitation counselors and BEP directors. Four major minority markets are discussed and marketing strategies are offered to help BEPs target and serve these unique consumers.

  20. Coastal zones : shifting shores, sharing adaptation strategies for coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.E. [Waikato Univ. (New Zealand); Morneau, F.; Savard, J.P. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Madruga, R.P. [Centre of Investigation on the Global Economy (Cuba); Leslie, K.R. [Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (Belize); Agricole, W. [Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Seychelles); Burkett, V. [United States Geological Survey (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A parallel event to the eleventh Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change was held to demonstrate examples of adaptation from around the world in the areas of food security, water resources, coastal zones, and communities/infrastructure. Panels on each theme presented examples from developing countries, countries in economic transition, and developed countries. These 4 themes were chosen because both mitigation and adaptation are essential to meeting the challenge of climate change. The objective of the event was to improve the knowledge of Canada's vulnerabilities to climate change, identify ways to minimize the negative effects of future impacts, and explore opportunities that take advantage of any positive impacts. This third session focused on how coastal communities are adapting to climate change in such places as Quebec, the Caribbean, and small Island States. It also presented the example of how a developed country became vulnerable to Hurricane Katrina which hit the coastal zone in the United States Gulf of Mexico. The presentations addressed the challenges facing coastal communities along with progress in risk assessment and adaptation both globally and in the Pacific. Examples of coastal erosion in Quebec resulting from climate change were presented along with climate change and variability impacts over the coastal zones of Seychelles. Cuba's vulnerability and adaptation to climate change was discussed together with an integrated operational approach to climate change, adaptation, biodiversity and land utilization in the Caribbean region. The lessons learned from around the world emphasize that adaptation is needed to reduce unavoidable risks posed by climate change and to better prepare for the changes ahead. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Optimal resting-growth strategies of microbial populations in fluctuating environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Geisel

    Full Text Available Bacteria spend most of their lifetime in non-growing states which allow them to survive extended periods of stress and starvation. When environments improve, they must quickly resume growth to maximize their share of limited nutrients. Cells with higher stress resistance often survive longer stress durations at the cost of needing more time to resume growth, a strong disadvantage in competitive environments. Here we analyze the basis of optimal strategies that microorganisms can use to cope with this tradeoff. We explicitly show that the prototypical inverse relation between stress resistance and growth rate can explain much of the different types of behavior observed in stressed microbial populations. Using analytical mathematical methods, we determine the environmental parameters that decide whether cells should remain vegetative upon stress exposure, downregulate their metabolism to an intermediate optimum level, or become dormant. We find that cell-cell variability, or intercellular noise, is consistently beneficial in the presence of extreme environmental fluctuations, and that it provides an efficient population-level mechanism for adaption in a deteriorating environment. Our results reveal key novel aspects of responsive phenotype switching and its role as an adaptive strategy in changing environments.

  2. The QoE implications of ultra-high definition video adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, James; Awobuluyi, Olatunde; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    As the capabilities of high-end consumer devices increase, streaming and playback of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) is set to become commonplace. The move to these new, higher resolution, video services is one of the main factors contributing to the predicted continuation of growth in video related traffic in the Internet. This massive increases in bandwidth requirement, even when mitigated by the use of new video compression standards such as H.265, will place an ever-increasing burden on network service providers. This will be especially true in mobile environments where users have come to expect ubiquitous access to content. Consequently, delivering UHD and Full UHD (FUHD) video content is one of the key drivers for future Fifth Generation (5G) mobile networks. One often voiced, but as yet unanswered question, is whether users of mobile devices with modest screen sizes (e.g. smartphones or smaller tablet) will actually benefit from consuming the much higher bandwidth required to watch online UHD video, in terms of an improved user experience. In this paper, we use scalable H.265 encoded video streams to conduct a subjective evaluation of the impact on a user's perception of video quality across a comprehensive range of adaptation strategies, covering each of the three adaptation domains, for UHD and FUHD video. The results of our subjective study provide insightful and useful indications of which methods of adapting UHD and FUHD streams have the least impact on user's perceived QoE. In particular, it was observed that, in over 70% of cases, users were unable to distinguish between full HD (1080p) and UHD (4K) videos when they were unaware of which version was being shown to them. Our results from this evaluation can be used to provide adaptation rule sets that will facilitate fast, QoE aware in-network adaptation of video streams in support of realtime adaptation objectives. Undoubtedly they will also promote discussion around how network service providers manage

  3. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation strategies into New York State Department of Transportation's operations : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    This study identifies climate change adaptation strategies and recommends ways of mainstreaming them into planned actions, including legislation, policies, programs and projects in all areas and at all levels within the New York State Department of T...

  4. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation strategies into New York State Department of Transportation's operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    This study identifies climate change adaptation strategies and recommends ways of mainstreaming them into planned actions, including legislation, policies, programs and projects in all areas and at all levels within the New York State Department of T...

  5. Newcomers in a Nontraditional Receiving Community: Korean Immigrant Adaptation Strategies in the American Deep South

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles A Lynn; Sun-A Lee

    2016-01-01

    .... We analyze the benefits and pitfalls of adaptation strategies developed by the Korean immigrants and how their social networks both help and hinder their livelihood in a nontraditional receiving locale...

  6. Towards a regional strategy on adaptation to climate change in West ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In June 2007, CCAA commissioned three studies to explore the potential for enhancing regional strategies on adaptation to climate change in three sub regions of Africa. The purpose of the studies is to:

  7. Impacts of climate change and variability, and adaptation strategies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 mai 2011 ... This article appeared in the August 2009 volume of the African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. The Climate Change Adaptation in Africa research and capacity development program was launched in 2006 as a joint initiative between Canada's International Development Research ...

  8. Constraints to crop production and adaptation strategies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rainfall variability (CV = 0.30) had the highest ranking (most important), followed by shortage of inputs collectively, from focus group discussions. Farmers adapted to rainfall variability mostly through choice of crop and planting dates, adjusting the levels of inputs (fertiliser in particular) they used, as well as by resorting ...

  9. Cultural Differences in Communication Patterns: Classroom Adaptations and Translation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Cathie

    This paper discusses patterns of communication, particularly teaching/learning communication, in Hawaiian families, and the ways that these patterns affect the behaviors, expectations, and skills that Hawaiian children bring to school. It also describes some examples of educationally effective adaptations to these expectations and skills which…

  10. Evolving institutional and policy frameworks to support adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Cleaves

    2014-01-01

    Given the consequences and opportunities of the Anthropocene, what is our underlying theory or vision of successful adaptation? This essay discusses the building blocks of this theory, and how will we translate this theory into guiding principles for management and policy.

  11. Support Fund for Local Adaptation Strategies | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to strengthen the leadership and technical and organizational capacity of grassroots communities in the area of adaptation to climate change. It will do so by putting in place a process for selecting pilot projects, identifying team needs in terms of capacity building, contracting providers of (public or private) ...

  12. Organic Farming as a Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For climate change adaptation, OF systems have a strong potential for building resilient food systems through farm diversification and building soil fertility with organic matter. In developing countries, OF offers alternatives to energy-intensive production inputs such as synthetic fertilizers which are limited for poor rural ...

  13. Impacts of climate change, variability and adaptation strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are different wealth groups namely the rich, the middle and the poor and these are differently vulnerable climate change. The study concluded that, the wealth of knowledge on coping and adaptation that farmer has should form a foundation for designing agricultural innovation systems to deal with impacts of climate ...

  14. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  15. Improved probabilistic neural networks with self-adaptive strategies for transformer fault diagnosis problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Hong Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic neural network has successfully solved all kinds of engineering problems in various fields since it is proposed. In probabilistic neural network, Spread has great influence on its performance, and probabilistic neural network will generate bad prediction results if it is improperly selected. It is difficult to select the optimal manually. In this article, a variant of probabilistic neural network with self-adaptive strategy, called self-adaptive probabilistic neural network, is proposed. In self-adaptive probabilistic neural network, Spread can be self-adaptively adjusted and selected and then the best selected Spread is used to guide the self-adaptive probabilistic neural network train and test. In addition, two simplified strategies are incorporated into the proposed self-adaptive probabilistic neural network with the aim of further improving its performance and then two versions of simplified self-adaptive probabilistic neural network (simplified self-adaptive probabilistic neural networks 1 and 2 are proposed. The variants of self-adaptive probabilistic neural networks are further applied to solve the transformer fault diagnosis problem. By comparing them with basic probabilistic neural network, and the traditional back propagation, extreme learning machine, general regression neural network, and self-adaptive extreme learning machine, the results have experimentally proven that self-adaptive probabilistic neural networks have a more accurate prediction and better generalization performance when addressing the transformer fault diagnosis problem.

  16. Adaptation strategies to climate change and climate variability: A comparative study between seven contrasting river basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Adaptation strategies to climate change and climate variability to enhance food quantity and security and environmental quality and security have been explored for seven contrasting basins in the context of the ADAPT project. For the seven basins as much as possible established modeling frameworks

  17. Adaptation and Validation of the Teacher Emotional Labour Strategy Scale in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongbiao

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the adaptation and validation of the Teacher Emotional Labour Strategy Scale (TELSS) as tested on samples of 633 Beijing teachers and 648 Chongqing teachers in Chinese mainland. Results show that the 13-item TELSS adapted for this study had good internal consistency on three subscales which measure three types of teacher…

  18. A biological modeling based comparison of two strategies for adaptive radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutkenhaus, L. J.; Vestergaard, A.; Bel, A.; Høyer, M.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; van Leeuwen, C. M.; Casares-Magaz, O.; Petersen, J. B.; Søndergaard, J.; Muren, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adaptive radiotherapy is introduced in the management of urinary bladder cancer to account for day-to-day anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an adaptive plan selection strategy using either the first four cone beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-based

  19. Resilience, human agency and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

      In the Arctic, indigenous peoples, researchers and governments are working to develop climate change adaptation strategies due to the rapid changes in sea ice extent, weather conditions and in the ecosystem as such. These strategies are often based on specific perceptions of vulnerability...... and work with a number of barriers for resilience. The objective of the article is first to address the position of institutional barriers in the studies and strategies. Second the article analyses the role human agency is ascribed in proposed strategies and projects in Nunavut and Greenland. With a focus...... on institutions and human agency the question is not only ‘how do people manage to adapt?' but moreover ‘what constrains people in pursuing a given adaptation strategy?' The article introduces the concept of double agency which stresses two different aspects of human agency that can be used to understand...

  20. The extracellular proteome of two Bifidobacterium species reveals different adaptation strategies to low iron conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Gutierrez, Pamela; Stevens, Marc J A; Gehrig, Peter; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Lacroix, Christophe; Chassard, Christophe

    2017-01-06

    Bifidobacteria are among the first anaerobic bacteria colonizing the gut. Bifidobacteria require iron for growth and their iron-sequestration mechanisms are important for their fitness and possibly inhibit enteropathogens. Here we used combined genomic and proteomic analyses to characterize adaptations to low iron conditions of B. kashiwanohense PV20-2 and B. pseudolongum PV8-2, 2 strains isolated from the feces of iron-deficient African infants and selected for their high iron-sequestering ability. Analyses of the genome contents revealed evolutionary adaptation to low iron conditions. A ferric and a ferrous iron operon encoding binding proteins and transporters were found in both strains. Remarkably, the ferric iron operon of B. pseudolongum PV8-2 is not found in other B. pseudolongum strains and likely acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The genome B. kashiwanohense PV20-2 harbors a unique region encoding genes putatively involved in siderophore production. Additionally, the secretomes of the two strains grown under low-iron conditions were analyzed using a combined genomic-proteomic approach. A ferric iron transporter was found in the secretome of B. pseudolongum PV8-2, while ferrous binding proteins were detected in the secretome of B. kashiwanohense PV20-2, suggesting different strategies to take up iron in the strains. In addition, proteins such as elongation factors, a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and the stress proteins GroEL and DnaK were identified in both secretomes. These proteins have been previously associated with adhesion of lactobacilli to epithelial cells. Analyses of the genome and secretome of B. kashiwanohense PV20-2 and B. pseudolongum PV8-2 revealed different adaptations to low iron conditions and identified extracellular proteins for iron transport. The identified extracellular proteins might be involved in competition for iron in the gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Adaptive Through-Thickness Integration Strategy for Shell Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Burchitz, I.A.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2007-01-01

    Reliable numerical prediction of springback in sheet metal forming is essential for the automotive industry. There are numerous factors that influence the accuracy of springback prediction by using the finite element method. One of the reasons is the through-thickness numerical integration of shell elements. It is known that even for simple problems the traditional integration schemes may require up to 50 integration points to achieve a high accuracy of springback analysis. An adaptive throug...

  2. Bone Microstructure of the Stereospondyl Lydekkerina Huxleyi Reveals Adaptive Strategies to the Harsh Post Permian-Extinction Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canoville, Aurore; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2015-07-01

    The small-bodied stereospondyl Lydekkerina huxleyi, dominated the amphibian fauna of the South African Lower Triassic. Even though the anatomy of this amphibian has been well described, its growth strategies and lifestyle habits have remained controversial. Previous studies attributed the relative uniformity in skull sizes to a predominance of subadult and adult specimens recovered in the fossil record. Anatomical and taphonomic data suggested that the relatively small body-size of this genus, as compared to its Permo-Triassic relatives, could be linked to a shortened, rapid developmental period as an adaptation to maintain successful breeding populations under harsh environmental conditions. Moreover, Lydekkerina's habitat has been hypothesized to be either aquatic or mainly terrestrial. The current study, utilizes bone microstructure to reassess previous hypotheses pertaining to the biology and ecology of Lydekkerina. Various skeletal elements of different-sized specimens are analyzed to understand its growth dynamics, intraskeletal variability, and lifestyle adaptations. Bone histology revealed that our sample comprises individuals at different ontogenetic stages i.e., juveniles to mature individuals. Our results show that these amphibians, despite exhibiting plasticity in growth, experienced an overall faster growth during early ontogeny (thereby attaining sexual maturity sooner), as compared to most other temnospondyls. The microanatomy of the long bones with their thick bone walls and distinctive medullary cavity suggests that Lydekkerina may have been amphibious with a tendency to be more terrestrial. Our study concludes that Lydekkerina employed a peculiar growth strategy and lifestyle adaptations, which enabled it to endure the harsh, dry conditions of the Early Triassic. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. How climate compatible are livelihood adaptation strategies and development programs in rural Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Wise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving climate compatible development (CCD is a necessity in developing countries, but there are few examples of requisite planning processes, or manifestations of CCD. This paper presents a multi-stakeholder, participatory planning process designed to screen and prioritise rural livelihood adaptation strategies against nine CCD criteria. The process also integrated three principles of adaptation pathways: interventions should be (1 ‘no regrets’ and maintain reversibility to avoid mal-adaptation; (2 address both proximate and underlying systemic drivers of community vulnerability; and (3 linked across spatial scales and jurisdictional levels to promote coordination. Using examples of two rural sub-districts in Indonesia, we demonstrate the process and resulting CCD strategies. Priority strategies varied between the sub-districts but all reflected standard development interventions: water management, intensification or diversification of agriculture and aquaculture, education, health, food security and skills-building for communities. Strategies delivered co-benefits for human development and ecosystem services and hence adaptive capacity, but greenhouse mitigation co-benefits were less significant. Actions to deliver the strategies’ objectives were screened for reversibility, and a minority were potentially mal-adaptive (i.e. path dependent, disproportionately burdening the most vulnerable, reducing incentives to adapt, or increasing greenhouse gas emissions yet highly feasible. These related to infrastructure, which paradoxically is necessary to deliver ‘soft’ adaptation benefits (i.e. road access to health services. Only a small minority of transformative strategies addressed the systemic (i.e. institutional and political drivers of vulnerability. Strategies were well-matched by development programs, suggesting that current interventions mirror CCD. However, development programs tackled fewer systemic drivers, were poorly

  4. Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and Their Implications in the Zou Department of South Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adégnandjou Mahouna Roland Fadina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global phenomenon. Its impact on agricultural activities in developing countries has increased dramatically. Understanding how farmers perceive climate change and how they adapt to it is very important to the implementation of adequate policies for agricultural and food security. This paper aims to contribute to an understanding of farmers’ adaptation choices, determinants of the adaptation choices and the long-term implications of the adaptation choices. Data were collected from 120 respondents in the Zou Department of Benin. A binary logit model was used to analyze the factors influencing household decisions to adapt to climate change. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was estimated to analyze the factors influencing households’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate change. The results show that farmers have a developed perception of climate change. These changes are translated by rainfall disturbances (rainfall delays, early cessation, bad rainfall distribution etc., shortening of the small dry season, increasing of temperature and sometimes, violent winds. The survey reveals that Benin farmers adopt many strategies in response to climate change. These strategies include “Crop–livestock diversification and other good practices (mulching, organic fertilizer,” “Use of improved varieties, chemical fertilizers and pesticides,” “Agroforestry and perennial plantation” and “Diversification of income-generating activities.” The findings also reveal that most of the respondents use these strategies in combination. From the binary logit model, we know that “farming experience” and “educational level of household head” positively influence adaptation decisions. The result of the multinomial logit analysis shows that farming experience, educational level, farm size and gender have a significant impact on climate change adaptation strategies. Based on in-depth analysis of each strategy, we

  5. Cultural adaptation of preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum for Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Ayesha; Tariq, Pervaiz N; Zaman, Sahira

    2015-06-01

    Cultural adaptation of evidence-based programmes has gained importance primarily owing to its perceived impact on the established effectiveness of a programme. To date, many researchers have proposed different frameworks for systematic adaptation process. This article presents the cultural adaptation of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum for Pakistani children using the heuristic framework of adaptation (Barrera & Castro, 2006). The study was completed in four steps: information gathering, preliminary adaptation design, preliminary adaptation test and adaptation refinement. Feedbacks on programme content suggested universality of the core programme components. Suggested changes were mostly surface structure: language, presentation of materials, conceptual equivalence of concepts, training needs of implementation staff and frequency of programme delivery. In-depth analysis was done to acquire cultural equivalence. Pilot testing of the outcome measures showed strong internal consistency. The results were further discussed with reference to similar work undertaken in other cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Attenuated hepatitis A virus: genetic determinants of adaptation to growth in MRC-5 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Funkhouser, A W; Purcell, R H; D'hondt, E.; Emerson, S. U.

    1994-01-01

    A live candidate hepatitis A virus vaccine, developed from the HM-175 strain and adapted to growth in primary African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells, was adapted to growth in MRC-5 cells. The nucleotide sequence of the MRC-5 cell-adapted virus was determined and compared with the known sequence of the AGMK cell-adapted virus. Thirteen unique mutations, which occurred during passage in MRC-5 cells, were identified. Four of the unique mutations were located in a cluster in the 5' noncoding re...

  7. Climate Change and Poverty : An Integrated Strategy for Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Catherine; Van der Vink, Gregory; Hennet, Christel; Cord, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Developing countries are most exposed to the impact of climate change and within these countries, the poor face the brunt of the burden. Climate change is not a discrete problem that can be dealt with through isolated reforms: impacting economic growth, health, and institutional capacity, it represents a full-frontal challenge to development. This note traces the multi-dimensional impacts ...

  8. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies Used by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the strategies employed by farmers to mitigate the effects of climate change on agricultural practices. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data from 220 farmers. Frequency, percentages and mean statistic were used to present the results of the data collected. The results show that the ...

  9. Intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in rats with ileal-jejunal transposition or small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, Jesper; Hartmann, B.; Kissow, H.

    2001-01-01

    Anatomy, glucagon-like peptide 2, small intestine, short bowel, intestinal adaptation, growth factors, rat......Anatomy, glucagon-like peptide 2, small intestine, short bowel, intestinal adaptation, growth factors, rat...

  10. Acculturation Strategies, Social Support, and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Kin; Tsang, Kwok Kuen; Lian, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Previous acculturation research has established the influences of acculturation strategies and social support on cross-cultural adaptation. The present study attempted to elaborate these direct associations by proposing that social support and the use of the integration and marginalization strategies might affect psychological adaptation…

  11. CROSS-CULTURAL EXPERIMENTS AS AN ADAPTATION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И И Подойницына

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methodological and empirical aspects of cross-cultural communica-tions under the economic and cultural globalization that determined the free movement of labor migrants around the world though this process is accompanied by certain difficulties. The authors believe that even a theoretically prepared person that knows about the influence of cultural differences on the organizational management in different countries will experience a cultural shock when working abroad. The cultural shock is a discomfort, frustration and even depression caused by getting into an unfamiliar environment. At the applied level, the authors analyze the so-called ‘cross-cultural experiments’ - attempts of an individual (a working specialist of a certain nation to test one’s strength, skills, and professional competencies in a foreign company. The authors’ sociological study of a cultural benchmarking type consisted of two stages. At the first stage, foreigners working in the capital of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia were inter-viewed; at the second stage, the Russians working abroad, mainly in the USA, were interviewed. The migra-tion flows from China have recently intensified in Yakutia, but the overwhelming majority of labor migrants are still from West and Central Asia, mainly from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Armenia. The foreigners working in Yakutia and Russians working abroad experience same difficulties of adaptation in a new col-lective. Friends, relatives, members of the ethnic community, but not specially trained cross-cultural coaches and mentors, help them with adaptation. Such a personnel technology as selection, recruitment and headhunt-ing works reasonably well, while other HR technologies of cross-cultural management (motivation, feedback, etc. are still lagging behind. The authors insist on introducing courses on cross-cultural adaptation in interna-tional groups both in Russia and abroad together with a system of the so

  12. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Hasen Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effects of climate change and to identify factors that affect the choice of climate change adaptation strategies in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To address this objective, Multivariate Probit model was used. The results of the model indicated that the likelihood of households to adapt improved varieties of crops, adjust planting date, crop diversification and soil conservation practices were 58.73%, 57.72%, 35.61% and 41.15%, respectively. The Simulated Maximum Likelihood estimation of the Multivariate Probit model results suggested that there was positive and significant interdependence between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and using improved varieties of crops; and between adjusting planting date and using improved varieties of crops. The results also showed that there was a negative and significant relationship between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and soil conservation practices. The paper also recommended household, socioeconomic, institutional and plot characteristics that facilitate and impede the probability of choosing those adaptation strategies.

  13. Key Parameters Estimation and Adaptive Warning Strategy for Rear-End Collision of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rear-end collision warning system requires reliable warning decision mechanism to adapt the actual driving situation. To overcome the shortcomings of existing warning methods, an adaptive strategy is proposed to address the practical aspects of the collision warning problem. The proposed strategy is based on the parameter-adaptive and variable-threshold approaches. First, several key parameter estimation algorithms are developed to provide more accurate and reliable information for subsequent warning method. They include a two-stage algorithm which contains a Kalman filter and a Luenberger observer for relative acceleration estimation, a Bayesian theory-based algorithm of estimating the road friction coefficient, and an artificial neural network for estimating the driver’s reaction time. Further, the variable-threshold warning method is designed to achieve the global warning decision. In the method, the safety distance is employed to judge the dangerous state. The calculation method of the safety distance in this paper can be adaptively adjusted according to the different driving conditions of the leading vehicle. Due to the real-time estimation of the key parameters and the adaptive calculation of the warning threshold, the strategy can adapt to various road and driving conditions. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through simulation and field tests. The experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  14. Climate change perceptions and local adaptation strategies of hazard-prone rural households in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Monirul Alam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a key strategy that can alleviate the severity of climate change impacts on agriculture and food production. Adaptation strategies are unlikely to be effective without an understanding of the farmers’ perceptions of climate change. This paper explores the local knowledge of adaptation in response to the perceived impacts of climate change and climatic hazards using a survey of 380 resource-poor riverbank erosion-prone households in Bangladesh. The results indicate that the respondents’ perceptions of changes in the climate and of extreme climatic events are similar to the observed climate data. Households have recognized the impacts on their livelihood and resources, resulting in an increased sense of vulnerability. To build resilience, households have undertaken a range of farming and non-farming adaptation strategies, which vary significantly among the farming groups. The important adaptation strategies include adopting new crop varieties, changing planting time, homestead gardening, planting trees and migration. Improved access to finance and to information about appropriate strategies appears to be crucial to support adaptation processes locally and thus to enhance the resilience of vulnerable households.

  15. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  16. Analysis of the mitigation and adaptation strategies of the transport industry in the city of Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelia Melero Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an analysis of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the transport sector in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Based on the methodology of the Programs of Action on Climate Change (PACC, we analyzed the Mexicali emissions inventory and generated a diagnosis. Once we analyzed the current situation, we studied mitigation strategies such as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT, the smog check, new importation legislation for used cars, biofuel production, the promotion of lower–emission vehicles and urban planning. On adaptation strategies vehicle recycling and the use of non–motorized transport were studied as an alternative of sustainable mobility.

  17. Standardization versus adaptation of global marketing strategies in emerging market cross-border acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Rao-Nicholson, R.; Khan, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The recent increase in the presence of emerging-market firms (EMFs) in global\\ud markets requires a closer examination of their international marketing strategies (including\\ud branding). This paper examines the factors behind the standardization or adaptation of global\\ud marketing strategies adopted by EMFs for their cross-border acquisitions.\\ud Methodology/Approach: This paper examines the determinants of the marketing strategies\\ud adopted by Indian and Chinese firms for their c...

  18. Compensatory growth feeding strategy does not overcome negative effects on growth and carcass composition of low birth weight pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madsen, J G; Bee, G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the compensatory growth feeding strategy could be a suitable solution for overcoming the negative effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality...

  19. MarketBusting: strategies for exceptional business growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Rita Gunther; MacMillan, Ian C

    2005-03-01

    If company leaders were granted a single wish, it would surely be for a reliable way to create new growth businesses. Business practitioners'overwhelming interest in this subject prompted the authors to conduct a three-year study of organizational growth--specifically, to find out which growth strategies were most successful. They discovered, somewhat to their surprise, that even companies in mature industries found rich new sources of growth when they reconfigured their unit of business (what they bill customers for) or their key metrics (how they measure success). In this article, the authors outline these and other moves companies can make to redefine their profit drivers and realize low-risk growth. They offer plenty of real-world examples. For instance: CHANGING YOUR UNIT OF BUSINESS: Once a conventional printing house, Madden Communications not only prints promotional materials for customers but also manages the distribution and installation of those materials on-site. Its revenues grew from dollars 1o million in 1990 to dollars 133 million in 2004, in an industry that many had come to regard as hopelessly mature. IMPROVING YOUR KEY METRICS-PARTICULARLY PRODUCTIVITY: Lamons Gasket, with dollars 80 million in revenues, built a Web site that radically improved its customers' ability to find, order, and pay for goods. The firm's market share rose along with its customer retention rate. The authors also suggest ways to identify your unit of business and associated key metrics and recognize the obstacles to changing them; review the key customer segments you serve; assess the need for new capabilities and the potential for internal resistance to change; and communicate to internal and external constituencies the changes you wish to make in your unit of business or key metrics.

  20. Strategies of adaptation to extreme conditions in aquatic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, M.

    1980-08-01

    Aquatic ecosystems include the two extremes: constant environmental conditions in the main bodies of water, and unstable fluctuating conditions in the shallow margins of the aquatic ecosystems. Aquatic microorganisms living in the main oceans can thus be characterized by a single prototype being moderately halophilic, psychrophilic, to some extreme barophilic and all must be oligotrophs managing to survive and multiply in extremely low nutrient concentrations. On the other hand those populating the shallow margins must be adapted to rapidly fluctuating environments and thus have multipotential metabolic patterns. Oscillatoria limnetica can serve as a model for this being capable of shifts from oxygenic to non-oxygenic photosynthesis, having multiple dark energy generating systems, fixing nitrogen anaerobically and capable of induction of resistance mechanisms to overcome oxygen toxicity.

  1. Comparison of growth and yield adaptability indicators of two maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), with the two cultivars, each replicated four times. Yield, leaf length and plant height were measured and averaged. Results showed that PHB3253 had growth of 75.2 cm after measuring at 2 weeks interval for 10 weeks. Its growth was significantly ...

  2. Adaptive Control Strategies for Interlimb Coordination in Legged Robots: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shinya; Manoonpong, Poramate; Ambe, Yuichi; Matsuno, Fumitoshi; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2017-01-01

    Walking animals produce adaptive interlimb coordination during locomotion in accordance with their situation. Interlimb coordination is generated through the dynamic interactions of the neural system, the musculoskeletal system, and the environment, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, investigations of the adaptation mechanisms of living beings have attracted attention, and bio-inspired control systems based on neurophysiological findings regarding sensorimotor interactions are being developed for legged robots. In this review, we introduce adaptive interlimb coordination for legged robots induced by various factors (locomotion speed, environmental situation, body properties, and task). In addition, we show characteristic properties of adaptive interlimb coordination, such as gait hysteresis and different time-scale adaptations. We also discuss the underlying mechanisms and control strategies to achieve adaptive interlimb coordination and the design principle for the control system of legged robots.

  3. Adaptive Control Strategies for Interlimb Coordination in Legged Robots: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Aoi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Walking animals produce adaptive interlimb coordination during locomotion in accordance with their situation. Interlimb coordination is generated through the dynamic interactions of the neural system, the musculoskeletal system, and the environment, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, investigations of the adaptation mechanisms of living beings have attracted attention, and bio-inspired control systems based on neurophysiological findings regarding sensorimotor interactions are being developed for legged robots. In this review, we introduce adaptive interlimb coordination for legged robots induced by various factors (locomotion speed, environmental situation, body properties, and task. In addition, we show characteristic properties of adaptive interlimb coordination, such as gait hysteresis and different time-scale adaptations. We also discuss the underlying mechanisms and control strategies to achieve adaptive interlimb coordination and the design principle for the control system of legged robots.

  4. Adaptive Control Strategies for Interlimb Coordination in Legged Robots: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shinya; Manoonpong, Poramate; Ambe, Yuichi; Matsuno, Fumitoshi; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2017-01-01

    Walking animals produce adaptive interlimb coordination during locomotion in accordance with their situation. Interlimb coordination is generated through the dynamic interactions of the neural system, the musculoskeletal system, and the environment, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, investigations of the adaptation mechanisms of living beings have attracted attention, and bio-inspired control systems based on neurophysiological findings regarding sensorimotor interactions are being developed for legged robots. In this review, we introduce adaptive interlimb coordination for legged robots induced by various factors (locomotion speed, environmental situation, body properties, and task). In addition, we show characteristic properties of adaptive interlimb coordination, such as gait hysteresis and different time-scale adaptations. We also discuss the underlying mechanisms and control strategies to achieve adaptive interlimb coordination and the design principle for the control system of legged robots. PMID:28878645

  5. Institutions for adaptation to climate change: comparing national adaptation strategies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Biesbroek, G.R.; Brink, van den M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, societies worldwide have to cope with the potential impacts of climate change. The central question of this paper is to what extent our historically grown institutions enable actors to cope with the new challenges of climate adaptation. We present

  6. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  7. An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie [Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Electronic Information and Control Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China) and School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) provides an effective tool for monitoring physiological and pathological activities in vivo. However, the measured data in bioluminescence imaging are corrupted by noise. Therefore, regularization methods are commonly used to find a regularized solution. Nevertheless, for the quality of the reconstructed bioluminescent source obtained by regularization methods, the choice of the regularization parameters is crucial. To date, the selection of regularization parameters remains challenging. With regards to the above problems, the authors proposed a BLT reconstruction algorithm with an adaptive parameter choice rule. Methods: The proposed reconstruction algorithm uses a diffusion equation for modeling the bioluminescent photon transport. The diffusion equation is solved with a finite element method. Computed tomography (CT) images provide anatomical information regarding the geometry of the small animal and its internal organs. To reduce the ill-posedness of BLT, spectral information and the optimal permissible source region are employed. Then, the relationship between the unknown source distribution and multiview and multispectral boundary measurements is established based on the finite element method and the optimal permissible source region. Since the measured data are noisy, the BLT reconstruction is formulated as l{sub 2} data fidelity and a general regularization term. When choosing the regularization parameters for BLT, an efficient model function approach is proposed, which does not require knowledge of the noise level. This approach only requests the computation of the residual and regularized solution norm. With this knowledge, we construct the model function to approximate the objective function, and the regularization parameter is updated iteratively. Results: First, the micro-CT based mouse phantom was used for simulation verification. Simulation experiments were used to illustrate why multispectral data were used

  8. Leaf Area Adjustment As an Optimal Drought-Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Beyer, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Vico, G.; Weih, M.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf phenology plays a major role in land-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges. Much work has focused on phenological responses to light and temperature, but less to leaf area changes during dry periods. Because the duration of droughts is expected to increase under future climates in seasonally-dry as well as mesic environments, it is crucial to (i) predict drought-related phenological changes and (ii) to develop physiologically-sound models of leaf area dynamics during dry periods. Several optimization criteria have been proposed to model leaf area adjustment as soil moisture decreases. Some theories are based on the plant carbon (C) balance, hypothesizing that leaf area will decline when instantaneous net photosynthetic rates become negative (equivalent to maximization of cumulative C gain). Other theories draw on hydraulic principles, suggesting that leaf area should adjust to either maintain a constant leaf water potential (isohydric behavior) or to avoid leaf water potentials with negative impacts on photosynthesis (i.e., minimization of water stress). Evergreen leaf phenology is considered as a control case. Merging these theories into a unified framework, we quantify the effect of phenological strategy and climate forcing on the net C gain over the entire growing season. By accounting for the C costs of leaf flushing and the gains stemming from leaf photosynthesis, this metric assesses the effectiveness of different phenological strategies, under different climatic scenarios. Evergreen species are favored only when the dry period is relatively short, as they can exploit most of the growing season, and only incur leaf maintenance costs during the short dry period. In contrast, deciduous species that lower maintenance costs by losing leaves are advantaged under drier climates. Moreover, among drought-deciduous species, isohydric behavior leads to lowest C gains. Losing leaves gradually so as to maintain a net C uptake equal to zero during the driest period in

  9. The Strategies of Inter-Ethnic Adaptation of Estonian Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Berry

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the inter-cultural relations model of John Berry, four different groups among Russian-speakers in Estonia were differentiated in the analysis of ‘Integration monitoring 2005’. The analysis reveals that both similarities and differences exist between the characteristics of these four groups and the groups in the typology of Berry (integration, assimilation, marginalisation, separation. The differences that emerged are related to the assimilation and integration strategies, which proved to be rather restrained for Russian-speakers in the current social and political context in Estonia. The analysis gives us ground to claim that the strong ethnic connotation of the current nation-state model in Estonia hinders finding a positive place in this country even for those Russian-speakers, who, in fact, would like to integrate.

  10. Influence of smallholder farmers’ perceptions on adaptation strategies to climate change and policy implications in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Obert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder agricultural production is largely affected by climate change and variability. Despite the negative effects brought by climate variability, smallholder farmers are still able to derive livelihoods. An understanding of factors that influence farmers’ responses and adaptation to climate variability can improve decision making for governments and development partners. This study investigated farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change and how these influence adaptation policies at local level. A survey was conducted with 100 households randomly selected from Chiredzi district. Data collected was used to derive farmer perceptions to climate change as well as the influence of their perceptions and subsequent adaptation methods to ensuing local agricultural adaptation measures and policies. The results indicated that smallholder farmers perceived general reduction in long-term annual rainfall and rising local average temperatures. Adverse trends in rainfall and average temperature perceived by farmers were consistent with empirical data. These perceptions and other socio-economic factors helped to shape smallholder farmer agricultural adaptation strategies. Policy implications are that the government and development partners should seek ways to assist autonomous adaptations by farmers through investments in planned adaptation initiatives.

  11. A Structure-Adaptive Hybrid RBF-BP Classifier with an Optimized Learning Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a structure-adaptive hybrid RBF-BP (SAHRBF-BP) classifier with an optimized learning strategy. SAHRBF-BP is composed of a structure-adaptive RBF network and a BP network of cascade, where the number of RBF hidden nodes is adjusted adaptively according to the distribution of sample space, the adaptive RBF network is used for nonlinear kernel mapping and the BP network is used for nonlinear classification. The optimized learning strategy is as follows: firstly, a potential function is introduced into training sample space to adaptively determine the number of initial RBF hidden nodes and node parameters, and a form of heterogeneous samples repulsive force is designed to further optimize each generated RBF hidden node parameters, the optimized structure-adaptive RBF network is used for adaptively nonlinear mapping the sample space; then, according to the number of adaptively generated RBF hidden nodes, the number of subsequent BP input nodes can be determined, and the overall SAHRBF-BP classifier is built up; finally, different training sample sets are used to train the BP network parameters in SAHRBF-BP. Compared with other algorithms applied to different data sets, experiments show the superiority of SAHRBF-BP. Especially on most low dimensional and large number of data sets, the classification performance of SAHRBF-BP outperforms other training SLFNs algorithms.

  12. Climate change effects and adaptation strategies in the wine sector: a quantitative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Sacchelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative literature review focusing on how scientific research analysed climate change impact on wine chain as well as potential adaptation strategies. The work is based on content analysis and text mining and takes into account researches from 1990 to 2015. A particular emphasis was given to the evaluation of suggested or implemented adaptation strategies at both global and national levels. Data were analysed using cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling and specificity evaluation. Results show that the study of climate change impacts on the wine sector is a recently emerging research topic. Adaptation strategies have not yet been explored thoroughly in the literature, and in-depth uncertainty quantification is also needed. Finally, additional research gaps and potential future issues are suggested.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapts its iron uptake strategies in function of the type of infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eCornelis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative -Proteobacterium which is known for its capacity to colonize various niches, including some invertebrate and vertebrate hosts, making it one of the most frequent bacteria causing opportunistic infections. P. aeruginosa is able to cause acute as well as chronic infections and it uses different colonization and virulence factors to do so. Infections range from septicemia, urinary infections, burn wound colonization, and chronic colonization of the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Like the vast majority of organisms, P. aeruginosa needs iron to sustain growth. P. aeruginosa utilizes different strategies to take up iron, depending on the type of infection it causes. Two siderophores are produced by this bacterium, pyoverdine and pyochelin, characterized by high and low affinities for iron respectively. P. aeruginosa is also able to utilize different siderophores from other microorganisms (siderophore piracy. It can also take up heme from hemoproteins via two different systems. Under microaerobic or anaerobic conditions, P. aeruginosa is also able to take up ferrous iron via its Feo system using redox-cycling phenazines. Depending on the type of infection, P. aeruginosa can therefore adapt by switching from one iron uptake system to another as we will describe in this short review.

  14. Developmental prosopagnosia and adaptative compensatory strategies: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anair Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Prosopagnosia is a type of visual agnosia with inability to identify faces, usually secondary to brain lesion in associative cortex areas, but there is also a congenital form known as developmental prosopagnosia. Objectives: To describe a case of developmental prosopagnosia that illustrates the specificity of the pathways for perception of faces in the visual system. Also, we will describe possible mechanisms of recognition used by this patient. Methods: R.S., a 50 year-old woman, was referred for neuropsychological assessment due to difficulties in perception of familiar faces since childhood, unexplained by any loss of visual acuity. Results: The exam showed good performance for comprehension, reasoning, concept formation, constructional abilities, criticism, judgment, mental control, memory and visual perception for other kinds of stimuli. No difficulties were seen regarding identification of ethnicity, age and types of animals. The patient was able to match celebrities' faces in different positions, but could not identify the matching pictures for unknown people. Conclusions: These findings indicate the patient had developed strategies, throughout life, to recognize familiar faces (relatives, celebrities from memorized fragments, but still had difficulties in identifying non-familiar faces holistically.

  15. Does Stress-Related Growth Really Matter for Adolescents' Day-to-Day Adaptive Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Cade D.; Diamond, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent stress-related growth refers to enhancement in an adolescent's cognitive-affective or social resources as a result of experiencing stressors. We tested whether adolescents reporting high levels of stress-related growth showed superior adaptation outcomes on a day-to-day basis. Participants (n = 91; females = 46, age = 14) completed a…

  16. Growth and adaptation of microorganisms on the cheese surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Christophe; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Swennen, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities living on cheese surfaces are composed of various bacteria, yeasts and molds that interact together, thus generating the typical sensory properties of a cheese. Physiological and genomic investigations have revealed important functions involved in the ability of microorganisms to establish themselves at the cheese surface. These functions include the ability to use the cheese's main energy sources, to acquire iron, to tolerate low pH at the beginning of ripening and to adapt to high salt concentrations and moisture levels. Horizontal gene transfer events involved in the adaptation to the cheese habitat have been described, both for bacteria and fungi. In the future, in situ microbial gene expression profiling and identification of genes that contribute to strain fitness by massive sequencing of transposon libraries will help us to better understand how cheese surface communities function. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Adapting to climate change in forest based land use systems: A guide to strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrett, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect of climate change and sea level rise as a result of greenhouse gas emissions presents a serious challenge to decision-makers concerned with ensuring sustainable development. This report provides a guide to means of reducing the potential impact of the global warming problem on the forest sector whilst ensuring that more immediate development priorities are met. The most effective response strategy will be one that simultaneously brings both immediate development and longer-term adaptive benefits. This report outlines ways of constructing an adaptive response strategy that can help achieve these ends. The approach is referred to as sustainable adaptation. A prototype methodological framework of the sustainable adaptation approach has been provided with the summary. The first priority of sustainable adaption is to base climate change responses on actions that meet basic ecological and social needs now and in the future. Solutions should necessarily include relieving current development pressures in the tropical forest sector. The key is to couple adaptive responses to climate change with sustainable development solutions to present-day forest use problems. Implementing adaptive land-use policies and management practices which are likely to minimise the adverse impacts of anticipated climate change should meet current sustainable management goals. Implementing sustainable land-use and forestry management practices should meet adaptation goals. This report presents a discussion of the fundamental issues underlying the development of a sustainable adaptation strategy and a prototype methodological framework. The findings are based on case studies conducted in Central America (Costa Rica and Nicaragua); SADCC countries in Africa (Zimbabwe, Botswana, Tanzania); and Asia (Vietnam). 450 refs

  18. Heat shock proteins and hypometabolism: adaptive strategy for proteome preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey KB

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth B Storey, Janet M StoreyDepartments of Biology and Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, CanadaAbstract: To survive under harsh environmental conditions many organisms retreat into hypometabolic states where metabolic rate may be reduced by 80% or more and energy use is reprioritized to emphasize key functions that sustain viability and provide cytoprotection. ATP-expensive activities, such as gene expression, protein turnover (synthesis and degradation, and the cell cycle, are largely shut down. As a consequence, mechanisms that stabilize the existing cellular proteome can become critical for long-term survival. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are well-known for their actions as chaperones that act to fold new proteins or refold proteins that are damaged. Indeed, they are part of the “minimal stress proteome” that appears to be a ubiquitous response by all cells as they attempt, successfully or unsuccessfully, to deal with stress. The present review summarizes evidence that HSPs are also a conserved feature of natural animal hypometabolism including the phenomena of estivation, hibernation, diapause, cold-hardiness, anaerobiosis, and anhydrobiosis. That is, organisms that retreat into dormant or torpid states in anticipation that environmental conditions may become too difficult for normal life also integrate the use of HSPs to protect their proteome while hypometabolic. Multiple studies show a common upregulation of expression of hsp genes and/or HSP proteins prior to or during hypometabolism in organisms as diverse as ground squirrels, turtles, land snails, insects, and brine shrimp and in situations of both preprogrammed dormancies (eg, seasonal or life stage specific and opportunistic hypometabolism (eg, triggered by desiccation or lack of oxygen. Hence, HSPs are not just a “shock” response that attempts to rescue cells from damaging stress but are a key protective strategy that is an integral component of natural states of

  19. Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2012-02-01

    Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Crop management in greenhouses: adapting the growth conditions to the plant needs or adapting the plant to the growth conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Pascale, De S.

    2009-01-01

    Strategies for improving greenhouse crop production should target both developing advanced technological systems and designing improved plants. Based on greenhouse experiments, crop models and biotechnological tools, this paper will discuss the physiology of plant-greenhouse interactions. It is

  1. Stakeholder perspectives on land-use strategies for adapting to climate-change-enhanced coastal hazards: Sarasota, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable land-use planning requires decision makers to balance community growth with resilience to natural hazards. This balance is especially difficult in many coastal communities where planners must grapple with significant growth projections, the persistent threat of extreme events (e.g., hurricanes), and climate-change-driven sea level rise that not only presents a chronic hazard but also alters the spatial extent of sudden-onset hazards such as hurricanes. We examine these stressors on coastal, long-term land-use planning by reporting the results of a one-day community workshop held in Sarasota County, Florida that included focus groups and participatory mapping exercises. Workshop participants reflected various political agendas and socioeconomic interests of five local knowledge domains: business, environment, emergency management and infrastructure, government, and planning. Through a series of alternating domain-specific focus groups and interactive plenary sessions, participants compared the county 2050 comprehensive land-use plan to maps of contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazard zones and projected storm-surge hazard zones enlarged by sea level rise scenarios. This interactive, collaborative approach provided each group of domain experts the opportunity to combine geographically-specific, scientific knowledge on natural hazards and climate change with local viewpoints and concerns. Despite different agendas, interests, and proposed adaptation strategies, there was common agreement among participants for the need to increase community resilience to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to explore adaptation strategies to combat the projected, enlarged storm-surge hazard zones.

  2. Restoring of Glucose Metabolism of Engineered Yarrowia lipolytica for Succinic Acid Production via a Simple and Efficient Adaptive Evolution Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Huaimin; Li, Chong; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2017-05-24

    Succinate dehydrogenase inactivation in Yarrowia lipolytica has been demonstrated for robust succinic acid production, whereas the inefficient glucose metabolism has hindered its practical application. In this study, a simple and efficient adaptive evolution strategy via cell immobilization was conducted in shake flasks, with an aim to restore the glucose metabolism of Y. lipolytica mutant PGC01003. After 21 days with 14 generations evolution, glucose consumption rate increased to 0.30 g/L/h in YPD medium consisting of 150 g/L initial glucose concentration, while poor yeast growth was observed in the same medium using the initial strain without adaptive evolution. Succinic acid productivity of the evolved strain also increased by 2.3-fold, with stable cell growth in YPD medium with high initial glucose concentration. Batch fermentations resulted in final succinic acid concentrations of 65.7 g/L and 87.9 g/L succinic acid using YPD medium and food waste hydrolysate, respectively. The experimental results in this study show that a simple and efficient strategy could facilitate the glucose uptake rate in succinic acid fermentation using glucose-rich substrates.

  3. Effective Teaching Strategies for Predicting Reading Growth in English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Melina

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine how effective use of teaching strategies predict reading growth among a sample of English Language Learners. The study specifically examined whether the types of teaching strategies that predict growth in decoding skills also predict growth in comprehension skills. The sample consisted of students in…

  4. Coping strategies and resources as predictors of psychosocial adaptation among people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Martz, Erin

    2014-08-01

    The onset of a spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by a massive amount of stress, on which professionals in the medical field focus attention and care. The subsequent cascade of psychological stressors related to SCI often receives lesser attention. When individuals experience new forms of stress, they typically respond with attempts to cope, which may or may not be adaptive in reducing their stress levels. The twofold purpose of this study was to investigate whether SCI survivors' use of coping resources (i.e., hope, sense of coherence) and coping strategies (e.g., engagement coping, seeking social support) influences their psychosocial adaptation, and whether their use of coping strategies moderates the effect of coping resources, after controlling for the influence of depression and anxiety, on psychosocial adaptation. This cross-sectional study involved a self-report survey of survivors of SCI. Inclusion criteria included: (a) being 18 years of age or older, (b) having received inpatient rehabilitation services following the SCI, and (c) not having traumatic head injury at the time of the SCI onset. The sample consisted of 95 individuals with SCI who received outpatient rehabilitation services at a center in the midsouthern United States. Results indicated that coping resources and coping strategies were significantly associated with psychosocial adaptation. Furthermore, engagement coping explained a significant portion of the variance in psychosocial adaptation both individually and as an interactive variable with the 2 coping resources of sense of coherence and hope. Findings indicate that both coping resources and strategies (especially engagement coping) are reliably linked to adaptation to SCI. The findings further suggest that engagement coping positively influences psychosocial adaptation even when coping resources are mostly absent. Other implications for the field of rehabilitation are briefly outlined.

  5. Clonal growth strategy, diversity and structure: A spatiotemporal response to sedimentation in tropical Cyperus papyrus swamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Addisie; Stiers, Iris; Sierens, Tim; Kefalew, Alemayehu; Triest, Ludwig

    2018-01-01

    Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets) and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus), in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 636 ramets from six permanent plots (18 x 30 m) in three Ethiopian papyrus swamps, each with discrete sedimentation regimes (high vs. low) were sampled for two years. We found that ramets under the high sedimentation regime (HSR) were significantly clumped and denser than the sparse and spreading ramets under the low sedimentation regime (LSR). The HSR resulted in significantly different ramets with short culm height and girth diameter as compared to the LSR. These results indicated that C. papyrus ameliorates the effect of sedimentation by shifting clonal growth strategy from guerrilla (in LSR) to phalanx (in HSR). Clonal richness, size, dominance, and clonal subrange differed significantly between sediment regimes and studied time periods. Each swamp under HSR revealed a significantly high clonal richness (R = 0.80) as compared to the LSR (R = 0.48). Such discrepancy in clonal richness reflected the occurrence of initial and repeated seedling recruitment strategies as a response to different sedimentation regimes. Overall, our spatial and short-term temporal observations highlighted that HSR enhances clonal richness and decreases clonal subrange owing to repeated seedling recruitment and genets turnover.

  6. Clonal growth strategy, diversity and structure: A spatiotemporal response to sedimentation in tropical Cyperus papyrus swamps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addisie Geremew

    Full Text Available Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus, in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 636 ramets from six permanent plots (18 x 30 m in three Ethiopian papyrus swamps, each with discrete sedimentation regimes (high vs. low were sampled for two years. We found that ramets under the high sedimentation regime (HSR were significantly clumped and denser than the sparse and spreading ramets under the low sedimentation regime (LSR. The HSR resulted in significantly different ramets with short culm height and girth diameter as compared to the LSR. These results indicated that C. papyrus ameliorates the effect of sedimentation by shifting clonal growth strategy from guerrilla (in LSR to phalanx (in HSR. Clonal richness, size, dominance, and clonal subrange differed significantly between sediment regimes and studied time periods. Each swamp under HSR revealed a significantly high clonal richness (R = 0.80 as compared to the LSR (R = 0.48. Such discrepancy in clonal richness reflected the occurrence of initial and repeated seedling recruitment strategies as a response to different sedimentation regimes. Overall, our spatial and short-term temporal observations highlighted that HSR enhances clonal richness and decreases clonal subrange owing to repeated seedling recruitment and genets turnover.

  7. Sequential causal inference: application to randomized trials of adaptive treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ree; Lavori, Philip W

    2008-05-10

    Clinical trials that randomize subjects to decision algorithms, which adapt treatments over time according to individual response, have gained considerable interest as investigators seek designs that directly inform clinical decision making. We consider designs in which subjects are randomized sequentially at decision points, among adaptive treatment options under evaluation. We present a sequential method to estimate the comparative effects of the randomized adaptive treatments, which are formalized as adaptive treatment strategies. Our causal estimators are derived using Bayesian predictive inference. We use analytical and empirical calculations to compare the predictive estimators to (i) the 'standard' approach that allocates the sequentially obtained data to separate strategy-specific groups as would arise from randomizing subjects at baseline; (ii) the semi-parametric approach of marginal mean models that, under appropriate experimental conditions, provides the same sequential estimator of causal differences as the proposed approach. Simulation studies demonstrate that sequential causal inference offers substantial efficiency gains over the standard approach to comparing treatments, because the predictive estimators can take advantage of the monotone structure of shared data among adaptive strategies. We further demonstrate that the semi-parametric asymptotic variances, which are marginal 'one-step' estimators, may exhibit significant bias, in contrast to the predictive variances. We show that the conditions under which the sequential method is attractive relative to the other two approaches are those most likely to occur in real studies.

  8. Community responses and adaption strategies toward flood hazard in Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marfai, M.A.; Sekaranom, A.B.; Ward, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Jakarta, as the capital of the Republic of Indonesia, has long been known to be at risk from flood hazard. It is increasingly recognized that community responses and adaptation strategies are essential for planning future mitigation action. In order to investigate the community responses and

  9. Assessing climate change impacts and adaptation strategies for smallholder agricultural systems in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Bashaasha, B.; Claessens, L.F.G.; Antle, J.

    2012-01-01

    The debate on whether climate change will impact on peoples’ livelihoods and, hence, the need to act is essentially over and has instead shifted to the development of strategies needed by different regions and countries to adapt to climate change effects. However, there is still scanty information

  10. An interdisciplinary approach to identify adaptation strategies that enhance flood resilience and urban liveability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, B. C.; Bertram, N.; Gunn, Alex

    This paper provides guidance on how to identify and design the most suitable climate adaptation strategies for enhancing the liveability and flood resilience of urban catchments. It presents findings from a case study of Elwood, a coastal Melbourne suburb regularly affected by flooding. The resea...

  11. Perception, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies of Irrigated Paddy Farmer Community to Face Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Rasiska Suantapura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has a real impact on the condition of agriculture in developing countries, including Indonesia. Irrigated paddy farmers are the ones really feeling the impact of climate change. Therefore, we need to understand the perceptions, mitigation and adaptation strategies of irrigated paddy farmer community to face climate change. The study is conducted in Indramayu and Tasikmalaya Regency in West Java by using descriptive survey method, regression analysis and path analysis through Structural Equation Modelling approach with Lisrel TM 8.5. The results showes that: (1 changes to climate variability affects the productivity of rice; (2 perception of irrigated paddy farmer community on climate change and its affects are influenced by internal and external factors; and (3 adaptation strategy are influenced by internal and external factors, whereas no mitigation strategy. Therefore, mitigation and adaptation strategies with site specific location are very necessary improving climate information services, increasing empowerment of farmers through field schools, and providing the provision of facilities that are practical and adaptive to climate.

  12. Adaptive Voltage Control Strategy for Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Connected to a Weak Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    continuous operation. This study investigates and analyses the repercussions raised by integrating a doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine into an ac network of different parameters and very weak conditions. An adaptive voltage control (AVC) strategy is proposed to retain voltage constancy...

  13. Technologies and Second Language: Nigerian Students' Adaptive Strategies to Cope with Language Barrier in Northern Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elega, Adeola Abdulateef; Özad, Bahire Efe

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate how Nigerian students in Northern Cyprus cope with language barrier and increase interactions with people of the host community beyond the classroom via utilizing technological adaptive strategies. In order to complete this study, a descriptive design based on a survey conducted among 238 Nigerian students studying…

  14. International EFL/ESL Master Students' Adaptation Strategies for Academic Writing Practices at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2017-01-01

    The present research provides insights into the different forms of adaptation strategies employed by international graduate students to overcome the challenges faced in the academic writing practices and gain access to their disciplinary communities of practice at Master's level. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured in-depth…

  15. Identity Formation as a Contemporary Adaptation Strategy: Chinese Immigrants in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczko, Agata

    2011-01-01

    This article uses the theory of bright vs. blurred boundaries of Alba (2005) and the adaptation strategies of Berry (2005) to explore the national context of the process of identity formation. Issues of citizenship, language, religion, and race are discussed within the national context of Italy. The study is based on field research among the…

  16. 78 FR 19514 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ...-Progress-Report.pdf ). In the fall of 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and CEQ invited NOAA and... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  17. Attachment styles and majority members' attitudes towards adaptation strategies of immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, J; van Oudenhoven, JP; Buunk, BP; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    The present study examined the relationship between attachment styles and majority members' attitudes towards adaptation strategies of immigrants. A second purpose was to determine the construct validity and the stability of the Attachment Styles Questionnaire. A group of 177 first-year psychology

  18. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  19. ARQ strategies for MIMO eigenmode transmission with adaptive modulation and coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    Packet retransmission strategies are presented for MIMO eigenmode transmission where adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) is implemented. The retransmission design is based on weighted linear MMSE. It includes the transmit and receiver filter, the power and eigenmode allocation and AMC level when...

  20. ADAPTIVE CAPACITIES OF FARMERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON RICE PRODUCTION IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Nantui Mabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the adaptive capacities of farmers to climate change adaptation strategies and their effects on rice production in the Northern Region of Ghana. The adaptive capacities of rice farmers were estimated quantitatively and categorized into high, moderate and low adaptive capacities. Double logarithmic regression model of Cobb-Douglas production function was used to quantity the effects of adaptive capacities of farmers on rice production. On the average, the farmers interviewed are moderately adaptive to climate change. Also, high adaptive farmers obtain nine more bags of 50 kg bag of paddy rice than farmers with low adaptive capacities. Therefore, the more a farmer has the ability to adjust to climate change, the more the number of bags of rice he or she obtains. Rice farmers should be empowered through better extension services in order to attain high adaptive capacity status so as to help them obtain more rice output.

  1. APPLICATION OF RESTART COVARIANCE MATRIX ADAPTATION EVOLUTION STRATEGY (RCMA-ES TO GENERATION EXPANSION PLANNING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karthikeyan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of an evolutionary algorithm, Restart Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (RCMA-ES to the Generation Expansion Planning (GEP problem. RCMA-ES is a class of continuous Evolutionary Algorithm (EA derived from the concept of self-adaptation in evolution strategies, which adapts the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal search distribution. The original GEP problem is modified by incorporating Virtual Mapping Procedure (VMP. The GEP problem of a synthetic test systems for 6-year, 14-year and 24-year planning horizons having five types of candidate units is considered. Two different constraint-handling methods are incorporated and impact of each method has been compared. In addition, comparison and validation has also made with dynamic programming method.

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantin, Audrey; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis, E-mail: louis.archambault@phy.ulaval.ca [Département de Physique, de génie Physique et d’optique et Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Lachance, Bernard; Foster, William [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Goudreault, Julie [Département de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec—Université Laval, 11 côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie, CSSS de Gatineau–Hôpital de Gatineau, 909 Boulevard La Vérendrye, Gatineau, Québec J8P 7H2 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D{sub 95%} is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D{sub 95%} remains constant across the

  3. FRANCHISING AS A GROWTH STRATEGY. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways in which businesses can growth. Aim of this article is to make the business owner aware of the scope of the franchise and business opportunity law and how they may affect growth strategy tried to be employed by the business owner. For this purpose we present a list of advantages and disadvantages of franchising for the franchisee and for the franchisor and examined the status and trends of the Romanian market franchise, especially in clothing, which are available for prospective franchisees in Romania. We find out that although it is increasing its level of development is much lower than in EU, (according to Romanian Franchise Association in Romania are slightly over 400 franchises, with various business fields, while in the Europe there are about 10,000 franchise networks. Reasons for slower development of the textile franchise business in Romania can be found in the effects of economic crisis on the Romanian economy, which shifted the structure the consumer spending of the people of Romania, expenditures for clothing and footwear have decreased and have reached at 5.3% of total household expenditure. In these conditions, the clothing franchises who had suffered most in Romania were those whose offer to address at high-income consumers (Escada, Esprit, Etam and medium (Debenhams, Gap. Less affected were franchises for which targets are low-income consumers and who besides the low price of products offers a wide range of products and models with a very short life cycle (fast fashion. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the analysis financial indicators of the different companies and by Internet

  4. GROWTH STRATEGIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES STUDY CASE: PRECIOUS METALS JEWELRY RETAIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent start of the new century has brought new challenges for firms, industries and countries. This paper investigates business and growth strategies of multinational companies within the precious metals jewelry retail industry. The main objective is to identify whether a company’s performance is determined by its growth strategy or not. The purposes for the research are: to understand what kind of business models and strategies global precious metals jewelry retailers pursue, what growth strategies global jewelry retailers pursue and if there is a link between a company’s growth strategy and its profitability. Least but not last, the findings are reviewed on their transferability to other industries. The findings regarding the business models and growth strategies pursued are that all of them are based on Porter’s generic strategies as well as internationalization and diversification but there is no specific preference given to any of the strategic elements.

  5. The importance of training strategy adaptation: a learner-oriented approach for improving older adults' memory and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiroli, Sara; Cavallini, Elena; Dunlosky, John; Vecchi, Tomaso; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the benefits of strategy-adaptation training for promoting transfer effects. This learner-oriented approach--which directly encourages the learner to generalize strategic behavior to new tasks--helps older adults appraise new tasks and adapt trained strategies to them. In Experiment 1, older adults in a strategy-adaptation training group used 2 strategies (imagery and sentence generation) while practicing 2 tasks (list and associative learning); they were then instructed on how to do a simple task analysis to help them adapt the trained strategies for 2 different unpracticed tasks (place learning and text learning) that were discussed during training. Two additional criterion tasks (name-face associative learning and grocery-list learning) were never mentioned during training. Two other groups were included: A strategy training group (who received strategy training and transfer instructions but not strategy-adaptation training) and a waiting-list control group. Both training procedures enhanced older adults' performance on the trained tasks and those tasks that were discussed during training, but transfer was greatest after strategy-adaptation training. Experiment 2 found that strategy-adaptation training conducted via a manual that older adults used at home also promoted transfer. These findings demonstrate the importance of adopting a learner-oriented approach to promote transfer of strategy training. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive strategies in populations of Chirocephalus diaphanus (Crustacea, Anostraca from temporary waters in the Reatine Apennines (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secondina DI GIUSEPPE

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the adaptive strategies of Chirocephalus diaphanus (Crustacea, Anostraca and the environmental characteristics of its habitat, we studied two populations living in high-altitude biotopes with very different characteristics, i.e. a semipermanent pool (Tilia Lake and a temporary one (Illica Plain Pool, and we examined the essential features of their biological cycles (growth rate, reproductive biology, sex ratio and life cycle. The results show that the two populations adjust to the biotopes in which they live, fully exploiting the brief period available for development, in agreement with hypotheses formulated in studies of other colonizers of temporary environments. The strategy adopted by the Chirocephalus diaphanus population of Tilia Lake, a predictable and relatively constant environment, is similar to the k type, characterized by slow growth, late reproduction and a long life cycle. In contrast, the Illica Plain population presents rapid growth, precocious reproduction and a short life cycle, since it is highly dependent on the precariousness and unpredictability of the pool in which it lives.

  7. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin

    2013-01-01

    are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level......We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts...

  8. An Overview of Mitigation and Adaptation Needs and Strategies for the Livestock Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan W. Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector is vulnerable to climate change and related policy in two ways. First, livestock production and performance are directly impacted by climate with many projected effects being negative. Second, the sector may need to alter operations to limit the effects of climate change through adaptation and mitigation. Potential adaptation strategies involve land use decisions, animal feeding changes, genetic manipulation and alterations in species and/or breeds. In terms of mitigation, livestock is a substantial contributor to global non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Mitigation opportunities involve altered land use for grazing and feed production, feeding practices, manure treatment and herd size reduction. In addition, strengthening institutions that promote markets and trade, as well as local support programs can help both mitigation and adaptation. Previous literature has summarized the options available to individual producers. This overview extends the literature by including sector-level response as well as the relationships between adaptation and mitigation activities.

  9. Toolbox for uncertainty; Introduction of adaptive heuristics as strategies for project decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stingl, Verena; Geraldi, Joana

    2017-01-01

    This article presents adaptive heuristics as an alternative approach to navigate uncertainty in project decision-making. Adaptive heuristic are a class of simple decision strategies that have received only scant attention in project studies. Yet, they can strive in contexts of high uncertainty...... and limited information, which are the typical project decision context. This article develops a conceptual model that supports a systematic connection between adaptive heuristics and project decisions. Individual adaptive heuristics succeed only in specific decision environments, in which...... they are ‘ecologically rational’. The model builds on the individual definitions of ecological rationality and organizes them according to two types of uncertainty (‘knowable’ and ‘unknowable’). Decision problems and heuristics are furthermore grouped by decision task (choice and judgement). The article discusses...

  10. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts...... are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level...

  11. Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line S.; Gonzalez, Sofía F.; Toft, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis...... (death feigning). Thanatosis in a sexual context is exceptional and was suggested to function as an antipredation strategy toward potentially cannibalistic females. If thanatosis serves as a protection strategy, males should death feign in response to female aggression or when they are more vulnerable...... vulnerability increased the propensity of males to perform thanatosis. Instead, death-feigning males were more successful in obtaining copulations and gained longer copulations. Hence, our results suggest that thanatosis functions as an adaptive male mating strategy to overcome female resistance. All males were...

  12. Growth and posture control strategies in Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings in response to canopy disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Catherine; Fournier, Mériem; Ningre, François; Hounzandji, Ablo Paul-Igor; Constant, Thiéry

    2011-06-01

    Forest tree saplings that grow in the understorey undergo frequent changes in their light environment to which they must adapt to ensure their survival and growth. Crown architecture, which plays a critical role in light capture and mechanical stability, is a major component of sapling adaptation to canopy disturbance. Shade-adapted saplings typically have plagiotropic stems and branches. After canopy opening, they need to develop more erect shoots in order to exploit the new light conditions. The objective of this study was to test whether changes in sapling stem inclination occur after canopy opening, and to analyse the morphological changes associated with stem reorientation. A 4-year canopy-opening field experiment with naturally regenerated Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings was conducted. The appearance of new stem axes, stem basal diameter and inclination along the stem were recorded every year after canopy opening. Both species showed considerable stem reorientation resulting primarily from uprighting (more erect) shoot movements in Fagus, and from uprighting movements, shoot elongation and formation of relay shoots in Acer. In both species, the magnitude of shoot uprighting movements was primarily related to initial stem inclination. Both the basal part and the apical part of the stem contributed to uprighting movements. Stem movements did not appear to be limited by stem size or by stem growth. Stem uprighting movements in shade-adapted Fagus and Acer saplings following canopy disturbance were considerable and rapid, suggesting that stem reorientation processes play a significant role in the growth strategy of the species.

  13. Brazilian transcultural adaptation of an instrument on communicative strategies of caregivers of elderly with dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Lais Lopes; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Komatsu, Caroline; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Cachioni, Meire

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Communication with patients with dementia may be a difficult task for caregivers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to produce a Brazilian transcultural adaptation of an instrument developed in Canada, called the Small Communication Strategies Scale, composed of 10 items constructed from 10 communicative strategies most recurrent in a literature survey. METHODS: Drawing on understanding of the construction of the Small Communication Strategies Scale (SCSS), a Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument was devised through the following steps: translation, back-translation and semantic-cultural adaptation by a specialized linguist in English-Portuguese translations and application of the comprehension test for the version produced in a group of caregivers of elderly individuals with dementia. RESULTS: The transcultural equivalence process was performed and two items of the SCSS needed adapting to the Brazilian context. After changes suggested by a specialized linguist, the final version was applied to 34 caregivers and the transcultural equivalence considered satisfactory. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the instrument was successfully transculturally adapted for future validation and application in Brazil. PMID:29213520

  14. Latest Stored Information Based Adaptive Selection Strategy for Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiale Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive operator selection (AOS and the adaptive parameter control are widely used to enhance the search power in many multiobjective evolutionary algorithms. This paper proposes a novel adaptive selection strategy with bandits for the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D, named latest stored information based adaptive selection (LSIAS. An improved upper confidence bound (UCB method is adopted in the strategy, in which the operator usage rate and abandonment of extreme fitness improvement are introduced to improve the performance of UCB. The strategy uses a sliding window to store recent valuable information about operators, such as factors, probabilities, and efficiency. Four common used DE operators are chosen with the AOS, and two kinds of assist information on operator are selected to improve the operators search power. The operator information is updated with the help of LSIAS and the resulting algorithmic combination is called MOEA/D-LSIAS. Compared to some well-known MOEA/D variants, the LSIAS demonstrates the superior robustness and fast convergence for various multiobjective optimization problems. The comparative experiments also demonstrate improved search power of operators with different assist information on different problems.

  15. Brazilian transcultural adaptation of an instrument on communicative strategies of caregivers of elderly with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Lopes Delfino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Communication with patients with dementia may be a difficult task for caregivers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to produce a Brazilian transcultural adaptation of an instrument developed in Canada, called the Small Communication Strategies Scale, composed of 10 items constructed from 10 communicative strategies most recurrent in a literature survey. METHODS: Drawing on understanding of the construction of the Small Communication Strategies Scale (SCSS, a Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument was devised through the following steps: translation, back-translation and semantic-cultural adaptation by a specialized linguist in English-Portuguese translations and application of the comprehension test for the version produced in a group of caregivers of elderly individuals with dementia. RESULTS: The transcultural equivalence process was performed and two items of the SCSS needed adapting to the Brazilian context. After changes suggested by a specialized linguist, the final version was applied to 34 caregivers and the transcultural equivalence considered satisfactory. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the instrument was successfully transculturally adapted for future validation and application in Brazil.

  16. Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Willroth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami of December 2004 impacted large areas of Thailand's coastline and caused severe human and economic losses. The recovery period revealed differences in the vulnerabilities of communities affected. An understanding of the causal factors of vulnerability is crucial for minimising the negative effects of future threats and developing adaptive capacities. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities and the development of adaptation strategies in the booming tourist area of Khao Lak and in the predominantly fishing and agricultural area of Ban Nam Khem through a comprehensive vulnerability framework. The results show that social networks played a crucial role in coping with the disaster. Social cohesion is important for strengthening the community and developing successful adaptation strategies. The development of tourism and the turning away from traditional activities have a significant positive influence on the income situation, but create a dependency on a single business sector. It could be shown that households generating their income in the tourism sector were vulnerable unless they had diversified their income previously. Income diversification decreased the vulnerability in the study areas. Adaptation strategies and processes developed in the aftermath clearly address these issues.

  17. Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willroth, P.; Massmann, F.; Wehrhahn, R.; Revilla Diez, J.

    2012-08-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 impacted large areas of Thailand's coastline and caused severe human and economic losses. The recovery period revealed differences in the vulnerabilities of communities affected. An understanding of the causal factors of vulnerability is crucial for minimising the negative effects of future threats and developing adaptive capacities. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities and the development of adaptation strategies in the booming tourist area of Khao Lak and in the predominantly fishing and agricultural area of Ban Nam Khem through a comprehensive vulnerability framework. The results show that social networks played a crucial role in coping with the disaster. Social cohesion is important for strengthening the community and developing successful adaptation strategies. The development of tourism and the turning away from traditional activities have a significant positive influence on the income situation, but create a dependency on a single business sector. It could be shown that households generating their income in the tourism sector were vulnerable unless they had diversified their income previously. Income diversification decreased the vulnerability in the study areas. Adaptation strategies and processes developed in the aftermath clearly address these issues.

  18. Cautious but committed: moving toward adaptive planning and operation strategies for renewable energy's wildlife implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppel, Johann; Dahmen, Marie; Helfrich, Jennifer; Schuster, Eva; Bulling, Lea

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife planning for renewable energy must cope with the uncertainties of potential wildlife impacts. Unfortunately, the environmental policies which instigate renewable energy and those which protect wildlife are not coherently aligned-creating a green versus green dilemma. Thus, climate mitigation efforts trigger renewable energy development, but then face substantial barriers from biodiversity protection instruments and practices. This article briefly reviews wind energy and wildlife interactions, highlighting the lively debated effects on bats. Today, planning and siting of renewable energy are guided by the precautionary principle in an attempt to carefully address wildlife challenges. However, this planning attitude creates limitations as it struggles to negotiate the aforementioned green versus green dilemma. More adaptive planning and management strategies and practices hold the potential to reconcile these discrepancies to some degree. This adaptive approach is discussed using facets of case studies from policy, planning, siting, and operational stages of wind energy in Germany and the United States, with one case showing adaptive planning in action for solar energy as well. This article attempts to highlight the benefits of more adaptive approaches as well as the possible shortcomings, such as reduced planning security for renewable energy developers. In conclusion, these studies show that adaptive planning and operation strategies can be designed to supplement and enhance the precautionary principle in wildlife planning for green energy.

  19. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  20. Adaptation, Growth, and Resilience in Biological Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Katifori, Eleni

    Highly optimized complex transport networks serve crucial functions in many man-made and natural systems such as power grids and plant or animal vasculature. Often, the relevant optimization functional is nonconvex and characterized by many local extrema. In general, finding the global, or nearly global optimum is difficult. In biological systems, it is believed that such an optimal state is slowly achieved through natural selection. However, general coarse grained models for flow networks with local positive feedback rules for the vessel conductivity typically get trapped in low efficiency, local minima. We show how the growth of the underlying tissue, coupled to the dynamical equations for network development, can drive the system to a dramatically improved optimal state. This general model provides a surprisingly simple explanation for the appearance of highly optimized transport networks in biology such as plant and animal vasculature. In addition, we show how the incorporation of spatially collective fluctuating sources yields a minimal model of realistic reticulation in distribution networks and thus resilience against damage.

  1. Immunoneutralization of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 reduces adaptive intestinal growth in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Bolette; Thulesen, Jesper; Hare, Kristine Juul

    2002-01-01

    in the proximal part of the small intestine (10.84+/-0.44 mm(2)). Antibody treatment had no effect on body weight, blood glucose concentrations and food intake. Thus, blocking of endogenous GLP-2 in a model of adaptive intestinal growth reduces the growth response, providing strong evidence for a physiological......Supraphysiological doses of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) have been shown to induce intestinal growth by increasing villus height and crypt depth and by decreasing apoptosis, but a physiological effect of GLP-2 has not yet been demonstrated. Earlier, we found elevated levels of endogenous GLP-2...... in untreated streptozotocin diabetic rats associated with marked intestinal growth. In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous GLP-2 for this adaptive response. We included four groups of six rats: (1) diabetic rats treated with saline, (2) diabetic rats treated with non-specific antibodies...

  2. Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H

    2015-10-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Workshop approach for developing climate change adaptation strategies and actions for natural resource management agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; David L Peterson; Michael J. Furniss; Linda A. Joyce; Constance I. Millar; Ronald P. Neilson

    2011-01-01

    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help land-management agencies take steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. Because the development of adaptation tools and strategies is at an early stage, it is important that ideas and strategies are disseminated...

  4. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  5. A comparison of three different adaptive strategies in image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Soendergaard, Jimmi; Petersen, Joergen B. (Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)), E-mail: annveste@rm.dk; Hoeyer, Morten; Muren, Ludvig Paul (Dept. of Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark))

    2010-10-15

    The urinary bladder shows considerable individual variation in shape and position during a course of radiotherapy (RT). In this study we have developed and compared three different adaptive RT (ART) strategies for bladder cancer involving daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging and plan selection. Material and methods. Ten patients treated for bladder cancer had daily CBCTs acquired that were registered online using bony anatomy registration. Seven patients received intensity modulated RT (IMRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique to the bladder and pelvic lymph nodes. Three patients received treatment to the bladder only. Retrospectively, we compared three ART strategies that were all based on daily selection of the most suitable plan from a library consisting of three IMRT-plans corresponding to a small, medium and large target volume. ART method A utilised population-based margins while methods B and C used the bladder as seen on CBCT-scans from the first week of treatment; method B without delineation of the bladder on CBCT and method C with delineation of the bladder. Total dose distributions were calculated using the planning CT. For each patient, we calculated ratios of the dose volume histograms (DVHs) for the three ART strategies relative to non-adaptive therapy. Results. The inter-patient variation was large for all three ART strategies. The mean ratios of the volumes receiving 57 Gy or more (corresponding to 95% of prescribed dose) for methods A, B and C were 0.66 (SD: 0.11), 0.67 (SD: 0.13) and 0.67 (SD: 0.16) respectively when compared to the non-adaptive plan. Conclusion. When using any of the ART strategies, it is possible to reduce significantly the volumes receiving high doses compared to the use of a standard non-adaptive plan. The differences in dose volume parameters between the three methods were small compared with the differences from the standard plan.

  6. Adaptive coping strategies in patients with chronic pain conditions and their interpretation of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büssing Arndt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined which adaptive coping strategies, referring to the concept of 'locus of disease control', were of relevance for patients with chronic pain conditions, and how they were interconnected with patients' life satisfaction and interpretation of disease. Methods In a multicenter cross-sectional anonymous survey with the AKU questionnaire, we enrolled 579 patients (mean age 54 ± 14 years with various chronic pain conditions. Results Disease as an adverse interruption of life was the prevalent interpretation of chronic pain conditions. As a consequence, patients relied on external powerful sources to control their disease (i.e., Trust in Medical Help; Search for Information and Alternative Help, but also on internal powers and virtues (i.e., Conscious Way of Living; Positive Attitudes. In contrast, Trust in Divine Help as an external transcendent source and Reappraisal: Illness as Chance as an internal (cognitive strategy were valued moderately. Regression analyses indicated that Positive Attitudes and higher age were significant predictors of patients' life satisfaction, but none of the other adaptive coping strategies. While the adaptive coping strategies were not associated with negative interpretations of disease, the cognitive reappraisal attitude was of significant relevance for positive interpretations such as value and challenge. Conclusions The experience of illness may enhance intensity and depth of life, and thus one may explain the association between internal adaptive coping strategies (particularly Reappraisal and positive interpretations of disease. To restore a sense of self-control over pain (and thus congruence with the situation, and the conviction that one is not necessarily disabled by disease, is a major task in patient care. In the context of health services research, apart from effective pain management, a comprehensive approach is needed which enhances the psycho-spiritual well-being of patients.

  7. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J

    2012-05-01

    Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal production in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat production. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal production in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate heat stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate heat stress in the context of tropical livestock production systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic heat production, those enhancing heat-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for heat tolerance. Under heat stress, improved production should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive heat load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance heat exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit heat stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and production traits to evaluate

  8. Gait in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and chickens (Gallus gallus – similarities in adaptation to high growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Duggan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for increased growth rate and muscle mass in broiler chickens has been accompanied by mobility issues and poor gait. There are concerns that the Pekin duck, which is on a similar selection trajectory (for production traits to the broiler chicken, may encounter gait problems in the future. In order to understand how gait has been altered by selection, the walking ability of divergent lines of high- and low-growth chickens and ducks was objectively measured using a pressure platform, which recorded various components of their gait. In both species, lines which had been selected for large breast muscle mass moved at a slower velocity and with a greater step width than their lighter conspecifics. These high-growth lines also spent more time supported by two feet in order to improve balance when compared with their lighter, low-growth conspecifics. We demonstrate that chicken and duck lines which have been subjected to intense selection for high growth rates and meat yields have adapted their gait in similar ways. A greater understanding of which components of gait have been altered in selected lines with impaired walking ability may lead to more effective breeding strategies to improve gait in poultry.

  9. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  10. The delivery of medical services in a retail shopping mall: a strategy for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, K R

    1989-01-01

    The successful medical practice of the future will continually search for growth strategies. This writer believes the location of a primary care medical clinic in a retail shopping mall, with a full menu of primary services, is one strategy for growth. It is an effective method of health care delivery to a community.

  11. Organizational Growth: Linking Founding Team, Strategy, Environment, and Growth among U.S. Semiconductor Ventures, 1978-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Kathleen M.; Schoonhoven, Claudia Bird

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes a study exploring organizational growth in technology-based ventures. Characteristics of the founding top-management team, strategy, and environment are matched to the sales growth of newly founded semiconductor firms. Results show that the effects of the founding team and environment grew instead of fading with time. Includes 54…

  12. Progress Monitoring with Computer Adaptive Assessments: The Impact of Data Collection Schedule on Growth Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; Klingbeil, Dave A.; Parker, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Although extensive research exists on the use of curriculum-based measures for progress monitoring, little is known about using computer adaptive tests (CATs) for progress-monitoring purposes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the frequency of data collection on individual and group growth estimates using a CAT. Data were…

  13. Identifying Students at Risk: An Examination of Computer-Adaptive Measures and Latent Class Growth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Castañeda, Juan Javier; Ochs, Sarah; Jones, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Multitiered systems of support depend on screening technology to identify students at risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a computer-adaptive test and latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify students at risk in reading with focus on the use of this methodology to characterize student performance in screening.…

  14. Growth of infants born to HIV-positive mothers fed a whey-adapted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth of infants born to HIV-positive mothers fed a whey-adapted acidified starter formula with prebiotics and nucleotides. PA Cooper, KD Bolton, M Mokhachane, SC Velaphi, RM Mphahlele, HN Bomela, L Monaheng, P Roux, E Haschke-Becher ...

  15. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens Juul

    2006-01-01

    Small bowel resection stimulates intestinal adaptive growth by a neuroendocrine process thought to involve both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation and enterotrophic hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We investigated whether capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferent neurons are es...

  16. Molecular and metabolic adaptations of Lactococcus lactis at near-zero growth rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, O.; Wels, M.; Smid, E.J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the molecular and metabolic adaptations of Lactococcus lactis during the transition from a growing to a near-zero growth state using carbon-limited retentostat cultivation. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that metabolic patterns shifted between lactic- and mixed-acid

  17. Molecular and metabolic adaptations of Lactococcus lactis at near-zero growth rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, O.; Wels, M.W.; Smid, E.J.; Kleerebezem, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the molecular and metabolic adaptations of Lactococcus lactis during the transition from a growing to a near-zero growth state by using carbon-limited retentostat cultivation. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that metabolic patterns shifted between lactic- and mixed-acid

  18. Molecular and Metabolic Adaptations of Lactococcus lactis at Near-Zero Growth Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, O.; Wels, M.; Smid, E.J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the molecular and metabolic adaptations of Lactococcus lactis during the transition from a growing to a near-zero growth state by using carbon-limited retentostat cultivation. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that metabolic patterns shifted between lactic- and mixed-acid

  19. An adaptive control strategy of converter based DG to maintain protection coordination in distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    of network protection devices. As a protection measure commonly used in distribution network, recloser-fuse coordination could suffer from this impact. Research work has been conducted to deal with this problem by modifying the control strategy of the DG converters during faults. These solutions generally...... reduce the current output from the converters during faults so as to mitigate the influence on protection coordination. However, converter current reduction may not be necessary for all types of faults. This paper proposes a converter control strategy with adaptivity to different fault types and also non...

  20. An Image Enhancement Method Using the Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with an Adaptive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement techniques are very important to image processing, which are used to improve image quality or extract the fine details in degraded images. In this paper, two novel objective functions based on the normalized incomplete Beta transform function are proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of grayscale image enhancement and color image enhancement, respectively. Using these objective functions, the parameters of transform functions are estimated by the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO. We also propose an improved QPSO with an adaptive parameter control strategy. The QPSO and the AQPSO algorithms, along with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO, are tested on several benchmark grayscale and color images. The results show that the QPSO and AQPSO perform better than GA and PSO for the enhancement of these images, and the AQPSO has some advantages over QPSO due to its adaptive parameter control strategy.

  1. A SMART data analysis method for constructing adaptive treatment strategies for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Ertefaie, Ashkan; Lu, Xi Lucy; Lynch, Kevin G; McKay, James R; Oslin, David W; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    To demonstrate how Q-learning, a novel data analysis method, can be used with data from a sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial (SMART) to construct empirically an adaptive treatment strategy (ATS) that is more tailored than the ATSs already embedded in a SMART. We use Q-learning with data from the Extending Treatment Effectiveness of Naltrexone (ExTENd) SMART (N = 250) to construct empirically an ATS employing naltrexone, behavioral intervention, and telephone disease management to reduce alcohol consumption over 24 weeks in alcohol dependent individuals. Q-learning helped to identify a subset of individuals who, despite showing early signs of response to naltrexone, require additional treatment to maintain progress. Q-learning can inform the development of more cost-effective, adaptive treatment strategies for treating substance use disorders. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Farmers´ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver...... and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context...... in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain...

  3. Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the Food Industry—Insights from Product Carbon and Water Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity that needs to be considered in business strategy. For firms in the food industry, many of the important climate impacts are not directly related to food processing so a value chain approach to adaptation is recommended. However, there is a general lack of operational tools to support this. In this study, carbon and water footprints were conducted at a low-precision screening level in three case studies in Australia: Smith’s potato chips, OneHarvest Calypso™ mango and selected Treasury Wine Estates products. The approach was cost-effective when compared to high-definition studies intended to support environmental labels and declarations, yet provided useful identification of physical, financial, regulatory and reputational hotspots related to climate change. A combination of diagnostic footprinting, downscaled climate projection and semi-quantitative value chain analysis is proposed as a practical and relevant toolkit to inform climate adaptation strategies.

  4. An adaptive feedback linearization strategy for variable speed wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciaga, F.; Puleston, P.F.; Battaiotto, P.E.; Mantz, R.J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Depto. de Electrotecnia, La Plata (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a control strategy based on adaptive feedback linearization intended for variable speed grid-connected wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The proposed adaptive control law accomplishes energy capture maximization by tracking the wind speed fluctuations. In addition, it linearizes the system even in the presence of turbine model uncertainties, allowing the closed-loop dynamic behaviour to be determined by a simple tuning of the controller parameters. Particularly, the attention is focused on WECS with slip power recovery, which use a power conversion stage as a rotor-controlled double-output induction generator. However, the concepts behind the proposed control strategy are general and can be easily extended to other WECS configurations. (Author)

  5. Asymmetric, bimodal trade-offs during adaptation of Methylobacterium to distinct growth substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Chun; Chou, Hsin-Hung; Marx, Christopher J

    2009-11-01

    Trade-offs between selected and nonselected environments are often assumed to exist during adaptation. This phenomenon is prevalent in microbial metabolism, where many organisms have come to specialize on a narrow breadth of substrates. One well-studied example is methylotrophic bacteria that can use single-carbon (C(1)) compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy, but generally use few, if any, multi-C compounds. Here, we use adaptation of experimental populations of the model methylotroph, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, to C(1) (methanol) or multi-C (succinate) compounds to investigate specialization and trade-offs between these two metabolic lifestyles. We found a general trend toward trade-offs during adaptation to succinate, but this was neither universal nor showed a quantitative relationship with the extent of adaptation. After 1500 generations, succinate-evolved strains had a remarkably bimodal distribution of fitness values on methanol: either an improvement comparable to the strains adapted on methanol or the complete loss of the ability to grow on C(1) compounds. In contrast, adaptation to methanol resulted in no such trade-offs. Based on the substantial, asymmetric loss of C(1) growth during growth on succinate, we suggest that the long-term maintenance of C(1) metabolism across the genus Methylobacterium requires relatively frequent use of C(1) compounds to prevent rapid loss.

  6. Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolutionary Strategy for Drift Correction of Electronic Nose Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, S.; Falasconi, M.; Sanchez, E.; Sberveglieri, G.; Scionti, A.; Squillero, G.; Tonda, A.

    2011-09-01

    Electronic Noses (ENs) might represent a simple, fast, high sample throughput and economic alternative to conventional analytical instruments [1]. However, gas sensors drift still limits the EN adoption in real industrial setups due to high recalibration effort and cost [2]. In fact, pattern recognition (PaRC) models built in the training phase become useless after a period of time, in some cases a few weeks. Although algorithms to mitigate the drift date back to the early 90 this is still a challenging issue for the chemical sensor community [3]. Among other approaches, adaptive drift correction methods adjust the PaRC model in parallel with data acquisition without need of periodic calibration. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) [4] and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) networks [5] have been already tested in the past with fair success. This paper presents and discusses an original methodology based on a Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) [6], suited for stochastic optimization of complex problems.

  7. Business Climate Change Adaptation Strategies as Contributions towards a Sustainable Society

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Julia Toledo Ribeiro; Dunkerley, Sophie; Nichols, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is happening, presenting threats and opportunities for society as a whole and business in particular. The transition to a low carbon economy as a result of climate change offers opportunities for business; it also represents an opportunity to create a more sustainable society. This paper considers how a business response to the climate change challenge can be used as a leverage to move towards sustainability. The focus is on adaptation strategies adopted to address the threats ...

  8. Comparison-based Adaptive Strategy Selection with Bandits in Differential Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fialho, Álvaro; Ros, Raymond; Schoenauer, Marc; Sebag, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Differential Evolution is a popular powerful optimization algorithm for continuous problems. Part of its efficiency comes from the availability of several mutation strategies that can (and must) be chosen in a problem-dependent way. However, such flexibility also makes DE difficult to be automatically used in a new context. F-AUC-Bandit is a comparison-based Adaptive Operator Selection method that has been proposed in the GA framework. It is used here for the on-line c...

  9. Climate Change and Variability: Farmers’ Perception, Experience and Adaptation Strategies in Makueni County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kitinya, Kirina T.; Onwonga, Richard N.; Cecilia Onyango; Mbuvi, Joseph P.; Geoffrey Kironchi

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of climate change and variability (CCV) from the farmer’s perspective is a key to prioritizing measures to address and prepare for its consequences. A survey involving 150 farmers was thus conducted in Makueni County, Kenya to document farmers’; perception, experience and adaptation strategies to CCV. About 86% of farmers perceived CCV as a major challenge with 53% indicating that significant changes in climate would manifest in 10-20 years. Significant changes in rainf...

  10. Hybrid Self-Adaptive Evolution Strategies Guided by Neighborhood Structures for Combinatorial Optimization Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, V N; Coelho, I M; Souza, M J F; Oliveira, T A; Cota, L P; Haddad, M N; Mladenovic, N; Silva, R C P; Guimarães, F G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Evolution Strategy (ES)--based algorithm, designed to self-adapt its mutation operators, guiding the search into the solution space using a Self-Adaptive Reduced Variable Neighborhood Search procedure. In view of the specific local search operators for each individual, the proposed population-based approach also fits into the context of the Memetic Algorithms. The proposed variant uses the Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure with different greedy parameters for generating its initial population, providing an interesting exploration-exploitation balance. To validate the proposal, this framework is applied to solve three different [Formula: see text]-Hard combinatorial optimization problems: an Open-Pit-Mining Operational Planning Problem with dynamic allocation of trucks, an Unrelated Parallel Machine Scheduling Problem with Setup Times, and the calibration of a hybrid fuzzy model for Short-Term Load Forecasting. Computational results point out the convergence of the proposed model and highlight its ability in combining the application of move operations from distinct neighborhood structures along the optimization. The results gathered and reported in this article represent a collective evidence of the performance of the method in challenging combinatorial optimization problems from different application domains. The proposed evolution strategy demonstrates an ability of adapting the strength of the mutation disturbance during the generations of its evolution process. The effectiveness of the proposal motivates the application of this novel evolutionary framework for solving other combinatorial optimization problems.

  11. Placebo-free designs for evaluating new mental health treatments: the use of adaptive treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ree; Lavori, Philip W

    2004-11-15

    The dominant pre-marketing clinical trial in psychopharmacology is a non-equivalence design that randomizes patients to one of three treatments: an accepted standard, the innovation (new drug), or placebo, with the main efficacy comparison being innovation vs placebo. The reasons behind the choice of placebo control in new drug development include anticipated small effect size for active-controlled comparisons and the sufficiency of demonstrated treatment effect (new drug vs placebo) for regulatory approval. These reasons have led to great reliance on placebo control in drug evaluation studies, despite the ethical controversy over the use of placebo when there are known effective standard treatments. While the use of placebo controls has been widely debated, a less considered aspect of the usual placebo-controlled non-equivalence design is the disparity between the decisions that it supports and those that pervade clinical practice. We propose an alternative approach that randomizes one group of patients to an adaptive treatment strategy that exemplifies the adaptive nature of clinical decision-making in the treatment of ongoing mental health disorders. The basic idea is to compare the adaptive strategy, which uses a patient's outcomes to date to determine when to switch from an initial treatment (e.g. an accepted standard) to an alternative (e.g. the new) treatment, to fixed trials of either treatment option. We state the conditions under which the adaptive treatment RCT is attractive to implement and the requirements for doing so. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Exercise and comorbidity: the i3-S strategy for developing comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Joost; de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike

    2016-01-01

    Exercise therapy is effective in a wide range of chronic diseases. Comorbid disease necessitates adaptations to exercise therapy. Guidance on how to develop such adaptations is currently not available. We present an innovative strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. We previously developed comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in osteoarthritis. We now broaden this approach into a general strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. The i3-S strategy consists of four steps. The first three steps involve creating an inventory of comorbid disease, an inventory of contraindications and restrictions on exercise therapy, and an inventory of potential adaptations to exercise therapy. In the fourth step, this information is synthesized into guidance on comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in the index disease. The adaptations concern physiological, behavioural and environmental factors. In view of the general effectiveness of exercise therapy and the high prevalence of comorbidity in older people, there is a great need for comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy. We recommend to use and evaluate the i3-S strategy in future research. Exercise therapy is effective in a wide range of chronic diseases. Comorbid disease necessitates adaptations to exercise therapy. Guidance on how to develop such adaptations is currently not available. We present an innovative strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. Researchers and clinicians can use this strategy to develop guidance on the adaptation of exercise therapy to comorbidity.

  13. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  14. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  15. Perceived uncertainty, coping strategies, and adaptation in women with human papillomavirus on pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mary M; Tripsas, Christina K

    2010-04-01

    To explore, identify, and describe the perception of uncertainty over time in college-aged women experiencing the unexpected event of an abnormal Pap smear with human papillomavirus (HPV). Eighty-eight female patients, who had abnormal Pap smear and had indications for colposcopy, were recruited from a Student Health Service and consented for study participation. Uncertainty levels were measured over time. Relationships among uncertainty, knowledge of HPV, body attitude and moods, coping strategies, and follow-up were evaluated. The relationship between uncertainty and coping strategies was supported in the emotion-focused path as predicted but not in the problem-focused path. Evidence of adaptation to uncertainty through emotion-focused coping was found in the significant relationship between emotion-focused coping and body attitude. Similarly, there was a significant relationship between emotion-focused coping and moods in the path analysis and in correlations with the subcategories of positive and negative moods. The problem-focused indirect path from uncertainty to adaptation showed no significant relationship. Likewise, uncertainty also had no significant direct effect on body attitude or promptness of follow-up but did have a direct impact on moods. The direct path from previous knowledge to uncertainty was not supported. The presence of uncertainty over time was established in this study population. Statistically significant relationships were confirmed among uncertainty, emotion-focused coping strategies, and adaptation in a group of young women experiencing a mildly abnormal Pap smear.

  16. A global resource allocation strategy governs growth transition kinetics of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David W; Schink, Severin J; Patsalo, Vadim; Williamson, James R; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence

    2017-11-02

    A grand challenge of systems biology is to predict the kinetic responses of living systems to perturbations starting from the underlying molecular interactions. Changes in the nutrient environment have long been used to study regulation and adaptation phenomena in microorganisms and they remain a topic of active investigation. Although much is known about the molecular interactions that govern the regulation of key metabolic processes in response to applied perturbations, they are insufficiently quantified for predictive bottom-up modelling. Here we develop a top-down approach, expanding the recently established coarse-grained proteome allocation models from steady-state growth into the kinetic regime. Using only qualitative knowledge of the underlying regulatory processes and imposing the condition of flux balance, we derive a quantitative model of bacterial growth transitions that is independent of inaccessible kinetic parameters. The resulting flux-controlled regulation model accurately predicts the time course of gene expression and biomass accumulation in response to carbon upshifts and downshifts (for example, diauxic shifts) without adjustable parameters. As predicted by the model and validated by quantitative proteomics, cells exhibit suboptimal recovery kinetics in response to nutrient shifts owing to a rigid strategy of protein synthesis allocation, which is not directed towards alleviating specific metabolic bottlenecks. Our approach does not rely on kinetic parameters, and therefore points to a theoretical framework for describing a broad range of such kinetic processes without detailed knowledge of the underlying biochemical reactions.

  17. Towards Adaptive Management: Examining the Strategies of Policy Entrepreneurs in Dutch Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn Brouwer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the complexities and uncertainties in water management has put into question the existing paradigms in this field. Increasingly more flexible, integrated, and adaptive policies are promoted. In this context, the understanding of how to effect policy change is becoming more important. This article analyzes policy making at the micro level, focusing on the behavior of policy entrepreneurs, which we understand here as risk-taking bureaucrats who seek to change policy and are involved throughout the policy-change process. Policy entrepreneurs have received a certain level of attention in the adaptive co-management literature and the policy sciences in past decades. Yet, the understanding of the actions they can take to facilitate policy change remains limited. This study addresses this gap in focusing on the strategies that policy entrepreneurs employ in their efforts to effect policy change. The article draws on both theoretical exploration and in-depth field research on water management in the Netherlands, which included a series of semi-structured interviews and a focus group with policy entrepreneurs. We conclude that policy entrepreneurs employ four types of strategies: (1 attention and support-seeking strategies, to demonstrate the significance of a problem and to convince a wide range of participants about their preferred policy; (2 linking strategies, to link with other parties, projects, ideas, and policy games; (3 relational management strategies, to manage the relational factor in policy-change trajectories; and finally, (4 arena strategies, to influence the time and place wherein decisions are made. Our study suggests that by employing these strategies when the "time is right," the development of policy streams and consequently their coupling can, to some extent, be influenced and steered. In other words, policy entrepreneurs can, to a degree, prepare for a window of opportunity and hence direct policy change.

  18. Multi-type Childhood Abuse, Strategies of Coping, and Psychological Adaptations in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesar, Kristina; Šimić, Nataša; Barišić, Marijana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To retrospectively analyze the rate of multi-type abuse in childhood and the effects of childhood abuse and type of coping strategies on the psychological adaptation of young adults in a sample form the student population of the University of Mostar. Methods The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 233 students from the University of Mostar (196 female and 37 male), with a median age of 20 (interquartile range, 2). Exposure to abuse was determined using the Child Maltreatment Scales for Adults, which assesses emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing family violence. Psychological adaptation was explored by the Trauma Symptom Checklist, which assesses anxiety/depression, sexual problems, trauma symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Strategies of coping with stress were explored by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Results Multi-type abuse in childhood was experienced by 172 participants (74%) and all types of abuse by 11 (5%) participants. Emotional and physical maltreatment were the most frequent types of abuse and mostly occurred together with other types of abuse. Significant association was found between all types of abuse (r = 0.436-0.778, P < 0.050). Exposure to sexual abuse in childhood and coping strategies were significant predictors of anxiety/depression (R2 = 0.3553), traumatic symptoms (R2 = 0.2299), somatic symptoms (R2 = 0.2173), and sexual problems (R2 = 0.1550, P < 0.001). Conclusion Exposure to multi-type abuse in childhood is a traumatic experience with long-term negative effects. Problem-oriented coping strategies ensure a better psychosocial adaptation than emotion-oriented strategies. PMID:20960590

  19. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Nilsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on 'green information and communication technology (ICT)' are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  20. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Holmner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  1. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction.

  2. The New Weather Radar for America's Space Program in Florida: A Temperature Profile Adaptive Scan Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Deierling, W.; Roeder, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar replaces the modified WSR-74C at Patrick AFB that has been in use since 1984. The new radar is a Radtec TDR 43-250, which has Doppler and dual polarization capability. A new fixed scan strategy was designed to best support the space program. The fixed scan strategy represents a complex compromise between many competing factors and relies on climatological heights of various temperatures that are important for improved lightning forecasting and evaluation of Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), which are the weather rules to avoid lightning strikes to in-flight rockets. The 0 C to -20 C layer is vital since most generation of electric charge occurs within it and so it is critical in evaluating Lightning LCC and in forecasting lightning. These are two of the most important duties of 45 WS. While the fixed scan strategy that covers most of the climatological variation of the 0 C to -20 C levels with high resolution ensures that these critical temperatures are well covered most of the time, it also means that on any particular day the radar is spending precious time scanning at angles covering less important heights. The goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly, Interactive Data Language (IDL) computer program that will automatically generate optimized radar scan strategies that adapt to user input of the temperature profile and other important parameters. By using only the required scan angles output by the temperature profile adaptive scan strategy program, faster update times for volume scans and/or collection of more samples per gate for better data quality is possible, while maintaining high resolution at the critical temperature levels. The temperature profile adaptive technique will also take into account earth curvature and refraction

  3. A systems biology approach uncovers cellular strategies used by Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during the switch from multi- to single-carbon growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovran, Elizabeth; Crowther, Gregory J; Guo, Xiaofeng; Yang, Song; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2010-11-24

    When organisms experience environmental change, how does their metabolic network reset and adapt to the new condition? Methylobacterium extorquens is a bacterium capable of growth on both multi- and single-carbon compounds. These different modes of growth utilize dramatically different central metabolic pathways with limited pathway overlap. This study focused on the mechanisms of metabolic adaptation occurring during the transition from succinate growth (predicted to be energy-limited) to methanol growth (predicted to be reducing-power-limited), analyzing changes in carbon flux, gene expression, metabolites and enzymatic activities over time. Initially, cells experienced metabolic imbalance with excretion of metabolites, changes in nucleotide levels and cessation of cell growth. Though assimilatory pathways were induced rapidly, a transient block in carbon flow to biomass synthesis occurred, and enzymatic assays suggested methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase as one control point. This "downstream priming" mechanism ensures that significant carbon flux through these pathways does not occur until they are fully induced, precluding the buildup of toxic intermediates. Most metabolites that are required for growth on both carbon sources did not change significantly, even though transcripts and enzymatic activities required for their production changed radically, underscoring the concept of metabolic setpoints. This multi-level approach has resulted in new insights into the metabolic strategies carried out to effect this shift between two dramatically different modes of growth and identified a number of potential flux control and regulatory check points as a further step toward understanding metabolic adaptation and the cellular strategies employed to maintain metabolic setpoints.

  4. Asset growth strategy and bank performance in Nigeria | Toby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the nature of the relationship between asset growth rate and growth in such output variables as total cost, total income and net profit In the Nigerian banking industry. Based on the data of 25 quoted Nigerian banks, three linear regression models were estimated complemented by descriptive data ...

  5. Africa's Growth and Development Strategies: A Critical Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At independence in the late 1950s and early 1960s, there were high hopes about the growth prospects of the new politically independent. African states. Economic conditions, such as per capita real income, were comparable to other developing countries like South Korea and. Taiwan. By the mid-1970s, the growth profile ...

  6. Shifts in growth strategies reflect tradeoffs in cellular economics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, D.; van Berlo, R.; de Ridder, D.; Teusink, B.

    2009-01-01

    The growth rate-dependent regulation of cell size, ribosomal content, and metabolic efficiency follows a common pattern in unicellular organisms: with increasing growth rates, cell size and ribosomal content increase and a shift to energetically inefficient metabolism takes place. The latter two

  7. Research of Ant Colony Optimized Adaptive Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management control strategy of hybrid electric vehicle has a great influence on the vehicle fuel consumption with electric motors adding to the traditional vehicle power system. As vehicle real driving cycles seem to be uncertain, the dynamic driving cycles will have an impact on control strategy’s energy-saving effect. In order to better adapt the dynamic driving cycles, control strategy should have the ability to recognize the real-time driving cycle and adaptively adjust to the corresponding off-line optimal control parameters. In this paper, four types of representative driving cycles are constructed based on the actual vehicle operating data, and a fuzzy driving cycle recognition algorithm is proposed for online recognizing the type of actual driving cycle. Then, based on the equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy, an ant colony optimization algorithm is utilized to search the optimal control parameters “charge and discharge equivalent factors” for each type of representative driving cycle. At last, the simulation experiments are conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed fuzzy recognition algorithm and the validity of the designed control strategy optimization method.

  8. Nutrient foraging strategies are associated with productivity and population growth in forest shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Stone, Bram W G; Faillace, Cara A; Lafond, Jonathan J; Baumgarten, Joni M; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Dighton, John; Meiners, Scott J; Grabosky, Jason C; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2017-04-01

    Temperate deciduous forest understoreys are experiencing widespread changes in community composition, concurrent with increases in rates of nitrogen supply. These shifts in plant abundance may be driven by interspecific differences in nutrient foraging (i.e. conservative vs. acquisitive strategies) and, thus, adaptation to contemporary nutrient loading conditions. This study sought to determine if interspecific differences in nutrient foraging could help explain patterns of shrub success and decline in eastern North American forests. Using plants grown in a common garden, fine root traits associated with nutrient foraging were measured for six shrub species. Traits included the mean and skewness of the root diameter distribution, specific root length (SRL), C:N ratio, root tissue density, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and foraging precision. Above- and below-ground productivity were also determined for the same plants, and population growth rates were estimated using data from a long-term study of community dynamics. Root traits were compared among species and associations among root traits, measures of productivity and rates of population growth were evaluated. Species fell into groups having thick or thin root forms, which correspond to conservative vs. acquisitive nutrient foraging strategies. Interspecific variation in root morphology and tissue construction correlated with measures of productivity and rates of cover expansion. Of the four species with acquisitive traits, three were introduced species that have become invasive in recent decades, and the fourth was a weedy native. In contrast, the two species with conservative traits were historically dominant shrubs that have declined in abundance in eastern North American forests. In forest understoreys of eastern North America, elevated nutrient availability may impose a filter on species success in addition to above-ground processes such as herbivory and overstorey canopy conditions. Shrubs that have

  9. Mixed-gender groups: coping strategies and factors of psychological adaptation in a polar environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnet, Elisabeth; Jurion, Sylvie; Cazes, Geneviève; Bachelard, Claude

    2004-07-01

    The polar environment is often seen as a good analog for long-term space missions in terms of isolation and confinement. This paper focuses on the psychological adaptation of both the men and women in mixed-gender groups in the French polar station Dumont d'Urville. The first 49 expeditions to this station were composed of men only in groups of 25-30. In 2000, two women were included in the first mixed-gender wintering group, followed by five women in 2001. This study on coping strategies and psychological adaptation was included in an end-of-mission debriefing performed by a psychologist. Data were collected using a few quantitative tools and a semi-structured interview, and focused on adaptation to wintering, coping strategies, and information on interpersonal relationships. Including women in a wintering group seems to have had positive effects on the general climate of the group by reducing men's rude behavior, but it also seems to be an important stressor for both men and women when the females' average age is close to the males' because seduction behaviors appear and rivalry, frustration, and sexual harassment frequently result. The use of problem-oriented strategies helps women to adapt. There are strong arguments indicating that living in an isolated and confined environment magnifies the usual difficulties that arise in mixed-gender relationships. Difficulties may be magnified in space since the group size is smaller and the confinement more extreme. This implies the need for rigorous select-in criteria for both men and women, especially for relational criteria, and for group training after selection.

  10. Placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment: implications for fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Ionel; Hoelle, Katharina; Angiolini, Emily; Constância, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The placenta is a transient organ found in eutherian mammals that evolved primarily to provide nutrients for the developing fetus. The placenta exchanges a wide array of nutrients, endocrine signals, cytokines and growth factors with the mother and the fetus, thereby regulating intrauterine development. Recent studies show that the placenta is not just a passive organ mediating maternal-fetal exchange. It can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the maternal-fetal environment. These dynamic adaptations are thought to occur to maximize fetal growth and viability at birth in the prevailing conditions in utero. However, some of these adaptations may also affect the development of individual fetal tissues, with patho-physiological consequences long after birth. Here, this review summarizes current knowledge on the causes, possible mechanisms and consequences of placental adaptive responses, with a focus on the regulation of transporter-mediated processes for nutrients. This review also highlights the emerging roles that imprinted genes and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation may play in placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Defining Old Growth for Fire-adapted Forests of the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill R. Kaufmann

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There are varying definitions of old-growth forests because of differences in environment and differing fire influence across the Intermountain West. Two general types of forests reflect the role of fire: 1 forests shaped by natural changes in structure and species makeup - plant succession - that are driven by competitive differences among species and individual trees and by small-scale disturbances, and 2 forests where plant succession processes are disrupted by major biological disturbances (fire, insects, wind, or drought extending across larger areas. Some case examples of old-growth forests where fire was historically frequent are used. The examples sketch out the typical biophysical settings, fire regime, natural disturbance factors, spatial features of patches, and the processes and conditions that produce spatial changes of the landscape over time. These examples confirm the complexity of describing or defining old growth in frequent-fire forests. We define fire-adapted forests at three spatial scales, whereas the standard definition of old growth refers to a patch or stand condition. Our definition is based on ecological principles rather than on the cultural aspects of old growth. It focuses on central tendencies, given all the possible combinations of conditions and processes, that move forests toward old growth in the fire-adapted forests of the Intermountain West.

  12. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods.Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  13. Adaptive and Qualitative Changes in Encoding Strategy With Experience: Evidence From the Test-Expectancy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners’ abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study–test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study–test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants’ metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests. PMID:22103783

  14. Effect of a Previous Acid Adaptation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii on its Growth Kinetic in Acidic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Tchuenchieu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth response of Zygosaccharomyces bailii acid adapted cells was assessed in acidified media. Yeast cells were first pre-cultured in nutrient broth adjusted with hydrochloric, citric and malic acid to pH 4; 4.5; 5; 5.5; 6 and 6.5. Moreover, they were also grown in two controls consisting of nutrient broth and nutrient broth supplemented with 1% of glucose both adjusted at pH 7. The variation of pH before and after the growth along with yeast concentration was measured. The cells pre-cultured in controls conditions and in the three conditions at pH 5 were then each inoculated in six BHI medium consisting of BHI adjusted with hydrochloric, citric and malic acid at pH 5.5 and 3.5. The growth was monitored by spectrophotometry and the yeast concentration after incubation was obtained by microscopy using a Thoma cell chamber. DMFit 2.1 was used to plot the growth curves and to estimate the growth parameters. All the pre-cultures and cultures were made at 37°C during 24 hours. During the pre-cultures, an important decrease of pH was noted in nutrient broth supplemented with glucose, moving from 7 to 3.81. In all the other pre-cultures, just a little variation was observed ranging from -0.57 to 0.50. Growth was observed in all the conditions, except at pH4. By growing the cells coming from the selected pre-cultures conditions in the different acidic BHI media, it appears that acid adaptation enhance the growth at pH 5.5 no matter the acid contains in the medium and the acid to which the cells were adapted. However, this acid adaptation was not sufficient to initiate growth at pH 3.5 after 24 hours of incubation at 37°C. Growth rate was significantly affected by the pH of the pre-culture medium and the acid present in the culture medium. Pre-culture with glucose supplementation was the only parameter studied affecting the latency.

  15. Business Model Innovation Portfolio Strategy for Growth Under Product-Market Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Bert Verhoeven; Lester W. Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The research links three concepts: product market growth strategy, the magnitude of innovation and Business Model Innovation, merging them together into a dynamic Business Model Innovation strategy framework. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper is conceptual and exploratory in nature and builds on existing literature and the author’s experience with developing business models. Findings: The BMI strategy framework can help managers establish a BMI portfolio strategy followi...

  16. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Farm-level Efficiency in Food Crop Production in Southwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otitoju, MA.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food crop yields depend largely on prevailing climate conditions, especially in Africa, where rain-fed agriculture predominate. The extent to which climate impacts are felt depends principally on the adaptation measures used by farmers. This study focused on the effect of climate change adaptation strategies on farm-level technical efficiency. The study used primary data collected from 360 randomly selected farmers in Southwest Nigeria. Cobb-Douglass stochastic frontier production model was used to analyse the data. Multiple cropping, land fragmentation, multiple planting dates, mulching and cover cropping were the major climate change adaptation strategies employed by the farmers. While land fragmentation and multiple planting dates had significant positive relationships, years of climate change awareness and social capital had significant inverse relationships, with technical inefficiency. This may be because while land fragmentation may hinder farm mechanization, multiple planting dates may increase the monotonousness and drudgery of farming. On the other hand, social capital and climate change awareness could help ameliorate the effects of, particularly, land fragmentation through resource pooling. It is therefore recommended that the farmers be encouraged to form cooperative societies so as to leverage their resource status through collective efforts.

  17. Cassava production as a climate change adaptation strategy in Chilonga Ward, Chiredzi District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambudzai Mupakati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to pilot a range of long-term adaptation measures in the agriculture sector because of climate change shocks. Past droughts in Zimbabwe have had devastating environmental and socio-economic impacts in rural areas where livelihoods mainly depend on agriculture. Over the past few years, many parts of Zimbabwe have been experiencing extreme events. The study sought to address the following objectives to describe smallholder farmers’ knowledge of climate change variability and change in Chilonga Ward and to explore the potential of cassava production as a climate change adaptation strategy in Chiredzi. An assessment of the impact of cassava production on rural livelihoods as a climate change adaptation strategy was also done. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, desk research and observation were the tools used to collect data. The results show that cassava has an extensive root system that can penetrate poor soils which may not support crops like maize. Zimbabwe has to increase cassava production as its tubers can be value added to produce a range of products that include livestock feed and porridge.

  18. [Perceptions and adaptation strategies of herders in desert steppe of Inner Mongolia to climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Hou, Xiang-yang

    2011-04-01

    Desert steppe is very vulnerable to climate change. The herders caring for their livestock in such a natural environment have to face the challenges of rapid climate change. In this paper, a household-level questionnaire was conducted in the Suniteyou District of Inner Mongolia, China, aimed to analyze the herders' perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change, extreme climate events in particular. In this Steppe where precipitation is rare and meteorological disasters are frequent, drought is the main extreme climate event with the broadest affecting area, the highest affecting degree, and the greatest frequency. The sensitivity of the herders to drought is far higher than that to other extreme climate events, and also, the perceptions to drought induce the herders having deep perceptions to the extreme climate events such as strong wing, dust storm, and heavy snow. Relative to the perceptions to long-term climate change, the perceptions to short-term climate change are more deep and precise. The herders can estimate the long-term climate change trend according to their perceptions to the latest 10 years climate change. They attribute the poor livestock health and the reduced forage yield greatly to climate change. Yet, the herders are inexperienced in implementing efficient adaptation strategies. Generally, their adaptation measures are quite simplex and rather passive.

  19. Evaluating the suitability of management strategies of pure Norway spruce forests in the Black Forest area of southwest Germany for adaptation to or mitigation of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Hanewinkel, Marc; Le Moguédec, Gilles

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the problem of evaluating management strategies for pure stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst) to balance adaptation to and mitigation of climate change, taking into account multiple objectives of a forest owner. A simulation and optimization approach was used to evaluate the management of a 1000 ha model Age-Class forest, representing the age-class distribution of an area of 66,000 ha of pure Norway spruce forests in the Black Forest region of Southwest Germany. Eight silvicultural scenarios comprising five forest conversion schemes which were interpreted as "adaptation" strategies which aims at increasing the proportion of Beech, that is expected to better cope with climate change than the existing Norway spruce, and three conventional strategies including a "Do-nothing" alternative classified as "mitigation", trying to keep rather higher levels of growing stock of spruce, were simulated using the empirical growth simulator BWINPro-S. A linear programming approach was adapted to simultaneously maximize the net present values of carbon sequestration and timber production subject to the two constraints of wood even flow and partial protection of the oldest (nature protection). The optimized plan, with the global utility of 11,687 /ha in forty years, allocated a combination of silvicultural scenarios to the entire forest area. Overall, strategies classified as "mitigation" were favored, while strategies falling into the "adaptation"-category were limited to the youngest age-classes in the optimal solution. Carbon sequestration of the "Do-nothing" alternative was between 1.72 and 1.85 million tons higher than the other alternatives for the entire forest area while the differences between the adaptation and mitigation approaches were approximately 133,000 tons. Sensitivity analysis showed that a carbon price of 21 /t is the threshold at which carbon sequestration is promoted, while an interest rate of above 2% would decrease the amount of

  20. The communication of physical science uncertainty in European National Adaptation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, S; Dessai, S; Paavola, J; Forster, P M

    Many European countries have developed National Adaptation Strategies (NAS) to guide adaptation to the expected impacts of climate change. There is a need for more structured communication of the uncertainties related to future climate and its impacts so that adaptation actions can be planned and implemented effectively and efficiently. We develop a novel uncertainty assessment framework for comparing approaches to the inclusion and communication of physical science uncertainty, and use it to analyse ten European NAS. The framework is based on but modifies and integrates the notion of the "cascade of uncertainties" and the NUSAP (Numeral Unit Spread Assessment Pedigree) methodology to include the overarching assessment categories of Numerical Value, Spread, Depth and Substantiation. Our assessment indicates that there are marked differences between the NAS in terms of inclusion and communication of physical science uncertainty. We find that there is a bias towards the communication of quantitative uncertainties as opposed to qualitative uncertainties. Through the examination of the English and German NAS, we find that similar stages of development in adaptation policy planning can nevertheless result in differences in handling physical science uncertainty. We propose that the degree of transparency and openness on physical science uncertainty is linked to the wider socio-political context within which the NAS are framed. Our methodology can help raise awareness among NAS users about the explicit and embedded information on physical science uncertainty within the existing NAS and would help to design more structured uncertainty communication in new or revised NAS.

  1. Adaptive coping strategies of affected family members of a relative with substance misuse: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I

    2018-01-01

    To explore the coping strategies used by affected family members of a relative with substance misuse. Families play an important role in supporting a relative with substance misuse. However, the experience often has an adverse effect on their general well-being, the extent of which depends largely on their coping strategies. An interpretative phenomenological analysis study. Data were collected between January - December 2015. Semistructured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 affected family members. Three main themes and related subthemes were abstracted from the data illustrating how participants coped with their relative's substance misuse: (1) Seeking timely access to evidence-based information; (2) Enhancing personal coping strategies and (3) Accessing informal and formal support. Greater investment is needed in support services for affected family members, particularly in regional and rural areas. A wide range of accessible evidence-based information and informal and formal support, including telephone and online support, is needed to assist them to cope in this crucial support-giving role. Affected family members need to adopt a flexible set of coping strategies while supporting a relative with substance misuse. Family and friends, alcohol and other drug services, mental health nurses and other clinicians have a critical role providing emotional, instrumental and educational support to affected family members to enhance their adaptive coping strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N. (eds.) [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  3. Link adaptation strategies for multi-antenna assisted WiMAX-like system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Das, Suvra Sekhar; Wang, Yuanye

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we have studied bit and power allocation strategies for multi-antenna assisted Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Popularly it is believed that simultaneous bit and power allocation at the same rate is not very much useful in terms of system throughput....... Contrary to this popular belief, we have found that in some scenarios and in some system conditions, bit and power allocations across OFDM sub-channels are required together for efficient system performance. We have studied a novel link adaptation algorithm in different multi-antenna systems. We have found...... that, if we cannot find the exact Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) thresholds due to different reasons, such as reduced Link Adaptation (LA) rate, Channel State Information (CSI) error, feedback delay etc., it is better to fix the transmit power across all sub-channels to guarantee the target Frame Error...

  4. Climate factors play a limited role for past adaptation strategies in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Nielsen, Jonas Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa has experienced recurrent droughts since the mid-1970s and today there is considerable concern for how this region will be able to adapt to future climate change. To develop well targeted adaptation strategies, the relative importance of climate factors...... as drivers of land use and livelihood change need to be better understood. Based on the perceptions of 1249 households in five countries across an annual rainfall gradient of 400-900 mm, we provide an estimate of the relative weight of climate factors as drivers of changes in rural households during the past...... 20 years. Climate factors, mainly inadequate rainfall, are perceived by 30-50% of households to be a cause of decreasing rainfed crop production, whereas a wide range of other factors explains the remaining 50-70%. Climate factors are much less important for decreasing livestock production...

  5. Climate Change Effects on Agricultural Production of Iran: II. Predicting Productivity of Field Crops and Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent evidences confirm that during the next few decades, many agroclimatic indices of Iran would be affected by global climate change. Koocheki et al. using two General Circulation Models showed that the mean annual temperature of the country will increase between 3.5-4.5°C while mean precipitation will reduce by 7-15% to 2050. It is well established that crop growth and development would drastically affect by the future global warming and its consequences because yield determining processes such as photosynthesis and crop phenology are directly related to temperature. On the other hands, the combined effects of CO2 enrichment and temperature rise on crop growth are complicated and should be studied using crop simulation models. Furthermore, adapting to climatic variability will have a substantially greater effect in reducing impacts than willing mitigation. However, such impacts on crop productivity at national scale and adaptive measures for future conditions are rarely studied in Iran. In this research crop development and yield of wheat, corn, chickpea and sugar beet were simulated for the target year of 2050 and the results are compared with the current yield as the baseline. Materials and Methods Future climatic variables were predicted using A1f (business as usual scenario by GFDL general circulation model and the results were used as weather inputs in the SUCROS model which was previously validated against measured data of the four crops. To account for the effect of CO2 enrichment on crop growth the photosynthesis routine of the model was adopted for increased CO2 concentration using a scaling factor. Changes in developmental stages of each crop were estimated for the future conditions and the relation between duration of these stages and yield was determined. Predicted crop yields for the year 2050 were compared with the current potential yields considering some adaptation strategies. Results and Discussion Results

  6. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments...

  7. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    allocated, and where the flow regime is then protected before over-allocation takes place. The strategy has been to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, imbalance of the man-made, global changes, and thus to reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  8. The report of posttraumatic growth in Malaysian cancer patients: relationships with psychological distress and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroevers, Maya J; Teo, Irene

    2008-12-01

    The challenge of a cancer diagnosis may eventually lead to the experience of positive psychological changes, also referred to as posttraumatic growth. As most research on posttraumatic growth in cancer patients has been conducted in Western countries, little is known about the experience of such positive psychological changes in non-Western countries. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of posttraumatic growth in a Malaysian sample of cancer patients. Secondly, we examined the association of posttraumatic growth with patients' report of psychological distress and their use of coping strategies. The study was conducted in 113 cancer patients. Posttraumatic growth was measured by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, coping strategies by the brief COPE, and psychological distress by the Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R). Results showed that many patients reported posttraumatic growth, mostly in the domain of appreciation of life. As hypothesized, the experience of posttraumatic growth was not significantly related to the level of psychological distress. Findings indicated that greater use of the coping strategies instrumental support, positive reframing, and humor was associated with more posttraumatic growth. Overall, this study suggests that posttraumatic growth is not only a Western phenomenon. Malaysian cancer patients show similar trends in the report of growth as well as in its correlates as their Western counterparts. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Water law as an adaptation strategy for global water scarcity in the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Endo, T.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity due to climate changes and growing human population is a major concern for the world. Adaptation and mitigation strategies should be developed for water scarcity in the future. Previous studies assessed the future water availability by hard technology (e.g., reservoirs, reclaimed and desalinated water plants) as adaptation strategies. On the other hand, soft path such as water law and policy would also be important for adaptation strategies. Water transfers is reallocation of water among water users. For example, distribution of the amount of available water is often heterogeneous especially during drought periods. If water transfers are permitted in these areas, water can be moved from surplus areas/sections to critical need areas/sections. There are several studies which describe the water transfer at the local scales (i.e., water bank in California), however the factors that determined the establishment of water transfer are not clear. If we can detect the factors, it could be used to estimate in which areas the water transfer would come into existence. This in turn would reduce the water stress. Here, we focus on historical interaction between human activity and water environments. Generally, rules of water use are developed by repeated discussion among water users. The frequency of these discussions would be related with their land use, frequency of drought and water resource sizes. For example, people in rice crop area need to discuss about water allocation compared to wheat crop area. Therefore, we examine the relationship between the permission of water transfer and factors such as water environment and human activity in the world.

  10. Adaptation of a scale to measure coping strategies in informal primary caregivers of psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Santiago, F J; Marván, M L; Lagunes-Córdoba, R

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Informal caregivers of psychiatric patients are vulnerable to many disturbances associated with the stress related to their activity. Caregivers who show a coping style focused on problem-solving report less psychological distress, and this approach positively influences the recovery process of the psychiatric patient. There are some questionnaires to measure coping styles in caregivers of psychiatric patients, but most of them do not have the minimum psychometric properties that a scale must fulfil. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The authors present an adapted and validated scale for measuring both active and passive coping strategies used by informal caregivers to face daily stressful situations with psychiatric patients. The study is an example of how scales can be adapted to small samples (n coping styles of informal caregivers are related to recovery process of psychiatric patients. Background The recovery process of a psychiatric patient is related to his primary informal caregiver's style of coping with stress. There is insufficient literature on validations of instruments that measure coping styles in this population. Objective To adapt and validate a scale to measure coping strategies in primary informal caregivers. Method The adapted scale was based on the Extreme Coping Scale of López-Vázquez and Marván. Items from that scale were adapted for application to informal caregivers. The scale was administered to 122 primary informal caregivers of patients from two psychiatric institutions in Mexico. Psychometric analyses were performed to determine the scale's properties. Results The scale was composed of 20 items (six less than in the original scale) and two factors: (i) active coping (Cronbach's alpha = .837) and (ii) passive coping (Cronbach's alpha = .718). Discussion The findings are discussed in the light of the importance of studying the relationship between coping styles and the well-being of both

  11. Trans-media strategies of appropriation, narrativization, and visualization : adaptations of literature in a century of Chinese cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Liyan

    2007-01-01

    Adaptation of literature has been an important genre in Chinese films from the 1920s till now. This dissertation seeks to trace the general history of Chinese filmic adaptations of literature, and examine important moments and figures within this history, to bring out strategies filmmakers use in their adaptations, in response to and in negotiations with different cultural, political and commercial needs. With the dissertation, I hope to contribute to this still largely uncharted field in Chi...

  12. Climate change adaptation strategies for federal forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA: ecological, policy, and socio-economic perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Spies; Thomas W. Giesen; Frederick J. Swanson; Jerry F. Franklin; Denise Lach; K. Norman. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Conserving biological diversity in a changing climate poses major challenges for land managers and society. Effective adaptive strategies for dealing with climate change require a socioecological systems perspective. We highlight some of the projected ecological responses to climate change in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A and identify possible adaptive actions that...

  13. First-Year Students' Psychological and Behavior Adaptation to College: The Role of Coping Strategies and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiping; Chen, Lang; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavior adaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…

  14. The Impact of Teachers' Commenting Strategies on Children's Vocabulary Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Erica M.; Dickinson, David K.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relations between teachers' use of comments during book reading sessions in preschool classrooms and the vocabulary growth of children with low and moderately low language ability. Using data from a larger randomized controlled trial, we analyzed comments defined as utterances that give, explain, expand, or define. Comments were…

  15. A distributed and morphology-independent strategy for adaptive locomotion in self-reconfigurable modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stoy, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed reinforcement learning strategy for morphology-independent lifelong gait learning for modular robots. All modules run identical controllers that locally and independently optimize their action selection based on the robot’s velocity as a global, shared reward...... to physical robots with a comparable performance, (iii) can be applied to learn simple gait control tables for both M-TRAN and ATRON robots, (iv) enables an 8-module robot to adapt to faults and changes in its morphology, and (v) can learn gaits for up to 60 module robots but a divergence effect becomes...... substantial from 20–30 modules. These experiments demonstrate the advantages of a distributed learning strategy for modular robots, such as simplicity in implementation, low resource requirements, morphology independence, reconfigurability, and fault tolerance....

  16. TRENDS OF TAKING INTO ACCOUNT OF INTERNATIONAL FACTORS IN MARKETING ADAPTATIONAL STRATEGIES OF REGIONAL CENTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna BUDNIKEVYCH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the impact of international factors to formation of marketing adaptation strategies of regional centres development; regards influence of “regional revolution” to strategic trends of cities of Chernivtsi and Suceava; forms a list of factors that can either open additional opportunities for a city or, on the contrary, become potential bearers of threats for implementation of sustainable development strategy; attention is paid to threats and advantages for regional economy of activation processes of activity of global trade networks; examples of cooperation in geo-space direction are given; the role of regional marketing technologies is determined in provision of complex long-term cross-border effect of cooperation of Chernivtsi and Suceava as regional centres of Bukovyna.

  17. Environmental impacts of flood control measures in climate change adaptation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Because of climatic changes, large investments are needed to keep flood risk at an acceptable level in urban areas. Increasing dimensions of underground sewer systems and retention basins are increasingly supplemented with multi-functional approaches, aimed at managing water locally and/or route...... of different storm water management strategies. It is tested with two different adaptation strategies for the Nørrebro catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Cloudburst Management Plan (CMP), which uses a multi-functional approach and combines green infrastructure with subsurface pipes, and a Subsurface scenario...... depletion, eutrophication and acidification. The case study shows significantly lower impacts for the multi-functional, green infrastructure CMP, compared to the SSA. Among the installations, those measures which are installed to ensure no water on the surface during rain events with a return period of 10...

  18. Goal orientation and work role performance: predicting adaptive and proactive work role performance through self-leadership strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Quinteiro, Pedro; Curral, Luís Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between goal orientation, self-leadership dimensions, and adaptive and proactive work role performances. The authors hypothesize that learning orientation, in contrast to performance orientation, positively predicts proactive and adaptive work role performances and that this relationship is mediated by self-leadership behavior-focused strategies. It is posited that self-leadership natural reward strategies and thought pattern strategies are expected to moderate this relationship. Workers (N = 108) from a software company participated in this study. As expected, learning orientation did predict adaptive and proactive work role performance. Moreover, in the relationship between learning orientation and proactive work role performance through self-leadership behavior-focused strategies, a moderated mediation effect was found for self-leadership natural reward and thought pattern strategies. In the end, the authors discuss the results and implications are discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  19. Soil mapping and processes models to support climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Cerda, Artemi; Jordan, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    As agreed in Paris in December 2015, global average temperature is to be limited to "well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels" and efforts will be made to "limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors becomes critical and appropriate sustainable land management practices need to be taken (Pereira et al., 2017). Mitigation strategies focus on reducing the rate and magnitude of climate change by reducing its causes. Complementary to mitigation, adaptation strategies aim to minimise impacts and maximize the benefits of new opportunities. The adoption of both practices will require developing system models to integrate and extrapolate anticipated climate changes such as global climate models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs). Furthermore, integrating climate models driven by socio-economic scenarios in soil process models has allowed the investigation of potential changes and threats in soil characteristics and functions in future climate scenarios. One of the options with largest potential for climate change mitigation is sequestering carbon in soils. Therefore, the development of new methods and the use of existing tools for soil carbon monitoring and accounting have therefore become critical in a global change context. For example, soil C maps can help identify potential areas where management practices that promote C sequestration will be productive and guide the formulation of policies for climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Despite extensive efforts to compile soil information and map soil C, many uncertainties remain in the determination of soil C stocks, and the reliability of these estimates depends upon the quality and resolution of the spatial datasets used for its calculation. Thus, better estimates of soil C pools and dynamics are needed to advance understanding of the C balance and the potential of soils for climate change mitigation. Here

  20. Flash Flood Risk Perception in an Italian Alpine Region. From Research into Adaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolobig, A.; de Marchi, B.; Borga, M.

    2009-04-01

    Flash floods are characterised by short lead times and high levels of uncertainty. Adaptive strategies to face them need to take into account not only the physical characteristics of the hydro-geological phenomena, but also peoples' risk perceptions, attitudes and behaviours in case of an emergency. It is quite obvious that a precondition for an effective adaptation, e.g. in the case of a warning, is the awareness of being endangered. At the same time the perceptions of those at risk and their likely actions inform hazard warning strategies and recovery programmes following such events. Usually low risk awareness or "wrong perceptions" of the residents are considered among the causes of an inadequate preparedness or response to flash floods as well as a symptom of a scarce self-protection culture. In this paper we will focus on flood risk perception and on how research on this topic may contribute to design adaptive strategies and give inputs to flood policy decisions. We will report on a flood risk perception study of the population residing in four villages in an Italian Alpine Region (Trentino Alto-Adige), carried out between October 2005 and January 2006. A total of 400 standardised questionnaires were submitted to local residents by face to face interviews. The surveys were preceded by focus groups with officers from agencies in charge of flood risk management and semi-structured and in-depth interviews with policy, scientific and technical experts. Survey results indicated that people are not so worried about hydro-geological phenomena, and think that their community is more endangered than themselves. The knowledge of the territory and danger sources, the unpredictability of flash floods and the feeling of safety induced by structural devices are the main elements which make the difference in shaping residents' perceptions. The study also demonstrated a widespread lack of adoption of preparatory measures among residents, together with a general low

  1. Growth strategy as a mediator of the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies and the performance of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endi Sarwoko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the success of SMEs have been widely studied, but generally they only focus on the individual characteristics as a factor affecting the success of SMEs. This study attempts to analyze the role of the growth strategy in mediating the effect of entrepreneurial competencies on SMEs performance. The population consists of the 243 nurturing SMEs in Malang Regency, in which the sample was taken using proportional sampling techniques, and it was totaled 146 SMEs. They were collected by using questionnaires and interviews, whereas analytical techniques using Structural Equation Modeling. The results showed that the growth strategy is influenced by entrepreneurial competencies, so the business growth strategy, as a mediator of the effect of entrepreneurial competencies on SMEs performance, meaning that the increase of the entrepreneurial competencies will lead to a higher capability implementing the growth strategy. This eventually affects the SMEs performance. Entrepreneurial competencies will affect the better business growth strategy. In turn, it can also ultimately improve SMEs performance. Thus, the key factor in the SMEs performance in Malang Regency is the level of competency owned by the owners and the implementation of growth strategy.

  2. The Intrauterine Growth Restriction Phenotype: Fetal Adaptations and Potential Implications for Later Life Insulin Resistance and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Stephanie R.; Rozance, Paul J.; Brown, Laura D.; Hay, William W.

    2011-01-01

    The intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetus develops unique metabolic adaptations in response to exposure to reduced nutrient supply. These adaptations provide survival value for the fetus by enhancing the capacity of the fetus to take up and use nutrients, thereby reducing the need for nutrient supply. Each organ and tissue in the fetus adapts differently, with the brain showing the greatest capacity for maintaining nutrient supply and growth. Such adaptations, if persistent, also have the potential in later life to promote nutrient uptake and storage, which directly lead to complications of obesity, insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21710398

  3. An innovative cross-sectoral method for implementation of trade-off adaptation strategy assessment under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jung-Hsuan; Tung, Ching-Pin; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will increase sharp risks to the water and food supply in coming decades. Although impact assessment and adaptation evaluation has been discussed a lot in recent years, the importance of adaptation implement should not be ignored. In Taiwan, and elsewhere, fallow is an option of adaptation strategy under climate change. Fallow would improve the water scarcity of domestic use, but the food security might be threatened. The trade-off effects of adaptation actions are just like the side effects of medicine which cannot be avoided. Thus, managing water resources with an integrated approach will be urgent. This study aims to establish a cross-sectoral framework for implementation the trade-off adaptation strategy. Not only fallow, but also other trade-off strategy like increasing the percentage of national grain self-sufficiency would be analyzed by a rational decision process. The recent percentage of grain self-sufficiency in Taiwan is around 32, which was decreasing from 53 thirty years ago. Yet, the goal of increasing grain self-sufficiency means much more water must be used in agriculture. In that way, domestic users may face the water shortage situation. Considering the conflicts between water supply and food security, the concepts from integrative negotiation are appropriate to apply. The implementation of trade-off adaptation strategies needs to start by quantifying the utility of water supply and food security were be quantified. Next, each side's bottom line can be found by BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) and ZOPA (Zone of Possible Agreement). ZOPA provides the entire possible outcomes, and BATNA ensures the efficiency of adaptation actions by moving along with Pareto frontier. Therefore, the optimal percentage of fallow and grain self-sufficiency can be determined. Furthermore, BATNA also provides the pathway step by step which can be a guideline of adaptation strategies. This framework allows analysts and stakeholder to

  4. A Strategic Analysis of Canada Post's Parcel Ecommerce Growth Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Canada Post is a market leader in the business to consumer residential delivery of parcels in Canada. There is an increasing demand for residential delivery due to the worldwide growth in ecommerce sales. This paper presents a strategic analysis of the opportunity for Canada Post to increase its breadth and depth in the parcel delivery industry in Canada. The analysis will review the parcel industry, the ecommerce opportunity, an internal review of Canada Post, develop and evaluate four strat...

  5. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-05-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Strategies for Growth in a Young Earth Sciences Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, B. M.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Draper, G.

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Earth Sciences at Florida International University (FIU) has been fortunate to be part of a rapidly growing university. FIU began offering classes in 1972 with an initial enrollment of 5600 students, and today enrollment exceeds 35,000 students. During this time the Department of Earth Sciences has grown to a faculty of 14 and offers the BA, BS, MS and PhD degrees. Our department, however, has faced the same challenges meeting many Earth Science departments in that our number of undergraduate majors has not grown at the same pace as the university enrollment (or at the same pace as enrollment in our graduate program). Two strategies have proven effective and have helped the department build its program in spite of this challenge. The first strategy was to create tenure-track positions with a 50% assignment in the Earth Sciences Department and 50% in a research center on campus. We currently have two faculty who have half-time appointments in the Southeast Environmental Research Center, and we have a new faculty member joining in the Spring who will have a joint appointment with the International Hurricane Research Center. This strategy has made it possible to gain expertise in, and to offer courses in, critical areas (such as hydrogeology and meteorology) that we otherwise would not be able to offer. The second strategy is to develop strong courses for non-majors that satisfy FIU's University Common Curriculum requirements. A particularly successful example is a new course titled "The History of Life". This course was designed to take advantage of our existing expertise in paleobiology, and offer a class that satisfies the University Common Curriculum requirement that every student take a laboratory course in the life sciences. This class now fills to capacity each semester with more than 200 students. This course not only boosts our department's productivity, but it lets us reach 200 new students each semester with many potential new Earth

  7. Effective Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Public Health Impacts of Heatwaves for Brookline, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalzadeh Fard, B.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Studies on urban areas show a significant increase in frequency and intensity of heatwaves over the past decades, and predict the same trend for future. Since heatwaves have been responsible for a large number of life losses, urgent adaptation and mitigation strategies are required in the policy and decision making level for a sustainable urban planning. The Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory at Northeastern University, under the aegis of Thriving Earth Exchange of AGU, is working with the town of Brookline to understand the potential public health impacts of anticipated heatwaves. We consider the most important social and physical factors to obtain vulnerability and exposure parameters for each census block group of the town. Utilizing remote sensing data, we locate Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) during a recent heatwave event, as the hazard parameter. We then create priority risk map using the risk framework. Our analyses show spatial correlations between the UHIs and social factors such as poverty, and physical factors such as land cover variations. Furthermore, we investigate the future heatwave frequency and intensity increases by analyzing the climate models predictions. For future changes of UHIs, land cover changes are investigated using available predictive data. Also, socioeconomic predictions are carried out to complete the futuristic models of heatwave risks. Considering plausible scenarios for Brookline, we develop different risk maps based on the vulnerability, exposure and hazard parameters. Eventually, we suggest guidelines for Heatwave Action Plans for prioritizing effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in urban planning for the town of Brookline.

  8. Specialization versus adaptation: two strategies employed by cyanophages to enhance their translation efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limor-Waisberg, Keren; Carmi, Asaf; Scherz, Avigdor; Pilpel, Yitzhak; Furman, Itay

    2011-08-01

    Effective translation of the viral genome during the infection cycle most likely enhances its fitness. In this study, we reveal two different strategies employed by cyanophages, viruses infecting cyanobacteria, to enhance their translation efficiency. Cyanophages of the T7-like Podoviridae family adjust their GC content and codon usage to those of their hosts. In contrast, cyanophages of the T4-like Myoviridae family maintain genomes with low GC content, thus sometimes differing from that of their hosts. By introducing their own specific set of tRNAs, they appear to modulate the tRNA pools of hosts with tRNAs that fit the viral low GC preferred codons. We assessed the possible effects of those viral tRNAs on cyanophages and cyanobacterial genomes using the tRNA adaptation index, which measures the extent to which a given pool of tRNAs translates efficiently particular genes. We found a strong selective pressure to gain and maintain tRNAs that will boost translation of myoviral genes when infecting a high GC host, contrasted by a negligible effect on the host genes. Thus, myoviral tRNAs may represent an adaptive strategy to enhance fitness when infecting high GC hosts, thereby potentially broadening the spectrum of hosts while alleviating the need to adjust global parameters such as GC content for each specific host.

  9. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  10. RNA Sequencing Exposes Adaptive and Immune Responses to Intrauterine Growth Restriction in Fetal Sheep Islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amy C; Bidwell, Christopher A; McCarthy, Fiona M; Taska, David J; Anderson, Miranda J; Camacho, Leticia E; Limesand, Sean W

    2017-04-01

    The risk of type 2 diabetes is increased in children and adults who exhibited fetal growth restriction. Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are common obstetrical complications associated with fetal hypoglycemia and hypoxia that reduce the β-cell mass and insulin secretion. In the present study, we have defined the underlying mechanisms of reduced growth and proliferation, impaired metabolism, and defective insulin secretion previously established as complications in islets from IUGR fetuses. In an IUGR sheep model that recapitulates human IUGR, high-throughput RNA sequencing showed the transcriptome of islets isolated from IUGR and control sheep fetuses and identified the transcripts that underlie β-cell dysfunction. Functional analysis expanded mechanisms involved in reduced proliferation and dysregulated metabolism that include specific cell cycle regulators and growth factors and mitochondrial, antioxidant, and exocytotic genes. These data also identified immune responses, wnt signaling, adaptive stress responses, and the proteasome as mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction. The reduction of immune-related gene expression did not reflect a change in macrophage density within IUGR islets. The present study reports the islet transcriptome in fetal sheep and established processes that limit insulin secretion and β-cell growth in fetuses with IUGR, which could explain the susceptibility to premature islet failure in adulthood. Islet dysfunction formed by intrauterine growth restriction increases the risk for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  11. Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael L; Boesch, Christophe; Fruth, Barbara; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gilby, Ian C; Hashimoto, Chie; Hobaiter, Catherine L; Hohmann, Gottfried; Itoh, Noriko; Koops, Kathelijne; Lloyd, Julia N; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Mitani, John C; Mjungu, Deus C; Morgan, David; Muller, Martin N; Mundry, Roger; Nakamura, Michio; Pruetz, Jill; Pusey, Anne E; Riedel, Julia; Sanz, Crickette; Schel, Anne M; Simmons, Nicole; Waller, Michel; Watts, David P; White, Frances; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Wrangham, Richard W

    2014-09-18

    Observations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide valuable comparative data for understanding the significance of conspecific killing. Two kinds of hypothesis have been proposed. Lethal violence is sometimes concluded to be the result of adaptive strategies, such that killers ultimately gain fitness benefits by increasing their access to resources such as food or mates. Alternatively, it could be a non-adaptive result of human impacts, such as habitat change or food provisioning. To discriminate between these hypotheses we compiled information from 18 chimpanzee communities and 4 bonobo communities studied over five decades. Our data include 152 killings (n = 58 observed, 41 inferred, and 53 suspected killings) by chimpanzees in 15 communities and one suspected killing by bonobos. We found that males were the most frequent attackers (92% of participants) and victims (73%); most killings (66%) involved intercommunity attacks; and attackers greatly outnumbered their victims (median 8:1 ratio). Variation in killing rates was unrelated to measures of human impacts. Our results are compatible with previously proposed adaptive explanations for killing by chimpanzees, whereas the human impact hypothesis is not supported.

  12. Joint Subcarrier Pairing and Resource Allocation for Cognitive Network and Adaptive Relaying Strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2012-05-01

    Recent measurements show that the spectrum is under-utilized by licensed users in wireless communication. Cognitive radio (CR) has been proposed as a suitable solution to manage the inefficient usage of the spectrum and increase coverage area of wireless networks. The concept is based on allowing a group of secondary users (SUs) to share the unused radio spectrum originally owned by the primary user (PUs). The operation of CR should not cause harmful interference to the PUs. In the other hand, relayed transmission increases the coverage and achievable capacity of communication systems and in particular in CR systems. In fact there are many types of cooperative communications, however the two main ones are decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). Adaptive relaying scheme is a relaying technique by which the benefits of the amplifying or decode and forward techniques can be achieved by switching the forwarding technique according to the quality of the signal. In this dissertation, we investigate the power allocation for an adaptive relaying protocol (ARP) scheme in cognitive system by maximizing the end-to-end rate and searching the best carriers pairing distribution. The optimization problem is under the interference and power budget constraints. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques, and the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy.

  13. Coping Strategies as Predictors and Mediators of Disability-Related Variables and Psychosocial Adaptation: An Exploratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Wilson, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationships among four predictors (functional limitations, perceived visibility of condition, and two disability-associated affective responses-anxiety and depression), coping strategies, and two outcome measures of psychosocial adaptation to disability. Findings suggest that coping strategies add significantly to the variance in…

  14. Adaptive radiotherapy strategies for pelvic tumors - a systematic review of clinical implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thörnqvist, Sara; Hysing, Liv B; Tuomikoski, Laura; Vestergaard, Anne; Tanderup, Kari; Muren, Ludvig P; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2016-08-01

    Introdution: Variation in shape, position and treatment response of both tumor and organs at risk are major challenges for accurate dose delivery in radiotherapy. Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been proposed to customize the treatment to these motion/response patterns of the individual patients, but increases workload and thereby challenges clinical implementation. This paper reviews strategies and workflows for clinical and in silico implemented ART for prostate, bladder, gynecological (gyne) and ano-rectal cancers. Initial identification of papers was based on searches in PubMed. For each tumor site, the identified papers were screened independently by two researches for selection of studies describing all processes of an ART workflow: treatment monitoring and evaluation, decision and execution of adaptations. Both brachytherapy and external beam studies were eligible for review. The review consisted of 43 clinical studies and 51 in silico studies. For prostate, 1219 patients were treated with offline re-planning, mainly to adapt prostate motion relative to bony anatomy. For gyne 1155 patients were treated with online brachytherapy re-planning while 25 ano-rectal cancer patients were treated with offline re-planning, all to account for tumor regression detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT). For bladder and gyne, 161 and 64 patients, respectively, were treated with library-based online plan selection to account for target volume and shape variations. The studies reported sparing of rectum (prostate and bladder cancer), bladder (ano-rectal cancer) and bowel cavity (gyne and bladder cancer) as compared to non-ART. Implementations of ART were dominated by offline re-planning and online brachytherapy re-planning strategies, although recently online plan selection workflows have increased with the availability of cone-beam CT. Advantageous dosimetric and outcome patterns using ART was documented by the studies of this review. Despite

  15. Phosphate solubilization as a microbial strategy for promoting plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eleonora Beltrán Pineda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the constant application of chemical inputs in Agroecosystem, the cost of crop production and environmental quality of soil and water have been affected. Microorganisms carry out most biogeochemical cycles; therefore, their role is essential for agro ecosystem balance. One such functional group is the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, which are recognized plant growth promoters. These microbial populations perform an important activity, since in many soils there are large reserves of insoluble phosphorus, as a result of fixing much of the phosphorus fertilizer applied, which cannot be assimilated by the plant. The phosphate solubilizing microorganisms use different solubilization mechanisms such as the production of organic acids, which solubilize theses insoluble phosphates in the rhizosphere region. Soluble phosphates are absorbed by the plant, which enhances their growth and productivity. By using these phosphate reserves in soils, application of chemical fertilizers is decreased, on the one hand, can again be fixed by ions Ca, Al or Fe making them insoluble and, by the other hand, increase the costs of crop production. Microbial populations have been widely studied in different types of ecosystems, both natural and Agroecosystem. Thanks to its effectiveness, in laboratory and field studies, the phosphate solubilizing phenotype is of great interest to microbial ecologists who have begun to establish the molecular basis of the traitr.

  16. Posttraumatic growth among spouses of combat veterans: Adaptive or maladaptive for adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Levin, Yafit; Solomon, Zahava

    2015-12-15

    We examined the relationship between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and distress in spouses of trauma survivors. A sample of spouses of combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War were assessed using questionnaires pertaining to PTG, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress, in 2004 and 2011. Applying cross-lagged modeling strategy, higher PTG levels predicted higher depression and anxiety levels above and beyond initial distress. Thus, psychological growth in spouses of survivors appears to signify subsequent distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adapting to conversation with semantic dementia: using enactment as a compensatory strategy in everyday social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindell, Jacqueline; Sage, Karen; Keady, John; Wilkinson, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Studies to date in semantic dementia have examined communication in clinical or experimental settings. There is a paucity of research describing the everyday interactional skills and difficulties seen in this condition. To examine the everyday conversation, at home, of an individual with semantic dementia. A 71-year-old man with semantic dementia and his wife were given a video camera and asked to record natural conversation in the home situation with no researcher present. Recordings were also made in the home environment, with the individual with semantic dementia in conversation with a member of the research team. Conversation analysis was used to transcribe and analyse the data. Recurring features were noted to identify conversational patterns. Analysis demonstrated a repeated practice by the speaker with semantic dementia of acting out a diversity of scenes (enactment). As such, the speaker regularly used direct reported speech along with paralinguistic features (such as pitch and loudness) and non-vocal communication (such as body posture, pointing and facial expression) as an adaptive strategy to communicate with others in conversation. This case shows that while severe difficulties may be present on neuropsychological assessment, relatively effective communicative strategies may be evident in conversation. A repeated practice of enactment in conversation allowed this individual to act out, or perform what he wanted to say, allowing him to generate a greater level of meaningful communication than his limited vocabulary alone could achieve through describing the events concerned. Such spontaneously acquired adaptive strategies require further attention in both research and clinical settings in semantic dementia and analysis of interaction in this condition, using conversation analysis, may be helpful. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  18. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  19. Routine and adaptive expert strategies for resolving ICT mediated communication problems in the team setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varpio, Lara; Schryer, Catherine F; Lingard, Lorelei

    2009-07-01

    The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for supporting interprofessional communication is becoming increasingly common in health care. However, little research has explored how ICTs affect interprofessional communication, or how novices are trained to be effective interprofessional ICT users. This study explores the interprofessional communication strategies of nurses and doctors (trainees and experts) when their communications were mediated by a specific ICT: an electronic patient record (EPR). A total of 72 doctors and nurses participated in this 8-month study on a paediatric in-patient ward. Eighty hours of non-participant observations and 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted. All data were rendered anonymous prior to analysis. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, one researcher read and analysed all data recursively. As emergent themes were identified, exemplary portions of the data were discussed with three additional researchers to resolve discrepancies and confirm the coding structure. Expertise literatures informed the final analyses. Three interprofessional communication strategies were identified: (i) all participants routinely formulated 'workarounds' to circumvent problematic EPR-mediated communications; (ii) workarounds were classifiable as instances of Abandoning, Forcing or Submitting to the EPR, and (iii) novices learned workaround strategies through an informal curriculum, but they did not learn to manage the interprofessional effects of these workarounds. Trainees relied on workarounds as simplified routines, demonstrating routine expertise. Staff members, demonstrating adaptive expertise, used workarounds as part of a broader network of people and communication tools. Explicit training regarding this network and the ways in which workarounds conceal this network may help trainees develop adaptive expertise.

  20. Relationship termination in emerging adulthood: Coping strategies as predictors of posttraumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zgaga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship termination happens relatively often in emerging adulthood but is nevertheless as distressing then as it is later in life. We examined the relationship between coping strategies and posttraumatic growth in a sample of 260 emerging adults whose heterosexual romantic relationships were terminated at most two years before participating in the study. Participants completed The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, The COPE Inventory and Emotion Approach Coping scale. For the purposes of the study we also conceptualized a new coping inventory, related specifically to coping with relationship termination. While controlling for gender and age the coping strategies explained 34 % of variability in posttraumatic growth. Statistically significant predictors of posttraumatic growth were problem-oriented coping strategies, coping strategies, oriented towards emotions and other people, acceptance and positive self-motivation as well as coping strategies that allow some distancing from the stressor. Results indicate that posttraumatic growth is related to problem-oriented and also to emotion-oriented coping strategies, which is reasonable since relationship termination is a stressor that cannot be eliminated. It is important that an individual who is facing it can cope well with the unpleasant emotions deriving from relationship termination.

  1. The influence of gender and age on choice of flood adaptation strategies: A case study of Zambia and Namibia..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuku, Monde

    2017-04-01

    It is reported that flood events will increase due to variability and change in climate, thus increasing the number of people exposed to flooding disasters. This exposure negatively impacts rural households' livelihoods. Women, men, young, old has distinctive vulnerability and this shapes the choice of flood adaptation strategies. This calls for a need to adopt group specific interventions to strengthen local adaptive capacity to flooding for the affected population. The purpose of this case study was to determine the adaptation strategies to floods adopted by rural households in the Zambezi region of Namibia and Mwandi district of Zambia. The study further examined how gender and age influenced the choice of different adaptation strategies. Six focus group meetings and a questionnaire survey of 207 randomly sampled households were conducted in the flood prone areas of the study. Descriptive statistics results on the adaptation strategies indicated that a majority of the households in Namibia learnt to live with floods (86%),practiced mafisa cattle trade (86%), flood water harvesting (68%), practiced early and late planting (63%), prayed (55%), practiced conservation agriculture (54%) and fish farming (53%). In Zambia the adaptation strategies were; conservation agriculture (91%), acquiring better skills on preparedness (66%), flood water harvesting (63%), praying (60%), and flood proofing (52%). Logistic regression analysis showed that age positively and significantly influenced the likelihood of taking up adaptation strategies such as tree planting, relocation to higher ground, flood water harvesting, early and late planting. The older the respondents the more likely they were to adopt the strategies mentioned. More young ones were more likely to adopt acquiring better skills on flood preparedness and mafisa cattle trading than the old ones. Gender positively and significantly influenced mafisa cattle trade (pdisaster risk reduction and management in the two

  2. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term Growth Hormone Treatment on Adaptive Functioning in Infants With Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sin T; Festen, Dederieke A M; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F A; Collin, Philippe J L; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of growth hormone treatment on adaptive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) was assessed during a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and after 7 years of growth hormone treatment. In the RCT, 75 children (42 infants and 33 prepubertal children) with Prader-Willi syndrome were included. Subsequently, 53 children were treated with long-term growth hormone. Our study demonstrates a marked delay in adaptive functioning in infants and children with Prader-Willi syndrome, which was associated with older age and lower intelligence. Results of the repeated measurements show that the earlier growth hormone treatment was started during infancy, the better the adaptive skills were on the long-term.

  3. Adaptive PI control strategy for flat permanent magnet linear synchronous motor vibration suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanwei; Liu, Chengying; Li, Zhijun; Wang, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Due to low damping ratio, flat permanent magnet linear synchronous motor's vibration is difficult to be damped and the accuracy is limited. The vibration suppressing results are not good enough in the existing research because only the longitudinal direction vibration is considered while the normal direction vibration is neglected. The parameters of the direct-axis current controller are set to be the same as those of the quadrature-axis current controller commonly. This causes contradiction between signal noise and response. To suppress the vibration, the electromagnetic force model of the flat permanent magnet synchronous linear motor is formulated first. Through the analysis of the effect that direct-axis current noise and quadrature-axis current noise have on both direction vibration, it can be declared that the conclusion that longitudinal direction vibration is only related to the quadrature-axis current noise while the normal direction vibration is related to both the quadrature-axis current noise and direct-axis current noise. Then, the simulation test on current loop with a low-pass filter is conducted and the results show that the low-pass filter can not suppress the vibration but makes the vibration more severe. So a vibration suppressing strategy that the proportional gain of direct-axis current controller adapted according to quadrature-axis reference current is proposed. This control strategy can suppress motor vibration by suppressing direct-axis current noise. The experiments results about the effect of K p and T i on normal direction vibration, longitudinal vibration and the position step response show that this strategy suppresses vibration effectively while the motor's motion performance is not affected. The maximum reduction of vibration can be up to 40%. In addition, current test under rated load condition is also conducted and the results show that the control strategy can avoid the conflict between the direct-axis current and the quadrature

  4. Life history trade-offs in human growth: adaptation or pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Silva, Maria Inês Varela; Rios, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Human beings growing-up in adverse biocultural environments, including undernutrition, exposure to infection, economic oppression/poverty, heavy workloads, high altitude, war, racism, and religious/ethnic oppression, may be stunted, have asymmetric body proportions, be wasted, be overweight, and be at greater risk for disease. One group of researchers explains this as a consequence of "developmental programming" (DP). Another group uses the phrase "predictive adaptive response" (PAR). The DP group tends to view the alterations as having permanent maladaptive effects that place people at risk for disease. The PAR group considers the alterations at two levels of adaptation: (1) "short-term adaptive responses for immediate survival" and (2) "predictive responses required to ensure postnatal survival to reproductive age." The differences between the DP and PAR hypotheses are evaluated in this article. A life history theory analysis rephrases the DP versus PAR debate from disease or adaptation to the concept of "trade-offs." Even under good conditions, the stages of human life history are replete with trade-offs for survival, productivity, and reproduction. Under adverse conditions, trade-offs result in reduced survival, poor growth, constraints on physical activity, and poor reproductive outcomes. Models of human development may need to be refined to accommodate a greater range of the biological and cultural sources of adversity as well as their independent and interactive influences. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Simulation and Evaluation of Urban Growth for Germany Including Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hoymann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers in the fields of urban and regional planning in Germany face new challenges. High rates of urban sprawl need to be reduced by increased inner-urban development while settlements have to adapt to climate change and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at the same time. In this study, we analyze conflicts in the management of urban areas and develop integrated sustainable land use strategies for Germany. The spatial explicit land use change model Land Use Scanner is used to simulate alternative scenarios of land use change for Germany for 2030. A multi-criteria analysis is set up based on these scenarios and based on a set of indicators. They are used to measure whether the mitigation and adaptation objectives can be achieved and to uncover conflicts between these aims. The results show that the built-up and transport area development can be influenced both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Strengthening the inner-urban development is particularly effective in terms of reducing built-up and transport area development. It is possible to reduce built-up and transport area development to approximately 30 ha per day in 2030, which matches the sustainability objective of the German Federal Government for the year 2020. In the case of adaptation to climate change, the inclusion of extreme flood events in the context of spatial planning requirements may contribute to a reduction of the damage potential.

  6. Comparative proteogenomics of twelve Roseobacter exoproteomes reveals different adaptive strategies among these marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Oleza, Joseph Alexander; Piña-Villalonga, Juana Maria; Bosch, Rafael; Nogales, Balbina; Armengaud, Jean

    2012-02-01

    Roseobacters are generalist bacteria abundantly found in the oceans. Because little is known on how marine microorganisms interact in association or competition, we focused our attention on the microbial exoproteome, a key component in their interaction with extracellular milieu. Here we present a comparative analysis of the theoretically encoded exoproteome of twelve members of the Roseobacter group validated by extensive comparative proteogenomics. In silico analysis revealed that 30% of the encoded proteome of these microorganisms could be exported. The ratio of the different protein categories varied in accordance to the ecological distinctness of each strain, a trait reinforced by quantitative proteomics data. Despite the interspecies variations found, the most abundantly detected proteins by shotgun proteomics were from transporter, adhesion, motility, and toxin-like protein categories, defining four different plausible adaptive strategies within the Roseobacter group. In some strains the toxin-secretion strategy was over-represented with repeats-in-toxin-like proteins. Our results show that exoproteomes strongly depend on bacterial trophic strategy and can slightly change because of culture conditions. Simulated natural conditions and the effect of the indigenous microbial community on the exoproteome of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 were also assayed. Interestingly, we observed a significant depletion of the toxin-like proteins usually secreted by R. pomeroyi DSS-3 when grown in presence of a natural community sampled from a Mediterranean Sea port. The significance of this specific fraction of the exoproteome is discussed.

  7. Measuring the impacts of adaptation strategies to drought stress: The case of drought tolerant maize varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wossen, Tesfamicheal; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Alene, Arega; Feleke, Shiferaw; Menkir, Abebe; Manyong, Victor

    2017-12-01

    This study measured the impacts of drought tolerant maize varieties (DTMVs) on productivity, welfare, and risk exposure using household and plot-level data from rural Nigeria. The study employed an endogenous switching regression approach to control for both observed and unobserved sources of heterogeneity between adopters and non-adopters. Our results showed that adoption of DTMVs increased maize yields by 13.3% and reduced the level of variance by 53% and downside risk exposure by 81% among adopters. This suggests that adoption had a "win-win" outcome by increasing maize yields and reducing exposure to drought risk. The gains in productivity and risk reduction due to adoption led to a reduction of 12.9% in the incidence of poverty and of 83.8% in the probability of food scarcity among adopters. The paper concluded that adoption of DTMVs was not just a simple coping strategy against drought but also a productivity enhancing and welfare improving strategy. The results point to the need for policies and programs aimed at enhancing adoption as an adaptation strategy to drought stress in Nigeria and beyond. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate change, adaptation strategies and mobility: evidence from four settlements in Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sall, Mohamadou [Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (Senegal); Tall, Serigne Mansour [ONU-Habitat (UN); Tandian, Aly [Universite Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis (Senegal); Samb, Al Assane

    2011-11-15

    This research investigates the impact of climate change on the mobility of people in four settlements in Senegal: Ngueye Ngueye, Gandiole, the Senegal River delta and Ourossogui. A qualitative approach involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups was used to determine how daily life in these communities is being affected by environmental change. Some migrants spend long periods as far afield as Mauritania, the Gambia or Spain, while others stay closer to home, going to places like Saint-Louis, Dakar and Mbour for short periods. Mobility is an opportunity for migrants to generate funds and send money home. It is a key factor in adaptation to climate change, as a strategy for survival and for diversifying incomes. The problems encountered in the ecological study zones are not entirely due to climate change, for migration is also triggered by factors such as the opening of the breach in Saint-Louis or lack of support for rural development. However, climate change is certainly accelerating disruptions and transformations in the study sites. Moreover, while migrants' financial transfers help improve daily life for some families, they also increase socio-economic inequalities between households that include migrants and those that do not. People are moving away from (but not necessarily abandoning) purely agricultural livelihoods and seeking to diversify their sources of income. This may come from migration, or from artisanal activities undertaken in the locality - such as metalwork, woodwork, sewing or hairdressing. Another option that many women have taken is using micro-credit facilities to start processing local produce, crushing groundnuts and preparing cereals to sell at the weekly markets. Other adaptation strategies are developed and adopted through technical innovations or awareness-raising and educational activities. These activities often require institutional support from the State or from NGOs involved in implementing projects and helping

  9. Strategi Pengembangan Daerah Growth Pole melalui Pemanfaatan Potensi Lokal

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    Rusdarti Rusdarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the leading sectors that could be developed in each district in Cilacap Regency as a growth pole area. We use location quotient, shift share, and klassen typology as analysis methods. The research results show that not all of the district at Cilacap regency have a leading sector. Further, districts that have leading sectors are as follows. Wanareja only has a leading sector, i.e. agriculture. Secondly, Kawunganten has two leading sectors, agriculture and finance, rent, and company services. Thirdly, Agriculture becomes the only leading sector of Kampung Laut District. Fourthly, Mining and extraction are the leading sectors of Kesugihan District. Fifthly, Sampang District has buildings and finance sectors as the leading sectors. Sixthly, Kroya District leads in trade, hotel, and restaurant sectors. Seventhly, South Cilacap District leads in mining and extraction sectors. Eighthly, Central Cilacap District has manufacturing, electricity, gas and clean water, building and services as leading sectors. Lastly, North Cilacap District has electricity, gas and clean water, manufacturing, building and services as leading sectors. Abstrak   Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan sektor unggulan yang dapat dikembangkan di tiap kecamatan di Kabupaten Cilacap sebagai salah satu daerah growth pole. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu location quotient, shift share dan klassen typologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak semua kecamatan di kabupaten Cilacap memiliki sektor unggulan. Beberapa daerah yang memiliki sektor unggulan diantaranya adalah  Kecamatan Wanareja hanya memiliki satu sektor unggulan yaitu pertanian. Kedua adalah Kecamatan Kawunganten memiliki dua sektor unggulan yaitu sektor pertanian dan sektor keuangan, persewaan dan jasa perusahaan. Kecamatan Kampung Laut, dimana sektor pertanian pada kecamatan ini sangatlah unggul. Kecamatan kesugihan juga memiliki satu sektor unggulan yaitu

  10. Adaptation to Stochastic Temporal Variations in Intratumoral Blood Flow: The Warburg Effect as a Bet Hedging Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenmier, Curtis A; Siddique, Miriam; Gatenby, Robert A

    2017-05-15

    While most cancers promote ingrowth of host blood vessels, the resulting vascular network usually fails to develop a mature organization, resulting in abnormal vascular dynamics with stochastic variations that include slowing, cessation, and even reversal of flow. Thus, substantial spatial and temporal variations in oxygen concentration are commonly observed in most cancers. Cancer cells, like all living systems, are subject to Darwinian dynamics such that their survival and proliferation are dependent on developing optimal phenotypic adaptations to local environmental conditions. Here, we consider the environmental stresses placed on tumors subject to profound, frequent, but stochastic variations in oxygen concentration as a result of temporal variations in blood flow. While vascular fluctuations will undoubtedly affect local concentrations of a wide range of molecules including growth factors (e.g., estrogen), substrate (oxygen, glucose, etc.), and metabolites ([Formula: see text], we focus on the selection forces that result solely from stochastic fluctuations in oxygen concentration. The glucose metabolism of cancer cells has been investigated for decades following observations that malignant cells ferment glucose regardless of oxygen concentration, a condition termed the Warburg effect. In contrast, normal cells cease fermentation under aerobic conditions and this physiological response is termed the Pasteur effect. Fermentation is markedly inefficient compared to cellular respiration in terms of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, generating just 2 ATP/glucose, whereas respiration generates 38 ATP/glucose. This inefficiency requires cancer cells to increase glycolytic flux, which subsequently increases acid production and can significantly acidify local tissue. Hence, it initially appears that cancer cells adopt a disadvantageous metabolic phenotype. Indeed, this metabolic "hallmark" of cancer is termed "energy dysregulation." However, if cancers arise

  11. The effect of myoelectric prosthesis control strategies and feedback level on adaptation rate for a target acquisition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Ahmed W; Scheme, Erik J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2017-07-01

    The long-term performance of myoelectric prostheses is related not only to the short-term performance of the controller, but also to the user's ability to learn and adapt to the system. Different control architectures may have inherent tradeoffs between their short-term performance and the amount of relevant feedback that informs this adaptation. In this study we focused on the ability of two common types of myoelectric control interfaces: raw control with raw feedback, such as a regression, and filtered control with filtered feedback, such as a classifier, to affect user adaptation. We evaluated trial-by-trial adaptation to self-generated errors during a multi degree-of-freedom target acquisition task by fitting a linear regression model to data collected from 24 able-bodied subjects. Subjects showed significantly higher adaptation behavior to self-generated errors when using raw control with a raw feedback strategy than when using filtered control with a filtered feedback strategy, which suggests that control strategies with more feedback allow for higher adaptation. These results support our hypothesis that feedback-rich control strategies allow users to better understand the myoelectric control system, which may enable better long-term performance.

  12. Recovering from a bad start: rapid adaptation and tradeoffs to growth below a threshold density

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    Marx Christopher J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial growth in well-mixed culture is often assumed to be an autonomous process only depending upon the external conditions under control of the investigator. However, increasingly there is awareness that interactions between cells in culture can lead to surprising phenomena such as density-dependence in the initiation of growth. Results Here I report the unexpected discovery of a density threshold for growth of a strain of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 used to inoculate eight replicate populations that were evolved in methanol. Six of these populations failed to grow to the expected full density during the first couple transfers. Remarkably, the final cell number of six populations crashed to levels 60- to 400-fold smaller than their cohorts. Five of these populations recovered to full density soon after, but one population remained an order of magnitude smaller for over one hundred generations. These variable dynamics appeared to be due to a density threshold for growth that was specific to both this particular ancestral strain and to growth on methanol. When tested at full density, this population had become less fit than its ancestor. Simply increasing the initial dilution 16-fold reversed this result, revealing that this population had more than a 3-fold advantage when tested at this lower density. As this population evolved and ultimately recovered to the same final density range as the other populations this low-density advantage waned. Conclusions These results demonstrate surprisingly strong tradeoffs during adaptation to growth at low absolute densities that manifest over just a 16-fold change in density. Capturing laboratory examples of transitions to and from growth at low density may help us understand the physiological and evolutionary forces that have led to the unusual properties of natural bacteria that have specialized to low-density environments such as the open ocean.

  13. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  14. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

  15. Survival and growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) rangewide provenances and their implications for climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pengxin; Parker, William H; Cherry, Marilyn; Colombo, Steve; Parker, William C; Man, Rongzhou; Roubal, Ngaire

    2014-06-01

    Intraspecific assisted migration (ISAM) through seed transfer during artificial forest regeneration has been suggested as an adaptation strategy to enhance forest resilience and productivity under future climate. In this study, we assessed the risks and benefits of ISAM in white spruce based on long-term and multilocation, rangewide provenance test data. Our results indicate that the adaptive capacity and growth potential of white spruce varied considerably among 245 range-wide provenances sampled across North America; however, the results revealed that local populations could be outperformed by nonlocal ones. Provenances originating from south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec, Canada, close to the southern edge of the species' natural distribution, demonstrated superior growth in more northerly environments compared with local populations and performed much better than populations from western Canada and Alaska, United States. During the 19-28 years between planting and measurement, the southern provenances have not been more susceptible to freezing damage compared with local populations, indicating they have the potential to be used now for the reforestation of more northerly planting sites; based on changing temperature, these seed sources potentially could maintain or increase white spruce productivity at or above historical levels at northern sites. A universal response function (URF), which uses climatic variables to predict provenance performance across field trials, indicated a relatively weak relationship between provenance performance and the climate at provenance origin. Consequently, the URF from this study did not provide information useful to ISAM. The ecological and economic importance of conserving white spruce genetic resources in south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec for use in ISAM is discussed.

  16. Adaptive strategies of Yersinia pestis to persist during inter-epizootic and epizootic periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Gage, Kenneth L

    2009-01-01

    Plague is a flea-borne zoonotic bacterial disease caused by Yersinia pestis. It has caused three historical pandemics, including the Black Death which killed nearly a third of Europe's population in the 14th century. In modern times, plague epizootics can extirpate entire susceptible wildlife populations and then disappear for long time periods. Understanding how Y. pestis is maintained during inter-epizootic periods and the factors responsible for transitioning to epizootics is important for preventing and controlling pathogen transmission and ultimately reducing the burden of human disease. In this review, we focus primarily on plague in North American foci and discuss the potential adaptive strategies Y. pestis might employ to ensure not only its survival during inter-epizootic periods but also the rapid epizootic spread and invasion of new territories that are so characteristic of plague and have resulted in major pandemics and establishment of plague foci throughout much of the world.

  17. Design Of Multivariable Fractional Order Pid Controller Using Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananaithaperumal Sudalaiandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic tuning of multivariable Fractional-Order Proportional, Integral and Derivative controller (FO-PID parameters using Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMAES algorithm. Decoupled multivariable FO-PI and FO-PID controller structures are considered. Oustaloup integer order approximation is used for the fractional integrals and derivatives. For validation, two Multi-Input Multi- Output (MIMO distillation columns described byWood and Berry and Ogunnaike and Ray are considered for the design of multivariable FO-PID controller. Optimal FO-PID controller is designed by minimizing Integral Absolute Error (IAE as objective function. The results of previously reported PI/PID controller are considered for comparison purposes. Simulation results reveal that the performance of FOPI and FO-PID controller is better than integer order PI/PID controller in terms of IAE. Also, CMAES algorithm is suitable for the design of FO-PI / FO-PID controller.

  18. Weighted log-rank statistic to compare shared-path adaptive treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Wahed, Abdus S

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive treatment strategies (ATSs) more closely mimic the reality of a physician's prescription process where the physician prescribes a medication to his/her patient, and based on that patient's response to the medication, modifies the treatment. Two-stage randomization designs, more generally, sequential multiple assignment randomization trial designs, are useful to assess ATSs where the interest is in comparing the entire sequence of treatments, including the patient's intermediate response. In this paper, we introduce the notion of shared-path and separate-path ATSs and propose a weighted log-rank statistic to compare overall survival distributions of multiple two-stage ATSs, some of which may be shared-path. Large sample properties of the statistic are derived and the type I error rate and power of the test are compared with the standard log-rank test through simulation.

  19. An adaptive, object oriented strategy for base calling in DNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, M C; Brumley, R L; Haker, M; Smith, L M

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for the determination of nucleotide sequence from data produced in fluorescence-based automated DNA sequencing instruments employing the four-color strategy. This algorithm takes advantage of object oriented programming techniques for modularity and extensibility. The algorithm is adaptive in that data sets from a wide variety of instruments and sequencing conditions can be used with good results. Confidence values are provided on the base calls as an estimate of accuracy. The algorithm iteratively employs confidence determinations from several different modules, each of which examines a different feature of the data for accurate peak identification. Modules within this system can be added or removed for increased performance or for application to a different task. In comparisons with commercial software, the algorithm performed well. Images PMID:8233787

  20. THE INTERRELATION OF INTOLERANT BEHAVIOUR AND NOT ADAPTIVE COPING STRATEGIES IN INTERETHNIC INTERACTION OF THE ELDER TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sergeevna Igonina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical and empirical research on the interrelation of coping strategies and ethnic tolerance of the elder teenagers. Particular attention is paid to consideration of interrelations of intolerant behavior of teenagers with not adaptive coping strategies. The question is actual for modern society taking into account constantly arising conflict situations of international character. Used in the article methodology of empirical research extend the learning experience of teenagers, allow teachers to differentiate educational process in development of cognitive independence. As a result of the correlation analysis were obtained direct interrelations of ethnic tolerance and coping strategies: the higher the indicators of the choice of not adaptive coping strategies, the higher the performance of the selection strategies of intolerant behavior. The obtained data can be of interest to experts of school level, graduate students, research associates.

  1. Different responses to heat shock stress revealed heteromorphic adaptation strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta.

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    Qijun Luo

    Full Text Available Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1 At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2 After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3 Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle.

  2. Different responses to heat shock stress revealed heteromorphic adaptation strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qijun; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhu, Zhujun; Yang, Rui; Qian, Feijian; Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1) At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2) After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3) Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle.

  3. A Self-adaptive Dynamic Evaluation Model for Diabetes Mellitus, Based on Evolutionary Strategies

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    An-Jiang Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate diabetes mellitus objectively and accurately, this paper builds a self-adaptive dynamic evaluation model for diabetes mellitus, based on evolutionary strategies. First of all, on the basis of a formalized description of the evolutionary process of diabetes syndromes, using a state transition function, it judges whether a disease is evolutionary, through an excitation parameter. It then, provides evidence for the rebuilding of the evaluation index system. After that, by abstracting and rebuilding the composition of evaluation indexes, it makes use of a heuristic algorithm to determine the composition of the evolved evaluation index set of diabetes mellitus, It then, calculates the weight of each index in the evolved evaluation index set of diabetes mellitus by building a dependency matrix and realizes the self-adaptive dynamic evaluation of diabetes mellitus under an evolutionary environment. Using this evaluation model, it is possible to, quantify all kinds of diagnoses and treatment experiences of diabetes and finally to adopt ideal diagnoses and treatment measures for different patients with diabetics.

  4. Adaptive root foraging strategies along a boreal-temperate forest gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostonen, Ivika; Truu, Marika; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Lukac, Martin; Borken, Werner; Vanguelova, Elena; Godbold, Douglas L; Lõhmus, Krista; Zang, Ulrich; Tedersoo, Leho; Preem, Jens-Konrad; Rosenvald, Katrin; Aosaar, Jürgen; Armolaitis, Kęstutis; Frey, Jane; Kabral, Naima; Kukumägi, Mai; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Merilä, Päivi; Napa, Ülle; Nöjd, Pekka; Parts, Kaarin; Uri, Veiko; Varik, Mats; Truu, Jaak

    2017-08-01

    The tree root-mycorhizosphere plays a key role in resource uptake, but also in the adaptation of forests to changing environments. The adaptive foraging mechanisms of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and fine roots of Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula were evaluated along a gradient from temperate to subarctic boreal forest (38 sites between latitudes 48°N and 69°N) in Europe. Variables describing tree resource uptake structures and processes (absorptive fine root biomass and morphology, nitrogen (N) concentration in absorptive roots, extramatrical mycelium (EMM) biomass, community structure of root-associated EcM fungi, soil and rhizosphere bacteria) were used to analyse relationships between root system functional traits and climate, soil and stand characteristics. Absorptive fine root biomass per stand basal area increased significantly from temperate to boreal forests, coinciding with longer and thinner root tips with higher tissue density, smaller EMM biomass per root length and a shift in soil microbial community structure. The soil carbon (C) : N ratio was found to explain most of the variability in absorptive fine root and EMM biomass, root tissue density, N concentration and rhizosphere bacterial community structure. We suggest a concept of absorptive fine root foraging strategies involving both qualitative and quantitative changes in the root-mycorrhiza-bacteria continuum along climate and soil C : N gradients. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Climate Variability, Andean Livelihood Strategies, Development and Adaptation in the Andean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, C.; Quiroz, R.; Zorogastua, P.; Baigorrea, G.

    2002-05-01

    Development programs in the Andes have failed to recognize climate variability as an element that is crucial to the adoption of new alternatives. Dairy, potatoes, improved sheep, forages are all part of the history of development in this region. A combination of climate variability, changes in the economy, the political environment, and land tenure reform shape rural livelihoods and welfare. Diversification, linking to markets, and networking are some elements that contribute to the resilience of families in the Andes. Strategies change, are flexible, and may incorporate non-agricultural activities. While some farmers are able to improve their welfare through the life cycle, others become poorer. Climate variability increases the vulnerability of some groups; in other cases, because of diversification and assets, households build economic portfolios that are more resilient to the elements. The many projects provide insights into how in the long run households improve their environment, hinting at mechanisms to adapt to climate change. In order to understand changing composition of portfolios in future scenarios of spatial heterogeneous areas such as mountains (Andes), estimates of models predicting climate change at a global scale are not useful because their resolution. Therefore, downscaling tools are useful. Spatial heterogeneity is assessed through agroecozoning. Both production and the impact on some environmental indicators are simulated through process-based models, for the Ilave-Huenque watershed in Peru that help in discussing scenarios of adaptation.

  6. Adaptive Transmitter Precoding for Time Division Duplex CDMA in Fading Multipath Channels: Strategy and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Reynolds

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed blind adaptive techniques for multiuser detection in code division multiple access (CDMA systems offer an attractive compromise of performance and complexity. However, the desire to further reduce complexity at the mobile unit has led to the investigation of techniques that move signal processing from the mobile unit to the base station. In this paper, we investigate transmitter precoding for downlink time division duplex (TDD code division multiple access (CDMA communications. In particular, we develop a linear minimum mean square error precoding strategy using blind channel estimation for fading multipath channels that allows for simple matched filtering at the mobile unit and is easy to make adaptive. We also present a performance analysis using tools developed for the analysis of conventional (receiver-based linear blind multiuser detection in unknown channels. We compare the analytical and simulation results to traditional receiver-based blind multiuser detection. It is seen that transmitter precoding offers a reasonable alternative for TDD-mode CDMA when minimizing computational complexity at the mobile unit is a priority.

  7. Ca2+ cycling in heart cells from ground squirrels: adaptive strategies for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.

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    Xiao-Chen Li

    Full Text Available Heart tissues from hibernating mammals, such as ground squirrels, are able to endure hypothermia, hypoxia and other extreme insulting factors that are fatal for human and nonhibernating mammals. This study was designed to understand adaptive mechanisms involved in intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes from the mammalian hibernator, ground squirrel, compared to rat. Electrophysiological and confocal imaging experiments showed that the voltage-dependence of L-type Ca(2+ current (I(Ca was shifted to higher potentials in ventricular myocytes from ground squirrels vs. rats. The elevated threshold of I(Ca did not compromise the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, because a higher depolarization rate and a longer duration of action potential compensated the voltage shift of I(Ca. Both the caffeine-sensitive and caffeine-resistant components of cytosolic Ca(2+ removal were more rapid in ground squirrels. Ca(2+ sparks in ground squirrels exhibited larger amplitude/size and much lower frequency than in rats. Due to the high I(Ca threshold, low SR Ca(2+ leak and rapid cytosolic Ca(2+ clearance, heart cells from ground squirrels exhibited better capability in maintaining intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis than those from rats and other nonhibernating mammals. These findings not only reveal adaptive mechanisms of hibernation, but also provide novel strategies against Ca(2+ overload-related heart diseases.

  8. Strategies to overcome photobleaching in algorithm-based adaptive optics for nonlinear in-vivo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline Müllenbroich, M; McGhee, Ewan J; Wright, Amanda J; Anderson, Kurt I; Mathieson, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a nonlinear adaptive optics microscope utilizing a deformable membrane mirror (DMM) and demonstrated its use in compensating for system- and sample-induced aberrations. The optimum shape of the DMM was determined with a random search algorithm optimizing on either two photon fluorescence or second harmonic signals as merit factors. We present here several strategies to overcome photobleaching issues associated with lengthy optimization routines by adapting the search algorithm and the experimental methodology. Optimizations were performed on extrinsic fluorescent dyes, fluorescent beads loaded into organotypic tissue cultures and the intrinsic second harmonic signal of these cultures. We validate the approach of using these preoptimized mirror shapes to compile a robust look-up table that can be applied for imaging over several days and through a variety of tissues. In this way, the photon exposure to the fluorescent cells under investigation is limited to imaging. Using our look-up table approach, we show signal intensity improvement factors ranging from 1.7 to 4.1 in organotypic tissue cultures and freshly excised mouse tissue. Imaging zebrafish in vivo, we demonstrate signal improvement by a factor of 2. This methodology is easily reproducible and could be applied to many photon starved experiments, for example fluorescent life time imaging, or when photobleaching is a concern.

  9. Flood risk and adaptation strategies under climate change and urban expansion: A probabilistic analysis using global data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Sanne; Güneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Ward, Philip J

    2015-12-15

    An accurate understanding of flood risk and its drivers is crucial for effective risk management. Detailed risk projections, including uncertainties, are however rarely available, particularly in developing countries. This paper presents a method that integrates recent advances in global-scale modeling of flood hazard and land change, which enables the probabilistic analysis of future trends in national-scale flood risk. We demonstrate its application to Indonesia. We develop 1000 spatially-explicit projections of urban expansion from 2000 to 2030 that account for uncertainty associated with population and economic growth projections, as well as uncertainty in where urban land change may occur. The projections show that the urban extent increases by 215%-357% (5th and 95th percentiles). Urban expansion is particularly rapid on Java, which accounts for 79% of the national increase. From 2000 to 2030, increases in exposure will elevate flood risk by, on average, 76% and 120% for river and coastal floods. While sea level rise will further increase the exposure-induced trend by 19%-37%, the response of river floods to climate change is highly uncertain. However, as urban expansion is the main driver of future risk, the implementation of adaptation measures is increasingly urgent, regardless of the wide uncertainty in climate projections. Using probabilistic urban projections, we show that spatial planning can be a very effective adaptation strategy. Our study emphasizes that global data can be used successfully for probabilistic risk assessment in data-scarce countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Night Light-Adaptation Strategies for Photosynthetic Apparatus in Yellow-Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L. Exposed to Artificial Night Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Ja Kwak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants can undergo external fluctuations in the natural light and dark cycle. The photosynthetic apparatus needs to operate in an appropriate manner to fluctuating environmental factors, especially in light. Yellow-poplar seedlings were exposed to nighttime artificial high-pressure sodium (HPS lighting to evaluate night light-adaptation strategies for photosynthetic apparatus fitness relative to pigment contents, photosystem II photochemistry, photosynthetic parameters, histochemical analysis of reactive oxygen species, and plant biomass. As a result, seedlings exhibited dynamic changes including the enhancement of accessory pigments, the reduction of photosystem II photochemistry, increased stomatal limitation, downregulation of photosynthesis, and the decreased aboveground and belowground biomass under artificial night lighting. Histochemical analysis with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT staining indicates the accumulation of in situ superoxide radicals (O2− and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in leaves exposed to the lowest level of artificial night lighting compared to control. Moreover, these leaves exposed to artificial night lighting had a lower nighttime respiration rate. These results indicated that HPS lighting during the night may act as a major factor as repressors of the fitness of photosynthesis and growth patterns, via a modification of the photosynthetic light harvesting apparatus.

  11. Impacts of climate change and CO2 concentration on wheat yield in Iran and adaptation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koochaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Impact of climate change on irrigated wheat yield in Iran was studied using a simulation model under different climatic scenarios. SUCROS-wheat model which was adapted for the effect of CO2 concentration on photosynthetic parameters, were calibrated and validated against observed wheat yield obtained from different regions of country. Interaction effect of CO2 concentration and temperature on wheat yield was simulated at 3 CO2 concentrations including 350 (current, 550 and 700ppm (doubled in combination with increasing mean daily temperature by 0 (unchanged, 1, 2, 3 and 4°C. In addition climatic conditions of the year 2050 were predicted by using GISS and GFDL General Circulation Models (GCM based on IPCC scenarios for the target year. The GCMs were first calibrated by the long term (40 years weather data from 25 stations located in different wheat production regions across the country. Predicted weather data of GCMs were used as the inputs of simulation model after statistical downscaling and generating daily weather parameters. Wheat yield at different regions was estimated for the climatic conditions of the target year with and without increased CO2 concentration. Finally adaptation strategies for improving wheat yield under future climate were evaluated by means of simulation model. The results showed that despite of some deviation between the two GCMs, average temperature will be changed in the range of 3.5-4.4°C with an increasing gradient from West to East and North to South of the country. This warming pattern will be led to the higher frequency of temperatures above 30°C during the flowering stage of wheat in the most regions. Increasing CO2 concentration without warming showed positive effects on wheat yield. However, the effect of CO2 was compensated for by temperature. Based on simulation results wheat yield was reduced when mean temperature was raised above 3°C even at doubling CO2 concentration. Predicted wheat yield for

  12. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Baca

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of

  13. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  14. Challenges and strategies for climate change adaptation among Pacific Island nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahany, Mollie J; Keim, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    Few regions of the world are at higher risk for environmental disasters than the Pacific Island countries and territories. During 2004 and 2005, the top public health leadership from 19 of 22 Pacific Island countries and territories convened 2 health summits with the goal of developing the world's first comprehensive regional strategy for sustainable disaster risk management as applied to public health emergencies. These summits followed on the objectives of the 1994 Barbados Plan of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and those of the subsequent Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World. The outputs of the 2004 and 2005 Pacific Health Summits for Sustainable Disaster Risk Management provide a detailed description of challenges and accomplishments of the Pacific Island health ministries, establish a Pacific plan of action based upon the principles of disaster risk management, and provide a locally derived, evidence-based approach for many climate change adaptation measures related to extreme weather events in the Pacific region. The declaration and outputs from these summits are offered here as a guide for developmental and humanitarian assistance in the region (and for other small-island developing states) and as a means for reducing the risk of adverse health effects resulting from climate change.

  15. The Active Side of Stereopsis: Fixation Strategy and Adaptation to Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaldi, Agostino; Canessa, Andrea; Sabatini, Silvio P.

    2017-01-01

    Depth perception in near viewing strongly relies on the interpretation of binocular retinal disparity to obtain stereopsis. Statistical regularities of retinal disparities have been claimed to greatly impact on the neural mechanisms that underlie binocular vision, both to facilitate perceptual decisions and to reduce computational load. In this paper, we designed a novel and unconventional approach in order to assess the role of fixation strategy in conditioning the statistics of retinal disparity. We integrated accurate realistic three-dimensional models of natural scenes with binocular eye movement recording, to obtain accurate ground-truth statistics of retinal disparity experienced by a subject in near viewing. Our results evidence how the organization of human binocular visual system is finely adapted to the disparity statistics characterizing actual fixations, thus revealing a novel role of the active fixation strategy over the binocular visual functionality. This suggests an ecological explanation for the intrinsic preference of stereopsis for a close central object surrounded by a far background, as an early binocular aspect of the figure-ground segregation process. PMID:28317909

  16. On the Use of Windcatchers in Schools: Climate Change, Occupancy Patterns, and Adaptation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, A; Mumovic, D

    2010-06-01

    Advanced naturally ventilated systems based on integration of basic natural ventilation strategies such as cross-ventilation and stack effect have been considered to be a key element of sustainable design. In this respect, there is a pressing need to explore the potential of such systems to achieve the recommended occupant comfort targets throughout their lifetime without relying on mechanical means. This study focuses on use of a windcatcher system in typical classrooms which are usually characterized by high and intermittent internal heat gains. The aims of this paper are 3-fold. First, to describe a series of field measurements that investigated the ventilation rates, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort in a newly constructed school located at an urban site in London. Secondly, to investigate the effect of changing climate and occupancy patterns on thermal comfort in selected classrooms, while taking into account adaptive potential of this specific ventilation strategy. Thirdly, to assess performance of the ventilation system using the newly introduced performance-based ventilation standards for school buildings. The results suggest that satisfactory occupant comfort levels could be achieved until the 2050s by a combination of advanced ventilation control settings and informed occupant behavior.

  17. An adaptive strategy for reducing Feral Cat predation on endangered hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.; Hansen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the long history of Feral Cats Felis catus in Hawai'i, there has been little research to provide strategies to improve control programmes and reduce depredation on endangered species. Our objective Was to develop a predictive model to determine how landscape features on Mauna Kea, such as habitat, elevation, and proximity to roads, may affect the number of Feral Cats captured at each trap. We used log-link generalized linear models and QAIC c model ranking criteria to determine the effect of these factors. We found that The number of cats captured per trap Was related to effort, habitat type, and Whether traps Were located on The West or North Slope of Mauna Kea. We recommend an adaptive management strategy to minimize trapping interference by non-target Small Indian Mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus with toxicants, to focus trapping efforts in M??mane Sophora chrysophylla habitat on the West slope of Mauna Kea, and to cluster traps near others that have previously captured multiple cats.

  18. Intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in rats with ileal--jejunal transposition or small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2001-01-01

    GLP-2 levels in the intestinal segments were unchanged. In resected rats with reduced intestinal capacity, adaptive small bowel growth was more pronounced following proximal resection than distal small bowel resection. Circulating GLP-2 levels increased threefold in proximally resected animals......, and twofold in the distally resected group. Tissue GLP-2 levels were unchanged in resected rats. The data indicate that transposition of a distal part of the small intestine, and thereby exposure of L cells to a more nutrient-rich chyme, leads to intestinal growth. The adaptive intestinal growth is associated...

  19. Health co-benefits and risks of public health adaptation strategies to climate change: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, June J; Berry, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Many public health adaptation strategies have been identified in response to climate change. This report reviews current literature on health co-benefits and risks of these strategies to gain a better understanding of how they may affect health. A literature review was conducted electronically using English language literature from January 2000 to March 2012. Of 812 articles identified, 22 peer-reviewed articles that directly addressed health co-benefits or risks of adaptation were included in the review. The co-benefits and risks identified in the literature most commonly relate to improvements in health associated with adaptation actions that affect social capital and urban design. Health co-benefits of improvements in social capital have positive influences on mental health, independently of other determinants. Risks included reinforcing existing misconceptions regarding health. Health co-benefits of urban design strategies included reduced obesity, cardiovascular disease and improved mental health through increased physical activity, cooling spaces (e.g., shaded areas), and social connectivity. Risks included pollen allergies with increased urban green space, and adverse health effects from heat events through the use of air conditioning. Due to the current limited understanding of the full impacts of the wide range of existing climate change adaptation strategies, further research should focus on both unintended positive and negative consequences of public health adaptation.

  20. A systems biology approach uncovers cellular strategies used by Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during the switch from multi- to single-carbon growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Skovran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When organisms experience environmental change, how does their metabolic network reset and adapt to the new condition? Methylobacterium extorquens is a bacterium capable of growth on both multi- and single-carbon compounds. These different modes of growth utilize dramatically different central metabolic pathways with limited pathway overlap. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study focused on the mechanisms of metabolic adaptation occurring during the transition from succinate growth (predicted to be energy-limited to methanol growth (predicted to be reducing-power-limited, analyzing changes in carbon flux, gene expression, metabolites and enzymatic activities over time. Initially, cells experienced metabolic imbalance with excretion of metabolites, changes in nucleotide levels and cessation of cell growth. Though assimilatory pathways were induced rapidly, a transient block in carbon flow to biomass synthesis occurred, and enzymatic assays suggested methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase as one control point. This "downstream priming" mechanism ensures that significant carbon flux through these pathways does not occur until they are fully induced, precluding the buildup of toxic intermediates. Most metabolites that are required for growth on both carbon sources did not change significantly, even though transcripts and enzymatic activities required for their production changed radically, underscoring the concept of metabolic setpoints. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This multi-level approach has resulted in new insights into the metabolic strategies carried out to effect this shift between two dramatically different modes of growth and identified a number of potential flux control and regulatory check points as a further step toward understanding metabolic adaptation and the cellular strategies employed to maintain metabolic setpoints.

  1. Adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution in rat mandible during bone growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T; Fujitani, W; Ishimoto, T [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Umakoshi, Y [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-0471 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    Biological apatite (BAp) c-axis orientation strongly depends on stress distribution in vivo and tends to align along the principal stress direction in bones. Dentulous mandible is subjected to a complicated stress condition in vivo during chewing but few studies have been carried out on the BAp c-axis orientation; so the adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution was examined in rat dentulous mandible during bone growth and mastication. Female SD rats 4 to 14 weeks old were prepared, and the bone mineral density (BMD) and BAp crystal orientation were analyzed in a cross-section of mandible across the first molar focusing on two positions: separated from and just under the tooth root on the same cross-section perpendicular to the mesiodistal axis. The degree of BAp orientation was analyzed by a microbeam X-ray diffractometer using Cu-K{alpha} radiation equipped with a detector of curved one-dimensional PSPC and two-dimensional PSPC in the reflection and transmission optics, respectively. BMD quickly increased during bone growth up to 14 weeks, although it was independent of the position from the tooth root. In contrast, BAp crystal orientation strongly depended on the age and the position from the tooth root, even in the same cross-section and direction, especially along the mesiodistal and the biting axes. With increased biting stress during bone growth, the degree of BAp orientation increased along the mesiodistal axis in a position separated from the tooth root more than that near the tooth root. In contrast, BAp preferential alignment clearly appeared along the biting axis near the tooth root. We conclude that BAp orientation rather than BMD sensitively adapts to local stress distribution, especially from the chewing stress in vivo in the mandible.

  2. Transcriptome adaptation of group B Streptococcus to growth in human amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus is a bacterial pathogen that causes severe intrauterine infections leading to fetal morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of GBS infection in this environment is poorly understood, in part because we lack a detailed understanding of the adaptation of this pathogen to growth in amniotic fluid. To address this knowledge deficit, we characterized the transcriptome of GBS grown in human amniotic fluid (AF and compared it with the transcriptome in rich laboratory medium. METHODS: GBS was grown in Todd Hewitt-yeast extract medium and human AF. Bacteria were collected at mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic and stationary growth phase. We performed global expression microarray analysis using a custom-made Affymetrix GeneChip. The normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates at each growth point were obtained. AF/THY transcript ratios representing greater than a 2-fold change and P-value exceeding 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have discovered that GBS significantly remodels its transcriptome in response to exposure to human amniotic fluid. GBS grew rapidly in human AF and did not exhibit a global stress response. The majority of changes in GBS transcripts in AF compared to THY medium were related to genes mediating metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides. The majority of the observed changes in transcripts affects genes involved in basic bacterial metabolism and is connected to AF composition and nutritional requirements of the bacterium. Importantly, the response to growth in human AF included significant changes in transcripts of multiple virulence genes such as adhesins, capsule, and hemolysin and IL-8 proteinase what might have consequences for the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides extensive new information about how the transcriptome of GBS responds

  3. Effect of modeled microgravity on radiation-induced adaptive response of root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chenguang; Wang, Ting; Wu, Jingjing; Xu, Wei; Li, Huasheng; Liu, Min; Wu, Lijun; Lu, Jinying; Bian, Po

    2017-02-01

    Space particles have an inevitable impact on organisms during space missions; radio-adaptive response (RAR) is a critical radiation effect due to both low-dose background and sudden high-dose radiation exposure during solar storms. Although it is relevant to consider RAR within the context of microgravity, another major space environmental factor, there is no existing evidence as to its effects on RAR. In the present study, we established an experimental method for detecting the effects of gamma-irradiation on the primary root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, in which RAR of root growth was significantly induced by several dose combinations. Microgravity was simulated using a two-dimensional rotation clinostat. It was shown that RAR of root growth was significantly inhibited under the modeled microgravity condition, and was absent in pgm-1 plants that had impaired gravity sensing in root tips. These results suggest that RAR could be modulated in microgravity. Time course analysis showed that microgravity affected either the development of radio-resistance induced by priming irradiation, or the responses of plants to challenging irradiation. After treatment with the modeled microgravity, attenuation in priming irradiation-induced expressions of DNA repair genes (AtKu70 and AtRAD54), and reduced DNA repair efficiency in response to challenging irradiation were observed. In plant roots, the polar transportation of the phytohormone auxin is regulated by gravity, and treatment with an exogenous auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) prevented the induction of RAR of root growth, suggesting that auxin might play a regulatory role in the interaction between microgravity and RAR of root growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of the adaptive response and growth upon hyperosmotic shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jignesh H; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K V

    2011-04-01

    Molecular and physiological details of osmoadaptation in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are well characterized. It is well known that a cell, upon osmotic shock, delays its growth, produces a compatible solute like glycerol in yeast to maintain the osmotic equilibrium. Many genes are regulated by the hyperosmolarity glycerol (HOG) singling pathway, some of which in turn control the carbon flux in the glycolytic pathway for glycerol synthesis and reduced growth. The whole process of survival of cells under hyperosmotic stress is controlled at multiple levels in signaling and metabolic pathways. To better understand the multi-level regulations in yeast to osmotic shock, a mathematical model is formulated which integrates the growth and the osmoadaptation process. The model included the HOG pathway which consists of Sho1 and Sln1 signaling branches, gene regulation, metabolism and cell growth on glucose and ethanol. Experiments were performed to characterize the effect of various concentrations of salt on the wild-type and mutant strains. The model was able to successfully predict the experimental observations for both the wild-type and mutant strains. Further, the model was used to analyze the effects of various regulatory mechanisms prevalent in the signaling and metabolic pathways which are essential in achieving optimum growth in a saline medium. The analysis demonstrated the relevance of the combined effects of regulation at several points in the signaling and metabolic pathways including activation of GPD1 and GPD2, inhibition of PYK and PDC1, closure of the Fps1 channel, volume effect on the glucose uptake rate, downregulation of ethanol synthesis and upregulation of ALD6 for acetate synthesis. The analysis demonstrated that these combined effects orchestrated the phenomena of adaptation to osmotic stress in yeast.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein kinase K enables growth adaptation through translation control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Vandana; Okon, Blessing P; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E

    2012-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs) are responsible for orchestrating critical metabolic and physiological changes that dictate mycobacterial growth adaptation. Previously, we established that PknK participates in regulatory pathways that slow the growth of M. tuberculosis in a variety of in vitro stress environments and during persistent infection in mice. In the present study, we have elaborated on the mechanism of PknK-mediated regulation. Through transcription profiling of wild-type H37Rv and a ΔpknK mutant strain during logarithmic and stationary growth phases, we determined that PknK regulates the expression of a large subset of tRNA genes so that regulation is synchronized with growth phase and cellular energy status. Elevated levels of wild-type M. tuberculosis PknK (PknK(Mtb)), but not phosphorylation-defective PknK(Mtb), in Mycobacterium smegmatis cause significant retardation of the growth rate and altered colony morphology. We investigated a role for PknK in translational control and established that PknK directs the inhibition of in vitro transcription and translation processes in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Increasing concentrations of ATP or PknK exert cooperative effects and enhance the inhibitory function of PknK. Furthermore, truncation and mutational analyses of PknK revealed that PknK is autoregulated via intramolecular interactions with its C-terminal region. Significantly, the invariant lysine 55 residue was only essential for activity in the full-length PknK protein, and the truncated mutant proteins were active. A model for PknK autoregulation is proposed and discussed.

  6. Life history of Rhamphorhynchus inferred from bone histology and the diversity of pterosaurian growth strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prondvai, Edina; Stein, Koen; Osi, Attila; Sander, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    Rhamphorhynchus from the Solnhofen Limestones is the most prevalent long tailed pterosaur with a debated life history. Whereas morphological studies suggested a slow crocodile-like growth strategy and superprecocial volant hatchlings, the only histological study hitherto conducted on Rhamphorhynchus concluded a relatively high growth rate for the genus. These controversial conclusions can be tested by a bone histological survey of an ontogenetic series of Rhamphorhynchus. Our results suggest that Bennett's second size category does not reflect real ontogenetic stage. Significant body size differences of histologically as well as morphologically adult specimens suggest developmental plasticity. Contrasting the 'superprecocial hatchling' hypothesis, the dominance of fibrolamellar bone in early juveniles implies that hatchlings sustained high growth rate, however only up to the attainment of 30-50% and 7-20% of adult wingspan and body mass, respectively. The early fast growth phase was followed by a prolonged, slow-growth phase indicated by parallel-fibred bone deposition and lines of arrested growth in the cortex, a transition which has also been observed in Pterodaustro. An external fundamental system is absent in all investigated specimens, but due to the restricted sample size, neither determinate nor indeterminate growth could be confirmed in Rhamphorhynchus. The initial rapid growth phase early in Rhamphorhynchus ontogeny supports the non-volant nature of its hatchlings, and refutes the widely accepted 'superprecocial hatchling' hypothesis. We suggest the onset of powered flight, and not of reproduction as the cause of the transition from the fast growth phase to a prolonged slower growth phase. Rapidly growing early juveniles may have been attended by their parents, or could have been independent precocial, but non-volant arboreal creatures until attaining a certain somatic maturity to get airborne. This study adds to the understanding on the diversity of

  7. Life history of Rhamphorhynchus inferred from bone histology and the diversity of pterosaurian growth strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Prondvai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhamphorhynchus from the Solnhofen Limestones is the most prevalent long tailed pterosaur with a debated life history. Whereas morphological studies suggested a slow crocodile-like growth strategy and superprecocial volant hatchlings, the only histological study hitherto conducted on Rhamphorhynchus concluded a relatively high growth rate for the genus. These controversial conclusions can be tested by a bone histological survey of an ontogenetic series of Rhamphorhynchus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results suggest that Bennett's second size category does not reflect real ontogenetic stage. Significant body size differences of histologically as well as morphologically adult specimens suggest developmental plasticity. Contrasting the 'superprecocial hatchling' hypothesis, the dominance of fibrolamellar bone in early juveniles implies that hatchlings sustained high growth rate, however only up to the attainment of 30-50% and 7-20% of adult wingspan and body mass, respectively. The early fast growth phase was followed by a prolonged, slow-growth phase indicated by parallel-fibred bone deposition and lines of arrested growth in the cortex, a transition which has also been observed in Pterodaustro. An external fundamental system is absent in all investigated specimens, but due to the restricted sample size, neither determinate nor indeterminate growth could be confirmed in Rhamphorhynchus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The initial rapid growth phase early in Rhamphorhynchus ontogeny supports the non-volant nature of its hatchlings, and refutes the widely accepted 'superprecocial hatchling' hypothesis. We suggest the onset of powered flight, and not of reproduction as the cause of the transition from the fast growth phase to a prolonged slower growth phase. Rapidly growing early juveniles may have been attended by their parents, or could have been independent precocial, but non-volant arboreal creatures until attaining a certain

  8. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  9. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B. subtilis sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006 h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Two biomechanical strategies for locomotor adaptation to split-belt treadmill walking in subjects with and without transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgrade, Brian P; Toney, Megan E; Chang, Young-Hui

    2017-02-28

    Locomotor adaptation is commonly studied using split-belt treadmill walking, in which each foot is placed on a belt moving at a different speed. As subjects adapt to split-belt walking, they reduce metabolic power, but the biomechanical mechanism behind this improved efficiency is unknown. Analyzing mechanical work performed by the legs and joints during split-belt adaptation could reveal this mechanism. Because ankle work in the step-to-step transition is more efficient than hip work, we hypothesized that control subjects would reduce hip work on the fast belt and increase ankle work during the step-to-step transition as they adapted. We further hypothesized that subjects with unilateral, trans-tibial amputation would instead increase propulsive work from their intact leg on the slow belt. Control subjects reduced hip work and shifted more ankle work to the step-to-step transition, supporting our hypothesis. Contrary to our second hypothesis, intact leg work, ankle work and hip work in amputees were unchanged during adaptation. Furthermore, all subjects increased collisional energy loss on the fast belt, but did not increase propulsive work. This was possible because subjects moved further backward during fast leg single support in late adaptation than in early adaptation, compensating by reducing backward movement in slow leg single support. In summary, subjects used two strategies to improve mechanical efficiency in split-belt walking adaptation: a CoM displacement strategy that allows for less forward propulsion on the fast belt; and, an ankle timing strategy that allows efficient ankle work in the step-to-step transition to increase while reducing inefficient hip work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  12. Graded-threshold parametric response maps: towards a strategy for adaptive dose painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, A.; Jensen, N.; Chen, J.; Lee, T. Y.; Lock, M.; Wong, E.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To modify the single-threshold parametric response map (ST-PRM) method for predicting treatment outcomes in order to facilitate its use for guidance of adaptive dose painting in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods: Multiple graded thresholds were used to extend the ST-PRM method (Nat. Med. 2009;15(5):572-576) such that the full functional change distribution within tumours could be represented with respect to multiple confidence interval estimates for functional changes in similar healthy tissue. The ST-PRM and graded-threshold PRM (GT-PRM) methods were applied to functional imaging scans of 5 patients treated for hepatocellular carcinoma. Pre and post-radiotherapy arterial blood flow maps (ABF) were generated from CT-perfusion scans of each patient. ABF maps were rigidly registered based on aligning tumour centres of mass. ST-PRM and GT-PRM analyses were then performed on overlapping tumour regions within the registered ABF maps. Main findings: The ST-PRMs contained many disconnected clusters of voxels classified as having a significant change in function. While this may be useful to predict treatment response, it may pose challenges for identifying boost volumes or for informing dose-painting by numbers strategies. The GT-PRMs included all of the same information as ST-PRMs but also visualized the full tumour functional change distribution. Heterogeneous clusters in the ST-PRMs often became more connected in the GT-PRMs by voxels with similar functional changes. Conclusions: GT-PRMs provided additional information which helped to visualize relationships between significant functional changes identified by ST-PRMs. This may enhance ST-PRM utility for guiding adaptive dose painting.

  13. Chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism as adaptive strategies during citrus canker induction by Xanthomonas citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Facincani, Agda Paula; Ferreira, Cristiano Barbalho; Ferreira, Rafael Marine; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboshi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Soares, Márcia Regina

    2015-03-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri strain 306 pathotype A (Xac) was completely sequenced more than 10 years; to date, few studies involving functional genomics Xac and its host compatible have been developed, specially related to adaptive events that allow the survival of Xac within the plant. Proteomic analysis of Xac showed that the processes of chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism are key adaptive strategies during the interaction of a pathogenic bacterium with its plant host. The results also indicate the importance of a group of proteins that may not be directly related to the classical virulence factors, but that are likely fundamental to the success of the initial stages of the infection, such as methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (Mcp) and phosphate specific transport (Pst). Furthermore, the analysis of the mutant of the gene pstB which codifies to an ABC phosphate transporter subunit revealed a complete absence of citrus canker symptoms when inoculated in compatible hosts. We also conducted an in silico analysis which established the possible network of genes regulated by two-component systems PhoPQ and PhoBR (related to phosphate metabolism), and possible transcriptional factor binding site (TFBS) motifs of regulatory proteins PhoB and PhoP, detaching high degree of conservation of PhoB TFBS in 84 genes of Xac genome. This is the first time that chemotaxis signal transduction and phosphate metabolism were therefore indicated to be fundamental to the process of colonization of plant tissue during the induction of disease associated with Xanthomonas genus bacteria.

  14. Redox state, reactive oxygen species and adaptive growth in colonial hydroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, N W

    2001-06-01

    Colonial metazoans often encrust surfaces over which the food supply varies in time or space. In such an environment, adaptive colony development entails adjusting the timing and spacing of feeding structures and gastrovascular connections to correspond to this variable food supply. To investigate the possibility of such adaptive growth, within-colony differential feeding experiments were carried out using the hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Indeed, such colonies strongly exhibited adaptive growth, developing dense arrays of polyps (feeding structures) and gastrovascular connections in areas that were fed relative to areas that were starved, and this effect became more consistent over time. To investigate mechanisms of signaling between the food supply and colony development, measurements were taken of metabolic parameters that have been implicated in signal transduction in other systems, particularly redox state and levels of reactive oxygen species. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy of P. carnea cells in vivo, simultaneous measurements of redox state [using NAD(P)H] and hydrogen peroxide (using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) were taken. Both measures focused on polyp epitheliomuscular cells, since these exhibit the greatest metabolic activity. Colonies 3-5h after feeding were relatively oxidized, with low levels of peroxide, while colonies 24h after feeding were relatively reduced, with high levels of peroxide. The functional role of polyps in feeding and generating gastrovascular flow probably produced this dichotomy. Polyps 3-5h after feeding contract maximally, and this metabolic demand probably shifts the redox state in the direction of oxidation and diminishes levels of reactive oxygen species. In contrast, 24h after feeding, polyps are quiescent, and this lack of metabolic demand probably shifts the redox state in the direction of reduction and increases levels of reactive oxygen species. Within-colony differential feeding experiments were carried out on

  15. Adaptive strategies of Parietaria diffusa (M.&K.) to calcareous habitat with limited iron availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Silvia; De Nisi, Patrizia; Gabotti, Damiano; Tato, Liliana; Zocchi, Graziano

    2012-06-01

    The study of native plants growing in hostile environments is useful to understand how these species respond to stress conditions. Parietaria diffusa (M.&K.) is able to survive in highly calcareous soils and extreme environments, such as house walls, without displaying any chlorotic symptoms. Here, we have investigated the existence of Strategy I complementary/alternative mechanism(s) involved in Fe solubilization and uptake and responsible for Parietaria's extraordinary efficiency. After assessing the specific traits involved in a calcicole-behaviour in the field, we have grown plants in conditions of Fe deficiency, either direct (-Fe) or induced by the presence of bicarbonate (+FeBic). Then, the growth performance, physiological and biochemical responses of the plants were investigated. The study shows that in Parietaria+FeBic, the classical responses of Strategy I plants are activated to a lower extent than in -Fe. In addition, there is a greater production of phenolics and organic acids that are both exuded and accumulated in the roots, which in turn show structures similar to 'proteoid-like roots'. We suggest that in the presence of this constraint, Parietaria undergoes some metabolic rearrangements that involve PEP-consuming reactions and an enhancement of the shikimate pathway. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation: a physiological strategy when mice behaviorally thermoregulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher J; Aydin, Cenk; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Johnstone, Andrew F M

    2014-08-01

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of ~22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller internal organs and longer tails compared to mice raised at 22°C. Since mice prefer Tas equal to their TNZ when housed in a thermocline, we hypothesized that mice reared for long periods (e.g., months) in a thermocline would undergo significant changes in organ development and tail length as a result of their thermoregulatory behavior. Groups of three female BALB/c mice at an age of 37 days were housed together in a thermocline consisting of a 90cm long aluminum runway with a floor temperature ranging from 23 to 39°C. Two side-by-side thermoclines allowed for a total of 6 mice to be tested simultaneously. Control mice were tested in isothermal runways maintained at a Ta of 22°C. All groups were given cotton pads for bedding/nest building. Mass of heart, lung, liver, kidney, brain, and tail length were assessed after 73 days of treatment. Mice in the thermocline and control (isothermal) runways were compared to cage control mice housed 3/cage with bedding under standard vivarium conditions. Mice in the thermocline generally remained in the warm end throughout the daytime with little evidence of nest building, suggesting a state of thermal comfort. Mice in the isothermal runway built elaborate nests and huddled together in the daytime. Mice housed in the thermocline had significantly smaller livers and kidneys and an increase in tail length compared to mice in the isothermal runway as well as when compared to the cage controls. These patterns of organ growth and tail length of mice in the thermocline are akin to warm adaptation. Thus, thermoregulatory behavior altered organ development, a process we term behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation. Moreover, the data suggest that the standard

  17. The Effect of Firm Strategy and Corporate Performance on Software Market Growth in Emerging Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of firm strategies and corporate performance on enterprise software market growth in emerging regions. The emerging regions of Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America, currently represent smaller overall markets for software vendors, but exhibit high growth…

  18. Innovation Vouchers and LEP Structural Funds Strategies. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This factsheet, the first in a series on innovation and growth, provides an overview of the benefits of innovation vouchers, and gives some examples of how universities and Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) are including them in their European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) strategies. [For the second factsheet in the series,…

  19. A Multicultural Personal Growth Group as a Pedagogical Strategy with Graduate Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated a six-week multicultural personal growth group as a pedagogical strategy to support first-year graduate counseling students' (N = 20) levels of ethnic identity development (Phinney & Ong, 2007) and social-cognitive maturity (Hy & Loevinger, 1996). Students' levels of ethnic identity and social-cognitive development…

  20. Human milk fortification strategies for improved in-hospital growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human milk fortification strategies for improved in-hospital growth of preterm infants. JE Kempa* and FAM Wenholda. aDepartment of Human Nutrition, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. *Corresponding author, email: kemridge@absamail.co.za. Human milk is the preferred feed for preterm infants, yet it may need ...

  1. Growth Description for Vessel Wall Adaptation: A Thick-Walled Mixture Model of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytsan, Andrii; Eriksson, Thomas S E; Watton, Paul N; Gasser, T Christian

    2017-08-25

    (1) Background: Vascular tissue seems to adapt towards stable homeostatic mechanical conditions, however, failure of reaching homeostasis may result in pathologies. Current vascular tissue adaptation models use many ad hoc assumptions, the implications of which are far from being fully understood; (2) Methods: The present study investigates the plausibility of different growth kinematics in modeling Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) evolution in time. A structurally motivated constitutive description for the vessel wall is coupled to multi-constituent tissue growth descriptions; Constituent deposition preserved either the constituent's density or its volume, and Isotropic Volume Growth (IVG), in-Plane Volume Growth (PVG), in-Thickness Volume Growth (TVG) and No Volume Growth (NVG) describe the kinematics of the growing vessel wall. The sensitivity of key modeling parameters is explored, and predictions are assessed for their plausibility; (3) Results: AAA development based on TVG and NVG kinematics provided not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively different results compared to IVG and PVG kinematics. Specifically, for IVG and PVG kinematics, increasing collagen mass production accelerated AAA expansion which seems counterintuitive. In addition, TVG and NVG kinematics showed less sensitivity to the initial constituent volume fractions, than predictions based on IVG and PVG; (4) Conclusions: The choice of tissue growth kinematics is of crucial importance when modeling AAA growth. Much more interdisciplinary experimental work is required to develop and validate vascular tissue adaption models, before such models can be of any practical use.

  2. Adaptive pathways and emerging strategies overcoming treatment resistance in castration resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron M. Armstrong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The therapies available for prostate cancer patients whom progress from hormone-sensitive to castration resistant prostate cancer include both systemic drugs, including docetaxel and cabazitaxel, and drugs that inhibit androgen signaling such as enzalutamide and abiraterone. Unfortunately, it is estimated that up to 30% of patients have primary resistance to these treatments and over time even those who initially respond to therapy will eventually develop resistance and their disease will continue to progress regardless of the presence of the drug. Determining the mechanisms involved in the development of resistance to these therapies has been the area of intense study and several adaptive pathways have been uncovered. Androgen receptor (AR mutations, expression of AR-V7 (or other constitutively active androgen receptor variants, intracrine androgen production and overexpression of androgen synthesis enzymes such as Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1, Member C3 (AKR1C3 are among the many mechanisms associated with resistance to anti-androgens. In regards to the taxanes, one of the key contributors to drug resistance is increased drug efflux through ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1 (ABCB1. Targeting these resistance mechanisms using different strategies has led to various levels of success in overcoming resistance to current therapies. For instance, targeting AR-V7 with niclosamide or AKR1C3 with indomethacin can improve enzalutamide and abiraterone treatment. ABCB1 transport activity can be inhibited by the dietary constituent apigenin and antiandrogens such as bicalutamide which in turn improves response to docetaxel. A more thorough understanding of how drug resistance develops will lead to improved treatment strategies. This review will cover the current knowledge of resistance mechanisms to castration resistant prostate cancer therapies and methods that have been identified which may improve treatment response.

  3. Economic evaluation of climate risk adaptation strategies: Cost-benefit analysis of flood protection in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haer, T.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge; Cusell, Carline; Ward, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Economic losses as a result of natural hazards have been rising over the past few decades due to socio-economic development and perhaps climate change. This upwards trend is projected to continue, highlighting the need for adequate adaptation strategies. This raises the question of how to determine

  4. Model-based scenario planning to develop climate change adaptation strategies for rare plant populations in grassland reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Phillips-Mao; Susan M. Galatowitsch; Stephanie A. Snyder; Robert G. Haight

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating climate change into conservation decision-making at site and population scales is challenging due to uncertainties associated with localized climate change impacts and population responses to multiple interacting impacts and adaptation strategies. We explore the use of spatially explicit population models to facilitate scenario analysis, a conservation...

  5. An Interactive Computer-Aided Instructional Strategy and Assessment Methods for System Identification and Adaptive Control Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Necdet Sinan; Eker, Ilyas

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a set of real-time interactive experiments that address system identification and model reference adaptive control (MRAC) techniques. In constructing laboratory experiments that contribute to efficient teaching, experimental design and instructional strategy are crucial, but a process for doing this has yet to be defined. This…

  6. Adaptation Strategy of Seaweed Cultivation to Face the Climate Change (Case Study in Segoro Anakan Bay Ngadirojo, Pacitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrial Nur Amri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The damage of coastal ecosystems are no longer dominated by human activity, but the condition of global climate change were also influenced. Climate change impact on the environment influencing the coastal management paradigm. This study emphasizes on how to develop a adaptation strategy of coastal zone management due to the impact of climate change through remote sensing approach, Geographic Information Systems (GIS, and adaptation strategies analysis. Location of research conducted in the Region of Segoro Anakan Bay, District Ngadirojo Pacitan. The results showed the impact of climate change is affecting the area and production of seaweed culture in the form of tectonic conditions aggravated by silting waters. To combat the effects of climate change, the adaptation scenario is implemented to intensification and extensification of land use, alternative livelihoods, minawisata as a combination of all three.

  7. Adaptive mutations in sugar metabolism restore growth on glucose in a pyruvate decarboxylase negative yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yiming; Liu, Guodong; Engqvist, Martin K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying deletions in all three pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes (also called Pdc negative yeast) represents a non-ethanol producing platform strain for the production of pyruvate derived biochemicals. However, it cannot grow on glucose as the sole...... carbon source, and requires supplementation of C2 compounds to the medium in order to meet the requirement for cytosolic acetyl-CoA for biosynthesis of fatty acids and ergosterol. Results: In this study, a Pdc negative strain was adaptively evolved for improved growth in glucose medium via serial...... transfer, resulting in three independently evolved strains, which were able to grow in minimal medium containing glucose as the sole carbon source at the maximum specific rates of 0.138, 0.148, 0.141 h-1, respectively. Several genetic changes were identified in the evolved Pdc negative strains by genomic...

  8. Growth strategies of tropical tree species: disentangling light and size effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Rüger

    Full Text Available An understanding of the drivers of tree growth at the species level is required to predict likely changes of carbon stocks and biodiversity when environmental conditions change. Especially in species-rich tropical forests, it is largely unknown how species differ in their response of growth to resource availability and individual size. We use a hierarchical bayesian approach to quantify the impact of light availability and tree diameter on growth of 274 woody species in a 50-ha long-term forest census plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Light reaching each individual tree was estimated from yearly vertical censuses of canopy density. The hierarchical bayesian approach allowed accounting for different sources of error, such as negative growth observations, and including rare species correctly weighted by their abundance. All species grew faster at higher light. Exponents of a power function relating growth to light were mostly between 0 and 1. This indicates that nearly all species exhibit a decelerating increase of growth with light. In contrast, estimated growth rates at standardized conditions (5 cm dbh, 5% light varied over a 9-fold range and reflect strong growth-strategy differentiation between the species. As a consequence, growth rankings of the species at low (2% and high light (20% were highly correlated. Rare species tended to grow faster and showed a greater sensitivity to light than abundant species. Overall, tree size was less important for growth than light and about half the species were predicted to grow faster in diameter when bigger or smaller, respectively. Together light availability and tree diameter only explained on average 12% of the variation in growth rates. Thus, other factors such as soil characteristics, herbivory, or pathogens may contribute considerably to shaping tree growth in the tropics.

  9. A Study on the Model of Detecting the Variation of Geomagnetic Intensity Based on an Adapted Motion Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By simulating the geomagnetic fields and analyzing thevariation of intensities, this paper presents a model for calculating the objective function ofan Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUVgeomagnetic navigation task. By investigating the biologically inspired strategies, the AUV successfullyreachesthe destination duringgeomagnetic navigation without using the priori geomagnetic map. Similar to the pattern of a flatworm, the proposed algorithm relies on a motion pattern to trigger a local searching strategy by detecting the real-time geomagnetic intensity. An adapted strategy is then implemented, which is biased on the specific target. The results show thereliabilityandeffectivenessofthe proposed algorithm.

  10. Selection and adaptation of microalgae to growth in 100% unfiltered coal-fired flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Mughal, Tahira Aziz; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have been considered for biological carbon capture and sequestration to offset carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study shows that mixed biodiverse microalgal communities can be selected for and adapted to tolerate growth in 100% flue gas from an unfiltered coal-fired power plant that contained 11% CO2. The high SOx and NOx emissions required slow adaptation of microalgae over many months, with step-wise increases from 10% to 100% flue gas supplementation and phosphate buffering at higher concentrations. After a rapid decline in biodiversity over the first few months, community profiling revealed Desmodesmus spp. as the dominant microalgae. To the authors' knowledge this work is the first to demonstrate that up 100% unfiltered flue gas from coal-fired power generation can be used for algae cultivation. Implementation of serial passages over a range of photobioreactors may contribute towards the development of microalgal-mediated carbon capture and sequestration processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design and analysis of self-adapted task scheduling strategies in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenzhong; Xiong, Naixue; Chao, Han-Chieh; Hussain, Sajid; Chen, Guolong

    2011-01-01

    In a wireless sensor network (WSN), the usage of resources is usually highly related to the execution of tasks which consume a certain amount of computing and communication bandwidth. Parallel processing among sensors is a promising solution to provide the demanded computation capacity in WSNs. Task allocation and scheduling is a typical problem in the area of high performance computing. Although task allocation and scheduling in wired processor networks has been well studied in the past, their counterparts for WSNs remain largely unexplored. Existing traditional high performance computing solutions cannot be directly implemented in WSNs due to the limitations of WSNs such as limited resource availability and the shared communication medium. In this paper, a self-adapted task scheduling strategy for WSNs is presented. First, a multi-agent-based architecture for WSNs is proposed and a mathematical model of dynamic alliance is constructed for the task allocation problem. Then an effective discrete particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for the dynamic alliance (DPSO-DA) with a well-designed particle position code and fitness function is proposed. A mutation operator which can effectively improve the algorithm's ability of global search and population diversity is also introduced in this algorithm. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed solution can achieve significant better performance than other algorithms.

  12. Designing antibiotic cycling strategies by determining and understanding local adaptive landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane P Goulart

    Full Text Available The evolution of antibiotic resistance among bacteria threatens our continued ability to treat infectious diseases. The need for sustainable strategies to cure bacterial infections has never been greater. So far, all attempts to restore susceptibility after resistance has arisen have been unsuccessful, including restrictions on prescribing [1] and antibiotic cycling [2], [3]. Part of the problem may be that those efforts have implemented different classes of unrelated antibiotics, and relied on removal of resistance by random loss of resistance genes from bacterial populations (drift. Here, we show that alternating structurally similar antibiotics can restore susceptibility to antibiotics after resistance has evolved. We found that the resistance phenotypes conferred by variant alleles of the resistance gene encoding the TEM β-lactamase (bla(TEM varied greatly among 15 different β-lactam antibiotics. We captured those differences by characterizing complete adaptive landscapes for the resistance alleles bla(TEM-50 and bla(TEM-85, each of which differs from its ancestor bla(TEM-1 by four mutations. We identified pathways through those landscapes where selection for increased resistance moved in a repeating cycle among a limited set of alleles as antibiotics were alternated. Our results showed that susceptibility to antibiotics can be sustainably renewed by cycling structurally similar antibiotics. We anticipate that these results may provide a conceptual framework for managing antibiotic resistance. This approach may also guide sustainable cycling of the drugs used to treat malaria and HIV.

  13. Differential Evolution with Novel Mutation and Adaptive Crossover Strategies for Solving Large Scale Global Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Wagdy Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Differential Evolution algorithm for solving high-dimensional optimization problems over continuous space. The proposed algorithm, namely, ANDE, introduces a new triangular mutation rule based on the convex combination vector of the triplet defined by the three randomly chosen vectors and the difference vectors between the best, better, and the worst individuals among the three randomly selected vectors. The mutation rule is combined with the basic mutation strategy DE/rand/1/bin, where the new triangular mutation rule is applied with the probability of 2/3 since it has both exploration ability and exploitation tendency. Furthermore, we propose a novel self-adaptive scheme for gradual change of the values of the crossover rate that can excellently benefit from the past experience of the individuals in the search space during evolution process which in turn can considerably balance the common trade-off between the population diversity and convergence speed. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the 20 standard high-dimensional benchmark numerical optimization problems for the IEEE CEC-2010 Special Session and Competition on Large Scale Global Optimization. The comparison results between ANDE and its versions and the other seven state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms that were all tested on this test suite indicate that the proposed algorithm and its two versions are highly competitive algorithms for solving large scale global optimization problems.

  14. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Barrios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7  populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL, ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines, was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08 and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions, winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m. Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall.

  15. Optimization of an Autonomous Car Controller Using a Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Seong Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous cars control the steering wheel, acceleration and the brake pedal, the gears and the clutch using sensory information from multiple sources. Like a human driver, it understands the current situation on the roads from the live streaming of sensory values. The decision-making module often suffers from the limited range of sensors and complexity due to the large number of sensors and actuators. Because it is tedious and difficult to design the controller manually from trial-and-error, it is desirable to use intelligent optimization algorithms. In this work, we propose optimizing the parameters of an autonomous car controller using self-adaptive evolutionary strategies (SAESs which co-evolve solutions and mutation steps for each parameter. We also describe how the most generalized parameter set can be retrieved from the process of optimization. Open-source car racing simulation software (TORCS is used to test the goodness of the proposed methods on 6 different tracks. Experimental results show that the SAES is competitive with the manual design of authors and a simple ES.

  16. Enhanced Differential Evolution Based on Adaptive Mutation and Wrapper Local Search Strategies for Global Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Differential evolution (DE is a simple, powerful optimization algorithm, which has been widely used in many areas. However, the choices of the best mutation and search strategies are difficult for the specific issues. To alleviate these drawbacks and enhance the performance of DE, in this paper, the hybrid framework based on the adaptive mutation and Wrapper Local Search (WLS schemes, is proposed to improve searching ability to efficiently guide the evolution of the population toward the global optimum. Furthermore, the effective particle encoding representation named Particle Segment Operation-Machine Assignment (PSOMA that we previously published is applied to always produce feasible candidate solutions for solving the Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP. Experiments were conducted on comprehensive set of complex benchmarks including the unimodal, multimodal and hybrid composition function, to validate performance of the proposed method and to compare with other state-of-the art DE variants such as jDE, JADE, MDE_pBX etc. Meanwhile, the hybrid DE model incorporating PSOMA is used to solve different representative instances based on practical data for multi-objective FJSP verifications. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method performs better for the majority of the single-objective scalable benchmark functions in terms of the solution accuracy and convergence rate. In addition, the wide range of Pareto-optimal solutions and more Gantt chart decision-makings can be provided for the multi-objective FJSP combinatorial optimizations.

  17. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  18. DYNAMIC AND INCREMENTAL EXPLORATION STRATEGY IN FUSION ADAPTIVE RESONANCE THEORY FOR ONLINE REINFORCEMENT LEARNING

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    Budhitama Subagdja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental challenges in reinforcement learning is to setup a proper balance between exploration and exploitation to obtain the maximum cummulative reward in the long run. Most protocols for exploration bound the overall values to a convergent level of performance. If new knowledge is inserted or the environment is suddenly changed, the issue becomes more intricate as the exploration must compromise the pre-existing knowledge. This paper presents a type of multi-channel adaptive resonance theory (ART neural network model called fusion ART which serves as a fuzzy approximator for reinforcement learning with inherent features that can regulate the exploration strategy. This intrinsic regulation is driven by the condition of the knowledge learnt so far by the agent. The model offers a stable but incremental reinforcement learning that can involve prior rules as bootstrap knowledge for guiding the agent to select the right action. Experiments in obstacle avoidance and navigation tasks demonstrate that in the configuration of learning wherein the agent learns from scratch, the inherent exploration model in fusion ART model is comparable to the basic E-greedy policy. On the other hand, the model is demonstrated to deal with prior knowledge and strike a balance between exploration and exploitation.

  19. Simulating the Impact of Economic and Environmental Strategies on Future Urban Growth Scenarios in Ningbo, China

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    Yan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities in China are challenged by multiple growth paths and strategies related to demands in the housing market, economic growth and eco-system protection. This paper examines the effects of conflicting strategies between economic growth and environmental protection on future urban scenarios in Ningbo, China, through logistic-regression-based cellular automata (termed LogCA modeling. The LogCA model is calibrated based on the observed urban patterns in 1990 and 2015, and applied to simulate four future scenarios in 2040, including (a the Norm-scenario, a baseline scenario that maintains the 1990–2015 growth rate; (b the GDP-scenario, a GDP-oriented growth scenario emphasizing the development in city centers and along economic corridors; (c the Slow-scenario, a slow-growth scenario considering the potential downward trend of the housing market in China; and (d the Eco-scenario, a slow-growth scenario emphasizing natural conservation and ecosystem protections. The CA parameters of the Norm- and Slow-scenarios are the same as the calibrated parameters, while the parameters of proximities to economic corridors and natural scenery sites were increased by a factor of 3 for the GDP- and Eco-scenarios, respectively. The Norm- and GDP-scenarios predicted 1950 km2 of new growth for the next 25 years, the Slow-scenario predicted 650 km2, and the Eco-scenario predicted less growth than the Slow-scenario. The locations where the newly built-up area will emerge are significantly different under the four scenarios and the Slow- and Eco-scenarios are preferable to achieve long-term sustainability. The scenarios are not only helpful for exploring sustainable urban development options in China, but also serve as a reference for adjusting the urban planning and land policies.

  20. Private adaptation strategies and implementation in flood risk management: why people do nothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyros; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    In the past decades, vulnerability assessment has emerged as an important field of research in flood risk management, in particular with respect to climate change and necessary adaptation strategies for the society. Probably starting with Chamber's seminal article on vulnerability, coping and policy (Chambers 1989), and further developed as the causal structure of vulnerability by Bohle (2001) and others, at least two research paradigms exist: an internal side focusing on societal resilience and coping capacities, and an external side targeted at a reduction of negative effects in terms of loss reduction (Fuchs 2009). Despite considerable research effects, however, different definitions and concepts still dominate the debate; it is surely that different scientific disciplines are working with this term: natural scientists, engineers, social scientists or economists, to name just a few. Each discipline defines vulnerability in a way which fits to their disciplinary purposes (Fuchs et al. 2011). But why has there been so little progress in our ability to adapt to flood hazards? White et al. (2001) summarised this paradox in an article with the title "Knowing better and losing even more - the use of knowledge in hazard management". One of the fundamental reasons for the lack of progress is the continuing separation of research on natural processes and socio-economic processes without considering interaction between these systems (Fuchs & Keiler 2013), as well as between scientific research results and the policy implementation (Medd & Marvin 2005). Moreover, as many studies were focused on the vulnerability of least developed societies to natural hazards (O'Brien et al. 2008), there is a particular lack in studies targeted at an implementation of existing adaptation frameworks at the level of highly-developed countries (Field et al. 2012; Scolobig et al. 2012). This gap results in a challenge for attempts to develop formal models into practical application and policy

  1. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  2. Fast growth phenotype of E. coli K-12 from adaptive laboratory evolution does not require intracellular flux rewiring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Christopher P.; Gonzalez, Jacqueline E.; Feist, Adam M.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) is a widely-used method for improving the fitness of microorganisms in selected environmental conditions. It has been applied previously to Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 during aerobic exponential growth on glucose minimal media, a frequently used model organism...... principal components. The distance between measured and flux balance analysis predicted fluxes was also investigated. It suggested a relatively wide range of similar stoichiometric optima, which opens new questions about the path-dependency of adaptive evolution....

  3. The evolutionary strategies of plant defenses have a dynamic impact on the adaptations and interactions of vectors and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Ordom Brian; Nachappa, Punya; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia

    2013-06-01

    Plants have evolved and diversified to reduce the damages imposed by infectious pathogens and herbivorous insects. Living in a sedentary lifestyle, plants are constantly adapting to their environment. They employ various strategies to increase performance and fitness. Thus, plants developed cost-effective strategies to defend against specific insects and pathogens. Plant defense, however, imposes selective pressure on insects and pathogens. This selective pressure provides incentives for pathogens and insects to diversify and develop strategies to counter plant defense. This results in an evolutionary arms race among plants, pathogens and insects. The ever-changing adaptations and physiological alterations among these organisms make studying plant-vector-pathogen interactions a challenging and fascinating field. Studying plant defense and plant protection requires knowledge of the relationship among organisms and the adaptive strategies each organism utilize. Therefore, this review focuses on the integral parts of plant-vector-pathogen interactions in order to understand the factors that affect plant defense and disease development. The review addresses plant-vector-pathogen co-evolution, plant defense strategies, specificity of plant defenses and plant-vector-pathogen interactions. Improving the comprehension of these factors will provide a multi-dimensional perspective for the future research in pest and disease management. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. A Near-Hover Adaptive Attitude Control Strategy of a Ducted Fan Micro Aerial Vehicle with Actuator Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic parameters of ducted fan micro aerial vehicles (MAVs are difficult and expensive to precisely measure and are, therefore, not available in most cases. Furthermore, the actuator dynamics with risks of potentially destabilizing the overall system are important but often neglected consideration factors in the control system design of ducted fan MAVs. This paper presents a near-hover adaptive attitude control strategy of a prototype ducted fan MAV with actuator dynamics and without any prior information about the behavior of the MAV. The proposed strategy consists of an online parameter estimation algorithm and an adaptive gain scheduling algorithm, with the former accommodating parametric uncertainties, and the latter approximately eliminating the coupling among axes and guaranteeing the control quality of the MAV. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified numerically and experimentally.

  5. Design and analysis of full range adaptive cruise control with integrated collision a voidance strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullakkal Babu, F.A.; Wang, M.; van Arem, B.; Happee, R.; Rosetti, R.; Wolf, D.

    2016-01-01

    Current Full Range Adaptive Cruise Control (FRACC) systems switch between separate adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance systems. This can lead to jerky responses and discomfort during the transition between the two control modes. We propose a Full Range Adaptive Cruise Control (FRACC)

  6. Identification of water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat from shoot phenotyping and physiological measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIREZA NAKHFOROOSH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. 12 durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well watered (75 % plant available water, PAW and drought (25 % PAW conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration and physiological (stomata conductance factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types. All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types. Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments.

  7. ADAPTATION TO UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS OF GROWTH: PATHOGENICITY OF ACHOLEPLASMA LAIDLAWII PG8

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    Maxim V. Trushin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:As a result of cultivation of A. laidlawii PG8 cells on the deficient medium during 480 days, the mycoplasma culture adapted in vitro to unfavorable growth conditions was obtained. The culture consisted of cells with sizes less than 0.2 µm and features of A. laidlawii PG8 ultramicroforms, nanocells. A. laidlawii PG8 culture adapted in vitro to unfavorable growth conditions shows more evident phytopathogenicity than the unadapted one. Infecting plants V. minor L. by A. laidlawii PG8 culture adapted in vitro to UGC resulted in the appearance of chloroses in 75%, necrosis – 50%, leaves marcescence – 50% and abnormalities of bine development in 30% of plants through 12 days, while infecting plants by A. laidlawii PG8 culture unadapted to UGC led to respective signs in 40%, 25%, 25% and 0% of samples, respectively, through 30 days. The ability of A. laidlawii PG8 to form UMF resistant to stress factors in UGC with high phytopathogenic potential seems to demand a new approach to investigate the precise mechanisms of interacting the mycoplasma with host organisms.RESUMENComo resultado del cultivo de células de A. laidlawii PG8 en medio deficiente durante 480 días, fue obtenido un cultivo de mycoplasma adaptado in vitro a las condiciones desfavorables del crecimiento. El cultivo consistió en células con tamaño menor de 0.2 µm y características PG8 ultramicroformas de A. laidlawii nanocélulas. El cultivo de A. laidlawii PG8 adaptado in vitro a condiciones desfavorables del crecimiento muestra más evidente fitopatogenicidad que el inadaptado. Plantas infectadas V. minor L. por el cultivo del A. laidlawii PG8 adaptado in vitro a UGC dio como resultado la aparición de clorosis en el 75%, necrosis en el 50%, marcescencia de las hojas en el 50% y anormalidades del desarrollo del bine en el 30% de plantas a los 12 días, mientras que las plantas infectadas por el cultivo del A. laidlawii PG8 inadaptado a UGC, condujo a dichos signos en

  8. Tandem carrying, a new foraging strategy in ants: description, function, and adaptive significance relative to other described foraging strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Benoit; Silverman, Jules

    2011-08-01

    An important aspect of social insect biology lies in the expression of collective foraging strategies developed to exploit food. In ants, four main types of foraging strategies are typically recognized based on the intensity of recruitment and the importance of chemical communication. Here, we describe a new type of foraging strategy, "tandem carrying", which is also one of the most simple recruitment strategies, observed in the Ponerinae species Pachycondyla chinensis. Within this strategy, workers are directly carried individually and then released on the food resource by a successful scout. We demonstrate that this recruitment is context dependent and based on the type of food discovered and can be quickly adjusted as food quality changes. We did not detect trail marking by tandem-carrying workers. We conclude by discussing the importance of tandem carrying in an evolutionary context relative to other modes of recruitment in foraging and nest emigration.

  9. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  10. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesje Coertjens

    Full Text Available The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  11. Divergent Adaptive Strategies by Two Co-occurring Epiphytic Orchids to Water Stress: Escape or Avoidance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating water availability in the arboreal habitat, epiphytic plants are considered vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. Although co-occurring taxa have been observed divergent adaptive performances in response to drought, the underlying physiological and morphological mechanisms by which epiphyte species cope with water stress remain poorly understood. In the present study, two co-occurring epiphytic orchids with different phenologies were selected to investigate their drought-resistance performances. We compared their functional traits, and monitored their physiological performances in a 25-days of drought treatment. In contrast to the deciduous species Pleione albiflora, the evergreen species Coelogyne corymbosa had different root anatomical structures and higher values for saturated water content of pseudobulbs. Moreover, plants of C. corymbosa had thicker leaves and epidermis, denser veins and stomata, and higher values for leaf mass per unit area and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content. However, samples from that species had lower values for net photosynthetic rate (A n), stomatal length and chlorophyll content per unit dry mass. Nevertheless, due to greater capacity for water storage and conservation, C. corymbosa maintained higher A n, stomatal conductance (g s), and instantaneous water-use efficiency during severe drought period, and their values for leaf water potential were higher after the water stress treatment. By Day 10 after irrigation was restarted, only C. corymbosa plants recovered their values for A n and g s to levels close to those calculated prior to the imposition of water stress. Our results suggest that the different performance responding to drought and re-watering in two co-occurring epiphytic orchids is related to water-related traits and these two species have divergent adaptive mechanisms. Overall, C. corymbosa demonstrates drought avoidance by enhancing water

  12. A Supervisory Control Algorithm of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy with Fuzzy PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqi Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new energy management system based on equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS for hybrid electric vehicles. The aim is to enhance fuel economy and impose state of charge (SoC charge-sustainability. First, the relationship between the equivalent factor (EF of ECMS and the co-state of pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP is derived. Second, a new method of implementing the adaptation law using fuzzy proportional plus integral (PI controller is developed to adjust EF for ECMS in real-time. This adaptation law is more robust than one with constant EF due to the variation of EF as well as driving cycle. Finally, simulations for two driving cycles using ECMS are conducted as opposed to the commonly used rule-based (RB control strategy, indicating that the proposed adaptation law can provide a promising blend in terms of fuel economy and charge-sustainability. The results confirm that ECMS with Fuzzy PI adaptation law is more robust than ECMS with constant EF as well as PI adaptation law and it achieves significant improvements compared with RB in terms of fuel economy, which is enhanced by 4.44% and 14.7% for china city bus cycle and economic commission of Europe (ECE cycle, respectively.

  13. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek eWierzchos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits – conceptually called rock’s habitable architecture. Additionally self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another

  14. An Adaptation Strategy to Address Sea Level Rise Along Coastal Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    understanding of acceptable levels of risks, a strategy encompassing the near-term, mid-term, and long term was developed for the projects. Immovable structures such as buildings and vital infrastructure will be raised to above the conservative levels of identified sea level rise. Perimeter improvements would be built to mid-term values with adaptation strategies incorporated into the project documents.

  15. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, under half of the adaptive growth-irradiance, for high-throughput sensing of leaf-water deficit in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

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    Kumud B. Mishra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive and high-throughput monitoring of drought in plants from its initiation to visible symptoms is essential to quest drought tolerant varieties. Among the existing methods, chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF imaging has the potential to probe systematic changes in photosynthetic reactions; however, prerequisite of dark-adaptation limits its use for high-throughput screening. Results To improve the throughput monitoring of plants, we have exploited their light-adaptive strategy, and investigated possibilities of measuring ChlF transients under low ambient irradiance. We found that the ChlF transients and associated parameters of two contrasting Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Rsch and Co, give almost similar information, when measured either after ~20 min dark-adaptation or in the presence of half of the adaptive growth-irradiance. The fluorescence parameters, effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII and fluorescence decrease ratio (R FD resulting from this approach enabled us to differentiate accessions that is often not possible by well-established dark-adapted fluorescence parameter maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F V/F M. Further, we screened ChlF transients in rosettes of well-watered and drought-stressed six A. thaliana accessions, under half of the adaptive growth-irradiance, without any prior dark-adaptation. Relative water content (RWC in leaves was also assayed and compared to the ChlF parameters. As expected, the RWC was significantly different in drought-stressed from that in well-watered plants in all the six investigated accessions on day-10 of induced drought; the maximum reduction in the RWC was obtained for Rsch (16%, whereas the minimum reduction was for Co (~7%. Drought induced changes were reflected in several features of ChlF transients; combinatorial images obtained from pattern recognition algorithms, trained on pixels of image sequence, improved the contrast

  16. Optimal Therapeutic Strategy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Mutated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong SHI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs have been widely used in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, it is still controversial about how to combine EGFR-TKI with chemotherapy and other targeted drugs. We have made a summary on the current therapeutic models of EGFR-TKI combined with chemotherapy/bevacizumab in this review and aimed to find the optimal therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation.

  17. Growth strategy as a mediator of the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies and the performance of SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Endi Sarwoko

    2016-01-01

    Factors affecting the success of SMEs have been widely studied, but generally they only focus on the individual characteristics as a factor affecting the success of SMEs. This study attempts to analyze the role of the growth strategy in mediating the effect of entrepreneurial competencies on SMEs performance. The population consists of the 243 nurturing SMEs in Malang Regency, in which the sample was taken using proportional sampling techniques, and it was totaled 146 SMEs. They were collecte...

  18. Growth strategies of electric utilities in context of deregulation and liberalization of electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Đogić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the growth strategies adopted by the electric utilities sector in the context of changes resulting from the deregulation and liberalization of the electricity market. Strategies pursued by the electric utilities sector were rarely the subject of research in the field of strategic management despite the fact that electricity is an indispensable element of everyday life and the economy as a whole. Therefore, a case study of the largest incumbent electric utilities in the Republic of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia has been conducted, and differences in the degree of market liberalization and core features of these companies have been noted. Research findings have shown that the degree of deregulation can affect the growth strategies of electric utilities. In those countries where the degree of deregulation is lower, electric utilities focus on the domestic market. On the other hand, a higher level of deregulation enables electric utilities to achieve their growth through diversification or innovation. Given the fact that the analyzed electric utilities are operating within relatively small economies, they cannot compete with electric utilities in developed countries, and, apart from international electricity trading, are mostly focused on their domestic markets.

  19. [The effect of "cognitive" and "noncognitive" exposures on the sensitivity to stressor hormones and the choice of adaptation strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Kolesnikov, O L; Tseĭlikman, V E

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data have shown that repeated exposure to both "cognitive" (recognized by the nervous system) and "noncognitive" (recognized by the immune system) stimuli induces so-called "tolerant (resource-preserving adaptation strategy". This strategy is characterized by enhanced hypoxia tolerance, reduced sensitivity to stress (catabolic) hormones, such as glucocorticoids and adrenomimetics, and increased sensitivity to insulin (central anabolic hormone). Such shifts appear more pronounced in case of "noncognitive" stimulation, which is also capable of inducing a hypocatabolic state. Nonspecific immunostimulation associated with repeated stress is considered as an appreciable stress-limiting process despite initial "cognitivity" of stressogenic stimulation.

  20. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested. PMID:27458482

  1. A novel kernel extreme learning machine algorithm based on self-adaptive artificial bee colony optimisation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Ouyang, Jihong; Chen, Hui-Ling; Ji, Jin-Chao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel learning algorithm, named SABC-MKELM, based on a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) method for single-hidden-layer feedforward networks. In SABC-MKELM, the combination of Gaussian kernels is used as the activate function of KELM instead of simple fixed kernel learning, where the related parameters of kernels and the weights of kernels can be optimised by a novel self-adaptive artificial bee colony (SABC) approach simultaneously. SABC-MKELM outperforms six other state-of-the-art approaches in general, as it could effectively determine solution updating strategies and suitable parameters to produce a flexible kernel function involved in SABC. Simulations have demonstrated that the proposed algorithm not only self-adaptively determines suitable parameters and solution updating strategies learning from the previous experiences, but also achieves better generalisation performances than several related methods, and the results show good stability of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested.

  3. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasir Uddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1 the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies as a result of changes in climate; (2 ranking the potential coping strategies based on their perceived importance to agricultural enterprises; (3 identification the socio-economic factors associated with adoption of coping strategies, and (4 ranking potential constraints to adoption of coping strategies based on farmers’ reporting on the degree to which they face these constraints. As a preliminary matter, this paper also reports on the perceptions of farmers in the study about their experiences with climatic change. The research area is comprised of three villages in the coastal region (Sathkhira district, a geographic region which climate change literature has highlighted as prone to accelerated degradation. One-hundred (100 farmers participated in the project’s survey, from which the data was used to calculate weighted indexes for rankings and to perform logistic regression. The rankings, model results, and descriptive statistics, are reported here. Results showed that a majority of the farmers self-identified as having engaged in adaptive behavior. Out of 14 adaptation strategies, irrigation ranked first among farm adaptive measures, while crop insurance has ranked as least utilized. The logit model explained that out of eight factors surveyed, age, education, family size, farm size, family income, and involvement in cooperatives were significantly related to self-reported adaptation. Despite different support and technological interventions being available, lack of available water, shortage of cultivable land, and unpredictable weather ranked highest as the respondent group’s constraints to coping with environmental

  4. Designing Growth Strategies for Romanian Offshore Outsourcing Vendors: Deploying Competitive Intelligence from Indian Software Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta SAMTANI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to derive growth strategies for three Romanian software developers involved in offshore outsourcing, by deploying competitive intelligence on the top offshore players from India. The paper revolves around two key assumptions. One is that Romanian companies are growing the way Indian companies did few years ago and so it would be important to analyse the strategies that they had adopted to reach their present potential. Second, there is a set of factors common to all industry players whether in India or Romania as the industry is global in nature, so it would really be important to collect information about how are these global competitors planning to mitigate the environmental threats and to take advantage of the opportunities being presented by the changes in the external environment. For the three Romanian companies whose managers accepted to be included in our study, the main strategic option they want to pursue is market penetration. Taking cue from the strategies adopted by their Indian counterparts, the study recommends growth strategies for these Romanian players.

  5. Changing Minds with the Story of Adaptation: Strategies for Teaching Young Children about Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Natalie; Smith, Hayley; Kelemen, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Educational guidelines recommend a delayed, piecemeal approach to instruction on adaptation by natural selection. This approach is questionable given suggestions that older students' pervasive misunderstandings about adaptation are rooted in cognitive biases that develop early. In response to this, Kelemen et al. (2014) recently…

  6. Social strategy games in communicating trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation in cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhola, Sirkku; Driscoll, Patrick Arthur; Suarez, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    use of green infrastructure for adaptation. Many of these impacts are difficult to quantify and their interdependencies are often challenging to comprehend. There are a number of outstanding gaps in knowledge both in research and in practice in relation to how decisions are made between adaptation...

  7. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive prolonged exercise training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, L.J.C.; Tipton, K.D.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Meeusen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response prolonged

  8. Salinity fluctuation influencing biological adaptation: growth dynamics and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in a euryhaline bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Meng, Yang; Song, Youxin; Tan, Yalin; Warren, Alan; Li, Jiqiu; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2017-07-01

    Although salinity fluctuation is a prominent characteristic of many coastal ecosystems, its effects on biological adaptation have not yet been fully recognized. To test the salinity fluctuations on biological adaptation, population growth dynamics and Na + /K + -ATPase activity were investigated in the euryhaline bacterium Idiomarina sp. DYB, which was acclimated at different salinity exposure levels, exposure times, and shifts in direction of salinity. Results showed: (1) bacterial population growth dynamics and Na + /K + -ATPase activity changed significantly in response to salinity fluctuation; (2) patterns of variation in bacterial growth dynamics were related to exposure times, levels of salinity, and shifts in direction of salinity change; (3) significant tradeoffs were detected between growth rate (r) and carrying capacity (K) on the one hand, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity on the other; and (4) beneficial acclimation was confirmed in Idiomarina sp. DYB. In brief, this study demonstrated that salinity fluctuation can change the population growth dynamics, Na + /K + -ATPase activity, and tradeoffs between r, K, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity, thus facilitating bacterial adaption in a changing environment. These findings provide constructive information for determining biological response patterns to environmental change. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effectiveness of an Adaptive Quizzing System as an Institutional-Wide Strategy to Improve Student Learning and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Campbell, Eʼ Loria; Phelan, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Exploring ways to help students achieve success in nursing programs is critical to increase retention and the number of nurse graduates. This study examined the impact of an adaptive quizzing system implemented as a strategy to support student persistence and performance measured by use, grades, and graduation. Results indicated that use of the system increased course content mastery and predicted final course grades. Retention and program completion rates were also positively influenced.

  10. Enhanced goal-oriented error assessment and computational strategies in adaptive reduced basis solver for stochastic problems

    OpenAIRE

    Serafin, Kevin; Magnain, Benoît; Florentin, Eric; Parés Mariné, Núria; Díez, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on providing accurate low-cost approximations of stochastic ¿nite elements simulations in the framework of linear elasticity. In a previous work, an adaptive strategy was introduced as an improved Monte-Carlo method for multi-dimensional large stochastic problems. We provide here a complete analysis of the method including a new enhanced goal-oriented error estimator and estimates of CPU (computational processing unit) cost gain. Technical insights of these two topics are pr...

  11. Nutrient allocations and metabolism in two Collembola with contrasting reproduction and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Damgaard, Christian

    2009-01-01

    1.  Physiological mechanisms such as allocation and release of nutrients are keys to understanding an animal's adaptation to a particular habitat. This study investigated how two detrivores with contrasting life-history traits allocated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to growth, reproduction...... and metabolism. As model organisms we used the collembolans, Proisotoma minuta (Tullberg 1871) and Protaphorura fimata (Gisin 1952). 2.  To estimate allocations of C and N in tissue, we changed the isotopic composition of the animal's yeast diets when they became sexually mature and followed isotope turnover...... in tissue, growth and reproduction for 28 days. In addition, we measured the composition of C, N and phosphorus (P) to gain complementary information on the stoichiometry underlying life-history traits and nutrient allocation. 3.  For P. minuta, the smallest and most fecund of the two species, the tissue...

  12. Ancient clam gardens increased shellfish production: adaptive strategies from the past can inform food security today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groesbeck, Amy S; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today.

  13. Renewable energy to develop adaptation strategies to the climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadio, Pieranna; Bergonzoli, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Changes in land use and combustion of fossil fuels have been largest human impact on the global carbon cycle and without a complete accounting of net greenhouse-gas (GHG) fluxes, developing and evaluating adaptation strategies are not possible. The major source of GHG fluxes associated with crop production are soil N2O emissions, soil CO2 and methane (CH4) fluxes, and CO2 emission associated with agricultural inputs and farm equipment operation. This study points out the main principles which are at the base of solar energy use for sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Field tests were carried out in order to compare crop yield and solar pump plant performance, for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, connected to drip irrigation and sprinkler system plants during the irrigation season. The system mainly consists of the parts listed here: set of flat photovoltaic panels consisting of 150 panels for a total of 3000 W peak value once installed, connected in serial-parallel to obtain a 120 Vdc operating voltage rating. The panels utilize 36 serially connected single-crystal silicon cells providing a 12 V voltage rating. The serial connection of 10 panels generates the system's operating voltage rating (120 Vdc). The total 3000 W peak value power is obtained by connecting in parallel 15 serial-strings. When the circuit is open, the voltage at the ends of the panels can reach 210 Volts. The photovoltaic system supplies, through an inverter, a three-phase 1.6 kW canned pump located in the artesian well. The relevant hydraulic line connects this pump to the various utilities. The hydraulic capacity of the helium pump has been used during the irrigation season in order to meet the water needs of a corn crop. Therefore, along with the solar pump was used a dispersing wing type drip irrigation system with double chamber hosing (70 kPa operating pressure), with external holes spaced 0.3 m apart, 0.75 m distance between the wings, wing length 120 m and placed

  14. ADAPTATIONS OF STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES AS ASSISTENCE TO THE PRACTICE OF BADMINTON FOR CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Rebouças de Paiva e Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Children who have intellectual disability plenty of times are deprived from the same opportunities of those who don`t. Concerning sports, these opportunities are still just a few, and in many cases, scarce. In order to make the children learn a sport and use the benefits that it provides, the teacher needs to use teaching strategies and pedagogical resources that give support to the teaching process - learning of the children who have intellectual deficiencies. Having these ideas as the starting point, the project pursued to construct/adapt teaching strategies and pedagogical resources to teach badminton to children with intellectual disabilities. Once week-classes with duration of 50 minutes each (all of them having intellectual deficiency diagnosis have been applied at APAE in Presidente Prudente. Badminton has been developed through the division of its fundaments. Relating to the ability of holding the racquets,it has been observed that 71,4% of the students need an adaptation concerning the pedagogical resources. Relating to the service reception and ball hitting, it has been found out that 100% of the students need adaptation. It was concluded that teaching strategies and pedagogical resources are extremely precious to perfect the teaching/learning process of people with intellectual disabilities.

  15. Sustainability of forest management under changing climatic conditions in the southern United States: adaptation strategies, economic rents and carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Andres; Carter, Douglas R; Adams, Damian C

    2014-06-15

    The impacts of climate change on profitability and carbon storage in even-aged forest stands of two dominant commercial pine species, loblolly and slash pine, in the southern United States were assessed under alternative assumptions about the impact of climate change on forest productivity and catastrophic disturbance rates. Potential adaptation strategies to reduce losses from disturbance included: 1) alternative planting densities, and 2) planting slash pine instead of loblolly pine. In addition, the amount of sequestered carbon was used to develop an index of economic efficiency for carbon sequestration, which further helps rank the suitability of alternative adaptation strategies. Our results indicate that greater economic rents from forests occur with lower planting densities and the substitution of slash pine for high density loblolly pine. However, less carbon is sequestered by low density loblolly pine compared to slash pine and high density loblolly pine. Both adaptation strategies are economically more effective in terms of carbon sequestration compared to the baseline since they generate more economic revenues per Mg of sequestered carbon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ADAPTATION OF CRACK GROWTH DETECTION TECHNIQUES TO US MATERIAL TEST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Joseph Palmer; Sebastien P. Teysseyre; Kurt L. Davis; Gordon Kohse; Yakov Ostrovsky; David M. Carpenter; Joy L. Rempe

    2015-04-01

    A key component in evaluating the ability of Light Water Reactors to operate beyond 60 years is characterizing the degradation of materials exposed to radiation and various water chemistries. Of particular concern is the response of reactor materials to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC). Some test reactors outside the United States, such as the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), have developed techniques to measure crack growth propagation during irradiation. The basic approach is to use a custom-designed compact loading mechanism to stress the specimen during irradiation, while the crack in the specimen is monitored in-situ using the Direct Current Potential Drop (DCPD) method. In 2012 the US Department of Energy commissioned the Idaho National Laboratory and the MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (MIT NRL) to take the basic concepts developed at the HBWR and adapt them to a test rig capable of conducting in-pile IASCC tests in US Material Test Reactors. The first two and half years of the project consisted of designing and testing the loader mechanism, testing individual components of the in-pile rig and electronic support equipment, and autoclave testing of the rig design prior to insertion in the MIT Reactor. The load was applied to the specimen by means of a scissor like mechanism, actuated by a miniature metal bellows driven by pneumatic pressure and sized to fit within the small in-core irradiation volume. In addition to the loader design, technical challenges included developing robust connections to the specimen for the applied current and voltage measurements, appropriate ceramic insulating materials that can endure the LWR environment, dealing with the high electromagnetic noise environment of a reactor core at full power, and accommodating material property changes in the specimen, due primarily to fast neutron damage, which change the specimen resistance without additional crack growth. The project culminated with an in

  17. [Population: evolution of Rwandan attitudes or the adaptation of the Rwanda population to population growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngendakumana, M

    1988-04-01

    A consequence of the increasing pressure on Rwanda's ecosystem resulting from population growth has been that demographic factors have played a significant role in modifying attitudes and beliefs of the population. The history of Rwanda demonstrates a constant struggle for survival in the face of increasing population pressure. Migration, colonization of new agricultural lands, adoption of new crops and new forms of animal husbandry have been responses to population pressures. Recent unprecedented population growth has exceeded the capacity of older systems of cultivation and combinations of agricultural and animal husbandry to support the population. Smaller animals have largely replaced the cattle that once roamed freely in extensive pastures, and new techniques of stabling animals, use of organic or chemical fertilizers, and new tools adapted to the shrinking size of farm plots have represented responses to the new demographic realities. The concept of the family is likewise undergoing modification in the face of population growth and modernization. Children, who once were valued as a source of labor and constrained to conform to the wishes of the parents in return for the eventual inheritance of the goods and livelihood, now increasingly look beyond the household for education and employment. Family land holdings have become too small to support all the members with a claim on them. The greater distances between family members inevitably mean that relations between them lose closeness. The choice of a marriage partner is increasingly assumed by the young people themselves and not by their families. Old traditions of food sharing and hospitality have been curtailed because of the increasing scarcity of food. Despite the changes engendered by increasing population pressure, pronatalist sentiments are still widespread. But the desire to assure the future of each child rather than to await his services, a new conception of women less dependent on their reproductive

  18. Offline multiple adaptive planning strategy for concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Peng; Xia, Ping, E-mail: xiap@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); Pouliot, Jean; Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) can be challenging due to the independent motion of the two target volumes. To address this challenge, the authors have proposed a strategy referred to as Multiple Adaptive Planning (MAP). To minimize the number of MAP plans, the authors’ previous work only considered the prostate motion in one major direction. After analyzing the pattern of the prostate motion, the authors investigated a practical number of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans needed to accommodate the prostate motion in two major directions simultaneously. Methods: Six patients, who received concurrent irradiation of the prostate and PLNs, were selected for this study. Nine MAP-IMRT plans were created for each patient with nine prostate contours that represented the prostate at nine locations with respect to the PLNs, including the original prostate contour and eight contours shifted either 5 mm in a single anterior-posterior (A-P), or superior-inferior (S-I) direction, or 5 mm in both A-P and S-I directions simultaneously. From archived megavoltage cone beam CT (MV-CBCT) and a dual imaging registration, 17 MV-CBCTs from 33 available MV-CBCT from these patients showed large prostate displacements (>3 mm in any direction) with respect to the pelvic bones. For each of these 17 fractions, one of nine MAP-IMRT plans was retrospectively selected and applied to the MV-CBCT for dose calculation. For comparison, a simulated isocenter-shifting plan and a reoptimized plan were also created for each of these 17 fractions. The doses to 95% (D95) of the prostate and PLNs, and the doses to 5% (D5) of the rectum and bladder were calculated and analyzed. Results: For the prostate, D95 > 97% of the prescription dose was observed in 16, 16, and 17 of 17 fractions for the MAP, isocenter-shifted, and reoptimized plans, respectively. For PLNs, D95 > 97% of the prescription doses was observed in 10, 3, and 17 of 17 fractions for

  19. The Role of Identity, Ethnic Stereotypesand Acculturation Strategies in the Adaptation of Migrantsfrom Central Asia in the Moscow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyapina V.N.,

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the study of the of impact ethnic, religious, civil and Russian identities, ethnic stereotypes on the strategies of acculturation and on the adaptation of migrants from Central Asia in the Moscow region. Representatives of two ethnic groupsparticipated in the research: 105 Uzbeks and 96 Tajiks (N= 201. The methods of the study included the scales of acculturation strategies, ethnic and national identities from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project questionnaire. The results of path analysis in AMOS program showed that integration and assimilation are the most successful strategies for migrants from Central Asia: integration contributed to self-esteem, while assimilation promoted life satisfaction. Integration is basically determined by ethnic and Russian identities, whereas assimilation is determined mostly by identification with the country of origin and by Russian identity as well as by the negative impact of ethnic identity. Separation and marginalization do not contribute to self-esteem of the migrants; however, positive heterostereotype of the Russians and Russian national identity prevent the migrants from choosing separation and marginalization. The choice of strategy is largely affected by religious identity. Expressed religious identity has a negative impact on the socio-cultural adaptation of the migrants from Central Asia in the Moscow region.

  20. Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and the Role of Planning Instruments - The Example of the Dresden Region (Saxony/Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J.; Juta, K.; Nobis, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the past, identifying anthropogenic influences on climate change, scenario analyses and issues of climate change mitigation were predominant approaches in climate change research (IPCC 2007). Currently, for instance in Germany, climate impact research on regional level comes to the forefront of research and policy making. Climate change has become an important topic on the agenda of politicians, administration and planning. In order to counteract the (unavoidable) climate change and its impacts it is necessary to develop adaptation strategies. At present, such strategies and guidelines are formulated on international, supranational and national level. The initial point was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 where the contracting states obligated themselves to develop national (and regional) programmes for adaptation. In 2007 the European Commission published its Green Paper called Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe. The paper states that adaptation efforts have to be intensified at different (spatial) levels (local, regional, national, and so forth). Furthermore, coordinating these efforts is of high importance. With the recent agreement on the German Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (DAS 2008) in December 2008, federal government tries to accomplish this task. The German strategy mainly focuses on two elements: decreasing vulnerability and increasing adaptability. While the above mentioned strategies have presented information and policies concerning climate change and adaptation on international, supranational and national level, such documents dońt yet exist on regional level. However, because of their close link to the local level the regions are of high importance for adaptation strategies. Therefore, the Leibniz-Institute of Ecological and Regional Development developed a transdisciplinary project to formulate and implement the so-called Integrated Regional Climate Adaptation Programme (IRCAP) for the Model Region

  1. An inverse modeling strategy and a computer program to model garnet growth and resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Pierre; Giuntoli, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    GrtMod is a computer program that allows numerical simulation of the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of garnet porphyroblasts based on the composition of successive growth zones preserved in natural samples. For each garnet growth stage, a new reactive bulk composition is optimized, allowing for resorption and/or fractionation of the previously crystalized garnet. The successive minimizations are performed using a heuristic search method and an objective function that quantify the amount by which the predicted garnet composition deviates from the measured values. The automated strategy of GrtMod includes a two stages optimization and one refinement stage. In this contribution, we will present several application examples. The new strategy provides quantitative estimates of the optimal P-T conditions whereas it was generally derived in a qualitatively way by using garnet isopleth intersections in equilibrium phase diagrams. GrtMod can also be used to model the evolution of the reactive bulk composition along any P-T trajectories. The results for typical MORB and metapelite compositions demonstrate that fractional crystallization models are required to derive accurate P-T information from garnet compositional zoning. GrtMod can also be used to retrieve complex garnet histories involving several stages of resorption. For instance, it has been used to model the P-T condition of garnet growth in grains from the Sesia Zone (Western Alps). The compositional variability of successive growth zones is characterized using standardized X-ray maps and the program XMapTools. Permian garnet cores crystalized under granulite facies conditions (T > 800°C and P = 6 kbar), whereas Alpine garnet rims grew at eclogite facies conditions (650°C and 16 kbar) involving several successive episodes of resorption. The model predicts that up to 50 vol% of garnet was dissolved before a new episode of garnet growth.

  2. Adapting agriculture to climate change in Kenya: household strategies and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Elizabeth; Ringler, Claudia; Okoba, Barrack; Roncoli, Carla; Silvestri, Silvia; Herrero, Mario

    2013-01-15

    Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are particularly vulnerable to climate change, given dependence on agricultural production and limited adaptive capacity. Based on farm household and Participatory Rural Appraisal data collected from districts in various agroecological zones in Kenya, this paper examines farmers' perceptions of climate change, ongoing adaptation measures, and factors influencing farmers' decisions to adapt. The results show that households face considerable challenges in adapting to climate change. While many households have made small adjustments to their farming practices in response to climate change (in particular, changing planting decisions), few households are able to make more costly investments, for example in agroforestry or irrigation, although there is a desire to invest in such measures. This emphasizes the need for greater investments in rural and agricultural development to support the ability of households to make strategic, long-term decisions that affect their future well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Drought Adaptation and Coping Strategies Among the Turkana Pastoralists of Northern Kenya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Opiyo, Francis; Wasonga, Oliver; Nyangito, Moses; Schilling, Janpeter; Munang, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ... and drought adaptation and coping practices. Standardized precipitation index derived from long-term rainfall data obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Service was used to quantify different degrees of drought intensity between 1950 and 2012...

  4. Strategy as practice:recursiveness, adaptation, and practices-in-use

    OpenAIRE

    Jarzabkowski, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, a social theory framework is developed to explain the common themes of recursive and adaptive practice underpinning the existing strategic management literature. In practice, there is a coexistent tension between recursive and adaptive forms of strategic action that spans multiple levels from macro-institutional and competitive contexts to within-firm levels of analysis to individual cognition. This tension may be better understood by examining how management practices are us...

  5. CLIMATE CHAGE IMPACTS OF RURAL SOCIETIES: STAKEHOLDERS PERCEPTIONS AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    Urcola, Hernán A.; Elverdin, Julio; Mosciaro, Mirna; Albaladejo, Christophe; Manchado, Juan C.; Giussepucci, Juan F.

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; Heavily dependent on agriculture, Argentinean stakeholders must prepare to adapt their activities to a different climate. However, the country does not have an agricultural adaptation plan. A space of joint discussion and participatory planning among farmers, scientific researchers, firm managers and government representatives can increase the preparedness to cope with the impacts of climate change. This research uses individual and group i...

  6. A plasmonic colorimetric strategy for biosensing through enzyme guided growth of silver nanoparticles on gold nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuehua; Wu, Jie; Li, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-15

    A plasmonic colorimetric strategy was designed for sensitive detection of biomolecules through enzyme guided silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) growth on gold nanostars (AuNS). The growth of AgNPs on AuNS led to a substantial blue shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak and the color change of AuNS from blue to dark blue, purple and ultimately orange. Both the LSPR blueshift wavelength and the color of detection solution containing AuNS, Ag(+) and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) depend on the amount of enzyme that catalyzed the dephosphorylation of AAP to reduce Ag(+) on AuNS surface. Thus this strategy could be used for LSPR and naked-eye detections of both the enzyme such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biomolecules involved in biorecognition events using ALP as a tag. The LSPR detection method for ALP showed a linear range from 1.0 pM to 25 nM with a detection limit of 0.5 pM. Using DNA as a mode target molecule, this technique showed a detection range from 10 fM to 50 pM DNA with a detection limit of 2.6 fM through the convenient combination with hybridization chain reaction amplification. The proposed plasmonic colorimetric strategy could be extended as a general analytical platform for design of immunosensors and aptasensors with ALP as a label. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of mixotrophic to cyclic autotrophic/heterotrophic growth strategies to optimize productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenen, Jonathan Myerson; De Francisci, Davide; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    to autotrophic growth. Chlorella sorokiniana was cultivated in medium supplemented with sodium acetate in concentrations equivalent to the volatile fatty acid concentration found in anaerobic digester effluent. Flat-panel photobioreactors were operated using 16:8 light:dark cycles, with different strategies...... for acetate addition. Acetate was added during the light period for the mixotrophic strategy and during the dark one for the cyclic autotrophic/heterotrophic strategy. Autotrophic productivity of up to 0.99 g L−1 day−1 was obtained using the optimal tested dilution rate of 0.031 h−1. The highest mixotrophic...... productivity was 1.04 g L−1 day−1. When a constant dilution rate was applied throughout the day, cyclic heterotrophy/autotrophy (1.2 g L−1 day−1) showed higher productivity than during mixotrophic growth, while using only half as much acetate. By diluting and adding acetate only during the eight dark hours...

  8. Comparison of 3D Adaptive Remeshing Strategies for Finite Element Simulations of Electromagnetic Heating of Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhil Mezghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles are well known, but the study of their thermal behavior is in its infancy. However the local heating of surrounding medium, induced by illuminated nanostructures, opens the way to new sensors and devices. Consequently the accurate calculation of the electromagnetically induced heating of nanostructures is of interest. The proposed multiphysics problem cannot be directly solved with the classical refinement method of Comsol Multiphysics and a 3D adaptive remeshing process based on an a posteriori error estimator is used. In this paper the efficiency of three remeshing strategies for solving the multiphysics problem is compared. The first strategy uses independent remeshing for each physical quantity to reach a given accuracy. The second strategy only controls the accuracy on temperature. The third strategy uses a linear combination of the two normalized targets (the electric field intensity and the temperature. The analysis of the performance of each strategy is based on the convergence of the remeshing process in terms of number of elements. The efficiency of each strategy is also characterized by the number of computation iterations, the number of elements, the CPU time, and the RAM required to achieve a given target accuracy.

  9. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  10. Adaptive Strategy for Online Gait Learning Evaluated on the Polymorphic Robotic LocoKit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johan Christensen, David; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper

    This paper presents experiments with a morphologyindependent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits, performed on a quadruped robot build using the LockKit robotic building kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters...... of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. In future work we plan to study co-learning...

  11. Metabolomic Profiling of 13 Diatom Cultures and Their Adaptation to Nitrate-Limited Growth Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromke, Mariusz A.; Sabir, Jamal S.; Alfassi, Fahad A.; Hajarah, Nahid H.; Kabli, Saleh A.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Ashworth, Matt P.; Méret, Michaël; Jansen, Robert K.; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Diatoms are very efficient in their use of available nutrients. Changes in nutrient availability influence the metabolism and the composition of the cell constituents. Since diatoms are valuable candidates to search for oil producing algae, measurements of diatom-produced compounds can be very useful for biotechnology. In order to explore the diversity of lipophilic compounds produced by diatoms, we describe the results from an analysis of 13 diatom strains. With the help of a lipidomics platform, which combines an UPLC separation with a high resolution/high mass accuracy mass spectrometer, we were able to measure and annotate 142 lipid species. Out of these, 32 were present in all 13 cultures. The annotated lipid features belong to six classes of glycerolipids. The data obtained from the measurements were used to create lipidomic profiles. The metabolomic overview of analysed cultures is amended by the measurement of 96 polar compounds. To further increase the lipid diversity and gain insight into metabolomic adaptation to nitrogen limitation, diatoms were cultured in media with high and low concentrations of nitrate. The growth in nitrogen-deplete or nitrogen-replete conditions affects metabolite accumulation but has no major influence on the species-specific metabolomic profile. Thus, the genetic component is stronger in determining metabolic patterns than nitrogen levels. Therefore, lipid profiling is powerful enough to be used as a molecular fingerprint for diatom cultures. Furthermore, an increase of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation was observed in low nitrogen samples, although this trend was not consistent across all 13 diatom strains. Overall, our results expand the current understanding of metabolomics diversity in diatoms and confirm their potential value for producing lipids for either bioenergy or as feed stock. PMID:26440112

  12. Metabolomic Profiling of 13 Diatom Cultures and Their Adaptation to Nitrate-Limited Growth Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz A Bromke

    Full Text Available Diatoms are very efficient in their use of available nutrients. Changes in nutrient availability influence the metabolism and the composition of the cell constituents. Since diatoms are valuable candidates to search for oil producing algae, measurements of diatom-produced compounds can be very useful for biotechnology. In order to explore the diversity of lipophilic compounds produced by diatoms, we describe the results from an analysis of 13 diatom strains. With the help of a lipidomics platform, which combines an UPLC separation with a high resolution/high mass accuracy mass spectrometer, we were able to measure and annotate 142 lipid species. Out of these, 32 were present in all 13 cultures. The annotated lipid features belong to six classes of glycerolipids. The data obtained from the measurements were used to create lipidomic profiles. The metabolomic overview of analysed cultures is amended by the measurement of 96 polar compounds. To further increase the lipid diversity and gain insight into metabolomic adaptation to nitrogen limitation, diatoms were cultured in media with high and low concentrations of nitrate. The growth in nitrogen-deplete or nitrogen-replete conditions affects metabolite accumulation but has no major influence on the species-specific metabolomic profile. Thus, the genetic component is stronger in determining metabolic patterns than nitrogen levels. Therefore, lipid profiling is powerful enough to be used as a molecular fingerprint for diatom cultures. Furthermore, an increase of triacylglycerol (TAG accumulation was observed in low nitrogen samples, although this trend was not consistent across all 13 diatom strains. Overall, our results expand the current understanding of metabolomics diversity in diatoms and confirm their potential value for producing lipids for either bioenergy or as feed stock.

  13. Differences in context and feedback result in different trajectories and adaptation strategies in reaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzie Arce

    Full Text Available Computational models of motor control have often explained the straightness of horizontal planar reaching movements as a consequence of optimal control. Departure from rectilinearity is thus regarded as sub-optimal. Here we examine if subjects may instead select to make curved trajectories following adaptation to force fields and visuomotor rotations. Separate subjects adapted to force fields with or without visual feedback of their hand trajectory and were retested after 24 hours. Following adaptation, comparable accuracies were achieved in two ways: with visual feedback, adapted trajectories in force fields were straight whereas without it, they remained curved. The results suggest that trajectory shape is not always straight, but is also influenced by the calibration of available feedback signals for the state estimation required by the task. In a follow-up experiment, where additional subjects learned a visuomotor rotation immediately after force field, the trajectories learned in force fields (straight or curved were transferred when directions of the perturbations were similar but not when directions were opposing. This demonstrates a strong bias by prior experience to keep using a recently acquired control policy that continues to produce successful performance inspite of differences in tasks and feedback conditions. On relearning of force fields on the second day, facilitation by intervening visuomotor rotations occurred only when required motor adjustments and calibration of feedback signals were similar in both tasks. These results suggest that both the available feedback signals and prior history of learning influence the choice and maintenance of control policy during adaptations.

  14. Nomadic-colonial life strategies enable paradoxical survival and growth despite habitat destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zong Xuan; Cheong, Kang Hao

    2017-01-13

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral or phenotypic diversity to improve population fitness in the face of environmental variability. When each behavior or phenotype is individually maladaptive, alternating between these losing strategies can counter-intuitively result in population persistence-an outcome similar to the Parrondo's paradox. Instead of the capital or history dependence that characterize traditional Parrondo games, most ecological models which exhibit such paradoxical behavior depend on the presence of exogenous environmental variation. Here we present a population model that exhibits Parrondo's paradox through capital and history-dependent dynamics. Two sub-populations comprise our model: nomads, who live independently without competition or cooperation, and colonists, who engage in competition, cooperation, and long-term habitat destruction. Nomads and colonists may alternate behaviors in response to changes in the colonial habitat. Even when nomadism and colonialism individually lead to extinction, switching between these strategies at the appropriate moments can paradoxically enable both population persistence and long-term growth.

  15. Economic analysis of adaptive strategies for flood risk management under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.; Ierland, van E.C.; Gabbert, S.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change requires reconsideration of flood risk management strategies. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA), an economic decision-support tool, has been widely applied to assess these strategies. This paper aims to describe and discuss probabilistic extensions of CBA to identify welfare-maximising

  16. Coping Strategies for Adaptation to New Teacher Appointments: Intervention for Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharplin, Elaine; O'Neill, Marnie; Chapman, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Findings are presented from a qualitative longitudinal collective case study of 29 teachers newly appointed to rural or remote schools in Western Australia. All participants experienced stress and articulated coping strategies in response: direct-action, palliative and avoidant strategies. Where protective structures and processes existed in…

  17. COREDAR: COmmunicating Risk of sea level rise and Engaging stakeholDers in framing community based Adaptation stRategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsad Ibrahim Khan, S. K.; Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Andimuthu, R.; Kandasamy, P.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) is a major long term outcome of climate change leading to increased inundation of low-lying areas. Particularly, global cities that are located on or near the coasts are often situated in low lying areas and these locations put global cities at greater risk to SLR. Localized flooding will profoundly impact vulnerable communities located in high-risk urban areas. Building community resilience and adapting to SLR is increasingly a high priority for cities. On the other hand, Article 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change addresses the importance of climate change communication and engaging stakeholders in decision making process. Importantly, Community Based Adaptation (CBA) experiences emphasize that it is important to understand a community's unique perceptions of their adaptive capacities to identify useful solutions and that scientific and technical information on anticipated coastal climate impacts needs to be translated into a suitable language and format that allows people to be able to participate in adaptation planning. To address this challenge, this study has put forth three research questions from the lens of urban community engagement in SLR adaptation, (1) What, if any, community engagement in addressing SLR occurring in urban areas; (2) What information do communities need and how does it need to be communicated, in order to be better prepared and have a greater sense of agency? and (3) How can government agencies from city to federal levels facilitate community engagement and action?. To answer these questions this study has evolved a framework "COREDAR" (COmmunicating Risk of sea level rise and Engaging stakeholDers in framing community based Adaptation StRategies) to communicate and transfer complex climate data and information such as projected SLR under different scenarios of IPCC AR5, predicted impact of SLR, prioritizing vulnerability, etc. to concerned stakeholders and local communities

  18. Composite growth factor supplementation strategies to enhance tenocyte bioactivity in aligned collagen-GAG scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, Steven R; Harley, Brendan A C

    2013-05-01

    Biomolecular environments encountered in vivo are complex and dynamic, with combinations of biomolecules presented in both freely diffusible (liquid-phase) and sequestered (bound to the extracellular matrix) states. Strategies for integrating multiple biomolecular signals into a biomimetic scaffold provide a platform to simultaneously control multiple cell activities, such as motility, proliferation, phenotype, and regenerative potential. Here we describe an investigation elucidating the influence of the dose and mode of presentation (soluble, sequestered) of five biomolecules (stromal cell-derived factor 1α [SDF-1α], platelet-derived growth factor BB [PDGF-BB], insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], and growth/differentiation factor 5 [GDF-5]) on the recruitment, proliferation, collagen synthesis, and genomic stability of equine tenocytes within an anisotropic collagen-GAG scaffold for tendon regeneration applications. Critically, we found that single factors led to a dose-dependent trade-off between driving tenocyte proliferation (PDGF-BB, IGF-1) versus maintenance of a tenocyte phenotype (GDF-5, bFGF). We identified supplementation schemes using factor pairs (IGF-1, GDF-5) to rescue the tenocyte phenotype and gene expression profiles while simultaneously driving proliferation. These results suggest coincident application of multi-biomolecule cocktails has a significant value in regenerative medicine applications where control of cell proliferation and phenotype are required. Finally, we demonstrated an immobilization strategy that allows efficient sequestration of bioactive levels of these factors within the scaffold network. We showed sequestration can lead to a greater sustained bioactivity than soluble supplementation, making this approach particularly amenable to in vivo translation where diffusive loss is a concern and continuous biomolecule supplementation is not feasible.

  19. Money supply growth and inflation – the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to find out whether there is a significant relationship between money supply growth and inflation in the Eurozone. For this reason, the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank (ECB has been evaluated. Since the establishment of the ECB in January 1999 to May 2003 the ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consisted of three main elements: a quantitative definition of price stability, a prominent role for money in the assessment of risks to price stability (aggregate M3 as a reference value, and a broadly based assessment of the outlook for price developments. Nevertheless, since May 2003 M3 or any other monetary aggregate has lost its prominent role in the ECB‘s strategy. Therefore the nowadays ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consists of a quantitative definition of the primary objective of price stability and an analytical framework based on two pillars – economic analysis and monetary analysis. These two pillars are used by the ECB‘s Governing Council in the overall assessment of risks to price stability and in monetary policy decisions.The empirical part of this article is based on time series correlation between money supply growth and inflation in selected member countries of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU - Eurozone during the period 1995–2005. The time series are divided into two parts. The first part covers data for selected member countries of the European Union from 1995 till 1998, i.e. before the establishment of the EMU. Whereas the second part includes data for the whole Eurozone since its official start in 1999 to 2005. The time series are adjusted by SARIMA models.

  20. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: Are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis...... and L. major, but no other relationships between plant characteristics and habitat conditions were apparent. This implies that within-species differences in plant size can be explained by local nutrient conditions. All together this strongly suggests that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to a wide......Background and Aims: The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important...

  1. Near optimal power allocation algorithm for OFDM-based cognitive using adaptive relaying strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    Relayed transmission increases the coverage and achievable capacity of communication systems. Adaptive relaying scheme is a relaying technique by which the benefits of the amplifying or decode and forward techniques can be achieved by switching the forwarding technique according to the quality of the signal. A cognitive Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based adaptive relaying protocol is considered in this paper. The objective is to maximize the capacity of the cognitive radio system while ensuring that the interference introduced to the primary user is below the tolerated limit. A Near optimal power allocation in the source and the relay is presented for two pairing techniques such that the matching and random pairing. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol, and the consequence of choice of pairing technique. © 2012 ICST.

  2. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive response to prolonged exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Luc J C; Tipton, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the individual athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the impact of dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Proper nutritional coaching should be applied throughout both training and competition, each with their specific requirements regarding nutrient provision. Such dietary support will improve exercise training efficiency and, as such, further increase performance capacity. Here, we provide an overview on the properties of various nutritional interventions that may be useful to support the adaptive response to exercise training and competition and, as such, to augment exercise training efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. How will the EU climate adaptation strategy affect EU agricultural policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Karali, Eleni; Castellari, Sergio

    as an area to be climate proofed. The CAP is under revision and will be reformed for the 2014-2020 period with the explicit objectives of strengthening the competitiveness and the sustainability of agriculture (EC). Climate change adaptation objectives are included in the proposal for a greening...... of the single payment scheme (2011/0280 (COD), and the proposal for the Rural Development Fund also specifically sets out climate change adaptation as a cross-cutting objective to which rural development funding must contribute 2011/0282 (COD). This paper therefore examines the most important challenges...

  4. A Monte Carlo/response surface strategy for sensitivity analysis: application to a dynamic model of vegetative plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. T.; Gold, H. J.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    We describe the application of a strategy for conducting a sensitivity analysis for a complex dynamic model. The procedure involves preliminary screening of parameter sensitivities by numerical estimation of linear sensitivity coefficients, followed by generation of a response surface based on Monte Carlo simulation. Application is to a physiological model of the vegetative growth of soybean plants. The analysis provides insights as to the relative importance of certain physiological processes in controlling plant growth. Advantages and disadvantages of the strategy are discussed.

  5. Effect of experimental muscle pain on the acquisition and retention of locomotor adaptation: different motor strategies for a similar performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jason; Salomoni, Sauro Emerick; Mercier, Catherine; Tucker, Kylie J; Roy, Jean-Sebastien; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul W; Bouyer, Laurent J

    2018-01-24

    As individuals with musculoskeletal disorders often experience motor impairments, contemporary rehabilitation relies heavily on the use of motor learning principles. However, motor impairments are often associated with pain. While there is substantial evidence that muscle pain interferes with motor control, much less is known on its impact on motor learning, especially on locomotor learning. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of muscle pain on locomotor learning. Two groups (Pain and Control) of healthy participants performed a locomotor adaptation task (robotized ankle-foot orthosis perturbing ankle movements during swing) on two consecutive days. On Day 1 (acquisition), hypertonic saline was injected in the Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle of the Pain group participants, while Control group participants were pain-free. All participants were pain-free on Day 2 (retention). Changes in movement errors caused by the perturbation were assessed as an indicator of motor performance. Detailed analysis of kinematic and electromyographic data provided information about motor strategies. No between-group differences were observed on motor performance measured during the acquisition and retention phases. However, Pain group participants had a residual movement error later in the swing phase and smaller early TA activation than Control group participants, thereby suggesting a reduction in the use of anticipatory motor strategies to overcome the perturbation. Muscle pain did not interfere with global motor performance during locomotor adaptation. The different motor strategies used in the presence of muscle pain may reflect a diminished ability to anticipate the consequences of a perturbation.

  6. Research and Application Based on Adaptive Boosting Strategy and Modified CGFPA Algorithm: A Case Study for Wind Speed Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiani Heng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is increasingly considered one of the most promising sustainable energy sources for its characteristics of cleanliness without any pollution. Wind speed forecasting is a vital problem in wind power industry. However, individual forecasting models ignore the significance of data preprocessing and model parameter optimization, which may lead to poor forecasting performance. In this paper, a novel hybrid [k, Bt] -ABBP (back propagation based on adaptive strategy with parameters k and Bt model was developed based on an adaptive boosting (AB strategy that integrates several BP (back propagation neural networks for wind speed forecasting. The fast ensemble empirical mode decomposition technique is initially conducted in the preprocessing stage to reconstruct data, while a novel modified FPA (flower pollination algorithm incorporating a conjugate gradient (CG is proposed for searching for the optimal parameters of the [k, Bt] -ABBP mode. The case studies of five wind power stations in Penglai, China are used as illustrative examples for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of the developed hybrid forecast strategy. Numerical results show that the developed hybrid model is simple and can satisfactorily approximate the actual wind speed series. Therefore, the developed hybrid model can be an effective tool in mining and analysis for wind power plants.

  7. Increasing costs due to ocean acidification drives phytoplankton to be more heavily calcified: optimal growth strategy of coccolithophores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Irie

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump. Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing from this approach. We thus constructed an optimality model to evaluate the evolutionary response of coccolithophorid life history, assuming that their exoskeleton (coccolith serves to reduce the instantaneous mortality rates. Our model predicted that natural selection favors constructing more heavily calcified exoskeleton in response to increased acidification-driven costs. This counter-intuitive response occurs because the fitness benefit of choosing a better-defended, slower growth strategy in more acidic conditions, outweighs that of accelerating the cell cycle, as this occurs by producing less calcified exoskeleton. Contrary to the widely held belief, the evolutionarily optimized population can precipitate larger amounts of CaCO(3 during the bloom in more acidified seawater, depending on parameter values. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may enhance the calcification rates of marine organisms as an adaptive response, possibly accompanied by higher carbon fixation ability. Our theory also provides a compelling explanation for the multispecific fossil time-series record from ∼200 years ago to present, in which mean coccolith size has increased along with rising atmospheric CO(2 concentration.

  8. Increasing costs due to ocean acidification drives phytoplankton to be more heavily calcified: optimal growth strategy of coccolithophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Takahiro; Bessho, Kazuhiro; Findlay, Helen S; Calosi, Piero

    2010-10-15

    Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump). Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing from this approach. We thus constructed an optimality model to evaluate the evolutionary response of coccolithophorid life history, assuming that their exoskeleton (coccolith) serves to reduce the instantaneous mortality rates. Our model predicted that natural selection favors constructing more heavily calcified exoskeleton in response to increased acidification-driven costs. This counter-intuitive response occurs because the fitness benefit of choosing a better-defended, slower growth strategy in more acidic conditions, outweighs that of accelerating the cell cycle, as this occurs by producing less calcified exoskeleton. Contrary to the widely held belief, the evolutionarily optimized population can precipitate larger amounts of CaCO(3) during the bloom in more acidified seawater, depending on parameter values. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may enhance the calcification rates of marine organisms as an adaptive response, possibly accompanied by higher carbon fixation ability. Our theory also provides a compelling explanation for the multispecific fossil time-series record from ∼200 years ago to present, in which mean coccolith size has increased along with rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration.

  9. Growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum adapted to lowland Lombok Island as an alternative food crop for dryland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zubaidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is not currently grown as a commercial crop in Indonesia, however since the consumption of wheat in Indonesia is steadily increasing and alternative of dry season crops are required for farming system diversification, wheat becomes an important crop to be adapted in dry land areas of Indonesia, one of them is dry land area of Lombok Island. The aims of this experiment is to adapt and screen wheat varieties including national and introduced Australian varieties in lowland Lombok Island. In future, wheat is expected to be an alternative crop for degraded lands. The experimental method used to evaluate growth and yield of 10 wheat varieties to look at the adaptability on the lowland of 200 m asl (Pringgarata and on higher land of 400 m asl (Aik Bukak. The results showed that at a lower altitude (Pringgarata, wheat growth is slower than in Aik Bukak, which can be caused by the temperature at 200 m asl has exceeded the tolerance limit for grain growth (supra optimal temperature. Wheat can give good yields on 400 m asl, but the yield is decreased at 200 m asl (average 1.68 t/ha vs 0.82 t/ha. This low yield is mainly due to sterility indicated by the low number of grain/spikelet ( 2 t/ha , higher than other varieties

  10. Factors affecting farmers’ coping and adaptation strategies to perceived trends of declining rainfall and crop productivity in the central Rift valley of Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad

    2016-01-01

    .... A better understanding of the factors affecting farmers’ coping and adaptation strategies to counteract both trends is crucial for policies and programs that aim at promoting successful rainfed agriculture in Ethiopia...

  11. Towards adaptive management: examining the strategies of policy entrepreneurs in Dutch water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, S.; Biermann, F.

    2011-01-01

    The growing awareness of the complexities and uncertainties in water management has put into question the existing paradigms in this field. Increasingly more flexible, integrated, and adaptive policies are promoted. In this context, the understanding of how to effect policy change is becoming more

  12. 77 FR 2996 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... acidification, and coastal flooding and erosion. Given the magnitude of the observed changes in climate, it is... erosion control; natural resource jobs and income; hunting, fishing, and wildlife- related recreation; and... reducing greenhouse gas emissions or enhancing carbon uptake and storage. Coordinated adaptation planning...

  13. Climate change and waterborne diarrhoea in Northern India: Impact and adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Singh, T.; Siderius, C.; Balakrishnan, S.; Mishra, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies show the vulnerability of human health to climate change, a clear comprehensive quantification of the increased health risks attributable to climate change is lacking. Even more complicated are assessments of adaptation measures for this sector. We discuss the impact of

  14. Adaptive radiotherapy strategies for pelvic tumors - a systematic review of clinical implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thörnqvist, Sara; Hysing, Liv B; Tuomikoski, Laura

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Variation in shape, position and treatment response of both tumor and organs at risk are major challenges for accurate dose delivery in radiotherapy. Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been proposed to customize the treatment to these motion/response patterns of the individual patients...

  15. A Review of Item Exposure Control Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Testing Developed from 1983 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Elissavet; Triantafillou, Evangelos; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2007-01-01

    Since researchers acknowledged the several advantages of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) over traditional linear test administration, the issue of item exposure control has received increased attention. Due to CAT's underlying philosophy, particular items in the item pool may be presented too often and become overexposed, while other items are…

  16. Play Therapy for Bereaved Children: Adapting Strategies to Community, School, and Home Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nancy Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Play therapy is a highly adaptable treatment method that can be modified according to children's ages, circumstances, and settings in which counseling occurs. Play therapy may be used in schools, community settings, and homes to help children following the death of a significant other. After reviewing basic developmental factors that affect…

  17. Climate risks and adaptation strategies in the Lower Mekong River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastakoti, R.C.; Gupta, J.; Babel, M.S.; van Dijk, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines perceived climate risks, their impacts, and existing adaptation practices at the local level, including the role of local institutions. The analysis focuses on two selected areas in Vietnam and Thailand. The paper is based on the information collected through key informant

  18. The role of on-farm trees as an adaptation strategy to climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    model results revealed that the main. effects of climate change on peoples'. livelihoods include decreased yield of. agricultural crops, availability of fuelwood. and increase in human diseases and natural. disasters. Seventy percent of the. respondents reported to rely on on-farm. trees as an adaptation to climate change.

  19. Synergies, Conflicts, and Trade-offs of C40 Cities Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur; De Rosa, Michele; Lehmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature in the field of urban climate change adaptation planning that indicate a need to address climate change planning measures from a more holistic sustainable development perspective. This paper presents the findings from a recently completed study that indicates...

  20. Investigating Purposeful Science Curriculum Adaptation as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarger, Angela Haydel; Penuel, William R.; Moorthy, Savitha; Beauvineau, Yves; Kennedy, Cathleen A.; Boscardin, Christy Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential and conditions for using curriculum adaptation to support reform of science teaching and learning. With each wave of reform in science education, curriculum has played a central role and the contemporary wave focused on implementation of the principles and vision of the "Framework for K-12 Science…