Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) w...
... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... your partners. Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...
Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâs National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV. Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 2/1/2012.
Armstrong, M L; LaPlante, A M; Altice, F L; Copenhaver, M; Molina, P E
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1) negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2) high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3) local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4) healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5) misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6) PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol's impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI.
M. L. Armstrong
Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI, the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+, that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1 negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2 high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3 local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4 healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5 misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6 PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol’s impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI.
Kao Uyen H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based interventions that are being delivered in real-world settings are adapted to enhance the external validity of these interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine multiple intervention adaptations made during pre-implementation, implementation, maintenance, and evolution phases of human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention technology transfer. We examined two important categories of adaptations -- modifications to key characteristics, such as activities or delivery methods of interventions and reinvention of the interventions including addition and deletion of core elements. Methods Study participants were thirty-four community-based organization staff who were implementing evidence-based interventions in Los Angeles, California. Participants were interviewed twice and interviews were professionally transcribed. Transcriptions were coded by two coders with good inter-rater reliability (kappa coefficient = 0.73. Sixty-two open-ended codes for adaptation activities, which were linked to 229 transcript segments, were categorized as modifications of key characteristics or reinvention. Results Participants described activities considered modifications to key characteristics and reinvention of evidence-based interventions during pre-implementation, implementation, and maintenance phases. None of the participants reported accessing technical assistance or guidance when reinventing their interventions. Staff executed many of the recommended steps for sound adaptation of these interventions for new populations and settings. Conclusion Staff reported modifying and reinventing interventions when translating HIV prevention programs into practice. Targeted technical assistance for formative evaluation should be focused on the pre-implementation phase during which frequent modifications occur. Continuous or repeated measurements of fidelity are recommended. Increased technical assistance and guidance are needed to
Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E
As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.
Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Mao, Limin; Zablotska, Iryna; Lee, Evelyn; de Wit, John B F; Prestage, Garrett
Background: In Australia, the preventative use of antiretroviral drugs [pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention] is being embraced to protect individuals at high risk of HIV and reduce onward transmission. Methods: The adaptation of a behavioural surveillance system, the Gay Community Periodic Surveys, was reviewed to monitor the uptake and effect of new prevention strategies in Australia's primary HIV-affected population (gay and bisexual men, GBM). The national trends in key indicators during 2000-15 were reviewed and a new measure to take account of antiretroviral-based prevention was developed. Results: Between 2000 and 2015, there were significant increases (PBehavioural surveillance can be successfully adapted to follow the effect of antiretroviral-based prevention. It is anticipated that HIV testing and HIV treatment will continue to increase among Australian GBM, but to prevent new infections, intervention in the growing proportion of GBM who have condomless sex with casual partners is needed. For PrEP to have its desired effect, condom use needs to be sustained.
Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg1, Felicia A Browne1, Winona Poulton1, Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson1, Ashley Simons-Rudolph1, Deborah Haller2, 1RTI International,* Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA, *RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle InstituteAbstract: An adaptation of an evidence-based, woman-focused intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors was conducted for pregnant, African-American women in substance abuse treatment in North Carolina. The intervention adaptation process included focus groups, expert panels, and the filming of women who spoke about their experiences with pregnancy, drug use, sex risk behaviors, HIV testing and treatment, need for substance abuse treatment, violence, and victimization. The assessment instrument was adapted for pregnant women and the intervention was organized into a 4-session PowerPoint presentation, with an additional session if a woman tested positive for HIV. All sessions and assessment instrument were installed on laptop computers for portability in treatment programs. We pilot tested our adaptation with 59 pregnant African-American women who had used an illicit drug within the past year and were enrolled in substance abuse treatment. At baseline, 41% were currently homeless, 76% were unemployed, 90% had not planned their current pregnancy, and approximately 70% reported drug use since finding out about the pregnancy. This sample of participants rated the intervention sessions and were highly satisfied with their experience, resulting in a mean satisfaction score of 6.5 out of 7. Pregnant African-American women who use drugs need substance abuse treatment that they do not currently access. Woman-focused HIV interventions help to address intersecting risk behaviors and need for treatment prevalent among this vulnerable group.Keywords: African-American woman, HIV prevention pregnancy, drug use, violence, sexual
Parker, L; Maman, S; Pettifor, A; Chalachala, J L; Edmonds, A; Golin, C E; Moracco, K; Behets, F
Effective HIV prevention programs for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are important to reduce new infections and to ensure PLWH remain healthy. This paper describes the systematic adaptation of a U.S.-developed Evidence Based Intervention (EBI) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of Adaption Process for use at a Pediatric Hospital in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The adapted intervention, Supporting Youth and Motivating Positive Action or SYMPA, a six-session risk reduction intervention targeted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) in Kinshasa was adapted from the Healthy Living Project and guided by the Social Action Theory. This paper describes the process of implementing the first four steps of the ADAPT framework (Assess, Select, Prepare, and Pilot). Our study has shown that an EBI developed and implemented in the U.S. can be adapted successfully for a different target population in a low-resource context through an iterative process following the CDC ADAPT framework. This process included reviewing existing literature, adapting and adding components, and focusing on increasing staff capacity. This paper provides a rare, detailed description of the adaptation process and may aid organizations seeking to adapt and implement HIV prevention EBIs in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond.
Sánchez, Jesús; Serna, Claudia A; de La Rosa, Mario
Despite the unique and challenging circumstances confronting Latino migrant worker communities in the U.S., debate still exists as to the need to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions for dissemination with this population. Project Salud adopted a community-based participatory research model and utilized focus group methodology with 83 Latino migrant workers to explore the relevance of culturally adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention to be disseminated within this population. Findings from this study indicate that, despite early reservations, Latino migrant workers wanted to participate in the cultural adaptation that would result in an intervention that was culturally relevant, respectful, responsive to their life experiences, and aligned with their needs. This study contributes to the cultural adaptation/fidelity debate by highlighting the necessity of exploring ways to develop culturally adapted interventions characterized by high cultural relevance without sacrificing high fidelity to the core components that have established efficacy for evidence-based HIV prevention interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear. Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission. More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated
Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Frasca, Timothy; Shultz, Andrew Zach; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Rios, Javier López; Ovejero, Hugo; Moya, Eva; Baray, Silvia Chavez; Capote, Jonathan; Manusov, Justin; Anyamele, Chukwuemeka O.; Matos, Jonathan López; Horatio Page, John Satchel; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
Predominantly Spanish-speaking Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and their same-sex partners continue to be at high risk for HIV and STIs. Behavioral research has identified how relationship dynamics for male couples are associated with sexual risk behavior. Connect ‘n Unite (CNU), an evidence-based HIV/STI prevention intervention originally created for Black MSM and their same-sex partners, was adapted for predominantly Spanish-speaking Latino MSM and their same-sex partners on the assumption that its key elements would be translatable while its efficacy would be retained. A systematic adaptation process utilizing qualitative methods was used, including intervention adaptation sessions with 20 predominantly Spanish-speaking Latino gay couples and 10 health service providers. The process included five steps: (1) engaging community stakeholders, (2) capturing the lived experiences of Latino gay couples, (3) identifying intervention priorities, (4) integrating the original intervention’s social cognitive theory into a relationship-oriented, ecological framework for Latino gay couples, and (5) adapting intervention activities and materials. The adapted intervention, which we called Latinos en Pareja or Latinos in a Relationship, incorporates elements that effective HIV prevention interventions share, including: a solid theoretical foundation; emphasis on increasing risk reduction norms, sexual communication skills and social support for protection; and guidance on how to utilize available, culturally and linguistically appropriate services. The systematic adaptation approach used for a couples-based HIV prevention intervention also can be employed by other researchers and community stakeholders to adapt evidence-based interventions that promote wellness, linkage to care, and disease prevention for populations not originally targeted. PMID:25846772
Rolleri, Lori A.; Fuller, Taleria R.; Firpo-Triplett, Regina; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Moore, Claire; Leeks, Kimberly D.
Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are effective in preventing adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections; however, prevention practitioners are challenged when selecting and adapting the most appropriate programs. While there are existing adaptation frameworks, there is little practical guidance in applying research in the field.…
Enah, Comfort; Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E; Childs, Gwendolyn
The search for intervention strategies appropriate for young adolescents has recently led to the use of digital games. Digital gaming interventions are promising because they may be developmentally appropriate for adolescent populations. The gaming approach also capitalizes on an inherent interest to adolescents and circumvents traditional barriers to access to prevention interventions faced in some geographical areas. Notwithstanding, research on gaming in HIV prevention is quite limited. In this review article, we examine the need for contextually relevant HIV prevention interventions among young adolescents. From this, we provide a theoretical framework for exploring contextually relevant HIV risk factors and a foundation for gathering and using input from the target population to adapt an existing game or to create a developmentally appropriate and contextually relevant HIV prevention game.
Kurth, Ann E; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Vermund, Sten H; Wasserheit, Judith N
No single HIV prevention strategy will be sufficient to control the HIV pandemic. However, a growing number of interventions have shown promise in partially protecting against HIV transmission and acquisition, including knowledge of HIV serostatus, behavioral risk reduction, condoms, male circumcision, needle exchange, treatment of curable sexually transmitted infections, and use of systemic and topical antiretroviral medications by both HIV-infected and uninfected persons. Designing the optimal package of interventions that matches the epidemiologic profile of a target population, delivering that package at the population level, and evaluating safety, acceptability, coverage, and effectiveness, all involve methodological challenges. Nonetheless, there is an unprecedented opportunity to develop "prevention packages" that combine various arrays of evidence-based strategies, tailored to the needs of diverse subgroups and targeted to achieve high coverage for a measurable reduction in population-level HIV transmission. HIV prevention strategies that combine partially effective interventions should be scaled up and evaluated.
Castro, Jose G; Jones, Deborah L; Weiss, Stephen M
The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97) were female (n=51) and male (n=46). At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. PMID:25540597
Sheri A Lippman
Full Text Available Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation.We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting.We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge.CM DOMAINS INCLUDE: 1 shared concerns, 2 critical consciousness, 3 organizational structures/networks, 4 leadership (individual and/or institutional, 5 collective activities/actions, and 6 social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks.To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural South Africa. While some adaptation of
Full Text Available Jose G Castro,1 Deborah L Jones,2 Stephen M Weiss2 1Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97 were female (n=51 and male (n=46. At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. Keywords: STD clinic, biomedical HIV prevention, PrEP, male
Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Ksobiech, Kate
High HIV rates among cohabiting couples in many African countries have led to greater programmatic emphasis on spousal communication in HIV prevention. This study examines how demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of cohabiting adults influence their dyadic communication about HIV. A central focus of this research is on how the position of women relative to their male partners influences spousal communication about HIV prevention. The authors analyze gaps in spousal age and education and females' participation in household decision making as key factors influencing spousal communication about HIV, while controlling for sexual behaviors of both partners as well as other individual and contextual factors. Data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for 1,388 cohabiting couples. Information regarding spousal communication was self-reported, assessing whether both, either, or neither partner ever discussed HIV prevention with the other. Analyses showed higher levels of education for the female partner and participation in household decision making are positively associated with spousal communication about HIV prevention. With females' education and other factors controlled, couples with more educated male partners were more likely to have discussed HIV prevention than couples in which both partners have the same level of education. Spousal communication was also positively associated with household wealth status and exposure to the mass media, but couples in which male partners reported having nonspousal sex in the past year were less likely to have discussed HIV prevention with their spouses. Findings suggest HIV prevention programs should promote female empowerment and encourage male participation in sexual health discussion.
Journal of School Health, 1994
Examines issues in preventing further Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among adolescents, highlighting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, substance use, adolescent development, cultural and language diversity, health and social service needs, socioeconomic contexts, and role of media, school, and youth-serving organizations.…
Amy M. Hernandez
Full Text Available Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in North Carolina with increasing incidence of HIV infection. Gender roles, cultural expectations, and acculturation of women may explain some of Hispanic women’s risks. The perspectives of Hispanic female immigrants and community-based providers were sought to identify services they offer, understand HIV risk factors, and support the adaptation of a best-evidence HIV behavioural intervention for Hispanic women. Two sets of focus groups were conducted to explicate risks and the opportunities to reach women or couples and the feasibility to conduct HIV prevention in an acceptable manner. Salient findings were that Hispanic female immigrants lacked accurate HIV/AIDS and STI knowledge and that traditional gender roles shaped issues surrounding sexual behaviour and HIV risks, as well as condom use, partner communication, and multiple sexual partnerships. Intervention implications are discussed such as developing and adapting culturally appropriate HIV prevention interventions for Hispanics that address gender roles and partner communication.
Fuster-RuizdeApodaca, Maria José; Molero, Fernando; Holgado, Francisco Pablo; Ubillos, Silvia
The primary goal of this study was to adapt Berger, Ferrans, & Lahley (2001) HIV Stigma Scale in Spain, using Bunn, Solomon, Miller, & Forehand (2007) version. A second goal assessed whether the four-factor structure of the adapted scale could be explained by two higher-order dimensions, perceived external stigma and internalized stigma. A first qualitative study (N = 40 people with HIV, aged 28-59) was used to adapt the items and test content validity. A second quantitative study analyzed construct and criterion validity. In this study participants were 557 people with HIV, aged 18-76. The adapted HIV Stigma Scale for use in Spain (HSSS) showed a good internal consistency (α = .88) and good construct validity. Confirmatory Factor Analyses yielded a first-order, four-factor structure and a higher-order, bidimensional structure with the two expected factors (RMSEA = .051, 90% CI [.046, .056]; RMR = .073; GFI = .96; AGFI = .96; CFI = .98). Negative relations were found between stigma and quality of life (r = -.39; p stigma (r = -.50; p HIV status disclosure (r = -.35; p Stigma dimension than those who had not suffered them, t (493) = 3.02, p = .003, d = 0.26.
Full Text Available The rigorous evaluation of the impact of combination HIV prevention packages at the population level will be critical for the future of HIV prevention. In this review, we discuss important considerations for the design and interpretation of cluster randomized controlled trials (C-RCTs of combination prevention interventions. We focus on three large C-RCTs that will start soon and are designed to test the hypothesis that combination prevention packages, including expanded access to antiretroviral therapy, can substantially reduce HIV incidence. Using a general framework to integrate mathematical modelling analysis into the design, conduct, and analysis of C-RCTs will complement traditional statistical analyses and strengthen the evaluation of the interventions. Importantly, even with combination interventions, it may be challenging to substantially reduce HIV incidence over the 2- to 3-y duration of a C-RCT, unless interventions are scaled up rapidly and key populations are reached. Thus, we propose the innovative use of mathematical modelling to conduct interim analyses, when interim HIV incidence data are not available, to allow the ongoing trials to be modified or adapted to reduce the likelihood of inconclusive outcomes. The preplanned, interactive use of mathematical models during C-RCTs will also provide a valuable opportunity to validate and refine model projections.
Tsai, Alexander C
Renewed enthusiasm for biomedical HIV prevention strategies has followed the recent publication of several high-profile HIV antiretroviral therapy-based HIV prevention trials. In a recent article, Roberts & Matthews (2012) accurately note some of the shortcomings of these individually targeted approaches to HIV prevention and advocate for increased emphasis on structural interventions that have more fundamental effects on the population distribution of HIV. However, they make some implicit as...
Leontiev, Vladimir; Hadany, Lilach
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly adaptable to a, changing environment, including host immune response and antiviral drugs. Superinfection occurs when several HIV proviruses share the same host cell. We previously proposed that HIV may regulate the rate of its superinfection, which would help the virus to adapt (Leontiev et al., 2008). In this paper we, investigate the effect of regulated superinfection in HIV on complex, adaptation on rugged fitness landscapes. We present the results of our in silico experiments that suggest that regulated superinfection facilitates HIV, adaptation on rugged fitness landscapes and that the advantage of regulated, superinfection increases with the ruggedness of the landscape.
This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who donât have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP arenât taking it. Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 11/24/2015.
Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose
The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo.
Gupta, G R
The Women and AIDS Research Program (International Center for Research on Women) has identified a series of obstacles to preventing HIV infection among women, including social norms that mandate female ignorance about sexual matters, women's economic dependence on men, widespread acceptance of male promiscuity, and violence against women. Most AIDS prevention programs fail to challenge these contextual determinants and continue to focus on the promotion of condom use among men. Recommendations to empower women and improve their status are dismissed as long-term measures outside the domain of AIDS prevention. Feasible, however, is the modification of existing AIDS prevention programs to ensure they are gender-sensitive. This would mean measures such as providing services at times that are convenient to women and integrating services to reduce waiting and travelling times. To address the contextual issues at the root of women's vulnerability to HIV, AIDS prevention programs can link up with economic interventions such as credit programs, agricultural extension services, and women's cooperatives. Moreover, AIDS programs can provide HIV-infected women with social support through group educational sessions or counseling. Finally, because improvements in women's socioeconomic status are essential for the success of all AIDS prevention, program managers should be in the forefront of broader struggles to enact policy changes to eliminate gender-based discrimination and inequality.
Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion: Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for
... Page Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Many ... and School Health addresses HIV, other STDS, and teen pregnancy through Data collection and analysis Science-based guidance ...
Richard C. Cervantes
Full Text Available Behavioral health is defined as the absence of mental illness or substance use problems and the presence of positive emotional well being. Although many U.S. Hispanic youth are at increased risk for substance abuse, suicidality, teen pregnancy, unsafe sexual practices and HIV, there exists a lack of available evidence-based practices for Hispanic youth which promotes behavioral health and HIV prevention. The objective of the current research was to adapt and revise the Familia Adelante (FA Program, a behavioral health, drug intervention and prevention program to incorporate an HIV prevention component. Through qualitative community based participatory methods, including an expert panel and members of the target population, the curriculum was redesigned to integrate effective HIV risk reduction strategies. The process of adapting the intervention is described in this paper, as well as recommendations for future research in program adaptation.
... Children and Adolescents HIV and Women HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men HIV and Older Adults HIV ... system to recognize and effectively fight HIV in case the person is ever exposed to ... have participated in HIV vaccine studies around the world in the last 25 years, ...
LU Lu; YU Fei; DU Lan-ying; XU Wei; JIANG Shi-bo
Objective To review the mechanisms by which HIV evades different components of the host immune system.Data sources This review is based on data obtained from published articles from 1991 to 2012.To perform the PubMed literature search,the following key words were input:HIV and immune evasion.Study selection Articles containing information related to HIV immune evasion were selected.Results Although HIV is able to induce vigorous antiviral immune responses,viral replication cannot be fully controlled,and neither pre-existing infected cells nor latent HIV infection can be completely eradicated.Like many other enveloped viruses,HIV can escape recognition by the innate and adaptive immune systems.Recent findings have demonstrated that HIV can also successfully evade host restriction factors,the components of intrinsic immune system,such as APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme,catalytic polypeptide-like 3G),TRIM5α (tripartite motif 5-α),tetherin,and SAMHD1 (SAM-domain HD-domain containing protein).Conclusions HIV immune evasion plays an important role in HIV pathcgenesis.Fully understanding the tactics deployed by HIV to evade various components of the host immune systems will allow for the development of novel strategies aimed toward the prevention and cure of HIV/AIDS.
... NIAID's Biomedical HIV Prevention Research Communication Messages SUMMARY: In compliance with the... Collection: Title: Pretesting of NIAID's Biomedical HIV Prevention Research Communication Messages. Type of... biomedical HIV prevention research. The primary objectives of the pretests are to (1) Assess...
... NIAID's Biomedical HIV Prevention Research Communication Messages SUMMARY: Under the provisions of...: Title: Pretesting of NIAID's Biomedical HIV Prevention Research Communication Messages. Type of... biomedical HIV prevention research. The primary objectives of the pretests are to (1) assess...
CIANELLI, ROSINA; FERRER, LILIAN; MCELMURRY, BEVERLY J.
Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV. PMID:18432428
Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam
Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.
... risk about PrEP through health department programs, social marketing campaigns, and other training and technical assistance efforts. ... Control and Prevention , National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Page maintained by: ...
This podcast provides an overview of CDC's HIV prevention capacity building efforts with community-based organizations and health departments. Created: 7/29/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. Date Released: 7/29/2010.
Full Text Available HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J
Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.
Bachelor thesis titled Risk sexual behavior of adolescents and HIV / AIDS prevention focuses on biological and emotional development of adolescents, describes sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases and focuses on the prevention of STDs, especially HIV and AIDS. The practical part determines, based on a quantitative questionnaire survey, knowledge of pupils, secondary vocational schools in the prevention of sexual diseases and compares students' knowledge about specific sexual dise...
Jairam R Lingappa
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus. Given the high HIV-1 incidence among HIV-1 discordant couples and to assess efficacy of interventions for reducing HIV-1 transmission, HIV-1 discordant couples represent a critical target population for HIV-1 prevention interventions and prevention trials. Substantial regional differences exist in HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but regional differences in HIV-1 discordance among African couples, has not previously been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Partners in Prevention HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Trial ("Partners HSV-2 Study", the first large HIV-1 prevention trial in Africa involving HIV-1 discordant couples, completed enrollment in May 2007. Partners HSV-2 Study recruitment data from 12 sites from East and Southern Africa were used to assess HIV-1 discordance among couples accessing couples HIV-1 counseling and testing, and to correlate with enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples. HIV-1 discordance at Partners HSV-2 Study sites ranged from 8-31% of couples tested from the community. Across all study sites and, among all couples with one HIV-1 infected partner, almost half (49% of couples were HIV-1 discordant. Site-specific monthly enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into the clinical trial was not directly associated with prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, but was modestly correlated with national HIV-1 counseling and testing rates and access to palliative care/basic health care (r = 0.74, p = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-1 discordant couples are a critical target for HIV-1 prevention in Africa. In addition to community prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, national infrastructure for HIV-1 testing and healthcare delivery and effective community outreach strategies impact recruitment of HIV-1 discordant couples into HIV-1 prevention trials.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention continues to be problematic in the UK, as it does globally. The UK Department of Health has a strategic direction with greater focus on prevention as part of its World Class Commissioning Programme. There is a need for targeted evidence-based prevention initiatives. This is an exploratory study to develop an evidence mapping tool in the form of a matrix: this will be used to identify important gaps in contemporary HIV prevention evidence relevant to the UK. It has the potential to aid prioritisation in future research. Methods Categories for prevention and risk groups were developed for HIV prevention in consultation with external experts. These were used as axes on a matrix tool to map evidence. Systematic searches for publications on HIV prevention were undertaken using electronic databases for primary and secondary research undertaken mainly in UK, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, 2006-9. Each publication was screened for inclusion then coded. The risk groups and prevention areas in each paper were counted: several publications addressed multiple risk groups. The counts were exported to the matrix and clearly illustrate the concentrations and gaps of literature in HIV prevention. Results 716 systematic reviews, randomised control trials and other primary research met the inclusion criteria for HIV prevention. The matrix identified several under researched areas in HIV prevention. Conclusions This is the first categorisation system for HIV prevention and the matrix is a novel tool for evidence mapping. Some important yet under-researched areas have been identified in HIV prevention evidence: identifying the undiagnosed population; international adaptation; education; intervention combinations; transgender; sex-workers; heterosexuals and older age groups. Other research recommendations: develop the classification system further and investigate transferability of the matrix to other prevention areas
Solorio, Rosa; Norton-Shelpuk, Pamela; Forehand, Mark; Martinez, Marcos; Aguirre, Joel
Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c) describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c) determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.
SHENG Lei; CAO Wu-kui
Objective To review HIV/AIDS epidemic history,current situation and prevention policy in China.Data sources Information included in this article was identified by searching PUBMED(1997-2006)online resources using the key terms"HIV/AIDS","epidemic","prevention",and"China".Study selection Original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators of the field were selected.Results The key issues related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic situation in China and Chinese government prevention policy were summarized.HIV/AIDS epidemic groups and trends for HIV transmission were discussed.Conclusion In January 2006,650 000 people were estimated to be living with HIV in China.The overall HIV/AIDS epidemic is at a low level(0.05%)and concentrated in several at risk populations.However,the data show that new cases of HIV infection are growing every year and spreading from at risk populations to the general population.Premier WEN Jia-bao announced the"Four frees and one care"policy and the Chinese government has developed a series of programs with strong policy measures to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS in China.
The World Health Organization estimates that 50% of the 30 million HIV infections worldwide occurred in young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years. In the United States, national statistics estimate that almost 40% of new HIV cases occur in youth ages 13-29 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). Therefore, a focus on preventing…
Vernooij, E.; Mehlo, M.; Hardon, A.; Reis, R.
This article explores how notions of the individual and population are evoked in two ongoing HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) implementation studies in Swaziland. By contrasting policy discourses with lived kinship experiences of people living with HIV, we seek to understand how TasP unfolds in th
Background HIV is a stigmatizing medical condition. The concept of HIV stigma is multifaceted, with personalized stigma (perceived stigmatizing consequences of others knowing of their HIV status), disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes described as core aspects of stigma for individuals with HIV infection. There is limited research on HIV stigma in children. The aim of this study was to test a short version of the 40-item HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-40), adapte...
Wiklander, M.; Rydström, L.-L.; Ygge, B.-M.; Navér, L.; Wettergren, L.; Eriksson, L. E.
Background: HIV is a stigmatizing medical condition. The concept of HIV stigma is multifaceted, with personalized stigma (perceived stigmatizing consequences of others knowing of their HIV status), disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes described as core aspects of stigma for individuals with HIV infection. There is limited research on HIV stigma in children. The aim of this study was to test a short version of the 40-item HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-40), adapt...
Scott, Yanille M; Park, Seo Young; Dezzutti, Charlene S
Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) specific for HIV are being investigated for use in HIV prevention. Due to their ability to inhibit HIV attachment to and entry into target cells, nAbs may be suitable for use as topical HIV microbicides. As such, they would present an alternative intervention for individuals who may not benefit from using antiretroviral-based products for HIV prevention. We theorize that nAbs can inhibit viral transmission through mucosal tissue, thus reducing the incidence of HIV infection. The efficacy of the PG9, PG16, VRC01, and 4E10 antibodies was evaluated in an ex vivo human model of mucosal HIV transmission. nAbs reduced HIV transmission, causing 1.5- to 2-log10 reductions in HIV replication in ectocervical tissues and ≈3-log10 reductions in HIV replication in colonic tissues over 21 days. These antibodies demonstrated greater potency in colonic tissues, with a 50-fold higher dose being required to reduce transmission in ectocervical tissues. Importantly, nAbs retained their potency and reduced viral transmission in the presence of whole semen. No changes in tissue viability or immune activation were observed in colonic or ectocervical tissue after nAb exposure. Our data suggest that topically applied nAbs are safe and effective against HIV infection of mucosal tissue and support further development of nAbs as a topical microbicide that could be used for anal as well as vaginal protection.
Rasmussen, M.B.; Rasmussen, J.B.; Nielsen, V.R.;
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a RNA virus that can be transmitted parenterally, sexually or vertically. An effective prevention strategy has been implemented in industrialised countries, thereby reducing vertical transmission from 15-25% to ... was not initiated. CONCLUSION: As long as preventive treatment strategies are followed, there is no transmission of HIV from mother to child, neither during pregnancy nor during or after birth Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/18...
Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Fisher, Jeffrey D
The current analysis considers the HIV prevention research record in the social sciences. We do so with special reference to what has been termed "AIDS Exceptionalism"- departures from standard public health practice and prevention research priorities in favor of alternative approaches to prevention that, it has been argued, emphasize individual rights at the expense of public health protection. In considering this issue, we review the historical context of the HIV epidemic; empirically demonstrate a pattern of prevention research characterized by systematic neglect of prevention interventions for HIV-infected persons; and articulate a rationale for "Prevention for Positives," supportive prevention efforts tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. We then propose a social psychological conceptualization of processes that appear to have influenced developments in HIV prevention research and directed its focus to particular target populations. Our concluding section considers whether there are social and research policy lessons to be learned from the record of HIV prevention research that might improve our ability to addresses effectively, equitably, and in timely fashion future epidemics that play out, as HIV does, at the junction of biology and behavior. At the first quarter century of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to weigh our accomplishments against our failures in the fight against AIDS…Future historians will conclude that we cannot escape responsibility for our failure to use effective, scientifically proven strategies to control the AIDS epidemic…They will also likely regard as tragic those instances when we allowed scarce resources to be used to support ideologically driven "prevention" that only served a particular political agenda.Editorial: A Quarter Century of AIDS. American Journal of Public Health. (Stall & Mills, 2006, p. 961).
Hua, Casey K; Ackerman, Margaret E
A combination of advances spanning from isolation to delivery of potent HIV-specific antibodies has begun to revolutionize understandings of antibody-mediated antiviral activity. As a result, the set of broadly neutralizing and highly protective antibodies has grown in number, diversity, potency, and breadth of viral recognition and neutralization. These antibodies are now being further enhanced by rational engineering of their anti-HIV activities and coupled to cutting edge gene delivery and strategies to optimize their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. As a result, the prospects for clinical use of HIV-specific antibodies to treat, clear, and prevent HIV infection are gaining momentum. Here we discuss the diverse methods whereby antibodies are being optimized for neutralization potency and breadth, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and effector function with the aim of revolutionizing HIV treatment and prevention options.
This podcast is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who donât have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP arenât taking it. Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 11/24/2015.
Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Campbell, Mary S [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Mullins, James I [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Hughes, James P [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Wong, Kim G [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Raugi, Dana N [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Scrensen, Stefanie [UNIV OF WASHINGTON
HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage
Ooms, Marcel; Brayton, Bonnie; Letko, Michael; Maio, Susan M; Pilcher, Christopher D; Hecht, Frederick M; Barbour, Jason D; Simon, Viviana
Several human APOBEC3 deaminases can inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro. HIV-1 Vif counteracts this restriction by targeting APOBEC3 for proteasomal degradation. Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is highly polymorphic, with natural variants differing considerably in anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To examine HIV-1 adaptation to variation in A3H activity in a natural infection context, we determined the A3H haplotypes and Vif sequences from 76 recently infected HIV-1 patients. We detected A3H-specific Vif changes suggesting viral adaptation. The patient-derived Vif sequences were used to engineer viruses that specifically differed in their ability to counteract A3H. Replication of these Vif-variant viruses in primary T cells naturally expressing active or inactive A3H haplotypes showed that endogenously expressed A3H restricts HIV-1 replication. Proviral DNA from A3H-restricted viruses showed high levels of G-to-A mutations in an A3H-specific GA dinucleotide context. Taken together, our data validate A3H expressed at endogenous levels as a bona fide HIV-1 restriction factor.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approaches that adapt HIV prevention interventions according to the cultural context and population being addressed. This review of evidence sought to generate insights into targeted approaches in this emerging area of HIV prevention. Methods We undertook a realist review to answer the research question: ‘How are HIV prevention interventions in high-income countries adapted to suit immigrants’ needs?’ A key goal was to uncover underlying theories or mechanisms operating in behavioural HIV prevention interventions with immigrants, to uncover explanations as how and why they work (or not for particular groups in particular contexts, and thus to refine the underlying theories. The realist review mapped seven initial mechanisms underlying culturally appropriate HIV prevention with immigrants. Evidence from intervention studies and qualitative studies found in systematic searches was then used to test and refine these seven mechanisms. Results Thirty-four intervention studies and 40 qualitative studies contributed to the analysis and synthesis of evidence. The strongest evidence supported the role of ‘consonance’ mechanisms, indicating the pivotal need to incorporate cultural values into the intervention content. Moderate evidence was found to support the role of three other mechanisms – ‘understanding’, ‘specificity’ and ‘embeddedness’ – which indicated that using the language of immigrants, usually the ‘mother tongue’, targeting (in terms
Payne, Rebecca; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Mann, Jaclyn; Roberts, Hannah E; Matthews, Philippa; Adland, Emily; Hempenstall, Allison; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang; Brockman, Mark; Brumme, Zabrina; Sinclair, Marc; Miura, Toshiyuki; Frater, John; Essex, Myron; Shapiro, Roger; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi; McLean, Angela R; Carlson, Jonathan M; Goulder, Philip J R
It is widely believed that epidemics in new hosts diminish in virulence over time, with natural selection favoring pathogens that cause minimal disease. However, a tradeoff frequently exists between high virulence shortening host survival on the one hand but allowing faster transmission on the other. This is the case in HIV infection, where high viral loads increase transmission risk per coital act but reduce host longevity. We here investigate the impact on HIV virulence of HIV adaptation to HLA molecules that protect against disease progression, such as HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*58:01. We analyzed cohorts in Botswana and South Africa, two countries severely affected by the HIV epidemic. In Botswana, where the epidemic started earlier and adult seroprevalence has been higher, HIV adaptation to HLA including HLA-B*57/58:01 is greater compared with South Africa (P = 7 × 10(-82)), the protective effect of HLA-B*57/58:01 is absent (P = 0.0002), and population viral replicative capacity is lower (P = 0.03). These data suggest that viral evolution is occurring relatively rapidly, and that adaptation of HIV to the most protective HLA alleles may contribute to a lowering of viral replication capacity at the population level, and a consequent reduction in HIV virulence over time. The potential role in this process played by increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) access is also explored. Models developed here suggest distinct benefits of ART, in addition to reducing HIV disease and transmission, in driving declines in HIV virulence over the course of the epidemic, thereby accelerating the effects of HLA-mediated viral adaptation.
Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A
The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign.
Kløverpris, Henrik N.; Leslie, Alasdair; Goulder, Philip
Killing of HIV-infected cells by CD8+ T-cells imposes strong selection pressure on the virus toward escape. The HLA class I molecules that are successful in mediating some degree of control over the virus are those that tend to present epitopes in conserved regions of the proteome, such as in p24...... Gag, in which escape also comes at a significant cost to viral replicative capacity (VRC). In some instances, compensatory mutations can fully correct for the fitness cost of such an escape variant; in others, correction is only partial. The consequences of these events within the HIV-infected host......, and at the population level following transmission of escape variants, are discussed. The accumulation of escape mutants in populations over the course of the epidemic already shows instances of protective HLA molecules losing their impact, and in certain cases, a modest decline in HIV virulence in association...
Chandler-Coley, Rasheeta; Ross, Henry; Ozoya, Oluwatobi; Lescano, Celia; Flannigan, Timothy
Media messages can facilitate the delivery of accurate information related to HIV and sexually transmitted infection. This study's purpose was to examine preexisting media campaigns from the iMPPACS study to assess age-, gender-, and culturally appropriate components identified by African American females who attend historically Black colleges/universities. In 3 separate focus group sessions, 31 Black female college students (M age = 20) viewed 4 vignettes and heard 3 audio-only clips, then ranked and commented on them based on perceived satisfaction with HIV prevention content and appropriateness of delivery. Conventional qualitative analysis using NVivo software was performed until saturation of content was achieved and themes derived. Six major themes emerged and were designated as (a) social media; (b) mirror image; (c) visually dynamic advertisements; (d) the real world; (e) people, place, things; and (f) HIV knowledge. Visually stimulating content (i.e., graphics) was found to be most appealing in marketing HIV prevention, with brief monologue/dialogue from scenarios that resemble daily life. Socially and culturally relevant HIV prevention messages are important to Black college female students. Participants recommended creating short audiovisual messages that encompass familiar contexts like dorm rooms and appealing graphics for HIV health promotion messages, such as emojis. Future audio-only prevention advertisements for this population should use recognizable voices (e.g., celebrities). Finally, messaging should be promoted on open and closed circuit social media platforms.
Full Text Available The efficiency of transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of those exposed. Infectiousness is dictated by the concentration of HIV-1 in relevant fluids (regardless of route of transmission and the viral genotype and phenotype. People newly infected with HIV-1 (i.e. acute infection and those with STI co-infections excrete such a large concentration of virus as to be “hyperinfectious.” The actual transmission of HIV likely occurs in the first few hours after exposure. The probability of transmission may be as low as 1/10,000 episodes of intercourse or 1/10 sexual exposures when anal intercourse is practiced. The transmission of HIV is generally limited to one or a small number of founder variants which themselves may be “hyperinfectious.” Synergistic behavioural and biologic HIV prevention strategies have been developed and implemented. Safer sex includes limiting the number of sexual partners, use of male latex condoms, and structural interventions to reduce exposure. These strategies appear to have contributed to reduced HIV incidence in many countries. Biological interventions have proved catalytic: these include treatment of inflammatory cofactors, voluntary male circumcision and use of antiviral agents either for infected people (who can be rendered remarkably less contagious or as pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP. Ecologic evidence suggests that broader, earlier antiviral treatment of HIV may be reducing incidence in some (but not all populations. However, maximal benefit of HIV “treatment for prevention” and application of PrEP will likely require a program of universal “test and treat,” where many more infected patients are identified, linked to care, and treated very early in disease and for life. Community randomized trials designed to support this approach are under way in Africa. The “test and treat” prevention strategy is resource-intensive and
Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of the 2.5 million new adult HIV infections that occurred worldwide in 2007 were in stable couples. Feasible and acceptable strategies to improve HIV prevention in a conjugal context are scarce. In the preparatory phase of the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest multi-site HIV prevention trial, we assessed the acceptability of couple-oriented post-test HIV counseling (COC and men's involvement within prenatal care services, among pregnant women, male partners and health care workers in Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Georgia and India. Methods Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used: direct observations of health services; in-depth interviews with women, men and health care workers; monitoring of the COC intervention and exit interviews with COC participants. Results In-depth interviews conducted with 92 key informants across the four sites indicated that men rarely participated in antenatal care (ANC services, mainly because these are traditionally and programmatically a woman's domain. However men's involvement was reported to be acceptable and needed in order to improve ANC and HIV prevention services. COC was considered by the respondents to be a feasible and acceptable strategy to actively encourage men to participate in prenatal HIV counseling and testing and overall in reproductive health services. Conclusions One of the keys to men's involvement within prenatal HIV counseling and testing is the better understanding of couple relationships, attitudes and communication patterns between men and women, in terms of HIV and sexual and reproductive health; this conjugal context should be taken into account in the provision of quality prenatal HIV counseling, which aims at integrated PMTCT and primary prevention of HIV.
Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which (a Indigenous youth involved in an HIV intervention took up and reclaimed their cultures as a project of defining ‘self’, and (b how Indigenous ‘culture’ can be used as a tool for resistance, HIV prevention and health promotion. Data were drawn from the Taking Action Project: Using arts-based approaches to develop Aboriginal youth leadership in HIV prevention. ‘By youth, for youth’ HIV education and awareness workshops were facilitated in six Indigenous communities across Canada, incorporating traditional and contemporary art forms to explore how youth perceived the links between structural inequality and HIV vulnerability. Over 100 youth participated, with 70 partaking in individual interviews to reflect on their experiences at the workshops. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using NVivo software. Indigenous youth understood culture as a complex construct that included reconnecting to land, body, history, community and ceremony. For many youth, being Aboriginal and participating in cultural activities was seen as important for intergenerational healing, empowerment, health and combatting HIV. Youth spoke excitedly of their attempts to reclaim their languages and cultures despite barriers. They also understood art as a medium for self-expression and as an important site of cultural evolution. Our project demonstrates that the incorporation of culture within health strategies is important for effective HIV prevention amongst Indigenous youth. Reclaiming Indigenous cultures, languages and ceremonies may help to nurture future generations, diminish cycles of victimisation and combat hopelessness by reconnecting youth to stories of resistance and survival. Keywords: Indigenous youth, culture, HIV prevention, arts-based research
Full Text Available Many attempts have been made or are ongoing for HIV prevention and HIV cure. Many successes are in the list, particularly for HIV drugs, recently proposed also for prevention. However, no eradication of infection has been achieved so far with any drug.Further, a residual immune dysregulation associated to chronic immune activation and incomplete restoration of B and T cell subsets, together with HIV DNA persistence in reservoirs, are still unmet needs of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, causing novel non-AIDS related diseases that account for a higher risk of death even in virologically suppressed patients. These ART unmet needs represent a problem, which is expected to increase by ART roll out. Further, in countries such as South Africa, where 6 millions of individuals are infected, ART appears unable to contain the epidemics. Regretfully, all the attempts at developing a preventative vaccine have been largely disappointing. However, recent therapeutic immunization strategies have opened new avenues for HIV treatment, which might be exploitable also for preventative vaccine approaches. For example, immunization strategies aimed at targeting key viral products responsible of virus transmission, activation and maintenance of virus reservoirs may intensify drug efficacy and lead to a functional cure providing new perspectives also for prevention and future virus eradication strategies. However, this approach imposes new challenges to the scientific community, vaccine developers and regulatory bodies, such as the identification of novel immunological and virological biomarkers to assess efficacy endpoints, taking advantage from the natural history of infection and exploiting lessons from former trials.This review will focus first on recent advancement of therapeutic strategies, then on the progresses made in preventative approaches, discussing concepts and problems for the way ahead for the development of vaccines for HIV treatment
Collins, Charles B; Wilson, Katherine M.
The Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention at the National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention seeks to make evidence-based behavioral HIV prevention interventions (EBIs) accessible to HIV prevention providers through a systematic process of identification, packaging, and dissemination. This update synthesizes that process and describes recent efforts to expand the use of EBIs internationally through partnerships between the CDC's Global AIDS...
Rahill, Guitele J; Joshi, Manisha; Hernandez, Anthony
Haiti has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean. Before the 2010 earthquake, Haitian women bore a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS, had lower HIV knowledge, less capacity to negotiate for safer sex, and limited access to HIV testing and risk-reduction (RR) counseling. Since 2010, there has been an increase in sexual violence against women, characterized by deliberate vaginal injuries by non-intimate partners, increasing victims' risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Needed is an adaptation of evidence-based interventions for HIV that include HIV testing and counseling for this stigmatized population. We reviewed several features of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 103 evidence-based interventions for HIV (e.g., measures used, participant risk characteristics, theoretical framework, outcome variables, and evidence tier) in an attempt to seek a feasibly adaptable evidence-based intervention for HIV that could be used for victims of sexual violence (VOSV). RESPECT, one of the reviewed evidence-based HIV interventions, comprises of one-on-one, client-focused HIV prevention/RR counseling, and RAPID HIV testing. Adapting RESPECT can enhance access to testing for Haitian VOSV and can influence their perceptions of HIV risk, and establishment of RR goals for future consensual intimate relations. Adapting and implementing RESPECT can increase uptake of evidence-based HIV interventions among Haitians and positively affect a region with high HIV prevalence and increased rates of sexual violence.
Stewart, Angela; Fasciano, John; Brown, Larry K.
Objective To conduct a critical review of all HIV prevention intervention studies conducted with adolescents in juvenile justice settings to inform future intervention development. Method PubMed and PsycInfo database searches were conducted for peer-reviewed, published HIV prevention intervention studies with juvenile offenders. Results Sixteen studies were identified (N = 3,700 adolescents). Half of the projects utilized rigorous methodologies to determine intervention effect on behavior change, such as conducting a randomized controlled trial (n = 8). Nine studies reported behaviors at least 3 months post-intervention and five out of nine showed decreases in sexual risk behavior. Conclusions Several HIV prevention programs with juvenile offenders have led to sexual risk reduction, although effect sizes are modest. Most existing programs have neglected to address the impact of family, mental health, and substance use on HIV risk. More work is needed to develop evidence-based interventions that include HIV prevention strategies relevant and appropriate for the juvenile justice setting. PMID:19741021
Introduction: Critical technological advances have yielded a toolkit of HIV prevention strategies. This literature review sought to provide contextual and historical reflection needed to bridge the conceptual gap between clinical efficacy and community effectiveness (i.e. knowledge and usage) of existing HIV prevention options, especially in resource-poor settings. Methods: Between January 2015 and October 2015, we reviewed scholarly and grey literatures to define treatment literacy and healt...
This guide is intended to help parents of adolescents and adults with mental retardation to teach their sons and daughters about HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). An official resolution on AIDS adopted by The Arc, an organization for citizens with mental retardation, begins the guide. This…
Epps, Patricia H.; Vallenari, Allison
This manual includes all necessary information for implementing the Champs program, which trains older elementary school students or middle/high school students to operate puppets to deliver an HIV/AIDS message to kindergarten through sixth graders. Relying on a peer approach, the Program provides scripted, prerecorded lessons intended to reach…
Brandon D L Marshall
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV transmission among injecting and non-injecting drug users (IDU, NIDU is a significant public health problem. Continuing propagation in endemic settings and emerging regional outbreaks have indicated the need for comprehensive and coordinated HIV prevention. We describe the development of a conceptual framework and calibration of an agent-based model (ABM to examine how combinations of interventions may reduce and potentially eliminate HIV transmission among drug-using populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multidisciplinary team of researchers from epidemiology, sociology, geography, and mathematics developed a conceptual framework based on prior ethnographic and epidemiologic research. An ABM was constructed and calibrated through an iterative design and verification process. In the model, "agents" represent IDU, NIDU, and non-drug users who interact with each other and within risk networks, engaging in sexual and, for IDUs, injection-related risk behavior over time. Agents also interact with simulated HIV prevention interventions (e.g., syringe exchange programs, substance abuse treatment, HIV testing and initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART in a stochastic manner. The model was constructed to represent the New York metropolitan statistical area (MSA population, and calibrated by comparing output trajectories for various outcomes (e.g., IDU/NIDU prevalence, HIV prevalence and incidence against previously validated MSA-level data. The model closely approximated HIV trajectories in IDU and NIDU observed in New York City between 1992 and 2002, including a linear decrease in HIV prevalence among IDUs. Exploratory results are consistent with empirical studies demonstrating that the effectiveness of a combination of interventions, including syringe exchange expansion and ART provision, dramatically reduced HIV prevalence among IDUs during this time period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Complex systems models of adaptive HIV
Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob; Grazter, Beau; Wingood, Gina; Diclemente, Ralph; Allen, Susan; Hoff, Colleen; Salazar, Laura; Scales, Lamont; Montgomery, Jeanne; Schwartz, Ann; Barnes, Jasper; Grabbe, Kristina
To respond to the need for new HIV prevention services for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, and to respond to new data on the key role of main partnerships in US MSM epidemics, we sought to develop a new service for joint HIV testing of male couples. We used the ADAPT-ITT framework to guide our work. From May 2009 to July 2013, a multiphase process was undertaken to identify an appropriate service as the basis for adaptation, collect data to inform the adaptation, adapt the testing service, develop training materials, test the adapted service, and scale up and evaluate the initial version of the service. We chose to base our adaptation on an African couples HIV testing service that was developed in the 1980s and has been widely disseminated in low- and middle-income countries. Our adaptation was informed by qualitative data collections from MSM and HIV counselors, multiple online surveys of MSM, information gathering from key stakeholders, and theater testing of the adapted service with MSM and HIV counselors. Results of initial testing indicate that the adapted service is highly acceptable to MSM and to HIV counselors, that there are no evident harms (e.g., intimate partner violence, relationship dissolution) associated with the service, and that the service identifies a substantial number of HIV serodiscordant male couples. The story of the development and scale-up of the adapted service illustrates how multiple public and foundation funding sources can collaborate to bring a prevention adaptation from concept to public health application, touching on research, program evaluation, implementation science, and public health program delivery. The result of this process is an adapted couples HIV testing approach, with training materials and handoff from academic partners to public health for assessment of effectiveness and consideration of the potential benefits of implementation; further work is needed to optimally adapt the African couples
Waldura, Jess Fogler
Among the most frequently asked questions by callers to the National Perinatal HIV Hotline are those on the use of hormonal contraception in women receiving antiretroviral therapy. Estradiol levels are reduced by ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs), nelfinavir, and nevirapine and increased by non-ritonavir-boosted PIs (except nelfinavir), efavirenz, and etravirine. Oral contraceptives do not affect antiretroviral drug levels, and several options are available for hormonal contraception that can compensate for or avoid the effects of antiretroviral drugs on estrogen levels. Other common questions on the hotline involve interpretation and management issues that arise from indeterminate Western blot test results early and late in pregnancy and from positive rapid test results during labor. Many questions focus on appropriate selection of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy and the need to change regimens to reduce risk of birth defects in the child. This articlesummarizes a presentation by Jess Fogler Waldura, MD, at the 13th Annual Clinical Conference for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program held in August 2010 in Washington, DC.
Prem Kumar, S.G.; Kumar, G Anil; Poluru, Ramesh; Schneider, John A.; Dandona, Lalit; Vemu, Lakshmi; T. Sudha; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Dandona, Rakhi
Background & objectives: Systematic data on existing coverage and willingness for HIV prevention strategies among truckers are not readily available in India. The present study aimed to further the understanding on contact of truckers with existing HIV prevention services and to assess willingness for new HIV prevention strategies. Methods: A total of 1,800 truck drivers and helpers aged 16-65 yr passing through Hyderabad were approached to assess contact made with HIV prevention programmes, ...
Full Text Available This paper examines the ways in which HIV prevention is understood including “biomedical”, “behavioural”, “structural”, and “combination” prevention. In it I argue that effective prevention entails developing community capacity and requires that public health addresses people not only as individuals but also as connected members of groups, networks and collectives who interact (talk, negotiate, have sex, use drugs, etc. together. I also examine the evaluation of prevention programmes or interventions and argue that the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness is often glossed and that, while efficacy can be evaluated by randomized controlled trials, the evaluation of effectiveness requires long-term descriptive strategies and/or modelling. Using examples from a number of countries, including a detailed account of the Australian HIV prevention response, effectiveness is shown to be dependent not only on the efficacy of the prevention technology or tool but also on the responses of people – individuals, communities and governments – to those technologies. Whether a particular HIV prevention technology is adopted and its use sustained depends on a range of social, cultural and political factors. The paper concludes by calling on biomedical and social scientists to work together and describes a “social public health”.
X. Liu (Xiaona); V. Erasmus (Vicky); X. Sun (Xinying); R. Cai (Rui); Y. Shi (Yuhui); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)
textabstractThis study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a t
Safren, Steven A.; Perry, Nicholas S.; Blashill, Aaron J.; O’CLEIRIGH, CONALL; Mayer, Kenneth H.
Recently, behavioral prevention interventions for HIV have been criticized as being ineffective, costly, or inefficient. In this commentary, using HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) as an illustrative high-risk population, we argue that the opposite is true – that behavioral interventions for HIV prevention, if implemented with the populations who need them, are affordable and critical for future prevention efforts. We base this argument on recent evidence showing that 1) adherence ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Cash payments to vulnerable households and/or individuals have increasingly garnered attention as a means to reduce poverty, improve health and achieve other development-related outcomes. Recent evidence from Malawi and Tanzania suggests that cash transfers can impact HIV-related behaviours and outcomes and, therefore, could serve as an important addition to HIV prevention efforts. Discussion: This article reviews the current evidence on cash transfers for HIV prevention and suggests unresolved questions for further research. Gaps include (1 understanding more about the mechanisms and pathways through which cash transfers affect HIV-related outcomes; (2 addressing key operational questions, including the potential feasibility and the costs and benefits of different models of transfers and conditionality; and (3 evaluating and enhancing the wider impacts of cash transfers on health and development. Conclusions: Ongoing and future studies should build on current findings to unpack unresolved questions and to collect additional evidence on the multiple impacts of transfers in different settings. Furthermore, in order to address questions on sustainability, cash transfer programmes need to be integrated with other sectors and programmes that address structural factors such as education and programming to promote gender equality and address HIV.
Vernooij, Eva; Mehlo, Mandhla; Hardon, Anita; Reis, Ria
This article explores how notions of the individual and population are evoked in two ongoing HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) implementation studies in Swaziland. By contrasting policy discourses with lived kinship experiences of people living with HIV, we seek to understand how TasP unfolds in the Swazi context. Data collection consisted of eight focus group discussions with people living with HIV who were members of support groups to examine their perspectives about TasP. In addition, 18 key informant interviews were conducted with study team members, national-level policy-makers and NGO representatives involved in the design of health communication messages about TasP in Swaziland. Thematic analysis was used to identify recurrent themes in transcripts and field notes. Policy-makers and people living with HIV actively resisted framing HIV treatment as a prevention technology but promoted it as (earlier) access to treatment for all. TasP was not conceptualised in terms of individual or societal benefits, which are characteristic of international public health debates; rather its locally situated meanings were embedded in kinship experiences, concerns about taking responsibility for one's own health and others, local biomedical knowledge about drug resistance, and secrecy. The findings from this study suggest that more attention is needed to understand how the global discourse of TasP becomes shaped in practice in different cultural contexts.
Full Text Available Introduction: Transgender women are the population most vulnerable to HIV in Latin America, with prevalence between 18 and 38%. Although the region has improved antiretroviral coverage, there is an urgent need to strengthen HIV prevention for key populations to meet regional targets set by governments. We conducted an assessment on the state of HIV prevention among transgender women in Latin America. Methods: We conducted a desk review of Global AIDS Response Progress Reports, national strategic plans, technical reports and peer-reviewed articles from 17 Latin American countries published through January 2015. The review was preceded by 12 semi-structured interviews with UNAIDS and Pan American Health Organization officers and a discussion group with transgender women regional leaders, to guide the identification of documents. We assessed access to, implementation and coverage of programmes; legal frameworks; community participation; inclusion of new strategies; and alignment with international recommendations. Results and discussion: Overall, prevention activities in the region focus on condom distribution, diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections and peer education, mostly delivered at health facilities, with limited community involvement. Argentina and Uruguay have implemented structural interventions to address social inclusion. Argentina, Brazil and Mexico have adopted early initiation of antiretroviral therapy and treatment as prevention strategies. The other countries do not have substantial tailored interventions and consider the trans population a sub-population of men who have sex with men in data collection and programme implementation. Limited coverage of services, discrimination and a deep-seated mistrust of the health system among transgender women are the main barriers to accessing HIV prevention services. Promising interventions include health services adapted to transgender women in Mexico; LGBT-friendly clinics in Argentina
Maksud, Ivia; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Filgueiras, Sandra Lucia
This article aims to consider some relevant challenges to the provision of "new prevention technologies" in health services in a scenario where the "advances" in the global response to AIDS control are visible. We take as material for analysis the information currently available on the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention (TASP) and over the counter. The methodology consisted of the survey and analysis of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS: MEDLINE, LILACS, WHOLIS, PAHO, SciELO) articles that addressed the issue of HIV prevention and care in the context of so-called new prevention technologies. The results of the studies show that there is assistance on the ground of clinics for the treatment of disease responses, but there are several challenges related to the sphere of prevention. The articles list some challenges regarding to management, organization of services and the attention given by health professionals to users. The current context shows evidence of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, but the challenges for the provision of preventive technologies in health services permeate health professionals and users in their individual dimensions and health services in organizational and structural dimension. Interventions should be made available in a context of community mobilization; there should be no pressure on people to make HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment or for prevention. In the management is responsible for the training of health professionals to inform, clarify and make available to users, partners and family information about the new antiretroviral use strategies.
Purcell, David W; Mizuno, Yoko; Smith, Dawn K; Grabbe, Kristina; Courtenay-Quick, Cari; Tomlinson, Hank; Mermin, Jonathan
Thirty years after the beginning of the HIV epidemic, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively called MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States and continue to acquire a distressingly high number and proportion of new infections. Historically, HIV prevention for MSM has been focused on individual-level behavior change, rarely intervening with MSM as part of a couple. Yet, an estimated 33–67% of HIV infections among MSM are acquired from primary sexual partners, suggesting that work with MSM as couples could be an important contributor to prevention. Given the emergence of high impact combination HIV prevention, it is timely to consider how work with the broad variety of male couples can improve both personal and community health. Couples HIV testing and counseling for MSM is an important advance for identifying men who are unaware that they are HIV-positive, identifying HIV-discordant couples, and supporting men who want to learn their HIV status with their partner. Once men know their HIV status, new advances in biomedical prevention, which can dramatically reduce risk of HIV transmission or acquisition, allow men to make prevention decisions that can protect themselves and their partners. This paper highlights the present-day challenges and benefits of using a couples-based approach with MSM in the era of combination prevention to increase knowledge of HIV status, increase identification of HIV discordant couples to improve targeting prevention services,and support mutual disclosure of HIV status.
Fisher, Celia B
This special issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics represents a sampling of projects fostered through the NIDA-funded Fordham University HIV Prevention Research Ethics Institute. The first three articles employ processes of co-learning to give voice to the experiences of individuals recovering from substance abuse and engaged in sex work who have participated in HIV prevention studies in the United States, India, and the Philippines. The fourth article describes a unique community-based approach to the development of research ethics training modules designed to increase participation of American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) tribal members as partners in research on health disparities. The last two articles focus a critical scholarly lens on two underexamined areas confronting IRB review of HIV research: The emerging and continuously changing ethical challenges of using social media sites for recruitment into HIV prevention research, and the handling of research-related complaints from participants involving perceived research harms or research experiences that do not accord with their initial expectations. Together, the articles in this special issue identify key ethical crossroads and provide suggestions for best practices that respect the values and merit the trust of research participants.
Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen
HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…
Joshua A Salomon
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Through major efforts to reduce costs and expand access to antiretroviral therapy worldwide, widespread delivery of effective treatment to people living with HIV/AIDS is now conceivable even in severely resource-constrained settings. However, the potential epidemiologic impact of treatment in the context of a broader strategy for HIV/AIDS control has not yet been examined. In this paper, we quantify the opportunities and potential risks of large-scale treatment roll-out. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used an epidemiologic model of HIV/AIDS, calibrated to sub-Saharan Africa, to investigate a range of possible positive and negative health outcomes under alternative scenarios that reflect varying implementation of prevention and treatment. In baseline projections, reflecting "business as usual," the numbers of new infections and AIDS deaths are expected to continue rising. In two scenarios representing treatment-centered strategies, with different assumptions about the impact of treatment on transmissibility and behavior, the change in the total number of new infections through 2020 ranges from a 10% increase to a 6% reduction, while the number of AIDS deaths through 2020 declines by 9% to 13%. A prevention-centered strategy provides greater reductions in incidence (36% and mortality reductions similar to those of the treatment-centered scenarios by 2020, but more modest mortality benefits over the next 5 to 10 years. If treatment enhances prevention in a combined response, the expected benefits are substantial-29 million averted infections (55% and 10 million averted deaths (27% through the year 2020. However, if a narrow focus on treatment scale-up leads to reduced effectiveness of prevention efforts, the benefits of a combined response are considerably smaller-9 million averted infections (17% and 6 million averted deaths (16%. Combining treatment with effective prevention efforts could reduce the resource needs for treatment dramatically
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following universal access to antiretroviral therapy in Thailand, evidence from National AIDS Spending Assessment indicates a decreasing proportion of expenditure on prevention interventions. To prompt policymakers to revitalize HIV prevention, this study identifies a comprehensive list of HIV/AIDs preventive interventions that are likely to be effective and cost-effective in Thailand. Methods A systematic review of the national and international literature on HIV prevention strategies from 1997 to 2008 was undertaken. The outcomes used to consider the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions were changes in HIV risk behaviour and HIV incidence. Economic evaluations that presented their results in terms of cost per HIV infection averted or cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained were also included. All studies were assessed against quality criteria. Results The findings demonstrated that school based-sex education plus life-skill programs, voluntary and routine HIV counselling and testing, male condoms, street outreach programs, needle and syringe programs, programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, male circumcision, screening blood products and donated organs for HIV, and increased alcohol tax were all effective in reducing HIV infection among target populations in a cost-effective manner. Conclusion We found very limited local evidence regarding the effectiveness of HIV interventions amongst specific high risk populations. This underlines the urgent need to prioritise health research resources to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV interventions aimed at reducing HIV infection among high risk groups in Thailand.
Ferruccio De Lorenzo
Full Text Available Ferruccio De Lorenzo1, Marta Boffito1, Sophie Collot-Teixeira2, Brian Gazzard1, John L McGregor2,3, Kevin Shotliff2, Han Xiao41General Medicine and Prevention of Vascular Disorders, Beta Cell Diabetes Centre and St Stephen’s AIDS Trust, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2Kings College London, Cardiovascular Division, London, UK; 3INSERM U970, PARC Hôpital Européen George Pompidou, Paris, France; 4Cardiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS, London, UKInvestigational product: Rosuvastatin (Crestor®; Astra Zeneca.Active ingredients: Rosuvastatin (5 mg.Study title: Prevention of Atherosclerosis in Patients Living with HIV.Phase of study: Phase III.Aims: Primary aim:• To assess whether rosuvastatin therapy could slow the progression of the carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT; as measured by the change in the mean IMT of the near and far walls of the distal common carotid arteries over 2 years in HIV-infected patients (HIV-IP.Secondary aims:• To assess whether rosuvastatin therapy could reduce highly sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP inflammatory marker that is increased in HIV-IP.• To assess the effect of rosuvastatin therapy on serum lipid levels (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol and triglycerides [TG] and apolipoproteins (APO A1, APO B and APO B/A1.• To assess the safety of rosuvastatin in HIV-IP through the evaluation of clinical laboratory analyses (liver function tests and creatine kinase and adverse events (AEs.Study design: Two-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study.Planned sample size: 320 HIV-IP.Summary of eligibility criteria: HIV-IP who are aged between 30 and 60 years, with a CD4 count. greater than 200 cells/mm3. Patients must be stable on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART for at least 12 months and have a 10-year CVD risk of less than 20% (using the
Mary S Campbell
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519 was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained partial consensus HIV-1 env and gag sequences from blood plasma for 151 transmission pairs and performed deep sequencing of env in some cases. We analyzed sequences with phylogenetic techniques and developed a Bayesian algorithm to evaluate the probability of linkage. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between enrolled partners' sequences and a Bayesian posterior probability of ≥ 50%. Adjudicators classified each seroconversion, finding 108 (71.5% linked, 40 (26.5% unlinked, and 3 (2.0% indeterminate transmissions, with linkage determined by consensus env sequencing in 91 (84%. Male seroconverters had a higher frequency of unlinked transmissions than female seroconverters. The likelihood of transmission from the enrolled partner was related to time on study, with increasing numbers of unlinked transmissions occurring after longer observation periods. Finally, baseline viral load was found to be significantly higher among linked transmitters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than
Bärnighausen, Till; Salomon, Joshua A; Sangrujee, Nalinee
Meyer-Rath and Over assert in another article in the July 2012 PLoS Medicine Collection, "Investigating the Impact of Treatment on New HIV Infections", that economic evaluations of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in currently existing programs and in HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) programs should use cost functions that capture cost dependence on a number of factors, such as scale and scope of delivery, health states, ART regimens, health workers' experience, patients' time on treatment, and the distribution of delivery across public and private sectors. We argue that for particular evaluation purposes (e.g., to establish the social value of TasP) and from particular perspectives (e.g., national health policy makers) less detailed cost functions may be sufficient. We then extend the discussion of economic evaluation of TasP, describing why ART outcomes and costs assessed in currently existing programs are unlikely to be generalizable to TasP programs for several fundamental reasons. First, to achieve frequent, widespread HIV testing and high uptake of ART immediately following an HIV diagnosis, TasP programs will require components that are not present in current ART programs and whose costs are not included in current estimates. Second, the early initiation of ART under TasP will change not only patients' disease courses and treatment experiences--which can affect behaviors that determine clinical treatment success, such as ART adherence and retention--but also quality of life and economic outcomes for HIV-infected individuals. Third, the preventive effects of TasP are likely to alter the composition of the HIV-infected population over time, changing its biological and behavioral characteristics and leading to different costs and outcomes for ART.
Full Text Available Meyer-Rath and Over assert in another article in the July 2012 PLoS Medicine Collection, "Investigating the Impact of Treatment on New HIV Infections", that economic evaluations of antiretroviral therapy (ART in currently existing programs and in HIV treatment as prevention (TasP programs should use cost functions that capture cost dependence on a number of factors, such as scale and scope of delivery, health states, ART regimens, health workers' experience, patients' time on treatment, and the distribution of delivery across public and private sectors. We argue that for particular evaluation purposes (e.g., to establish the social value of TasP and from particular perspectives (e.g., national health policy makers less detailed cost functions may be sufficient. We then extend the discussion of economic evaluation of TasP, describing why ART outcomes and costs assessed in currently existing programs are unlikely to be generalizable to TasP programs for several fundamental reasons. First, to achieve frequent, widespread HIV testing and high uptake of ART immediately following an HIV diagnosis, TasP programs will require components that are not present in current ART programs and whose costs are not included in current estimates. Second, the early initiation of ART under TasP will change not only patients' disease courses and treatment experiences--which can affect behaviors that determine clinical treatment success, such as ART adherence and retention--but also quality of life and economic outcomes for HIV-infected individuals. Third, the preventive effects of TasP are likely to alter the composition of the HIV-infected population over time, changing its biological and behavioral characteristics and leading to different costs and outcomes for ART.
Dzeletovic, A; Popovic, R
This article discusses the specific actions taken by Yugoslavia in preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS in their country. Two years after the first HIV infection was diagnosed and recognized in 1985, a national level program was established based on the Global AIDS Strategy as defined in 1986 and the Global AIDS Program in 1987. Three essential elements in the program were prevention and control of risky behavior; safe public health procedures, and social tolerance. Among the first major activities organized was the First Conference on AIDS, held in 1987; it was followed in the following year by another conference which registered almost 150 papers regarding epidemiology, transfusiology, health education and drug dependence. In 1988, the Institute of Public Health of Serbia, Belgrade, published and distributed numerous pamphlets, folders, posters and video cassettes including 5,000 copies of the multi-colored poster "Beware of AIDS." The program activities have resulted in the design of a variety of projects that focused on specific problems and segments of the population, namely: AIDS Information for Dentists, The Health Education Program for Elementary School Children and AIDS, and Measures on AIDS Prevention in Health Facilities. Furthermore, The Resolution on Protecting the Population from STDs was passed in 1994 and a new Program of Protecting the Population from STDs was been adopted; this program includes activities on the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis and Hepatitis B.
Söderlund, N; Lavis, J; Broomberg, J; Mills, A
Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact.
Dawson, Liza; Zwerski, Sheryl
This article seeks to advance ethical dialogue on choosing standards of prevention in clinical trials testing improved biomedical prevention methods for HIV. The stakes in this area of research are high, given the continued high rates of infection in many countries and the budget limitations that have constrained efforts to expand treatment for all who are currently HIV-infected. New prevention methods are still needed; at the same time, some existing prevention and treatment interventions have been proven effective but are not yet widely available in the countries where they most urgently needed. The ethical tensions in this field of clinical research are well known and have been the subject of extensive debate. There is no single clinical trial design that can optimize all the ethically important goals and commitments involved in research. Several recent articles have described the current ethical difficulties in designing HIV prevention trials, especially in resource limited settings; however, there is no consensus on how to handle clinical trial design decisions, and existing international ethical guidelines offer conflicting advice. This article acknowledges these deep ethical dilemmas and moves beyond a simple descriptive approach to advance an organized method for considering what clinical trial designs will be ethically acceptable for HIV prevention trials, balancing the relevant criteria and providing justification for specific design decisions.
Kohler, Hans-Peter; Thornton, Rebecca
Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have recently received considerable attention as a potentially innovative and effective approach to the prevention of HIV/AIDS. We evaluate a conditional cash transfer program in rural Malawi which offered financial incentives to men and women to maintain their HIV status for approximately one year. The amounts of the reward ranged from zero to approximately 3-4 months wage. We find no effect of the offered incentives on HIV status or on reported sexual behavior. However, shortly after receiving the reward, men who received the cash transfer were 9 percentage points more likely and women were 6.7 percentage points less likely to engage in risky sex. Our analyses therefore question the "unconditional effectiveness" of CCT program for HIV prevention: CCT Programs that aim to motivate safe sexual behavior in Africa should take into account that money given in the present may have much stronger effects than rewards offered in the future, and any effect of these programs may be fairly sensitive to the specific design of the program, the local and/or cultural context, and the degree of agency an individual has with respect to sexual behaviors.
Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J
Combination HIV prevention interventions that integrate efficacious behavioral and biomedical strategies offer the potential to reduce new HIV infections. We overview the efficacy data for three biomedical HIV prevention approaches, namely microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and HIV vaccination; review factors associated with differential acceptability and uptake of these methods; and suggest strategies to optimize the effectiveness and dissemination of combination HIV prevention approaches. A narrative review was conducted highlighting key efficacy data for microbicides, PrEP, and an HIV vaccination and summarizing acceptability data for each of the three biomedical HIV prevention approaches. Recommendations for the integration and dissemination of combined behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention approaches are provided. To date, microbicides and an HIV vaccination have demonstrated limited efficacy for the prevention of HIV. However, PrEP has demonstrated efficacy in reducing HIV incident infections. A diverse array of factors influences both hypothetical willingness and actual usage of each biomedical prevention method. Strategies to effectively integrate and evaluate combination HIV prevention interventions are urgently needed.
Khan, Maria R; Epperson, Matthew W; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard, Dawn; Hunt, Timothy; Sarfo, Bright; El-Bassel, Nabila
There is increasing excitement about multimedia sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention interventions, yet there has been limited discussion of how use of multimedia technology may improve STI/HIV prevention efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanisms through which multimedia technology may work to improve the delivery and uptake of intervention material. We present conceptual frameworks describing how multimedia technology may improve intervention delivery by increasing standardization and fidelity to the intervention material and the participant's ability to learn by improving attention, cognition, emotional engagement, skills-building, and uptake of sensitive material about sexual and drug risks. In addition, we describe how the non-multimedia behavioral STI/HIV prevention intervention, Project WORTH, was adapted into a multimedia format for women involved in the criminal justice system and provide examples of how multimedia activities can more effectively target key mediators of behavioral change in this intervention.
... News Releases News Release Tuesday, October 18, 2016 Women report vaginal ring for preventing HIV had little ... social harm were associated with low adherence. Most women who used an experimental vaginal ring for HIV ...
Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz
The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents' social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population.
Randy; Dotinga; 费国飞
避孕套在安全性行为中起到至关重要的作用,它既可避孕,又可预防艾滋病。但最近一项研究表明,它的功效远远不止如此:People who consistentlyused condoms got fewer cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia than those who usedthem only occasionally.Condoms also prevented transmission of genital herpes inmen and possibly in women,too.
This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.
Parker, Richard G; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Garcia, Jonathan; Gavigan, Kelly; Ramirez, Ana; Milnor, Jack; Terto, Veriano
Introduction Critical technological advances have yielded a toolkit of HIV prevention strategies. This literature review sought to provide contextual and historical reflection needed to bridge the conceptual gap between clinical efficacy and community effectiveness (i.e. knowledge and usage) of existing HIV prevention options, especially in resource-poor settings. Methods Between January 2015 and October 2015, we reviewed scholarly and grey literatures to define treatment literacy and health literacy and assess the current need for literacy related to HIV prevention. The review included searches in electronic databases including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Permutations of the following search terms were used: “treatment literacy,” “treatment education,” “health literacy,” and “prevention literacy.” Through an iterative process of analyses and searches, titles and/or abstracts and reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed for additional articles, and historical content analyses of grey literature and websites were additionally conducted. Results and discussion Treatment literacy was a well-established concept developed in the global South, which was later partially adopted by international agencies such as the World Health Organization. Treatment literacy emerged as more effective antiretroviral therapies became available. Developed from popular pedagogy and grassroots efforts during an intense struggle for treatment access, treatment literacy addressed the need to extend access to underserved communities and low-income settings that might otherwise be excluded from access. In contrast, prevention literacy is absent in the recent surge of new biomedical prevention strategies; prevention literacy was scarcely referenced and undertheorized in the available literature. Prevention efforts today include multimodal techniques, which jointly comprise a toolkit of biomedical, behavioural, and structural/environmental approaches
Richard G Parker
Full Text Available Introduction: Critical technological advances have yielded a toolkit of HIV prevention strategies. This literature review sought to provide contextual and historical reflection needed to bridge the conceptual gap between clinical efficacy and community effectiveness (i.e. knowledge and usage of existing HIV prevention options, especially in resource-poor settings. Methods: Between January 2015 and October 2015, we reviewed scholarly and grey literatures to define treatment literacy and health literacy and assess the current need for literacy related to HIV prevention. The review included searches in electronic databases including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Permutations of the following search terms were used: “treatment literacy,” “treatment education,” “health literacy,” and “prevention literacy.” Through an iterative process of analyses and searches, titles and/or abstracts and reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed for additional articles, and historical content analyses of grey literature and websites were additionally conducted. Results and discussion: Treatment literacy was a well-established concept developed in the global South, which was later partially adopted by international agencies such as the World Health Organization. Treatment literacy emerged as more effective antiretroviral therapies became available. Developed from popular pedagogy and grassroots efforts during an intense struggle for treatment access, treatment literacy addressed the need to extend access to underserved communities and low-income settings that might otherwise be excluded from access. In contrast, prevention literacy is absent in the recent surge of new biomedical prevention strategies; prevention literacy was scarcely referenced and undertheorized in the available literature. Prevention efforts today include multimodal techniques, which jointly comprise a toolkit of biomedical, behavioural, and structural
Uhrig, Jennifer D; Bann, Carla M; Wasserman, Jill; Guenther-Grey, Carolyn; Eroğlu, Doğan
This study measured audience reactions and receptivity to five draft HIV prevention messages developed for people living with HIV (PLWH) to inform future HIV message choice and audience targeting decisions. Our premise was that message concepts that receive wide audience appeal constitute a strong starting point for designing future HIV prevention messages, program activities, and health communication and marketing campaigns for PLWH. The majority of participants indicated agreement with evaluative statements that expressed favorable attitudes toward all five of the message concepts we evaluated. Participants gave the lowest approval to the message promoting sero-sorting. Sociodemographic characteristics played less of a role in predicting differences in message perceptions than attitudes, beliefs and sexual behavior. The general appeal for these messages is encouraging given that messages were expressed in plain text without the support of other creative elements that are commonly used in message execution. These results confirm the utility of systematic efforts to generate and screen message concepts prior to large-scale testing.
Toya V Russell
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After the first two cases of locally-acquired HIV infection were recognized in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM, a public health response was initiated. The purpose of the response was to assess the need for HIV education and prevention services, to develop recommendations for controlling further spread of HIV in Chuuk, and to initiate some of the prevention measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A public health team conducted a survey and rapid HIV testing among a sample of residents on the outer islands in Chuuk. Local public health officials conducted contact tracing and testing of sex partners of the two locally-acquired cases of HIV infection. A total of 333 persons completed the survey. The majority knew that HIV is transmitted through unprotected sexual contact (81%, injection drug use (61%, or blood transfusion (64%. Sexual activity in the past 12 months was reported among 159 participants, including 90 females and 69 males. Compared to women, men were more likely to have had multiple sex partners, to have been drunk during sex, but less likely to have used a condom in the past 12 months. The two men with locally acquired HIV infection had unprotected anal sex with a third Chuukese man who likely contracted HIV while outside of Chuuk. All 370 persons who received voluntary, confidential HIV counseling and testing had HIV negative test results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the low HIV seroprevalence, risky sexual behaviors in this small isolated population raise concerns about the potential for rapid spread of HIV. The lack of knowledge about risks, along with stigmatizing attitudes towards persons infected with HIV and high risk sexual behaviors indicate the need for resources to be directed toward HIV prevention in Chuuk and on other Pacific Islands.
Anderson, Peter L.; Kiser, Jennifer J.; Gardner, Edward M.; Rower, Joseph E.; Meditz, Amie; Grant, Robert M.
The use of antiretroviral medications in HIV-negative individuals as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising approach to prevent HIV infection. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine exhibit desirable properties for PrEP including: favourable pharmacokinetics that support infrequent dosing; few major drug-drug or drug-food interactions; an excellent clinical safety record; and pre-clinical evidence for efficacy. Several large, randomized, controlled clinical trials are evaluating the safety and efficacy of TDF and emtricitabine for this new indication. A thorough understanding of variability in drug response will help determine future investigations in the field and/or implementation into clinical care. Because tenofovir and emtricitabine are nucleos(t)ide analogues, the HIV prevention and toxicity effects depend on the triphosphate analogue formed intracellularly. This review identifies important cellular pharmacology considerations for tenofovir and emtricitabine, which include drug penetration into relevant tissues and cell types, race/ethnicity/pharmacogenetics, gender, cellular activation state and appropriate episodic or alternative dosing strategies based on pharmacokinetic principles. The current state of knowledge in these areas is summarized and the future utility of intracellular pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics for the PrEP field is discussed. PMID:21118913
Brander, Christian; Walker, Bruce D
The continuous evolution and adaptation of HIV to its host has produced extensive global viral diversity. Understanding the kinetics and directions of this continuing adaptation and its impact on viral fitness, immunogenicity and pathogenicity will be crucial to the successful design of effective HIV vaccines. Here we discuss some potential scenarios of viral and host coevolution.
Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M
Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide.
McQuiston, C; Choi-Hevel, S; Clawson, M
To be effective, HIV/AIDS interventions must be culturally and linguistically appropriate and must occur within the context of the specific community in which they are delivered. In this article, the development of a culture-specific lay health advisor (LHA) program, Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad, for recently immigrated Mexicans is described. This program is one component of a collaborative inquiry research project involving community participants and researchers working as partners in carrying out and assessing a program for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The collaborative inquiry process was applied as an empowerment philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire and an ecological framework was used for the development of Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad. The use of principles of empowerment for curriculum development, teaching methodology, and program delivery are described.
Data suggest that HIV prevalence rates among Muslim populations may be increasing due to unprotected sexual intercourse and shared injection equipment, despite popular belief that adherence to religious injunctions has shielded Muslim populations from the HIV epidemic. HIV prevention programs targeting Muslim populations to date have often lacked a theoretical foundation and have neglected the important Islamic concept of jihad, or struggle. This article reviews the cultural and religious factors that may facilitate or reduce HIV risk in Muslim communities. The theory of reasoned action and a harm reduction approach are utilized to demonstrate how the important concept of jihad can be integrated with HIV prevention theory to develop HIV prevention approaches at individual and structural levels. The proposed approach to HIV prevention must be validated, refined, and evaluated for specific cultures and locales through field testing.
Toska, Elona; Gittings, Lesley; Hodes, Rebecca; Cluver, Lucie D; Govender, Kaymarlin; Chademana, K Emma; Gutiérrez, Vincent Evans
Adolescents are the only age group with growing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in Eastern and Southern Africa, making HIV prevention research among this population an urgent priority. Structural deprivations are key drivers of adolescent HIV infection in this region. Biomedical interventions must be combined with behavioural and social interventions to alleviate the socio-structural determinants of HIV infection. There is growing evidence that social protection has the potential to reduce the risk of HIV infection among children and adolescents. This research combined expert consultations with a rigorous review of academic and policy literature on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention among children and adolescents, including prevention for those already HIV-positive. The study had three goals: (i) assess the evidence on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention, (ii) consider key challenges to implementing social protection programmes that promote HIV prevention, and (iii) identify critical research gaps in social protection and HIV prevention, in Eastern and Southern Africa. Causal pathways of inequality, poverty, gender and HIV risk require flexible and responsive social protection mechanisms. Results confirmed that HIV-inclusive child-and adolescent-sensitive social protection has the potential to interrupt risk pathways to HIV infection and foster resilience. In particular, empirical evidence (literature and expert feedback) detailed the effectiveness of combination social protection particularly cash/in-kind components combined with "care" and "capability" among children and adolescents. Social protection programmes should be dynamic and flexible, and consider age, gender, HIV-related stigma, and context, including cultural norms, which offer opportunities to improve programmatic coverage, reach and uptake. Effective HIV prevention also requires integrated social protection policies, developed through strong national
Tarantino, Nicholas; Goodrum, Nada; Armistead, Lisa P; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie
Our study examined factors influencing the effectiveness of a parent-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town, South Africa. Caregiver-youth dyads (N = 99) were randomized into intervention or control conditions and assessed longitudinally. The intervention improved a parenting skill associated with youth sexual risk, parent-child communication about sex and HIV. Analyses revealed that over time, intervention participants (female caregivers) who experienced recent intimate partner violence (IPV) or unsafe neighborhoods discussed fewer sex topics with their adolescent children than caregivers in safer neighborhoods or who did not report IPV. Participants with low or moderate decision-making power in their intimate relationships discussed more topics over time only if they received the intervention. The effectiveness of our intervention was challenged by female caregivers' experience with IPV and unsafe neighborhoods, highlighting the importance of safety-related contextual factors when implementing behavioral interventions for women and young people in high-risk environments. Moderation effects did not occur for youth-reported communication outcomes. Implications for cross-cultural adaptations of parent-based HIV prevention interventions are discussed.
MIZUNO, Yuko; ZHU, Julia; CREPAZ, Nicole; BEER, Linda; PURCELL, David W.; JOHNSON, Christopher H.; VALVERDE, Eduardo E.; SKARBINSKI, Jacek
Objective Guidelines recommend risk-reduction counseling by HIV providers to all HIV-infected persons. Among HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States, we estimated prevalence of exposure to three types of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction interventions and described the characteristics of persons who received these interventions. Design Data were from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a supplemental HIV surveillance system designed to produce nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. Methods Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure to each type of HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess associations between the selected correlates with each exposure variable. Results About 44% of participants reported a one-on-one conversation with a health care provider about HIV/STD prevention, 30% with a prevention program worker, 16% reported participation in a small group risk-reduction intervention, and 52% reported receiving at least one of the three interventions in the past 12 months. Minority race/ethnicity, low income, and risky sexual behavior consistently predicted greater intervention exposure. However, 39% of persons who reported risky sex did not receive any HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. Conclusions HIV-infected persons in care with fewer resources or those who engaged in risk behaviors were more likely to receive HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. However, less than half of HIV-infected persons in care received HIV/STD prevention counseling from their provider, an intervention that has been shown to be effective and is supported by guidelines. PMID:24056066
Dawson Rose, Carol; Gutin, Sarah A; Reyes, Michael
HIV prevention efforts with people living with HIV are critical, and Positive Prevention (PP) interventions have expanded globally to address this growing need. This article provides an overview of U.S. PP literature addressing evidence-based interventions. It continues by looking at the prevention needs and care issues of people living with HIV in Mozambique and the larger African context, and then discusses which U.S. PP models may be best suited for adaptation and use in Mozambique. The research suggests that the lessons learned from these U.S.-developed interventions can be modified to develop theoretically sound interventions. These interventions must be culturally specific and include a collaborative approach for best results.
Myron S Cohen
Full Text Available Universal HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy for infected individuals has been proposed as a way of reducing the transmission of HIV and thereby bringing the HIV epidemic under control. It is unclear whether transmission during early HIV infection--before individuals are likely to have been diagnosed with HIV and started on antiretroviral therapy--will compromise the effectiveness of treatment as prevention. This article presents two opposing viewpoints by Powers, Miller, and Cohen, and Williams and Dye, followed by a commentary by Fraser.
Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.
Baptiste, Donna R.; Kapungu, Chisina; Miller, Steve; Crown, Laurel; Henry, David; Da Costa Martinez, Dona; Jo-Bennett, Karen
This article presents preliminary findings of a randomized HIV prevention study in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. The study centers on a family HIV workshop aimed at strengthening parenting skills that are empirically linked to reducing adolescent HIV exposure and other sexual risks. These skills include parental monitoring; educating youth…
Nelson, Annabelle; Cordova, David; Walters, Andrew S.; Szecsy, Elsie
Latino adolescents are disproportionately impacted by HIV, but researchers have documented few programs to prevent and reduce HIV risk. The Storytelling for Empowerment (SFE) "HIV StoryBook" was designed with an innovative ecodevelopment approach combining empowerment, family communication, and positive cultural identity. A mixed method…
Kimball, A M; Thant, M
The estimated number of HIV cases in Asia now exceeds the "worst case" scenario envisioned by the World Bank in 1993. While prevention efforts have failed to contain the epidemic in other parts of the world, Asia's private sector has the resources to contain the epidemic if it acts quickly. In parts of Asia, work place-based medical and health services already exist, but, to date, efforts to gain the cooperation of business and industry in HIV prevention programs have led to disappointment. Businesses in Thailand, on the other hand, have begun a vigorous prevention campaign led by the Thailand Business Coalition on AIDS. The countries where the epidemic has not yet made a big impact (Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Viet Nam, and the Philippines) are those where intervention could be most effective. Unfortunately, little corporate cooperation is occurring in these areas. Asian companies seem to fear contamination from the disease if they engage in prevention activities. Businesses in Asia have not faced the reality of the costs of AIDS which will rob companies of highly skilled workers who are expensive to replace, drive away foreign capital, and shrink the home market as people dedicate their resources to health care. While the impact of AIDS on businesses follows a tiered approach, all enterprises will eventually be affected adversely. The interrelated nature of Asia economies will also mean that even nations which are not experiencing the epidemic will feel its economic impact (for example, Japan will see its gross national product decrease because of trade losses caused by the epidemic in Thailand). Prevention efforts by businesses must be supported and encouraged by governments with financial and other incentives. Multinational corporations can have an effect on national companies as well as organize programs for their own employees. Because they depend upon longterm strategic thinking, Asian financial institutions are beginning to understand the role that
Hsieh, Amy; Rodrigues, Jessica; Skovdal, Morten; Melillo, Sara; Walker, Damilola
Accelerated efforts to end vertical HIV transmission have resulted in a 52% decrease in new infections among children since 2001. However, current approaches to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) assume a linearity and universality. These insufficiently guide clinicians and programmes toward interventions that comprehensively address the varying and changing needs of clients. This results in high levels of loss-to-follow-up at each step of the PMTCT cascade. Current PMTCT approaches must be adapted to respond to the different and complex realities of women, children and families affected by HIV. Drawing on the concept of an 'HIV trajectories,' we screened peer-reviewed literature for promising PMTCT approaches and selected 13 articles for qualitative review when the described intervention involved more than a biomedical approach to PMTCT and mother-child HIV treatment and care. Our qualitative analysis revealed that interventions which integrated elements of the 'HIV trajectories' perspective and built on people living with HIV support/network, community health worker, primary healthcare and early childhood development platforms were successful because they recognized that HIV is an illness, experienced, moderated and managed by numerous factors beyond biomedical interventions alone.On the basis of this review, we call for the adoption of an 'HIV trajectories' perspective that can help assess the comprehensiveness of care provided to women, children and families affected by HIV and can inform the planning and delivery of HIV and related services so that they more adequately respond to the varying needs of clients on different 'HIV trajectories'.
Bryan, Angela; Robbins, Reuben N; Ruiz, Monica S; O'Neill, Dennis
Prisons and prison inmates present important targets for HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Inmates often have histories of high-risk behavior that place them in danger of contracting HIV/AIDS, and rates of HIV/AIDS tend to be much higher in this population. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a prison-based HIV/AIDS intervention to change attitudes toward HIV prevention, norms supporting HIV prevention, perceived behavioral control (i.e., self-efficacy) for HIV prevention behaviors, and intentions to engage in HIV prevention behaviors postrelease. The intervention also had the goal of encouraging inmates to become HIV/AIDS peer educators. The intervention appeared most successful at influencing beliefs and behaviors related to peer education and somewhat successful at influencing beliefs and intentions related to condom use. Analyses also showed some significant differences in effectiveness by race/ethnicity. Results are discussed from the perspectives of both research and practice with regard to prison-based HIV prevention efforts.
Kang, Ezer; Chin, John J; Behar, Elana
Ethnic churches attended by first generation Chinese immigrants are uniquely positioned to address emerging HIV prevention and care needs within the Chinese community at-large. Efforts to develop faith-based HIV programs necessitate identifying how HIV intersects with the sinicization of Christianity within Chinese churches. This paper will review the process of contextualizing HIV within theological and cultural frameworks that are meaningful for ethnic Chinese church leaders and members. The authors specifically propose two points of integration between public health and ecclesial functions: (1) HIV stigma-mitigation initiatives as informed by Christo-centric teachings of compassion and justice, and (2) HIV prevention and care reframed as social responsibility and informed by the Christian tradition of evangelism. Systems and practices that hinder and promote the involvement of Chinese churches in HIV prevention, care, and stigma-reduction will be discussed.
Dolan, Kate; Moazen, Babak; Noori, Atefeh; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Farzadfar, Farshad; Hariga, Fabienne
In 2011, over 10.1 million people were held in prisons around the world. HIV prevalence is elevated in prison and this is due to the over representation of people who inject drugs (PWID). Yet HIV prevention programs for PWID are scarce in the prison setting. With a high proportion of drug users and few prevention programs, HIV transmission occurs and sometimes at an alarming rate. This commentary focuses primarily on drug users in prison; their risk behaviours and levels of infection. It also comments on the transmission of HIV including outbreaks and the efforts to prevent transmission within the prison setting. The spread of HIV in prison has substantial public health implications as virtually all prisoners return to the community. HIV prevention and treatment strategies known to be effective in community settings, such as methadone maintenance treatment, needle and syringe programs, condoms and antiretroviral therapy should be provided to prisoners as a matter of urgency.
Liu, Xiaona; Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Cai, Rui; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik
This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China.
Full Text Available This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM are a high-risk group for HIV. Implementation of effective preventive activities is an important way to combat HIV among MSM. However, in Ukraine there is no real HIV prevention policy among MSM and the need for its formulation is still open. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of legal acts, national reports and other official documents related to HIV prevention among MSM was carried out for Romania, Slovenia, the Netherlands, and Sweden.RESULTS: European countries use various approaches to HIV prevention among MSM: institutional, structural, and media approach.Countries under consideration have fully specified the minimum standard package for HIV prevention among MSM, who are defined as the highest priority group. Distinct strategies for MSM and ways to achieve them are outlined within the national plans and strategies for combating HIV/AIDS (Slovenia, Romania, the Netherlands. The National plan for HIV prevention among MSM will come into action in 2012 in Sweden. Countries, chosen for this study, use the principle of social contract by which the government provides subsidies and grants to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs working with MSM through its specialized health care units (Slovenia, Sweden, and sometimes only for one national NGO (the Netherlands. Outreach is the most common model of NGO’s activities.. In Sweden, MSM can get counseling and HIV testing in specialized HIV clinic for MSM. HIV prevention among MSM is run by representatives of NGOs through dating sites (Slovenia, Romania, through educating MSM and further promotion of healthy lifestyles among their friends. Along with the behavior modification activities, anti-discrimination strategies are used (Sweden, the Netherlands, Slovenia.CONCLUSIONS: Review of the regulatory frameworks, empowerment of NGOs, implementation of the social contract mechanisms, using interactive tools and providing education for MSM can be key points of HIV
NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO VERSIONS OF A STD /HIV PREVENTION PROGRAM S. Booth-Kewley R. A. Shaffer...EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO VERSIONS OF AN STD /HIV PREVENTION PROGRAM 1NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER P.O. BOX 85122 San Diego, CA 92186-5122...of a behavioral intervention called the STD /HIV Intervention Program (SHIP) in a sample of Marines. Marines were exposed to either a 6 hr or a 3 hr
Tsarouk, Tatiana; Thompson, Elaine A; Herting, Jerald R; Walsh, Elaine; Randell, Brooke
This study adapted a U.S. drug use prevention program for use with Russian at-risk adolescents, and explored directions for further development of programs addressing prevention of substance abuse and other health risk behaviors including risk of HIV infection. The adaptation process was conducted in phases, initially carried out in Seattle with 23 bilingual (English-Russian) youth and then further adapted in two Moscow schools with 44 "typical" youth. In the final phase, program adaptation for the Russian at-risk adolescents was achieved by conducting a pilot test of the adapted program lessons with Moscow at-risk adolescents (n=10), who met criteria of poor school performance and/or truancy. Observations and experience were used throughout to adapt and refine the program for at-risk youth. Modifications were made to represent more accurately colloquial Russian and to capture teen experiences common to Russian culture. Both U.S. and Russian youth characterized the lessons as engaging and valuable. They also expressed a need to learn about sexuality, drug use, and health; peer and romantic relationships; and problem-solving strategies.
Rodger, Alison J; Bruun, Tina; Vernazza, Pietro;
The results from the HPTN 052 trial have increased the focus on use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of HIV transmission; however, condom use also effectively prevents HIV transmission. Studies in heterosexual serodiscordant couples with viral suppression have so far only reported...
Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC had an annual budget of approximately $327 million to fund health departments and community-based organizations for core HIV testing and prevention programs domestically between 2001 and 2006. Annual HIV incidence has been relatively stable since the year 2000 and was estimated at 48,600 cases in 2006 and 48,100 in 2009. Using estimates on HIV incidence, prevalence, prevention program costs and benefits, and current spending, we created an HIV resource allocation model that can generate a mathematically optimal allocation of the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention's extramural budget for HIV testing, and counseling and education programs. The model's data inputs and methods were reviewed by subject matter experts internal and external to the CDC via an extensive validation process. The model projects the HIV epidemic for the United States under different allocation strategies under a fixed budget. Our objective is to support national HIV prevention planning efforts and inform the decision-making process for HIV resource allocation. Model results can be summarized into three main recommendations. First, more funds should be allocated to testing and these should further target men who have sex with men and injecting drug users. Second, counseling and education interventions ought to provide a greater focus on HIV positive persons who are aware of their status. And lastly, interventions should target those at high risk for transmitting or acquiring HIV, rather than lower-risk members of the general population. The main conclusions of the HIV resource allocation model have played a role in the introduction of new programs and provide valuable guidance to target resources and improve the impact of HIV prevention efforts in the United States.
Full Text Available HIV prevention trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of a number of behavioral and biomedical interventions. HIV prevention packages are combinations of interventions and offer potential to significantly increase the effectiveness of any single intervention. Estimates of the effectiveness of prevention packages are important for guiding the development of prevention strategies and for characterizing effect sizes before embarking on large scale trials. Unfortunately, most research to date has focused on testing single interventions rather than HIV prevention packages. Here we report the results from agent-based modeling of the effectiveness of HIV prevention packages for men who have sex with men (MSM in South Africa. We consider packages consisting of four components: antiretroviral therapy for HIV infected persons with CD4 count <350; PrEP for high risk uninfected persons; behavioral interventions to reduce rates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI; and campaigns to increase HIV testing. We considered 163 HIV prevention packages corresponding to different intensity levels of the four components. We performed 2252 simulation runs of our agent-based model to evaluate those packages. We found that a four component package consisting of a 15% reduction in the rate of UAI, 50% PrEP coverage of high risk uninfected persons, 50% reduction in persons who never test for HIV, and 50% ART coverage over and above persons already receiving ART at baseline, could prevent 33.9% of infections over 5 years (95% confidence interval, 31.5, 36.3. The package components with the largest incremental prevention effects were UAI reduction and PrEP coverage. The impact of increased HIV testing was magnified in the presence of PrEP. We find that HIV prevention packages that include both behavioral and biomedical components can in combination prevent significant numbers of infections with levels of coverage, acceptance and adherence that are potentially achievable
Taaffe, Jessica; Cheikh, Nejma; Wilson, David
Poverty and social inequality are significant drivers of the HIV epidemic and are risk factors for acquiring HIV. As such, many individuals worldwide are at risk for new HIV infection, especially young women in East and Southern Africa. By addressing these drivers, social protection programmes may mitigate the impact of poverty and social inequality on HIV risk. There is reason to believe that social protection can be used successfully for HIV prevention; social protection programmes, including cash transfers, have led to positive health outcomes and behaviour in other contexts, and they have been used successfully to promote education and increased income and employment opportunities. Furthermore, cash transfers have influenced sexual behaviour of young women and girls, thereby decreasing sexual risk factors for HIV infection. When HIV outcomes have been measured, several randomised controlled trials have shown that indirectly, cash transfers have led to reduced HIV prevalence and incidence. In these studies, school attendance and safer sexual health were directly incentivised through the cash transfer, yet there was a positive effect on HIV outcomes. In this review, we discuss the growth of social protection programmes, their benefits and impact on health, education and economic potential, and how these outcomes may affect HIV risk. We also review the studies that have shown that cash transfers can lead to reduced HIV infection, including study limitations and what questions still remain with regard to using cash transfers for HIV prevention.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, men who have sex with men (MSM are highly affected by HIV and need new targeted HIV prevention strategies. OBJECTIVES: To assess the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care and associated factors among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012. Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method in venues most frequented by MSM and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate factors associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. RESULTS: A total of 358 MSM were approached for the survey and 222 questionnaires (62.0% were eligible for analyses. Overall, 76.1% of the respondents reported that they were willing to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. A number of male partners in last year less than or equal to 3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.07, 95% Confidence interval: 1.40-6.73, a history of STI screening (4.10, 1.02-16.48 and HIV testing (3.23, 1.20-8.64 and having ever sought a male sexual partner through the Internet (3.56, 1.55-8.18 were significantly positively associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. CONCLUSION: The MSM interviewed in Ho Chi Minh City reported a high willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. In a context where new media are increasingly considered as promising options for reaching this HIV risk group, further research should be conducted on developing and testing tailored online tools adapted to the needs of Vietnamese MSM.
Anne Roslev Bukh
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation may contribute to the immunopathogenesis in HIV infection. We investigated if microbial translocation and inflammation were associated with innate and adaptive immune responses in adults with HIV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was an observational cohort study. Sera from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals were analyzed for microbial translocation (soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharides [LPS], endotoxin core antibody, and anti-α-galactosyl antibodies and inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II, and IL-10 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from HIV-infected persons and healthy controls (primed with single-stranded HIV-1-derived RNA were stimulated with LPS, and cytokine production was measured. Finally, HIV-infected patients were immunized with Prevnar 7vPnC±CpG 7909 followed by Pneumo Novum PPV-23. Effects of microbial translocation and inflammation on immunization were analyzed in a predictive regression model. We included 96 HIV-infected individuals, 76 on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, 20 HAART-naive, and 50 healthy controls. Microbial translocation and inflammatory markers were higher among HIV-infected persons than controls. Cytokine levels following LPS stimulation were increased in PBMCs from HAART-naive compared to HAART-treated HIV-infected persons. Further, RNA-priming of PBMCs from controls acted synergistically with LPS to augment cytokine responses. Finally, high serum LPS levels predicted poor vaccine responses among HAART-naive, but not among HAART-treated HIV-infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LPS acts synergistically with HIV RNA to stimulate innate immune responses in vitro and increasing serum LPS levels seem to predict poor antibody responses after vaccination among HAART-naive HIV-infected persons. Thus, our
Andrea L Wirtz
Full Text Available Introduction: There are limited data characterizing the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi. Epidemiologic research and access to HIV prevention, treatment and care services have been traditionally limited in Malawi by criminalization and stigmatization of same-sex practices. To inform the development of a comprehensive HIV prevention intervention for Malawian MSM, we conducted a community-led assessment of HIV prevalence and correlates of infection. Methods: From April 2011 to March 2012, 338 MSM were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling methods (RDS, reaching 19 waves. Trained staff administered the socio-behavioural survey and HIV and syphilis voluntary counselling and testing. Results: Crude HIV and syphilis prevalence estimates were 15.4% (RDS-weighted 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.3–17.8 and 5.3% (RDS-weighted 4.4%, 95% CI: 3.1–7.6, respectively. Ninety per cent (90.4%, unweighted of HIV infections were reported as being previously undiagnosed. Participants were predominantly gay-identified (60.8% or bisexually identified (36.3%; 50.7% reported recent concurrent relationships. Approximately half reported consistent condom use (always or almost always with casual male partners, and proportions were relatively uniform across partner types and genders. The prevalence of perceived and experienced stigma exceeded 20% for almost all variables, 11.4% ever experienced physical violence and 7% were ever raped. Current age >25 years (RDS-weighted adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.7, single marital status (RDS-weighted AOR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.8 and age of first sex with a man <16 years (RDS-weighted AOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.2–15.0 were independently associated with HIV infection. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that MSM represent an underserved, at-risk population for HIV services in Malawi and merit comprehensive HIV
Manji, A; Peña, R; Dubrow, R
There are few peer-reviewed studies of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices among adolescents in Central America. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 246 adolescents in León, Nicaragua, where there is reason for concern about a rise in HIV infections. In many respects, León adolescents were typical of those in other Latin American countries, with a mixture of correct and incorrect knowledge about transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, a higher proportion of males than females reporting having had sex or using condoms, and inconsistent condom use. While some sexual attitudes conformed to the ideology of machismo, others did not, providing an opening for prevention interventions. Some dimensions of HIV/AIDS stigma were high, and most adolescents disapproved of same-sex sexual behaviour. Intervention against homosexuality-related stigma is particularly urgent because a concentrated HIV epidemic may be emerging in Nicaragua among men who have sex with men. Personal religious beliefs did not appear to pose a barrier to condom use. In a multivariate model, being out of school was a significant correlate of having had sex and of insufficient HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Accordingly, HIV prevention interventions must reach adolescents both in and out of school. A multi-component approach to prevention is needed, including programmes based in schools, communities, the mass media and health facilities.
In this article, I report on my decision to undertake a process of elicitation, development, and examination of metaphors for experiences of HIV prevention work in Burma/Myanmar. I cover the theoretical basis to that decision, my rationale for using metaphor elicitation as method when researching the rhetoric and practice of HIV prevention in Burma/Myanmar, the process I used, and some of the resultant metaphors. I also demonstrate that this process resulted in the opening up of a space for talking about HIV prevention that avoided recourse to standard prevention rhetoric, thereby enabling a new and deeper understanding of the gap between this rhetoric and people's actual practice or experience.
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F; Miner, Sarah; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Peragallo, Nilda; Levy, Judith; Norr, James L; McElmurry, Beverly
The impact of a professionally facilitated peer group intervention for HIV prevention among 400 low-income Chilean women was examined using a quasiexperimental design. At 3 months postintervention, the intervention group had higher HIV-related knowledge, more positive attitudes toward people living with HIV, fewer perceived condom use barriers, greater self- efficacy, higher HIV reduction behavioral intentions, more communication with partners about safer sex, and decreased depression symptoms. They did not, however, have increased condom use or self-esteem. More attention to gender barriers is needed. This intervention offers a model for reducing HIV for women in Chile and other Latin American countries.
Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David R.; Baeten, Jared M.; Curran, Kathryn; Koechlin, Florence; Amico, K. Rivet; Anderson, Peter; Mugo, Nelly; Venter, Francois; Goicochea, Pedro; Caceres, Carlos; O’Reilly, Kevin
Clinical trial data have shown that oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious when taken as prescribed; however, PrEP adherence is complex and must be understood within the context of variable risk for HIV infection and use of other HIV prevention methods. Different levels of adherence may be needed in different populations to achieve HIV prevention, and the optimal methods for achieving the necessary adherence for both individual and public health benefits are unknown. Guidance for PrEP use must consider these questions to determine the success of PrEP-based HIV prevention programs. In this article, we propose a new paradigm for understanding and measuring PrEP adherence, termed prevention-effective adherence, which incorporates dynamic HIV acquisition risk behaviors and the use of HIV alternative prevention strategies. We discuss the need for daily PrEP use only during periods of risk for HIV exposure, describe key issues for measuring and understanding relevant behaviors, review lessons from another health prevention field (i.e., family planning), and provide guidance for prevention-effective PrEP use. Moreover, we challenge emerging calls for sustained, near perfect PrEP adherence regardless of risk exposure and offer a more practical and public health-focused vision for this prevention intervention. PMID:26103095
Kumar G Anil
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India.
Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi
The current study aimed to identify the sources of HIV prevention information for female sex workers in Beijing and assess the associations between levels of mass media exposure of HIV/AIDS prevention information and HIV/AIDS knowledge as well as condom use-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 359 female sex workers in Beijing, China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were employed. Female sex workers sampled in Beijing were more likely to obtain HIV/AIDS prevention information from television and street posters than radio and the Internet. However, a higher level of exposure to and a lasting impression on online information were significantly associated with a higher level of condom use self-efficacy and more consistent condom use among the participants. Exposure to HIV/AIDS prevention information delivered by radio, street posters, and the Internet was found to be associated with sexual communication about HIV or condom use with sexual partners. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of various mass media outlets in delivering HIV/AIDS prevention information among female sex workers in China. Future studies are needed to systematically examine the effectiveness of mass media-based prevention education on HIV/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors among female sex workers and other populations in China.
Ronaldo Campos Hallal
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:The use antiretroviral reduces the sexual transmission of HIV, expanding interventions for serodiscordant couples.Objective:This article aims to review the use of antiretroviral and other prevention interventions among serodiscordant couples and to analyze its use in Brazil.Methods:A retrospective review was performed through the MEDLINE database and bases included in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde.Results:The articles recovered exhibit four main strategies: (1 condom; (2 reduction of risks in sexual practices; (3 use of antiretrovirals, particularly early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (TASP and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; (4 risk reduction in reproduction.Discussion:TASP is highly effective in reducing sexual transmission, PrEP was tested in serodiscordant couples and both reduce the sexual transmission risk in different sexual practices, enabling individualized prevention strategies.Conclusions:When used in combination, antiretrovirals and sexual practices with condoms offer greater efficacy than any single strategy. The combined use of new and old strategies allows us to build a prevention policy for all.
Golin, C.; Wang, J.; Hughes, J.; Justman, J.; Haley, D.; Kuo, I.; Adimora, A.; Chege, W.; Hodder, S.
Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristics. The 2099 women reported meeting 3991 partners, 51 % at Public, 30 % Private, 17 % Formal and 3 % at Virtual venues. Women meeting partners at Formal venues reported more education and condom use than women meeting partners at other venues. Fewer partners met through Formal venues had “high” risk characteristics for HIV than through other venues and hence may pose less risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevention interventions can help women choose partners with fewer risk characteristics across all venue types. PMID:25863466
Sued, Omar; Figueroa, María Inés; Cahn, Pedro
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome has been one of the most devastating epidemics of the last century. The current estimate for people living with the HIV is 36.9 million. Today, despite availability of potent and safe drugs for effective treatment, lifelong therapy is required for preventing HIV re-emergence from a pool of latently infected cells. However, recent evidence show the importance to expand HIV testing, to offer antiretroviral treatment to all infected individuals, and to ensure retention through all the cascade of care. In addition, circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and other biomedical tools are now available for included in a comprehensive preventive package. Use of all the available tools might allow cutting the HIV transmission in 2030. In this article, we review the status of the epidemic, the latest advances in prevention and treatment, the concept of treatment as prevention and the challenges and opportunities for the HIV cure agenda.
Sheree R. Schwartz
Full Text Available Background. Reproductive health programming for female sex workers (FSW may include contraceptive services but rarely addresses safer pregnancy planning. Methods. Adult FSW were enrolled into a cross-sectional study across four sites in Burkina Faso and Togo using respondent-driven sampling. Sociobehavioral questionnaires and HIV counseling and testing were administered. Sample statistics and engagement in HIV treatment were described and compared using Chi-squared statistics. Results. 1,349 reproductive-aged FSW were enrolled from January to July 2013. Overall, 267 FSW (19.8% were currently trying to conceive. FSW trying to conceive were more likely to test positive for HIV at enrollment as compared to women not trying to become pregnant (24.5% versus 17.7%, P<0.01; however awareness of HIV status was similar across groups. Among FSW trying to conceive, 79.0% (211/267 had previously received HIV testing, yet only 33.8% (23/68 of HIV-infected FSW reported a previous HIV diagnosis. Overall 25.0% (17/68 of HIV-infected FSW trying to conceive were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion. FSW frequently desire children. However engagement in the HIV prevention and treatment cascade among FSW trying to conceive is poor potentiating periconception transmission risks to partners and infants. Programs to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis for FSW and safer conception counseling are needed as components of effective combination HIV prevention services.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Voluntary contraceptive use by HIV-positive women currently prevents more HIV-positive births, at a lower cost, than anti-retroviral drug (ARV regimens. Despite this evidence, most prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programs focus solely on providing ARV prophylaxis to pregnant women and rarely include the prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To strengthen support for family planning as HIV prevention, we systematically identified key individuals in the field of international HIV/AIDS-those who could potentially influence the issue-and sought to determine their perceptions of barriers to and facilitators for implementing this PMTCT strategy. We used a criteria-based approach to determine which HIV/AIDS stakeholders have the most significant impact on HIV/AIDS research, programs, funding and policy and stratified purposive sampling to conduct interviews with a subset of these individuals. The interview findings pointed to obstacles to strengthening linkages between family planning and HIV/AIDS, including the need for: resources to integrate family planning and HIV services, infrastructure or capacity to provide integrated services at the facility level, national leadership and coordination, and targeted advocacy to key decision-makers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The individuals we identified as having regional or international influence in the field of HIV/AIDS have the ability to leverage an increasingly conducive funding environment and a growing evidence base to address the policy, programmatic and operational challenges to integrating family planning with HIV/AIDS. Fostering greater support for implementing contraception for HIV prevention will require the dedication, collaboration and coordination of many such actors. Our findings can inform a targeted advocacy campaign.
Full Text Available Two million two hundred thousand adults were newly HIV-infected in 2011, underscoring the urgent need for new, effective ways to prevent incident infections. Recently, the field of HIV prevention has gathered positive results from different strategies, among different populations, and with varying effect sizes, including the treatment of HIV-positive women and men in discordant couples, male circumcision of HIV-negative men in sub-Saharan Africa, a HIV vaccine evaluated in a community-based trial among HIV-negative men and women in Thailand, the use of vaginal gel formulation of TDF for HIV prevention in women in South Africa, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF or emtricitabine and TDF (TDF-FTC among HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda, and PrEP with TDF-FTC among heterosexual men and women in Africa. Of these interventions, PrEP is an attractive policy because it does not directly interferes with the sexual intercourse, providing people a choice on HIV prevention regardless of cultural, religious, or social harnesses.
Boutin-Foster, Carla; McLaughlin, Nadine; Gray, Angela; Ogedegbe, Anthony; Hageman, Ivan; Knowlton, Courtney; Rodriguez, Anna; Beeder, Ann
Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory and the Sexual Script Theory were used in developing the program. It was piloted and evaluated among 26 middle school students in East Harlem, New York. The lessons learned from a formative evaluation of the program and the implications for developing other programs targeting public health problems are discussed. The RHAP program challenges the traditional pedagogue-student paradigm and provides an alternative approach to teaching about HIV prevention and awareness.
Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Emmanuel, Diona; Durant, Sarah; Rhodes, Scott D
Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent 64.0% of people living with HIV (PLWH) over the age of 13 years. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are particularly affected by HIV/AIDS; the rate of HIV infection for YMSM between the ages of 13 and 24 represents 72.0% of new infections among youth. To understand the current state of the science meant to prevent HIV for YMSM, we reviewed studies of HIV behavioral prevention interventions for YMSM. Five literature databases were searched, from their inception through October 2015, using key words associated with HIV prevention intervention evaluation studies for YMSM. The review criteria included behavioral HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, articles published in English-language peer-reviewed journals, YMSM between 13 and 24 years of age, and longitudinal repeated measures design. A total of 15 YMSM behavioral HIV prevention intervention studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and reported statistically significant findings. Common outcomes included unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV/AIDS risk behavior, condom use, HIV testing, safer sex attitude, and HIV prevention communication. Participant age, representation of Black/African American YMSM, application of theoretical and model underpinnings, congruence of assessment measures used, follow-up assessment times, and application of process evaluation were inconsistent across studies. To advance HIV prevention intervention research for YMSM, future studies should be theory-based, identify common constructs, utilize standard measures, include process evaluation, and evaluate sustained change over standard periods of time. HIV prevention interventions should incorporate the needs of the diverse, well-educated, web-connected millennial generation and differentiate between adolescent YMSM (13 to 18 years of age) and young adulthood YMSM (19 to 24 years of age). Because Black/African American YMSM represent more than 50% of new HIV infections, future HIV
Burnside, Helen; Hsu, Katherine; Smock, Laura; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Hall, Christopher; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Nagendra, Gowri; Rietmeijer, Cornelis; Rompalo, Ann; Thrun, Mark
Abstract Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are living longer, remaining sexually active, and may continue risky sexual behaviors. As such, it is crucial for providers to ask all HIV-positive patients about behaviors related to HIV transmission and STD acquisition. The “Ask, Screen, Intervene” (ASI) curriculum was developed to increase provider knowledge, skills, and motivation to incorporate risk assessment and prevention services into the care of PLWH. The ASI curriculum was delivered to 2558 HIV-care providers at 137 sites between September 30, 2007 and December 31, 2010. Immediately post-training, participants self-reported significant gains in perceived confidence to demonstrate ASI knowledge and skills (p<0.001) and 89% agreed they would update practices as a result of the training. Three to six months post-training, 320 participants who served PLWH or supervised HIV-care providers self-reported more frequently performing ASI skills (p<0.001), and 71% self-reported greater perceived confidence than before training to perform those skills (p<0.001). Limitations include self-reported measures and a 30% response rate to the 3–6 month follow-up survey. Our findings suggest that a well-coordinated training program can reach a national audience of HIV-care providers, significantly increase self-reported capacity to incorporate HIV/STD prevention into the care of PLWH, and increase implementation of national recommendations. PMID:24428796
Milaszewski, Dorota; Greto, Elise; Klochkov, Tanya; Fuller-Thomson, Esme
Through a comprehensive literature search, the authors of this systematic review identified 21 articles focused on primary prevention of HIV/AIDS for adults aged 50 and over. Three major challenges to providing HIV/AIDS education for older adults include health professionals' ageism, older adults' reluctance to discuss sexuality, and their misconception of their HIV risk. Clinical guidelines for social workers, nurses, and physicians identified the importance of sharing information and assessing risk, considering cultural diversity, and devising creative delivery strategies. Three models of HIV/AIDS education include group education programs delivered by social workers or other health professionals, peer education models, and one-on-one early intervention models including HIV/AIDS testing. Additional outreach and research on HIV/AIDS prevention among older adults is needed.
Full Text Available Until now, decisions about how to allocate ART have largely been based on maximising the therapeutic benefit of ART for patients. Since the results of the HPTN 052 study showed efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART in preventing HIV transmission, there has been increased interest in the benefits of ART not only as treatment, but also in prevention. Resources for expanding ART in the short term may be limited, so the question is how to generate the most prevention benefit from realistic potential increases in the availability of ART. Although not a formal systematic review, here we review different ways in which access to ART could be expanded by prioritising access to particular groups based on clinical or behavioural factors. For each group we consider (i the clinical and epidemiological benefits, (ii the potential feasibility, acceptability, and equity, and (iii the affordability and cost-effectiveness of prioritising ART access for that group. In re-evaluating the allocation of ART in light of the new data about ART preventing transmission, the goal should be to create policies that maximise epidemiological and clinical benefit while still being feasible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable.
Dinkel, Andreas; Nather, Christina; Jaeger, Hans; Jaegel-Guedes, Eva; Lahmann, Claas; Steinke, Christina; Wolf, Eva; Ronel, Joram
Despite improvements in medical treatment and numerous public health campaigns stigmatization remains a potent stressor for people living with HIV/ AIDS. This study provides an initial German adaptation of the HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-D). Participants were 167 HIV-positive homosexual men aged 22-74 years. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the original four-factor structure (subscales: enacted stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, concern with public attitudes). Further psychometric analysis led to a revised version comprising 21 items (HSS-D21). The scale showed high reliability (α=0.90). Significant associations with anxiety, depres-sion, life satisfaction and perceived social support confirmed for construct validity. The majority of the respondents expressed high acceptance of the stigma measure. In order to eslish a thorough German adaptation further research with diverse samples is needed.
Tan, Jian Jun; Sun, Xiao Hui; Ma, Xue Ting; Guan, Jian Qing; Wang, Cun Xin
It is a hard work to develop an hightly effective cure and prevention of HIV/AIDS. The widespread used of some therapy approaches such as highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) has improved life quality and span of infected individuals. However, some limitations of these approaches prevent them achieving further advancement. Recent research on drug delivery approaches indicates that engineered nanosystems may bring positive effect on the improvement of current antiretroviral therapy. Furthermore, the basic researches of nanotechnology- based systems which prevent HIV transmission have been started. Therefore, nanotechnology may become a potential approach in the field of HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention. This chapter reviews the latest advancement in the field of nanotechnology-based systems which improve the fields of HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention.
Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.
Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area.
Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area.
Full Text Available Public health responses to HIV epidemics have long relied on epidemiological modelling analyses to help prospectively project and retrospectively estimate the impact, cost-effectiveness, affordability, and investment returns of interventions, and to help plan the design of evaluations. But translating model output into policy decisions and implementation on the ground is challenged by the differences in background and expectations of modellers and decision-makers. As part of the PLoS Medicine Collection "Investigating the Impact of Treatment on New HIV Infections"--which focuses on the contribution of modelling to current issues in HIV prevention--we present here principles of "best practice" for the construction, reporting, and interpretation of HIV epidemiological models for public health decision-making on all aspects of HIV. Aimed at both those who conduct modelling research and those who use modelling results, we hope that the principles described here will become a shared resource that facilitates constructive discussions about the policy implications that emerge from HIV epidemiology modelling results, and that promotes joint understanding between modellers and decision-makers about when modelling is useful as a tool in quantifying HIV epidemiological outcomes and improving prevention programming.
Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Cooksey-James, Tawna
The aim of the cross-sectional study was to understand gender differences in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy among Taiwanese adolescents. Self-administered questionnaires were used to measure HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy and covariates (age, substance use, and sexual experiences). Data were collected from 734 Taiwanese high school adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. Descriptive statistic analyses, t-test, and ANCOVA were utilized to analyze data. The results indicate significant differences exist between genders in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy among Taiwanese adolescents. Compared to the males, female adolescents were found having significantly higher HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy related to refusing sexual intercourse, condom use, and questioning potential sexual partners than those who are males. While controlling age, sexual experience, and substance use, female Taiwanese adolescents also had higher HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy than those who are males. The findings suggest the importance of addressing gender differences in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy when developing HIV reduction programs for Taiwanese adolescents.
Li, Jianhua; Li, Xinyue
The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing. Even though the number of opioid-type drug users is growing more slowly than in the past, the number of amphetamine-type stimulant users has increased sharply. It has been proven that methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange programs gradually and successfully control HIV/AIDS transmission in drug users. However, it is necessary to enhance these prevention methods and expand their coverage. In addition, the strengthening of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for HIV-infected drug users is crucial for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rapidly growing number of amphetamine-type stimulant users, along with their high-risk behavior, poses a hidden danger of greater HIV/AIDS transmission through sexual intercourse in the near future.
Adam Barry D
Full Text Available Abstract This paper raises the question of how knowledge creation is organized in the area of HIV prevention and how this concatenation of expertise, resources, at-risk people and viruses shapes the knowledge used to impede the epidemic. It also seeks to trouble the discourses of biomedical pre-eminence in the field of HIV prevention by examining the claim for treatment as prevention, looking at evidence constructed through the biomedical frame and through the lens of the sociology of science. These questions lie within a larger socio-historical context of lagging worldwide attention and funding to prevention in the HIV area and, in particular, neglect of populations at greatest risk. Much contemporary HIV prevention research relies on a population science divided over an epistemic fault line from the communities and individuals who must make sense of the intrusion of a life-threatening disease into their pursuit of pleasure and intimacy. There are, nevertheless, lessons to be learned from prevention success stories among sex workers, injection drug users, and gay and bisexual men. The success stories point to a need for a robust social science agenda that examines: the ways that people are socially organized and networked; the popular strategies and folk wisdoms developed in the face of HIV risk; socio-historical movement of sexual and drug cultures; the dynamics of popular mobilization to advance health; the institutional sources of HIV discourses; and popular understandings of HIV technologies and messages.
A.P. Hardon; P. Oosterhoff; J.D. Imelda; N.T. Anh; I. Hidayana
How do women and frontline health workers engage in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in urban areas of Vietnam and Indonesia, where HIV is highly stigmatized and is associated with injecting drug use and sex work? This qualitative study explores local dynamics of care, using a mix
White, Richard G.; Orroth, Kate K.; Glynn, Judith R.; Freeman, Esther E.; Bakker, Roel; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Buve, Anne; Hayes, Richard J.
Background: Evidence regarding the effectiveness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment for HIV prevention in Africa is equivocal, leading some policy makers to question whether it should continue to be promoted for HIV control. We explore whether treating curable STIs remains a cost-effe
Javier Sánchez-Rubio Ferrández
Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis” (PrEP has been recently developed as a prevention strategy which involves the administration of drugs to non-infected individuals who present high exposure or susceptibility to HIV. Although this use is not approved in our country, several guidelines recommend PrEP as a prevention option in adult MSM, heterosexual men and women, and users of parenteral drugs at risk of acquiring the infection. This article presents the characteristics that an ideal agent to be used as PrEP should meet, recent efficacy published data and barriers for the implementation of this new strategy. On the other hand, the role of hospital pharmacists will be discussed.
Kiene, Susan M; Sileo, Katelyn; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Lule, Haruna; Bateganya, Moses H; Jasperse, Joseph; Nantaba, Harriet; Jayaratne, Kia
In Uganda, a nationwide scale-up of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling presents an opportunity to deliver HIV-prevention services to large numbers of people. In a rural Ugandan hospital, focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted with outpatients receiving provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling and staff to explore the HIV-prevention information, motivation and behavioural skills strengths and weaknesses, and community-level and structural barriers to provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling acceptability and HIV prevention among this population. Strengths and weakness occurred at all levels, and results suggest brief client-centred interventions during provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling may be an effective approach to increase prevention behaviours in outpatient settings.
Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario
The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…
Baptiste, Donna R.; Paikoff, Roberta L.; McKay, Mary McKernan; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl
This article describes a collaboration between academic researchers and residents of a low-income, inner-city community to develop and deliver an HIV and AIDS prevention program for Black youth. The Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) Program was developed and implemented to decrease HIV and AIDS risk exposure among…
Vijay Kumar Chattu
Full Text Available Context: Around 2.5 million people become infected with HIV each year and its impact on human life and public health can only be tackled and reversed only by sound prevention strategies. Aim: This paper aims to provide the reader about different types of prevention strategies that are effective and practiced in various countries with special emphasis on evidence for success. It also highlights the importance of to the evidence based medicine& strategies. It describes about the importance of combination prevention, which encompasses complementary behavioral, biomedical and structural prevention strategies. Methods & Materials: Searches for peer reviewed journal articles was conducted using the search engines to gather the information from databases of medicine, health sciences and social sciences. Information for each strategy is organized & presented systematically with detailed discussion. Results: For a successful reduction in HIV transmission, there is a great need for combined effects of radical & sustainable behavioral changes among individuals who are potentially at risk. Second, combination prevention is essential for HIV prevention is neither simple nor simplistic. Reductions in HIV transmission need widespread and sustained efforts. A mix of communication channels are essential to disseminate messages to motivate people to engage in various methods of risk reduction. Conclusions: The effect of behavioral strategies could be increased by aiming for many goals that are achieved by use of multilevel approaches with populations both uninfected and infected with HIV. Combination prevention programs operate on different levels to address the specific, but diverse needs of the populations at risk of HIV infection.
Fowler, Nikola; Arkell, Paul; Abouyannis, Michael; James, Catherine; Roberts, Lesley
This qualitative study aims to gain in-depth information about the attitudes of HIV-serodiscordant couples towards two new methods of HIV prevention; Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Treatment as Prevention, both of which have been recently recommended by the World Health Organisation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 individuals in a serodiscordant relationship in Western Kenya. Topic guides were used to elicit information on perceived benefits, concerns, and preferences towards Treatment as Prevention and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis. Data evaluation and thematic generation were developed using framework analysis. Results suggest that the majority of participants, irrespective of gender and HIV status, found Treatment as Prevention the more acceptable strategy. Key factors influencing this decision were HIV-negative participants' limited motivation to take prophylactic antiretrovirals and the likely health improvements Treatment as Prevention offers HIV-positive partners. However, issues were raised concerning the likelihood of low concurrent condom use and poor medication adherence when using these preventative approaches. It was concluded that the adoption of Treatment as Prevention as a method of HIV control in Kenya is likely to be more readily accepted by serodiscordant couples than Pre-exposure Prophylaxis. However, future implementation of either strategy would require measures to address the possibility of risk compensation and poor adherence.
Haire, Bridget; Kaldor, John
Evidence that treating people with HIV early in infection prevents transmission to sexual partners has reframed HIV prevention paradigms. The resulting emphasis on HIV testing as part of prevention strategies has rekindled the debate as to whether laws that criminalise HIV transmission are counterproductive to the human rights-based public health response. It also raises normative questions about what constitutes 'safe(r) sex' if a person with HIV has undetectable viral load, which has significant implications for sexual practice and health promotion. This paper discusses a recent high-profile Australian case where HIV transmission or exposure has been prosecuted, and considers how the interpretation of law in these instances impacts on HIV prevention paradigms. In addition, we consider the implications of an evolving medical understanding of HIV transmission, and particularly the ability to determine infectiousness through viral load tests, for laws that relate to HIV exposure (as distinct from transmission) offences. We conclude that defensible laws must relate to appreciable risk. Given the evidence that the transmissibility of HIV is reduced to negligible level where viral load is suppressed, this needs to be recognised in the framing, implementation and enforcement of the law. In addition, normative concepts of 'safe(r) sex' need to be expanded to include sex that is 'protected' by means of the positive person being virally suppressed. In jurisdictions where use of a condom has previously mitigated the duty of the person with HIV to disclose to a partner, this might logically also apply to sex that is 'protected' by undetectable viral load.
... news/fullstory_161405.html Doctors May Not Be Telling High-Risk Patients About HIV Prevention Drug Less ... Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are provided by HealthDay and do not reflect ...
Stratford, Dale; Mizuno, Yuko; Williams, Kim; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; O'leary, Ann
In March 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a consultation meeting to explore microenterprise as a potential human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention intervention. The impulse to link microenterprise with HIV/AIDS prevention was driven by the fact that poverty is a significant factor contributing to the risk for infection. Because increasingly high rates of HIV infection are occurring among women, particularly among poor African American women in the southern United States, we focused the consultation on microenterprise as an intervention among that population. In the international arena, income generated by microenterprise has contributed to improving family and community health outcomes. This article summarizes the contributions made to the consultation by participants from the diverse fields of microenterprise, microfinance, women's studies, and public health. The article ends with recommendations for HIV/AIDS prevention and, by implication, addressing other public health challenges, through the development of multifaceted intervention approaches.
Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth
Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Sa...
Full Text Available Introduction HIV/AIDS is an emerging threat to population health. Globally, 33.4 million people were estimated to be living with HIV in 2008 including 2.1 million children.1,2 The total number of new cases was estimated to be 2.7 million people (including 430,000 children and HIV/AIDS related death was estimated to be 2.0 million in 2008.1 Sustainable prevention measures followed by care, support and treatment program is vital to reduce the incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS.
Donald T. Campbell
Full Text Available This paper provides a speculative discussion on what quasi-experimental designs might be useful in various aspects of HIV/AIDS research. The first author’s expertise is in research design, not HIV, while the second author has been active in HIV prevention research. It is hoped that it may help the HIV/AIDS research community in discovering and inventing an expanded range of possibilities for valid causal inference. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v3i1.16113
Md. Nasir Uddin
Full Text Available Bangladesh is believed to be a low HIV prevalent country although the potentiality of spreading HIV remains high because of several contributing factors. There is many sex –workers active with highest sexual contacts and partner exchange but low condom use by both sex workers and their clients expedite the prevalence significantly. There is a sizable population of men who have sex with men and hijra –those who usually do not use condom and consequently high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs prevailed in them. Stigma and discrimination against most at risk populations (MARPs is the biggest hurdle to bring them under prevention services against HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. Therefore Bangladesh is vulnerable to HIV/STI. Condom outlet is a gypsy platform in where most at risk peoples are getting free access to condom at their will. The paper attempts to identify the underlying role of community condom outlet for the prevention of HIV/STI in Bangladesh. Condom outlets are working as an inseparable volunteer under outreach service of HIV/STI prevention project through diversified role as monitor of peer educators, knowledge store of HIV/STI, conflict solver, shelter of peer, outreach worker as well as project staff to fight against HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. The theoretical approach and literature review of this study provides an understanding of community condom outlet. The researchers try to answer the questions of who the community condom outlets are, what their lifestyle in preventing HIV / STI and how condom outlet are working with community for preventing HIV and STI.
Full Text Available Introduction: As a group, transwomen in Peru have the highest prevalence of HIV (>20% in the country, but they have little access to HIV prevention, testing and care services. Until recently, Peru's national HIV programme did not recognize transwomen and had remained essentially static for decades. This changed in December 2014, when the Ministry of Health expressed its commitment to improve programming for transwomen and to involve transwomen organizations by prioritizing the development of a “Targeted Strategy Plan of STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Comprehensive Care for Transwomen.” Discussion: A policy dialogue between key stakeholders – Peru's Ministry of Health, academic scientists, civil society, transgender leaders and international agencies – created the conditions for a change in Peru's national HIV policy for transwomen. Supported by the effective engagement of all sectors, the Ministry of Health launched a plan to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen. The five-year plan includes new national guidelines for HIV prevention, care and support, and country-level investments in infrastructure and equipment. In addition to new biomedical strategies, the plan also incorporates several strategies to address structural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of transwomen. We identified three key factors that created the right conditions for this change in Peru's HIV policy. These factors include (1 the availability of solid evidence, based on scientific research; (2 ongoing efforts within the transwomen community to become better advocates of their own rights; and (3 a dialogue involving honest discussions between stakeholders about possibilities of changing the nation's HIV policy. Conclusions: The creation of Peru's national plan for HIV prevention and care for transwomen shows that long-term processes, focused on human rights for transwomen in Peru, can lead to organizational and public-policy change.
Mirkuzie Alemnesh H
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources
Maiorana, Andres; Kegeles, Susan; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Cáceres, Carlos
We used qualitative, quantitative, and observational methods to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of Proyecto Orgullo (PO), a pilot community mobilisation intervention to decrease sexual risk, promote health-seeking behaviours, and facilitate personal and community empowerment among gay men (GM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru. PO was adapted from Mpowerment and Hermanos de Luna y Sol, two US interventions. PO included six interrelated core elements: (1) Self-reflection Small Group sessions; (2) Supporting peers in HIV prevention; (3) Mobilisation Activities addressing HIV, GM/TW issues, and community empowerment; (4) A Core Group (staff + GM/TW volunteers) designing/implementing those activities; (5) A Project Space; (6) Publicity. PO included specific components for TW, but promoted that GM/TW, who historically have not worked well together, collaborate for a common goal. We found that PO was embraced by GM/TW. PO positively influenced GM/TW's HIV prevention beliefs, self-efficacy, and behaviours; provided social support and created community; facilitated individual and community empowerment; achieved that GM/TW collaborate; and established a functional Community Centre for socialising/conducting mobilisation activities. Community mobilisation strategies, lacking from HIV prevention efforts in Peru but considered key to HIV prevention, can help improve health-seeking behaviours and consolidate social norms supporting preventive behaviours among GM/TW.
ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT). Evaluated interventions: ...
Haney, Erica; Singh, Kavita
The AIDS epidemic has contributed to a drastic increase in the number of orphans in Zimbabwe. Female adolescent orphans are particularly in jeopardy of contracting HIV due to disadvantages including extreme poverty, low education, and the absent of parental oversight which can lead to higher risk-taking sexual behaviors. By understanding where girls receive education about HIV and who they rely on for information, organizations can effectively modify existing programs to better target this at-risk population. For this study a household survey was conducted which included 216 orphans and 324 non-orphans (n=540), aged 12-17 years, in the resource-poor setting of Hwange District, Zimbabwe. The aims of this article were to examine the differences between orphans and non-orphans in HIV prevention message exposure, level of motivation for learning about HIV, and communication with caregivers about safe sex. The household survey revealed that younger orphans, aged 12-15 years, were more motivated to learn about HIV and had greater HIV messaging exposure in school than non-orphans. These exposure and differences in the levels of motivation between groups dissipated at older ages. Our research also discovered less caregiver communication among orphans than non-orphans. Our findings suggest that HIV programs targeting orphans need to do a better job at keeping older orphans interested in HIV prevention at a time when it matters most. Furthermore, intervention strategies that provide caregiver support are instrumental in effectively delivering prevention messages to girls at home.
Moradigaravand, Danesh; Kouyos, Roger; Hinkley, Trevor; Haddad, Mojgan; Petropoulos, Christos J; Engelstädter, Jan; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian
Recombination has the potential to facilitate adaptation. In spite of the substantial body of theory on the impact of recombination on the evolutionary dynamics of adapting populations, empirical evidence to test these theories is still scarce. We examined the effect of recombination on adaptation on a large-scale empirical fitness landscape in HIV-1 based on in vitro fitness measurements. Our results indicate that recombination substantially increases the rate of adaptation under a wide range of parameter values for population size, mutation rate and recombination rate. The accelerating effect of recombination is stronger for intermediate mutation rates but increases in a monotonic way with the recombination rates and population sizes that we examined. We also found that both fitness effects of individual mutations and epistatic fitness interactions cause recombination to accelerate adaptation. The estimated epistasis in the adapting populations is significantly negative. Our results highlight the importance of recombination in the evolution of HIV-I.
Rivero-Buceta, Eva; Doyagüez, Elisa G; Colomer, Ignacio; Quesada, Ernesto; Mathys, Leen; Noppen, Sam; Liekens, Sandra; Camarasa, María-José; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; Balzarini, Jan; San-Félix, Ana
Dendrimers containing from 9 to 18 tryptophan residues at the peryphery have been efficiently synthesized and tested against HIV replication. These compounds inhibit an early step of the replicative cycle of HIV, presumably virus entry into its target cell. Our data suggest that HIV inhibition can be achieved by the preferred interaction of the compounds herein described with glycoproteins gp120 and gp41 of the HIV envelope preventing interaction between HIV and the (co)receptors present on the host cells. The results obtained so far indicate that 9 tryptophan residues on the periphery are sufficient for efficient gp120/gp41 binding and anti-HIV activity.
Chandler, Rasheeta; Canty-Mitchell, Janie; Kip, Kevin E; Daley, Ellen M; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Anstey, Erica; Ross, Henry
One quarter of HIV cases occur in women ages 15-44 years. We investigated preferential HIV prevention message mediums among college women (18-21 years of age) and their association with parent and partner communication. A nonexperimental cross-sectional survey assessed factors associated with parent and partner communication among 626 single female students who were sexually active in the previous 6 months and attending a 4-year public university in Florida. Women who perceived themselves to be at elevated risk of acquiring HIV were more likely to communicate with their parents (p communicate about sexual risk behavior with their parents when mothers were younger and when less influenced by their peers. Reading items on the Internet about intravenous drug use and HIV were independently associated with higher parent and partner communication, respectively. Findings can guide future HIV prevention communication interventions.
Dworkin, Shari L; Blankenship, Kim
Researchers increasingly argue that poverty and gender inequality exacerbate the spread of HIV/AIDS and that economic empowerment can therefore assist in the prevention and mitigation of the disease, particularly for women. This paper critically evaluates such claims. First, we examine the promises and limits of integrated HIV/AIDS prevention and microfinance programs by examining the available evidence base. We then propose future research agendas and next steps that may help to clear current ambiguities about the potential for economic programs to contribute to HIV/AIDS risk reduction efforts.
Smyrnov, P.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Achanta, S.; Boyko, K.; Khogali, M.; Naik, B.; Zachariah, R.
Setting: One hundred and forty non-governmental organisations implementing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programmes among clients, including people who inject drugs, prisoners, female sex workers, men who have sex with men and street children in Ukraine, 2010–2011. Objective: Among enrolled clients, to assess factors associated with HIV testing, HIV retesting within a year of initial testing and HIV seroconversion. Design: Retrospective cohort study involving record reviews. Results: Of 192 487 clients, 42 109 (22%) underwent an initial HIV test (22% were positive). Among HIV-negative clients at baseline, 10 858 (27%) were retested within a year: 317 (3%) of these were HIV-positive. HIV testing and retesting rates were lower among prisoners (0.3%) and others (street children and partners of those in risk groups, 6%), and those who did not receive counselling or services such as condom and needle distribution. Individuals who were not counselled were more likely to seroconvert. Conclusions: In this large cohort of high-risk groups from Eastern Europe, HIV testing was low and HIV sero-conversion was high. This is of public health concern, bringing into question the overall quality of counselling and how well it is tailored to the specific needs of various risk groups. Qualitative studies to understand the reasons for non-testing are urgently required for designing client-specific interventions. PMID:26399206
Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin
China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence--favorably evaluated in the West--for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The…
Full Text Available Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is increasing worldwide. One route of HIV transmission is from mother to child, during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission may be an effective strategy to reduce the cases of new HIV infections. Objectives To investigate the incidence of HIV infection in infants born to mothers with HIV and who received prophylactic therapy at birth, as well as to note the outcomes of HIV-infected children in this program. Methods This retrospective study was carried out over a 9-year period, from January 2003 to December 2011. The participants were HIV-exposed infants who attended the HIV clinic, at the Department of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Jakarta. Infants were treated according to the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT protocol at CMH. Parents’ and infants’ data was recorded. The end point of this study was recording of HIV-infection status in the infants. Results There were 238 infants included in this study. HIV infection was confirmed in 6 (2.5% infants, while 170 (72.4% subjects were uninfected, and 62 (26.1% subjects were lost to foloow-up. No subjects who underwent complete PMTCT management were infected. Most subjects were male, full-term, and delivered by caesarean section in our hospital. The most frequently observed parental risk factor was intravenous drug use. Maternal antiretroviral theraphy (ART was given during pregnancy in most cases. Morbidities in all subjects were low. Conclusion The PMTCT program at CMH was effective for reducing the number of HIV-infected infants from mothers with HIV
Thorsen, Viva Combs
Abstract Title: HIV-related Stigmatization: Experiences from women enrolled in a Mother-to-child of HIV Prevention Program in Malawi Researcher: Viva Combs Thorsen Supervisors: Johanne Sundby, MD, MPH (Professor, University of Oslo) Francis Martinson, MD, PhD (Country Director, UNC Project) Introduction: Despite two decades into the epidemic (first HIV diagnosis in Malawi in 1985) and its pervasiveness in Malawi, stigma insidiously continues to overshadow HIV, resulting in...
Momplaisir, Florence; Mounzer, Karam; Long, Judith A
As patients with HIV age, they are at risk of developing non-AIDS defining malignancies. We performed a questionnaire study to evaluate colorectal and breast cancer screening among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients seeking care from either an integrated (HIV/primary care), nonintegrated (specialized HIV), or general internal medicine clinic between August 2010 and July 2011. We performed a logistic regression to determine the odds of cancer screening. A total of 813 surveys were collected, and 762 were included in the analysis. As much as 401 were from HIV-positive patients. Patients with HIV were less likely to be current with their colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) (54.4% versus 65.0%, p=0.009); mammography rates were 24.3% versus 62.3% if done during the past year (pscreening in HIV-positive patients compared to negative controls was not statistically significant (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.3); however, HIV-positive women remained significantly less likely to be current with breast cancer screening (BCS) whether their mammogram was completed within 1 year (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1-0.2) or within 5 years (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0-0.2). Integrated care was not associated with improved screening; however, having frequent visits to a primary care physician (PCP) increased the likelihood of getting screened. BCS was lower in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women. Frequent visits to a PCPs improved cancer screening.
Sheri A Lippman
Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM in the Americas require targeted, combination HIV prevention approaches. We solicited client and provider perspectives on emerging prevention interventions including HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and HIV self-tests through focus groups and in-depth interviews with 130 MSM and 41 providers across four sites: New York, San Francisco, Lima, and Rio de Janeiro. Among the MSM participants, we identified three prevention typologies: non-condom users, inconsistent condom users, and consistent condom users. Northern and Southern MSM differed in the variety of harm reduction strategies utilized: where U.S. MSM relied on condom use as well as disclosure and seroadaptive behaviors for prevention, condom use without disclosure or serostatus discussions was the norm in South America. Interest in new prevention technologies was shaped by the social context. U.S. MSM preferences differed by typology, such that non-condom users were interested in taking PrEP and using home HIV tests. MSM in Brazil, regardless of typology, were interested in exploring new prevention options. MSM in Peru demonstrated moderate interest but were less comfortable with adopting new strategies. MSM and providers' opinions differed substantially with respect to new prevention options. Across sites, most providers were reticent to engage with new prevention options, though some NGO-based providers were more supportive of exploring new prevention tools. Both clients and providers will need to be engaged in developing integrated prevention strategies for MSM.
Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Donenberg, Geri; Emerson, Erin; Donahue, Kelly; Misbin, Jesse
Adolescents in therapeutic schools are at greater risk for HIV and other STIs than their peers due to earlier higher rates of sexual risk and difficulty managing strong emotions. HIV prevention programs that incorporate techniques for affect management during sexual situations may be beneficial. This paper determined the immediate impact of such an intervention, Affect Management (AM), compared to a standard, skills-based HIV prevention intervention (SB) and a general health promotion intervention (HP) for 377 youth, ages 13 to 19, in therapeutic schools in two cities. One month after the intervention, analyses that adjusted for the baseline scores found adolescents in AM were more likely to report condom use at last sex than those in HP (.89 vs. .67, p=.02) and that their HIV knowledge was significantly greater. These data suggest that affect management techniques might improve the impact of standard skills-based prevention programs for adolescents in therapeutic schools. PMID:23975475
Newman, Peter A; Rubincam, Clara
Community stakeholder engagement is foundational to fair and ethically conducted biomedical HIV prevention trials. Concerns regarding the ethical engagement of community stakeholders in HIV vaccine trials and early terminations of several international pre-exposure prophylaxis trials have fueled the development of international guidelines, such as UNAIDS' good participatory practice (GPP). GPP aims to ensure that stakeholders are effectively involved in all phases of biomedical HIV prevention trials. We provide an overview of the six guiding principles in the GPP and critically examine them in relation to existing social and behavioral science research. In particular, we highlight the challenges involved in operationalizing these principles on the ground in various global contexts, with a focus on low-income country settings. Increasing integration of social science in biomedical HIV prevention trials will provide evidence to advance a science of community stakeholder engagement to support ethical and effective practices informed by local realities and sociocultural differences.
Sewak, Aarti; Singh, Gurmeet
Social marketing techniques have been tested and proven useful within the health sector worldwide. In Fiji, social marketing was introduced in the early 1990s, and more rapidly during the last decade to improve national response to an increasing incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Given the limited amount of research in the area of program evaluation in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), this study systematically analyzes five Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs through Andreasen's benchmark criteria, in order to identify gaps in program design that ultimately impact program effectiveness. Assessment results unveil some interesting trends regarding the focus and applications of past Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs in the past decade. This article discusses these findings and other valuable lessons for future HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Fiji and elsewhere.
Senkowski, Valerie; Norris, Katherine; McGaughey, Anthony; Branscum, Paul
This article reviews the effectiveness of HIV sexual risk prevention programs among adult prison inmates. A database search was performed to identify studies that used HIV sexual risk prevention programs with incarcerated adults. Of the 234 articles identified, 9 met the inclusion criteria. In addition, 5 articles were found containing supporting information for the 9 studies reviewed, increasing the number of articles reviewed to 14. All studies reported a significant increase in knowledge or a decrease in high-risk behaviors among the inmates at the conclusion of the interventions. Common limitations included a lack of a theoretical framework used in developing the interventions, a lack of process evaluations to measure program fidelity, and a lack of validity and reliability reporting for the study surveys. However, programs and interventions targeting HIV and sexual risk reduction appear to improve the knowledge of HIV prevention and reduce risk in the adult prison inmate population.
Viall, Abigail H; McCray, Eugene; Mermin, Jonathan; Wortley, Pascale
Recent advances in science, program, and policy could better position the nation to achieve its vision of the USA as a place where new HIV infections are rare. Among these developments, passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 may prove particularly important, as the health system transformations it has launched offer a supportive foundation for realizing the potential of other advances, both within and beyond the clinical arena. This article summarizes opportunities to expand access to high-impact HIV prevention interventions under the ACA, examines whether available evidence indicates that these opportunities are being realized, and considers potential challenges to further gains for HIV prevention in an era of health reform. This article also highlights the new roles that HIV prevention programs and providers may assume in a health system no longer defined by fragmentation among public health, medical care, and community service providers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower-than-expected incidence of HIV undermines sample size calculations and compromises the power of a HIV prevention trial. We evaluated the effectiveness of interim monitoring of HIV infection rates and on-going modification of recruitment strategies to enroll women at higher risk of HIV in the Cellulose Sulfate Phase III study in Nigeria. Methods We analyzed prevalence and incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, demographic and sexual behavior characteristics aggregated over the treatment groups on a quarterly basis. The site investigators were advised on their recruitment strategies based on the findings of the interim analyses. Results A total of 3619 women were screened and 1644 enrolled at the Ikeja and Apapa clinics in Lagos, and at the Central and Peripheral clinics in Port Harcourt. Twelve months after study initiation, the overall incidence of HIV was less than one-third of the pre-study assumption, with rates of HIV that varied substantially between clinics. Due to the low prevalence and incidence rates of HIV, it was decided to close the Ikeja clinic in Lagos and to find new catchment areas in Port Harcourt. This strategy was associated with an almost two-fold increase in observed HIV incidence during the second year of the study. Conclusion Given the difficulties in estimating HIV incidence, a close monitoring of HIV prevalence and incidence rates during a trial is warranted. The on-going modification of recruitment strategies based on the regular analysis of HIV rates appeared to be an efficient method for targeting populations at greatest risk of HIV infection and increasing study power in the Nigeria trial. Trial Registration The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov registry under #NCT00120770 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00120770
Ravasi, Giovanni; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Baruch, Ricardo; Guanira, Juan Vicente; Luque, Ricardo; Cáceres, Carlos F; Ghidinelli, Massimo
Introduction Despite progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment, HIV prevention strategies have not been successful in significantly curbing HIV incidence in Latin America. HIV prevention interventions need to be expanded to target the most affected key populations with a combination approach, including new high impact technologies. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as additional prevention choice for individuals at higher risk of infection and could become a cost-effective prevention tool. We discuss the barriers and solutions for a fair consideration of PrEP as part of combination HIV prevention strategies in Latin America. Discussion Although demonstration projects are ongoing or being planned in a number of countries, to date no Latin American country has implemented a public PrEP programme. The knowledge of policymakers about PrEP implementation needs to be strengthened, and programmatic guidance and cost estimate tools need to be developed to support adequate planning. Despite high levels of awareness among health providers, especially if engaged in HIV or key population care, willingness to prescribe PrEP is still low due to the lack of national policies and guidelines. Key populations, especially men who have sex with men, transgender women and sex workers, have been engaged in demonstration projects, and qualitative research shows high awareness and willingness to use PrEP, especially if accessible in the public sector for free or at affordable price. Concerns of safety, adherence, effectiveness and risk compensation need to be addressed through targeted social communication strategies to improve PrEP knowledge and stimulate demand. Alliance among policymakers, civil society and representatives from key populations, healthcare providers and researchers will be critical for the design and successful implementation of PrEP demonstration projects of locally adapted delivery models. The use of mechanisms of joint negotiation and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: WHO-guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings recommend complex maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis comprising antenatal zidovudine (AZT, nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD at labor onset and AZT/lamivudine (3TC during labor and one week postpartum. Data on resistance development selected by this regimen is not available. We therefore analyzed the emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in Tanzanian women following complex prophylaxis. METHOD: 1395 pregnant women were tested for HIV-1 at Kyela District Hospital, Tanzania. 87/202 HIV-positive women started complex prophylaxis. Blood samples were collected before start of prophylaxis, at birth and 1-2, 4-6 and 12-16 weeks postpartum. Allele-specific real-time PCR assays specific for HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D were developed and applied on samples of mothers and their vertically infected infants to quantify key resistance mutations of AZT (K70R/T215Y/T215F, NVP (K103N/Y181C and 3TC (M184V at detection limits of <1%. RESULTS: 50/87 HIV-infected women having started complex prophylaxis were eligible for the study. All women took AZT with a median duration of 53 days (IQR 39-64; all women ingested NVP-SD, 86% took 3TC. HIV-1 resistance mutations were detected in 20/50 (40% women, of which 70% displayed minority species. Variants with AZT-resistance mutations were found in 11/50 (22%, NVP-resistant variants in 9/50 (18% and 3TC-resistant variants in 4/50 women (8%. Three women harbored resistant HIV-1 against more than one drug. 49/50 infants, including the seven vertically HIV-infected were breastfed, 3/7 infants exhibited drug-resistant virus. CONCLUSION: Complex prophylaxis resulted in lower levels of NVP-selected resistance as compared to NVP-SD, but AZT-resistant HIV-1 emerged in a substantial proportion of women. Starting AZT in pregnancy week 14 instead of 28 as recommended by the current WHO-guidelines may further increase
Benjamin R Bavinton
Full Text Available Introduction: Studies in heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples have provided critical evidence on the role of HIV treatments in reducing HIV transmission risk. However, there are limited data regarding the effect of treatment on HIV transmission in homosexual male couples. We examined features of male homosexual HIV serodiscordant relationships that may impact upon the design of HIV treatment and transmission studies. Methods: Data were from a prospective cohort study of HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Men were followed up with six-monthly interviews and annual testing for HIV. Characteristics of men in HIV serodiscordant and seroconcordant relationships at baseline were compared, and a longitudinal analysis performed of rate of relationship break-up and of HIV incidence. Results: At baseline, 5.5% of participants (n=79 had an HIV-positive partner. Most (80.8% of these relationships were non-monogamous, and 36.7% of men reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with casual partners. The rate of relationship break-up was 29.5 per 100 person-years. Half of men in serodiscordant relationships (49.4% reported recent UAI with their regular partners. HIV incidence was 2.2 per 100 person-years. It was substantially higher in relationships of less than one year's duration (6.1 per 100 person-years and in men who reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with ejaculation with their regular partners (15.5 per 100 person-years. Conclusions: Levels of HIV transmission risk and incidence were high, particularly in early relationships. Rates of relationship break-up were high. These data suggest that studies of HIV treatments and transmission in homosexual serodiscordant couples should focus on early relationships so as not to underestimate risk, and sample sizes must allow for high rates of relationship break-up.
Full Text Available In the HPTN 052 study, transmission between HIV-discordant couples was reduced by 96% when the HIV-infected partner received suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART. We examined two transmission events where the newly infected partner was diagnosed after the HIV-infected partner (index initiated therapy. We evaluated the sequence complexity of the viral populations and antibody reactivity in the newly infected partner to estimate the dates of transmission to the newly infected partners. In both cases, transmission most likely occurred significantly before HIV-1 diagnosis of the newly infected partner, and either just before the initiation of therapy or before viral replication was adequately suppressed by therapy of the index. This study further strengthens the conclusion about the efficacy of blocking transmission by treating the infected partner of discordant couples. However, this study does not rule out the potential for HIV-1 transmission to occur shortly after initiation of ART, and this should be recognized when antiretroviral therapy is used for HIV-1 prevention.
Harada, Shigeyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for controlling human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, progress in identifying and characterizing highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies has provided valuable templates for HIV-1 therapy and vaccine design. Nevertheless, HIV-1, like many RNA viruses, exhibits genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Evolution of quasispecies can occur rapidly in response to selective pressures, such as that exerted by ART and the immune system. Hence, rapid viral evolution leading to drug resistance and/or immune evasion is a significant barrier to the development of effective HIV-1 treatments and vaccines. Here, we describe our recent investigations into evolutionary pressure exerted by anti-retroviral drugs and monoclonal neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) on HIV-1 envelope sequences. We also discuss sensitivities of HIV-1 escape mutants to maraviroc, a CCR5 inhibitor, and HIV-1 sensitized to NAbs by small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds. These studies help to develop an understanding of viral evolution and escape from both anti-retroviral drugs and the immune system, and also provide fundamental insights into the combined use of NAbs and entry inhibitors. These findings of the adaptation and evolution of HIV in response to drug and immune pressure will inform the development of more effective antiviral therapeutic strategies. PMID:28360890
Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Caroline; Parker, Richard G.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Philbin, Morgan; Hirsch, Jennifer S.
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) bear an increasingly disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends high-impact combination prevention for populations at high risk for HIV infection, such as BMSM. However, few scholars have considered the types of behavioral interventions that…
Lally, Michelle; Goldsworthy, Richard; Sarr, Moussa; Kahn, Jessica; Brown, Larry; Peralta, Ligia; Zimet, Greg
Purpose Placebo and randomization are important concepts that must be understood before youth can safely participate in HIV vaccine studies or other biomedical trials for HIV prevention. These concepts are central to the phenomenon of preventive misconception which may be associated with an increase in risk behavior among study participants related to mistaken beliefs. Persuasive messaging, traditionally used in the field of marketing, could enhance educational efforts associated with randomized clinical trials. Methods Two educational brochures were designed to increase knowledge about HIV vaccine clinical trials via 1 and 2-sided persuasive messaging. Through the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network, 120 youth were enrolled, administered a mock HIV vaccine trial consent, and then randomized to receive either no supplemental information or one of the two brochures. Results The 2-sided brochure group in which common clinical trial misconceptions were acknowledgedand then refuted had significantly higher scores on knowledge of randomization and interpretation of side effects than the consent-only control group, and willingness to participate in an HIV vaccine trial was not decreased with the use of this brochure. Conclusion Two sided persuasive messaging improves understanding of the concepts of randomization and placebo among youth who would consider participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Further evaluation of this approach should be considered for at-risk youth participating in an actual trial of a biomedical intervention for HIV prevention. PMID:24613097
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT. Evaluated interventions: counseling activities for behavior change to prevent exposure to HIV; antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylasis (PEP for HIV and treatment of serodiscordant couples as a strategy for prevention of HIV transmission (TasP.Results:counseling interventions and TasP have smaller NNTs, equal to, respectively, 11 (95%CI 9 - 18 at 12 months and 34 (95%CI 23 - 54 in 42 months comparatively to PrEP interventions, that resulted in 41 (95%CI 28 - 67 individuals receiving antiretrovirals in order to prevent one case of HIV infection at 36 months for men and serodiscordant couples. PEP interventions are associated with protective effects estimated at 81%. Lack of trials evaluating PEP prevents estimate of NNT.Conclusion:The estimate of the NNT can be a helpful parameter in the comparison between the effectiveness of different behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Studies evaluating the benefit and safety of combined behavioral and biomedical interventions are needed, especially considering the attributable fraction of each component. Integration of behavioral and biomedical interventions is required to achieve complete suppression of the virus, and thus reducing viral replication, infectivity and the number of cases.
Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis
Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries.
Dhrubajyoti J Debnath
Full Text Available Context: An estimated 430,000 children were newly infected with HIV in 2008, over 90% of them through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Without intervention, the risk of MTCT ranges from 20% to 45% as per the World Health Organization (WHO. Aim: To find the uptake of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PPTCT services during pregnancy. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Ethical approval and informed consent was taken. Uptake of PPTCT services by the mother was obtained in 222 pregnancies. This was compared with the HIV status of children born to them. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages. Results: In 25.7% pregnancies, the mothers were tested for HIV. One child was born was to a mother who had tested HIV negative in pregnancy. In 50% of the mother-child pairs, both mother and child received PPTCT. Where both the mother and child received PPTCT, only 13.3% children born were HIV positive as against 40% children who were HIV positive where neither mother nor the child had received PPTCT. Conclusion: Uptake of PPTCT services was low. In countries like India where the chances of parent to child transmission of HIV are likely to be more than in developed countries due to breastfeeding practices, the uptake of PPTCT services should be maximized to decrease the burden of pediatric HIV because even a single pediatric HIV infection counts. All the pregnant women need to be voluntarily tested twice for HIV in pregnancy, in which the second test for HIV may be in late pregnancy.
Davis, Mark; Hart, Graham; Bolding, Graham; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan
This paper addresses how London gay men use the internet to meet sexual partners, or for e-dating. Based on qualitative interviews conducted face-to-face or via the internet, this research develops an account of how information technologies mediate the negotiation of identity and risk in connection with sexual practice. E-dating itself is a bricolage, or heterogeneous DIY practice of internet-based-communication (IBC). A central aspect of IBC is "filtering" in and out prospective e-dates based on the images and texts used to depict sexual identities. Interpretations and depictions of personal HIV risk management approaches in IBC are framed by the meanings of different identities, such as the stigma associated with being HIV positive. This paper argues for a sexualities perspective in a theory of network society. Further, HIV prevention in e-dating can potentially be addressed by considering the interplay of the HIV prevention imperatives associated with different HIV serostatus identities. There is a case for encouraging more explicit IBC about risk in e-dating and incorporating the expertise of e-daters in prevention activity. There is also a need to rethink traditional conceptions of risk management in HIV prevention to make space for the risk management bricolage of network society.
Khai Tran van
Full Text Available Researches has shown that climate change may spark global epidemics. The objectives of hospital design consistent with a high standard of sustainable architecture must not only be the tropicalization of buildings but also a system to confront the impact of infectious diseases which arise from climate change. Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection. Infection control addresses factors related to the spread of infections within the hospital building, including prevention, monitoring and management measures. As the application of new technologies such as the Heating, ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC with high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA has application range within stamina, the study suggests the need to adopt an integrated adaptive hospital design strategy to prevent infection.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use conventional breeding to increase the production in maize of the human monoclonal antibody 2G12, known to have potential therapeutic properties in the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. The recombinant antibody, together with a fluorescent marker, was introduced into two South African high-performing maize elite inbred lines by crossing them with a transgenic maize line that had been transformed with the monoclonal antibody 2G12. The effect of breeding to produce high-expressing recombinant hybrid seed was evaluated by comparing 2G12 production in the different breeding lines with the original maize line. ‘Good production practice standards’ were followed throughout the breeding programme. ‘Conventional drug regulations’ adapted to plant- made pharmaceuticals were also followed, with the seeds being stored in a ‘master seed bank’. The maize hybrid expressed a higher level of the antibody than the recombinant maize elite lines. This plant-derived antibody provides a means of producing a microbicide component that could be used with other HIV-neutralising antibodies as an additional approach to prevent HIV infection.
Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J Michael; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon
Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM) and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heteronormative culture and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. Seventy-nine MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger study of SEM. Three macro themes-audience, location, and community representation-emerged from the analysis, as did the influence of homonormativity on the acceptability of SEM in HIV-prevention messages.
Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.
Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…
ABRAHAM, Charles; SHEERAN, P; SPEARS, R; ABRAMS, D
Beliefs concerning the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and preventive behaviors were examined in a sample of 351 sexually active Scottish teenagers. A postal questionnaire, including measures of variables specified by the health belief model (HBM) and preventive intentions, was empl
Owczarzak, Jill; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Since 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have trained over 10,000 service providers from more than 5,000 agencies to implement evidence-based HIV prevention interventions through its Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions DEBI) program. Based on in-depth, semistructured interviews with a convenience sample of 22 HIV…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section l0(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub....
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub....
Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A; De La Rosa, Mario
There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts at HIV prevention that focus on high risk places might be more effective and less stigmatizing than those targeting high risk groups. The objective of the present study was to assess risk behaviour patterns, signs of current preventive interventions and apparent gaps in places where the risk of HIV transmission is high and in communities with high HIV prevalence. Methods The PLACE method was used to collect data. Inhabitants of selected communities in Lusaka and Livingstone were interviewed about where people met new sexual partners. Signs of HIV preventive activities in these places were recorded. At selected venues, people were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Peer educators and staff of NGOs were also interviewed. Results The places identified were mostly bars, restaurants or sherbeens, and fewer than 20% reported any HIV preventive activity such as meetings, pamphlets or posters. In 43% of places in Livingstone and 26% in Lusaka, condoms were never available. There were few active peer educators. Among the 432 persons in Lusaka and 676 in Livingstone who were invited for interview about sexual behaviour, consistent condom use was relatively high in Lusaka (77% but low in Livingstone (44% of men and 34% of women. Having no condom available was the most common reason for not using one. Condom use in Livingstone was higher among individuals socializing in places where condoms always were available. Conclusion In the places studied we found a high prevalence of behaviours with a high potential for HIV transmission but few signs of HIV preventive interventions. Covering the gaps in prevention in these high exposure places should be given the highest priority.
Nm Kareithi, Roselyn; Lund, Crick
The external environment of an organisation influences the desired goals and interventions of that organisation in many ways. However, strategies for influencing the external context to create a more enabling environment for the interventions of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are often inadequately addressed. This article draws on an empirical multiple-case study conducted in 2007/08 of four NGOs providing HIV-prevention services to young people in several low-resource, high-HIV-prevalence communities in Cape Town, South Africa. In an earlier study, young people reported that the external environment hampered their ability to institutionalise HIV-prevention messages. The current study explored how the NGOs endeavoured to influence the external environment, and the challenges they faced. The findings show that the NGOs practised a combination of strategies, encompassing inter-organisational relationships, influencing policy, and championing by example. Key constraints to their influencing practices included fear of losing legitimacy as a service provider; inadequate knowledge, skills and opportunity; perceived deviation from their usual work; inadequate funding; conflicts over values and messages; and a habit of focusing more on young people's individual behaviours and less on context. The development management task of influencing the external environment to create an environment more conducive to HIV prevention seemed constrained mainly because: 1) donors focused on funding and monitoring the activities they were interested in and conceptualised as HIV-prevention services; 2) NGO efforts were restricted to programme implementation based on agreed deliverables, thus influencing was mainly confined to championing by example; consequently, 3) 'influencing efforts' to create an environment more conducive to HIV prevention were left mainly to young people themselves, who can affect their peers only to a narrow, albeit crucial extent. The external environment
Julio S G Montaner
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been renewed call for the global expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the framework of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP. However, population-level sustainability of this strategy has not been characterized. METHODS: We used population-level longitudinal data from province-wide registries including plasma viral load, CD4 count, drug resistance, HAART use, HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence, and HIV-related mortality. We fitted two Poisson regression models over the study period, to relate estimated HIV incidence and the number of individuals on HAART and the percentage of virologically suppressed individuals. RESULTS: HAART coverage, median pre-HAART CD4 count, and HAART adherence increased over time and were associated with increasing virological suppression and decreasing drug resistance. AIDS incidence decreased from 6.9 to 1.4 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0330 and HIV-related mortality decreased from 6.5 to 1.3 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0115. New HIV diagnoses declined from 702 to 238 cases (66% decrease; p = 0.0004 with a consequent estimated decline in HIV incident cases from 632 to 368 cases per year (42% decrease; p = 0.0003. Finally, our models suggested that for each increase of 100 individuals on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence decreased 1.2% and for every 1% increase in the number of individuals suppressed on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence also decreased by 1%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that HAART expansion between 1996 and 2012 in BC was associated with a sustained and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Our findings support the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of HIV treatment as prevention within an adequately resourced environment with no financial barriers to diagnosis, medical care or antiretroviral drugs. The 2013 Consolidated World Health Organization Antiretroviral
Safren, Steven A; Perry, Nicholas S; Blashill, Aaron J; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H
Recently, behavioral prevention interventions for HIV have been criticized as being ineffective, costly, or inefficient. In this commentary, using HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) as an illustrative high-risk population, we argue that the opposite is true-that behavioral interventions for HIV prevention, if implemented with the populations who need them, are affordable and critical for future prevention efforts. We base this argument on recent evidence showing that (1) adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) for prevention purposes is necessary to suppress HIV replication and reduce transmissibility, (2) individuals living with HIV have multiple psychosocial concerns that impact self-care and moderate the potential effectiveness of health behavior interventions, and (3) intensive interventions targeting both concerns together (psychosocial and HIV care) can show clinically significant improvement. We follow by comparing the cost of these types of interventions to the cost of standard clinical treatment for HIV with ART and demonstrate a cost-savings of potential intensive behavioral interventions for, in this case, HIV-positive MSM who have uncontrolled virus. Keeping this evidence in mind, we conclude that individual intervention must remain a mainstay of HIV prevention for certain critical populations.
Wells, Jennifer; Clark, Khaya; Sarno, Karen
The efficacy of a computer-based interactive multimedia HIV/AIDS prevention program for men with intellectual disability (ID) was examined using a quasi-experimental within-subjects design. Thirty-seven men with mild to moderate intellectual disability evaluated the program. The pretest and posttest instruments assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge (high-risk fluids, HIV transmission, and condom facts) and condom application skills. All outcome measures showed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest, with medium to large effect sizes. In addition, a second study was conducted with twelve service providers who work with men with ID. Service providers reviewed the HIV/AIDS prevention program, completed a demographics questionnaire, and a program satisfaction survey. Overall, service providers rated the program highly on several outcome measures (stimulation, relevance, and usability).
Full Text Available Alfred Osoti,1–3 Hannah Han,4 John Kinuthia,1,5 Carey Farquhar3,4,6 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, AIC Kijabe Hospital, Kijabe, Kenya; 3Department of Epidemiology, 4Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, USA; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: There is emerging evidence that in resource-limited settings with a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV burden, male partner involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT is associated with improved uptake of effective interventions and infant HIV-free survival. There is also increasing evidence that male partner involvement positively impacts non-HIV related outcomes, such as skilled attendance at delivery, exclusive breastfeeding, uptake of effective contraceptives, and infant immunizations. Despite these associations, male partner involvement remains low, especially when offered in the standard antenatal clinic setting. In this review we explore strategies for improving rates of antenatal male partner HIV testing and argue that the role of male partners in PMTCT must evolve from one of support for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women to one of comprehensive engagement in prevention of primary HIV acquisition, avoidance of unintended pregnancies, and improved HIV-related care and treatment for the HIV-infected and uninfected women, their partners, and children. Involving men in all components of PMTCT has potential to contribute substantially to achieving virtual elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission; promoting partner-friendly programs and policies, as well as pursuing research into numerous gaps in knowledge identified in this review, will help drive this process. Keywords: male involvement, limited-resource settings
Full Text Available Vaginal HIV transmission accounts for the majority of new infections worldwide. Currently, multiple efforts to prevent HIV transmission are based on pre-exposure prophylaxis with various antiretroviral drugs. Here, we describe two novel nanoformulations of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine for pericoital and coitus-independent HIV prevention. Topically applied rilpivirine, encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles, was delivered in a thermosensitive gel, which becomes solid at body temperature. PLGA nanoparticles with encapsulated rilpivirine coated the reproductive tract and offered significant protection to BLT humanized mice from a vaginal high-dose HIV-1 challenge. A different nanosuspension of crystalline rilpivirine (RPV LA, administered intramuscularly, protected BLT mice from a single vaginal high-dose HIV-1 challenge one week after drug administration. Using transmitted/founder viruses, which were previously shown to establish de novo infection in humans, we demonstrated that RPV LA offers significant protection from two consecutive high-dose HIV-1 challenges one and four weeks after drug administration. In this experiment, we also showed that, in certain cases, even in the presence of drug, HIV infection could occur without overt or detectable systemic replication until levels of drug were reduced. We also showed that infection in the presence of drug can result in acquisition of multiple viruses after subsequent exposures. These observations have important implications for the implementation of long-acting antiretroviral formulations for HIV prevention. They provide first evidence that occult infections can occur, despite the presence of sustained levels of antiretroviral drugs. Together, our results demonstrate that topically- or systemically administered rilpivirine offers significant coitus-dependent or coitus-independent protection from HIV infection.
Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.
Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F
This review describes the use of social networking sites (SNS) in the context of primary prevention of HIV. A review was conducted to assess the published literature for HIV interventions using SNS. Sixteen articles describing twelve interventions were included. SNS were instrumental in recruiting hard-to-reach populations within a short amount of time; were able to reach wide audiences beyond the targeted population for HIV prevention campaigns; and helped to significantly reduce sexual risk behaviors and increase HIV testing. SNS are a viable option to recruit hidden populations, engage the target audience, and disseminate HIV prevention messages. Researchers should use SNS to generate sampling frames that can be used to select participants. Practitioners should use SNS to post images of preventive behavior within health promotion campaigns. Researchers should use multiple SNS platforms to engage participants. As more studies are published using SNS for HIV prevention, meta-analyses will be needed.
Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.
There is an urgent need for continued innovation in the design of HIV/STI prevention interventions for African American females, a group at high risk for STIs and HIV. In particular, attention to social development and to culture is needed. The present study reports on a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention…
Justin O Parkhurst
Full Text Available Introduction: Although biomedical HIV prevention efforts have seen a number of recent promising developments, behavioural interventions have often been described as failing. However, clear lessons have been identified from past efforts, including the need to address influential social, economic and legal structures; to tailor efforts to local contexts; and to address multiple influencing factors in combination. Despite these insights, there remains a pervasive strategy to try to achieve sexual behaviour change through single, decontextualized, interventions or sets of activities. With current calls for structural approaches to HIV as part of combination HIV prevention, though, there is a unique opportunity to define a structural approach to HIV prevention as one which moves beyond these past limitations and better incorporates our knowledge of the social world and the lessons from past efforts. Discussion: A range of interlinked concepts require delineation and definition within the broad concept of a structural approach to HIV. This includes distinguishing between “structural factors,” which can be seen as any number of elements (other than knowledge which influence risk and vulnerability, and “structural drivers,” which should be reserved for situations where an empirically established relationship to a target group is known. Operationalizing structural approaches similarly can take different paths, either working to alter structural drivers or alternatively working to build individual and community resilience to infection. A “structural diagnostic approach” is further defined as the process one undertakes to develop structural intervention strategies tailored to target groups. Conclusions: For three decades, the HIV prevention community has struggled to reduce the spread of HIV through sexual risk behaviours with limited success, but equally with limited engagement with the lessons that have been learned about the social realities
Roberta Longo; Claire Hulme; Armando Vargas-Palacios; Karen Vinall-Collier; Jane South; Anne Marie Bagnall; James Woodall; Gary Raine; Karina Kinsella
Aim: To assess the cost-effectiveness of peer-based sexual behaviour education interventions in prison settings to prevent primary and secondary HIV infections. Methods: Based on the results of a systematic review of peer-based interventions in prison settings, we developed a Bernoulli model to estimate the number of HIV infections averted, consequent loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) avoided and associated savings in health care costs over a lifetime respectively for a peer-led and...
Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Painter, Thomas M.; Tomlinson, Hank L.; Alvarez, Maria E.
Summary This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HlV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States. 3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs. PMID:24743663
Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Young, Staci
Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and Black Churches may be a source of stigma which can exacerbate HIV risk and contribute to negative health and psychosocial outcomes. Findings from this study are based on 21 semi-structured interviews with pastors and ethnographic observation in six Black Churches. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis. Although pastors espoused messages of love and acceptance, they overwhelmingly believed homosexuality was a sin and had difficulty accepting YBMSM into their churches. The tension around homosexuality limited pastors' involvement in HIV prevention efforts, although there still may be opportunities for some churches.
Tolou-Shams, Marina; Houck, Christopher D.; Conrad, Selby M.; Tarantino, Nicholas; Stein, L.A.R.; Brown, Larry K.
Background Juvenile drug court offenders have benefited from evidence-based interventions addressing antisocial behavior, mental health and/or substance use; however, interventions addressing HIV risk behavior are lacking. This study presents pilot findings and lessons learned from a group-based HIV prevention intervention delivered to juvenile drug court offenders. Methods Participants were randomized to a 5-session HIV Prevention (n =29) or Health Promotion (n=28) condition and completed measures of sexual risk taking and substance use at baseline and 3 month post-intervention. Results No between-group differences by time emerged on measures of sexual risk-taking or other HIV-related behaviors and attitudes. Both groups improved their rates of HIV testing and decreased their substance use during sex over time. Conclusions Delivering an HIV prevention intervention to drug court offenders is feasible; however, more intensive interventions that incorporate multiple systems and address co-occurring mental health difficulties may be needed to affect sexual behavioral change among these high-risk court-involved youth. PMID:21474529
Garofalo, Robert; Johnson, Amy K; Kuhns, Lisa M; Cotten, Christopher; Joseph, Heather; Margolis, Andrew
Young transgender women are at increased risk for HIV infection due to factors related to stigma/marginalization and participation in risky sexual behaviors. To date, no HIV prevention interventions have been developed or proven successful with young transgender women. To address this gap, we developed and pilot tested a homegrown intervention "Life Skills," addressing the unique HIV prevention needs of young transgender women aged 16-24 years. Study aims included assessing the feasibility of a small group-based intervention with the study population and examining participant's engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors pre- and 3-months-post-intervention. Fifty-one (N = 51) young transgender women enrolled in the study. Our overall attendance and retention rates demonstrate that small group-based HIV prevention programs for young transgender women are both feasible and acceptable. Trends in outcome measures suggest that participation in the intervention may reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention with a control group is warranted.
Tolou-Shams, Marina; Houck, Christopher; Conrad, Selby M; Tarantino, Nicholas; Stein, L A R; Brown, Larry K
Juvenile drug court (JDC) offenders have benefited from evidence-based interventions addressing antisocial behavior, mental health, and substance use; however, interventions addressing HIV risk behavior are lacking. This study presents pilot findings and lessons learned from a group-based HIV prevention intervention delivered to JDC offenders. Participants were randomized to a five-session HIV prevention (n = 29) or health promotion (n = 28) condition and completed measures of sexual risk taking and substance use at baseline and 3 months postintervention. No between-group differences by time emerged on measures of sexual risk taking or other HIV-related behaviors and attitudes. Both groups improved their rates of HIV testing and decreased their substance use during sex over time. Delivering an HIV prevention intervention to drug court offenders is feasible; however, more intensive interventions that incorporate multiple systems and address co-occurring mental health difficulties may be needed to effect sexual behavioral change among these high-risk court-involved youth.
Woodward, Eva N; Banks, Regina J; Marks, Amy K; Pantalone, David W
Most HIV prevention for sexual minority men and men who have sex with men targets risk behaviors (e.g., condom use) and helps HIV prevention's effectiveness. This systematic review identified resilience resources (protective factors) in high-risk, HIV-negative, sexual minority men. We reviewed PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, MEDLINE, references, and Listservs for studies including sexual minority men with 1+ HIV risk factor (syndemics): childhood sexual abuse, partner abuse, substance abuse, or mental health symptoms. From 1356 articles screened, 20 articles met inclusion criteria. Across the articles, we identified and codified 31 resilience resources: socioeconomic (e.g., employment), behavioral coping strategies (e.g., mental health treatment), cognitions/emotions (e.g., acceptance), and relationships. Resilience resources were generally associated with lower HIV risk; there were 18 low-risk associations, 4 high-risk associations, 8 non-significant associations). We generated a set of empirically based resilience variables and a hypothesis to be evaluated further to improve HIV prevention.
Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat
Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy.
The psychological aspect of treating HIV-infected substance users entails changing their behaviour, as their behaviour is what leads to the risk of them transmitting and spreading HIV. Psychological treatment must facilitate their adaptation so that they may be otherwise treated for substance abuse and HIV. We propose establishing the psychological objective of helping patients overcome substance addiction by addressing their internal representation of the disease (IRD), value-sense and motiv...
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate barriers and correlates of the use of HIV prevention services and HIV testing behaviors among men who have sex with men in Chongqing. Methods. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided demographic, sexual behavior, HIV/syphilis infection, HIV prevention service, and testing behavior data. Results. Of 1239 participants, 15.4% were infected with HIV, incidence was 12.3 per 100 persons/year (95% CI: 9.2–15.3, 38% of the participants reported ever having unprotected insertive anal sex, 40% ever received free condom/lubricants in the past year, and 27.7% ever obtained free sexually transmitted infection examination/treatment in the past year. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that lower levels of HIV/AIDS related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes, full-time jobs, and sex debut with men at a younger age were independently associated with use of free condom/lubricants. Large social networks, higher incomes, and sexual debut with men at a younger age were associated with use of any HIV prevention and HIV testing services. Lower levels of stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes were also associated with HIV testing. Fearing needles and being unaware of the venues for testing were top barriers for testing service utilization. Conclusion. It is imperative to address HIV/AIDS related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes and other barriers while delivering intervention and testing services.
The Amagugu Intervention: A conceptual framework for increasing HIV disclosure and parent-led communication about health and HIV prevention among HIV-infected parents with HIV-uninfected primary school-aged children
Tamsen Jean Rochat
Full Text Available Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalisation, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support. Increasingly, evidence suggests that primary school-aged children have the developmental capacity to grasp concepts of health and illness, including HIV, and that in the absence of parent-led communication and education about these issues, HIV-exposed children may be at increased risk of psychological and social problems. The Amagugu intervention is a six-session home-based intervention, delivered by lay counsellors, which aims to increase parenting capacity to disclose their HIV status and offer health education to their primary school-aged children. The intervention includes information and activities on disclosure, health care engagement and custody planning. An uncontrolled pre-post evaluation study with 281 families showed the intervention was feasible, acceptable and effective in increasing maternal disclosure. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the conceptual model of the Amagugu intervention, as developed post-evaluation, showing the proposed pathways of risk that Amagugu aims to disrupt through its intervention targets, mechanisms and activities; and to present a summary of results from the large scale evaluation study of Amagugu to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention model. This relatively low-intensity home-based intervention led to: increased HIV disclosure to children, improvements in mental health for mother and child, and improved health care engagement and custody planning for
Full Text Available Objective: To describe and quantify the differences in risk behaviours, HIV prevalence and incidence rates by birth cohorts among a group of women in Durban, South Africa. Methods: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort analyses were conducted for women who consented to be screened and enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. Demographic and sexual behaviours were described by five-year birth cohorts. Semiparametric regression models were used to investigate the bivariate associations between these factors and the birth cohorts. HIV seroconversion rates were also estimated by birth cohorts. Results: The prevalence of HIV-1 infection at the screening visit was lowest (20.0% among the oldest (born before 1960 cohorts, while the highest prevalence was observed among those born between 1975 and 79. Level of education increased across the birth cohorts while the median age at first sexual experience declined among those born after 1975 compared to those born before 1975. Only 33.03% of the oldest group reported ever using a condom while engaging in vaginal sex compared to 73.68% in the youngest group; however, HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI incidence rates were significantly higher among younger women compared to older women. Conclusions: These findings clearly suggest that demographic and sexual risk behaviours are differentially related to the birth cohorts. Significantly high HIV and STI incidence rates were observed among the younger group. Although the level of education increased, early age at sexual debut was more common among the younger group. The continuing increase in HIV and STI incidence rates among the later cohorts suggests that the future trajectory of the epidemic will be dependent on the infection patterns in younger birth cohorts.
Weeks, Margaret R; Abbott, Maryann; Liao, Susu; Yu, Wang; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Wei, Liu; Jiang, Jingmei
Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women's knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China.
Kerr-Pontes, Ligia Regina Sansigolo; González, Fernando; Kendall, Carl; Leão, Elda Maria Area; Távora, Fábio Rocha; Caminha, Iusta; do Carmo, Alexandre Medeiros; França, Marcela Moura; Aguiar, Melícia Holanda
HIV infection is spreading among the poor, women, and migrant communities in the interior of Northeast Brazil. The research focused on different configurations, beliefs, representations, and forms of social organization of behavior thought to be associated with the population's capacity to efficiently follow AIDS prevention measures. Participants located in neighborhoods known for having large migrant populations were identified by Family Health Program Workers in Fortaleza and Teresina. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. Several belief-system concepts and values, as well as the social organization of sexuality revealed in the study, represent obstacles both to AIDS prevention and condom use. Hunger, lack of prospects, and fear are associated with a social situation of poverty, exclusion, prejudice, and total absence of basic human rights. When examined together, these elements define different configurations in the migrants' increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The groups' increased vulnerability relates to the socioeconomic complexity that must be considered in HIV/AIDS control and prevention programs.
Curtis L Cooper
Full Text Available Liver transplantation is a life-saving procedure with demonstrated utility. There are accumulating data indicating that this procedure is helpful in HIV-infected patients as well. Liver transplantation is currently largely unavailable to those living with HIV in Canada. Understanding the obstacles to this procedure is the first step to increasing access. Between August 2005 and November 2005, HIV physicians, one from each Canadian HIV Trials Network site, were asked to complete a quantitative questionnaire on adult liver transplant access and need. Forty-six per cent (16 of 35 of sites responded. A median 20% of the nearly 12,700 HIV patients followed at these sites had concurrent liver disease (20% caused by hepatitis C virus, 5% caused by hepatitis B virus and 5% were alcohol-related. On average, two patients per site were thought to be appropriate candidates for liver transplant evaluation. Eighty per cent of respondents anticipated increased need for liver transplantation over the next five years. Organ supply was universally identified as the chief obstacle to transplantation in patients with HIV. Other key issues included risk of hepatitis C virus reinfection and transplant surgical team willingness. Based on these data, it is believed that these issues should be the focus of efforts designed to increase access to transplantation in Canadians with end-stage liver disease and concurrent HIV.
Connie L Celum
Full Text Available Introduction: HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP. Discussion: Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions: Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies
Jaiantilal, Prafulta; Gutin, Sarah A; Cummings, Beverley; Mbofana, Francisco; Rose, Carol Dawson
Despite the Mozambique government's efforts to curb human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), national prevalence is 11.5% and support is needed to expand HIV-related services and improve program quality. Positive prevention (PP) programs, which prioritize HIV prevention with people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV), have been recognized as an important intervention for preventing new HIV infections. To address this, an evidence-based PP training intervention was implemented with HIV healthcare providers in Mozambique. This study focuses on the acceptability and feasibility of a PP intervention in HIV clinics from the healthcare provider perspective. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 healthcare providers from three provinces who participated in PP trainings in Mozambique. Interview data were coded using content analysis. Study data suggest that healthcare providers found PP acceptable, feasible to implement in their HIV work in clinic settings, and valued this strategy to improve HIV prevention. The PP training also led providers to feel more comfortable counseling their patients about prevention, with a more holistic approach that included HIV testing, treatment and encouraging PLHIV to live positively. While overall acceptance of the PP training was positive, several barriers to feasibility surfaced in the data. Patient-level barriers included resistance to disclosing HIV status due to fear of stigma and discrimination, difficulty negotiating for condom use, difficulty engaging men in testing and treatment, and the effects of poverty on accessing care. Providers also identified work environment barriers including high patient load, time constraints, and frequent staff turnover. Recognizing PP as an important intervention, healthcare providers should be trained to provide comprehensive prevention, care and treatment for PLHIV. Further work is needed to explore the complex social dynamics and cultural challenges such as
Full Text Available Background: Commercial sex plays an increasingly important role in China’s growing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI epidemics. In China, street-based sex workers (SSWs are a subgroup of female sex workers with a particularly high risk of HIV/STI infections but are neglected in responses to HIV. This study assesses changes in HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT utilization and high-risk sexual behaviors following a three-month HIV preventive intervention among SSWs in Chongqing, China. Methods: A three-month intervention was conducted by a team of peer educators, outreach workers from community-based organizations and health professionals. It mainly included distribution of free pamphlets and condoms and delivery of onsite and clinic-based VCT. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted prior to (n = 100 and immediately following (n = 112 the intervention to assess its impact. In-depth interviews were conducted among 12 SSWs after the intervention to further explore potential barriers to HIV prevention. Results: The intervention significantly increased SSWs’ participation in VCT (from 2.0%–15.2%, P < 0.001. Despite participants’ improved HIV-related knowledge level (from 24.0%–73.2%, P < 0.001, there were minimal changes in the levels of condom use with clients. Qualitative research revealed that fear of police arrest and stigma were the main barriers to VCT utilization. Low condom use was associated with family financial constraints, inadequate power in condom negotiation, low awareness and misconceptions of HIV infection risks. Conclusion: HIV intervention improved VCT utilization and knowledge but we did not observe an increase in condom use after this short intervention. SSWs faced substantial economic, social and environmental barriers to VCT utilization and condom use.
Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.
Burton, Jennifer; Darbes, Lynae A; Operario, Don
HIV is frequently transmitted in the context of partners in a committed relationship, thus couples-focused HIV prevention interventions are a potentially promising modality for reducing infection. We conducted a systematic review of studies testing whether couples-focused behavioral prevention interventions reduce HIV transmission and risk behavior. We included studies using randomized controlled trial designs, quasi-randomized controlled trials, and nonrandomized controlled studies. We searched five electronic databases and screened 7,628 records. Six studies enrolling 1,084 index couples met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Results across studies consistently indicated that couples-focused programs reduced unprotected sexual intercourse and increased condom use compared with control groups. However, studies were heterogeneous in population, type of intervention, comparison groups, and outcomes measures, and so meta-analysis to calculate pooled effects was inappropriate. Although couples-focused approaches to HIV prevention appear initially promising, additional research is necessary to build a stronger theoretical and methodological basis for couples-focused HIV prevention, and future interventions must pay closer attention to same-sex couples, adolescents, and young people in relationships.
Full Text Available Introduction: Transmission in serodiscordant couples (SDCs accounts for approximately half of all new HIV infections, both in Kenya and the wider sub-Saharan region (1. With evidence to suggest inconsistent condom use within this population (2, the World Health Organization has recommended two new methods of HIV prevention for SDCs: Treatment as Prevention (TasP and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP. However, there has been little research about the attitudes of SDCs towards these strategies (3, 4; knowledge that is paramount for successfully predicting the acceptability and efficacy of each method, as well as for informing decisions regarding HIV policy changes in Kenya. Methods: An exploratory, qualitative study was conducted in the Muhoroni constituency of Nyando district, Kenya from January to March 2013. Purposive sampling was predominately used to recruit 21 HIV-positive and 17 HIV-negative individuals in a serodiscordant relationship from four hospitals and health centres. During face-to-face semi-structured interviews, topic guides were used to elicit information about participants’ attitudes and preferences towards TasP and PrEP. Collected data underwent framework analysis, allowing the development of overarching categories, sub-themes and inductive interpretation. Results: The majority of participants, irrespective of gender and HIV status, found TasP more acceptable than PrEP. A key factor influencing this decision was HIV-negative participants’ limited motivation to take and adhere to antiretrovirals (ARVs, primarily due to a predominantly external health locus of control, a lack of cultural acceptance of prophylactic medication and concerns about side effects. In addition to this, the likely health improvements TasP offers HIV-positive partners, as well as the attitude that the sick individual should be the first to receive HIV medication, also contributed to this conclusion. Issues of risk compensation were raised, with some HIV
Parker, Lisa; Pettifor, Audrey; Maman, Suzanne; Sibeko, Jabu; MacPhail, Catherine
As part of a larger study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a couples-based HIV-prevention intervention, we conducted formative in-depth interviews with 10 couples to explore topics such as challenges in practising safer sex, HIV-prevention strategies, gender power and violence, and issues of trust and infidelity. In this study, both men and women perceived infidelity as ubiquitous in their social context and were therefore unable to discuss HIV risk and prevention without suspicions of infidelity in their own relationship. This impacted couples' ability openly and effectively to discuss strategies to prevent HIV and thus may have contributed to the limited uptake of HIV-prevention strategies, such as condom use and HIV testing. The contentious nature of safe-sex discussions placed both members of the couple at a higher risk for HIV acquisition within the partnership. This study sheds light on how existing relationship norms in South Africa influence HIV-prevention communication within couples and suggests that new ways of approaching conflictual issues such as mistrust and infidelity are vital in order for HIV-prevention programmes to succeed.
Balfour, Louise; Farrar, Thomas; McGilvray, Marcus; Wilson, Douglas; Tasca, Giorgio A; Spaans, Johanna N; Mathews, Catherine; Maziya, Lungile; Khanyile, Siphosihle; Dalgleish, Tracy L; Cameron, William D
The Africaid Trust is a grassroots South African non-profit organization that engages youth in HIV prevention by harnessing the popularity of football (i.e. soccer). WhizzKids United, the organization's primary program, operates a 12-week program in elementary schools in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, which aims to impart knowledge and life skills critical to HIV prevention. The goal of this research was to compare elementary school youth who received the program to youth who only received traditional classroom-based HIV education on health behaviors and HIV-related knowledge and stigma. A secondary objective was to evaluate HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, attitudes towards HIV and health care seeking behaviors among South African youth in grades 9-12. Elementary students who participated in the program reported greater HIV knowledge and lower HIV stigma (p < .001) than those who had not. The majority of youth in grades 9-12 report having sexual relations (55.6%), despite low levels of HIV testing (29.9%) in this high HIV prevalence region of South Africa. The results highlight the importance of supporting community-based HIV educational initiatives that engage high-risk youth in HIV prevention and the need for youth-friendly health services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.
Garner, Samual A; Anude, Chuka J; Adams, Elizabeth; Dawson, Liza
HIV prevention research has been facing increasing ethical and operational challenges. Factors influencing the design and conduct of HIV prevention trials include a rapidly changing evidence base, new biomedical prevention methods and modalities being tested, a large diversity of countries, sites and populations affected by HIV and participating in trials, and challenges of developing and making available products that will be feasible and affordable for at-risk populations. To discuss these challenges, a meeting, Ethical considerations around novel combination prevention modalities in HIV prevention and vaccine trials in resource-limited settings, was convened by NIH/NIAID/Division of AIDS on April 22-23, 2013. Several themes emerged from the meeting: (1) because of both trial design and ethical complexities, choosing prevention packages and designing combination prevention research trials will need to be evaluated on a case by case basis in different clinical trials, countries, and health systems; (2) multilevel stakeholder engagement from the beginning is vital to a fair and transparent process and also to designing ethical and relevant trials; (3) research should generally be responsive to a host country's needs, and sponsors and stakeholders should work together to address potential barriers to future access; and finally, (4) another meeting including a broader group of stakeholders is needed to address many of the outstanding ethical issues raised by this meeting. We offer an overview of the meeting and the key discussion points and recommendations to help guide the design and conduct of future HIV prevention and vaccine research in resource-limited settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malawi is reassessing its HIV prevention strategy in the light of a limited reduction in the epidemic. No community based incidence studies have been carried out in Malawi, so estimates of where new infections are occurring require the use of mathematical models and knowledge of the size and sexual behaviour of different groups. The results can help to choose where HIV prevention interventions are most needed. Methods The UNAIDS Mode of Transmission model was populated with Malawi data and estimates of incident cases calculated for each exposure group. Scenarios of single and multiple interventions of varying success were used to identify those interventions most likely to reduce incident cases. Results The groups accounting for most new infections were the low-risk heterosexual group - the discordant couples (37% and those who had casual sex and their partners (a further 16% and 27% respectively of new cases. Circumcision, condoms with casual sex and bar girls and improved STI treatment had limited effect in reducing incident cases, while condom use with discordant couples, abstinence and a zero-grazing campaign had major effects. The combination of a successful strategy to eliminate multiple concurrent partners and a successful strategy to eliminate all infections between discordant couples would reduce incident cases by 99%. Conclusions A revitalised HIV prevention strategy will need to include interventions which tackle the two modes of transmission now found to be so important in Malawi - concurrency and discordancy.
Johnston, Lisa G; Steinhaus, Mara C; Sass, Justine; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Lee, Catherine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Gass, Robert
HIV infection among men who have sex with men, particularly in Thai urban settings and among younger cohorts, is escalating. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are important for prevention and obtaining treatment and care. We examine data from a 2013 survey of males, 15-24 years, reporting past-year sex with a male and living in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. Almost three quarters of young MSM (YMSM) in Bangkok and only 27 % in Chiang Mai had an HIV test in the previous year. Associations for HIV testing varied between cities, although having employment increased the odds of HIV testing for both cities. In Bangkok, family knowledge of same sex attraction and talking to parents/guardians about HIV/AIDS had higher odds of HIV testing. Expanded HTC coverage is needed for YMSM in Chiang Mai. All health centers providing HTC, including those targeting MSM, need to address the specific needs of younger cohorts.
Ayele, Henok Tadesse; van Mourik, Maaike S M; Bonten, Marc J M
Background: Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is a recommended strategy for prevention of tuberculosis (TB) in persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) although the benefits have not been unequivocally demonstrated in routine clinical practice with widespread ART adoption. Therefore, we asse
Stothard, Blaine; Romanova, Olga; Ivanova, Larissa
Rates of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission in Russia remain high. Official attitudes do not yet appear to recognise fully their significance. There is increasing knowledge of the population's sexual behaviour and attitudes, including of young people, emerging from local and externally funded programmes. This is leading to…
Full Text Available During an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial in East Africa, we observed 16 cases of primary HIV-1 infection in women coincident with pregnancy or breastfeeding. Nine of eleven pregnant women initiated rapid combination antiretroviral therapy (ART, despite having CD4 counts exceeding national criteria for ART initiation; breastfeeding women initiated ART or replacement feeding. Rapid ART initiation during primary HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is feasible in this setting.
Jobson, Geoffrey; de Swardt, Glenn; Rebe, Kevin; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James
Current guidelines on HIV prevention for MSM emphasise the need for 'combination prevention' based on context-specific understandings of HIV risk. MSM in South Africa are a population with a high risk of HIV infection, however there is little research available on the drivers of this risk. In the context of a focus on combination prevention, this paper argues that effective HIV prevention for MSM in South Africa requires an understanding of the factors at multiple 'distances' from individuals that contribute to HIV risk. Based on qualitative research with MSM in Cape Town, South Africa, we situate HIV risk using a socio-ecological framework and identify factors at distal, proximal, and personal, levels that contribute to MSM's high risk of HIV infection. By understanding the interactions and linkages between risk environments and the risk situations in which HIV is transmitted, HIV prevention programmes will be more effectively able to address the multiple drivers of HIV risk in this population.
Lamptey, P R; Price, J E
This paper proposes that international sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention efforts might be enhanced by the application of social marketing principles. It first outlines the conceptual basis of social marketing approaches to health behaviour change generally and then explores key issues and opportunities for using these principles to improve current STD/HIV prevention efforts.
Lazarus, Jeff; Sihvonen-Riemenschneider, Henna; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich
To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union.......To examine the effectiveness of interventions seeking to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among young people in the European Union....
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly M.; Johnson, Laura; Liku, Jennifer; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Niang, Cheikh
To examine young people's reactions to and understanding of HIV prevention messages developed for MTV's global HIV prevention campaign Staying Alive, videotaped campaign materials were shown to focus group discussion (FGD) participants living in urban areas of Brazil, Kenya, Nepal, and Senegal. Responses related to "personal involvement" with the…
Thomas H Riess
Full Text Available It is important to understand how women's sexual practices may be influenced by male circumcision (MC as an HIV prevention effort. Women's beliefs about MC and sexual behaviour will likely influence the scale-up and uptake of medical MC. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 sexually active women in Kisumu, Kenya. Women discussed MC related to perceived health benefits, condom use, sexual behaviour, knowledge of susceptibility to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, circumcision preference, and influence on circumcision uptake. Respondents had a good understanding of the partial protection of MC for acquisition of HIV for men. Women perceived circumcised men as cleaner, carrying fewer diseases, and taking more time to reach ejaculation. Male's circumcision status is a salient factor for women's sexual decision making, including partner choice, and condom use. It will be important that educational information affirms that MC provides only partial protection against female to male transmission of HIV and some STIs; that other HIV and STI prevention methods such as condoms need to be used in conjunction with MC; that MC does not preclude a man from having HIV; and that couples should develop plans for not having sex while the man is healing.
Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Ulibarri, M; Baquero, B; Sleeth, C; Harig, H; Rhodes, S D
Compared to White women, Latinas are 4 times more likely to contract HIV. In an effort to determine the overall state of the science meant to address this disparity, we reviewed the current HIV prevention intervention literature for U.S. Latinas. We searched 5 online electronic databases from their inception through July, 2014, for HIV prevention interventions including a majority sample of Latinas. Of 1041 articles identified, 20 studies met inclusion criteria. We documented study designs, participant characteristics, outcomes, theories used, and other intervention characteristics. Overall, HIV knowledge and attitudes were the predominant outcome; a small minority of studies included self-reported condom use or STD incidence. Strategies used to address cultural factors specific to Latinas and HIV included; lay health advisors, using ethnographic narratives, or using the Theory of Gender and Power, however few of the interventions adopted these strategies. This study identified several gaps in the intervention literature that need to be addressed. In addition to including more direct measures of decreased HIV risk (ex. condom use), more systematic use of strategies meant to address gender and cultural factors that may place Latinas at increased risk (e.g., gender inequity, traditional gender role norms such as machismo and marianismo, and relationship power dynamics).
Rodríguez, Melissa Marzán; Madera, Sheilla Rodríguez; Díaz, Nelson Varas
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the most affected populations by HIV/AIDS. Over the last years an increase of cases has been reported in younger groups. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that stigma and homophobia may have a profound impact on the lives of MSM, and could influence them to engage in HIV risky behaviors. In the U.S and Puerto Rico, an increase in HIV cases among young MSM has been reported. For the period of 2005-2009 an increase of HIV cases was reported with 4.3% in the age group of 13-24 and 55.6% in the age group of 25-34. Understanding the dynamics related HIV risk behaviors among young MSM requires transcending traditional individual behavior oriented perspectives in order to adopt a more comprehensive socio-structural approach. In this manuscript we present a critical analysis of HIV prevention issues among young MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:25678720
Buchacz, Kate; Farrior, Jennifer; Beauchamp, Geetha; McKinstry, Laura; Kurth, Ann E; Zingman, Barry S; Gordin, Fred M; Donnell, Deborah; Mayer, Kenneth H; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Branson, Bernard
As part of the HPTN 065 study in the Bronx, New York and Washington, the authors, we surveyed clinicians to assess for shifts in their practices and attitudes around HIV treatment and prevention. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-prescribing clinicians at 39 HIV care sites were offered an anonymous Web-based survey at baseline (2010-2011) and at follow-up (2013). The 165 respondents at baseline and 141 respondents at follow-up had similar characteristics-almost 60% were female, median age was 47 years, two-thirds were physicians, and nearly 80% were HIV specialists. The percentage who reported recommending ART irrespective of CD4 count was higher at follow-up (15% versus 68%), as was the percentage who would initiate ART earlier for patients having unprotected sex with partners of unknown HIV status (64% versus 82%), and for those in HIV-discordant partnerships (75% versus 87%). In line with changing HIV treatment guidelines during 2010 to 2013, clinicians increasingly supported early ART for treatment and prevention.
ABRAHAM, CS; SHEERAN, P; ABRAMS, D; SPEARS, R
Teenagers' HIV-preventive cognitions were explored within a protection motivation theory framework. Five hundred and seven adolescent men and women from two cohorts (sixteen and eighteen) completed a confidential postal questionnaire. The effect of demographic variables, previous sexual experience a
A O Maulana
Full Text Available Despite efforts to curb the spread of HIV amongst the youth and its positive indication of success in Kenya, the epidemic continues to pose serious challenges to these efforts amongst all demographic groupings across Kenya. This article presents findings of a qualitative study involving 45 youth and 23 Islamic leaders from Lamu, Kenya. The study looked at participant’s perceptions of HIV/AIDS. It also explored participant’s perceptions on what they see as the factors influencing HIV transmission amongst the Lamu youth. Additionally a literature review was used together with the study findings to identify elements for an Islamic based HIV prevention intervention. Our findings indicated that both the youth and religious leaders’ perceptions of HIV/AIDS comprise a mixture of facts and misconceptions. The participants identified idleness, drug abuse and premarital sex as key factors contributing to the risk of HIV infection amongst the Lamu youth. The symbiotic relationship between religious leaders and youth on various aspects of daily practices was evident throughout the study thereby suggesting the importance of working with both in addressing HIV/AIDS in Lamu.
DeMarco, Rosanna F; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Sprague, Courtenay; Brown, Shelley M
Ageism, in the form of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination targeting older adults, represents a barrier to addressing the graying of the HIV epidemic. There is widespread misperception on the part of older adults themselves, as well as service providers and society in general that HIV risk is low as one ages. In addition, internalized ageism may play a role in poorer physical and mental health outcomes, as the negative stereotypes associated with aging become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A number of steps can be taken to address HIV and aging in the context of ageism with regard to: prevention, education, and outreach; treatment guidelines for older adults with HIV; funding to address the aging of the epidemic; engagement of communities, health and social service organizations, and other providers around mental health and social support, and addressing the needs of special populations. Caring for an aging population with HIV represents a challenge, which is exacerbated in low and/or middle-income countries that typically lack the infrastructure of high resource settings. How we address the aging-related issues of the HIV epidemic across regions and settings could serve as a model in dealing with aging in our society in general regardless of HIV status.
Stecher, Chalotte Willemann; Kallestrup, Per; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke
and acquisition, and treatment could be a neglected chance of HIV prevention. This review summarizes current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of MGS as a hypothesized risk factor for HIV transmission. Future research areas of global interest are suggested. METHODS: Pub......Med published literature was reviewed based on the MOOSE guidelines. All publications on MGS were included regardless of publication year and study design. Furthermore, all publications were searched for information on possible HIV association. RESULTS: The 40 identified publications related to MGS were...... dominated by case reports and observational studies. No randomized clinical trials have been conducted to date, and very scant information related to possible associations with HIV transmission was presented. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical, randomized studies and epidemiological studies covering the possible...
Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Gandelman, Alice A; Narayanan, Vasudha; McKay, Virginia R
The economic downturn of 2007 created significant fiscal losses for public and private agencies conducting behavioral prevention. Such macro-economic changes may influence program implementation and sustainability. We examined how public and private agencies conducting RESPECT, a brief HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) counseling and testing intervention, adapted to fiscal loss and how these adaptations impacted program fidelity. We collected qualitative and quantitative data in a national sample of 15 agencies experiencing fiscal loss. Using qualitative analyses, we examined how program fidelity varied with different types of adaptations. Agencies reported three levels of adaptation: agency-level, program-level, and direct fiscal remedies. Private agencies tended to use direct fiscal remedies, which were associated with higher fidelity. Some agency-level adaptations contributed to reductions in procedural fit, leading to negative staff morale and decreased confidence in program effectiveness, which in turn, contributed to poor fidelity. Findings describe a "work stress pathway" that links program fiscal losses to poor staff morale and low program fidelity.
Behel, Stephanie K; MacKellar, Duncan A; Valleroy, Linda A; Secura, Gina M; Bingham, Trista; Celentano, David D; Koblin, Beryl A; Lalota, Marlene; Shehan, Douglas; Torian, Lucia V
We investigated whether there were racial/ethnic differences among young men who have sex with men (MSM) in their use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services received at health care providers (HCP) and HIV test providers (HTP) that explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Young men, aged 23 to 29 years, were interviewed and tested for HIV at randomly sampled MSM-identified venues in six U.S. cities from 1998 through 2000. Analyses were restricted to five U.S. cities that enrolled 50 or more black or Hispanic MSM. Among the 2,424 MSM enrolled, 1,522 (63%) reported using a HCP, and 1,268 (52%) reported having had an HIV test in the year prior to our interview. No racial/ethnic differences were found in using a HCP or testing for HIV. Compared with white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM were more likely to believe that HIV prevention services are important [respectively, AOR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0, 1.97 to 4.51 and AOR, 95% CI: 2.7, 1.89 to 3.79], and were more likely to receive prevention services at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 2.5, 1.72 to 3.71 and AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.18 to 2.41) and as likely to receive counseling services at their HTP. Blacks were more likely to be satisfied with the prevention services received at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.14 to 2.65). Compared to white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM had equal or greater use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services. Differential experience with HIV prevention services does not explain the higher HIV prevalence among black and Hispanic MSM.
Swamy, Manjunath N; Wu, Haoquan; Shankar, Premlata
RNA interference (RNAi) provides a powerful tool to silence specific gene expression and has been widely used to suppress host factors such as CCR5 and/or viral genes involved in HIV-1 replication. Newer nuclease-based gene-editing technologies, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, also provide powerful tools to ablate specific genes. Because of differences in co-receptor usage and the high mutability of the HIV-1 genome, a combination of host factors and viral genes needs to be suppressed for effective prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. Whereas the continued presence of small interfering/short hairpin RNA (si/shRNA) mediators is needed for RNAi to be effective, the continued expression of nucleases in the gene-editing systems is undesirable. Thus, RNAi provides the only practical way for expression of multiple silencers in infected and uninfected cells, which is needed for effective prevention/treatment of infection. There have been several advances in the RNAi field in terms of si/shRNA design, targeted delivery to HIV-1 susceptible cells, and testing for efficacy in preclinical humanized mouse models. Here, we comprehensively review the latest advances in RNAi technology towards prevention and treatment of HIV-1.
Green, Adam Isaiah
Abstract In this article, I draw from an ongoing ethnographic study of HIV prevention for gay, bisexual, and 'men who have sex with men' to develop an institutional analysis of HIV behavioral intervention science and praxis. I approach this analysis through the lens of the social worlds framework, focusing on the institutional arena in which HIV behavioral interventions are devised and executed. Toward this end, I focus on two fundamental points of contention that lie at the heart of the prevention enterprise and put its social organization in high relief: (1) conceptions of health and lifestyle practices and (2) attributions of expertise. These core contentions reveal less the steady advance of normal science than an arena of actors ensconced in boundary work and jurisdictional struggles over how to engineer behavior change and reduce the scale of the HIV epidemic. Their resolution, I argue, has occurred in a historically contingent process determined by the political economy of the US HIV prevention arena and the differential structural location of its social worlds.
Full Text Available Couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT significantly decreases HIV transmission within couples, the largest risk group in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is not currently offered in most HIV testing facilities. To roll out such an intervention, understanding locale-specific knowledge barriers is critical. In this study, we measured knowledge of HIV serodiscordance, transmission, and prevention before and after receipt of CVCT services in Durban.Pre- and post-CVCT knowledge surveys were administered to a selection of individuals seeking CVCT services.Changes in knowledge scores were assessed with McNemar Chi-square tests for balanced data and generalized estimating equation methods for unbalanced data.The survey included 317 heterosexual black couples (634 individuals who were primarily Zulu (87%, unemployed (47%, and had at least a secondary level education (78%. 28% of couples proved to be discordant. Only 30% of individuals thought serodiscordance between couples was possible pre-CVCT compared to 95% post-CVCT. One-third thought there was at least one benefit of CVCT pre-CVCT, increasing to 96% post-CVCT. Overall, there were positive changes in knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention. However, many respondents thought all HIV positive mothers give birth to babies with AIDS (64% pre-CVCT, 59% post-CVCT and that male circumcision does not protect negative men against HIV (70% pre-CVCT, 67% post-CVCT.CVCT was well received and was followed by improvements in understanding of discordance, the benefits of joint testing, and HIV transmission. Country-level health messaging would benefit from targeting gaps in knowledge about serodiscordance, vertical transmission, and male circumcision.
Full Text Available Adolescent girls and young women who are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI, including HIV, are frequently counseled to use a hormonal contraceptive to protect against the former and condoms to protect against the latter, for exampe, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011. The present paper reviews the literature on multiple risk messages, compliance with this dual-use recommendation, predictors of dual use, and interventions developed to encourage dual use. Data indicate that simultaneous use of these two methods is not common, and that efforts to encourage dual use have not yielded promising results. An alternative is to recommend condom use alone, since condoms protect very well against STI and HIV, and quite well against pregnancy when used consistently and correctly. The availability of emergency contraception is relevant here. Research utilizing a randomized controlled trial is recommended.
Coppola, Vincent; Camus, Odile
This piece begins with a brief literature review that focuses upon how media attempt to make sense of news events and construct meaning about HIV/AIDS. We then focus specifically on a linguistic process identified in French dailies in articles about the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS, namely, the presence of certain adverbs. The impact of this linguistic process is also investigated in an experimental study. The results indicated that participants who were exposed to a message within which epidemiological data were marked by such adverbs compared to those who processed a message without such an adverbial marking expressed a higher level of perceived risk and declared a stronger intention to use a condom and to practice a screening test. They also judged the epidemiological situation as more serious and were more supportive of a coercive management of the epidemic. These effects also appeared when the message referred to a sexually transmitted infection with which the subjects were not familiar.
Lu, Tiffany; Zwicker, Lindsey; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Dworkin, Shari L
Despite the recognized need for structural HIV prevention interventions, few scientific programs have integrated women's property and inheritance rights with HIV prevention and treatment. The current study focused on a community-led land and property rights intervention that was implemented in two rural areas of Western Kenya with high HIV prevalence rates (24-30%). The program was designed to respond to women's property rights violations in order to reduce HIV risk at the local level. Through in-depth interviews with twenty program leaders, we identified several facilitators to program implementation, including the leadership of home-based HIV caregivers and involvement of traditional leaders in mediating property rights disputes. We also identified the voluntary basis of the intervention and its lack of integration with the formal justice system as implementation barriers. Our findings can guide future research and design of structural HIV prevention strategies that integrate women's economic empowerment through property and inheritance rights.
an attempt to increase tax revenues, reform customs, and improve the business environment. The GDP per capita is $2,300. HIV/AIDS Statistics The...Guyana 182 Honduras 184 Jamaica 187 Nicaragua 190 Peru 193 Saint Kitts and Nevis 195 Suriname 198 Trinidad and Tobago 201 Appendix A...economic reforms . Almost half of Burundi’s national income comes from foreign aid. After joining the East African Community, Burundi received $700
Earl, Allison; Crause, Candi; Vaid, Awais; Albarracín, Dolores
Compared to European-Americans, African-Americans have greater probability of becoming infected with HIV, as well as worse outcomes when they become infected. Therefore, adequate health communications should ensure that they capture the attention of African-Americans and do not perpetuate disadvantages relative to European-Americans. The objective of this report was to examine if racial disparities in attention to health information parallel racial disparities in health outcomes. Participants were clients of a public health clinic (Study 1 n = 64; Study 2 n = 55). Unobtrusive observation in a public health waiting room, message reading times, and response-time on a modified flanker task were used to examine attention to HIV- and flu-information across racial groups. In Study 1, participants were observed for the duration of their time in a public health clinic waiting room (average duration: 31 min). In Study 2, participants completed tasks in a private room at the public health clinic (average duration: 21 min). Across all attention measures, results suggest an interaction between race and information type on attention to health information. In particular, African-Americans differentially attended to information as a function of information type, with decreased attention to HIV- versus flu-information. In contrast, European-Americans attended equally to both HIV- and flu-information. As such, disparities in attention yielded less access to certain health information for African- than European-Americans in a health setting. The identified disparities in attention are particularly problematic because they disadvantage African-Americans at a time of great effort to correct racial disparities. Modifying the framing of health information in ways that ensure attention by all racial groups may be a strategy to increase attention, and thereby reduce disparities in health outcomes. Future research should find solutions that increase attentional access to health
discuss palliative care , Clinic, laboratory, infrastructure, and supply needs will continue to be discussed and addressed. Pharmacist and physicians...related palliative care and 906 military health providers were trained in the provision of that care . Three hundred five uniformed health pro- viders...troops or family members had been provided with HIV-related palliative care , including care for TB. One indigenous organization was provided with
Sánchez-Rodríguez, Javier; Vacas-Córdoba, Enrique; Gómez, Rafael; De La Mata, F Javier; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles
More than three decades since its discovery, HIV infection remains one of the most aggressive epidemics worldwide, with more than 35 million people infected. In sub-Saharan Africa, heterosexual transmissions represent nearly 80% of new infections, with 50% of these occurring in women. In an effort to stop the dramatic spread of the HIV epidemic, new preventive treatments, such as microbicides, have been developed. Nanotechnology has revolutionized this field by designing and engineering novel highly effective nano-sized materials as microbicide candidates. This review illustrates the most recent advances in nanotech-derived HIV prevention strategies, as well as the main steps required to translate promising in vitro results into clinical trials.
Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the progressive loss of bone tissue, is one of the most common complications of aging. Epidemiology. According to some calculations, there were 25% of women and 4% of men older than 50 years with osteoporosis in the world in 2010. It is assumed that the number of patients with osteoporosis will increase by 30% in every 10 years in the 21st century. There are many reasons for that: the world’s population is growing older, diet is getting poorer in vitamins and minerals and physical activity is decreasing. The Quality and Quantity of Bone Tissue. Developing bones are much more responsive to mechanical loading and physical activity than mature bones. This suggests that training in early childhood may be an important factor in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. It is important to note that the quality of bone achieved by training at younger age cannot be maintained permanently if it is not supported by physical activity later in life. Adapted physical activity represents physical activity individually tailored according to the psychosomatic capabilities of a person and the goal to be achieved. It can be applied at any age in order to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fracture. Adapted physical activity is different for men and women, for different age, as well as for the individuals. Aerobic exercises, which lead to an acceleration of breathing, increased heart rate and mild perspiration, as well as resistance exercises and exercises against resistance done by stretching elastic bands, for hands, legs and torso have been proven to increase bone density and improve bone strength. Coordination and balance exercises are important in an individual workout program. An explanation of the action of adapted physical activity is the basis for the theory of control and modulation of bone loss, muscle strength, coordination and balance. Physical activity is very effective in
Panditrao, Mayuri Vijaykumar
Women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can transmit their infection to their baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding --a process known as mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 3.4 million children under the age of 15 were living with HIV at the end of 2011. In 2011 alone, 330,000 children had newly acquired HIV from their mothers. `Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV' (PMTCT) refers to a ...
Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.
Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…
This thesis explores the potential contribution of mathematical modelling to informed decision-making on policy and programme planning for novel HIV prevention tools. Its hypothesis is that, under certain conditions, modelling results can be a useful addition to the evidence and other factors that i
Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.
This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…
Al-Iryani, Buthaina; Basaleem, Huda; Al-Sakkaf, Khaled; Kok, Gerjo; van den Borne, Bart
In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer educa
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007
The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of HIV prevention, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; and (2) Health Services and Mental…
Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.
This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…
Coyle, Karin K.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill; Walker, James D.; Charles, Vignetta Eugenia
Romantic relationships are central in the lives of young people. This paper uses data on romantic relationships from urban youth in the USA to illustrate how using a relationships perspective in HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention programmes broadens the skills and content covered, and contextualises the learning to enhance relevance and use.…
Rhodes, Darson L.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Hammig, Bart J.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fogarty, Erin C.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if education about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention is dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Design: A secondary data analysis of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programmes Study (SHPPS) was conducted.…
R.K. Gupta (Ravindra); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); S. Manicklal (Sheetal); M.A. Wainberg (Mark)
textabstractThe HIV epidemic continues unabated, with no highly effective vaccine and no cure. Each new infection has significant economic, social and human costs and prevention efforts are now as great a priority as global antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale up. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the
Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M.
Mothers play an important role in promoting the sexual health of their adolescent children. Fifty-seven HIV-positive mothers with adolescent children participated in an in-depth, qualitative interview regarding whether they have talked to their children about safer sex and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, including at what age they…
Glassman, Jill R.; Franks, Heather M.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.
Most interventions designed to prevent HIV/STI/pregnancy risk behaviours in young people have multiple components based on psychosocial theories (e.g. social cognitive theory) dictating sets of mediating variables to influence to achieve desired changes in behaviours. Mediation analysis is a method for investigating the extent to which a variable…
Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola
Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population.
McCreary, Linda L.; Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Kafulafula, Ursula K.; Ngalande, Rebecca C.; Kumbani, Lily C.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Norr, James L.; Norr, Kathleen F.
This paper reports the process evaluation of a peer group intervention for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention which had positive outcomes for three target groups in Malawi: rural adults, adolescents and urban hospital workers. The six-session intervention was delivered to small groups of 10-12 participants by 85 trained volunteer peer…
Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna
The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…
Full Text Available Waria or transgender is one of the key population which has a significant role in the success of HIV/AIDS prevention program in East Java. It is estimated that the biggest waria community is in East Java, particularly in Surabaya. The main objective of this research is improving capacity building of ludruk artist waria through HIV/AIDS prevention program. The study has two objectives; firstly to find the effective strategies in improving waria’s feminine skills such as knitting, hair dressing. Secondly to find the effective programs both on-stage and off-stage to improve the quality of ludruk performance such as revitalizing their marketing management, using social media to promote their schedule to the young generation. Some inportant points can be conluded from this study. Firstly, integrated coordinating system between ludruk artist waria and waria communities such as Perwakos and Iwama should be improved. HIV/AIDS prevention programs become uneffective without coordination. In this point, ludruk artist waria need to know that HIV/AIDS prevention programs such as VCT, HIV testing is free of charge. Secondly, in terms of management internal system, ludruk needs to revitalize the content of the story in their performance to be more compatible with the younger audience. To do so, the cooperation is needed among all the stakeholeders to make ludruk survive in the capitalist industrial show business in Indonesia.Salah satu populasi kunci yang memberi kontribusi tingginya prevalensi HIV dan AIDS di JATIM adalah komunitas waria karena di propinsi ini estimasi jumlah waria terbesar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini akan membahas bagaimana waria seniman ludruk dilibatkan dalam pencegahan HIV/AIDS. Program yang telah dilakukan adalah revitalisasi baik on-stage (diatas panggung dan off-stage (di luar panggung. On-stage memfokuskan pada upaya revitalisasi pertunjukan ludruk dengan sistem dan manajemen pertunjukan yang lebih modern, menarik penonton generasi
Fisher, W A
2 outcomes of the high level of unprotected sexual activity among US adolescents--teenage pregnancy and infection with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--are produced by similar behavioral factors. Among these are an unwillingness to acknowledge in advance sexual activity, a failure to seek out necessary preventive knowledge, an unwillingness to engage in preventive behaviors such as use of condoms or other contraceptives, and a lack of communication about sexuality in adolescent relationships. Despite this overlap, health educators and service providers have failed to develop an integrated approach for dealing with adolescent pregnancy and STD/HIV risk. Proposed is a sequence of preventive behaviors and skills to be taught to teenagers, including acceptance of their sexuality, education regarding sex-related preventive options, an active commitment to engage in preventive behaviors, the negotiation of sex-related prevention with one's partner, performance of public preventive acts such as condom purchase, consistent practice and reinforcement of preventive behaviors, and the ability to shift preventive "scripts." At the same time, programs must address the potential psychological obstacles to the performance of sex-related preventive behaviors--e.g., negative feeling about sexuality, misinformation coupled with cognitive immaturity, and mass media images and fantasies. Program interventions can be delivered most efficiently through the public school system, with linkages to birth control clinics, STD clinics, HIV testing centers, and drug treatment programs. The type of sexuality education proposed--provision of relevant information that teenagers can actively translate into preventive behaviors--should be anticipated to produce more resistance from conservative community forces than traditional educational efforts.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New York City (NYC remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. METHODS: A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. RESULTS: Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted. An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average. The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs.
D. C. Des Jarlais
Full Text Available After 30 years of extensive research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID, we now have a good understanding of the critical issues involved. Following the discovery of HIV in 1981, epidemics among PWID were noted in many countries, and consensus recommendations for interventions for reducing injection related HIV transmission have been developed. While high-income countries have continued to develop and implement new Harm Reduction programs, most low-/middle-income countries have implemented Harm Reduction at very low levels. Modeling of combined prevention programming including needle exchange (NSP and antiretroviral therapy (ARV suggests that NSP be given the highest priority. Future HIV prevention programming should continue to provide Harm Reduction programs for PWID coupled with interventions aimed at reducing sexual transmission. As HIV continues to spread in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to achieve and maintain high coverage of Harm Reduction programs in these locations. As PWID almost always experience multiple health problems, it will be important to address these multiple problems within a comprehensive approach grounded in a human rights perspective.
In recent years, HIV/AIDS programming has been transformed by an ostensibly 'new' procedure: male circumcision. This article examines the rise of male circumcision as the 'right' HIV prevention tool. Treating this controversial topic as a 'matter of concern' rather than a 'matter of fact', I examine the reasons why male circumcision came to be seen as a partial solution to the problem of HIV transmission in the twenty-first century and to what effect. Grounded in a close reading of the primary literature, I suggest that the embrace of male circumcision in HIV prevention must be understood in relation to three factors: (1) the rise of evidence-based medicine as the dominant paradigm for conceptualising medical knowledge, (2) the fraught politics of HIV/AIDS research and funding, which made the possibility of a biomedical intervention attractive and (3) underlying assumptions about the nature of African 'culture' and 'sexuality'. I conclude by stressing the need to expand the parameters of the debate beyond the current polarised landscape, which presents us with a problematic either/or scenario regarding the efficacy of male circumcision.
Aggleton, Peter; Bell, Stephen A; Kelly-Hanku, Angela
Mobile Men with Money is one of the latest risk categories to enter into HIV prevention discourse. Used in countries in Asia, the Pacific and Africa, it refers to diverse groups of men (e.g. businessmen, miners and itinerant wage labourers) who, in contexts of high population movement and economic disparity, find themselves at heightened risk of HIV as members of a 'most-at-risk population', or render others vulnerable to infection. How adequate is such a description? Does it make sense to develop HIV prevention programmes from such understandings? The history of the epidemic points to major weaknesses in the use of terminologies such as 'sex worker' and 'men who have sex with men' when characterising often diverse populations. Each of these terms carries negative connotations, portraying the individuals concerned as being apart from the 'general population', and posing a threat to it. This paper examines the diversity of men classified as mobile men with money, pointing to significant variations in mobility, wealth and sexual networking conducive to HIV transmission. It highlights the patriarchal, heteronormative and gendered assumptions frequently underpinning use of the category and suggests more useful ways of understanding men, masculinity, population movement, relative wealth in relation to HIV vulnerability and risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers form part of the HIV control efforts, but systematic data on the outputs and cost of providing such services in India are not readily available for further planning and use of resources. Methods Detailed cost and output data were collected from written records and interviews for 2005–2006 fiscal year using standardized methods at six sampled HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The total economic cost for these programmes was computed and the relation of unit cost of services per truck driver with programme scale was assessed using regression analysis. Results A total of 120,436 truck drivers were provided services by the six programmes of which 55.9% were long distance truck drivers. The annual economic cost of providing services to a truck driver varied between programmes from US$ 1.52 to 4.56 (mean US$ 2.49. There was an inverse relation between unit economic cost of serving a truck driver and scale of the programme (R2 = 0.63; p = 0.061. The variation between programmes in the average number of contacts made by the programme staff with truck drivers was 1.3 times versus 5.8 times for contacts by peer educators. Only 1.7% of the truck drivers were referred by the programmes for counseling and HIV testing. Conclusion These data provide information for further planning of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers and estimating the resources needed for such programmes. The findings suggest the need to strengthen the role of peer educators and increase referral of truck drivers for HIV testing.
Jennifer A Slyker
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence and correlates of breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection were determined in intensively sampled women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. METHODS: Women initiated HAART at 34 weeks of pregnancy. Breast milk was collected every 2-5 days during 1 month postpartum for measurements of cell-associated HIV DNA and cell-free HIV RNA. Plasma and breast milk were also collected at 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months for concurrent HIV-1 RNA and DNA measurements. Regression was used to identify cofactors for breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection. RESULTS: Of 259 breast milk specimens from 25 women receiving HAART, 34 had detectable HIV-1 RNA (13%, incidence 1.4 episodes/100 person-days 95% CI = 0.97-1.9. Fourteen of 25 (56% women had detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA [mean 2.5 log(10 copies/ml (range 2.0-3.9] at least once. HIV-1 DNA was consistently detected in breast milk cells despite HAART, and increased slowly over time, at a rate of approximately 1 copy/10(6 cells per day (p = 0.02. Baseline CD4, plasma viral load, HAART duration, and frequency of breast problems were similar in women with and without detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA. Women with detectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA were more likely to be primiparous than women without (36% vs 0%, p = 0.05. Plasma HIV-1 RNA detection (OR = 9.0, 95%CI = 1.8-44 and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (OR = 12, 95% CI = 2.5-56 were strongly associated with concurrent detection of breast milk HIV-1 RNA. However, no association was found between breast milk HIV-1 DNA level and concurrent breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.54-1.7. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of women on HAART had episodic detection of breast milk HIV-1 RNA. Breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection was associated with systemic viral burden rather than breast milk HIV-1 DNA.
Urvi M Parikh
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major concern with using antiretroviral (ARV-based products for HIV prevention is the potential spread of drug resistance, particularly from individuals who are HIV-infected but unaware of their status. Limited data exist on the prevalence of HIV infection or drug resistance among potential users of ARV-based prevention products. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of reproductive-aged women who presented to screen for an HIV prevention trial was conducted at 7 clinical sites in Durban, South Africa. CD4+T cell counts, HIV-1 RNA levels and population sequencing of the protease and reverse transcriptase genes were performed for all women with 2 positive HIV rapid tests. Resistance mutations were identified using the Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance Tool. RESULTS: Of the 1073 evaluable women, 400(37% were confirmed as HIV-infected. Of those, plasma HIV-1 RNA was detectable in 365/400(91% and undetectable(200 copies/ml analyzed for drug resistance, 26(7.4% had nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI or protease inhibitor (PI drug resistance mutations. Among those with resistance, 18/26 participants(62% had single-class NNRTI resistance and 5/26(19% had dual-class NRTI/NNRTI. Major mutations in reverse transcriptase included K65R(n = 1, L74I(n = 1, K103N(n = 19, V106M(n = 4, Y181C(n = 2, M184V(n = 4, and K219E/R(n = 2. Major PI-resistance mutations were rare: M46L(n = 1 and I85V(n = 1. All participants were infected with subtype C virus, except one infected with subtype A. CONCLUSIONS: In women from Durban, South Africa screening for an HIV prevention trial, the HIV prevalence was high (37% and HIV drug resistance prevalence was above 5%. This study highlights the potential challenges faced when implementing an ARV-based prevention product that overlaps with first-line antiretroviral therapy. Effective screening to exclude HIV
Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Ng, Nora Y; Luekens, Craig; Cottler, Linda
Injection drug use is a leading transmission route of HIV and STDs, and disease prevention among drug users is an important public health concern. This study assesses cost-effectiveness of behavioral interventions for reducing HIV and STDs infections among injection drug-using women. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from societal and provider perspectives for randomized trial data and Bernoullian model estimates of infections averted for three increasingly intensive interventions: (1) NIDA's standard intervention (SI); (2) SI plus a well woman exam (WWE); and (3) SI, WWE, plus four educational sessions (4ES). Trial results indicate that 4ES was cost-effective relative to WWE, which was dominated by SI, for most diseases. Model estimates, however, suggest that WWE was cost-effective relative to SI and dominated 4ES for all diseases. Trial and model results agree that WWE is cost-effective relative to SI per hepatitis C infection averted ($109 308 for in trial, $6 016 in model) and per gonorrhea infection averted ($9 461 in trial, $14 044 in model). In sensitivity analysis, trial results are sensitive to 5 % change in WWE effectiveness relative to SI for hepatitis C and HIV. In the model, WWE remained cost-effective or cost-saving relative to SI for HIV prevention across a range of assumptions. WWE is cost-effective relative to SI for preventing hepatitis C and gonorrhea. WWE may have similar effects as the costlier 4ES.
Ratmann, Oliver; van Sighem, Ard; Bezemer, Daniela; Gavryushkina, Alexandra; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Wensing, Annemarie; de Wolf, Frank; Reiss, Peter; Fraser, Christophe
New HIV diagnoses among men having sex with men (MSM) have not decreased appreciably in most countries, even though care and prevention services have been scaled up substantially in the past 20 years. To maximize the impact of prevention strategies, it is crucial to quantify the sources of transmission at the population level. We used viral sequence and clinical patient data from one of Europe's nationwide cohort studies to estimate probable sources of transmission for 617 recently infected MSM. Seventy-one percent of transmissions were from undiagnosed men, 6% from men who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), 1% from men with no contact to care for at least 18 months, and 43% from those in their first year of infection. The lack of substantial reductions in incidence among Dutch MSM is not a result of ineffective ART provision or inadequate retention in care. In counterfactual modeling scenarios, 19% of these past cases could have been averted with current annual testing coverage and immediate ART to those testing positive. Sixty-six percent of these cases could have been averted with available antiretrovirals (immediate ART provided to all MSM testing positive, and preexposure antiretroviral prophylaxis taken by half of all who test negative for HIV), but only if half of all men at risk of transmission had tested annually. With increasing sequence coverage, molecular epidemiological analyses can be a key tool to direct HIV prevention strategies to the predominant sources of infection, and help send HIV epidemics among MSM into a decisive decline.
Full Text Available Objective: HIV infection is a sensitive issue in black communities [Serrant-Green L. Black Caribbean men, sexual health decisions and silences. Doctoral thesis. Nottingham School of Nursing, University of Nottingham; 2004]. Statistics show black sub-Saharan African (BSSA communities disproportionately constitute two-thirds of people with HIV [Heath Protection Agency. Health protection report: latest infection reports-GOV.UK; 2013]. African communities constitute 30% of people accessing HIV treatment in the United Kingdom yet represent less than 1% of the population [Health Protection Agency. HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 report; 2012], [Department of Health. DVD about FGM. 2012. Available from firstname.lastname@example.org.]. This article explores the sociocultural challenges in engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs in England and possible strategies to improve their involvement. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions and 24 semistructured interviews were conducted in a 2-year period with participants from the BSSA communities and sexual health services in the West Midlands, England. The research was supported by the Ubuntu scheme, a sexual health initiative working with African communities in Birmingham, England. Results: Ineffective engagement with African communities can hinder the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs. Skills and strategies sensitive to BSSA culture are important for successful implementation of prevention programs. HIV prevention programs face challenges including stigma, denial, and marginalized views within BSSA communities. Conclusion: Networking, coordination, and cultural sensitivity training for health professionals are key strategies for engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs.
van Opijnen, Tim; de Ronde, Anthony; Boerlijst, Maarten C.; Berkhout, Ben
Many viruses have the ability to rapidly develop resistance against antiviral drugs and escape from the host immune system. To which extent the host environment affects this adaptive potential of viruses is largely unknown. Here we show that for HIV-1, the host-cell environment is key to the adaptive potential of the virus. We performed a large-scale selection experiment with two HIV-1 strains in two different T-cell lines (MT4 and C8166). Over 110 days of culture, both virus strains adapted rapidly to the MT4 T-cell line. In contrast, when cultured on the C8166 T-cell line, the same strains did not show any increase in fitness. By sequence analyses and infections with viruses expressing either yellow or cyan fluorescent protein, we were able to show that the absence of adaptation was linked to a lower recombination rate in the C8166 T-cell line. Our findings suggest that if we can manipulate the host-cellular factors that mediate viral evolution, we may be able to significantly retard viral adaptability. PMID:17342205
Full Text Available Abstract Background We determine efficient, equitable and mixed efficient-equitable allocations of a male circumcision (MC intervention reducing female to male HIV transmission in South Africa (SA, as a case study of an efficiency-equity framework for resource allocation in HIV prevention. Methods We present a mathematical model developed with epidemiological and cost data from the nine provinces of SA. The hypothetical one-year-long MC intervention with a budget of US$ 10 million targeted adult men 15–49 years of age in SA. The intervention was evaluated according to two criteria: an efficiency criterion, which focused on maximizing the number of HIV infections averted by the intervention, and an equity criterion (defined geographically, which focused on maximizing the chance that each male adult individual had access to the intervention regardless of his province. Results A purely efficient intervention would prevent 4,008 HIV infections over a year. In the meantime, a purely equitable intervention would avert 3,198 infections, which represents a 20% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. A half efficient-half equitable scenario would prevent 3,749 infections, that is, a 6% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. Conclusions This paper provides a framework for resource allocation in the health sector which incorporates a simple equity metric in addition to efficiency. In the specific context of SA with a MC intervention for the prevention of HIV, incorporation of geographical equity only slightly reduces the overall efficiency of the intervention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Global resource needs estimation is a critical part of addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. To generate these estimates knowledge of costs and cost structures is required. The evidence base for costs of HIV prevention programmes is limited. Even less is known about the existence of economies scale and whether, as economic theory suggests, average costs form a 'u'-shaped curve as scale increases. Using an econometric analysis, this paper addresses this question by estimating marginal costs and economies of scale for HIV prevention programmes for vulnerable groups in Southern India with different levels of coverage. Methods Two hybrid translog-cost functions were estimated. First, expenditure data from 78 state-funded HIV prevention projects in Andhra Pradesh were used to explore the impact of scale, institutional history and price on costs; second, economic cost data from 16 commercial sex worker projects across Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh were analysed to additionally assess the impact of the value of inputs not reported in expenditure data and location. Coefficient estimates were used to calculate marginal costs and economies of scale. Results The econometric model yielded a good fit (R2 = 0.46, p 2 = 0.79, p Conclusion Econometric analysis of these standardized datasets provides insights into how costs change with coverage, the impact of project location and nature of the project target group. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding the nature of the cost function when designing, budgeting and estimating resource requirements for scaling up coverage of HIV prevention projects.
Brown, Joelle; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Breitnauer, Brooke; Leddy, Anna; Darbes, Lynae; Omondi, Richard; Mmeje, Okeoma
Safer conception strategies can prevent HIV transmission between HIV-discordant partners while allowing them to conceive. However, HIV care providers in sub-Saharan Africa report they are not trained in safer conception, and patients are not routinely offered safer conception services. This mixed-methods pilot study evaluated the impact, acceptability, and feasibility of a novel Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit among providers and patients in Kenya. We enrolled 20 HIV-positive women, 10 HIV-discordant couples, and 10 providers from HIV care and treatment clinics. Providers completed questionnaires before/after training, and then counseled HIV-affected patients. Change in patient knowledge was assessed before/after counseling. Qualitative interviews were conducted among providers and patients. The Toolkit was associated with large, significant increases in patient knowledge, and provider confidence, knowledge, and favorable attitudes toward safer conception counseling; 20% felt confident before versus 100% after training (p < 0.01). PMID:27925487
Schinke, Steven P; Orlandi, Mario A
The spread of the acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is increasingly evident. Despite the attention that HIV infection has received, few effective prevention strategies have been developed. The present paper reviews the epidemiology of AIDS among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. From epidemiological data, the authors argue for preventive approaches to reduce the risks of HIV transmission among African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Emphasizing culturally sensitive prevention strategies, the authors describe an intervention for these adolescents that combines skills-based and interactive computer approaches.
Young, Sean D; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas
This study explores the feasibility of recruiting minority men who have sex with men Facebook users for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies and notes demographic and sexual risk behaviours. Facebook-registered men who have sex with men (MSM; N = 118) were recruited using online and offline methods. Participants validated Facebook-user status through using a Facebook Connect (computer science) application. Participants were primarily Latino (60.2%) and African-American (28.0%), with 33.1% using social media to find sex partners. Black MSM social networking users reported engaging in a lower frequency (coefficient = -0.48, p < 0.05) of unprotected receptive anal intercourse compared to Latino MSM. Results suggest that minority social media users can be recruited for HIV studies and that sexual risk behavioural differences exist among minority social networking users. Findings highlight the importance of incorporating technologies into population-focused HIV interventions.
Soscia, Isabella; Turrini, Alex; Tanzi, Emilio
This article investigates the effects of different emotional appeals in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns using printed advertisements. More specifically, it examines the effectiveness of humor appeal compared with shock and fear appeals. The authors experimentally test the level of attention drawn and the spontaneous recall arising when young Italian adults are shown different HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Findings show that humor appeals are less effective than fear and shock appeals, evidencing the failures in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in Italy, a country where the former communication strategy has been used in substantive ways. The results also indicate the higher effectiveness of fear appeals (over shock and humor) in printed HIV/AIDS advertising campaigns. The implications of these results for further studies and for improving the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are also discussed.
McCoy, Sandra I; Kangwende, Rugare A; Padian, Nancy S
We conducted a systematic review of behavioral change interventions to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV among women and girls living in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and other databases and bibliographies were systematically searched for trials using randomized or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate behavioral interventions with HIV infection as an outcome. We identified 11 analyses for inclusion reporting on eight unique interventions. Interventions varied widely in intensity, duration, and delivery as well as by target population. Only two analyses showed a significant protective effect on HIV incidence among women and only three of ten analyses that measured behavioral outcomes reduced any measure of HIV-related risk behavior. Ongoing research is needed to determine whether behavior change interventions can be incorporated as independent efficacious components in HIV prevention packages for women or simply as complements to biomedical prevention strategies.
Jacqueline K. Flynn
Full Text Available CD4+ T cells are principal targets for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. CD4+ T cell subsets are heterogeneous cell populations, divided by functional and phenotypic differences into naïve and memory T cells. The memory CD4+ T cells are further segregated into central, effector and transitional memory cell subsets by functional, phenotypic and homeostatic characteristics. Defining the distribution of HIV-1 infection in different T cell subsets is important, as this can play a role in determining the size and composition of the viral reservoir. Both central memory and transitional memory CD4+ T cells have been described as long-lived viral reservoirs for HIV. Recently, the newly described stem memory T cell subset has also been implicated as a long-lived HIV reservoir. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter strains of HIV-1 and multi parameter flow cytometry, we developed an assay to simultaneously quantify the susceptibility of stem memory (TSCM, central memory, effector memory, transitional memory and naïve CD4+ T cell subsets, to HIV-1 infection in vitro. We show that TSCM are susceptible to infection with laboratory adapted and clinical HIV-1 strains. Our system facilitates the quantitation of HIV-1 infection in alternative T cell subsets by CCR5- and CXCR4-using viruses across different HIV-1 subtypes, and will be useful for studies of HIV-1 pathogenesis and viral reservoirs.
Flynn, Jacqueline K; Paukovics, Geza; Cashin, Kieran; Borm, Katharina; Ellett, Anne; Roche, Michael; Jakobsen, Martin R; Churchill, Melissa J; Gorry, Paul R
CD4+ T cells are principal targets for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. CD4+ T cell subsets are heterogeneous cell populations, divided by functional and phenotypic differences into naïve and memory T cells. The memory CD4+ T cells are further segregated into central, effector and transitional memory cell subsets by functional, phenotypic and homeostatic characteristics. Defining the distribution of HIV-1 infection in different T cell subsets is important, as this can play a role in determining the size and composition of the viral reservoir. Both central memory and transitional memory CD4+ T cells have been described as long-lived viral reservoirs for HIV. Recently, the newly described stem memory T cell subset has also been implicated as a long-lived HIV reservoir. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter strains of HIV-1 and multi parameter flow cytometry, we developed an assay to simultaneously quantify the susceptibility of stem memory (TSCM), central memory, effector memory, transitional memory and naïve CD4+ T cell subsets, to HIV-1 infection in vitro. We show that TSCM are susceptible to infection with laboratory adapted and clinical HIV-1 strains. Our system facilitates the quantitation of HIV-1 infection in alternative T cell subsets by CCR5- and CXCR4-using viruses across different HIV-1 subtypes, and will be useful for studies of HIV-1 pathogenesis and viral reservoirs.
Bowen, A M; Williams, M L; Daniel, C M; Clayton, S
Internet delivered primary prevention interventions for HIV risk reduction present significant challenges. Changing lifestyle behaviors, such as beginning to use condoms, is difficult and men seeking dates on line may want to avoid thinking about HIV risk which may lead to low initiation and high dropout rates. Many Internet delivered HIV risk reduction programs have mimicked face-to-face outreach programs, failing to take advantage of the Internet's capabilities or did not conduct evaluation. This study focuses on examining the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an Internet delivered HIV risk reduction program for rural men who have sex with men (MSM). The program included online recruiting, three intervention modules, each with two sessions, online questionnaires. The intervention was developed based on iterative research and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model. Participants (N = 475) were randomly assigned to one of six module orders and data were collected automatically at pre-test and after each module. Data supports the feasibility and acceptability of the program as demonstrated by good retention and rapid program completion. Knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies and motivation increase in a dose response fashion. Post-intervention behavior changes included reduced anal sex and significant increases in condom use. Limitations include a short follow-up period, a predominantly young white rural sample, and the lack of an attention control. Overall the results of the study provide support for the efficacy of Internet-based interventions to reduce risk of HIV infection. Results also support traditional research methods to evaluate HIV prevention programs delivered exclusively through the Internet.
Devine, Alexandra; Bowen, Kathryn; Dzuvichu, Bernice; Rungsung, Rachel; Kermode, Michelle
There are an estimated 1800-3500 sex-workers in Dimapur, the commercial capital of Nagaland, which is the second-highest HIV prevalence state in India. The HIV prevalence among these sex-workers has increased from 4.4% in 2004 to 16.4% in 2006, highlighting their vulnerability. The aim of this study was to contribute to understanding of the pathways to sex-work for women in Nagaland in order to inform the development of effective HIV prevention strategies. A convenient sample of 220 female sex-workers completed a cross-sectional survey, and 30 female sex-workers participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews during mid 2007. Participants were asked about their life situation at the time of initial engagement in sex-work and circumstances of the first occasion of sex-work. The four main pathways into sex-work were identified as: (1) to obtain money to meet basic needs for self and family (45% of survey and 43% of interview participants); (2) to obtain money to purchase drugs or alcohol (15% of survey and 27% of interview participants); (3) being coerced, tricked or forced into sex-work (13% of survey and 30% of interview participants); and (4) for pleasure (12% of survey and no interview participants). Women from each of these pathways were significantly different from each other in relation to a range of socio-cultural variables (e.g., ethnicity, marital status and education), and HIV risk factors (e.g., drug and alcohol use, age of sexual debut and HIV awareness). This diversity has implications for HIV prevention strategies, including the willingness and capacity of sex-workers to mobilise as a community and NGO capacity to ensure that the interests of all sex-workers are adequately captured and represented.
Mahajan, Anish P; Kinsler, Janni J; Cunningham, William E; James, Saloniki; Makam, Lakshmi; Manchanda, Rishi; Shapiro, Martin F; Sayles, Jennifer N
HIV/AIDS-related stigma is a key factor impeding patient utilization of HIV testing services. To destigmatize HIV testing, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended an 'opt-out' screening strategy aimed at all patients in all clinical settings, regardless of HIV risk. This study assessed whether opt-out screening as compared to opt-in screening was associated with increased uptake of HIV testing among patients with HIV/AIDS-related stigma concerns. This study included 374 patients attending two Los Angeles ambulatory care clinics. Stigma items were grouped into three constructs: Blame/isolation, abandonment, and contagion. Individuals endorsing the blame/isolation subscale (AOR = 0.52; 95 % CI 0.29-0.92; p\\0.05) and abandonment subscale (AOR = 0.27; 95 % CI 0.13-0.59; p\\0.01) were significantly less likely to accept an HIV test. Additionally, the opt-out model did not counter the negative effects of stigma on HIV test acceptance. These findings indicate that stigma remains a barrier to HIV testing, regardless of the opt-out screening approach.
Full Text Available The psychological aspect of treating HIV-infected substance users entails changing their behaviour, as their behaviour is what leads to the risk of them transmitting and spreading HIV. Psychological treatment must facilitate their adaptation so that they may be otherwise treated for substance abuse and HIV. We propose establishing the psychological objective of helping patients overcome substance addiction by addressing their internal representation of the disease (IRD, value-sense and motivational sphere, as well as their relationships with their physician, as this is the main person who interacts with the patient in the clinic. An IRD study of patients with an opioid dependency, complicated with infectious diseases, showed that the IPD emotional level of opioid patients, as interconditional for other levels, can be an indicator of the status and impact of the main objective. A comparative study of substance users who received psychotherapy with those not receiving psychotherapy showed that the value-sense and motivational sphere is also an important target for preventive action. A study of the physician’s image of drug treatment clinics’ patients revealed that increases in the communicative competence of drug treatment facilities’ personnel represents a third course of preventing the transmission of HIV among substance dependent patients.
Coates, Thomas J
This article addresses behavioral and social research priorities for prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. The approach used to define these priorities is based on 3 premises: (1) Behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment are necessary but not sufficient for producing reductions in transmission or advances in treatment; the same is true of biomedical interventions, and by themselves, they cannot maximally impact the health of communities. (2) Combination prevention and treatment strategies should include optimal combinations of behavioral and biomedical strategies but also must include the varieties of the behaviors of individuals, communities, and systems needed to ensure effective treatment and prevention. (3) And it is no longer useful, given scientific advances in understanding how treatment contributes to prevention, to discuss prevention without incorporating treatment and vice versa. This redefinition of behavioral approaches in combination prevention and treatment provides a new paradigm for defining behavioral research in HIV-1 disease. No longer is it sufficient to focus on single behavior (eg, high-risk sexual behavior, adherence to antiretroviral medications) of individuals in a vertical way. Rather, the behavioral agenda not only need to expand to encompass traditional investigations of single behaviors but also need to include the behavior of many actors and systems that are essential in facilitating reductions in transmission and improvements in treatment outcomes. In addition, there is the need for expanded implementation research agenda to encompass the study of methods to achieve high coverage, acceptability, and effectiveness of available menu of interventions.
Grant, Robert M.; Lama, Javier R.; Anderson, Peter L.; McMahan, Vanessa; Liu, Albert Y.; Vargas, Lorena; Goicochea, Pedro; Casapía, Martín; Guanira-Carranza, Juan Vicente; Ramirez-Cardich, Maria E.; Montoya-Herrera, Orlando; Fernández, Telmo; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Schechter, Mauro; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Kallás, Esper Georges; Amico, K. Rivet; Mulligan, Kathleen; Bushman, Lane R.; Hance, Robert J.; Ganoza, Carmela; Defechereux, Patricia; Postle, Brian; Wang, Furong; McConnell, J. Jeff; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Lee, Jeanny; Rooney, James F.; Jaffe, Howard S.; Martinez, Ana I.; Burns, David N.; Glidden, David V.
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis before exposure is a promising approach for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. METHODS We randomly assigned 2499 HIV-seronegative men or transgender women who have sex with men to receive a combination of two oral antiretroviral drugs, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC–TDF), or placebo once daily. All subjects received HIV testing, risk-reduction counseling, condoms, and management of sexually transmitted infections. RESULTS The study subjects were followed for 3324 person-years (median, 1.2 years; maximum, 2.8 years). Of these subjects, 10 were found to have been infected with HIV at enrollment, and 100 became infected during follow-up (36 in the FTC–TDF group and 64 in the placebo group), indicating a 44% reduction in the incidence of HIV (95% confidence interval, 15 to 63; P = 0.005). In the FTC–TDF group, the study drug was detected in 22 of 43 of seronegative subjects (51%) and in 3 of 34 HIV-infected subjects (9%) (P<0.001). Nausea was reported more frequently during the first 4 weeks in the FTC–TDF group than in the placebo group (P<0.001). The two groups had similar rates of serious adverse events (P = 0.57). CONCLUSIONS Oral FTC–TDF provided protection against the acquisition of HIV infection among the subjects. Detectable blood levels strongly correlated with the prophylactic effect. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458393.) PMID:21091279
Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type-1 viral protein U (Vpu protein enhances the release of diverse retroviruses from human, but not monkey, cells and is thought to do so by ablating a dominant restriction to particle release. Here, we determined how Vpu expression affects the subcellular distribution of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MLV Gag proteins in human cells where Vpu is, or is not, required for efficient particle release. In HeLa cells, where Vpu enhances HIV-1 and MLV release approximately 10-fold, concentrations of HIV-1 Gag and MLV Gag fused to cyan fluorescent protein (CFP were initially detected at the plasma membrane, but then accumulated over time in early and late endosomes. Endosomal accumulation of Gag-CFP was prevented by Vpu expression and, importantly, inhibition of plasma membrane to early endosome transport by dominant negative mutants of Rab5a, dynamin, and EPS-15. Additionally, accumulation of both HIV and MLV Gag in endosomes required a functional late-budding domain. In human HOS cells, where HIV-1 and MLV release was efficient even in the absence of Vpu, Gag proteins were localized predominantly at the plasma membrane, irrespective of Vpu expression or manipulation of endocytic transport. While these data indicated that Vpu inhibits nascent virion endocytosis, Vpu did not affect transferrin endocytosis. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis did not restore Vpu-defective HIV-1 release in HeLa cells, but instead resulted in accumulation of mature virions that could be released from the cell surface by protease treatment. Thus, these findings suggest that a specific activity that is present in HeLa cells, but not in HOS cells, and is counteracted by Vpu, traps assembled retrovirus particles at the cell surface. This entrapment leads to subsequent endocytosis by a Rab5a- and clathrin-dependent mechanism and intracellular sequestration of virions in endosomes.
Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina
Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social…
Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks
The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Kubicek, Katrina; Supan, Jocelyn; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.
African-American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons are at elevated risk for HIV infection. House and Ball communities, networks of mostly African-American gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals who compete in modeling and dance, represent a prime venue for HIV prevention with these difficult-to-reach populations; however,…
Romero, Lisa; Wallerstein, Nina; Lucero, Julie; Fredine, Heidi Grace; Keefe, Joanna; O'Connell, JoAnne
HIV risk is the product of social, cultural, economic, and interpersonal forces that create sex-role definitions and expectations that can lead to gender inequalities in health. Woman to Woman: Coming Together for Positive Change is an HIV/AIDS prevention intervention that takes into account that choices and actions may be constrained by poverty,…
Kagimu, Majid; Karama, Said; Mbabazi, Jackson; Mularira, Grace N.; Nakawuka, Minah; Kityo, Tom; Ssengonzi, Robert; Ssentongo, Chris; Walakira, Yusuf
This handbook has been developed as a resource to be used by peer/community educators and mobilisers conducting HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in the informal sector workplaces and surrounding communities in Uganda. The handbook provides basic information on a range of topics on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections that can be used by…
del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin
Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…
DiStefano, Anthony S; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Quitugua, Lourdes F; Peters, Ruth; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Vunileva, Isileli; Tui'one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois M; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
HIV and sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with each other and with the development of comorbid cancer. Current epidemiology indicates that among Pacific Islanders in the United States, young adults are at highest risk of HIV and HPV. In our inductive community based participatory research study, we used focus groups and key informant interviews (March-August 2010) with young adults, parents, community leaders, and providers (n = 95) to identify and contextualize factors that shape HIV and HPV risk and prevention among young adults in Chamorro and Tongan communities in Southern California. We identified nine themes that incorporated the following principal factors: misinformation and otherization; dominant concerns regarding premarital pregnancy; restricted intergenerational communication; family shame and privacy; gendered manifestations of religio-cultural norms; barriers impeding access to sexual health resources; parents' role in prevention; community vs. individual responsibility; and family and ethnic pride. Our thematic findings fit well with Rhodes' "risk and enabling environment" heuristic (2009), which we used to contextualize risk and prevention at micro and macro levels of physical, social, economic, and policy environments. We propose the addition of a separate cultural environment to the heuristic and conclude that a focus on applying individual and community agency at the micro-level would be an approachable starting point for intervention for our local Pacific Islander communities and groups in similar ecological contexts globally. Enhanced community-led education programs and engagement of religious and other community leaders to facilitate intergenerational communication could counteract taboos that obstruct prevention.
Udoh, Isidore A
In most of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is driven by endemic structural problems such as unemployment, poverty, forced migration, sexual exploitation, and concurrent sexual partnerships. In the Niger Delta of Nigeria, the epidemic is exacerbated by recurring regional conflict and negative environmental externalities resulting from 50 years of oil exploration. This article seeks to identify and analyze potential barriers to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment from oil pollution and other environmental stressors in Nigeria's Niger Delta. We develop a conceptual framework to understand how oil politics and economic systems affect HIV risks in Nigeria. We then evaluate evidence of how environmental exposures can amplify risks. Using 10 semi-structured interviews, with 85 focus group participants, we test the argument that HIV transmission in the Niger Delta is related to a manipulative "divide and rule" power dynamic that characterizes multinational oil companies' role in shaping conflict contours in oil communities. Oil exploration destroys livelihoods, institutions, and values and forces impoverished and illiterate girls and women to migrate or be trafficked to urban centers as child laborers and sex workers. The elevated HIV/AIDS risk in the Niger Delta brings into focus the political economy of resource extraction, globalization, and indigenous, minority rights and struggles.
Full Text Available Sutherlandia frutescens (L. R. Br. is widely used as an over the counter complementary medicine and in traditional medications by HIV seropositive adults living in South Africa; however the plant's safety has not been objectively studied. An adaptive two-stage randomized double-blind placebo controlled study was used to evaluate the safety of consuming dried S. frutescens by HIV seropositive adults with CD4 T-lymphocyte count of >350 cells/μL.In Stage 1 56 participants were randomized to S. frutescens 400, 800 or 1,200 mg twice daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. In Stage 2 77 additional participants were randomized to either 1,200 mg S. frutescens or placebo. In the final analysis data from Stage 1 and Stage 2 were combined such that 107 participants were analysed (54 in the S. frutescens 1,200 mg arm and 53 in the placebo arm.S. frutescens did not change HIV viral load, and CD4 T-lymphocyte count was similar in the two arms at 24 weeks; however, mean and total burden of infection (BOI; defined as days of infection-related events in each participant was greater in the S. frutescens arm: mean (SD 5.0 (5.5 vs. 9.0 (12.7 days (p = 0.045, attributed to two tuberculosis cases in subjects taking isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT.A possible interaction between S. frutescens and IPT needs further evaluation, and may presage antagonistic interactions with other herbs having similar biochemical (antioxidant properties. No other safety issues relating to consumption of S. frutescens in this cohort were identified.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00549523.
Full Text Available Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, in which the HIV-1 infected partner did not meet national guidelines for initiation of antiretroviral therapy, were enrolled at 9 research sites in Kenya and Uganda. The HIV-1 susceptible partner was randomized to daily oral tenofovir, emtricitabine-tenofovir, or matching placebo with monthly follow-up for 24-36 months.From July 2008 to November 2010, 7920 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples were screened and 4758 enrolled. For 62% (2966/4758 of enrolled couples, the HIV-1 susceptible partner was male. Median age was 33 years for HIV-1 susceptible and HIV-1 infected partners [IQR (28-40 and (26-39 respectively]. Most couples (98% were married, with a median duration of partnership of 7.0 years (IQR 3.0-14.0 and recent knowledge of their serodiscordant status [median 0.4 years (IQR 0.1-2.0]. During the month prior to enrollment, couples reported a median of 4 sex acts (IQR 2-8; 27% reported unprotected sex and 14% of male and 1% of female HIV-1 susceptible partners reported sex with outside partners. Among HIV-1 infected partners, the median plasma HIV-1 level was 3.94 log(10 copies/mL (IQR 3.31-4.53 and median CD4 count was 496 cells/µL (IQR 375-662; the majority (64% had WHO stage 1 HIV-1 disease.Couples at high risk of HIV-1 transmission were rapidly recruited into the Partners PrEP Study, the largest efficacy trial of oral PrEP. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00557245.
Full Text Available Esther Mugweni,1 Stephen Pearson,2 Mayeh Omar2 1UCL Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, 2The Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Background: Concurrent sexual partnerships play a key role in sustaining the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe. Married couples are at an increased risk of contracting HIV from sexual networks produced by concurrent sexual partnerships. Addressing these partnerships is an international HIV prevention priority. Methods: Our qualitative study presents the socioeconomic factors that contribute to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships among married people in Zimbabwe. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008 to understand the organizations of concurrent sexual partnerships. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results: Our study indicates that relationship dissatisfaction played a key role in the engagement of concurrent sexual partnerships. Depending on the source of the dissatisfaction, there were four possible types of concurrent sexual relationships that were formed: sex worker, casual partner, regular girlfriend or informal polygyny which was referred to as “small house”. These relationships had different levels of intimacy, which had a bearing on practicing safer sex. Participants described three characteristics of hegemonic masculinity that contributed to the sources of dissatisfaction leading to concurrent sexual activity. Similarly, various aspects of emphasized femininity were described as creating opportunities for the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. Economic status was also listed as a factor that contributed to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships. Conclusion: Marital dissatisfaction was indicated as a contributing factor to the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. There were several
Full Text Available ... of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids- ... HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. What Is HIV? ( http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/faq/faq1.htm ). ...
Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Yandura, Sarah; Wang, Lin; Moncla, Bernard; Teeple, Elizabeth A.; Devlin, Brid; Nuttall, Jeremy; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Rohan, Lisa C.
Purpose Dapivirine (DPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist, were formulated into aqueous gels designed to prevent mucosal HIV transmission. Methods 0.05% DPV, 0.1% MVC, 0.05% DPV/0.1% MVC and placebo gels were evaluated for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and in vitro release. In vitro assays and mucosal tissues were used to evaluate anti-HIV activity. Viability (Lactobacilli only) and epithelial integrity in cell lines and mucosal tissues defined safety. Results The gels were acidic and viscous. DPV gel had an osmolality of 893 mOsm/kg while the other gels had an osmolality of <100 mOsm/kg. MVC release was similar from the single and combination gels (~5 μg/cm2/min1/2), while DPV release was 10-fold less from the single as compared to the combination gel (0.4331 μg/cm2/min1/2). Titrations of the gels showed 10-fold more drug was needed to protect ectocervical than colonic tissue. The combination gel showed ~10- and 100-fold improved activity as compared to DPV and MVC gel, respectively. All gels were safe. Conclusions The DPV/MVC gel showed a benefit blocking HIV infection of mucosal tissue compared to the single entity gels. Combination products with drugs affecting unique steps in the viral replication cycle would be advantageous for HIV prevention. PMID:26078001
Full Text Available Introduction: Truvada is licenced for HIV-1 prevention in the USA and is available in the private sector. Tenofovir performed as well as Truvada in the PARTNERS PrEP study and is used as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP in some settings. The clinical efficacy of Tenofovir for PrEP outside a clinical trial is unknown. Antiretroviral therapy (ART at acute HIV-1 infection (AHI limits the size of the reservoir, optimizing the chance of maintaining viral control off therapy. As such ART at acute HIV infection is proposed to offer a functional cure in a minority of subjects. We present two cases where Tenofovir PrEP failed to prevent HIV acquisition and failed to limit viral reservoir. Materials and Methods: Two individuals receiving tenofovir monotherapy for Hepatitis B monoinfection were diagnosed with AHI as defined by a negative HIV antibody test within three months of a positive HIV test following unsafe sex with casual male partners. In-depth histories were taken. Viral genotypes and Tenofovir drug levels were measured from samples taken as close to HIV seroconversion as possible and subsequent samples were analyzed for proviral Total HIV-1 DNA by qPCR. Results: Patient A had received tenofovir for the preceding six years and always maintained an undetectable Hepatitis B viral load with no concerns about adherence. Two weeks preceding the positive HIV antibody test, he experienced mild symptoms (fever, pharyngitis of HIV seroconversion. HIV status was confirmed by a repeat fourth generation HIV antibody test and by Western Blot and an HIV viral load was undetectable. Tenofovir trough level at HIV diagnosis was within normal limits. The regimen was intensified to Eviplera and a total HIV-1 DNA was 1381 copies/million CD4 T cells. Patient B received four regimens for hepatitis B treatment before starting tenofovir monotherapy in 2011 and subsequently maintained an undetectable hepatitis B viral load. After three years of tenofovir monotherapy he
Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Puig, Marieva; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Morales, Marangelie; Asencio, Gloria; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Castro, Eida; Velez Santori, Carmen; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen
The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated its psychometric properties. After conducting a factor analysis, a 17-item scale, the HIV Felt-Stigma Scale (HFSS), resulted. Participants completed the Puerto Rico Comprehensive Center for the Study of Health Disparities Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the HFSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Sexual Abuse dimension of the History of Abuse Questionnaire; the case managers completed the Case Manager Stigma Guide with subjects. The HFSS measures four dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. The alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients (0.91 and 0.68, respectively) indicated satisfactory validity and reliability; the scale suggested adequate convergent validity. The HFSS is a culturally sensitive instrument that fills the existing gap in the measurement of felt stigma in Spanish-speaking PLWHA.
Full Text Available Introduction: In 2010, two global networks of people living with HIV, the International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW Global and the Global Network of People living with HIV (GNP + were invited to review a draft strategic framework for the global scale up of prevention of vertical transmission (PVT through the primary prevention of HIV and the prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV. In order to ensure recommendations were based on expressed needs of people living with HIV, GNP+ and ICW Global undertook a consultation amongst people living with HIV which highlighted both facilitators and barriers to prevention services. This commentary summarizes the results of that consultation. Discussion: The consultation was comprised of an online consultation (moderated chat-forum with 36 participants from 16 countries, an anonymous online e-survey (601 respondents from 58 countries, and focus-group discussions with people living with HIV in Jamaica (27 participants. The consultation highlighted the discrepancies across regions with respect to access to essential packages of PVT services. However, the consultation participants also identified common barriers to access, including a lack of trustworthy sources of information, service providers’ attitudes, and gender-based violence. In addition, participant responses revealed common facilitators of access, including quality counselling on reproductive choices, male involvement, and decentralized services. Conclusions: The consultation provided some understanding and insight into the participants’ experiences with and recommendations for PVT strategies. Participants agreed that successful, comprehensive PVT programming require greater efforts to both prevent primary HIV infection among young women and girls and, in particular, targeted efforts to ensure that women living with HIV and their partners are supported to avoid unintended pregnancies and to have safe, healthy
O'Connell, A A
Sampling methods are an important issue in the evaluation of community-based HIV prevention initiatives because it is through responsible sampling procedures that a valid model of the population is produced and reliable estimates of behavior change determined. This article provides an overview on sampling with particular focus on the needs of community-based organizations (CBOs). As these organizations continue to improve their capacity for sampling and program evaluation activities, comparisons across CBOs can become more rigorous, resulting in valuable information collectively regarding the effectiveness of particular HIV prevention initiatives. The author reviews several probability and non-probability sampling designs; discusses bias, cost, and feasibility factors in design selection; and presents six guidelines designed to encourage community organizations to consider these important sampling issues as they plan their program evaluations.
Underhill, Kristen; Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don
We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32,271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12,629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches.
Kennedy, Caitlin E; Fonner, Virginia A; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Sweat, Michael D
Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990 to 2012, examining secondary references, and hand-searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care, or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of the 5218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with six conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, three in South or Southeast Asia, and three in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N = 6), female sex workers/bar workers (N = 3), and youth/orphans (N = 3). All studies targeted females except two among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with two group-randomized trials and two individual-randomized trials. All interventions except three included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners, or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these
Full Text Available Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand – or “PHAMIT,” which in Thai means “friendly skies”. The program led by the Raks Thai Foundation with seven NGO partners and one government agency focuses on HIV prevention and health services for migrant workers from Burma and Cambodia in the fisheries, seafood and related industries. The program demonstrates the complexity of working with undocumented migrant workers and the need to address barriers to the access to health services, migrant rights and policy. The trained migrant health assistants play a significant role in implementation of the program at migrant communities and their workplaces. Migrant health volunteers distribute information, education and communication materials, as well as condoms. To increase migrant access to health and reproductive health care, all participating partners support the Department of Health Service Supports in organizing migrant-friendly health services at government health facilities. These activities include sexual transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment, and voluntary HIV counseling and testing. The services are based on the rights of migrant workers to basic services and migrants becoming aware of their rights and responsibilities. Over a five year period beginning in October 2003, the program has reached 442,000 migrants and more than 20,800 entertainment workers with information about HIV and reproductive health. A total of 6,878,500 condoms has been distributed. In addition, over 155,080 migrant workers received information on health and labor rights, including regular updates about migrant registration policy. At the same time, through PHAMIT activities, over 13,330 government officials, employers and journalists attended sensitization workshops on issues of migrants’ rights and policies.Le programme PHAMIT (Prevention of HIV/AIDS Among Migrant Workers in Thailand, qui signifie « cieux amicaux » en thaï, est
Mark F Cotton
Full Text Available Introduction: There is new emphasis on identifying and treating HIV in the first days of life and also an appreciation that low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PTD frequently accompany HIV-related pregnancy. Even in the absence of HIV, PTD and LBW contribute substantially to neonatal and infant mortality. HIV-exposed and -infected infants with these characteristics have received little attention thus far. As HIV programs expand to meet the 90-90-90 target for ending the HIV pandemic, attention should focus on newborn infants, including those delivered preterm or of LBW. Discussion: In high prevalence settings, infant diagnosis of HIV is usually undertaken after the neonatal period. However, as in utero infection may be diagnosed at birth, earlier initiation of therapy may limit viral replication and prevent early damage. Globally, there is growing awareness that preterm and LBW infants constitute a substantial proportion of births each year. Preterm infants are at high risk for vertical transmission. Feeding difficulties, apnoea of prematurity and vulnerability to sepsis occur commonly. Feeding intolerance, a frequent occurrence, may compromise oral administration of medications. Although there is growing experience with post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-exposed term newborn infants, there is less experience with preterm and LBW infants. For treatment, there are even fewer options for preterm infants. Only zidovudine has adequate dosing recommendations for treating term and preterm infants and has an intravenous formulation, essential if feeding intolerance occurs. Nevirapine dosing for prevention, but not treatment, is well established for both term and preterm infants.HIV diagnosis at birth is likely to be extremely stressful for new parents, more so if caring for preterm or LBW infants. Programs need to adapt to support the medical and emotional needs of young infants and their parents, where interventions may be lifesaving
Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Harris, Taylor; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric; Henwood, Ben
Homeless persons suffer disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, and moving into permanent supportive housing (PSH) can provide a stable base from which to access needed prevention services. However, little is known about HIV risk or prevention behavior during this critical time of transition. The current study investigated STI and HIV risk and prevention behavior and recent use of prevention and treatment services (i.e., education, testing, medication) among homeless persons preparing to move into PSH. Data come from interviews with 421 homeless adults before they moved into PSH. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were sexually active; of those, 75.7% reported unprotected sex. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported past year HIV testing and 40% reported testing for another STI. Fewer than one-third (31%) of respondents reported receiving posttest counseling at their last HIV test. HIV seropositivity was self-reported by 10%. Among those persons who were HIV-positive, 57.1% reported less than 100% antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. Among HIV-negative respondents, less than 1% had been prescribed preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Less than half (46.4%) of the sample reported any HIV prevention education in the past year. This population of homeless adults about to move into PSH report high rates of HIV risk behavior, but low rates of HIV prevention education and very little PrEP utilization. Further, low rates of ARV adherence among HIV-positive respondents indicate significant risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. Entering PSH is a period of transition for homeless persons when integrated care is critically important to ensure positive health outcomes, but these data suggest that PrEP and other HIV prevention services are poorly accessed among this population. As such, multipronged services that integrate PrEP and other HIV prevention services are needed to prevent transmission and acquisition of HIV in this high-risk, vulnerable population and ensure the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We analyzed HIV testing rates, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, and predictors of testing in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007. METHODS: KAIS was a nationally representative sero-survey that included demographic and behavioral indicators and testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in the population aged 15-64 years. We used gender-specific multivariable regression models to identify factors independently associated with HIV testing in sexually active persons. RESULTS: Of 19,840 eligible persons, 80% consented to interviews and blood specimen collection. National HIV prevalence was 7.1% (95% CI 6.5-7.7. Among ever sexually active persons, 27.4% (95% CI 25.6-29.2 of men and 44.2% (95% CI 42.5-46.0 of women reported previous HIV testing. Among HIV-infected persons, 83.6% (95% CI 76.2-91.0 were unaware of their HIV infection. Among sexually active women aged 15-49 years, 48.7% (95% CI 46.8-50.6 had their last HIV test during antenatal care (ANC. In multivariable analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR for ever HIV testing in women ≥35 versus 15-19 years was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.3; p<0.0001. Other independent associations with ever HIV testing included urban residence (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0; p = 0.0005, women only, highest wealth index versus the four lower quintiles combined (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5; p = 0.0006, men only, and an increasing testing trend with higher levels of education. Missed opportunities for testing were identified during general or pregnancy-specific contacts with health facilities; 89% of adults said they would participate in home-based HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of HIV-infected persons in Kenya are unaware of their HIV status, posing a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts. New approaches to HIV testing provision and education, including home-based testing, may increase coverage. Targeted interventions should involve sexually active men, sexually
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference values for hematological and biochemical assays in pregnant women and in newborn infants are based primarily on Caucasian populations. Normative data are limited for populations in sub-Saharan Africa, especially comparing women with and without HIV infection, and comparing infants with and without HIV infection or HIV exposure. Methods We determined HIV status and selected hematological and biochemical measurements in women at 20–24 weeks and at 36 weeks gestation, and in infants at birth and 4–6 weeks of age. All were recruited within a randomized clinical trial of antibiotics to prevent chorioamnionitis-associated mother-to-child transmission of HIV (HPTN024. We report nearly complete laboratory data on 2,292 HIV-infected and 367 HIV-uninfected pregnant African women who were representative of the public clinics from which the women were recruited. Nearly all the HIV-infected mothers received nevirapine prophylaxis at the time of labor, as did their infants after birth (always within 72 hours of birth, but typically within just a few hours at the four study sites in Malawi (2 sites, Tanzania, and Zambia. Results HIV-infected pregnant women had lower red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell counts than HIV-uninfected women. Platelet and monocyte counts were higher among HIV-infected women at both time points. At the 4–6-week visit, HIV-infected infants had lower hemoglobin, hematocrit and white blood cell counts than uninfected infants. Platelet counts were lower in HIV-infected infants than HIV-uninfected infants, both at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age. At 4–6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher alanine aminotransferase measures than uninfected infants. Conclusion Normative data in pregnant African women and their newborn infants are needed to guide the large-scale HIV care and treatment programs being scaled up throughout the continent. These laboratory measures will help
Burman, Chris J; Aphane, Marota A
This article emphasises that when working with complex adaptive systems it is possible to stimulate new social practices and/or cognitive perspectives that contribute to risk reduction, associated with reducing aggregate community viral loads. The process of achieving this is highly participatory and is methodologically possible because evidence of 'attractors' that influence the social practices can be identified using qualitative research techniques. Using findings from Limpopo Province, South Africa, we argue that working with 'wellness attractors' and increasing their presence within the HIV/AIDS landscape could influence aggregate community viral loads. While the analysis that is presented is unconventional, it is plausible that this perspective may hold potential to develop a biosocial response - which the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) has called for - that reinforces the biomedical opportunities that are now available to achieve the ambition of ending AIDS by 2030.
Dominika L Seidman
Conclusion: Growing evidence suggests that pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine during pregnancy and lactation is safe and effective. Shared decision-making provides one approach to identify at-risk women and offers pre-exposure prophylaxis but requires implementation research in diverse clinical settings. Including pregnant and breastfeeding women in future HIV prevention research is critical for the creation of evidence-driven public health policies and clinical guidelines.
Abstract Sport has become a popular tool for HIV prevention, based on claims that it can foster life skills that are necessary to translate knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions into actual behaviour. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of sport-based HIV prevention programmes is, however, sorely lacking. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey assessing sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof among 454 youth of the Mathare Youth Sport Association (MYSA)...
Moser, Ana Maria Martins; Traebert, Jefferson
The objectives of this study were to carry out cross-cultural adaptation of the HIV/AIDS-Target Quality of Life Instrument for Portuguese and to observe its psychometric properties. Translations, translations synthesis, back translation, analysis by a committee of specialists, pre-final version test, studies of validity and reliability of the final version were carried out. Psychometric properties were evaluated by the administration of the Brazilian version in 50 consecutive HIV positive patients, from the DST/HIV/AIDS municipal ambulatory of São Miguel do Oeste, Santa Catarina State. The internal consistency was observed by a-Cronbach. The reliability was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altmann diagram. The validity was observed comparing the scores of the questionnaire with the WHOQOL-HIV-Brief through the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The results pointed out to a-Cronbach of 0.893. The correlations obtained were 0.934 for inter-interviewer and 0.977 for intra-interviewer. The correlation with WHOQOL-HIV-Bref was 0.824. It was concluded that the cross-cultural adaptation process was successful and the adapted questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties.
This paper discusses Australia's response to the 2011 United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS in the context of recent ground-breaking advances in HIV prevention and treatment. Australia's progress in responding to these developments is examined and compared with that of eight other countries in Asia and the Pacific. The implications of the 2012 Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV' is also discussed as a vehicle for generating advocacy to revolutionise Australia's HIV response and to urge Australia's leadership in achieving an 'AIDS-free generation'.
Full Text Available Background: The United Nations Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS of 2006 stressed the need to strengthen policy and programme linkages between HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH. However, the effectiveness and best practices for strengthening SRH and HIV linkages are poorly researched in the context of family-planning services. In Cape Town, HIV-prevention services have been integrated into family-planning services. There are two models of service configuration: dedicated stand-alone reproductive health clinics and family planning services located in comprehensive primary-care facilities.Objective: To describe how reproductive health services are integrating HIV prevention and care strategies and to measure the coverage and quality of these integrated services.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured interviews with facility managers; a facility-based checklist; and a patient record review to assess the availability of resources, training, access, quality and integration.Results: Facilities in Cape Town are equipped adequately to offer integrated HIV-prevention and SRH services. Overall there was poor coverage of integrated services with 54% of family planning clients having a known HIV status; 47% being screened for a sexually transmitted infection and 55% being offered HIV counselling and testing and receiving condoms. Quality and continuity of care seemed better at the dedicated clinics than at the comprehensive facilities,supported by better training coverage.Conclusion: Engaging middle-level management is crucial with regard to improving integration within a well-resourced setting.
Kerr-Pontes Ligia Regina Sansigolo
Full Text Available HIV infection is spreading among the poor, women, and migrant communities in the interior of Northeast Brazil. The research focused on different configurations, beliefs, representations, and forms of social organization of behavior thought to be associated with the population's capacity to efficiently follow AIDS prevention measures. Participants located in neighborhoods known for having large migrant populations were identified by Family Health Program Workers in Fortaleza and Teresina. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. Several belief-system concepts and values, as well as the social organization of sexuality revealed in the study, represent obstacles both to AIDS prevention and condom use. Hunger, lack of prospects, and fear are associated with a social situation of poverty, exclusion, prejudice, and total absence of basic human rights When examined together, these elements define different configurations in the migrants' increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The groups' increased vulnerability relates to the socioeconomic complexity that must be considered in HIV/AIDS control and prevention programs.
Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr-Pontes
Full Text Available HIV infection is spreading among the poor, women, and migrant communities in the interior of Northeast Brazil. The research focused on different configurations, beliefs, representations, and forms of social organization of behavior thought to be associated with the population's capacity to efficiently follow AIDS prevention measures. Participants located in neighborhoods known for having large migrant populations were identified by Family Health Program Workers in Fortaleza and Teresina. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. Several belief-system concepts and values, as well as the social organization of sexuality revealed in the study, represent obstacles both to AIDS prevention and condom use. Hunger, lack of prospects, and fear are associated with a social situation of poverty, exclusion, prejudice, and total absence of basic human rights When examined together, these elements define different configurations in the migrants' increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The groups' increased vulnerability relates to the socioeconomic complexity that must be considered in HIV/AIDS control and prevention programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT. Methods The study consisted of a household survey of rural and urban women with infants in Mbale district, complemented with focus group discussions with women and men. Women were interviewed on socio-demographic characteristics of the woman and her husband, antenatal and postnatal experience related to the youngest child, antenatal HIV testing, perceptions regarding the marital relationship, and intimate partner violence. We obtained ethical approval from Makerere University and informed consent from all participants in the study. Results During November and December 2003, we interviewed 457 women in Mbale District. A further 96 women and men participated in the focus group discussions. The prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 54% and physical violence in the past year was 14%. Higher education of women (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 and marriage satisfaction (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 were associated with lower risk of intimate partner violence, while rural residence (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2–16.2 and the husband having another partner (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.02–5.7 were associated with higher risk of intimate partner violence. There was a strong association between sexual coercion and lifetime physical violence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5–5.7. Multiple partners and consumption of alcohol were major reasons for intimate partner violence. According to the focus group discussions, women fear to test for HIV, disclose HIV results, and request to use condoms
Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B
The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.
Flores, Stephen A; Purcell, David W; Fisher, Holly H; Belcher, Lisa; Carey, James W; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Dunbar, Erica; Eke, Agatha N; Galindo, Carla A; Glassman, Marlene; Margolis, Andrew D; Neumann, Mary Spink; Prather, Cynthia; Stratford, Dale; Taylor, Raekiela D; Mermin, Jonathan
In September 2010, CDC launched the Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning (ECHPP) project to shift HIV-related activities to meet goals of the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Twelve health departments in cities with high AIDS burden participated. These 12 grantees submitted plans detailing jurisdiction-level goals, strategies, and objectives for HIV prevention and care activities. We reviewed plans to identify themes in the planning process and initial implementation. Planning themes included data integration, broad engagement of partners, and resource allocation modeling. Implementation themes included organizational change, building partnerships, enhancing data use, developing protocols and policies, and providing training and technical assistance for new and expanded activities. Pilot programs also allowed grantees to assess the feasibility of large-scale implementation. These findings indicate that health departments in areas hardest hit by HIV are shifting their HIV prevention and care programs to increase local impact. Examples from ECHPP will be of interest to other health departments as they work toward meeting the NHAS goals.
Wagh, Kshitij; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Williamson, Carolyn; Robles, Alex; Bayne, Madeleine; Garrity, Jetta; Rist, Michael; Rademeyer, Cecilia; Yoon, Hyejin; Lapedes, Alan; Gao, Hongmei; Greene, Kelli; Louder, Mark K; Kong, Rui; Karim, Salim Abdool; Burton, Dennis R; Barouch, Dan H; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Mascola, John R; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David C; Korber, Bette; Seaman, Michael S
The identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope (Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We assessed the neutralizing activity of 15 bnAbs targeting four distinct epitopes of Env, including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), the V1/V2-glycan region, the V3-glycan region, and the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER), against a panel of 200 acute/early clade C HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses. A mathematical model was developed that predicted neutralization by a subset of experimentally evaluated bnAb combinations with high accuracy. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive and systematic comparison of the predicted neutralizing activity of over 1,600 possible double, triple, and quadruple bnAb combinations. The most promising bnAb combinations were identified based not only on breadth and potency of neutralization, but also other relevant measures, such as the extent of complete neutralization and instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP). By this set of criteria, triple and quadruple combinations of bnAbs were identified that were significantly more effective than the best double combinations, and further improved the probability of having multiple bnAbs simultaneously active against a given virus, a requirement that may be critical for countering escape in vivo. These results provide a rationale for advancing bnAb combinations with the best in vitro predictors of success into clinical trials for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Tenzer, Stefan; Crawford, Hayley; Pymm, Phillip;
of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most......The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8(+) T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when...... these regions encode epitopes presented by ~30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ~60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions...
Timothy B Hallett
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretrovirals have substantial promise for HIV-1 prevention, either as antiretroviral treatment (ART for HIV-1-infected persons to reduce infectiousness, or as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for HIV-1-uninfected persons to reduce the possibility of infection with HIV-1. HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in long-term partnerships (one member is infected and the other is uninfected are a priority for prevention interventions. Earlier ART and PrEP might both reduce HIV-1 transmission in this group, but the merits and synergies of these different approaches have not been analyzed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed a mathematical model to examine the impact and cost-effectiveness of different strategies, including earlier initiation of ART and/or PrEP, for HIV-1 prevention for serodiscordant couples. Although the cost of PrEP is high, the cost per infection averted is significantly offset by future savings in lifelong treatment, especially among couples with multiple partners, low condom use, and a high risk of transmission. In some situations, highly effective PrEP could be cost-saving overall. To keep couples alive and without a new infection, providing PrEP to the uninfected partner could be at least as cost-effective as initiating ART earlier in the infected partner, if the annual cost of PrEP is 70% effective. CONCLUSIONS: Strategic use of PrEP and ART could substantially and cost-effectively reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. New and forthcoming data on the efficacy of PrEP, the cost of delivery of ART and PrEP, and couples behaviours and preferences will be critical for optimizing the use of antiretrovirals for HIV-1 prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Nguyen, Philip V; Kafka, Jessica K; Ferreira, Victor H; Roth, Kristy; Kaushic, Charu
The male and female reproductive tracts are complex microenvironments that have diverse functional demands. The immune system in the reproductive tract has the demanding task of providing a protective environment for a fetal allograft while simultaneously conferring protection against potential pathogens. As such, it has evolved a unique set of adaptations, primarily under the influence of sex hormones, which make it distinct from other mucosal sites. Here, we discuss the various components of the immune system that are present in both the male and female reproductive tracts, including innate soluble factors and cells and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immunity under homeostatic conditions. We review the evidence showing unique phenotypic and functional characteristics of immune cells and responses in the male and female reproductive tracts that exhibit compartmentalization from systemic immunity and discuss how these features are influenced by sex hormones. We also examine the interactions among the reproductive tract, sex hormones and immune responses following HIV-1 infection. An improved understanding of the unique characteristics of the male and female reproductive tracts will provide insights into improving clinical treatments of the immunological causes of infertility and the design of prophylactic interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24976268
Albarracin, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R
Although experimental behavioral interventions to prevent HIV are generally designed to correct undesirable epidemiological trends, it is presently unknown whether the resulting body of behavioral interventions is adequate to correct the social disparities in HIV-prevalence and incidence present in the United States. Two large, diverse-population meta-analytic databases were reanalyzed to estimate potential perpetuation and change in demographic and behavioral gaps as a result of introducing the available behavioral interventions advocating condom use. This review suggested that, if uniformly applied across populations, the analyzed set of experimental (i.e. under testing) interventions is well poised to correct the higher prevalence and incidence among males (vs. females) and African-Americans and Latinos (vs. other groups), but ill poised to correct the higher prevalence and incidence among younger (vs. older) people, as well as men who have sex with men, injection-drug users, and multiple partner heterosexuals (vs. other behavioral groups). Importantly, when the characteristics of the interventions most efficacious for each population were included in the analyses of behavior change, results replicated with three exceptions. Specifically, after accounting for interactions of intervention and facilitator features with characteristics of the recipient population (e.g. gender), there was no behavior change bias for men who have sex with men, younger individuals changed their behavior more than older individuals, and African-Americans changed their behavior less than other groups.
Eric A. Ratliff
Full Text Available In the past decade, Tanzania has seen a rapid rise in the number of people who inject drugs (PWID, specifically heroin. While the overall HIV prevalence in Tanzania has declined recently to 5.6%, in 2009, the HIV prevalence among PWID remains alarmingly high at 35%. In this paper, we describe how the Tanzania AIDS Prevention Program (TAPP, Médecins du Monde France (MdM-F, and other organisations have been at the forefront of addressing this public health issue in Africa, implementing a wide array of harm reduction interventions including medication-assisted treatment (MAT, needle and syringe programs (NSP, and “sober houses” for residential treatment in the capital, Dar es Salaam, and in Zanzibar. Looking toward the future, we discuss the need to (1 extend existing services and programs to reach more PWID and others at risk for HIV, (2 develop additional programs to strengthen existing programs, and (3 expand activities to include structural interventions to address vulnerabilities that increase HIV risk for all Tanzanians.
Francis Adyanga Akena
Full Text Available Uganda’s health care sector is choking with various challenges, such as poor physical infrastructure, inadequate professionals to run the few existing health centers, poor culture of adherence to professional ethical standards by some health care practitioners, shortages of medicines in most government hospitals/health centers, and corruption. Most of the challenges are more endemic in rural areas. It is on the above premise that this article discusses some of the challenges that health centers face in provision of care to the increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients in hard-to-reach rural communities in northern Uganda and the implications of such challenges on the economy. Uganda’s success in the fight against HIV/AIDS in the early 1990s was globally applauded because of its aggressive grassroots behavioral change crusades aimed at reducing the number of sexual partners. The success inspired a wave of financial aid programs from the US government to fight the disease across the developing world. However, the success was short-lived as the rate of HIV/AIDS infection in Uganda is currently rising, with the health care system struggling to provide care for the ballooning number of patients. To contribute to the curtailing cases of new infections, this article discuses the integration of the traditional authority and knowledge system in the national HIV/AIDS care and prevention program along with the biomedical approach currently being used.
Dumont, Dora M; Gjelsvik, Annie; Chen, Nadine; Rich, Josiah D
Disparities in incarceration rates and in prison-based TB/HIV testing may contribute to health disparities in the communities most affected by incarceration. We analyzed Bureau of Justice Statistics surveys of federal and state prison inmates to assess TB and HIV screening rates for US-born Hispanics, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. Screening rates were high overall but foreign-born Hispanic inmates had significantly lower odds of being tested for TB in both state (AOR 0.55) and federal prisons (AOR 0.31) compared to white inmates. Foreign-born Hispanics also had lower odds of being tested for HIV in state prisons and Hispanics had lower odds of being tested for HIV in federal prisons compared to white inmates. Screening for infectious diseases in state and federal prisons is high but Hispanics have higher odds of going untested; this has important consequences for prevention of further transmission in the communities to which they return.
Sinha, Anju; Chandhiok, Nomita; Sahay, Seema; Deb, Sibnath; Bharat, Shalini; Gupta, Abhilasha; Bhatt, Sripad; Kanthe, Vidisha; Kumar, Bijesh; Joglekar, Neelam; Paranjape, Ramesh; Mehendale, Sanjay
A compelling case for promoting male circumcision (MC) as an intervention for reducing the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection was made by dissemination of the results of three studies in Africa. The WHO/UNAIDS recommendation for MC for countries like India, where the epidemic in concentrated in high-risk groups, advocates MC for specific population groups such as men at higher risk for HIV acquisition. A multicentre qualitative study was conducted in four geographically distinct districts (Belgaum, Kolkata, Meerut and Mumbai) in India during June 2009 to June 2011. Two categories of health care providers: Registered Healthcare Providers (RHCPs) and traditional circumcisers were interviewed by trained research staff who had received master's level education using interview guides with probes and open-ended questions. Respondents were selected using purposive sampling. A comparative analysis of the perspectives of the RHCP vs. traditional circumcisers is presented. Representatives of both categories of providers expressed the need for Indian data on MC. Providers feared that promoting circumcision might jeopardize/undermine the progress already made in the field of condom promotion. Reservation was expressed regarding its adoption by Hindus. Behavioural disinhibition was perceived as an important limitation. A contrast in the practice of circumcision was apparent between the traditional and the trained providers. MC should be mentioned as a part of comprehensive HIV prevention services in India that includes HIV counselling and testing, condom distribution and diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. It should become an issue of informed personal choice rather than ethnic identity.
Full Text Available The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8+ T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ∼30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ∼60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins.
Esteban-Vasallo, M D; Domínguez-Berjón, M F; García-Riolobos, C; Morán-Arribas, M; Rico-Bermejo, J; Collado-González, S; Aguirre Martín-Gil, R; López Arilla, G; Ultra-Berzosa, J; Jiménez-García, R
The Services of Prevention and Early diagnosis of HIV in Madrid (Spain) are set in selected primary care centers. Cultural mediators targeted to vulnerable groups (economic immigrants, MSM, sex workers…) perform risk assessment and counselling. Between 2010 and 2014 they performed 6 039 rapid-HIV test, 27.8 % in MSM, 41.2 % in men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW) and 31.0 % in women; 35.7 % in immigrants, mainly from Latin America. A reactive result was more common among MSM (6.0 %) compared to women (0.6 %) and MSW (0.5 %). In MSM it was associated to being immigrant and to antecedents of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Among MSW the factors associated to a reactive result were: seropositivity of sexual partner and heroine consumption, and in women: infrequent use of condoms, seropositivity of sexual partner and antecedents of STI. Preventive interventions to reduce risk of HIV transmission and for early detection should be adapted and targeted to high risk population.
Beaudoin, Christopher E
In light of the great threat that HIV/AIDS poses in sub-Saharan Africa, the current study assesses HIV/AIDS posters from this region with specific reference to health message frames, including HIV sources, consequences, self-efficacy, preventive means, and barriers and benefits to employing such means of prevention. There is a two-step methodology. First, the content of HIV/AIDS posters from 15 sub-Saharan African countries was coded for the six health message frames. Second, relationships between the health message frames and four social determinants (HIV rate, HIV awareness, condom use and uncertainty avoidance (UAI)) were assessed with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Analysis indicates that self-efficacy is the most common frame, but that almost one-quarter of the posters has none of the six health message frames. HLM indicates some favorable findings, including that health message frames are used most often in countries with the most troubling levels of HIV awareness and condom use. Less favorably, health message frames are used least common in countries that have high levels of UAI and high HIV rates. Improvements for related media practices and policy are articulated.
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma
Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Grant, Robert M.
Prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents and microbicides has been proven for many infections, including surgical, gastrointestinal, upper respiratory, and meningococcal infections. Antiretroviral therapy for pregnant women prevents mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which has become rare in settings where access to therapy is widespread. Postexposure prophylaxis after needlestick injury or significant sexual exposure is recommended on the basis of animal studies and case-control observational studies, although use of these interventions is limited to those who recognize exposure, have access, and have the power to use the interventions. Clinical trials are evaluating whether regular or preexposure use of antiretroviral therapy provides additional protection for persons at high risk of infection who are also offered standard prevention care, including HIV testing, counseling, condoms, and management of sexually transmitted infections. Trials are evaluating topical or oral use. Concerns have arisen with regard to optimal dosing strategies, costs, access, drug resistance, risk behavior, and the role of communities. Future implementation, if warranted, will be guided by the results of clinical trials in progress and engagement of communities exposed to HIV. PMID:20397962
Samuelson, Julia; Hargreave, Timothy; Ridzon, Renee; Farley, Tim
World Health Organization recommends that countries with hyperendemic and generalized HIV epidemics implement voluntary medical male circumcision programs for HIV prevention. Innovative methods of male circumcision including devices have the potential to simplify the procedure, reduce time and cost, increase client acceptability, enhance safety, and expand the numbers of providers who may perform circumcision. We describe work led by World Health Organization and supported by global partners to define a pathway for the evaluation of efficacy and safety of male circumcision devices, to set priority criteria, and to establish a process to guide the use of devices in publicly funded voluntary medical male circumcision programs for HIV prevention. A device classification scheme, an expert Technical Advisory Group on Innovations in Male Circumcision, and a formal prequalification program have also guided considerations on safe use of devices. A rigorous approach was deemed appropriate given the intervention is for use among healthy men for public health purposes. The pathway and processes led to coordinated research, better standardization in research outcomes, and guidance that informed the research, introduction and implementation phases. The lessons learnt from this case study can inform evaluation and use of future public health innovations.
Robert M. Malow
Full Text Available Mid-way through the third decade of experience in preventing HIV/AIDS among adolescents, behavioral interventions and outcomes for high risk subgroups have generated evidence extremely instructive for navigating future priorities in reducing transmission risk behavior. Youth who abuse alcohol or drugs, who are detained or incarcerated, or have mental health co-morbidity such as externalizing disorders, represent the most significant challenge to current and future efforts to control the epidemic among the adolescent population. Although there is no unambiguous, standard intervention approach with adolescents, patterns of risks and outcomes with these subgroups are instructive in the critical priority of creating more sustainable gains with our HIV prevention resources. This article provides a synthesis of the evidence with these subgroups, discusses important limitations and difficulties in the current intervention science and highlights promising directions for the next generation of effort in reducing adolescent HIV-related sexual risk behavior. Because individual-level interventions have had only modest effects, a key current emphasis within the field is to develop multi-level interventions with a more ecological or contextual focus. We review various pragmatic responses that acknowledge this priority and the debt owed to individual-level intervention work with adolescents.
Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine
Characteristics of learners who become peer educators are rarely explored despite the potential relevance to the success of peer education programmes. Fifteen high schools selected to implement peer education HIV prevention programmes in South Africa were recruited. A total of 2339 Grade 10 learners were surveyed and comparisons were made between socio-demographic characteristics, key skills, school experience and sexual behaviour of those students who had volunteered or been chosen by teachers to be peer educators (n = 295) and their fellow students (n = 2044), the potential recipients of the programme. On most of the socio-demographic variables, school experiences, aspirations, sexual debut and use of condoms at last sex or whether they had been tested for HIV status, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Volunteers and teacher-chosen peer educators tended to be younger than their classmates (16.19 versus 16.52, P electricity (97.9% versus 94.0%, P = 0.006), a bicycle (41.9% versus 32.7%, P = 0.004) or car (50.2% versus 41.0%, P = 0.005)]. Further research is needed to explore specific peer educator characteristics and recruitment and selection approaches that are associated with effective HIV prevention interventions.
Figueroa, Maria Elena; Poppe, Patricia; Carrasco, Maria; Pinho, Maria Dirce; Massingue, Felisberto; Tanque, Maria; Kwizera, Amata
Structural HIV prevention interventions have gained prominence as ways to address underlying social and cultural factors that fuel the HIV epidemic. Identifying theories that explain how structural interventions are expected to change such factors can substantially increase their success. The Tchova Tchova community dialogue program, a theory-based intervention implemented in 2009-2010 in the provinces of Zambezia and Sofala, Mozambique, aimed to change gender and sexual norms for HIV prevention. Through facilitated sessions, the program sparked critical thinking and open dialogue among participants. This article measures the program's effectiveness based on a sample of 462 participants and 453 nonparticipants. The results show that the program was successful in producing changes in three of the underlying structural factors of HIV: gender attitudes, gender roles, and HIV stigma. The program was also successful in changing other factors associated with HIV infection, including HIV prevention knowledge, discussion of HIV between sex partners, and having multiple sex partners.
Paul W Denton
Full Text Available Successful antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for mucosal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission could reduce new infections among targeted high-risk populations including discordant couples, injection drug users, high-risk women and men who have sex with men. Targeted antiretroviral PrEP could be particularly effective at slowing the spread of HIV-1 if a single antiretroviral combination were found to be broadly protective across multiple routes of transmission. Therefore, we designed our in vivo preclinical study to systematically investigate whether rectal and intravenous HIV-1 transmission can be blocked by antiretrovirals administered systemically prior to HIV-1 exposure. We performed these studies using a highly relevant in vivo model of mucosal HIV-1 transmission, humanized Bone marrow/Liver/Thymus mice (BLT. BLT mice are susceptible to HIV-1 infection via three major physiological routes of viral transmission: vaginal, rectal and intravenous. Our results show that BLT mice given systemic antiretroviral PrEP are efficiently protected from HIV-1 infection regardless of the route of exposure. Specifically, systemic antiretroviral PrEP with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate prevented both rectal (Chi square = 8.6, df = 1, p = 0.003 and intravenous (Chi square = 13, df = 1, p = 0.0003 HIV-1 transmission. Our results indicate that antiretroviral PrEP has the potential to be broadly effective at preventing new rectal or intravenous HIV transmissions in targeted high risk individuals. These in vivo preclinical findings provide strong experimental evidence supporting the potential clinical implementation of antiretroviral based pre-exposure prophylactic measures to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Full Text Available Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs.
Andrasik, Michele Peake; Yoon, Ro; Mooney, Jessica; Broder, Gail; Bolton, Marcus; Votto, Teress; Davis-Vogel, Annet
Observed seroincidence and prevalence rates in male-to-female (MTF) transgender individuals highlight the need for effective targeted HIV prevention strategies for this community. In order to develop an effective vaccine that can be used by transgender women, researchers must understand and address existing structural issues that present barriers to this group's participation in HIV vaccine clinical trials. Overcoming barriers to participation is important for ensuring HIV vaccine acceptability and efficacy for the MTF transgender community. To explore barriers and facilitators to MTF transgender participation in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials, the HIV Vaccine Trials Network conducted focus groups among transgender women in four urban areas (Atlanta, Boston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco). Barriers and facilitators to engagement of transgender women in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials led to the following recommendations: (a) transgender cultural competency training, (b) creating trans-friendly environments, (c) true partnerships with local trans-friendly organizations and health care providers, (d) protocols that focus on transgender specific issues, and (e) data collection and tracking of transgender individuals. These results have implications for the conduct of HIV vaccine trials, as well as engagement of transgender women in research programs in general.
Smith, J; Petibon, C
Psychotherapy for sex offenders has only very recently started to develop in France. The French law on compulsory treatment for sex offenders was voted in 1998, and many mental health practitioners are not trained to treat such patients yet. In our ambulatory forensic consultation, sex offenders have been treated since 1992 and group psychotherapy has been offered to them since 1994. Our first therapeutic models were the North-American behavioural-cognitive therapy and Pithers' relapse prevention model. Behavioural-cognitive theory describes paedophilia as an acquired sexual preference maintained by positive reinforcement. Pithers (1990) considered that relapse only occurs in high-risk situations, and that high-risk situations always come after offence precursors. In North America, relapse prevention consists in helping paedophiles spot their high-risk situations and offence precursors, and enhance their skills to cope with such situations or to prevent them. Therapy programs were developed according to these models, aiming to help offenders develop such skills, ie empathy, social skills, cognitive restructuring, self-esteem, etc. Trying to apply these therapy programs in France, our team quickly realised that we would have to adapt them to French culture. On the one hand, behavioural-cognitive theory did not seem satisfactory enough in explaining paedophilic behaviour and paedophilic preference. On the other hand, behavioural-cognitive therapy made patients into children too much and increased resistance. Therapy based on programs seemed too rigid for French patients and therapists, and we often felt we were working on an issue that would have been much more accurate to work on a few sessions earlier, when this issue was spontaneously brought up by a patient. We believe change occurs all the more as issues are worked on at the right moment for the patient. Moreover, on a cultural point of view, we also realised the use of programs in psychotherapy was difficult to
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for HIV prevention among HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Xinjiang, China and determine factors that predict willingness to use oral PrEP. METHODS: Between November 2009 and December 2010, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among 351 HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from three cities in Xinjiang, China. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of and willingness to use oral PrEP. Additionally, blood samples were collected to test for HIV infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP. RESULTS: Only 10 participants (2.8% reported having heard of PrEP, and only two reported ever using PrEP. However, 297 (84.6% reported that they were willing to use oral PrEP if it was proven to be both safe and effective. Results of multivariate analysis revealed the following independent predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP: monthly household income (adjusted odds ratio = 2.78, <1000 RMB vs. ≥ 1000 RMB, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-5.69, perceived likelihood of contracting HIV from HIV-positive partner (adjusted odds ratio = 2.63, likely vs. unlikely, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-6.19, and worrying about being discriminated against by others due to oral PrEP use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.43, No vs. Yes, 95% confidence interval: 3.78-23.50. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in China had low awareness of oral PrEP but high willingness to use oral PrEP for HIV prevention. Cost of oral PrEP should be taken into consideration in future PrEP prevention strategy. In addition, efforts should be made to reduce stigma attached to oral PrEP use, which may increase its acceptability among
Muller F James
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected adults in developing countries. Isoniazid (INH is recommended for treatment of latent TB infection, however non-adherence is common. The purpose of this study was to apply in-house prepared isoniazid (INH urine test strips in a clinical setting, and identify predictors of positive test results in an adherence questionnaire in HIV-infected adults taking INH for prevention of TB. Methods Cross-sectional study of adherence using a questionnaire and urine test strips for detection of INH metabolites at two hospitals in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Participants were aged at least 18 years, HIV positive, and receiving INH for prevention of tuberculosis disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses are used to identify factors relevant to adherence. Results 301 consecutive patients were recruited. 28% of participants had negative urine tests. 32 (37.2%, 95% CI25.4, 45.0 of the 86 patients who received INH from peripheral pharmacies said the pharmacy had run out of INH at some time, compared with central hospital pharmacies (p = 0.0001. In univariate analysis, a negative test was associated with self-reported missed INH doses (p = 0.043. Each 12-hour increment since last reported dose increased the likelihood of a negative test by 34% (p = 0.0007. Belief in INH safety was associated with a positive test (p = 0.021. In multivariate analysis, patients who believed INH is important for prevention of TB disease were more likely to be negative (p = 0.0086. Conclusion Adequate drug availability at peripheral pharmacies remains an important intervention for TB prevention. Key questions may identify potentially non-adherent patients. In-house prepared urine tests strips are an effective and cheap method of objectively assessing INH adherence, and could be used an important tool in TB control programs.
Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Guo, Weigui
Female sex workers (FSWs) play a key role in HIV/AIDS transmission and their gatekeepers play a crucial role in shaping their behaviors. Limited studies are available on the relationship between FSWs and gatekeepers. In the current study we used an ethnographic approach to examine the dynamic and multidimensional relationship of FSWs and their gatekeepers from the perspectives of both parties. We recruited 38 FSWs and 16 gatekeepers from different types of commercial sex venues in Guangxi, China, and conducted in-depth individual interviews. Our data suggest that FSWs and gatekeepers maintain an interdependent and reciprocal relationship during their business practice, but gatekeepers exert significant influence and control over FSWs. Designing culturally appropriate HIV/STI-prevention programs requires us to take advantage of the unique and crucial roles of gatekeepers. We conclude with a call for structural interventions to protect FSWs' occupational health and safety.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFR worldwide. We compared the effects of antiretroviral (ARV prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT to that of existing family planning (FP use and estimated the burden of pediatric HIV disease due to unwanted fertility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the demographic software Spectrum, a baseline mathematical projection to estimate the current pediatric HIV burden in Uganda was compared to three hypothetical projections: 1 without ARV-PMTCT (to estimate the effect of ARV-PMTCT, 2 without contraception (effect of existing FP use, 3 without unwanted fertility (effect of unmet FP needs. Key input parameters included HIV prevalence, ARV-PMTCT uptake, MTCT probabilities, and TFR. We estimate that in 2007, an estimated 25,000 vertical infections and 17,000 pediatric AIDS deaths occurred (baseline projection. Existing ARV-PMTCT likely averted 8.1% of infections and 8.5% of deaths. FP use likely averted 19.7% of infections and 13.1% of deaths. Unwanted fertility accounted for 21.3% of infections and 13.4% of deaths. During 2008-2012, an estimated 131,000 vertical infections and 71,000 pediatric AIDS deaths will occur. The projected scale up of ARV-PMTCT (from 39%-57% may avert 18.1% of infections and 24.5% of deaths. Projected FP use may avert 21.6% of infections and 18.5% of deaths. Unwanted fertility will account for 24.5% of infections and 19.8% of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Existing FP use contributes as much or more than ARV-PMTCT in mitigating pediatric HIV in Uganda. Expanding FP services can substantially contribute towards PMTCT.
Beryl A Koblin
Full Text Available Black men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States (US are affected by HIV at disproportionate rates compared to MSM of other race/ethnicities. Current HIV incidence estimates in this group are needed to appropriately target prevention efforts.From July 2009 to October 2010, Black MSM reporting unprotected anal intercourse with a man in the past six months were enrolled and followed for one year in six US cities for a feasibility study of a multi-component intervention to reduce HIV infection. HIV incidence based on HIV seroconversion was calculated as number of events/100 person-years. Multivariate proportional hazards modeling with time-dependent covariates was used to identify correlates of HIV acquisition.Of 1,553 Black MSM enrolled, 1,164 were HIV-uninfected at baseline and included in follow-up. Overall annual HIV incidence was 3.0% (95% confidence interval (CI: 2.0, 4.4% and 5.9% among men ≤30 years old (95% CI: 3.6, 9.1%. Men ≤30 years old reported significantly higher levels of sexual risk and were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection diagnosed during follow-up. Younger men also were more likely to not have a usual place for health care, not have visited a health care provider recently, and to have unmet health care needs. In multivariate analysis, age ≤30 years (hazard ratio (HR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 8.3 and unprotected receptive anal intercourse with HIV-positive or unknown status partners (HR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.9, 9.1 were significantly associated with HIV acquisition.In the largest cohort of prospectively-followed Black MSM in the US, HIV incidence was high, particularly among young men. Targeted, tailored and culturally appropriate HIV prevention strategies incorporating behavioral, social and biomedical based interventions are urgently needed to lower these rates.
Taboada, Arianna; Taggart, Tamara; Holloway, Ian; Houpt, Amanda; Gordon, Robert; Gere, David; Milburn, Norweeta; Lightfoot, Alexandra F
Theater-based interventions are a viable prevention strategy for changing sexual health knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV prevention. However, few studies have explored interventions in English-speaking, high-income countries such as the United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom. This article critically reviews the literature to identify key characteristics of theater-based HIV prevention strategies used for adolescents in school-settings in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Specifically, we identify the theatrical approach used in HIV prevention interventions, the behavioral theories that inform such interventions, and the study design and results of existing evaluation studies conducted in school settings. In the 10 articles reviewed, we found limited grounding in theory and the use of nonrigorous study design. To strengthen the evidence and practical application of theater-based HIV prevention interventions, we highlight three specific recommendations for practitioners and researchers: (1) define and operationalize the theater approach and techniques used, (2) ensure theater-based interventions are grounded in theory, and (3) conduct rigorous evaluation of theater-based interventions. These recommendations are key to strengthening future research on and implementation of theater-based interventions for HIV prevention.
Cari van Schalkwyk
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Swaziland's severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC, tuberculosis (TB and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT. METHODS: Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010, hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010 and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. RESULTS: By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4<350/mm(3, with progressively improving patient retention and survival. As of 2010, 88% of health facilities providing antenatal care offered comprehensive PMTCT services. The HTC program recorded a halving in the proportion of adults tested who were HIV-infected; similarly HIV infection rates among HIV-exposed babies halved from 2007 to 2010. Case fatality rates among hospital patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS started to decrease from 2005-6 in adults and especially in children, contrasting with stable case fatality for other causes including TB. All-cause child in-patient case fatality rates started to decrease from 2005-6. TB case notifications as well as rates of HIV/TB co-infection among notified TB patients continued a steady increase through 2010, while coverage of HIV testing and CPT for co-infected patients increased to above 80%. CONCLUSION: Against a background of high, but stable HIV prevalence and decreasing HIV incidence, we documented early evidence of a mortality decline associated with the expanded national HIV response since 2004. Attribution of impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics will require additional data from
Lourenço, Lillian; Lima, Viviane D.; Heath, Kate; Nosyk, Bohdan; Gilbert, Mark; Colley, Guillaume; Consolacion, Theodora; Barrios, Rolando; Robert, Hogg; Krajden, Mel; Konrad, Stephanie; Murti, Michelle; Nelson, Joanne; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Haggerstone, James; Pick, Neora; Gustafson, Reka; Rusch, Melanie; Day, Irene; Montaner, Julio Sg
Background In light of accumulated scientific evidence of the secondary preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy, a growing number of jurisdictions worldwide have formally started to implement HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) programs. To date, no gold standard for TasP program monitoring has been described. Here, we describe the design and methods applied to TasP program process monitoring in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods Monitoring indicators were selected through a collaborative and iterative process by an interdisciplinary team including representatives from all five regional health authorities, the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), and the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE). An initial set of 36 proposed indicators were considered for inclusion. These were ranked on the basis of eight criteria: data quality, validity, scientific evidence, informative power of the indicator, feasibility, confidentiality, accuracy, and administrative requirement. The consolidated list of indicators was included in the final monitoring report, which was executed using linked population-level data. Results A total of 13 monitoring indicators were included in the BC TasP Monitoring Report. Where appropriate, indicators were stratified by subgroups of interest, including HIV risk group and demographic characteristics. Six Monitoring Reports are generated quarterly: one for each of the regional health authorities and a consolidated provincial report. Conclusions We have developed a comprehensive TasP process monitoring strategy using evidence-based HIV indicators derived from linked population-level data. Standardized longitudinal monitoring of TasP program initiatives is essential to optimize individual and public health outcomes and to enhance program efficiencies. PMID:25072608
Aral, S O; Fransen, L
This study was initiated to assess which mix of early STD/HIV prevention interventions would potentially be effective, cost-effective and sustainable in Turkey; and to program an intervention sequence to maximize synergy among the interventions. During rapid assessment we: 1) reviewed past issues of 3 leading newspapers; 2) collected information on TV coverage; 3) interviewed key informants including taxicab drivers, hotel employees, grocery store owners, academicians in public health and law, investigators of STD/HIV and reproductive tract infections, and officials in the ministry of health; 4) reviewed available evidence on STD/HIV morbidity, sexual behavior patterns, migration patterns and same/opposite gender sex trade. We found: 1) discrepancies between decision makers' perceptions and social realities with respect to the epidemiology of sexual behavior and STDs, and the state of public health programs; 2) discrepancies between sexual practices and public expression regarding sexual practices; 3) economic, demographic, and political pressures in Turkey and in surrounding countries for the expansion of prostitution; 4) a sexual double standard and gender specific migration patterns which sustain a high demand for commercial sex; 5) patterns of health care seeking behaviors and provision of STD clinical services which indicate other STDs may play a very important role in spread of HIV infection; 6) an important mass media role in opinion formation; 7) consensual denial of risk for the majority based on beliefs embedded in machismo, nationalism and religion, and a resulting marginalization and externalization of STD/HIV risk; 8) high prevalence of syphilis among both Turkish and immigrant female prostitutes in Istanbul (early latent 8 and 13%; late latent 0 and 4%; previous history 9 and 22%) 9) and high rates of syphilis among male prostitutes (early latent 11%, late latent 21% and previous history 58%). We concluded that interventions should initially include
Lightfoot, Alexandra F.; Taboada, Arianna; Taggart, Tamara; Tran, Trang; Burtaine, Amy
Adolescents are at increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the Southern states of the USA, where rates among youth are higher than in the rest of the nation. This paper reports on findings from a pilot study of an HIV prevention intervention that uses interactive theatre to educate young people about sexual health. The intervention was developed in Los Angeles and adapted for testing in the South of the USA, with its legacy of abstinence-based approaches to sexual ...
@@ AIDS, as a viral infectious disease, is extremely rapid in transmission, severe in progress, serious in prognosis so that no other disease can be compared with it in the past. Accordingly,the need of prevention and treatment of AIDS has become more and more urgent.In the National Meeting on Exchange of Experience of Demonstration Area for Comprehensive Prevention and Treatment of AIDS recently held in Henan Province, Wang Long-de,the director of office of the Working Committee of AIDS Prevention and Treatment of the State Department and the Vice-minister of Health, said that until August 2005, there has been 132 545 cases of HIV carrier. Of the 30 158 cases infected with AIDS in China, 7 643 cases have already died.
McNairy, Margaret L; Deryabina, Anna; Hoos, David; El-Sadr, Wafaa M
Interest in the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention stems from mounting evidence from research studies demonstrating that ART is associated with a decrease in sexual HIV transmission among serodiscordant couples and, perhaps, in other populations at risk. There is paucity of data on the efficacy of ART for prevention in key populations, including persons who inject drugs (PWID). In this paper, we examine the current status of HIV services for PWID in Central Asia, the use of ART by this population and explore ART for prevention for PWID in this context. We also discuss research and implementation questions with relevance to such a strategy in the region.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Resources and Services Administration CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention and Treatment In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers...
Bruin, de M.; Viechtbauer, W.
Background Recently promising trials of innovative biomedical approaches to prevent HIV transmission have been reported. Participants' non-adherence to the prevention methods complicates the analyses and interpretation of trial results. The influence of variable sexual behaviors within and between p
Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Luis; Young, Sean D
Little research has focused on the ethical issues around using social media for HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as Peru. This study surveyed participants from the HOPE social media HIV intervention HIV intervention in Peru to assess their experiences and perceptions of ethical issues in the study and the impact of age on their experiences and perceptions. This study found that, compared to younger participants, older participants were more likely to express higher levels of understanding of the consent form and trust that other participants were real. Older participants also reported being less likely to benefit in learning about their HIV status. Findings suggest that age plays a role in participants' experiences in a social media-based HIV intervention.
H Irene Hall
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early and regular care and treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are associated with viral suppression, reductions in transmission risk and improved health outcomes for persons with HIV. We determined, on a population level, the association of care visits with time from HIV diagnosis to viral suppression. METHODS: Using data from 19 areas reporting HIV-related tests to national HIV surveillance, we determined time from diagnosis to viral suppression among 17,028 persons diagnosed with HIV during 2009, followed through December 2011, using data reported through December 2012. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed factors associated with viral suppression, including linkage to care within 3 months of diagnosis, a goal set forth by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, and number of HIV care visits as determined by CD4 and viral load test results, while controlling for demographic, clinical, and risk characteristics. RESULTS: Of 17,028 persons diagnosed with HIV during 2009 in the 19 areas, 76.6% were linked to care within 3 months of diagnosis and 57.0% had a suppressed viral load during the observation period. Median time from diagnosis to viral suppression was 19 months overall, and 8 months among persons with an initial CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/µL. During the first 12 months after diagnosis, persons linked to care within 3 months experienced shorter times to viral suppression (higher rate of viral suppression per unit time, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.84 versus not linked within 3 months; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.27, 5.48. Persons with a higher number of time-updated care visits also experienced a shorter time to viral suppression (HR = 1.51 per additional visit, 95% CI 1.49, 1.52. CONCLUSIONS: Timely linkage to care and greater frequency of care visits were associated with faster time to viral suppression with implications for individual health outcomes and for secondary prevention.
...: Enhanced HIV/AIDS Screening and Engagement in Care Announcement Type: New. Funding Announcement Number: HHS... accepting competitive cooperative agreement applications for Enhanced HIV/AIDS Screening and Engagement in... Services (HHS). Funding for the HIV/AIDS award will be provided by OS via an Intra-Departmental...
Full Text Available The current biodiversity crisis represents a historic challenge for natural communities: the environmental rate of change exceeds the population’s adaptation capability. Integrating both ecological and evolutionary responses is necessary to make reliable predictions regarding the loss of biodiversity. The race against extinction from an eco-evolutionary perspective is gaining importance in ecological risk assessment. Here, we performed a classical study of population dynamics—a fluctuation analysis—and evaluated the results from an adaption perspective. Fluctuation analysis, widely used with microorganisms, is an effective empirical procedure to study adaptation under strong selective pressure because it incorporates the factors that influence demographic, genetic and environmental changes. The adaptation of phytoplankton to beryllium (Be is of interest because human activities are increasing the concentration of Be in freshwater reserves; therefore, predicting the effects of human-induced pollutants is necessary for proper risk assessment. The fluctuation analysis was performed with phytoplankton, specifically, the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, under acute Be exposure. High doses of Be led to massive microalgae death; however, by conducting a fluctuation analysis experiment, we found that C. reinhardtii was able to adapt to 33 mg/l of Be due to pre-existing genetic variability. The rescuing adapting genotype presented a mutation rate of 9.61 × 10−6 and a frequency of 10.42 resistant cells per million wild-type cells. The genetic adaptation pathway that was experimentally obtained agreed with the theoretical models of evolutionary rescue (ER. Furthermore, the rescuing genotype presented phenotypic and physiologic differences from the wild-type genotype, was 25% smaller than the Be-resistant genotype and presented a lower fitness and quantum yield performance. The abrupt distinctions between the wild-type and the Be
Bach Xuan Tran
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW are considerable drivers of HIV infections in Vietnam, especially transmission between high-risk and low-risk groups. We assessed HIV prevalence and its correlates among FSWs, and the use of preventive services among this community in the Mekong Delta region, southern Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1,999 FSWs was carried out in five provinces including Ben Tre, Hau Giang, Kien Giang, Tien Giang, and Vinh Long between June, 2006 and June, 2007. We interviewed participants face-to-face in order to elicit information about their lives and potential risk factors, and we tested their sera to determine their HIV status. We then performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to investigate factors associated with HIV infection. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of the participating FSWs were street-based sex workers (SSWs and the rest (83% were entertainment establishment-based sex workers (ESWs. Unprotected sex with regular and casual clients in the past month was frequent among study participants (40.5% and 33.5% respectively. However, few respondents (1.3% had ever injected drugs. Only 2.1% (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.6%-2.8% of FSWs were found to be infected with HIV. HIV prevalence among SSWs was greater than among ESWs (3.8% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.02, respectively. Increased risk for HIV infection was significantly associated with the number of clients per month (adjusted odd ratio (aOR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.26-5.59. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to reduce unsafe sex and drug injection, and to increase uptake of HIV testing among FSWs are necessary. Differences in HIV prevalence and its correlates by type of sex work emphasize the importance of constrained contexts in shaping risk behaviors among FSWs; that should be considered in designing HIV prevention programs.
Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Macaluso, Maurizio; Peacock, Nadine; Snead, M Christine; Posner, Samuel F
Mixed-method designs are increasingly used in sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention research. The authors designed a mixedmethod approach and applied it to estimate and evaluate a predictor of continued female condom use (6+ uses, among those who used it at least once) in a 6-month prospective cohort study. The analysis included 402 women who received an intervention promoting use of female and male condoms for STI prevention and completed monthly quantitative surveys; 33 also completed a semistructured qualitative interview. The authors identified a qualitative theme (couples' female condom enjoyment [CFCE]), applied discriminant analysis techniques to estimate CFCE for all participants, and added CFCE to a multivariable logistic regression model of continued female condom use. CFCE related to comfort, naturalness, pleasure, feeling protected, playfulness, ease of use, intimacy, and feeling in control of protection. CFCE was associated with continued female condom use (adjusted odds ratio: 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-5.6) and significantly improved model fit (p qualitative findings from small samples to larger numbers of participants can benefit HIV and STI prevention research.
Lazarus, Jeff; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Atun, Rifat A;
there have been many declarations and strategies addressing HIV/AIDS, today the goal is universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support services by 2010. The articles included in this thematic issue of the Central European Journal of Public Health on HIV/AIDS reflect this, while the ten...
Cooley, Laura A.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Rose, Charles E.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Taussig, Jennifer; Gern, Robert; Hoyte, Tamika; Salazar, Laura; White, Jianglan; Todd, Jeff; Bautista, Greg; Flynn, Colin; Sifakis, Frangiscos; German, Danielle; Isenberg, Debbie; Driscoll, Maura; Hurwitz, Elizabeth; Doherty, Rose; Wittke, Chris; Prachand, Nikhil; Benbow, Nanette; Melville, Sharon; Pannala, Praveen; Yeager, Richard; Sayegh, Aaron; Dyer, Jim; Sheu, Shane; Novoa, Alicia; Thrun, Mark; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Wilmoth, Ralph; Higgins, Emily; Griffin, Vivian; Mokotoff, Eve; MacMaster, Karen; Wolverton, Marcia; Risser, Jan; Rehman, Hafeez; Padgett, Paige; Bingham, Trista; Sey, Ekow Kwa; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa; Forrest, David; Beck, Dano; Cardenas, Gabriel; Nemeth, Chris; Anderson, Bridget J.; Watson, Carol-Ann; Smith, Lou; Robinson, William T.; Gruber, DeAnn; Barak, Narquis; Murrill, Chris; Neaigus, Alan; Jenness, Samuel; Hagan, Holly; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Wendel, Travis; Cross, Helene; Bolden, Barbara; D'Errico, Sally; Wogayehu, Afework; Godette, Henry; Brady, Kathleen A.; Kirkland, Althea; Sifferman, Andrea; Miguelino-Keasling, Vanessa; Velasco, Al; Tovar, Veronica; Raymond, H. Fisher; De León, Sandra Miranda; Rolón-Colón, Yadira; Marzan, Melissa; Courogen, Maria; Jaenicke, Tom; Thiede, Hanne; Burt, Richard; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Sansone, Marie; West, Tiffany; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene
According to National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system data, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing increased among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men from 2008 to 2011 in cities funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative, suggesting that focused HIV testing initiatives might have positive effects. PMID:25352589
According to National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system data, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing increased among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men from 2008 to 2011 in cities funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative, suggesting that focused HIV testing initiatives might have positive effects.
Kahn James G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivery of community-based prevention services for HIV, malaria, and diarrhea is a major priority and challenge in rural Africa. Integrated delivery campaigns may offer a mechanism to achieve high coverage and efficiency. Methods We quantified the resources and costs to implement a large-scale integrated prevention campaign in Lurambi Division, Western Province, Kenya that reached 47,133 individuals (and 83% of eligible adults in 7 days. The campaign provided HIV testing, condoms, and prevention education materials; a long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net; and a water filter. Data were obtained primarily from logistical and expenditure data maintained by implementing partners. We estimated the projected cost of a Scaled-Up Replication (SUR, assuming reliance on local managers, potential efficiencies of scale, and other adjustments. Results The cost per person served was $41.66 for the initial campaign and was projected at $31.98 for the SUR. The SUR cost included 67% for commodities (mainly water filters and bed nets and 20% for personnel. The SUR projected unit cost per person served, by disease, was $6.27 for malaria (nets and training, $15.80 for diarrhea (filters and training, and $9.91 for HIV (test kits, counseling, condoms, and CD4 testing at each site. Conclusions A large-scale, rapidly implemented, integrated health campaign provided services to 80% of a rural Kenyan population with relatively low cost. Scaling up this design may provide similar services to larger populations at lower cost per person.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence has confirmed that circumcision can be performed as a preventive strategy for HIV and early infant male circumcision (EIMC is regarded to be safer than circumcision in adulthood; however, limited data are available in the literature about EIMC in China. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the willingness and attitudes of Chinese parents on newborn male circumcision so as to provide data for exploring the feasibility of implementing EIMC as an HIV prevention strategy in China. Methods Simple random sampling was used to draw participants from parents who had a newborn son delivered at Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, which is affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, between March and December 2010. A questionnaire was used to determine general medical knowledge or information about circumcision, attitudes about EIMC, and level of decision-making on circumcision for the newborn son. Results Data derived from 558 responses were analyzed and the ratio of respondents was 56.3% for fathers and 43.6% for mothers. Of the respondents, 34.4% agreed to circumcise their newborn son, and the level of agreement was 3.25 ± 1.17 (range, 1–5 with “1” being “reluctantly agree” and “5” being “very strongly agree”. The major reason for EIMC was for health (44.8%, followed by doctor’s advice (31.2%. The major reason not to agree to EIMC was concern about pain (50.5%, followed by the risk of the procedure (23.5%. Conclusion The willingness and acceptability of EIMC in China is low and the parents of newborn sons are usually not very affirmative when making a decision on such a procedure, suggesting that significant effort will be needed if EIMC is to be implemented as an HIV prevention strategy for China.
Sema K Sgaier
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence based resource allocation and decentralized planning of an effective HIV/AIDS response requires reliable information on levels and trends of HIV at national and sub-national geographic levels. HIV sentinel surveillance data from antenatal clinics (HSS-ANC has been an important data source to assess the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, but has a number of limitations. We assess the value of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT programme data to appraise the HIV epidemic in India. METHODS/FINDINGS: HIV data from PPTCT sites were compared to HSS-ANC and general population level surveys at various geographic levels in the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Chi-square tests were used to ascertain statistical significance. PPTCT HIV prevalence was significantly lower than HSS-ANC HIV prevalence (0.92% vs. 1.22% in Andhra Pradesh, 0.65% vs. 0.89% in Karnataka, 0.52% vs. 0.60% in Maharashtra, p<0.001 for all three states. In all three states, HIV prevalence from PPTCT centres that were part of the sentinel surveillance was comparable to HSS-ANC prevalence but significantly higher than PPTCT centres that were not part of the sentinel surveillance. HIV prevalence from PPTCT data was comparable to that from general population surveys. In all three states, significant declines in HIV prevalence between 2007 and 2010 were observed with the PPTCT data set. District level analyses of HIV trends and sub-district level analysis of HIV prevalence were possible using the PPTCT and not the HSS-ANC data sets. CONCLUSION: HIV prevalence from PPTCT may be a better proxy for general population prevalence than HSS-ANC. PPTCT data allow for analysis of HIV prevalence and trends at smaller geographic units, which is important for decentralized planning of HIV/AIDS programming. With further improvements to the system, India could replace its HSS-ANC with PPTCT programme data for surveillance.
Patel, Shilpa N.; Marks, Gary; Gardner, Lytt; Golin, Carol E.; Shinde, Sanjyot; O'Daniels, Christine; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; Banderas, Julie W.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether brief training of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) medical providers increased the frequency with which they routinely delivered prevention counselling to patients, and whether patient characteristics were associated with receipt of that counselling. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Seven HIV…
Bruins, Wassilis Sc; van Leth, Frank
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals successfully treated for tuberculosis (TB) remain at risk of recurrence of the disease, especially in high TB incidence settings. We performed a systematic review, investigating whether secondary preventive therapy (sPT) with anti-TB drugs (preventive therapy in former TB patients with treatment success) is an effective strategy to prevent recurrence of TB in this patient group. We searched the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords HIV-infections, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, isoniazid, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), tuberculosis, TB, recurrence and recurrent disease, resulting in 253 potential publications. We identified eight publications for full text assessment, after which four articles qualified for inclusion in this systematic review. The quality of the included articles was rated using the GRADE system. All but one study were rated as having a high quality. In all included studies, sPT significantly decreased the incidence of recurrent TB in HIV-infected individuals to a substantial degree in comparison to non-treatment or placebo. Relative reductions varied from 55.0% to 82.1%. These data showed that the use of sPT to prevent recurrent TB in HIV-infected individuals was highly beneficial. These findings need to be confirmed in prospective studies with an adequate assessment of the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the occurrence of drug resistance.
Brown, E J; Simpson, E M
Adolescents are increasingly at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prolonged latency period, sometimes in excess of five years, and the incubation period of up to 10 years before the manifestation of symptoms, may foster adolescents' false sense of invincibility and denial as they often do not see the devastating effects of the disease in their peers until they are older. In turn, their practice of safer sex may be hindered and thereby contribute to the escalation of this public health crisis among sexually active adolescents. Prevention-focused recommendations were made in the USA as a result of this crisis. Recommendations were made to: (1) include STD/HIV education in the curricula of grades kindergarten to 12; (2) increase to at least 75% the proportion of primary care and mental health professionals who provide age-appropriate STD/HIV prevention counselling to adolescents; and (3) expand HIV prevention services to include age-appropriate HIV education curricula for students in grades 4-12 in 95% of schools. Yet, in the USA, the provision of school-based comprehensive STD/HIV education has been difficult to achieve owing to certain limitations and, in some instances, legal action. These limitations include: limited student access; restricted content; and the implementation of sporadic and/or brief educational programmes. Given these recommendations and the fact that adolescents are acquiring STDs and HIV infections at increasing rates, and despite the limitations and legal actions, do health care professionals not have an ethical obligation to provide adolescents with comprehensive STD/HIV prevention education? This ethical dilemma will be discussed using the ethical decision-making principles of 'autonomy' and 'beneficence', and a decision-making model proposed by Thompson and Thompson, and by Chally and Loric.
Leyna Germana H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability in stages of the HIV-1 epidemic and hence HIV-1 prevalence exists in different areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude of HIV-1 infection and identify HIV-1 risk factors that may help to develop preventive strategies in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May of 2005 involving all individuals aged between 15–44 years having an address in Oria Village. All eligible individuals were registered and invited to participate. Participants were interviewed regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and medical history. Following a pre-test counseling, participants were offered an HIV test. Results Of the 2 093 eligible individuals, 1 528 (73.0% participated. The overall age and sex adjusted HIV-1 prevalence was 5.6%. Women had 2.5 times higher prevalence (8.0% vs. 3.2% as compared to men. The age group 25–44 years, marriage, separation and low education were associated with higher risk of HIV-1 infection for both sexes. HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with >2 sexual partners in the past 12 months (women: Adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.5 (95%CI: 1.3–4.7, and past 5 years, [(men: AOR, 2.2 (95%CI:1.2–5.6; women: AOR, 2.5 (95%CI: 1.4–4.0], unprotected casual sex (men: AOR,1.8 95%CI: 1.2–5.8, bottled alcohol (Men: AOR, 5.9 (95%CI:1.7–20.1 and local brew (men: AOR, 3.7 (95%CI: 1.5–9.2. Other factors included treatment for genital ulcers and genital discharge in the past 1 month. Health-related complaints were more common among HIV-1 seropositive as compared to seronegative participants and predicted the presence of HIV-1 infection. Conclusion HIV-1 infection was highly prevalent in this population. As compared to our previous findings, a shift of the epidemic from a younger to an older age group and from educated to uneducated individuals was observed. Women and married or
Laura A Cotton
Full Text Available HLA-restricted immune escape mutations that persist following HIV transmission could gradually spread through the viral population, thereby compromising host antiviral immunity as the epidemic progresses. To assess the extent and phenotypic impact of this phenomenon in an immunogenetically diverse population, we genotypically and functionally compared linked HLA and HIV (Gag/Nef sequences from 358 historic (1979-1989 and 382 modern (2000-2011 specimens from four key cities in the North American epidemic (New York, Boston, San Francisco, Vancouver. Inferred HIV phylogenies were star-like, with approximately two-fold greater mean pairwise distances in modern versus historic sequences. The reconstructed epidemic ancestral (founder HIV sequence was essentially identical to the North American subtype B consensus. Consistent with gradual diversification of a "consensus-like" founder virus, the median "background" frequencies of individual HLA-associated polymorphisms in HIV (in individuals lacking the restricting HLA[s] were ∼ 2-fold higher in modern versus historic HIV sequences, though these remained notably low overall (e.g. in Gag, medians were 3.7% in the 2000s versus 2.0% in the 1980s. HIV polymorphisms exhibiting the greatest relative spread were those restricted by protective HLAs. Despite these increases, when HIV sequences were analyzed as a whole, their total average burden of polymorphisms that were "pre-adapted" to the average host HLA profile was only ∼ 2% greater in modern versus historic eras. Furthermore, HLA-associated polymorphisms identified in historic HIV sequences were consistent with those detectable today, with none identified that could explain the few HIV codons where the inferred epidemic ancestor differed from the modern consensus. Results are therefore consistent with slow HIV adaptation to HLA, but at a rate unlikely to yield imminent negative implications for cellular immunity, at least in North America
Full Text Available Development's Millennium Development Goal (MDG on reducing infectious diseases including HIV / AIDS. The program still faces many obstacles, because the problem of HIV / AIDS isrelated to lack of knowledge and understanding of the community. The resistance of the socio-cultural aspects in counseling is happening, especially in Aceh province as religion-based province. In connection with the program to improve public knowledge in the prevention of HIV / AIDS, communication concept developed should always pay attention to the closeness between the aspects of culture, psychological, and social. This study aims to determine the appropriate method of communication in the prevention of HIV / AIDS in North Aceh District by religious leaders (religious teacher and health counselors. This study is a quasi-experimental (quasi-experimental study pretest and posttest design. This study was conducted in North Aceh District covers three districts and each sub-district consists of two villages namely Lhoksukon Subdistrict (Desa Ara Abe and Village Nga, Dewantara subdistrict (Desa Paloh Lada and Village Bangka Jaya, Seunuddon districts (Village Ulee Rubeek West and the village of Ulee Rubeek Timu. This research has been conducted in April-May 2015. Thepopulations were used as much as 14.020 couples of reproductive age and the samples were obtained using a sample size of at least 132, according Lemeshow in every village so that the entire sample of 492 couples of childbearing age. Data were analyzed using a pretest and posttest gain index, while hipdissertation test using Mann-Whitney U. Based on the results showed that the empirically proven that the model of health education approach method with religious leaders (religious teacher proved more effective than the model of health education undertaken by health counselors. There are differences in the level of knowledge about the prevention of HIV / AIDS significantly in women of reproductive after the health
Protogerou, Cleo; Johnson, Blair T
The purpose of this meta-review was to identify characteristics of successful HIV prevention interventions for adolescents based on quantitative (i.e., meta-analyses) and qualitative reviews published to date, and to inform intervention utilization and future development. To that end, we were guided by principles of triangulation. Searches of seven electronic bibliographic databases yielded five meta-analyses and six qualitative reviews that satisfied the selection criteria. Reviews were subjected to careful content analysis. All reviews reported that behavioral interventions had positive outcomes on at least one of the following outcomes: HIV-related knowledge, subjective cognitions and beliefs enabling safer sex, abstinence, delaying next sexual intercourse, decreasing number of sexual partners, and actual condom use. Four categories, suggesting factors more prominently linked to intervention success, emerged: behavior change techniques (e.g., cognitive-behavior and motivation enhancement skills training); recipient characteristics (e.g., age, vulnerability to contracting STIs/HIV); prominent design features (e.g., use of theory, formative research); and socio-ecological features (e.g., supportive school environment). Future interventions would benefit from conducting preliminary formative research in order to enable optimal implementation of all these factors.
MacPhail, Catherine; Adato, Michelle; Kahn, Kathleen; Selin, Amanda; Twine, Rhian; Khoza, Samson; Rosenberg, Molly; Nguyen, Nadia; Becker, Elizabeth; Pettifor, Audrey
Women are at increased risk of HIV infection in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have found an association between school attendance and reduced HIV risk. We report feasibility and acceptability results from a pilot of a cash transfer intervention conditional on school attendance paid to young women and their families in rural Mpumalanga, South Africa for the prevention of HIV infection. Twenty-nine young women were randomised to intervention or control and a cash payment based on school attendance made over a 2-month period. Quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus group and interview) data collection was undertaken with young women, parents, teachers and young men in the same school. Qualitative analysis was conducted in Atlas.ti using a framework approach and basic descriptive analysis in Excel was conducted on the quantitative data. Results indicate it was both feasible and acceptable to introduce such an intervention among this population in rural South Africa. There was good understanding of the process of randomisation and the aims of the study, although some rumours developed in the study community. We address some of the changes necessary to ensure acceptability and feasibility of the main trial.
Short, R V
Nelson Mandela has recently said that HIV/AIDS is the greatest health crisis in human history. At the end of 2001, UNAIDS estimated that there were 40 million people living with the infection, with 5 million new cases, and 3 million deaths per year. About half the infected individuals are men, and heterosexual intercourse is the commonest route of infection. Although condoms remain the first line of defence, they are unpopular in parts of Africa, where the pandemic is worst, so an alternative is needed. Post-coital penile hygiene has received little attention. Wiping the glans penis and inner foreskin immediately after intercourse with an acidic solution like lemon or lime juice, or even vinegar, should immediately kill the virus and might prevent infection; clinical trials are urgently needed. Several studies in Africa and India have now conclusively demonstrated a 2-7-fold protective effect of male circumcision against HIV infection. Circumcision removes the inner foreskin and the frenulum, which are the prime sites of HIV entry into the penis. Since male circumcision also protects men from human papilloma virus infection, and their wives from cervical carcinoma, the procedure should be encouraged in developed and developing countries.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Delinquent adolescents with substance abuse disorders frequently engage in behaviors that elevate their risk of contracting HIV. Although effective risk reduction interventions are urgently needed, there is uncertainty about the nature of interventions required to produce change. Approach:This study evaluated whether Modified version of Becoming A Responsible Teen (M-BART produced greater reductions in drug use and sexual risk behaviors than an Anger Management (AM condition among a mixed gender, culturally diverse sample of adolescents in court-ordered substance dependence treatment. Results: No significant differences were found between M-BART (n = 70 and AM (n = 59 groups in degree of change between intake and outcome in HIV sex risk or drug use behaviors. However, across groups, meaningful reductions were found in total number of sex partners and in proportions of total unprotected sex acts, unprotected vaginal sex, unprotected oral giving sex acts and unprotected oral receiving sex acts from baseline to follow-up (all ps Conclusion: Factors that accounted for meaningful changes across groups and no change between intervention outcomes were discussed. While the M-BART intervention impacted the adolescents directly by teaching skills about how to reduce risky sex, the AM intervention and also impacted higher order factor, impulsivity, linked to risky sex and drug use. Implications for HIV prevention among minority adolescents were discussed.
Latkin, Carl A.; German, Danielle; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro
Neighborhood factors have been linked to HIV risk behaviors, HIV counseling and testing, and HIV medical care. However, the social-psychological mechanisms that connect neighborhood factors to HIV-related behaviors have not been fully determined. In this article we review the research on neighborhood factors and HIV-related behaviors, approaches…
... awareness of his/her HIV status. The cooperative agreements will provide routine HIV screening for adults as..., routine HIV screening programs in Tribal health facilities that are aligned with 2006 CDC HIV screening... consent and counseling procedures (verbal consent, opt- out), a clear HIV screening policy,...
Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E
HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 and July 2007, 6 with community leaders, and 3 with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities' strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities' needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities' different but complementary resources.
Virginia A Fonner
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: School-based sex education is a cornerstone of HIV prevention for adolescents who continue to bear a disproportionally high HIV burden globally. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the existing evidence for school-based sex education interventions in low- and middle-income countries to determine the efficacy of these interventions in changing HIV-related knowledge and risk behaviors. METHODS: We searched five electronic databases, PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts, for eligible articles. We also conducted hand-searching of key journals and secondary reference searching of included articles to identify potential studies. Intervention effects were synthesized through random effects meta-analysis for five outcomes: HIV knowledge, self-efficacy, sexual debut, condom use, and number of sexual partners. RESULTS: Of 6191 unique citations initially identified, 64 studies in 63 articles were included in the review. Nine interventions either focused exclusively on abstinence (abstinence-only or emphasized abstinence (abstinence-plus, whereas the remaining 55 interventions provided comprehensive sex education. Thirty-three studies were able to be meta-analyzed across five HIV-related outcomes. Results from meta-analysis demonstrate that school-based sex education is an effective strategy for reducing HIV-related risk. Students who received school-based sex education interventions had significantly greater HIV knowledge (Hedges g = 0.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.49-0.78, p<0.001, self-efficacy related to refusing sex or condom use (Hedges g = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.14-0.36, p<0.001, condom use (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.18-1.52, p<0.001, fewer sexual partners (OR = 0.75, 95% CI:0.67-0.84, p<0.001 and less initiation of first sex during follow-up (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The paucity of abstinence-only or abstinence-plus interventions identified during the review made
Kiderlen, Til R; Conteh, Michael; Roll, Stephanie; Seeling, Stefanie; Weinmann, Stefan
The objectives of this study were to assess the current status of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (KAB) of employees in the private transport sector in Namibia and to compare companies with established HIV workplace program (WPPs) with those that have recently initiated the implementation of such programs. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Between January and March 2011, the survey was conducted in the Namibian truck transport sector in six companies of different sizes. The participants were selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on a KAB questionnaire. The range of correct answers to the survey concerning the knowledge of HIV transmission was 67-95%. Twenty percent of the employees had never been tested for HIV. Additionally, risky sexual behaviors were quite prevalent and included having multiple concurrent partners and the use of sex for incentives. This study revealed that drivers and laborers were especially at risk for such behaviors. The employees of companies with established WPPs were tested for HIV more often than those of companies with new WPPs; however, aside from this difference, only minor differences were observed between the two groups. The findings of this study highlight the need for on-going HIV information and prevention campaigns that focus on the special needs of mobile and low-income workers. WPPs should be tailored accordingly and shift their focus to more practical approaches, such as voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), to increase their effectiveness.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND. “Project Protect” aims to find highly infectious individuals through screening for acute/recent infection cases and prevent HIV transmission in the risk networks of these cases through contact tracing of these networks` participants, distributing community alerts about risk of acute infection among them and accurate post-test counseling.METHODS. An ongoing pilot phase of the intervention began in Kriviy Rig and Lviv, Ukraine in November, 2011. Participants are recruited through: 1 screening for cases of acute/recent infection at voluntary counseling and testing (VCT sites and in partner organizations (including AIDS-Centers which conduct VCT; 2 visits to drug use venues, chain-referral and contact tracing. Genscreen ultra HIV Ag-Ab “special-tests” are used to detect cases of acute infection. Recent infection is defined as positive test result and preceding negative result within 6 months and/or age younger than 21 years old.RESULTS. In the two cities 173 respondents were recruited to the project, 118 special tests were done. No cases of acute infection and eleven cases of recent infection were found (8 injection drug users (IDUs with preceding negative result within 6 months, 2 IDUs younger than 21 recruited by project team; one non-IDU with preceding negative result within 6 months referred from AIDS-Center. Six recent cases were recruited through screening at VCT sites, 5 others through contact tracing. Psychologists conducted 41 interviews with recent infection cases and their risk networks` members; 176 community alert flyers were distributed to members of risk networks during the interview by psychologist, at the venue by social worker and by participants themselves; 3 drug use venues were visited by project team with concomitant HIV-testing of people present at the venue. CONCLUSIONS. Network tracing seems to be feasible and to help find recently infected people. Further research is needed to tell whether this
Full Text Available Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infection in children. The objective of this study was to assess PMTCT services by examining knowledge about reducing vertical transmission among pregnant women. Methods: A multistaged sampling institution-based survey was conducted in 113 pregnant women in Arba Minch. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. Results: Of the 113 respondents, 89.4% were from Arba Minch, 43.4% were at least 25 years of age, 73.4% had formal education at primary level or above, 100% reported acceptance of voluntary counseling and testing, 92.0% were knowledgeable about mother-to-child transmission, and 90.3% were aware of the availability of the PMTCT service in the health facility. Of 74 HIV-positive women in PMTCT, only three (4.1% had had skilled birth attendants at delivery. There was an unacceptable degree of loss of women from PMTCT. Maternal educational level had a statistical association with income (P < 0.001 and voluntary counseling and testing for pregnant women (P < 0.05. Factors that determined use of PMTCT included culture, socioeconomic status, and fear of stigma and discrimination. Conclusion: In the area studied, intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV is failing to reach its goal. This is an alarming discovery requiring quick reconsideration and strengthening of preventive strategies at all levels. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, pregnant women, Ethiopia
Noar, Seth M.; Webb, Elizabeth M.; Van Stee, Stephanie K.; Redding, Colleen A.; Feist-Price, Sonja; Crosby, Richard; Troutman, Adewale
New prevention options are urgently needed for African-Americans in the United States given the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on this group. This combined with recent evidence supporting the efficacy of computer technology-based interventions in HIV prevention led our research group to pursue the development of a computer-delivered individually tailored intervention for heterosexually active African-Americans—the tailored information program for safer sex (TIPSS). In the current article, we discuss the development of the TIPSS program, including (i) the targeted population and behavior, (ii) theoretical basis for the intervention, (iii) design of the intervention, (iv) formative research, (v) technical development and testing and (vi) intervention delivery and ongoing randomized controlled trial. Given the many advantages of computer-based interventions, including low-cost delivery once developed, they offer much promise for the future of HIV prevention among African-Americans and other at-risk groups. PMID:21257676
Since gender is an undisputed driver of HIV infection, teachers concerned with HIV prevention education should ideally encourage critical awareness of and culturally sensitive practices around gender inequalities. Many interventions and programmes have been developed for teachers to enable them to do this, however most have met with limited success. This article proceeds from the viewpoint that for HIV-prevention interventions to be sustainable and effective, teachers should be actively engaged in their design, implementation and evaluation. It outlines how teachers in an HIV prevention programme utilised an action research design to explore their own gender constructs as a necessary first step to the creation of more gender-sensitive school climates and teaching practices. This values-based self-enquiry moved the teachers to action on two levels: first, to adopt a more gender-sensitive approach in their own personal and professional lives and second, to take action to challenge gender inequalities within their particular educational contexts. Evidence is presented to justify the claim that action research of this genre helps teachers to generate indigenous epistemologies and practices that not only are effective in creating sustainable and empowering learning environments for HIV prevention education, but also for teaching and learning in general.
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in HIV prevention; current status and future directions: a summary of the DAIDS and BMGF sponsored think tank on pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) in HIV prevention.
Romano, Joseph; Kashuba, Angela; Becker, Stephen; Cummins, James; Turpin, Jim; Veronese, Fulvia
Thirty years after its beginning, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is still raging around the world. According to UNAIDS, in 2011 alone 1.7M deaths were attributable to AIDS, and 2.5M people were newly infected by the virus. Despite the success in treating HIV-infected people with potent antiretroviral drugs, preventing HIV infection is the key to ending the epidemic. Recently, the efficacy of topical and systemic antiviral chemoprophylaxis (i.e., preexposure prophylaxis or "PrEP"), using the same drugs used for HIV treatment, has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. However, results from other trials have been inconsistent, especially those evaluating PrEP in women. These inconsistencies may result from our incomplete understanding of pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) at the mucosal sites of sexual transmission: the male and female gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts. The drug concentrations used in these trials were derived from those used for treatment; however, we still do not know the relationship between the therapeutic and the preventive dose. This article presents the first comprehensive review of the available data in the HIV pharmacology field from animal models to human studies, and outlines gaps, challenges, and future directions. Addressing these pharmacological gaps and challenges will be critical in selecting and advancing future PrEP candidates and strategies with the greatest impact on the HIV epidemic.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Men who have sex with men (MSM practice role segregation - insertive or receptive only sex positions instead of a versatile role - in several international settings where candidate biomedical HIV prevention interventions (e.g., circumcision, anal microbicide will be tested. The effects of these position-specific interventions on HIV incidence are modeled. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a deterministic compartmental model to predict HIV incidence among Indian MSM using data from 2003-2010. The model's sex mixing matrix was derived from network data of Indian MSM (n=4604. Our model captures changing distribution of sex roles over time. We modeled microbicide and circumcision efficacy on trials with heterosexuals. RESULTS: Increasing numbers of versatile MSM resulted in little change in HIV incidence over 20 years. Anal microbicides and circumcision would decrease the HIV prevalence at 10 years from 15.6% to 12.9% and 12.7% respectively. Anal microbicides would provide similar protection to circumcision at the population level despite lower modeled efficacy (54% and 60% risk reduction, respectively. Combination of the interventions were additive: in 5 years, the reduction in HIV prevalence of the combination (-3.2% is almost the sum of their individual reductions in HIV prevalence (-1.8% and -1.7%. CONCLUSIONS: MSM sex role segregation and mixing, unlike changes in the sex role distribution, may be important for evaluating HIV prevention interventions in international settings. Synergies between some position-specific prevention interventions such as circumcision and anal microbicides warrant further study.
Al-Iryani, Buthaina; Basaleem, Huda; Al-Sakkaf, Khaled; Kok, Gerjo; van den Borne, Bart
In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer education intervention for HIV prevention in the 27 schools of Aden. In 2008, and after 3 years of implementation, a quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted, which revealed that the peer education intervention has succeeded in improving HIV knowledge and skills; and in decreasing stigmatization of PLWH. This process evaluation aims to give a deeper understanding of the quasi-experimental evaluation which was conducted in the 27 high schools of Aden, and to highlight the factors that facilitated or inhibited school peer education in such a conservative Muslim setting. Qualitative methodologies were pursued, where 12 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with peer educators, targeted students, school principals, social workers, and parents of peer educators. Results revealed that school-peer education was well received. There was an apparent positive effect on the life skills of peer educators, but the intervention had a lesser effect on targeted students. Key enabling factors have been the high quality of training for peer educators, supportive school principals, and acceptance of the intervention by parents. These findings are important for improving the life skills and peer education intervention at the school level, and in better planning and implementation of life skills and peer programmes at a national scale.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, delivers HIV prevention services to high-risk populations at scale. Although the broad costs of such HIV interventions are known, to-date there has been little data available on the comparative costs of reaching different target groups, including female sex workers (FSWs, replace with ‘high risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM and trans-genders. Methods Costs are estimated for the first three years of Avahan scale up differentiated by typology of female sex workers (brothel, street, home, lodge based, bar based, HR-MSM and transgenders in urban districts in India: Mumbai and Thane in Maharashtra and Bangalore in Karnataka. Financial and economic costs were collected prospectively from a provider perspective. Outputs were measured using data collected by the Avahan programme. Costs are presented in US$2008. Results Costs were found to vary substantially by target group. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs working with transgender populations had a higher mean cost (US $116 per person reached compared to those dealing primarily with FSWs (US $75-96 and MSWs (US $90 by the end of year three of the programme in Mumbai. The mean cost of delivering the intervention to HR-MSMs (US $42 was higher than delivering it to FSWs (US $37 in Bangalore. The package of services delivered to each target group was similar, and our results suggest that cost variation is related to the target population size, the intensity of the programme (in terms of number of contacts made per year and a number of specific issues related to each target group. Conclusions Based on our data policy makers and program managers need to consider the ease of accessing high risk population when planning and budgeting for HIV prevention services for these populations and avoid funding programmes on the basis of target population size alone.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although various HIV prevention programs targeting men who have sex with men (MSM are operating in China, whether and how these programs are being utilized is unclear. This study explores participation of HIV prevention programs and influencing factors among MSM in two cities in China. Methods This is a mixed-method study conducted in Beijing and Chongqing. A qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 54 MSM, 11 key informants, and 8 focus group discussions, a cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling among 998 MSM were conducted in 2009 and 2010 respectively to elicit information on MSM’s perception and utilization of HIV prevention programs. Qualitative findings were integrated with quantitative multivariate factors to explain the quantitative findings. Results Fifty-six percent of MSM in Chongqing and 75.1% in Beijing ever participated in at least one type of HIV prevention program (P=0.001. Factors related to participation in HIV prevention programs included age, ethnicity, income, HIV risk perception, living with boyfriend, living in urban area, size of MSM social network, having talked about HIV status with partners, and knowing someone who is HIV positive. Reasons why MSM did not participate in HIV prevention programs included logistical concerns like limited time for participation and distance to services; program content and delivery issues such as perceived low quality services and distrust of providers; and, cultural issues like HIV-related stigma and low risk perception. Conclusions The study shows that there is much room for improvement in reaching MSM in China. HIV prevention programs targeting MSM in China may need to be more comprehensive and incorporate the cultural, logistic and HIV-related needs of the population in order to effectively reach and affect this population’s risk for HIV.
Anderson, James E; Kanters, Steve
This study set out to assess the relationship between variation in human rights for sexual minorities in Asian countries and indicators of HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. To quantitatively measure the relationship between variation in HIV prevention and variation in human rights for sexual minorities, this study developed the Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI) Human Rights Index (an original index with scores ranging from 0.0 to 1.0). Subsequently, this study collected 237 epidemiological and behavioral studies from 22 Asian countries and performed a series of meta-analyses in order to calculate national averages for five indicators of HIV prevention: HIV prevalence, inconsistent condom use, recent HIV testing, adequate HIV knowledge, and exposure to HIV prevention services. A change of human rights for sexual minorities from a score of 0.0 to 1.0 as measured by the SOGI Human Rights Index was correlated with a decrease in unprotected anal intercourse by 25.5% (p=0.075), and increases in recent HIV testing by 42.9% (p=0.011), HIV knowledge by 29.5% (p=0.032), and exposure to HIV prevention services by 37.9% (p=0.119). The relationship between HIV prevalence and variation in human rights for sexual minorities was not statistically significant. Our study found correlations between human rights and indicators of HIV prevention, further supporting the need for increased rights among marginalized populations. The paucity of studies from many Asian countries as well as the disparity in how indicators of HIV prevention are measured reveals a need for increased coverage and standardization of MSM serological and behavioral data in order to better inform evidence-based policymaking.
Muchomba, Felix M; Chan, Christine; El-Bassel, Nabila
The socioeconomic status (SES) of women is increasingly considered an important factor for HIV/STI risk. The HIV/STI literature has largely focused on women's absolute levels of SES, and therefore, the importance of their SES relative to their male sexual partners remains understudied. This paper examines the association between women's relative SES and frequency of safer sex communication among heterosexual couples. A convenience sample of 342 couples (N = 684) recruited in New York City was asked about frequency of discussions with their partner about the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention in the previous 90 days. Differences between partners in education, income, employment, housing, and incarceration history were combined using principal component analysis to form an index of women's relative SES. Negative binomial regression models assessed associations between woman's relative SES and communication frequency controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, and relationship type using a generalized estimating equation framework. On average, participants had 2.5, 4.2, and 4.8 discussions regarding the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in a woman's relative SES score was associated with increased frequency of discussions about male condom use (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.29), about HIV prevention (aRR, 1.25; CI, 1.14-1.37), and about STI prevention (aRR, 1.29; CI, 1.18-1.41). Women's relative SES may be an important factor for sexual communication, and further research on its role in HIV/STI risk may uncover avenues for intervention.
McCreary, Linda L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Kafulafula, Ursula K; Ngalande, Rebecca C; Kumbani, Lily C; Jere, Diana L N; Norr, James L; Norr, Kathleen F
This paper reports the process evaluation of a peer group intervention for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention which had positive outcomes for three target groups in Malawi: rural adults, adolescents and urban hospital workers. The six-session intervention was delivered to small groups of 10-12 participants by 85 trained volunteer peer leaders working in pairs. A descriptive, observational mixed methods design was used with a convenience sample of 294 intervention sessions. Using project records and a conceptually based observation guide, we examined five aspects of the implementation process. The context was favorable, but privacy to discuss sensitive issues was a concern for some groups. In study communities, program reach was 58% of rural adults, 70% of adolescents and nearly all hospital workers. Session records confirmed that all peer groups received the intended six sessions (dose delivered). The dose received was high, as evidenced by high participant engagement in peer group activities. Peer leaders were rated above the median for three indicators of peer group content and process fidelity: session management skills, interpersonal facilitation skills and whether more like a peer group than classroom. Documenting that this HIV prevention peer group intervention was delivered as intended by trained peer volunteers supports widespread dissemination of the intervention.
Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Zuniga, Maria Ofelia; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; Navas, Verónica
This paper will explore in detail the effects of context and group dynamics on the development of a multi-level community-based HIV prevention intervention for crack cocaine users in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area, El Salvador. Community partners included residents from marginal communities, service providers from the historic center of San Salvador and research staff from a non-profit organization. The community contexts from which partners came varied considerably and affected structural group dynamics, i.e. who was identified as community partners, their research and organizational capacity, and their ability to represent their communities, with participants from marginal communities most likely to hold community leadership positions and be residents, and those from the center of San Salvador most likely to work in religious organizations dedicated to HIV prevention or feeding indigent drug users. These differences also affected the intervention priorities of different partners. The context of communities changed over time, particularly levels of violence, and affected group dynamics and the intervention developed. Finally, strategies were needed to elicit input from stakeholders under-represented in the community advisory board, in particular active crack users, in order to check the feasibility of the proposed intervention and revise it as necessary. Because El Salvador is a very different context than that in which most CBPR studies have been conducted, our results reveal important contextual factors and their effects on partnerships not often considered in the literature.
Keogh, Peter; Dodds, Catherine
The development of pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies (PPTs) over the last five years has generated intense interest from a range of stakeholders. There are concerns that these clinical and pharmaceutical interventions are proceeding with insufficient input of the social sciences. Hence key questions around implementation and evaluation remain unexplored whilst biomedical HIV prevention remains insufficiently critiqued or theorised from sociological as well as other social science perspectives. This paper presents the results of an expert symposium held in the UK to explore and build consensus on the role of the social sciences in researching and evaluating PPTs in this context. The symposium brought together UK social scientists from a variety of backgrounds. A position paper was produced and distributed in advance of the symposium and revised in the light this consultation phase. These exchanges and the emerging structure of this paper formed the basis for symposium panel presentations and break-out sessions. Recordings of all sessions were used to further refine the document which was also redrafted in light of ongoing comments from symposium participants. Six domains of enquiry for the social sciences were identified and discussed: self, identity and personal narrative; intimacy, risk and sex; communities, resistance and activism; systems, structures and institutions; economic considerations and analyses; and evaluation and outcomes. These are discussed in depth alongside overarching consensus points for social science research in this area as it moves forward.
Sivaram, Sudha; Johnson, Sethulakshmi; Bentley, Margaret E; Srikrishnan, A K; Latkin, Carl A; Go, Vivian F; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D
Addressing male heterosexual risk is a high priority for HIV prevention efforts in India. Particularly in urban India, which draws men for employment opportunities, these efforts are gaining momentum with a focus on understanding possible risk facilitators such as alcohol use. However, little is known about venues where such efforts might be targeted. In this paper, we explore community-based alcohol outlets or "wine shops" in Chennai, India, as potential venues. We conducted ethnographic research with wine shop staff and clients to understand alcohol use and sexual behaviors. We then surveyed 118 wine shop patrons to quantify these risk behaviors and plan an appropriate intervention. Our results show that wine shops are a venue where social and sexual networks converge. Reports and observations of regular and heavy drinking were frequent. Over 50% of patrons surveyed reported three or more sexual partners in the past 3 months, and 71% of all patrons reported a history of exchanging sex for money. Condom use history was low overall but, in the adjusted analyses, was significantly higher (OR = 20.1) among those who reported that their most recent partner was a sex worker and lower (OR = 0.28) among those who reported they drank to feel disinhibited. The data suggest that wine shops may be an appropriate location to target men for HIV prevention interventions. We discuss how these findings helped design such an intervention in Chennai.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine policy implications, this analysis tracks the evolution of HIV/AIDS infection across China to understand current trends and potential risk factors. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study with spatial analytical model and multilevel spatial models was conducted among 326,157 HIV/AIDS cases reported from 1989-2009. The results indicate that the distribution of HIV/AIDS was clustered at the county level with different directional distributions across China from 2003 to 2009. Compared to 2003, by 2009 there was a 122% increase in HIV cases among rural residents, 294% increase among urban residents, 211% increase among migrants, and 237% increase among permanent residents. The overall proportion of HIV by different routes of transmission showed dramatic changes with a 504% increase in sexual transmission of HIV, 90% decrease in blood/plasma transmission, and 35% decrease in injecting drug user transmission. Sexual transmission was the major transmission route among women (44% and the elderly (59% in men, 44% in women as well as among permanent (36% and urban residents (33%. Among those <65 years old, women increased more than men, but among those ≥ 65 years, men increased more than women. Migrants contributed to the variance of HIV infection between counties but not within counties. The length of highway and urbanization combined with illiteracy were risk factors for HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rates of HIV/AIDS among permanent urban residents, particularly women and elderly men, have increased significantly in recent years. To prevent HIV from spreading further among the general population, additional attention should be paid to these populations as well as to migrants.
Branch, Meredith; Harvey, S Marie; Zukoski, Ann P; Warren, Jocelyn
Latino women in the United States are disproportionately at risk for unintended pregnancy, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted nine focus groups with health care practitioners who provide reproductive health care to Latinos in rural areas of the Northwest. From the practitioner perspective, we explored barriers and facilitators to the acquisition and use of contraceptives and to the prevention of HIV/STIs among rural Latinos. Suggestions for improving reproductive health care included Spanish-language resources/materials and convenient contraceptive methods. Findings provide context to the complex issues related to unintended pregnancy and disease prevention among Latinos residing in rural communities.
Haworth Kevin G
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 viruses are categorized into four distinct groups: M, N, O and P. Despite the same genomic organization, only the group M viruses are responsible for the world-wide pandemic of AIDS, suggesting better adaptation to human hosts. Previously, it has been reported that the group M Vpu protein is capable of both down-modulating CD4 and counteracting BST-2/tetherin restriction, while the group O Vpu cannot antagonize tetherin. This led us to investigate if group O, and the related group P viruses, possess functional anti-tetherin activities in Vpu or another viral protein, and to further map the residues required for group M Vpu to counteract human tetherin. Results We found a lack of activity against human tetherin for both the Vpu and Nef proteins from group O and P viruses. Furthermore, we found no evidence of anti-human tetherin activity in a fully infectious group O proviral clone, ruling out the possibility of an alternative anti-tetherin factor in this virus. Interestingly, an activity against primate tetherins was retained in the Nef proteins from both a group O and a group P virus. By making chimeras between a functional group M and non-functional group O Vpu protein, we were able to map the first 18 amino acids of group M Vpu as playing an essential role in the ability of the protein to antagonize human tetherin. We further demonstrated the importance of residue alanine-18 for the group M Vpu activity. This residue lies on a diagonal face of conserved alanines in the TM domain of the protein, and is necessary for specific Vpu-tetherin interactions. Conclusions The absence of human specific anti-tetherin activities in HIV-1 group O and P suggests a failure of these viruses to adapt to human hosts, which may have limited their spread.
Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa, with its scientific capacity, good infrastructure and high HIV incidence rates, is ideally positioned to conduct large-scale HIV prevention trials. The HIV Prevention Research Unit of the South African Medical Research Council conducted four phase III and one phase IIb trials of women-initiated HIV prevention options in KwaZulu-Natal between 2003 and 2009. A total of 7046 women participated, with HIV prevalence between 25% and 45% and HIV incidence ranging from 4.5-9.1% per year. Unfortunately none of the interventions tested had any impact on reducing the risk of HIV acquisition; however, extremely valuable experience was gained, lessons learned and capacity built, while the communities gained associated benefits. Experience Our experience in conducting these trials ranged from setting up community partnerships to developing clinical research sites and dissemination of trial results. Community engagement included setting up community-based research sites with approval from both political and traditional leaders, and developing community advisory groups to assist with the research process. Community-wide education on HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment and care was provided to over 90 000 individuals. Myths and misconceptions were addressed through methods such as anonymous suggestion boxes in clinic waiting areas and intensive education and counselling. Attempts were made to involve male partners to foster support and facilitate recruitment of women. Peer educator programmes were initiated to provide ongoing education and also to facilitate recruitment of women to the trials. Recruitment strategies such as door-to-door recruitment and community group meetings were initiated. Over 90% of women enrolled were retained. Community benefits from the trial included education on HIV prevention, treatment and care and provision of ancillary care (such as Pap smears, reproductive health care and
Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Stanton, Bonita; Boekeloo, Bradley; King, Winifred; Desmond, Sharon; Howard, Donna; Black, Maureen M.; Carey, James W.
Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are used in public health to prevent HIV infection among youth and other groups. EBIs include core elements, features that are thought to be responsible for the efficacy of interventions. The authors evaluate experiences of organizations that adopted an HIV-prevention EBI, Focus on Kids (FOK), and their fidelity…
J.C.M. van Weert; S.S.T. Hermanns; A.J. Linn; B.C. Schouten
Dance4life is a global organization specifically aiming to establish a social youth movement around HIV and AIDS prevention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the dance4life school-based HIV and AIDS prevention program, by sending questionnaires to two target groups in Afric
Lisa B Haddad
Full Text Available Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic.200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010.Most women (95% did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy. Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage.High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.
Campbell, C; Williams, B
While migrant labour is believed to play an important role in the dynamics of HIV-transmission in many of the countries of southern Africa, little has been written about the way in which HIV/AIDS has been dealt with in the industrial settings in which many migrant workers are employed. This paper takes the gold mining industry in the countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) as a case study. While many mines made substantial efforts to establish HIV-prevention programmes relatively early on in the epidemic, these appear to have had little impact. The paper analyses the response of key players in the mining industry, in the interests of highlighting the limitations of the way in which both managements and trade unions have responded to HIV. It will be argued that the energy that has been devoted either to biomedical or behavioural prevention programmes or to human rights issues has served to obscure the social and developmental dimensions of HIV-transmission. This argument is supported by means of a case study which seeks to highlight the complexity of the dynamics of disease transmission in this context, a complexity which is not reflected in individualistic responses. An account is given of a new intervention which seeks to develop a more integrated approach to HIV management in an industrial setting.
Waxman Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recommended three changes to HIV testing methods in US healthcare settings: (1 an opt-out approach, (2 removal of separate signed consent, and (3 optional HIV prevention counseling. These recommendations led to a public debate about their moral acceptability. Methods We interviewed 25 members from the fields of US HIV advocacy, care, policy, and research about the ethical merits and demerits of the three changes to HIV testing methods. We performed a qualitative analysis of the participant responses in the interviews and summarized the major themes. Results In general, arguments in favor of the methods were based upon their ultimate contribution to increasing HIV testing and permitting the consequent benefits of identifying those who are HIV infected and linking them to further care. Conclusions The prevailing theme of ethical concern focused on suspicions that the methods might not be properly implemented, and that further safeguards might be needed.
Semugoma, Paul; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan
Uganda's response to the HIV epidemic has been lauded for its robustness and achievements. However, a key component of HIV prevention programming has been missing, for men who have sex with men (MSM). The main reason cited has been criminalization of male homosexual behavior. In 2009, the Anti-Homosexuality Bill (AHB) was introduced in the parliament to enhance existing anti-homosexuality law. A multi-disciplinary team made a Health Impact Assessment of the proposed AHB. The bill as tabled would severely increase punishments, increased closeting. Social capital of MSM would be eroded by clauses mandating reporting by friends, relatives, and acquaintances. Health-care professionals would have to inform on homosexuals. Mandatory HIV testing would be a blow to programming. Probable disclosure of HIV status in a public space (court) would also be a deterrent. Heftier punishments for those testing positive increases stigma and hobbles subsequent care. The AHB argues for exclusion, and more discrimination targeting persons living with HIV and sexual minorities. It will exacerbate the negative public health consequences of the existing legislation. The government of Uganda should review guidance documents published by authoritative bodies including the World Bank, World Health Organization to develop and bring to scale Human rights-affirming HIV prevention, treatment, and care responses.
Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Barroso, Rubén; Dyrhaug, Sunniva Y; Navarro, Gemma; Lucas, Pilar; Soriano, Silvia F; Vega, Beatriz; Costas, Coloma; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles; Santiago, César; Rodríguez Frade, José Miguel; Franco, Rafael; Mellado, Mario
CCR5 and CXCR4, the respective cell surface coreceptors of R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains, both form heterodimers with CD4, the principal HIV-1 receptor. Using several resonance energy transfer techniques, we determined that CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 formed heterotrimers, and that CCR5 coexpression altered the conformation of both CXCR4/CXCR4 homodimers and CD4/CXCR4 heterodimers. As a result, binding of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120IIIB to the CD4/CXCR4/CCR5 heterooligomer was negligible, and the gp120-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for HIV-1 entry were prevented. CCR5 reduced HIV-1 envelope-induced CD4/CXCR4-mediated cell-cell fusion. In nucleofected Jurkat CD4 cells and primary human CD4(+) T cells, CCR5 expression led to a reduction in X4 HIV-1 infectivity. These findings can help to understand why X4 HIV-1 strains infection affect T-cell types differently during AIDS development and indicate that receptor oligomerization might be a target for previously unidentified therapeutic approaches for AIDS intervention.
Lebbink, Robert Jan; de Jong, Dorien C. M.; Wolters, Femke; Kruse, Elisabeth M.; van Ham, Petra M.; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.; Nijhuis, Monique
HIV presents one of the highest evolutionary rates ever detected and combination antiretroviral therapy is needed to overcome the plasticity of the virus population and control viral replication. Conventional treatments lack the ability to clear the latent reservoir, which remains the major obstacle towards a cure. Novel strategies, such as CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA-based genome-editing, can permanently disrupt the HIV genome. However, HIV genome-editing may accelerate viral escape, questioning the feasibility of the approach. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting of single HIV loci, only partially inhibits HIV replication and facilitates rapid viral escape at the target site. A combinatorial approach of two strong gRNAs targeting different regions of the HIV genome can completely abrogate viral replication and prevent viral escape. Our data shows that the accelerating effect of gene-editing on viral escape can be overcome and as such gene-editing may provide a future alternative for control of HIV-infection. PMID:28176813
Amos Kankponang Laar, PhD
Full Text Available Background: Developed by the World Health Organization (WHO and partners, the correct adaptation and implementation of the global guidelines on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV is critical. This study explored the challenges that health workers face implementing WHO’s PMTCT guidelines, and the experiences of HIV-positive clients receiving these services. Methods: We interacted with 14 health professionals, and 16 PMTCT clients through in-depth interviews. Four of seven PMTCT sites within the Accra Metropolis were purposively included. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, analyzed, and then sorted into themes. Results: Health workers had challenges translating PMTCT guidelines into useful messages for their clients. Their counselling was often prescriptive. Counselors identified inadequate in-service training as a key reason for their outdated and inconsistent messages. HIV-positive clients exhibited general knowledge about the importance of doing exclusive breast-feeding for the first six months of life. Clients had confidence in antiretroviral for PMTCT. However, deeply rooted socio-cultural practices and the attitudes of counselors remain challenges to clients. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counselors require refresher training which addresses, among other things, long-held socio-cultural practices. Publicizing these challenges will prod policy makers and program implementers to develop strategies that address the challenges both locally and globally.
Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: Updated Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Masur, Henry; Brooks, John T; Benson, Constance A; Holmes, King K; Pau, Alice K; Kaplan, Jonathan E
In May 2013, a revised and updated version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health/HIV Medicine Association Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents was released online. These guidelines, since their inception in 1989, have been widely accessed in the United States and abroad. These guidelines have focused on the management of HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections that occur in the United States. In other parts of the world, the spectrum of complications may be different and the resources available for diagnosis and management may not be identical to those in the United States. The sections that have been most extensively updated are those on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus, and immunizations. The guidelines will not be published in hard copy form. This document will be revised as needed throughout each year as new data become available.
Kotanyi, Sophie; Krings-Ney, Brigitte
In Mozambique, initiation rites represent the most appropriate socio-cultural context for dealing with sexuality for a large part of the population. As the group most vulnerable to HIV exposure, HIV-prevention counselling could be ideally introduced to young women during initiation rites. This article demonstrates how interventions can take advantage of the positive aspects of this tradition. We discuss local notions of social 'contamination' versus biological 'contamination,' and we present a culturally sensitive communication strategy to bridge the divergent paradigms around AIDS-similar symptoms. Because of the emotional importance of the initiation rites, the suggested approach goes far beyond cognitive knowledge. After training, the godmothers in initiation rites became highly motivated to teach novice girls about HIV prevention and they trained other elderly women as well. Thus, the initiation rites turned into a process of empowerment for women in their own communities. A central agenda of the female initiation rites in Mozambique is to inculcate respect towards ancestors, elders, authorities and others; however, this respectful attitude between genders and between generations is disappearing due to factors like warfare and the cash economy. HIV-prevention counselling may be successfully introduced into initiation rites because of the unconscious, emotional impact of the process on the initiates' behaviour. Other studies have shown that cognitive knowledge is not enough to lead to behavioural changes. Without changing the traditional initiation rites for females, which in Mozambique includes no genital cutting, a complementary approach introduces HIV-prevention counselling during ritual counselling moments, thereby motivating godmothers and novice girls and young women to be more aware and take precautions to prevent HIV infection.
Noar, Seth M.
Computer technology-based interventions (CBIs) represent a promising area for HIV prevention behavioral intervention research. Such programs are a compelling prevention option given their potential for broad reach, customized content, and low cost delivery. The purpose of the current article is to provide a review of the state of the literature on CBIs. First, we define CBIs in HIV prevention and highlight the many advantages of such interventions. Next, we provide an overview of what is currently known regarding the efficacy of CBIs in HIV prevention, focusing on two recent meta-analyses of this literature. Finally, we propose an agenda for future directions for research in the area of CBIs, using the RE-AIM model as an organizing guide. We conclude that with the continued growth of computer technologies, opportunities to apply such technologies in HIV prevention will continue to blossom. Further research is greatly needed to advance an understanding of not only how and under what circumstances CBIs can be efficacious, but also how the reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of such programs in clinical and community settings can be achieved. PMID:21287420
Pamela Payne Foster
Full Text Available The Black Church has long been purported as being strongly influential in the lives of Blacks in America. Recent U.S. census data trends highlight a “reverse migration” pattern where Blacks are moving back to the South from larger metropolitan areas in other U.S. geographical regions. This migration pattern parallels the increasing HIV/AIDS prevalence among Blacks in the Deep South. This paper reviews both the historical and current migration patterns among Blacks, as well as the current HIV/AIDS epidemic among Blacks in the Deep South. Thereafter, the authors discuss an existing framework for increasing HIV/AIDS prevention capacity through a conceptual connection of migration, religion and sexual health. The authors use case studies to support the proposed framework. It is hoped that the framework could be used to address HIV/AIDS health disparities and other chronic diseases affecting Blacks in America.
Full Text Available Abstract Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs or shelter as a means of basic subsistence (ie. survival sex have remained largely at the periphery of HIV and harm reduction policies and services across Canadian cities. This is notwithstanding global evidence of the multiple harms faced by this population, including high rates of violence and poverty, and enhanced vulnerabilities to HIV transmission among women who smoke or inject drugs. In response, a participatory-action research project was developed in partnership with a local sex work agency to examine the HIV-related vulnerabilities, barriers to accessing care, and impact of current prevention and harm reduction strategies among women in survival sex work. This paper provides a brief background of the health and drug-related harms among substance-using women in survival sex work, and outlines the development and methodology of a community-based HIV prevention research project partnership. In doing so, we discuss some of the strengths and challenges of community-based HIV prevention research, as well as some key ethical considerations, in the context of street-level sex work in an urban setting.
Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte
Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a novel biomedical HIV prevention option for individuals at high risk of HIV acquisition. Although pre-exposure prophylaxis has yielded encouraging results in various clinical trials, opponents argue that pre-exposure prophylaxis poses a number of risks to human health and to sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. Using qualitative thematic analysis and social representation theory, this article explores coverage of pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK print media between 2008 and 2015 in order to chart the emerging social representations of this novel HIV prevention strategy. The analysis revealed two competing social representations of pre-exposure prophylaxis: (1) as a positive development in the 'battle' against HIV (the hope representation) and (2) as a medical, social and psychological setback in this battle, particularly for gay/bisexual men (the risk representation). These social representations map onto the themes of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a superlatively positive development; pre-exposure prophylaxis as a weapon in the battle against HIV/AIDS; and risk, uncertainty and fear in relation to pre-exposure prophylaxis. The hope representation focuses on taking (individual and collective) responsibility, while the risk representation focuses on attributing (individual and collective) blame. The implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Cianelli, R; Lara, L; Villegas, N; Bernales, M; Ferrer, L; Kaelber, L; Peragallo, N
Worldwide, and in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low-income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviours that protect them against HIV. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M), and HIV prevention intervention, on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used for this study. The research was conducted in Santiago, Chile; a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n=182; control group, n=218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health care model. The intervention consists of six 2-h sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased, at 3 months follow up, their reported depressive symptoms. MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. In this study nurses participated as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions.
Full Text Available Empirical studies and population-level policy simulations show the importance of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC in generalized epidemics. This paper complements available scenario-based studies (projecting costs and outcomes over some policy period, typically spanning decades by adopting an incremental approach-analyzing the expected consequences of circumcising one male individual with specific characteristics in a specific year. This approach yields more precise estimates of VMMC's cost-effectiveness and identifies the outcomes of current investments in VMMC (e.g., within a fiscal budget period rather than of investments spread over the entire policy period.The model has three components. We adapted the ASSA2008 model, a demographic and epidemiological model of the HIV epidemic in South Africa, to analyze the impact of one VMMC on HIV incidence over time and across the population. A costing module tracked the costs of VMMC and the resulting financial savings owing to reduced HIV incidence over time. Then, we used several financial indicators to assess the cost-effectiveness of and financial return on investments in VMMC. One circumcision of a young man up to age 20 prevents on average over 0.2 HIV infections, but this effect declines steeply with age, e.g., to 0.08 by age 30. Net financial savings from one VMMC at age 20 are estimated at US$617 at a discount rate of 5% and are lower for circumcisions both at younger ages (because the savings occur later and are discounted more and at older ages (because male circumcision becomes less effective. Investments in male circumcision carry a financial rate of return of up to 14.5% (for circumcisions at age 20. The cost of a male circumcision is refinanced fastest, after 13 y, for circumcisions at ages 20 to 25. Principal limitations of the analysis arise from the long time (decades over which the effects of VMMC unfold-the results are therefore sensitive to the discount rate applied, and
Aït-Khaled, N; Alarcon, E; Bissell, K; Boillot, F; Caminero, J A; Chiang, C-Y; Clevenbergh, P; Dlodlo, R; Enarson, D A; Enarson, P; Ferroussier, O; Fujiwara, P I; Harries, A D; Heldal, E; Hinderaker, S G; Kim, S J; Lienhardt, C; Rieder, H L; Rusen, I D; Trébucq, A; Van Deun, A; Wilson, N
Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is recognised as an important component of collaborative tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activities to reduce the burden of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, there has been little in the way of IPT implementation at country level. This failure has resulted in a recent call to arms under the banner title of the 'Three I's' (infection control to prevent nosocomial transmission of TB in health care settings, intensified TB case finding and IPT). In this paper, we review the background of IPT. We then discuss the important challenges of IPT in PLHIV, namely responsibility and accountability for the implementation, identification of latent TB infection, exclusion of active TB and prevention of isoniazid resistance, length of treatment and duration of protective efficacy. We also highlight several research questions that currently remain unanswered. We finally offer practical suggestions about how to scale up IPT in the field, including the need to integrate IPT into a package of care for PLHIV, the setting up of operational projects with the philosophy of 'learning while doing', the development of flow charts for eligibility for IPT, the development and implementation of care prior to antiretroviral treatment, and finally issues around procurement, distribution, monitoring and evaluation. We support the implementation of IPT, but only if it is done in a safe and structured way. There is a definite risk that 'sloppy' IPT will be inefficient and, worse, could lead to the development of multidrug-resistant TB, and this must be avoided at all costs.
...: National HIV Program for Enhanced HIV/AIDS Screening and Engagement in Care Announcement Type: New. Funding... has the administrative infrastructure to support activities to increase HIV/ AIDS screening and assist.... Describe the objectives of the program and how they will increase HIV screening in...
Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Nichols, Kristen; Mendoza, Maria C B; Gaul, Zaneta J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus D; LaPlace, Lisa; Straw, Julie; Staatz, Colleen; Buge, Hadiza; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John; Sutton, Madeline Y
In the United States, young people (ages 15-24 years) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), due at least in part to inadequate or incorrect HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI). Comic book narratives are a proven method of HIV/STD prevention communication to strengthen KABI for HIV/STD prevention. Motion comics, a new type of comic media, are an engaging and low-cost means of narrative storytelling. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot six-episode HIV/STD-focused motion comic series to improve HIV/STD-related KABI among young people. We assessed change in HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, condom attitudes, HIV/STD testing attitudes, and behavioral intentions among 138 participants in 15 focus groups immediately before and after viewing the motion comic series. We used paired t-tests and indicators of overall improvement to assess differences between surveys. We found a significant decrease in HIV stigma (p comic intervention improved HIV/STD-related KABI of young adult viewers by reducing HIV stigma and increasing behavioral intentions to engage in safer sex. Our results demonstrate the promise of this novel intervention and support its use to deliver health messages to young people.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To design HIV prevention programmes, it is critical to understand the temporal and geographic aspects of the local epidemic and to address the key behaviours that drive HIV transmission. Two methods have been developed to appraise HIV epidemics and guide prevention strategies. The numerical proxy method classifies epidemics based on current HIV prevalence thresholds. The Modes of Transmission (MOT model estimates the distribution of incidence over one year among risk-groups. Both methods focus on the current state of an epidemic and provide short-term metrics which may not capture the epidemiologic drivers. Through a detailed analysis of country and sub-national data, we explore the limitations of the two traditional methods and propose an alternative approach. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared outputs of the traditional methods in five countries for which results were published, and applied the numeric and MOT model to India and six districts within India. We discovered three limitations of the current methods for epidemic appraisal: (1 their results failed to identify the key behaviours that drive the epidemic; (2 they were difficult to apply to local epidemics with heterogeneity across district-level administrative units; and (3 the MOT model was highly sensitive to input parameters, many of which required extraction from non-regional sources. We developed an alternative decision-tree framework for HIV epidemic appraisals, based on a qualitative understanding of epidemiologic drivers, and demonstrated its applicability in India. The alternative framework offered a logical algorithm to characterize epidemics; it required minimal but key data. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional appraisals that utilize the distribution of prevalent and incident HIV infections in the short-term could misguide prevention priorities and potentially impede efforts to halt the trajectory of the HIV epidemic. An approach that characterizes local transmission
McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Coleman, Bill; Maher, Lisa; Milloy, M J; Small, Will
HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) initiatives promote antiretroviral therapy (ART) access and optimal adherence (≥95 %) to produce viral suppression among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and prevent the onward transmission of HIV. ART treatment interruptions are common among PLHIV who use drugs and undermine the effectiveness of TasP. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 PLHIV who use drugs who had experienced treatment ART interruptions in a setting with a community-wide TasP initiative (Vancouver, Canada) to examine influences on these outcomes. While study participants attributed ART interruptions to "treatment fatigue," our analysis revealed individual, social, and structural influences on these events, including: (1) prior adverse ART-related experiences among those with long-term treatment histories; (2) experiences of social isolation; and, (3) breakdowns in the continuity of HIV care following disruptive events (e.g., eviction, incarceration). Findings reconceptualise 'treatment fatigue' by focusing attention on its underlying mechanisms, while demonstrating the need for comprehensive structural reforms and targeted interventions to optimize TasP among drug-using PLHIV.
Full Text Available Background: Compared to HIV-infected children, relatively little has been described regarding the health status, particularly growth of HIV-exposed but uninfected children in resource-limited settings. This is particularly relevant with widespread implementation of the prevention of parent to child transmission program. Methods: At a tertiary care health institute in India, a cohort of 44 HIV-exposed but uninfected children were followed through 6 months of age. The anthropometric parameters weight, length, and head circumference were investigated at birth, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months point of time. The information on maternal characteristics such as HIV clinical staging, CD4 count, and maternal weight were recorded. The linear regression analysis was applied to estimate the influence of maternal characteristics on infant anthropometric parameters. Results: Anthropometric parameters (weight, length and head circumference were significantly reduced in uninfected new-borns of mothers in HIV Clinical stage III and IV and weight 50 kg. Analysis conducted to find the effect of maternal immunosuppression on infant growth reveals a significant difference at CD4 300 cells/mm 3 and not at established cut-off of CD4 350 cells/mm 3 . This trend of difference continued at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. The multiple linear regression analysis model demonstrated maternal HIV clinical stage and weight as predictors for birth weight and length, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced HIV disease in the mother is associated with poor infant growth in HIV-exposed, but uninfected children at a critical growth phase in life. These results underscore the importance, especially in resource-constrained settings, of early HIV diagnosis and interventions to halt disease progression in all pregnant women.
Allen, C F; Simon, Y; Edwards, J; Simeon, D T
In the Caribbean region, an estimated 1.1% of the population aged 15-49 is living with HIV. We aimed to measure factors associated with condom use, the primary form of positive prevention in the Caribbean, among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in its major agency advocating on behalf of PLHIV (the Caribbean Regional Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS, or CRN +). Condom use at last sex was selected for analysis from a broad-ranging cross-sectional survey (n=394) among PLHIV who were members of or received services from CRN+ in Antigua and Barbuda, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago. PLHIV from CRN+ traced potential participants, administered informed consent procedures and carried out structured interviews. Fifty-four percent of respondents reported using a condom the last time they had sex. Condom use was positively associated with partner being HIV negative, disclosure of HIV status, alcohol use, economic security, education level and being employed. Multivariate logistic regression found independent associations between condom use and economic security (p=0.031; odds ratio (OR) for "enough" income 5.06; 95% CI 1.47-17.39), partner being HIV negative (p=0.036; OR 2.85; 95% CI 1.28-6.33) and being married (p=0.043; OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.03-7.91). Seventy-three percent of respondents reported inadequate family income, 26% reported an HIV-negative partner and 9% were married. Condom use appears to be motivated by protection of HIV-negative partners and spouses. Low socioeconomic status is associated with the overall percentage using condoms. Restriction to members of CRN+ limits generalisability of the findings. Nevertheless, the findings support the view that programmes for the socioeconomic empowerment of PLHIV are needed to slow the Caribbean HIV epidemic. Expectations for protection of different types of partners should be further explored in order to develop culturally appropriate interventions with couples.
Moreno, Santiago; Antela, Antonio; García, Felipe; Del Amo, Julia; Boix, Vicente; Coll, Pep; Fortuny, Claudia; Sirvent, Juan L Gómez; Gutiérrez, Félix; Iribarren, José A; Llibre, Josep M; Quirós, Juan C López Bernaldo de; Losa, Juan Emilio; Lozano, Ana; Meulbroek, Michael; Olalla, Julián; Pujol, Ferran; Pulido, Federico; Crespo Casal, Manuel; García, Juan González; Aldeguer, José López; Molina, Jose A Pérez; Podzamczer Palter, Daniel; Román, Antonio Rivero
Administration of antiretroviral drugs to individuals exposed to, but not infected by, HIV has been shown to reduce the risk of transmission. The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) makes it obligatory to include it in an integral program of prevention of HIV transmission, together with other measures, such as use of the condom, training, counseling, and appropriate treatment of infected individuals. In this document, the AIDS Study Group (GeSIDA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica [SEIMC]) provides its views on this important subject. The available evidence on the usefulness of PrEP in the prevention of transmission of HIV is presented, and the components that should make up a PrEP program and whose development and implementation are feasible in Spain are set out.
Condom promotion has emerged as a mainstay of targeted HIV prevention interventions in India, with its emphasis on individual behaviour change and personal responsibility. However, such approaches often do not account for marginalised populations' structural vulnerability to HIV, arising from social, economic and political factors in the lived environment. In this paper, I use a critical health communication framework to analyse how structure and agency interact in influencing condom use among long-distance truck drivers in India. Drawing on an abductive discourse analysis of condom-use discourses among truckers and peer educators in two Indian cities, findings reveal that while truckers understand the biomedical logic of condoms as barriers, they also express anxiety about condom breakage and experience structural barriers to condom use. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention to structural vulnerabilities in future HIV prevention efforts with truck drivers.
Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Joseph, Shine A; Zapantis, Antonia
With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an "evening before pill". The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing policy
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is spreading fast in Africa in spite of the various efforts and resources put in place to prevent it. In Kenya, reproductive health programs have used the mass media and other communication interventions to inform and educate the public about the disease and to promote behavior change and healthy sexual practices. This effort has led to a discrepancy between awareness and behavioral change among people of reproductive age. In this article I examine the discrepancy in Kenya from a communications perspective addressing social cultural and related factors contributing to the lack of change in behavior and sexual practices. I draw on the theoretical framework of Grunig's model of excellence in communication, the importance of understanding and relationship building between programs and their stakeholders. Data were gathered qualitatively using focus groups and in-depth interviews among men and women in rural Kenya. Key findings indicate that although awareness of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is high in Kenya, a majority of the population, particularly those in the rural communities, lack understanding of the communicated messages. They also lack the knowledge of other ways of transmitting HIV particularly among those not sexually involved. Cultural beliefs, values, norms, and myths have played a role in the rapidly increasing epidemic in the rural communities and yet HIV/AIDS communication programs have not addressed these factors adequately. I conclude that successful behavior change communication must include strategies that focus on increasing understanding of the communicated messages and understanding of the audience through application of appropriate methodologies. Building a relationship with the audience or stakeholders through dialogues and two-way symmetrical communication contributes toward this understanding and the maintenance of the newly
Collins, Linda M; Kugler, Kari C; Gwadz, Marya Viorst
To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally.
Darrow, William W; Montanea, Julie E; Sánchez-Braña, Elizabeth
Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 provided a unique opportunity for minority community-based organizations (CBOs) to work together to eliminate disparities in HIV disease. A coalition was formed in Broward County to respond to the REACH 2010 program announcement, a university was chosen to coordinate efforts, and contracts were negotiated with CBO partners to develop, implement, and evaluate a community action plan. Contract management provided stability, focus, and a mechanism for coalition partners to measure progress toward achieving project objectives. By emphasizing documentation as well as the delivery of services, however, contract conditions also placed a heavy burden on educational outreach workers, restricted the reimbursable activities of member organizations, and created friction between minority agencies and university staff. Although the coalition met many of its objectives, the introduction and enforcement of a mutually agreed on set of rules and obligations as a way of promoting systems change in Broward County failed to make a lasting impact among community partners. CBOs continued to compete with one another for HIV prevention project funding and stopped collaborating as closely with another when federal support for our REACH 2010 community demonstration project ran out.
Tenkorang, Eric Y; Gyimah, Stephen O; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Adjei, Jones
Belief in superstition and witchcraft is central to many African conceptions of illness, disease causation and etiology. While a number of anthropological studies have alluded to a theoretical link between such beliefs and HIV prevention in particular, there is limited empirical assessment of the association. Using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying random-effects logit models, we investigate whether the belief that AIDS can spread through witchcraft associates with the sexual decision making of never-married men and women. The results show that men who believed AIDS can spread through witchcraft and other supernatural means were less likely to have used condoms at last sexual intercourse, controlling for other socioeconomic and cultural variables. Women with similar beliefs were more likely to have experienced sexual intercourse but less likely to have used condoms at last sex. For women, however, the relationship between such superstitious beliefs and condom use was somewhat attenuated after controlling for ethnicity and region of residence. From a policy perspective, the findings suggest that local beliefs regarding AIDS causation must be considered in designing HIV/AIDS programmes and interventions.
Lieber, Eli; Chin, Dorothy; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Wu, Zunyou; Guan, Jihui
HIV may be particularly stigmatizing in Asia because of its association with "taboo" topics, including sex, drugs, homosexuality, and death (Aoki, Ngin, Mo, & Ja, 1989). These cultural schemata expose salient boundaries and moral implications for sexual communication (Chin, 1999, Social Science and Medicine, 49, 241-251). Yet HIV/STD prevention efforts are frequently conducted in the public realm. Education strategies often involve conversations with health "experts" about condom use, safe sex, and partner communication. The gap between the public context of intervention efforts and the private and norm-bound nature of sex conversation is particularly challenging. Interviews with 32 market workers in eastern China focused on knowledge, beliefs, and values surrounding sexual practices, meanings, and communication. Sex-talk taboos, information seeking, vulnerability, partner communication, and cultural change emerged as central to understanding intervention information flow and each theme's relative influence is described. Findings illustrate the nature of how sexual communication schemata in Chinese contexts impact the effectiveness of sexual health message communication.
Burke, H. M.; Pedersen, K. F.; Williamson, N. E.
Youth peer education (YPE) programs are a popular strategy for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, research on the effectiveness of YPE programs is scarce and the wide variation in programs makes it difficult to generalize research findings. Measuring quality and comparing program effectiveness require the use of standardized…
Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Whittier, David K.; Jones, Patricia L.; Smith, Bryce D.; Uhl, Gary; Fisher, Holly H.
The concept of core elements was developed to denote characteristics of an intervention, such as activities or delivery methods, presumed to be responsible for the efficacy of evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) for HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper describes the development of a taxonomy of core elements based on a literature review of…
promiscuity (14 organizations), alcohol abuse (13 organizations), negative reinforcement of Information Education and Counseling (EIC) (13 organizations), the...in prevention interventions, an increase in participants’ exposure to negative reinforcement of HIV/AIDS messages, and handicaps implementers...test results about their infection status. I categorized responses that got at various aspects of this dynamic as the “ negative reinforcement of
Gacoin, Andrée E.
Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…
Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Perry, Deidrea L.; Lolacono, Marni L.; Fryer, Craig S.; Adair, Elissa Schuler; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.
Gender beliefs affect adolescents' sexual motivations, perceptions, and actions (Moss, 1994) and can endanger sexual health (Haffner, 1998). We believe that teaching youth about gender norms will increase the efficacy of HIV/STD preventive interventions. We were funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to develop and…