WorldWideScience

Sample records for adapted physical activity

  1. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  2. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  3. Defining adapted physical activity: international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative methodology. Data sources were online surveys, APA literature, and expertise of researchers. Findings, with the identification of further considerations, were provided for each APA component to stimulate reflection and further inquiry among international professionals with diverse backgrounds.

  4. Thinking Ethically about Professional Practice in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna L.; Rossow-Kimball, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or…

  5. Adapted physical activity in the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Ksenija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the progressive loss of bone tissue, is one of the most common complications of aging. Epidemiology. According to some calculations, there were 25% of women and 4% of men older than 50 years with osteoporosis in the world in 2010. It is assumed that the number of patients with osteoporosis will increase by 30% in every 10 years in the 21st century. There are many reasons for that: the world’s population is growing older, diet is getting poorer in vitamins and minerals and physical activity is decreasing. The Quality and Quantity of Bone Tissue. Developing bones are much more responsive to mechanical loading and physical activity than mature bones. This suggests that training in early childhood may be an important factor in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. It is important to note that the quality of bone achieved by training at younger age cannot be maintained permanently if it is not supported by physical activity later in life. Adapted physical activity represents physical activity individually tailored according to the psychosomatic capabilities of a person and the goal to be achieved. It can be applied at any age in order to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fracture. Adapted physical activity is different for men and women, for different age, as well as for the individuals. Aerobic exercises, which lead to an acceleration of breathing, increased heart rate and mild perspiration, as well as resistance exercises and exercises against resistance done by stretching elastic bands, for hands, legs and torso have been proven to increase bone density and improve bone strength. Coordination and balance exercises are important in an individual workout program. An explanation of the action of adapted physical activity is the basis for the theory of control and modulation of bone loss, muscle strength, coordination and balance. Physical activity is very effective in

  6. Framing Cross-Cultural Ethical Practice in Adapt[ive] Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna; Howe, P. David

    2016-01-01

    Academics and practitioners are often at a loss when it comes to understanding the ethical socio-political and cultural contexts that invade the world of adapted physical activity. Ethical practice is situated in the local and the specific. In this article we highlight the reality that both academics and practitioners need to be ever mindful that…

  7. Phenomenology and adapted physical activity: philosophy and professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2014-01-01

    Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.

  8. Adapted physical activity in rehabilitating work activity for adults with intellectual disability : case Monituote

    OpenAIRE

    Heinola, Jenni

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to describe adapted physical activities (APA) offered for adults with intellectual disability in rehabilitating work activity and to spread information concerning the topic to colleagues in Finland as well as to those working abroad. The thesis is a part of research and development project of Satakunta University of Applied Sciences. The University works as an associate partner in EUSAPA-project which is a European level attempt to explore and develop adapted ph...

  9. Perspectives on the Contribution of Social Science to Adapted Physical Activity: Looking Forward, Looking Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causgrove Dunn, Janice; Cairney, John; Zimmer, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the contributions of the social sciences to the field of adapted physical activity by examining the theories and methods that have been adopted from the social science disciplines. To broaden our perspective on adapted physical activity and provide new avenues for theoretical and empirical exploration, we discuss and…

  10. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  11. A Documentary Analysis of Abstracts Presented in European Congresses on Adapted Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenarikova, Jana; Kudlacek, Martin; Baloun, Ladislav; Causgrove Dunn, Janice

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify trends in research abstracts published in the books of abstracts of the European Congress of Adapted Physical Activity from 2004 to 2012. A documentary analysis of the contents of 459 abstracts was completed. Data were coded based on subcategories used in a previous study by Zhang, deLisle, and Chen (2006) and by Porretta and Sherrill (2005): number of authors, data source, sample size, type of disability, data analyses, type of study, and focus of study. Descriptive statistics calculated for each subcategory revealed an overall picture of the state and trends of scientific inquiry in adapted physical activity research in Europe. PMID:27623611

  12. A Documentary Analysis of Abstracts Presented in European Congresses on Adapted Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenarikova, Jana; Kudlacek, Martin; Baloun, Ladislav; Causgrove Dunn, Janice

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify trends in research abstracts published in the books of abstracts of the European Congress of Adapted Physical Activity from 2004 to 2012. A documentary analysis of the contents of 459 abstracts was completed. Data were coded based on subcategories used in a previous study by Zhang, deLisle, and Chen (2006) and by Porretta and Sherrill (2005): number of authors, data source, sample size, type of disability, data analyses, type of study, and focus of study. Descriptive statistics calculated for each subcategory revealed an overall picture of the state and trends of scientific inquiry in adapted physical activity research in Europe.

  13. Influence of physical education on the level of adaptation of students to educational activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolinska S.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Examined and summarized problems of adaptation of students to educational activity. 100 students took part in research. Found out a row socially psychological factors which determine efficiency of process of adaptation of students to the scientific process. Practical recommendations are developed on organization of educational process of students. It is recommended widely to utillize a physical culture as mean of reduction of adaptation period and increase of level of physical and mental capacity. It is marked that almost 90% students have rejections in a health. Also over 50% - unsatisfactory physical preparedness. It is set that for the students of the II course the indexes of low situation anxiety prevail as compared to the I course. It is set that the characteristic feature of the psychological state during an examination session is emotionally volitional instability.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan; Eylem; Ekrem Levent

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2...

  15. Peers as resources for learning : a situated learning approach to adapted physical activity in rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Standal, Øyvind Førland; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 1/2 week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical activities. The findings from the qualitative data analysis are discussed in the context of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998). The results indi...

  16. Regulation of pH in human skeletal muscle: adaptations to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    resonance technique to exercise experiments including blood sampling and muscle biopsies. The present review characterizes the cellular buffering system as well as the most important membrane transport systems involved (Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na-bicarbonate co-transport and lactate/H(+) co......-transport) and describes the contribution of each transport system in pH regulation at rest and during muscle activity. It is reported that the mechanisms involved in pH regulation can undergo adaptational changes in association with physical activity and that these changes are of functional importance....

  17. Adaptive Playware in Physical Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Thorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    that the activity automatically will match the capability of the individual user. With small test groups, we investigate how different age groups and gender groups physically interact with some playware games, and find indications of differences between the groups. Despite the small test set, the results......We describe how playware and games may adapt to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that in physical games there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user’s capabilities, so...... are a proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation, and therefore we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the physical game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed...

  18. Dietary and physical activity adaptations to alternate day modified fasting: implications for optimal weight loss

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    Klempel Monica C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternate day modified fasting (ADMF is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese adults. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dietary and physical activity adaptations that occur during short-term ADMF, and to determine how these modulations affect rate of weight loss. Methods Sixteen obese subjects (12 women/4 men completed a 10-week trial consisting of 3 phases: 1 2-week control phase, 2 4-week ADMF controlled feeding phase, and 3 4-week ADMF self-selected feeding phase. Results Body weight decreased (P r = 0.42, P = 0.01. Dietary fat intake decreased (36% to 33% of kcal, P r = 0.38, P = 0.03. Hunger on the fast day decreased (P Conclusion These findings indicate that obese subjects quickly adapt to ADMF, and that changes in energy/macronutrient intake, hunger, and maintenance of physical activity play a role in influencing rate of weight loss by ADMF.

  19. Statistical Physics of Adaptation

    CERN Document Server

    Perunov, Nikolai; England, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    All living things exhibit adaptations that enable them to survive and reproduce in the natural environment that they inhabit. From a biological standpoint, it has long been understood that adaptation comes from natural selection, whereby maladapted individuals do not pass their traits effectively to future generations. However, we may also consider the phenomenon of adaptation from the standpoint of physics, and ask whether it is possible to delineate what the difference is in terms of physical properties between something that is well-adapted to its surrounding environment, and something that is not. In this work, we undertake to address this question from a theoretical standpoint. Building on past fundamental results in far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics, we demonstrate a generalization of the Helmholtz free energy for the finite-time stochastic evolution of driven Newtonian matter. By analyzing this expression term by term, we are able to argue for a general tendency in driven many-particle systems...

  20. Effects of an adapted physical activity program on psychophysical health in elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Alesi, Marianna; Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown the positive effects of adapted physical activity (APA) on physical and mental health (MH) during the lifetime. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific APA intervention program in the improvement of the health-related quality of life (QOL) and functional condition of spine in elderly women. Methods Thirty women were recruited from a senior center and randomly assigned to two groups: control group (CG; age: 69.69±7.94 years, height: 1.57±0.06 m, weight: 68.42±8.18 kg, body mass index [BMI]: 27.88±2.81) and trained group (TG; age: 68.35±6.04 years, height: 1.55±0.05 m, weight: 64.78±10.16 kg, BMI: 26.98±3.07). The APA program was conducted for 8 weeks, with two training sessions/week. CG did not perform any physical activity during the study. Spinal angles were evaluated by SpinalMouse® (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland); health-related QOL was evaluated by SF-36 Health Survey, which assesses physical component summary (PCS-36), mental component summary (MCS-36), and eight subscales: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perception, role-emotional, social functioning, vitality, and MH. All measures were recorded before and after the experimental period. Results In TG, compared to CG, the two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a relevant improvement in lumbar spinal angle (°) and in SF-36 outcomes after the intervention period. We showed a significant increase in physical functioning, bodily pain, and MH subscales and in PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores in TG compared to CG. In particular, from baseline to posttest, we found that in TG, the PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores increased by 13.20% and 11.64%, respectively. Conclusion We believe that an 8-week APA intervention program is able to improve psychophysical heath in elderly people. During the aging process, a dynamic lifestyle, including regular physical activity, is a crucial

  1. [Adapted Physical Activity for patients with chronic diseases in a therapeutic community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouricha, Rémy; Thöni, Gilles; Raffard, Laurence; Cochet, Laurence; Saucourt, Vincent; Tirode, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The French therapeutic communities ("Appartements de Coordination Therapeutique (ACT)") are mostly members of the "National Federation of Accommodation for HIV+ and other chronic diseases. They provide accommodation for people living with chronic conditions (HIV hepatitis, cancers...) and in a situation of high psychosocial frailty. As a result of their coordinated multidisciplinary intervention, these structures provide the required support to access health care and facilitate social inclusion. They are designed to provide an appropriate response to people with cumulative medical and social conditions (chronic diseases, precariousness, addictions and other comorbidities). Our innovative local experiment integrates Adapted Physical Activities (APA) into the global medical and social follow-up, in line with the patient's individual health care project. The characteristics of each APA project (nature of the activities proposed, intensity, duration, frequency, individual vs. team activity and accompanying methods) are defined on an individual basis, according to the user's motivations and inputs from the support team (medical, psychological and social coordination). The follow-up ensured by our APA professionals allows the residents to participate in a regular and attractive physical activity and could contribute to their social inclusion. The multidisciplinary approach proposed by ACTs determines the beneficial effects observed in such vulnerable patients. PMID:26168635

  2. An adaptive physical activity intervention for overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible. OBJECTIVE: To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention. METHODS: Participants (N = 20 were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1 static intervention (SI or 2 adaptive intervention (AI. Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9 ± 9.2 years, 35% non-white in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data. RESULTS: A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001 and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p  .017. The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74. CONCLUSIONS: The adaptive

  3. The food pyramid adapted to physically active adolescents as a nutrition education tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Brandão Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the understanding of the Food Pyramid Adapted to Physically Active Adolescents as an educational tool to improve nutrition knowledge. Adolescents engaged in sport training responded to a nutrition knowledge questionnaire before and after the intervention. The pyramid intervention group received the printed educational material, and the broad intervention group received the printed material followed by a lecture. As a result, mean initial nutrition knowledge was average (59.9 ± 18 points, increasing (p<0.001 after the intervention (69.1 ± 20 points without significant difference between interventions. In conclusion, adolescents' nutrition knowledge improved, even with the use of the Food Pyramid alone, indicating its use to promote nutritional knowledge.

  4. Peers as resources for learning: a situated learning approach to adapted physical activity in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 (1/2) week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical activities. The findings from the qualitative data analysis are discussed in the context of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998). The results indicate that peer learning extends beyond skills and techniques, to include ways for the participants to make sense of their situations as wheelchair users. Also, it was found that the community of practice established between the participants represented a critical corrective to instructions provided by rehabilitation professionals.

  5. Providing Physical Activity for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: The Motivate, Adapt, and Play Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathy; Hodson, Patricia; Zhang, Guili; Boswell, Boni; Decker, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that regular physical activity helps to prevent major health problems, such as heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. However, little research has been conducted on classroom-based physical activity programs for students with disabilities. In North Carolina, the Healthy Active Children Policy was implemented in 2006, requiring…

  6. Physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001941.htm Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  7. Experience, Intersubjectivity, and Reflection: A Human Science Perspective on Preparation of Future Professionals in Adaptive Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…

  8. Physical activity: an important adaptative mechanism for body-weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  9. Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control

    OpenAIRE

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains ...

  10. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

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    Frizziero Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies

  11. Adapted physical exercise enhances activation and differentiation potential of satellite cells in the skeletal muscle of old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age. PMID:26739770

  12. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik;

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  13. Older American Indians’ Perspectives on Health, Arthritis, and Physical Activity: Implications for Adapting Evidence-Based Interventions, Oregon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the high prevalence of arthritis and physical disability among older American Indians, few evidence-based interventions that improve arthritis self-management via physical activity have been adapted for use in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about health, arthritis, and physical activity among older American Indians living in a rural area in Oregon to help select and adapt an arthritis self-management program. Methods In partnership with a tribal health program, we conducted surveys, a focus group, and individual interviews with older American Indians with arthritis. Our sample comprised 6 focus group participants and 18 interviewees. The 24 participants were aged 48 to 82 years, of whom 67% were women. Forms B and C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) instrument, modified for arthritis, measured MHLC. Results The concepts of health, arthritis, and physical activity overlapped in that health was a holistic concept informed by cultural teachings that included living a healthy lifestyle, socializing, and being functionally independent. Arthritis inhibited health and healthy behaviors. Participants identified barriers such as unreliable transportation and recruiting challenges that would make existing interventions challenging to implement in this setting. The Doctor subscale had the highest MHLC (mean = 4.4 [standard deviation (SD), 1.0]), followed by the Internal subscale (3.9 [SD, 1.4]) and the Other People subscale (2.8 [SD, 1.1]). Conclusions Existing evidence-based programs for arthritis should be adapted to address implementation factors, such as access to transportation, and incorporate cultural values that emphasize holistic wellness and social interconnectedness. Culturally sensitive programs that build on indigenous values and practices to promote active coping strategies for older American Indians with arthritis are needed. PMID:27337558

  14. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  15. Adapting the cognitive interview to enhance long-term (35 years) recall of physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R P; Falkner, K L; Trevisan, M; McCauley, M R

    2000-04-01

    The cognitive interview (CI) was modified for use in an epidemiological study in which respondents were asked to recall their daily physical activities from the distant past (35 years ago). In comparison to a traditional epidemiological interview, the CI elicited many more responses and also more precise responses. Several practical costs, however, were incurred by the CI: additional time to train interviewers and to conduct interviews and difficulties in coding the responses. The costs and benefits of conducting the CI are addressed, along with conceptual and methodological challenges. The article ends with an existential question: Is the CI a singular technique if it can be modified so radically for different settings? PMID:10783535

  16. The short international physical activity questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the Hausa language version in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adewale L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. Methods The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. Results The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1 to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1, but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01 and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04 significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1, respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84 and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72, but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51, and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and

  17. Statistical Physics of Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perunov, Nikolay; Marsland, Robert A.; England, Jeremy L.

    2016-04-01

    Whether by virtue of being prepared in a slowly relaxing, high-free energy initial condition, or because they are constantly dissipating energy absorbed from a strong external drive, many systems subject to thermal fluctuations are not expected to behave in the way they would at thermal equilibrium. Rather, the probability of finding such a system in a given microscopic arrangement may deviate strongly from the Boltzmann distribution, raising the question of whether thermodynamics still has anything to tell us about which arrangements are the most likely to be observed. In this work, we build on past results governing nonequilibrium thermodynamics and define a generalized Helmholtz free energy that exactly delineates the various factors that quantitatively contribute to the relative probabilities of different outcomes in far-from-equilibrium stochastic dynamics. By applying this expression to the analysis of two examples—namely, a particle hopping in an oscillating energy landscape and a population composed of two types of exponentially growing self-replicators—we illustrate a simple relationship between outcome-likelihood and dissipative history. In closing, we discuss the possible relevance of such a thermodynamic principle for our understanding of self-organization in complex systems, paying particular attention to a possible analogy to the way evolutionary adaptations emerge in living things.

  18. Peers as Resources for Learning: A Situated Learning Approach to Adapted Physical Activity in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 one-half week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical…

  19. The association of physical activity to neural adaptability during visuo-spatial processing in healthy elderly adults: A multiscale entropy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hao; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tseng, Philip; Yang, Albert C; Lo, Men-Tzung; Peng, Chung-Kang; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Muggleton, Neil G; Juan, Chi-Hung; Liang, Wei-Kuang

    2014-10-29

    Physical activity has been shown to benefit brain and cognition in late adulthood. However, this effect is still unexplored in terms of brain signal complexity, which reflects the level of neural adaptability and efficiency during cognitive processing that cannot be acquired via averaged neuroelectric signals. Here we employed multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) of electroencephalography (EEG), a new approach that conveys important information related to the temporal dynamics of brain signal complexity across multiple time scales, to reveal the association of physical activity with neural adaptability and efficiency in elderly adults. A between-subjects design that included 24 participants (aged 66.63±1.31years; female=12) with high physical activity and 24 age- and gender-matched low physical activity participants (aged 67.29±1.20years) was conducted to examine differences related to physical activity in performance and MSE of EEG signals during a visuo-spatial cognition task. We observed that physically active elderly adults had better accuracy on both visuo-spatial attention and working memory conditions relative to their sedentary counterparts. Additionally, these physically active elderly adults displayed greater MSE values at larger time scales at the Fz electrode in both attention and memory conditions. The results suggest that physical activity may be beneficial for adaptability of brain systems in tasks involving visuo-spatial information. MSE thus might be a promising approach to test the effects of the benefits of exercise on cognition. PMID:25463141

  20. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve ... Have had recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), ...

  1. Adapting Evidence-Based Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among African Americans, Hispanics, Hmong, and Native Hawaiians: A Social Marketing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann S. Van Duyn, PhD, MPH, RD

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionUsing a social marketing approach, we studied how best to adapt proven, evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity for use with underserved racial or ethnic groups.MethodsWe conducted focus groups with low-income Hispanic women in Texas, Hmong parents and their children in California, low-income African American women and men in the Mississippi Delta, and Native Hawaiian college students in Hawaii. We also interviewed key leaders of these communities. Topics of discussion were participants’ perceptions about 1 the benefits of engaging in physical activity, 2 the proposed evidence-based strategies for increasing each community’s level of physical activity, and 3 the benefits and barriers to following the proposed interventions for increasing physical activity. A total of 292 individuals participated in the study.ResultsAll groups considered that being physically active was part of their culture, and participants found culturally relevant suggestions for physical activities appealing. Overwhelmingly, strategies that aimed to create or improve social support and increase access to physical activity venues received the most positive feedback from all groups. Barriers to physical activity were not culturally specific; they are common to all underserved people (lack of time, transportation, access, neighborhood safety, or economic resources.ConclusionResults indicate that evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity need to be adapted for cultural relevance for each racial or ethnic group. Our research shows that members of four underserved populations are likely to respond to strategies that increase social support for physical activity and improve access to venues where they can be physically active. Further research is needed to test how to implement such strategies in ways that are embraced by community members.

  2. Physical performance and self-report outcomes associated with use of passive, adaptive, and active prosthetic knees in persons with unilateral, transfemoral amputation: Randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Hafner, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic knees are a vital component in an artificial limb. Contemporary knees include passive (mechanical, adaptive (computerized, or active (motorized control systems and have the potential to mitigate amputation-related functional impairments and activity limitations. A 14 mo randomized crossover trial was conducted. Participants (n = 12, mean age = 58 yr were tested under three conditions: passive control (existing knee, adaptive control (Ossur Rheo Knee II, and active control (Ossur Power Knee II. Training and acclimation time were provided to participants in the adaptive and active knees. Outcome measures included indoor tests (Timed Up and Go test [TUG], stairs, and ramp, outdoor tests (walking course and perceived exertion, step activity monitor, self-report surveys (mobility, balance confidence, physical function, fatigue, and general health, and fall incidence. Mixed-effects linear regression modeling was used to evaluate data. Compared with passive control, adaptive control significantly improved comfortable TUG time (difference = 0.91 s, p = 0.001 and reported physical function (difference = 1.26 [T-score], p = 0.03. Active control significantly increased comfortable TUG, fast TUG, and ramp times (difference = 3.02, 2.66, and 0.96 s, respectively, all p < 0.03 and increased balance confidence (difference = 3.77, p = 0.003 compared with passive control. Findings suggest that adaptive knee control may enhance function compared with passive control but that active control can restrict mobility in middle-age or older users with transfemoral amputation.

  3. Adapted Intervention Mapping: A Strategic Planning Process for Increasing Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Opportunities in Schools via Environment and Policy Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belansky, Elaine S.; Cutforth, Nick; Chavez, Robert; Crane, Lori A.; Waters, Emily; Marshall, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School environment and policy changes have increased healthy eating and physical activity; however, there has been modest success in translating research ?ndings to practice. The School Environment Project tested whether an adapted version of Intervention Mapping (AIM) resulted in school change. Methods: Using a pair randomized design,…

  4. Adapted Physical Activity Programme and Self-Perception in Obese Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Between Morphological Awareness and Positive Illusory Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Reynes, Eric; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In adolescents with intellectual disability, the management of obesity is a crucial issue, yet also quite complex because of their particular perception of themselves. This study investigated the relationship between self-perception variables and morphological variables and their changes after a 9-month Adapted Physical Activity (APA)…

  5. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and discriminative validity of the Danish version of the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Sørensen, Lotte; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer;

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is abundant evidence that physical activity has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Questionnaires are simple and inexpensive to apply to measure physical activity. Purpose / Aim of Study: Translate and cross-cultural adapt the short...... questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) to Danish and to investigate the reliability and discriminative validity of the Danish version. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted according to the COSMIN guidelines. The reliability was evaluated in 50 healthy individuals, mean age...... of SQUASH can distinguish between individuals, but the absolute reliability was poor and SQUASH is not considered suitable for measuring physical activity on an individual level. SQUASH was unable to discriminate between healthy individuals and patients with hip dysplasia with respect to total activity...

  6. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  7. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  8. An Intervention Study of Adapted Physical Activity on Adaptive Behavior of Moderate Mentally Retarded Students%适应体育对中度智障学生适应行为的干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 唐闻捷; 肖云儿

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore intervention effect of adapted physical activity (APA) on adaptive behavior of moderate mentally retarded (MR) students. Method: Adaptive behaviors of 112 MR students were measured by Children's Adaptive Behavior Scale (CABS) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised in China (C-WISC); 36 MR students assessed as moderately impaired in adaptive behavior were divided into experimental group and control group, then subjects in experimental group were intervened by adapted physical activity. After intervention, the scores of CABS of experimental group were compared with the control group by repetitive measurement and analysis. Result: After in- tervention, the scores of CABS of experimental group increased significantly in exercise capacity dimension, serf-care di- mension and social responsibility dimension. Conclusion: adapted physical activity played the significant role in promoting the level of adaptive behavior of students with moderate mental retardation.%目的:探讨适应体育对中度智障学生的适应行为的干预效果。方法:采用《韦氏儿童智力量表》和《儿童适应行为评定量表》对112名智障学生的智力及适应行为进行了调查。并将其中36名中度智障学生分为实验组和对照组,对实验组的被试进行适应体育锻炼干预,持续时间5个月,每周2次,每次40min,干预结束后,采用重复测量方差分析,分析适应体育对中度智障学生的适应行为的干预效果。结果:适应体育锻炼结束后,中度智障学生其适应行为在感觉运动、生活自理、社会责任有显著提高。结论:适应体育锻炼对智障学生适应行为的改善是有作用的。

  9. European standards for adapted physical activity professional cultivation and inspirations therefrom%欧洲适应体育专业人才培养标准及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓霞; 吴雪萍; 王丹丹; Martin·Kudlacek

    2015-01-01

    Based on literature data and logic analysis, the authors analyzed the establishment impetus, contents and func-tions of European standards for adapted physical activity professional cultivation, and revealed the following findings: European standards for adapted physical activity professional cultivation were established to meet the need of rapid devel-opment of adapted physical activities in Europe by basing their theoretical criteria on internal function, disability and health classification, as driven by European Federation of Adapted Physical Activity (EFAPA). Their contents include such three dimensions as adapted physical education, adapted physical rehabilitation as well as adapted sports and recreation; they play an extensive guiding, long-term planning and practice guiding role in adapted physical activity development in Europe. The authors proposed that China establish a nationwide adapted physical activity association as soon as possible, establish stan-dards for nationwide adapted physical activity professional cultivation, and speed up the comprehensive cultivation of adapted physical activity professionals, so as to meet the need of adapted physical activity development in China.%对欧洲适应体育专业人才培养标准建立的推动力、内容、作用进行了分析。结果表明欧洲适应体育专业人才培养标准是在欧洲适应体育联盟的推动下,以国际功能、残疾与健康分类为理论依据,在满足欧洲适应体育快速发展的需要下制定而成。其包含了适应体育教育、适应体育康复和适应体育运动与休闲3个方向的内容;对欧洲适应体育的发展起着广泛的指导、长远的规划和实践的引领作用。建议我国应尽快成立全国性的适应体育协会、制定全国性的适应体育专业人才培养标准,并加快适应体育专业人才的综合培养,以满足我国适应体育的发展需求。

  10. Physical culture as a powerful factor facilitating adaptation of foreign students at the university

    OpenAIRE

    Grutsyak N.B; Grutsyak V.І.

    2010-01-01

    The problems of adaptation are considered foreign student in the institutes of higher. Directions of decision of problems of social and individual psychological adaptation of student are rotined. The methods of adaptive physical activity are used. The ways of realization of the adaptation health programs are set for a foreign student. It is suggested to enter preparations of student basic methods of adaptive physical culture in practice. It is recommended to enter an adaptive physical culture...

  11. Physical Activity and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food and Beverage Toolkit The AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children Updated:Jul 21,2016 Click image ... Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps with: controlling weight reducing blood pressure raising ...

  12. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  13. Adaptable typologies for active roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Zeiler, W.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this part of the 6th framework Pan-European EUR-ACTIVE ROOF-er project is to improve the interaction between design participants of dynamic adaptable Active Roofs in product development and Active Roofs from an architects/ customers perspective. Improvements in Active Roof desi

  14. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  15. Alberta Diabetes and Physical Activity Trial (ADAPT: A randomized theory-based efficacy trial for adults with type 2 diabetes - rationale, design, recruitment, evaluation, and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkett Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287 were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1 standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group]; (2 standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2; and (3 PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3. PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up. Clinical (biomarkers and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234

  16. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), improving the immune response ; and assisting with ... studies have started examining the factors related to long-term behavior change and increases in physical activity. ...

  17. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, and some cancers. Physical activity can also help with weight control, and may improve academic achievement in students. There's more . Inactive adults have a ...

  18. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  19. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C;

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  20. Physical activity & depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiantoula E.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of performance are of special importance. Research has identified neurobiological and psychological paths that can develop between physical activity and well being. More studies although are needed in order to standardize the use of physical activity as a treatment option, mainly in the groups of children and teenagers.

  1. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F;

    2012-01-01

    , such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  2. Physical Education Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Letty P.

    1978-01-01

    Described are three physical activity games designed to help young children develop a sense of mastery over their bodies: (which will in turn improve their self concepts): a poem to be acted out, Simon Says, and a story play to be acted out. (DLS)

  3. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  4. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  5. Physical activity & depression

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiantoula E.; Tsiadoula L.; Patsiaouras A.; Kokaridas D.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of pe...

  6. Asthma and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration. PMID:6958045

  7. Evaluation of physical activity of disabled people by modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was an adaptation the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for disabled people moving on wheelchairs, and check and objectification of the proposed tool. Material and methods. The research covered 69 disabled people (8 women and 61 men. All group was divided into two subgroups: regularly practicing sportsmen - Group 1 and people who were not practicing any sport - Group 2. Research tool was International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short version adapted for disabled people. Results. Averaged results of physical activity, expressed in MET, showed the differences between groups (Groups 1 average 7418 MET, Group 2 average 2158 MET, p=0.000. The biggest differences (p=0.000 were spotted in intensive physical activity. People regularly practicing sport training also devoting more time on activities related to locomotion. 31 of sportsmen characterized high level of physical activity and 6 - medium. In the second group 9 people were in high level, 11 in medium and 14 in low level of physical activity. Conclusions. 1. Almost half of people who were not practicing any sport was characterized by an insufficient level of physical activity. It means that the persons who not taking sports activities are also less active while performing daily chores and leisure. 2. The modified International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ can be an effective tool for the evaluation of physical activity of disabled people moving on wheelchairs.

  8. Physical Activity and Exercise in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Lok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a dynamic process that affects many systems in the body. Cognitive function with aging, including memory, intelligence, personality and behavior are affected at different levels. As time passes, durability of individuals and the amount of physical activity and exercise decrease. Apart from normal aging process, accompanying chronic brain syndrome of dementia will further reduce activities. Physical activity can provide opportunities for individuals with dementia in the path to socialize. Therefore, the role of physical activity and exercise in adapting an active lifestyle to protect the health of individuals with dementia is becoming increasingly important. Physical activity and exercise which would help in improvement of cognitive activity in dementia are briefly reviewed in this article. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 289-294

  9. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  10. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  11. Physical Activity and Psoriatic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out more! Email * Zipcode Physical Activity and Psoriatic Arthritis Physical activity plays an important role in overall well-being. If you have psoriatic arthritis, moderate exercise may offer specific benefits, including improved ...

  12. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  13. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that works your muscles ... yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human ...

  14. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M;

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order...... came from the Aarhus School Survey that included 2100 schoolchildren at 11, 13, and 15 years of age. Parental social support for PA was measured by items about encouragement to do PA, doing joint PA, parents watching PA, and talking about PA. PA was measured as at least 4 h of vigorous PA per week...

  15. Adaptation of a culturally relevant nutrition and physical activity program for low-income, Mexican-origin parents with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lucia; Martinez, Judith; Horowitz, Marcel; Lamp, Catherine; Johns, Margaret; Espinoza, Dorina; Byrnes, Michele; Gomez, Mayra Muñoz; Aguilera, Alberto; de la Torre, Adela

    2015-05-14

    Latino children experience higher rates of obesity than do non-Latino white children. Family-centered nutrition interventions can slow the rate of weight gain in this population. Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Family) is a 5-year, community-based, participatory research study that targets rural Mexican-origin farmworker families with children aged 2 to 8 years in California's Central Valley. Adaptation of a culturally relevant obesity prevention program involved qualitative research to tailor key obesity prevention messages, pilot testing and implementation of key messages and activities at family nights, and continual modification to incorporate culturally innovative elements. Of the 238 families enrolled, 53% (125) attended the recommended minimum of 5 (of 10 possible) classes during the first year. A university and community partnership can guide development of a culturally tailored obesity prevention program that is suitable for reaching a high-risk Mexican-origin audience through cooperative extension and other public health programs.

  16. Physical activity: an unknown concept

    OpenAIRE

    Cloes, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators do not have necesseraly good representations about physical activity and sedentariness. During the presentation, participants will be involved in an interactive process aiming to underline the main concepts that they should use in order to become effective agents of physical activity promotion.

  17. Physical activity in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Geenen, Rinie

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti

  18. Physical activity in obesity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Eveline; Geenen,

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the sti

  19. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF DISABLED PEOPLE BY MODIFIED INTERNATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE (IPAQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Boguszewski Dariusz; Adamczyk Jakub Grzegorz; Kurkowska Beata.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was an adaptation the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for disabled people moving on wheelchairs, and check and objectification of the proposed tool. Material and methods. The research covered 69 disabled people (8 women and 61 men). All group was divided into two subgroups: regularly practicing sportsmen - Group 1 and people who were not practicing any sport - Group 2. Research tool was International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short versi...

  20. Promoting Physical Activity among Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Linke, Sarah; Muñoz, Mario; Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Cano, Mayra; Williams, Victoria; Marcus, Bess H; Larsen, Britta A

    2016-01-01

    Underserved populations, including racial/ethnic minorities, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals with physical disabilities, are less likely to engage in sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and are thus at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These populations face unique challenges to engaging in MVPA. Learning how to overcome these challenges is a necessary first step in achieving health equity through health promotion research. In this review of the literature, we discuss issues and strategies that have been used to promote MVPA among individuals from underserved populations, focusing on recruitment, intervention delivery, and the use of technology in interventions. Physical activity promotion research among these vulnerable populations is scarce. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence of efficacy in the use of certain recruitment and intervention strategies including tailoring, cultural adaptation, incorporation of new technologies, and multilevel and community-based approaches for physical activity promotion among different underserved populations. PMID:27399827

  1. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    2016-01-01

    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  2. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  3. How physical activity can work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    This review examines how physical activity can work for health during childhood and adolescence. Special emphasis is put on weight control and prevention of obesity-related morbidity. Both low sedentary and high exercise activities contribute to increased energy expenditure, improved weight control and prevention of obesity. Exercise, if intensity is at least moderate, has also a positive effect on fat distribution by decreasing the proportion of abdominal or visceral fat. The prevalence of clustered (multiple) cardiovascular risk factors is lower in children and adolescents, who are physically active or fit. However, the risks of obesity are greater than those from being sedentary, i.e., high physical activity reduces, but does not totally offset risks related to obesity. Good health in youth is easily lost by an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood. An additional benefit of childhood physical activity is that it increases the likelihood of physical activity later in adulthood. PMID:18278627

  4. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  5. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  6. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  7. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2014-01-01

    differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said...

  8. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of theworld and becoming one of the major global public health problems. Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time, available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity. Increases in physical activity have been shown to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition, with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate. The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life. However, the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for aerobic training, or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits. Indeed, nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health, and should be encouraged in all age groups, particularly early in life. The question is no longer centered around the health benefit of increasing physical activity, but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals. Hence, effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity. Among various interventions, the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children. The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challenge in this field today.

  9. Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

  10. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  11. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    GregoryC.Bogdanis

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short d...

  12. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short...

  13. OXIDATIVE STRESS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radovanović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cells continuously produce free radicals and reactive oxygen species as a part of metabolic processes. Increased aerobic metabolism during exercise is a potential source of oxidative stress. Also, anaerobic physical activity and oxidative stress are interrelated because the intense anaerobic activity leads to damage proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in muscle cells and blood. Complex system of antioxidant defense, which has the enzymatic and non-enzymatic part, has a role in protecting tissues from excessive oxidative damage. Most of the research conducted so far about the impact of various forms of physical activity on levels of oxidative stress is confirmed by changes in biomarkers that indicate lipid peroxidation and proteins modification. Untrained persons, as opposed to trained, are more susceptible to major changes in the body caused by oxidative stress during physical activity. The results of researches have shown that there are no significant differences between the genders in the level of oxidative stress during physical activity and response to antioxidant supplementation possibly applied. It is interesting that, despite of numerous studies, the exact location of oxidative stress origin during physical activity has not been reliably established. In addition, research results provide insufficient evidence on the effectiveness of using antioxidant supplementation to increase the defense against oxidative stress. It is necessary further investigation about the redox status and oxidative stress during physical activity in adolescent athletes.

  14. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Cheng-Ye; Middlestadt Susan E; Zhang Juan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a...

  15. Reactor physics activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields : nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work. (author)

  16. Strategies for Physical Activity Promotion beyond the Physical Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Larry; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Darst, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The current need for physical activity has extended beyond the limited time given to students in physical education classes. In order for students to receive appropriate levels of physical activity (i.e., at least 60 minutes per day), it is necessary for physical educators to incorporate physical activity opportunities outside the traditional…

  17. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  18. Solar Activity and Classical Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This review of solar physics emphasizes several of the more conspicuous scientific puzzles posed by contemporary observational knowledge of the magnetic activity of the Sun. The puzzles emphasize how much classical physics we have yet to learn from the Sun. The physics of solar activity is based on the principles of Newton, Maxwell, Lorentz, Boltzmann, et. al., along with the principles of radiative transfer. In the large, these principles are expressed by magnetohydrodynamics. A brief derivation of the magnetohydrodynamic induction and momentum equations is provided, with a discussion of popular misconceptions.

  19. Energy Balance and Physical Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KALLAYAKIJBOONCHOO

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in most parts of the world and becoming one of the major global public health problems.Although the components of energy balance have not been adequately estimated over time,available evidence suggests that the increase in obesity is the result of reduced physical activity.Increases in physical activity have been showen to be strongly associated with improving physical fitness and body composition,with probably a positive effect on resting metabolic rate.The Surgeon General's Report on physical Activity and Health advocates that 30 min of regular,moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with decreases in the risk of chronic diseases and may contribute to quality of life.However,the small changes that contribute 10 min for 3 times a day for 3 times a day for aerobic training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals training,or one set instead of three sets of repetitions on resistance training will provide individuals with health benefits.Indeed,nutrition and physical activity should be considered an integral part of fitness and good health,and should be encouraged in all age groups,particularly early in life,The question is no longer centerd around the health benefit of increasing physical activity,but rather creating self awareness and behavior changes in individuals,Hence,effective intervention programs are needed that foster long term changes in physical activity.Among various interventions,the Nutrifit program was recently conducted in Thailand and found to improve health related fitness in children,The development of more effective interventions and approaches is a major challege in this field today.

  20. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  1. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  2. Adapted Physical Education and Therapeutic Recreation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel-Wise, D; Mears, B

    2004-01-01

    Adapted physical education is a mandated service, whereas therapeutic recreation and traditional recreation are considered related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. In this article, the authors describe the distinctions between the services, recognition of need for referral, methods of assessment, sample…

  3. The Adaptive Physical Education Program: Its Design and Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Joan M.

    The booklet describes a program designed to improve the play skills of seriously disturbed, multiply handicapped children (5 to 13 years old) through gross motor skill development. A six step process is described for the adaptive physical education program: assessment, development of interdisciplinary goals, interventions, development of goals for…

  4. Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving.

  5. Incidence of injury and physical performance adaptations during military training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Lars; Langberg, Henning; Skov-Jensen, Arne;

    2003-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity, such as military training, is known to demand a high degree of physical performance and to cause overuse injuries. However, the exact relation between injury incidence and physical fitness level and the influence of military training on measures of functional...

  6. Stress hormones and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Office

    1991-01-01

    Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14) healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolact...

  7. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874

  8. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  9. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... years of age and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 49.2% Percent ...

  10. Factor structure of the relationship of indicators of physical condition and learning to adapt to younger students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyasota T.I.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the use of factor analysis in the research of specialists in physical education was studied. It is studied interrelation of indexes that characterize indexes of physical state, motive activity, level of disease and adaptation to the conditions of education at school. The experiment, which was attended by 34 girls and 30 boys 6 and 7 years of age, found that the most significant contribution to the factor structure are data on the physical development of school-age children, as well as indicators of physical fitness of patients. It is proved that between the child's adaptation to social changes and physical activity there is a deep connection.

  11. Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Herold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.

  12. Stress hormones and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14 healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolactin, and melatonin may be classified as stress hormones in physical activity of duration 80 to 120 minutes and intensity exceeding 75%-V0₂max. Widespread intra-individual variation in serum cortisol concentrations prevent definite conclusion. The un­expected increase in serum testosterone levels warrants further research.

  13. Physical activity, hydration and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Marcos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory diseases and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  14. Feedback effect of human physical and psychological adaption on time period of thermal adaption in naturally ventilated building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing;

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...... of the time period of thermal adaption were obtained on the basis of the data from a long-term field survey conducted in two typical naturally ventilated offices located in Changsha, China. The results showed that the occupants need to take 4.25 days to fully adapt to a step-change in outdoor air temperature......, under the synergistic feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes. The time period of thermal adaption increased to 13 days, if only the feedback effect of the physical adaption mode was accounted for. The difference between the two values of the time period of thermal adaption...

  15. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  16. Plan physical activities for spring men based on their physical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oles’ Pryshva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to find the features of physical condition of men before their vigorous physical activity sessions in the winter season, and test their effectiveness. Material & Methods: investigated body mass index, physical condition of method by Baevsky in men 35–48 years leading a healthy lifestyle. Research conducted morning and evening every day. Results were compared: the day before, the day of vigorous physical activity, and with average per month. Physical activity was studied by the IPAQ method. Results: found significant (p<0,05 differences in the physical condition of men before and the day of physical activity of high intensity. Marked changes were: body weight, the heart rate, the adaptive capacity by Baevsky. The most significant figure identified as a marker. To test its effectiveness was offer to men plan individual vigorous physical activity under this marker. The result was significant (p<0,05 increase the number and duration of vigorous physical activity, better physical condition to 10,73%. Conclusions. the physical condition of age men plays an important role in planning their vigorous physical activity. Comparative deconditioning from the previous day for the test Baevsky 3,09%, can be used for operational planning of physical activity of high intensity on that day.

  17. The physical therapist's role in physical activity promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.; Engbers, L.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are increasingly confronted with the diseases of physical inactivity. Paradoxically, a promising strategy to motivate sedentary individuals to become more active is the opportunity to encourage physical activity related behavioural change when individuals encounter health professionals. A

  18. Public health aspects of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis different public health aspects of physical activity in the Netherlands were addressed, taking into account its broad scope. Research was carried out on physical activity methodology, determinants of physical activity and the relationship between physical activity and different health

  19. Physical and Social Contexts of Physical Activities Among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, JoAnn; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Evenson, Kelly R.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Jobe, Jared B.; Rung, Ariane L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Background With limited opportunities for physical activity during school hours, it is important to understand the contexts of physical activities done outside of school time. Given the importance of physical and social aspects of environments, the purpose of this study was to describe where and with whom girls participate in physical activities outside of school. Methods Participants were 1925 sixth-grade girls in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). At baseline, they completed a 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR), reporting the main activity performed during 30-minute intervals and the physical and social contexts of physical activities. Results The most frequently reported physical activities done outside of school time were house chores, walking (for transportation or exercise), dance, basketball, playing with younger children, and running or jogging. The most common location for these activities was at home or in the neighborhood. With the exception of household chores, these activities were typically done with at least one other person. Conclusions Interventions that promote physical activities that can be done at or around home or developing supportive social networks for physical activity would be consistent with the current physical activity contexts of adolescent girls. PMID:19420391

  20. PHYSICAL DISABILITY AND DRAMA ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    KRAJNC JOLDIKJ Suzana

    2008-01-01

    Drama activity presents a great challenge for ado­lescents with physical disabilities, and at the same time it provides them with much experience for life.Adolescents are educated through theatrical activ­ity; they test numerous new roles, develop their attitude towards the art culture, and most of all they get the insight into different life situations, which have not been known to many of them so far. By experiencing different roles, an adolescent gets personal recognition, undergoes a proc...

  1. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training. PMID:10919953

  2. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Donald; Insley, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which the pattern on a rotating turntable can be affected by humming and adjusting the pitch of the hum. At some frequency, if conditions are right, the pattern can be stopped, or "strobed." Also describes a way to introduce humor into physics instruction. (JN)

  3. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  4. Ways optimization physical activity students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij Sutula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: on the basis of the analysis of results of poll of students, first, to define structure and the importance of the factors influencing formation of motivation at them to sports and sports activity, secondly, to allocate possible subjects for extension of the maintenance of theoretical and methodical-practical components of sports formation of student's youth. Material and Methods: the study involved students of first and second courses of the Institute for training bodies and the Faculty of Law of the National University №9 Yaroslav the Wise and the students of the Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts and Zhytomyr State University named after Ivan Franko. Results: it is established that during training at national law university interests of students concerning factors which motivate them to sports and sports activity significantly change. The analyses data testify that a key factor which prevents students to be engaged in sports and sports activity, lack of free time is. It is proved that students consider necessary to receive information on the physical state. Conclusions: results of research allowed allocating the most significant factors which motivate students to be engaged in sports and sports activity. It is established subjects of theoretical and methodical and practical components of sports education which interest students of NLU and KNUCA and ZSU. It is shown that for students of Law University of importance topic of theoretical and methodological and practical components of physical education strongly depends on the year of their training.

  5. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn;

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  6. Learning and adaptation in physical heterogeneous teams of robots

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Josep Lluís de la; Muñoz Moreno, Israel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach to assigning roles to robots in a team of physical heterogeneous robots. Its members compete for these roles and get rewards for them. The rewards are used to determine each agent’s preferences and which agents are better adapted to the environment. These aspects are included in the decision making process. Agent interactions are modelled using the concept of an ecosystem in which each robot is a species, resulting in emergent behaviour of the whole s...

  7. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  8. The Adaptive Optics Summer School Laboratory Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Ammons, S Mark; Armstrong, J D; Crossfield, Ian; Do, Tuan; Fitzgerald, Mike; Harrington, David; Hickenbotham, Adam; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Jess; Johnson, Luke; Li, Kaccie; Lu, Jessica; Maness, Holly; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Putnam, Nicole; Roorda, Austin; Rossi, Ethan; Yelda, Sylvana

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is a new and rapidly expanding field of instrumentation, yet astronomers, vision scientists, and general AO practitioners are largely unfamiliar with the root technologies crucial to AO systems. The AO Summer School (AOSS), sponsored by the Center for Adaptive Optics, is a week-long course for training graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in the underlying theory, design, and use of AO systems. AOSS participants include astronomers who expect to utilize AO data, vision scientists who will use AO instruments to conduct research, opticians and engineers who design AO systems, and users of high-bandwidth laser communication systems. In this article we describe new AOSS laboratory sessions implemented in 2006-2009 for nearly 250 students. The activity goals include boosting familiarity with AO technologies, reinforcing knowledge of optical alignment techniques and the design of optical systems, and encouraging inquiry into critical scientific questions in vision science using AO sys...

  9. Adaptive Response of the Heart and Peripheral Vasculature on Single Physical Exercises in Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Biryukova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the parameters of urgent adaptation of the heart and peripheral vasculature to single physical exercises to determine an individually safe value of motor activity. Materials and Methods. The experiments were carried out on 84 mongrel male dogs. Physical exercises were modeled in laboratory environment by treadmill run. Three types of exercises were used in the experiment: mild, optimal and excessive. Exercise duration was controlled individually, for each animal considering cardio-respiratory system state by heart rate. Cardiac work was assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, peripheral circulation — by hindleg rheovasogram. Results. Experimental findings indicate significant alterations in cardiac conducting system under single physical exercises. A single mild exercise causes the increase of minute blood output due to heart rate increase. Hind leg muscular blood filling decreases. An optimal exercise results in minute blood output increase due to stroke blood volume growth. Myocardial contractility increases. Muscular blood filling rises. In excessive load increased stroke output is accompanied by left ventricular cavity dilatation. Pulse volume decreases, peripheral vasculature elasticity reduces, and hind leg muscular venous outflow gets worse. Conclusion. Urgent adaptation of the heart and peripheral vasculature in single physical exercises shows as a marked response to a simulated factor. The technique to assess the body adaptation considering cardiovascular system condition enables to calculate individual volume of physical activity and develop recommendations for it to be used efficiently in medicine.

  10. ATTITUDES TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND ITS MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    VISHNU PETHKAR; SHRADDHA NAIK; SANJEEV SONAWANE

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on the fact, experience and concerns of many physical educators & teachers about the severe decline in levels of physical activity and the ways in which, incorporation & teaching of physical activity is carried out. This paper deals with the theoretical psychological basis of physical activity andinterventions carried out in measurement of this dimension. This paper tries to bring out the relevance of psychological determinants of physical activity and how these need to su...

  11. Effects of an adapted physical activity program on the physical condition of elderly women: an analysis of efficiency Efeitos de um programa de atividade física adaptada na capacidade física e parâmetros de saúde de mulheres idosas: análise de eficiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alburquerque-Sendín

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specific research tools and designs can assist in identifying the efficiency of physical activity in elderly women. OBJECTIVES: To identify the effects of physical activity on the physical condition of older women. METHODS: A one-year-long physical activity program (123 sessions was implemented for women aged 60 years or older. Four physical assessments were conducted, in which weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, absences, grip strength, flexibility, VO2max, and static and dynamic balance were assessed. The statistical analyses included a repeated measures analysis, both inferential (analysis of variance - ANOVA and effect size (Cohen's d coefficient, as well as identification of the participants' efficiency (Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA. RESULTS: Despite the observation of differences that depended on the analysis used, the results were successful in the sense that they showed that physical activity adapted to older women can effectively change the decline in physical ability associated with aging, depending on the purpose of the study. The 60-65 yrs group was the most capable of converting physical activity into health benefits in both the short and long term. The >65 yrs group took less advantage of physical activity. CONCLUSION: Adherence to the program and actual time spent on each type of exercise are the factors that determine which population can benefit from physical activity programs. The DEA allows the assessment of the results related to time spent on physical activity in terms of health concerns.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Ferramentas e desenhos específicos de pesquisa podem ajudar na identificação da eficiência da atividade física em mulheres idosas. OBJETIVOS: Identificar os efeitos da atividade física sobre a eficiência da condição física de mulheres idosas. MÉTODOS: Aplicou-se um programa de atividade física de um ano (123 sessões para mulheres com idade de 60 anos ou mais. Foram realizadas

  12. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...... and extracted data from original articles that met the inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the results of the meta-analysis (forest plot). We explored heterogeneity using funnel plots and the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE). RESULTS......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  13. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jennifer L; Malone, Laurie A; Fidopiastis, Cali M; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H

    2016-04-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  14. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jennifer L; Malone, Laurie A; Fidopiastis, Cali M; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H

    2016-04-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  15. Physical Activity during the School Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  16. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh G.

    2014-04-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), that will perform effectively in all possible future cases. Strategies that cannot perform effectively, because of this uncertainty, risk either not achieving their intended purpose, or becoming a hindrance to the efforts of spacecraft manufactures and operators to address the challenges posed by space debris. One method to tackle this uncertainty is to create a strategy that can adapt and respond to the space debris population. This work explores the concept of an adaptive strategy, in terms of the number of objects required to be removed by ADR, to prevent the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris population from growing in size. This was demonstrated by utilising the University of Southampton’s Debris Analysis and Monitoring Architecture to the Geosynchronous Environment (DAMAGE) tool to investigate ADR rates (number of removals per year) that change over time in response to the current space environment, with the requirement of achieving zero growth of the LEO population. DAMAGE was used to generate multiple Monte Carlo projections of the future LEO debris environment. Within each future projection, the debris removal rate was derived at five-year intervals, by a new statistical debris evolutionary model called the Computational Adaptive Strategy to Control Accurately the Debris Environment (CASCADE) model. CASCADE predicted the long-term evolution of the current DAMAGE population with a variety of different ADR rates in order to identify a removal rate that produced a zero net

  17. PHYSICAL DISABILITY AND DRAMA ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana KRAJNC JOLDIKJ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Drama activity presents a great challenge for ado­lescents with physical disabilities, and at the same time it provides them with much experience for life.Adolescents are educated through theatrical activ­ity; they test numerous new roles, develop their attitude towards the art culture, and most of all they get the insight into different life situations, which have not been known to many of them so far. By experiencing different roles, an adolescent gets personal recognition, undergoes a process of personal changing and thus tests his or her per­sonal perceptions of life.As regards drama activity we follow the presump­tion saying that being different is also an advan­tage.The main purpose of the drama activity is gradu­ally realized through the programme: getting to know yourself and the theatre medium in general. Adolescents meet the multilayered communication and public appearance, which helps them in their personal life.

  18. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  19. Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity Updated:Apr 19,2016 Exercise Is for Everyone ... almost all patients do some form of regular physical activity. There are a few exceptions, so it's good ...

  20. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    OpenAIRE

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are supported by the Dutch government’s policy. Although many strategies have been developed to increase physical activity levels in general and in socially vulnerable groups in particular, most evaluations show o...

  1. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  2. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  3. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  4. Exposure to Air Pollutants During Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle

  5. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  6. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are s

  7. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  8. Active reflective components for adaptive optical zoom systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Matthew Edward Lewis

    This dissertation presents the theoretical and experimental exploration of active reflective components specifically for large-aperture adaptive optical zoom systems. An active reflective component can change its focal length by physically deforming its reflecting surface. Adaptive optical zoom (AOZ) utilizes active components in order to change magnification and achieve optical zoom, as opposed to traditional zooming systems that move elements along the optical axis. AOZ systems are theoretically examined using a novel optical design theory that enables a full-scale tradespace analysis, where optical design begins from a broad perspective and optimizes to a particular system. The theory applies existing strategies for telescope design and aberration simulation to AOZ, culminating in the design of a Cassegrain objective with a 3.3X zoom ratio and a 375mm entrance aperture. AOZ systems are experimentally examined with the development of a large-aperture active mirror constructed of a composite material called carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). The active CFRP mirror uses a novel actuation method to change radius of curvature, where actuators press against two annular rings placed on the mirror's back. This method enables the radius of curvature to increase from 2000mm to 2010mm. Closed-loop control maintains good optical performance of 1.05 waves peak-to-valley (with respect to a HeNe laser) when the active CFRP mirror is used in conjunction with a commercial deformable mirror.

  9. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  10. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard Roy J.; Trudeau François

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE ...

  11. [Specific risks of physical activity in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the specific risks of physical activity in elderly subjects. These risks mainly consist of the loss of physical integrity and the weakening of the capabilities of metabolic regulation. The risk of impairment of physical integrity (e.g. injury) related to regular physical activity is not overall greater in elderly subjects than in young subjects. The choice of a physical activity that is suited to the elderly subject's physical and cognitive abilities largely limits these risks. When physical activity is adapted to suit elderly subjects, the number of accidents in relation to the number of participants is actually very low. In fact, participation in a program of education for prevention related to physical activity reduces the risk of accidents and injuries (and, thus, falls) occurring thereafter. In the case of metabolic risks, isometric muscular contractions carried out under certain conditions (duration: > 6 seconds; intensity: > 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) are inappropriate. Physical activity carried out in extreme thermal atmospheres (0-5° 25-30°) should be avoided. Hydration is very important and liquids should be drunk well before any thirst sensation occurs.

  12. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are discus

  13. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L;

    2012-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community......-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...

  14. Developing the learning physical science curriculum: Adapting a small enrollment, laboratory and discussion based physical science course for large enrollments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael

    2012-06-01

    We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.

  15. Developing the learning physical science curriculum: Adapting a small enrollment, laboratory and discussion based physical science course for large enrollments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Goldberg1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET, for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.

  16. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  17. Annual report on nuclear physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report surveys the activities in basic research from July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987 at the Institute for Nuclear Physics (IK) of the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. The research program of this institute comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions, neutron physics, neutrino physics and high energy physics, as well as detector technology. (orig.)

  18. Annual report on nuclear physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report surveys the activities in fundamental research from July 1, 1981 to June 30, 1982 at the three institutes of the KfK which are concerned with nuclear physics. The research program comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions, neutron physics, neutrino physics and physics at medium and higher energies. (orig.)

  19. Preparing Adapted Physical Educators to Teach Students with Autism: Current Practices and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sean; Judge, Joann P.; Block, Martin E.; Kwon, Eun Hye

    2016-01-01

    For many students with autism spectrum disorder, physical education is the responsibility of an adapted physical education specialist. In this study, we examined the training focused on teaching students with autism spectrum disorder received by a sample of 106 adapted physical education specialists. Competencies necessary on a course to train…

  20. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  1. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  2. Physical activity in Greenland - a methodological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger

    Title: Physical activity in Greenland - a methodical perspective Inger Dahl-Petersen, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose:   The present study is the first population-based study in Greenland with information on physical activity using The International Physical...... expenditure used on physical activity. However the total energy expenditure in Greenland estimated by IPAQ is surprisingly high, in particular for respondents living in villages, indicating some methodological challenges when applying IPAQ in a non-European setting. Validation of IPAQ by an objective measure...... Participants in a cross-sectional population survey representative of towns and villages in West Greenland completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire about their physical activity. The long version of The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure time spent on physical...

  3. Dynamic Activity-Related Incentives for Physical Activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Schüler, Julia; Brunner, Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than chan...

  4. The PROactive innovative conceptual framework on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbels, Fabienne; de Jong, Corina; Drost, Ellen; Elberse, Janneke; Feridou, Chryssoula; Jacobs, Laura; Rabinovich, Roberto; Frei, Anja; Puhan, Milo A; de Boer, Willem I; van der Molen, Thys; Williams, Kate; Pinnock, Hillary; Troosters, Thierry; Karlsson, Niklas; Kulich, Karoly; Rüdell, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Although physical activity is considered an important therapeutic target in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), what "physical activity" means to COPD patients and how their perspective is best measured is poorly understood. We designed a conceptual framework, guiding the development and content validation of two patient reported outcome (PRO) instruments on physical activity (PROactive PRO instruments). 116 patients from four European countries with diverse demographics and COPD phenotypes participated in three consecutive qualitative studies (63% male, age mean±sd 66±9 years, 35% Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III-IV). 23 interviews and eight focus groups (n = 54) identified the main themes and candidate items of the framework. 39 cognitive debriefings allowed the clarity of the items and instructions to be optimised. Three themes emerged, i.e. impact of COPD on amount of physical activity, symptoms experienced during physical activity, and adaptations made to facilitate physical activity. The themes were similar irrespective of country, demographic or disease characteristics. Iterative rounds of appraisal and refinement of candidate items resulted in 30 items with a daily recall period and 34 items with a 7-day recall period. For the first time, our approach provides comprehensive insight on physical activity from the COPD patients' perspective. The PROactive PRO instruments' content validity represents the pivotal basis for empirically based item reduction and validation. PMID:25034563

  5. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  6. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  7. Physical activity and obesity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hills, Andrew P; Andersen, Lars Bo; Byrne, Nuala M

    2011-01-01

    Globally, obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of becoming overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence, and reducing the risk of obesity in adulthood. Puberty and the following adolescent period are acknowledged...... as particularly vulnerable times for the development of obesity due to sexual maturation and, in many individuals, a concomitant reduction in physical activity. In many Western settings, a large proportion of children and adolescents do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and, typically, those who...... are more physically active have lower levels of body fat than those who are less active. Active behaviours have been displaced by more sedentary pursuits which have contributed to reductions in physical activity energy expenditure. Without appropriate activity engagement there is an increased likelihood...

  8. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  9. Biopsychosocial Benefits of Physical Activity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Meydanlioglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity levels in children have been steadily decreasing in recent years. Reduced physical activity leads to numerous chronic diseases at an early age, particularly obesity. Lifelong participation in physical activity and maintenance of ideal bodyweight are highly effective in the prevention of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, Type II diabetes, lung and colon cancers. At the same time physical activity increases self-confidence, self-esteem and academic achievement, and reduces symptoms of depression. Therefore, this study was designed to improve awareness of professional groups and families working with children and adolescents about physical activity benefits on children health, as well as psychosocial benefits and planned to offer suggestions for increasing physical activity levels of children. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 125-135

  10. Successfully improving physical activity behavior after rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Streppel, Kitty R M; van der Beek, Allard J; van der Woude, Luc H V; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R; van Harten, Wim H; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Woude, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of the physical activity promotion programs Rehabilitation & Sports (R&S) and Active after Rehabilitation (AaR) on sport and daily physical activity 1 year after in- or outpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Subjects in intervention rehabilitation centers were randomize

  11. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  12. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  13. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  14. Governor's nutrition and physical activity scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    11 pages Research-based “best practices” that support proper nutrition and increased physical activity for K-12 students form the basis of a Web-based Governor’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Scorecard. Schools are encouraged to use the Web-based scorecard as a tool for identifying best practices and measuring progress towards meeting the nutrition and physical activity needs of students. The best practices and policies recommended by Virginia Action for Healthy Kids, national and state ...

  15. Physical activity and breast cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunleye, Adeyemi A; Holmes, Michelle D.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity improves quality of life after a breast cancer diagnosis, and a beneficial effect on survival would be particularly welcome. Four observational studies have now reported decreased total mortality among physically active women with breast cancer; the two largest have also reported decreased breast cancer specific mortality. The estrogen pathway and the insulin pathway are two potential mechanisms by which physical activity could affect breast cancer survival. Randomized trial...

  16. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical a...

  17. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wang

    2014-01-01

    More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996). and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites). This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a reti...

  18. Physical Activity of Croatian Population: Cross-sectional Study Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jurakić, Danijel; Pedišić, Željko; Andrijašević, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the physical activity level of the Croatian population in different domains of everyday life. Methods A random stratified sample of 1032 Croatians aged 15 years and older was interviewed using the official Croatian long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Total physical activity and physical activity in each of the 4 life domains – work, transport, domestic and garden, and leisure-time – were estimated. Physical activit...

  19. Developing the Learning Physical Science Curriculum: Adapting a Small Enrollment, Laboratory and Discussion Based Physical Science Course for Large Enrollments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, "Physical Science and Everyday Thinking" (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new "Learning Physical Science" (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the…

  20. Physical activity and physical fitness profiles of South African women

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Madelein; Strydom, Gert Lukas; Wilders, Cilas Jacobus

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the leisure time physical activity (LTPA) participation and physical fitness (PF) levels of South African women of the various ethnic groups. Individuals between the ages of 30 and 60 years (=41.0; ±=4.6) who were part of a cross-sectional non-randomized availability population who voluntarily participated, were used in this study. The group that formed part of the physical activity survey included 3273 subjects (Asian =262; black=1357; coloured=239;...

  1. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  2. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  3. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  4. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amun Qa-t-a

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10. Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2% from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%, providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental

  5. Rationale and design of the Adapted Physical Activity in advanced Pancreatic Cancer patients (APACaP) GERCOR (Groupe Coopérateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Neuzillet, Cindy; Vergnault, Mathieu; Bonnetain, Franck; Hammel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise during chemotherapy is a promising strategy to reduce fatigue and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It has been shown to be feasible and efficient in various cancers, including advanced-stage cancers. Effects of physical activity have never been explored in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We aim to evaluate the effects of an exercise intervention in this setting. Methods This randomized, national, multicenter, interventional study will exami...

  6. Adulthood lifetime physical activity and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. METHODS: We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditio...

  7. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  8. Physical Activity before and after School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a variety of before- and after-school programs (BASPs) that can be implemented from preschool through 12th grade. These programs offer physical activity opportunities before and after school for youths of various ages, skill levels, and socioeconomic levels. In addition, strategies for the director of physical activity to…

  9. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  10. Effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was foun

  11. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  12. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  13. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  14. Intensity versus duration of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Adam Høgsbro; Kristiansen, Ole P; Marott, Jacob Louis;

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS).......To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS)....

  15. Activity Report of Reactor Physics Division - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development activities of the Reactor Physics Division of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1997 are reported. The activities are arranged under the headings: nuclear data processing and validation, PFBR and KAMINI core physics, FBTR core physics, radioactivity and shielding and safety analysis. A list of publications of the Division and seminars delivered are included at the end of the report

  16. A Tale of 2 Teachers: A Preschool Physical Activity Intervention Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Erin K.; Brewer, Alisa E.; Dowda, Marsha; McIver, Kerry L.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preschool settings vary greatly, and research has shown that interventions are more successful when they can be adapted to individual settings. This is a descriptive case study of how 2 teachers successfully adapted and implemented a preschool physical activity intervention. Methods: The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool…

  17. A Systematic Review of Methods and Procedures Used in Ecological Momentary Assessments of Diet and Physical Activity Research in Youth: An Adapted STROBE Checklist for Reporting EMA Studies (CREMAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method of collecting real-time data based on careful timing, repeated measures, and observations that take place in a participant’s typical environment. Due to methodological advantages and rapid advancement in mobile technologies in recent years, more studies have adopted EMA in addressing topics of nutrition and physical activity in youth. Objective The aim of this systematic review is to describe EMA methodology that has been used in studies addressing nutrition and physical activity in youth and provide a comprehensive checklist for reporting EMA studies. Methods Thirteen studies were reviewed and analyzed for the following 5 areas of EMA methodology: (1) sampling and measures, (2) schedule, (3) technology and administration, (4) prompting strategy, and (5) response and compliance. Results Results of this review showed a wide variability in the design and reporting of EMA studies in nutrition and physical activity among youth. The majority of studies (69%) monitored their participants during one period of time, although the monitoring period ranged from 4 to 14 days, and EMA surveys ranged from 2 to 68 times per day. More than half (54%) of the studies employed some type of electronic technology. Most (85%) of the studies used interval-contingent prompting strategy. For studies that utilized electronic devices with interval-contingent prompting strategy, none reported the actual number of EMA prompts received by participants out of the intended number of prompts. About half (46%) of the studies failed to report information about EMA compliance rates. For those who reported, compliance rates ranged from 44-96%, with an average of 71%. Conclusions Findings from this review suggest that in order to identify best practices for EMA methodology in nutrition and physical activity research among youth, more standardized EMA reporting is needed. Missing the key information about EMA design features and participant

  18. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Rukh, Gull; Varga, Tibor V;

    2013-01-01

    Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished...... in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self......-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2), sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were...

  19. Physical Activity in Hospitalised Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya West

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the amount and type of physical activity engaged in by people hospitalised after stroke. Method. We systematically reviewed the literature for observational studies describing the physical activity of stroke patients. Results. Behavioural mapping, video recording and therapist report are used to monitor activity levels in hospitalised stroke patients in the 24 included studies. Most of the patient day is spent inactive (median 48.1%, IQR 39.6%–69.3%, alone (median 53.7%, IQR 44.2%–60.6% and in their bedroom (median 56.5%, IQR 45.2%–72.5%. Approximately one hour per day is spent in physiotherapy (median 63.2 minutes, IQR 36.0–79.5 and occupational therapy (median 57.0 minutes, IQR 25.1–58.5. Even in formal therapy sessions limited time is spent in moderate to high level physical activity. Low levels of physical activity appear more common in patients within 14 days post-stroke and those admitted to conventional care. Conclusions. Physical activity levels are low in hospitalised stroke patients. Improving the description and classification of post stroke physical activity would enhance our ability to pool data across observational studies. The importance of increasing activity levels and the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity after stroke need to be tested further.

  20. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    OpenAIRE

    Marlen Lopez; Ramon Rubio; Santiago Martın; Ben Croxford; Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and nee...

  1. Neighborhood disadvantage, physical activity barriers, and physical activity among African American breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Antwan Jones; Paxton, Raheem J.

    2015-01-01

    In view of evidence that African American cancer survivors experience the greatest challenges in maintaining adequate levels of physical activity, this cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether individual and residential environment characteristics are associated with physical activity in this population. A total of 275 breast cancer survivors completed self-report items measuring sociodemographic variables, physical activity, and select barriers to physical activity in Spring o...

  2. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  3. Adaptation to number operates on perceived rather than physical numerosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciai, M.; Cicchini, G.M.; Burr, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Humans share with many animals a number sense, the ability to estimate rapidly the approximate number of items in a scene. Recent work has shown that like many other perceptual attributes, numerosity is susceptible to adaptation. It is not clear, however, whether adaptation works directly on mechanisms selective to numerosity, or via related mechanisms, such as those tuned to texture density. To disentangle this issue we measured adaptation of numerosity of 10 pairs of connected dots, as connecting dots makes them appear to be less numerous than unconnected dots. Adaptation to a 20-dot pattern (same number of dots as the test) caused robust reduction in apparent numerosity of the connected-dot pattern, but not of the unconnected dot-pattern. This suggests that adaptation to numerosity, at least for relatively sparse dot-pattern, occurs at neural levels encoding perceived numerosity, rather than at lower levels responding to the number of elements in the scene. PMID:26986745

  4. Active Learning in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naron, Carol

    Many students enter physics classes filled with misconceptions about physics concepts. Students tend to retain these misconceptions into their adult lives, even after physics instruction. Constructivist researchers have found that students gain understanding through their experiences. Researchers have also found that active learning practices increase conceptual understanding of introductory physics students. This project study sought to examine whether incorporating active learning practices in an advanced placement physics classroom increased conceptual understanding as measured by the force concept inventory (FCI). Physics students at the study site were given the FCI as both a pre- and posttest. Test data were analyzed using two different methods---a repeated-measures t test and the Hake gain method. The results of this research project showed that test score gains were statistically significant, as measured by the t test. The Hake gain results indicated a low (22.5%) gain for the class. The resulting project was a curriculum plan for teaching the mechanics portion of Advanced Placement (AP) physics B as well as several active learning classroom practices supported by the research. This project will allow AP physics teachers an opportunity to improve their curricular practices. Locally, the results of this project study showed that research participants gained understanding of physics concepts. Social change may occur as teachers implement active learning strategies, thus creating improved student understanding of physics concepts.

  5. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  6. Passive and active adaptive management: Approaches and an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Physical activity recommendations for health: what should Europe do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogelholm Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating scientific evidence shows physical activity to have profound health benefits amenable to substantial public health gains. Accordingly, recommendations on how much and what kind of physical activity enhances health have been issued. The 1995 recommendation from the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine has been adapted worldwide, including Europe. Recently an extensive review of new evidence was undertaken and refined recommendations were issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. We summarise the development of physical activity recommendations and consider the need and possible ways to update the current European situation. Discussion The new recommendations include several new elements when compared to the 1995 recommendation, the most notable being the greater emphasis on the contribution of vigorous-intensity activities, and the inclusion of activities for muscle strength and bone health. They also include specific recommendations for young people, middle-aged adults, older adults and some special groups. The existing Pan-European and national physical activity recommendations in Europe are mostly based on the 1995 recommendation and primarily target adults and young people. Thus the degree to which they are compatible with the new recommendations varies. In view of the growing public health importance of physical activity, we discuss the need to review the existing physical activity recommendations at the European level and assess their consistency with the new evidence and the new recommendations. Summary We argue that a review of the current physical activity recommendations in Europe should be undertaken in view of the most recent research evidence. We recommend that such a task should be taken on by WHO Europe in parallel with the ongoing work by WHO global Headquarters. Following this, each country should develop communication

  8. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  9. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  10. Strategies for Increasing the Status and Value of Adapted Physical Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Houston-Wilson, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Physical education teachers and the profession are very often marginalized and minimized by administrators, parents, and students. Adapted physical education is no exception. There are several reasons for the lack of value given to teaching students with special needs in physical education, including issues with placement, stigmatization of…

  11. Adapting to a Changing World--Challenges and Opportunities in Undergraduate Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Adapting to a Changing World" was commissioned by the National Science Foundation to examine the present status of undergraduate physics education, including the state of physics education research, and, most importantly, to develop a series of recommendations for improving physics education that draws from the knowledge we have about…

  12. Video Editing: A Service-Learning Assignment in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deborah R.; Gurvitch, Rachel; Yao, Wei-Ru

    2016-01-01

    For most physical education teacher education (PETE) programs, the constraints surrounding the undergraduate curriculum (e.g., number of credit hours, dual content certificates such as health and physical education, content knowledge) limit PETE programs to offering only one course in adapted physical education (APE) with the expectation that this…

  13. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  14. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  15. Annual report on nuclear physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report surveys the activities in fundamental research from July 1, 1980 to June 30, 1981 at the three institutes of the KfK which are concerned with nuclear physics. The research program comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions and physics at medium and higher energies. (orig.)

  16. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  17. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  18. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future......Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining...... participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...

  19. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 Do you want to ... illnesses and diseases associated with aging and maintains quality of life and independence longer for seniors So why not ...

  20. Reactor physics activities in NEA member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of National activity reports presented at the thirty-third Meeting of the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics, held at OECD Headquarters, Paris, from 15th - 19th October 1990

  1. Stages of change in physical activity, self efficacy and decisional balance among Saudi university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensaf S.A. Gawwad

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion : Physical inactivity is common among KSU students. A considerable proportion of them was not ready to become more physically active. The study highlights the need to adapt PA promotion programs to states of readiness for PA. University and public policies as well as environmental changes are necessary to encourage active living within the context of Islamic rules and Saudi culture.

  2. Leisure time physical activity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Føns Johnsen, Nina; Ekblond, Annette; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke;

    2013-01-01

    cohort, including 29,129 women and 26,576 men aged 50-64 years at baseline 1993-1997. Using Cox proportional hazards models we investigated the associations between mortality rate and leisure time physical activity by exploring 1) participation (yes/no) in each type of activity; 2) a simple dose-response...... relationship with hours spent on each activity, supplemented with indicators of participation in each activity; and 3) inflexion or nonmonotonic dose-response relationships using linear splines. RESULTS: A total of 2696 women and 4044 men died through March 2010. We found lower mortality with participation......BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that a large part of the beneficial effect of physical activity on mortality is confined to a threshold effect of participation. METHODS: Self-reported physical activity was investigated in relation to all-cause mortality in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health...

  3. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  4. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we explore the association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitn...

  5. Physical activity, muscle function, falls and fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Nordqvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Study design: A thematic review. Objectives: To evaluate if physical activity enhances muscle strength, improves balance, and reduces the fall frequency and the fracture incidence. Background: One of the major medical problems of today is the increasing incidence of fragility fractures. Muscle strength and fall is one of the major determinants of a fracture. If physical activity could increase muscle strength, improve balance and reduce the fall frequency, then training could be recommended a...

  6. A nonlinear neural fir filter with an adaptive activation function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Su Goh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive amplitude normalized nonlinear gradient descent (AANNGD algorithm for the class of nonlinear finite impulse response (FIR adaptive filters (dynamical perception is introduced. This is achieved by making the amplitude of the nonlinear activation function gradient adaptive. The proposed learning algorithm is suitable for processing of nonlinear and nonstationary signals with a large dynamical range, and removes the unwanted effect of saturation nonlinearities. For rigor, sensitivity analysis is performed and the improved performance of the AANNGD algorithm over the standard LMS, NGD, NNGD, the fully adaptive NNGD (FANNGD and the sign algorithm is verified by simulations on nonlinear and nonstationary inputs with large dynamics.

  7. Adaptive Review of Three Fundamental Questions in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    In the recent decades, the amazing changes have occurred in the theoretical physics and the rate of its improvement has been rising very extensively. The neutron and positron were discovered in 1932 which before that only electron, proton and photon were known. Today, the Standard Model of elemen...... the different results, we need to change our thoughts and scientific beliefs. In this paper, by a new viewpoint to the basic laws of physics, three fundamental questions in physics has been discussed and analyzed in hidden parts of the standard model and physical theories....

  8. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  9. International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Scientific Activities in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities and results of the ICTP during 1983 are reported, according to the following programme components: Physics and energy (Plasma physics; Non-conventional energy; Nuclear physics); Fundamental physics (Elementary particles and fundamental theory); Physics of the living state (Medical physics; Applications of physics to medicine and biology); Physics and technology (Condensed matter physics and related; Atomic, molecular and laser physics; Physics of communications); Mathematics (Applicable mathematics); Physics of the environment and of natural resources (Soil physics; Geophysics); other fields

  10. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri Brittin

    Full Text Available Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  11. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  12. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    OpenAIRE

    Zaycev V.P.; Manucharyan S.V.; Kramskoy S.I.

    2010-01-01

    Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of acti...

  13. Student Active Learning Methods in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Robert J.; Kovac, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    We describe two strategies for implementing active learning in physical chemistry. One involves supplementing a traditional lecture course with heavily computer-based active-learning exercises carried out by cooperative groups in a department computer lab. The other uses cooperative learning almost exclusively, supplemented by occasional mini-lectures. Both approaches seemed to result in better student learning and a more positive attitude toward the subject. On the basis of our respective experiences using active learning techniques, we discuss some of the strengths of these techniques and some of the challenges we encountered using the active-learning approach in teaching physical chemistry.

  14. Maintenance and decline of physical activity during adolescence: insights from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filion Annie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Better knowledge on why some individuals succeed in maintaining participation in physical activity throughout adolescence is needed to guide the development of effective interventions to increase and then maintain physical activity levels. Despite allowing an in-depth understanding, qualitative designs have infrequently been used to study physical activity maintenance. We explored factors contributing to the maintenance and the decline of physical activity during adolescence. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 515 grade 10-12 students. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents was used to determine physical activity level at the end of adolescence. An adapted version of this questionnaire was used to estimate physical activity in early adolescence. Among both genders, we identified participants who maintained a high level of physical activity since grade 7 and some whose activity level declined. For each category, groups of 10 students were randomly selected to take part in focus group discussions. Results Seven focus groups with 5 to 8 participants in each were held. Both maintainers and decliners associated physical activity with positive health outcomes. Maintenance of physical activity was associated with supportive social environments and heightened feelings of competence and attractiveness. A decline in physical activity was associated with negative social validation, poor social support and barriers related to access. Conclusions Although maintainers and decliners associate physical activity with similar themes, the experiences of both groups differ substantially with regards to those themes. Taking both perspectives in consideration could help improve interventions to increase and maintain physical activity levels of adolescents.

  15. Job dissatisfaction among certified adapted physical education specialists in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Ješinová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professionals working in the area of special education are exposed to the unique situation of occupational stress. Adapted physical education teachers are experiencing several symptoms of the burnout phenomenon. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors causing job dissatisfaction among certified adapted physical education specialists in the USA. Methods: The survey was developed based (a on Herzberg's (1959 theory of job satisfaction, and (b a pilot study, which examined specific factors of job dissatisfaction among adapted physical education (APE teachers in the USA. The survey consisted of three parts: (a demographic information, (b paired comparison of nine general factors which could cause job dissatisfaction, and (c paired comparison of ten APE specific factors which could cause job dissatisfaction. The participants were 113 certified adapted physical education specialists (CAPES (88 females, 25 males, a 38% return rate of all mailed surveys. Results: The results indicated that 39% of CAPES have seriously considered another job outside of APE and 26% of CAPES have actively searched for job outside of APE in the last two years. 113 CAPES indicated the general factors that they found the most dissatisfying in their job (listed accordingly to rank, frequency and percent of times chosen, N for each factor = 1017 were working conditions (644, 71%; policies and administration (619, 68%; interpersonal relationship with supervisors (552, 61%; supervision (484, 54%; salary (404, 45%; interpersonal relationship with subordinates (404, 45%; benefits on job (301, 33%; interpersonal relationship with peers (293, 32%; and job security (245, 27%. 110 CAPES indicated the APE specific factors they found the most dissatisfying on their job (listed accordingly to rank, frequency and percent of times chosen, N for each factor = 990 were paperwork (687, 69%; scheduling (659, 67%; facilities (617, 62%; individualized education

  16. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  17. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR, the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely

  18. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ. METHODS: The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. RESULTS: In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland

  19. Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodrich David E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.

  20. Job dissatisfaction among certified adapted physical education specialists in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Ješinová; Miroslava Spurná; Martin Kudláček; Jana Sklenaříková

    2014-01-01

    Background: Professionals working in the area of special education are exposed to the unique situation of occupational stress. Adapted physical education teachers are experiencing several symptoms of the burnout phenomenon. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors causing job dissatisfaction among certified adapted physical education specialists in the USA. Methods: The survey was developed based (a) on Herzberg's (1959) theory of job satisfaction, and (b) a pilot ...

  1. An adaptive strategy for active debris removal

    OpenAIRE

    White, Adam E.; Lewis, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Many parameters influence the evolution of the near-Earth debris population, including launch, solar, explosion and mitigation activities, as well as other future uncertainties such as advances in space technology or changes in social and economic drivers that effect the utilisation of space activities. These factors lead to uncertainty in the long-term debris population. This uncertainty makes it difficult to identify potential remediation strategies, involving active debris removal (ADR), t...

  2. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  3. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  4. Healthy active living: Physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lipnowski, Stan; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity is rising globally. Although the risk factors for obesity are multifactorial, many are related to lifestyle and may be amenable to intervention. These factors include sedentary time and non-exercise activity thermogenesis, as well as the frequency, intensity, amounts and types of physical activity. Front-line health care practitioners are ideally suited to monitor children, adolescents and their families’ physical activity levels, to evaluate lifestyle choice...

  5. Adapting smart phone applications about physics education to blind students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülbül, M. Ş.; Yiğit, N.; Garip, B.

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of necessary equipment in a physics laboratory are available for smartphone users via applications. Physics teachers may measure from acceleration to sound volume with its internal sensors. These sensors collect data and smartphone applications make the raw data visible. Teachers who do not have well-equipped laboratories at their schools may have an opportunity to conduct experiments with the help of smart phones. In this study, we analyzed possible open source physics education applications in terms of blind users in inclusive learning environments. All apps are categorized as partially, full or non-supported. The roles of blind learner’s friend during the application are categorized as reader, describer or user. Mentioned apps in the study are compared with additional opportunities like size and downloading rates. Out of using apps we may also get information about whether via internet and some other extra information for different experiments in physics lab. Q-codes reading or augmented reality are two other opportunity provided by smart phones for users in physics labs. We also summarized blind learner’s smartphone experiences from literature and listed some suggestions for application designers about concepts in physics.

  6. Perceived risk of osteoporosis: Restricted physical activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reventlow, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To explore elderly women's physical activity in relation to their perception of the risk of osteoporosis. Design. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting. Informants were purposely selected from a Danish population-based, age-specific cohort study conducted in the county...... of Copenhagen with people born in 1936. Subjects. Women in their sixties. Results. Women who perceived a current risk of osteoporosis tended to reduce their physical activity in an attempt to reduce the risk of bone damage. This behaviour was related to the imagined fragility of the bones (the risk inside...... the body), and the actual situations (the risk outside the body), including places and activities. Knowledge of a reduced bone mass reinforced the women's uncertainty about what their bones could endure. Experiences managing physical activity without injury resulted in reinterpretations of their risk...

  7. Peer-delivered physical activity interventions: an overlooked opportunity for physical activity promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Ginis, Kathleen A Martin; Nigg, Claudio R; Smith, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to catalogue and synthesize published studies that have examined the effects of peer-delivered physical activity interventions on physical activity behavior. Ten published studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The following information was extracted from each study: study design and duration; characteristics of the sample, peers, and interventions; and physical activity outcomes. In all articles reporting within-groups analyses, pee...

  8. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Z Fan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising

  9. Contribution of physical education to overall physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U; Roth, R; Zahner, L; Gerber, M; Puder, J J; Hebestreit, H; Kriemler, S

    2013-10-01

    For many children, physical activity (PA) during physical education (PE) lessons provides an important opportunity for being physically active. Although PA during PE has been shown to be low, little is known about the contribution of PA during PE to overall PA. The aim was therefore to assess children's PA during PE and to determine the contribution of PE to overall PA with special focus on overweight children. Accelerometer measurements were done in 676 children (9.3 ± 2.1 years) over 4-7 days in 59 randomly selected classes. Moderate-and-vigorous PA (MVPA; ≥ 2000 counts/min) during PE (MVPAPE), overall MVPA per day (MVPADAY), and a comparison of days with and without PE were calculated by a regression model with gender, grade, and weight status (normal vs overweight) as fixed factors and class as a random factor. Children spent 32.8 ± 15.1% of PE time in MVPA. Weight status was not associated to MVPAPE . MVPAPE accounted for 16.8 ± 8.5% of MVPADAY, and 17.5 ± 8.2% in overweight children. All children were more active on days with PE than on days without PE (differences: 16.1 ± 29.0 min of MVPADAY; P ≤ 0.001; 13.7 ± 28.0 min for overweight children). Although MVPAPE was low, PE played a considerable role in providing PA and was not compensated by reducing extracurricular MVPA. PMID:22151355

  10. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    , which leads to adaptive changes increasing the efficiency of its functioning and, in intermediate way, modifying and reducing the influence of other risk factors of cardiac vascular disease, mainly obesity dyslipidemy and hypertension. The subsequent scientific observations had an influence on the alterations of scientific associations recommendations concerning the preferred kind, intensity and effective dose of health-oriented physical activity. The current recommendations on preventive usefulness of physical activity, implemented by Polish Cardiological Association, have been based on a document containing the guidelines of European Cardiologic Association coming from 2003. All described evidences present in unambiguous way the undeniable benefits of active lifestyle. Its promoting as well as supporting in this area vast number of population, especially in case of disturbing epidemiological data, is becoming a duty of not only health service workers but also state administration employees responsible for planning public health expenditure. PMID:19711738

  11. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shephard Roy J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.

  12. Nutrition and Physical Activity in CKD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamasco Cupisti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients are at risk for protein-energy wasting, abnormal body composition and impaired physical capacity. These complications lead to increased risk of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality.In CKD patient as well as in healthy people, there is a close association between nutrition and physical activity. Namely, inadequate nutrient (energy intake impairs physical performance thus favoring a sedentary lifestyle: this further contributes to loss of muscle strength and mass, which limit the quality of life and rehabilitation of CKD patients. In CKD as well as in end-stage-renal-disease patients, regular physical activity coupled with adequate energy and protein intake counteracts protein-energy wasting and related comorbidity and mortality. In summary, exercise training can positively influence nutritional status and the perception of well-being of CKD patients and may facilitate the anabolic effects of nutritional interventions.

  13. Racial, Ethnic and Gender Differences in Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval M. Dave; Michael Grossman

    2011-01-01

    This study examines racial, ethnic and gender differentials in physical activity. Individuals engage in physical activity during leisure-time and also during in many other activities such as walking to work, home maintenance, shopping and child care. Physical activity also occurs on the job is this is referred to as work physical activity. Prior studies have shown that non-work physical activity has a positive impact on health while work physical activity has a negative impact on health. Many...

  14. Physical Activity: Economic and Policy Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Melayne M. McInnes; Shinogle, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    While much research has focused on the costs of obesity and economic factors that drive obesity growth, little economic research has examined the factors that contribute to obesity -- physical inactivity and poor nutrition. This paper will examine correlates and predictors of physical activity over time with emphasis on economic factors. We use data for adults from the 2000-2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey that includes state and county codes for each individual ...

  15. Physical Activity Index among Malaysian Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Norlena Salamudin; Mohd Taib Harun

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several years, physical inactivity has increasingly been recognized as a major health risk among Malaysians. The Government of Malaysia under the Ministry of Youth has adopted many programs aiming at keeping the nation healthy. Among such programs are Malaysia Cergas and RakanSukan. Trends in the physical activity levels and participation patterns of Malaysians has never been researched or monitored. Thus, there is no available evidence to serve as a foundation for decision maki...

  16. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  17. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division - 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlights the progress of activities carried out during the year 1988 in Reactor Physics Division in the form of brief summaries. The topics are organised under the following subject categories:(1) nuclear data evaluation , processing and validation, (2) core physics and analysis, (3) reactor kinetics and safety analysis, (4) noise analysis and (5) radiation transport and shielding. List of publications by the members of the Division and the Reactor Physics Seminars held during the year 1988, is included at the end of report. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  18. Effect of physical activities on obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roberto Adriano Prati

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in body fat levels associated with the decrease in physical activities in adolescents has been the concern of recent researches because there is a strong correlation between the growing number of early-age obesity cases and the appearance of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, behavior problems and even death when not treated in time. So this study aimed to analyze through a bibliographical investigation some of the factors that cause obesity in adolescents and propose alternative physical activities to help in the treatment and minimize the problem. The analysis showed that programmed, controlled and adequate physical activities, associated with changes in behavior and lifestyle, may revert obesity condition and improve life quality of these adolescents.

  19. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  20. Analysis of Risk Management in Adapted Physical Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L.; Donovan, Jacqueline B.; Berg, Dominck A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs vary on how the topics of safe teaching and risk management are addressed. Common practices to cover such issues include requiring textbooks, lesson planning, peer teaching, videotaping, reflecting, and reading case law analyses. We used a mixed methods design to examine how risk management is…

  1. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  2. Using a Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Framework to Predict Physical Aggression Trajectories in Newlywed Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Amie; Lawrence, Erika; Barry, Robin A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a vulnerability-stress-adaptation framework to examine personality traits and chronic stress as predictors of the developmental course of physical aggression in the early years of marriage. Additionally, personality traits and physical aggression were examined as predictors of the developmental course of chronic stress. Data from…

  3. Flipped Classroom Adapted to the ARCS Model of Motivation and Applied to a Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiksoy, Gülsüm; Özdamli, Fezile

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect on the achievement, motivation and self-sufficiency of students of the flipped classroom approach adapted to Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction) motivation model and applied to a physics course. The study involved 66 students divided into two classes of a physics course. The…

  4. Physical Activity Recognition from Smartphone Embedded Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prudêncio, João; Aguiar, Ana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    propose a novel set of features for distinguishing five physical activities using only sensors embedded in the smartphone. Specifically, we introduce features that are normalized using the orientation sensor such that horizontal and vertical movements are explicitly computed. We evaluate a neural network......The ubiquity of smartphones has motivated efforts to use the embedded sensors to detect various aspects of user context to transparently provide personalized and contextualized services to the user. One relevant piece of context is the physical activity of the smartphone user. In this paper, we...

  5. Adaptive active vibration isolation – A control perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landau Ioan Doré

    2015-01-01

    The paper will review a number of recent developments for adaptive feedback compensation of multiple unknown and time-varying narrow band disturbances and for adaptive feedforward compensation of broad band disturbances in the presence of the inherent internal positive feedback caused by the coupling between the compensator system and the measurement of the image of the disturbance. Some experimental results obtained on a relevant active vibration control system will illustrate the performance of the various algorithms presented.

  6. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  7. Adaptive memory: Stereotype activation is not enough

    OpenAIRE

    Otgaar, H.; Smeets, T; Merckelbach, H.; Jelicic, M.; Verschuere, B.; Galliot, A.M.; Riel, van, A.C.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that survival processing leads to superior memorability. The aim of the present study was to examine whether this survival recall advantage might result from stereotype activation. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a pilot study and two experiments in which participants were primed with stereotypes (Experiment 1, professor and elderly person; Experiment 2, survival-stereotype). In Experiment 1, 120 undergraduates were randomly assigned to a survival, professor stereotyp...

  8. Global analysis of predicted proteomes: Functional adaptation of physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Christopher G.; Kassen, Rees; Hebestreit, Holger; Rainey, Paul B.

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of proteins are fundamentally important in organismal function. We used the complete predicted proteomes of >100 organisms spanning the three domains of life to investigate the comparative biology and evolution of proteomes. Theoretical 2D gels were constructed with axes of protein mass and charge (pI) and converted to density estimates comparable across all types and sizes of proteome. We asked whether we could detect general patterns of proteome conservation and...

  9. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MUSCLE GROWTH AND ADAPTATION TO PHYSICAL EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Yurkevych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In a few last decades oxidative stress detected in a variety of physiological processes where reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS play a central role. They are directly involved in oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. In certain concentrations they are necessary for cell division, proliferation and apoptosis. Contractile muscle tissue at aerobic conditions form high ROS flow that may modulate a variety of cell functions, for example proliferation. However, slight increase in ROS level provide hormetic effect which may participate in adaptation to heavy weight training resulted in hypertrophy and proliferation of skeletal muscle fibers. This review will discuss ROS types, sites of generation, strategies to increase force production and achieve skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  10. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  11. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress of activities carried out during the year 1987 in Reactor Physics Division are highlighted in this report in the form of brief summaries. These are organised under the following subject categories: (1) Nuclear Data Evaluation, Processing and Validation, (2) Core Physics, Analysis and FBTR Studies, (3) Reactor Kinetics and Safety Analysis, (4) Noise Analysis, (5) Radiation Transport, Shielding and Statistical Physics. Finally, a list of publications made by the members of the Division and the Reactor Physics Seminars held during 1987, is included at the end of the report. The large number of internal reports prepared on the PFBR and FBTR projects indicates the relatively larger amount of work carried out for these projects during 1987. (author)

  12. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  13. BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Matias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The population awareness of the physical exercise’s benefits is widely diffused. These benefits are particularly important in the elderly because, with increasing age, there is a decline of the musculoskeletal system and the maximum oxygen consumption which reduces the functional fitness of the elderly and can often lead to a significant decline in the quality of life. Despite this awareness, a large part of the population remains sedentary. It is important to know what the barriers are, so they can be circumvented in order to increase the engagement of the elderly population in existing physical activity programs.Objectives: This study aims to identify some of the personal, behavioral and environmental barriers that prevent older adults to be physically active.

  14. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  15. A social neuroscience perspective on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Elias, Lorin J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Harrison, Amabilis H; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the cognitive characteristics of individuals who demonstrate successful and unsuccessful self-regulation of physical activity behavior. In Study 1, participants articulated 1-week intentions for physical activity and wore a triaxial accelerometer over the subsequent 7 days. Among those who were motivated to increase their physical activity, those who were most and least successful were administered an IQ test. In Study 2, a second sample of participants completed the same protocol and a smaller subset of matched participants attended a functional imaging (fMRI) session. In Study 1, successful self-regulators (SSRs) scored significantly higher than unsuccessful self-regulators (USRs) on a test of general cognitive ability, and this difference could not be accounted for by favorability of attitudes toward physical activity or conscientiousness. In Study 2, the IQ effect was replicated, with SSRs showing a full standard deviation advantage over USRs. In the imaging protocol, USRs showed heavier recruitment of cognitive resources relative to SSRs in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex during performance of a Stroop task; SSRs showed heavier recruitment in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:18723901

  16. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  17. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  18. Towards physical activity recognition using smartphone sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of a smartphone accelerometer in physical activity recognition has been well studied. However, the role of a gyroscope and a magnetometer is yet to be explored, both when used alone as well as in combination with an accelerometer. For this purpose, we investigate the role of

  19. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e+e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC

  20. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  1. Validating MOSPA questionnaire for measuring physical activity in Pakistani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Rahat

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise measurements of activity at a population level are important for monitoring trends and evaluating health promotion strategies. Few studies have assessed the measurement of physical activity in developing countries. The aim of this study was to validate the MOSPA (Monica Optional Study of Physical Activity questionnaire which was developed for the WHO-Monitoring trends and determinants of cardiovasculr disease (MONICA study sites. Methods The MOSPA questionnaire assesses energy expendtiture (EE related to physical activity (employment, household work, transportation, and leisure time over a one year period. This questionnaire has been described in the manuscript as the long term (LT questionnaire. An adapted short term (ST 5 day questionnaire was developed to assess convergent validity. Questionnaire data were compared with physical activity EE estimates from a Caltrac accelerometer and with body composition measures (height, weight and bioelectrical impedance in 50 women from the Aga Khan University (AKU hospital antenatal clinics, Pakistan. Other forms of EE i.e. resting EE and thermic effect of food were not assessd in this study. Results Subjects were aged 26 ± 3.8 years and were 16.1 ± 6.7 weeks pregnant. Their average weight was 58.8 ± 10.7 Kg. The average EE/day assessed by the Caltrac accelerometer, was 224 kcal and by MOSPA LT questionnaire it was 404 kcal. The questionnaires and Caltrac data were reasonably well correlated: r = 0.51 and r = 0.60 (P Conclusion The MOSPA questionnaire is useful in assessing physical activity levels in a sedentary population over a one year period.

  2. Validity and reliability of a modified english version of the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Aggio, Daniel; Fairclough, Stuart; Knowles, Zoe; Graves, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Background Adaptation of physical activity self-report questionnaires is sometimes required to reflect the activity behaviours of diverse populations. The processes used to modify self-report questionnaires though are typically underreported. This two-phased study used a formative approach to investigate the validity and reliability of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) in English youth. Phase one examined test content and response process validity and subsequently in...

  3. Edge Adapted Wavelets, Solar Magnetic Activity, and Climate Change

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The continuous wavelet transform is adapted to account for signal truncation through renormalization and by modifying the shape of the analyzing window. Comparison is made of the instant and integrated wavelet power with previous algorithms. The edge adapted and renormalized admissible wavelet transforms are used to estimate the level of solar magnetic activity from the sunspot record. The solar activity is compared to Oerlemans' temperature reconstruction and to the Central England Temperature record. A correlation is seen for years between 1610 and 1990, followed by a strong deviation as the recently observed temperature increases.

  4. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  5. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  6. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  7. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the Air Pollution Unitwithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  8. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  9. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  10. Development of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for the EORTC QLQ-C30 physical functioning dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Grønvold, Mogens; Aaronson, Neil K.;

    2011-01-01

    Computerized adaptive test (CAT) methods, based on item response theory (IRT), enable a patient-reported outcome instrument to be adapted to the individual patient while maintaining direct comparability of scores. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORTC...... QLQ-C30. We present the development and psychometric validation of the item pool for the first of the scales, physical functioning (PF)....

  11. Development of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for the EORTC QLQ-C30 physical functioning dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Groenvold, Mogens; Aaronson, Neil K;

    2011-01-01

    Computerized adaptive test (CAT) methods, based on item response theory (IRT), enable a patient-reported outcome instrument to be adapted to the individual patient while maintaining direct comparability of scores. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORT...... QLQ-C30. We present the development and psychometric validation of the item pool for the first of the scales, physical functioning (PF)....

  12. Adolescents’ use of the built environment for physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Perrin, James M; Robinson, Alyssa I; Locascio, Joseph J.; Blossom, Jeff; Chen, Minghua L; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Field, Alison E.; Green, Chloe; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, but few adolescents achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Understanding how adolescents use different built environment spaces for physical activity and activity varies by location could help in designing effective interventions to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe the locations where adolescents engage in physical activity and compare tra...

  13. Adolescents’ use of the built environment for physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Perrin, James M; Robinson, Alyssa I; Locascio, Joseph J.; Blossom, Jeff; Chen, Minghua L; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Field, Alison E.; Green, Chloe; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, but few adolescents achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Understanding how adolescents use different built environment spaces for physical activity and activity varies by location could help in designing effective interventions to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe the locations where adolescents engage in physical activity and compare trad...

  14. What I Need to Know about Physical Activity and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials How can physical activity help me take care of my diabetes?​ Physical activity and keeping a healthy weight can help you take care of your diabetes and prevent diabetes problems. Physical ...

  15. Physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation for ultra-fast IMRT planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Niklas; Bangert, Mark; Kamerling, Cornelis P; Ziegenhein, Peter; Bol, Gijsbert H; Raaymakers, Bas W; Oelfke, Uwe

    2016-07-08

    Conventional treatment planning in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a trial-and-error process that usually involves tedious tweaking of optimization parameters. Here, we present an algorithm that automates part of this process, in particular the adaptation of voxel-based penalties within normal tissue. Thereby, the proposed algorithm explicitly considers a priori known physical limitations of photon irradiation. The efficacy of the developed algorithm is assessed during treatment planning studies comprising 16 prostate and 5 head and neck cases. We study the eradication of hot spots in the normal tissue, effects on target coverage and target conformity, as well as selected dose volume points for organs at risk. The potential of the proposed method to generate class solutions for the two indications is investigated. Run-times of the algorithms are reported. Physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation is an adequate means to automatically detect and eradicate hot-spots during IMRT planning while maintaining target coverage and conformity. Negative effects on organs at risk are comparably small and restricted to lower doses. Using physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation, it was possible to improve the generation of class solutions for both indications. Considering the reported run-times of less than 20 s, physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation has the potential to reduce the clinical workload during planning and automated treatment plan generation in the long run, facilitating adaptive radiation treatments.

  16. Physical Activity Across Adulthood and Physical Performance in Midlife Findings from a British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, R; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence, mainly from cross-sectional studies, suggests that physical activity is a potentially important modifiable factor associated with physical performance and strength in older age. It is unclear whether the benefits of physical activity accumulate across life or whether there are sensitive periods when physical activity is more influential.Purpose: To examine the associations of leisure-time physical activity across adulthood with physical performance and strength in midlif...

  17. Description of children as subjects of adaptive physical culture training in social rehabilitation centres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashna O.P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of rehabilitation centres' research and the peculiarities 162 of children with physical disabilities, as subjects of adaptive physical culture (APC. We have investigated the parents' opinion considering the process of children rehabilitation by means of APC. The research resulted in singling out groups typical of children for two centres, studying their physical abilities and qualities as well as their socialization level. It is proved that absence of the systematic reading with children with the lacks of development is designated on efficiency of leadthrough not only to athletic-sporting but also to the physical rehabilitation.

  18. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  19. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina

    2016-04-01

    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students. PMID:27076009

  20. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  1. Neighborhood disadvantage, physical activity barriers, and physical activity among African American breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antwan Jones

    2015-01-01

    Higher renter rates and individual barriers both contribute to lower levels of physical activity in African American breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that the potential for constant residential turnover (via rentership and perceived barriers may increase physical inactivity even where facilities may be available.

  2. Assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors: Measures of physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activitymay be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The...

  3. Adaptive Compensation of Reactive Power With Shunt Active Power Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Hansen, Steffan;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive method for compensating the reactive power with an active power filter (APF), which is initially rated for mitigation of only the harmonic currents given by a nonlinear industrial load. It is proven that, if the harmonic currents do not load the APF at the rated...

  4. Adaptive activity and environment recognition for mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Jussi; Bojja, Jayaprasad; Collin, Jussi; Leppänen, Jussi; Eronen, Antti

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, an adaptive activity and environment recognition algorithm running on a mobile phone is presented. The algorithm makes inferences based on sensor and radio receiver data provided by the phone. A wide set of features that can be extracted from these data sources were investigated, and a Bayesian maximum a posteriori classifier was used for classifying between several user activities and environments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated on a dataset collected in a real-life trial. In addition, comparison to other state-of-the-art classifiers, namely support vector machines and decision trees, was performed. To make the system adaptive for individual user characteristics, an adaptation algorithm for context model parameters was designed. Moreover, a confidence measure for the classification correctness was designed. The proposed adaptation algorithm and confidence measure were evaluated on a second dataset obtained from another real-life trial, where the users were requested to provide binary feedback on the classification correctness. The results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm is effective at improving the classification accuracy.

  5. Adaptive Activity and Environment Recognition for Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Parviainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive activity and environment recognition algorithm running on a mobile phone is presented. The algorithm makes inferences based on sensor and radio receiver data provided by the phone. A wide set of features that can be extracted from these data sources were investigated, and a Bayesian maximum a posteriori classifier was used for classifying between several user activities and environments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated on a dataset collected in a real-life trial. In addition, comparison to other state-of-the-art classifiers, namely support vector machines and decision trees, was performed. To make the system adaptive for individual user characteristics, an adaptation algorithm for context model parameters was designed. Moreover, a confidence measure for the classification correctness was designed. The proposed adaptation algorithm and confidence measure were evaluated on a second dataset obtained from another real-life trial, where the users were requested to provide binary feedback on the classification correctness. The results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm is effective at improving the classification accuracy.

  6. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugdill, L.; Brettle, A; Hulme, C.; McCluskey, Serena; Long, A F

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommended...

  7. Physical activity and the healthy mind.

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians should seek to enhance the quality rather than the quantity of human life. Physical activity programs can increase life satisfaction through an immediate increase of arousal and a long-term enhancement of self-esteem and body image. In the young child competition can cause excessive arousal, but long-term adverse effects are rare. In the adult a reduction of anxiety and stress and a general feeling of well-being reduce the frequency of minor medical complaints, generating important...

  8. Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Jung eHuang; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate...

  9. Regulatory fit messages and physical activity motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Ines

    2013-04-01

    Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual's regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.

  10. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume.

  11. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. PMID:24952993

  12. Does a physical activity referral scheme improve the physical activity among routine primary health care patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Leijon, Matti E; Bendtsen, Preben; Nilsen, Per; Festin, Karin; Ståhle, A

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity referral (PAR) schemes or concepts occur in varying forms. Because few physical activity intervention studies have been carried out in routine health care settings, it is difficult to translate research findings into daily practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a PAR scheme implemented in routine primary health care. The study did not include a control group and was based on the ordinary staff's work efforts and follow-up measures. During a 2-yea...

  13. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, Jed A.; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included seman...

  14. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzulo, G; Rigoli, F.; Friston, K.

    2015-01-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a...

  15. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework th...

  16. Daily Physical Activity in Stable Heart Failure Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dontje, Manon L.; van der Wal, Martje H.L; Stolk, Ronald P; Brügemann, Johan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Wijtvliet, Petra E P J; van der Schans, Cees P; Greef, Mathieu H.G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Physical activity is the only nonpharmacological therapy that is proven to be effective in heart failure (HF) patients in reducing morbidity. To date, little is known about the levels of daily physical activity in HF patients and about related factors. OBJECTIVE:: The objectives of this study were to (a) describe performance-based daily physical activity in HF patients, (b) compare it with physical activity guidelines, and (c) identify related factors of daily physical activity. ...

  17. Autophagy is required for exercise training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation and improvement of physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Vitor A; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Zhang, Mei; Greene, Nicholas P; Laker, Rhianna C; Breen, David S; Hoehn, Kyle L; Yan, Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Pathological and physiological stimuli, including acute exercise, activate autophagy; however, it is unknown whether exercise training alters basal levels of autophagy and whether autophagy is required for skeletal muscle adaptation to training. We observed greater autophagy flux (i.e., a combination of increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and LC3-II levels and reduced p62 protein content indicating a higher rate of initiation and resolution of autophagic events), autophagy protein expression (i.e., Atg6/Beclin1, Atg7, and Atg8/LC3) and mitophagy protein Bnip3 expression in tonic, oxidative muscle compared to muscles of either mixed fiber types or of predominant glycolytic fibers in mice. Long-term voluntary running (4 wk) resulted in increased basal autophagy flux and expression of autophagy proteins and Bnip3 in parallel to mitochondrial biogenesis in plantaris muscle with mixed fiber types. Conversely, exercise training promoted autophagy protein expression with no significant increases of autophagy flux and mitochondrial biogenesis in the oxidative soleus muscle. We also observed increased basal autophagy flux and Bnip3 content without increases in autophagy protein expression in the plantaris muscle of sedentary muscle-specific Pgc-1α transgenic mice, a genetic model of augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings reveal that endurance exercise training-induced increases in basal autophagy, including mitophagy, only take place if an enhanced oxidative phenotype is achieved. However, autophagy protein expression is mainly dictated by contractile activity independently of enhancements in oxidative phenotype. Exercise-trained mice heterozygous for the critical autophagy protein Atg6 showed attenuated increases of basal autophagy flux, mitochondrial content, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, along with impaired improvement of endurance capacity. These results demonstrate that increased basal autophagy is required for endurance exercise training-induced skeletal

  18. THE EFFECTS OF EXERGAMING ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN A THIRD-GRADE PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASS

    OpenAIRE

    Shayne, Rachel K; Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical activity. In addition, an evaluation of the exergaming equipment showed that exergaming stations were associated with differential levels of physical...

  19. Perceptions of educators regarding level of knowledge in adapted physical education: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampatzidou, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The configuration of training programs of educators regarding teaching students with disabilities presupposes the previous recording of the existing situation concerning the sufficiency of training that PE teachers received regarding disability issues. before the application of intervention programs can be possible. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to create a reliable instrument examining perceptions of physical education teachers concerning the level of knowledge they received in adapted physical education. Method: A questionnaire of 30 items was filled by 94 physical education teachers (53 men, 41 women. Results: Factor analysis resulted to a 30 items’ questionnaire with Cronbach’s α reliability analysis revealing a high internal consistency of the 3 consisting factors related to the perceived level of knowledge, cooperation and organization ability and perceived importance of adapted physical education training.. Statistically significant differences were noted in all factors in relation to previous teaching experience with children with disabilities. PE teachers with specialty other that adapted physical education perceived themselves as having more knowledge (t =6.97, df = 92, p = .000 and ability to cooperate (t =4.87, df = 92, p = .000 whereas they gave more importance in training (t =2.64, df = 92, p = .000. Conclusions: In conclusion, previous teaching experience and specialty emerged as important factors that determined the perceived education sufficiency of physical education teachers.

  20. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste: Scientific activities in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains three parts. Part I is a review of the Scientific activities in 1988 with a statistical digest. Part II describes the scientific programme in Fundamental physics, Condensed matter, Atomic and molecular physics, Mathematics, Physics and energy, Physics and environment, Physics of the living state, Applied physics, Adriatico research conferences. Part III lists the publications issued in 1988. Tabs

  1. Physical modeling of the feedback path in hearing aids with application to adaptive feedback cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joanna L.; Rafaely, Boaz

    2002-05-01

    Hearing aid system modeling based on two-port network theory has been used previously to study the forward gain and the feedback path in hearing aids. The two-port modeling approach is employed in this work to develop an analytic model of the feedback path by reducing the model matrices to simplified analytic expressions. Such an analytic model can simulate the frequency response of the feedback path given the values of relatively few physical parameters such as vent dimensions. The model was extended to include variability in the feedback path due to slit leaks, for example. The analytic model was then incorporated in an adaptive feedback cancellation system, where the physical parameters of the model were adapted to match the actual feedback path and cancel the feedback signal. In the initial stage of this study, the ability of the model to match the frequency response of various measured feedback paths was studied using numerical optimization. Then, an adaptive filtering configuration based on the physical model was developed and studied using computer simulations. Results show that this new approach to adaptive feedback cancellation has the potential to improve both adaptation speed and performance robustness.

  2. Positive Youth Development through Physical Activity: Opportunities for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As physical educators continue to advocate for school-based PE, they should also consider ways to extend their work into community settings in an effort to ensure that all kids have an opportunity to develop physical literacy. This article describes how positive youth development programs can provide an opportunity for physical educators to engage…

  3. Physical activity level, musculoskeletal fitness,balance, strength and power performance in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lohne-Seiler, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    The link between physical activity and prevention of disease, maintenance of independence, and improved quality of life in older adults is supported by strong evidence. However, there is a lack of data on population levels where physical activity level has been measured objectively in association with self-reported health, musculoskeletal fitness and balance variables in older men and women. Also, little is known about the functional adaptive responses of older adults to pow...

  4. Influence of physical activity of racehorses on lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, and protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Slavoljub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to assess the effects of physical activity of various intensity on the degree of damage to certain organs resulting from increased free radical production, as well as the adaptability of the organism to physical exercise. Two groups of healthy 3-5-year-old full-blooded racehorses were assessed. The first one ran a 2400-meter gallop race, which is considered a short-lasting, intense physical activity; lipid status was assessed prior to, and 48 and 72 h after the race. The second group ran a forty-kilometer endurance ride, which is a long-lasting moderate physical activity; the lipid status was assessed immediately before, on finishing and 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h after the race. The total activity of LDH changed 72 h and 96 h following the gallop race (p>0.05, whilst the maximum activity was measured immediately after the endurance ride. By means of electrophoresis LDH in all the horses 5 isoforms were detected. The activity of LDH1 72 h after the gallop race significantly rose in comparison to the one before the race (p0.05. Following the endurance ride LDH1 activity rose at all sampling times, reaching the maximum at 96 h and 144 h in comparison to the values both before and on finishing the ride (p<0.01. The increase in the activity of LDH2 was significantly higher 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 120 h (p<0.05 after the race in comparison to that before the race, and at 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h and 144 h (p<0.05 in comparison to the values on finishing the race. LDH3 activity significantly decreased and LDH5 rose immediately after the endurance ride (p<0.01, whilst LDH4 significantly rose at all times following the endurance ride (p<0.01. The CK activity pointed to high, medium and low degree of adaptation of horses to physical activity. The concentrations of total proteins, albumins and globulins remained within the physiological range at all sampling times, with the exception of 96 h after the endurance ride, when the fall

  5. Sensor Activation and Radius Adaptation (SARA) in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Novella; la Porta, Thomas; Petrioli, Chiara; Silvestri, Simone

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) deployed to monitor an area of interest. In this scenario, a helpful approach is to reduce coverage redundancy and therefore the energy expenditure due to coverage. We introduce the first algorithm which reduces coverage redundancy by means of Sensor Activation and sensing Radius Adaptation (SARA)in a general applicative scenario with two classes of devices: sensors that can adapt their sensing range (adjustable sensors) and sensors that cannot (fixed sensors). In particular, SARA activates only a subset of all the available sensors and reduces the sensing range of the adjustable sensors that have been activated. In doing so, SARA also takes possible heterogeneous coverage capabilities of sensors belonging to the same class into account. It specifically addresses device heterogeneity by modeling the coverage problem in the Laguerre geometry through Voronoi-Laguerre diagrams. SARA executes quickly and is guarante...

  6. Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Methods:…

  7. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  8. The Effect of Physical Education Climates on Elementary Students' Physical Activity Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gell, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the growing need for children from underserved populations to be physically active it is imperative to create developmentally appropriate and enjoyable physical education programs that promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mastery and performance climates on physical activity during…

  9. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  10. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  11. Seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitenbroek, D G

    1993-06-01

    In this paper seasonal variation in leisure time physical activity for exercise is studied and quantified with regard to several popular exercise activities and taking the respondents gender, occupational status, and age into consideration. The analysis concerns data collected by telephone in Scotland between January 1989 and March 1992. Data from 7,202 male and 9,284 female respondents is used in the analysis; cosinor analysis using GLIM is applied. Considerable seasonal variation was found affecting both outdoor and indoor activities. During the peak phase in July, 32% of the respondents reported exercising for at least 20 min three or more times during the previous week, in the winter period this decreased to 23%. Older respondents were found to exercise more later in the year and also showed seasonal variation to a larger extent than younger respondents. This is particularly so for those respondents who exercise at a relatively high frequency. PMID:8321115

  12. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  13. Vascular adaptive responses to physical exercise and to stress are affected differently by nandrolone administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bruder-Nascimento

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic anabolic steroid, physical exercise and stress induce cardiovascular adaptations including increased endothelial function. The present study investigated the effects of these conditions alone and in combination on the vascular responses of male Wistar rats. Exercise was started at 8 weeks of life (60-min swimming sessions 5 days per week for 8 weeks, while carrying a 5% body-weight load. One group received nandrolone (5 mg/kg, twice per week for 8 weeks, im. Acute immobilization stress (2 h was induced immediately before the experimental protocol. Curves for noradrenaline were obtained for thoracic aorta, with and without endothelium from sedentary and trained rats, submitted or not to stress, treated or not with nandrolone. None of the procedures altered the vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in denuded aorta. In intact aorta, stress and exercise produced vascular adaptive responses characterized by endothelium-dependent hyporeactivity to noradrenaline. These conditions in combination did not potentiate the vascular adaptive response. Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone. In contrast, the aortal reactivity to noradrenaline of sedentary rats and the vascular adaptive response to stress of sedentary and trained rats were not affected by nandrolone. Maximum response for 7-10 rats/group (g: sedentary 3.8 ± 0.2 vs trained 3.0 ± 0.2*; sedentary/stress 2.7 ± 0.2 vs trained/stress 3.1 ± 0.1*; sedentary/nandrolone 3.6 ± 0.1 vs trained/nandrolone 3.8 ± 0.1; sedentary/stress/nandrolone 3.2 ± 0.1 vs trained/stress/nandrolone 2.5 ± 0.1*; *P < 0.05 compared to its respective control. Stress and physical exercise determine similar vascular adaptive response involving distinct mechanisms as indicated by the observation that only the physical exercise-induced adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone.

  14. Activity report of Reactor Physics Section - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Activity Report contains brief summaries of different studies made in Reactor Physics Section during the year 1985. These are presented under the headings Nuclear Data Processing and Validation, Reactor Design and Analysis, Safety and Noise Analysis, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Reactor Physics Experiments and Statistical Physics. The work on nuclear data during this period comprises primarily of validation of data of 232Th and 233U as a part of participation in the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) under IAEA research contract. The most significant event during 1985 at this centre has been the first criticality of FBTR (Fast Breeder Test Reactor), which was achieved on the 18th of October. Reactor Physics Section has played a key role in this event by carrying out the first approach to criticality with fuel loading in a safe manner and conducting some low power reactor physics experiments which are discussed. The studies made in the field reactor safety and shielding are also connected mainly with the FBTR problems in addition to some work on the PFBR (Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor) detailed design of which has been just started. Studies pertaining to the other two Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) under IAEA contract, namely (1) on the comparative assessment of processing techniques for the analysis of sodium boiling noise detection and, (2) on the contribution of advanced reactors to energy supply have been continued during this year. At the end of this report, a list of publications made by the members of the section and also the sectional seminars held during this period is included. (author)

  15. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  16. Adaptivity to Age, Gender, and Gaming Platform Topology in Physical Multi-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Friðriksson, Rafn Vídalín; Björnsson, Davíð Þór

    2012-01-01

    In games where players are competing against each other, it can be of interest to ensure that all players are challenged according to their individual skills. In order to investigate such adaptivity to the individual player in physical multi-player games, we developed a game on modular interactive...... tiles which can be used in both single-player and multi-player mode. We implemented simple adaptivity methods and tested these with different user groups including children and adults of both genders. The results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between children...... and adults, and between male and female players. Also, results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between different physical set-ups of the modular interactive tiles, i.e. the interaction depended on the topology of the modular tiles set-up. Changing the physical set...

  17. Pedometer-determined physical activity and active transport in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Grant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the risk of insufficient physical activity is greater in girls than in boys, especially during the adolescent years. The promotion of active transport (AT to and from school has been posited as a practical and convenient solution for increasing girls' total daily activity. However, there is limited information describing the associations between AT choices and girls' physical activity across a range of age, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The objectives of this study were to (1 investigate physical activity patterns in a large multiethnic sample of female children and adolescents, and to (2 estimate the physical activity associated with AT to and from school. Methods A total of 1,513 girls aged 5–16 years wore sealed multiday memory (MDM pedometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. The ethnic composition of this sample was 637 European (42.1%, 272 Pacific Island (18.0%, 207 East Asian (13.7%, 179 Maori (11.8%, 142 South Asian (9.4%, and 76 from other ethnic groups (5%. Pedometer compliance and school-related AT were assessed by questionnaire. Results Mean weekday step counts (12,597 ± 3,630 were higher and less variable than mean weekend steps (9,528 ± 4,407. A consistent decline in daily step counts was observed with age: after adjustment for ethnicity and SES, girls in school years 9–10 achieved 2,469 (weekday and 4,011 (weekend fewer steps than girls in years 1–2. Daily step counts also varied by ethnicity, with Maori girls the most active and South Asian girls the least active. Overall, 44.9% of participants used AT for school-related travel. Girls who used AT to and from school averaged 1,052 more weekday steps than those who did not use AT. However, the increases in steps associated with AT were significant only in older girls (school years 5–10 and in those of Maori or European descent. Conclusion Our data suggest that adolescent-aged girls and girls of Asian descent are

  18. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  19. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Miranda A; Brittain, Danielle R; Dinger, Mary K; Ford, Melissa L; Cain, Meagan; Sharp, Teresa A

    2016-09-01

    Gay men may not be physically active at recommended levels to achieve health benefits. Thus, a need exists to identify general (i.e., common across populations) and population-specific barriers that hinder or stop gay men from participating in physical activity (PA). Salient barriers may be identified through the extent each barrier limits PA (i.e., barrier limitation) and the level of one's confidence to overcome barriers and engage in PA (i.e., self-regulatory efficacy). The purposes of this study were to (1) provide a description of general and population-specific barriers to PA among sufficiently and insufficiently active gay men, (2) identify barrier limitation and self-regulatory efficacy for the reported barriers, and (3) examine the associations between meeting the current PA recommendation, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy. Participants were 108 self-identified gay males aged 21 to 64 years who completed a web-based survey. A total of 35 general barriers and no population-specific barriers were identified by the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups. The sufficiently active group reported higher self-regulatory efficacy and lower barrier limitation for nearly all reported barriers. A binary logistic regression used to examine the associations between PA, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy was statistically significant, χ(2)(2, N = 108) = 19.26, p < .0001, R(2) = .16. Only barrier limitation significantly contributed to the model. Future research should continue to examine barriers to PA among gay men to determine whether an intervention needs to be designed specifically for gay men or whether a one-size-fits-all intervention would be effective in helping all men overcome common barriers to engaging in PA. PMID:25643585

  20. [Exercise and Physical Activity for Dementia Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko

    2016-07-01

    The effects of exercise and physical activity on cognitive function and brain health have been established by longitudinal and intervention studies. However, it is not clear whether exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Further studies, including a ramdomized controlled trial with a larger sample size, are required to identify the effects of exercise and multicomponent intervention on cognitive function in the older adults with mild cognitive impairment. It is also important to identify the adequate duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise intervention that is most effective for older individuals. PMID:27395464

  1. Sport and physical activity for mental health

    CERN Document Server

    Carless, David

    2010-01-01

    With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a

  2. Relationship between physical functioning and physical activity in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether participation in usual moderate-intensity or more-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with physical function performance and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related covariates that may also compromise physical function performance....

  3. Physical activity patterns, aerobic fitness and body composition in Norwegian children and adolescents : The Physical Activity among Norwegian Children Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for children and adolescent’s healthy growth and for their physical, social and mental health. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge is needed on levels and patterns of physical activity, as well as factors influencing physical activity participation. PURPOSE: The overall purpose was to increase the knowledge regarding 9- and 15-year-olds physical activity level, aerobic fitness and their body composition. Further, to gain increased insight w...

  4. Accumulation of disparity in physical activity in old age

    OpenAIRE

    Eronen, Johanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Rantakokko, Merja; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims: The level of physical activity often declines in old age, although many older people would like to be more active than what they are capable of. This leads to unmet physical activity need, the feeling that one’s level of physical activity is inadequate, which is a manifestation of disparity in physical activity in old age. The accumulation of risk factors, including mobility limitations, low socioeconomic status (SES) and lack of social support may increase disparity in p...

  5. International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Scientific activities in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the scientific activities of the Centre, including workshops, research, and training-for-research is presented. The scientific program consists of ten main fields, Physics and Energy, Fundamental Physics, Physics of Condensed Matter, Applied Physics, Physics of the Living State, Physics of the Environment, Mathematics, Physics Teaching, Experimental Physics Training, and Physics and Development. In addition to a brief description of each workshop, symposium, college, and meeting, tables summarizing the participation at ICTP activities are given. A list of preprints and internal reports issued in 1985 is included

  6. Physical activity and survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Søgaard, Karen; Karlsen, Randi V;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge about lifestyle factors possibly influencing survival after breast cancer (BC) is paramount. We examined associations between two types of postdiagnosis physical activity (PA) and overall survival after BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 959 BC survivors from...... postdiagnosis PA and all-cause mortality was estimated as hazard ratio (HRs) based on Cox proportional hazards model, with time since diagnosis as the underlying time scale. Prediagnosis PA, body mass index (BMI), and receptor status were examined as potential effect modifiers. RESULTS: We identified 144 deaths...... from all causes during the study period. In adjusted analyses, exercise PA above eight MET h/week compared to lower levels of activity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.68; confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.99). When comparing participation in exercise to non...

  7. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste: Scientific activities in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains three parts. Part I is a general review of the scientific activities in 1989 including a statistical digest. Part II describes the scientific programme in Fundamental Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Mathematics, Physics and Energy, Physics and Environment, Applied Physics, Physics of the Space, Adriatico Research Conferences and other aspects of the Centre activities. Part III lists the publications issued in 1989. Tabs

  8. International Centre for Theoretical Physics: scientific activities in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the scientific activities of the Centre, including workshops, research, and training-for-research is presented. The scientific program consists of seven main fields, Physics and Energy, Fundamental Physics, Physics and Technology, Physics of the Living State, Physics of the Environment, Physics and Development, and Mathematics. In addition to a brief description of each workshop, symposium, college, and meeting, tables summarizing the participation at ICTP activities are given. A list of preprints and internal reports issued in 1984 is included

  9. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. Scientific activities in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains three parts: Part I is a general review of the scientific activities of the Centre in 1990, including a statistical digest. Part II describes the scientific programme of the Centre in the following fields: Fundamental physics, condensed nuclear physics, mathematics, physics and energy, physics and environment, physics of the living state, applied physics Adriatico research conferences and other aspects of the Centre activities. Part III lists the publications issued in 1990

  10. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, Tom

    2014-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.

  11. Analysis of physical activities in Taekwondo Pumsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bock; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is very important element for successful aging. Among many sports events, Korea is the suzerain of Taekwondo. When competing (Taekwondo Free Fighting) after learning Poomse as basic movements and inuring them, people compete with movements depending on situation. Among Poomses of Taekwondo, Taegeuk Poomse consists of very basic movements from 1 Jang to 8 Jang and they are for inuring to body. In order to prescribe Taegeuk Jang, which is the basic movement of Taekwondo that Korea is the suzerain, as an exercise for successful aging, it is necessary to analyze physical activity level of each Taegeuk Jang (From 1 Jang through 8 Jang) and suggest the same. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed physical activity level of each Jang of Taegeuk Poomse by attaching Armband made by Body Media Company on brachia and legs below knee of Taekwondo trainees. The result of the analysis of the whole momentum from Taegeuk 1 Jang to 8 Jang is as follows: First, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of vertical direction signal (L-MAD): 5.15. Second, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of horizontal direction signal (T-MAD): 3.44. Finally, the average of calorie consumption per minute (AEE/Min): 5.06 Cal. The obtained result corresponds to proper exercise condition for successful aging and it can be utilized as data for exercise prescription for the young and the old.

  12. The integration effect of activity on adaptation of junior children.

    OpenAIRE

    Liasota T. I.

    2010-01-01

    The level of disease and activity of 6-7 years old children are shown. Their relation to indicator of physical state is presented. The indexes of a number of children and their parents that used to train sports and physical culture are shown in the article. It is proved that the influence of different factors on the child's health depends on the way of life. Healthy effects of specially organized form of moving activity strengthening child's health and rising up the viability. It is revealed ...

  13. Quantitative Methodology: A Guide for Emerging Physical Education and Adapted Physical Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging professionals, particularly senior-level undergraduate and graduate students in kinesiology who have an interest in physical education for individuals with and without disabilities, should understand the basic assumptions of the quantitative research paradigm. Knowledge of basic assumptions is critical for conducting, analyzing, and…

  14. Youth perceptions of how neighborhood physical environment and peers affect physical activity: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alan L.; Troped, Philip J; McDonough, Meghan H; DeFreese, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is need for a youth-informed conceptualization of how environmental and social neighborhood contexts influence physical activity. We assessed youths’ perceptions of their neighborhood physical and peer environments as affecting physical activity. Methods Thirty-three students (20 girls; ages 12-14 years) participated in focus groups about the physical environment and peers within their neighborhoods, and their understanding of how they affect physical activity. Results Inducti...

  15. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  16. Movement and Learning: Integrating Physical Activity into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Emily; Miller, Stacia; Chavez, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    We know the benefits of physical activity, and yet recess and physical education classes are being cut or scaled back to make room for meeting academic standards. Is cutting recess and physical education really benefiting academics? A look at some recent studies suggests that it is not. Integrating physical activity into the classroom may increase…

  17. Becoming the Physical Activity Champion: Empowerment through Social Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…

  18. Attitudes about inclusion by educators and physical educators: effects of participation in an inclusive adapted physical education program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the attitudes about the inclusion of students with disability by professionals in education and health, relative to their experience and training. We compared three groups: 20 teachers and trainees who worked in an adapted physical education program (GI; 75 professionals from the municipal education system of Rio Claro subdivided according to their experience-CGyes e CGno, respectively, with and without experience. We used the inventory adapted by Palla (2001 to assess participants' attitudes and self-concepts. Overall, individuals in the group that participated in the intervention maintained their tendency of being favorable toward inclusion. Teachers in regular school settings in the municipal school system of Rio Claro (São Paulo, Brazil, regardless of their experience with inclusive settings, remain mostly indecisive about the benefits of inclusion.

  19. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predi...

  20. International Centre for Theoretical Physics: scientific activities in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and training-for-research were carried out in the following areas: physics and energy (nuclear physics, solar energy), physics and frontiers of knowledge (elementary particles and fundamental theory), physics of the living state, physics and technology (condensed matter physics), applicable mathematics and planning models (applicable mathematics, mathematical ecology), physics of the environment and of natural resources (geomagnetism, ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, atmospheric physics), and physics and development. Activities included both research at the Centre and a number of workshops and symposia. The subjects treated are briefly summarized, and references to preprints and internal reports are given

  1. Applied nuclear physics group - activities report. 1977-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities conducted by the Applied Nuclear Physics group of the Londrina State University - Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory - Brazil, from the activities beginning (1977) up to the end of the year 1997

  2. What I Need to Know about Physical Activity and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español What I need to know about Physical Activity and Diabetes ... the words in bold type. [ Top ] What should I do before I start a physical activity program? ...

  3. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  4. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already...... the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess....

  5. Health enhancing physical activity, sociodemographic factors and the neighbourhood environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A physically active lifestyle is beneficial for good health. Despite this, it seems that many people are not sufficiently active. Attempts to promote the population levels of physical activity have not been successful. This has led researchers to find new ways to tackle the problem. Ecological models place more emphasis on the physical environment s potential influence on physical activity behaviour than other behavioural models do, but a greater understanding of...

  6. Adaptation of manipulation skills in physical contact with the environment to reference force profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Dakka, Fares J.; Nemec, Bojan; Jørgensen, Jimmy A.;

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for learning and adaption of manipulation skills that involve physical contact with the environment. Pure position control is unsuitable for such tasks because even small errors in the desired trajectory can cause significant deviations from the desired forces...... and torques. The proposed algorithm takes a reference Cartesian trajectory and force/torque profile as input and adapts the movement so that the resulting forces and torques match the reference profiles. The learning algorithm is based on dynamic movement primitives and quaternion representation...... of orientation, which provide a mathematical machinery for efficient and stable adaptation. Experimentally we show that the robot’s performance can be significantly improved within a few iteration steps, compensating for vision and other errors that might arise during the execution of the task. We also show...

  7. Some physical, physiological and biochemical adaptations of ruminant livestock including buffaloes to different feeds and climates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Ørskov

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Some of the adaptations of ruminant livestock to climate and feed resources are discussed. 1. Physical. Various types of coat serve to protect animals from cold and from the sun’s heat. 2. Physiological. Large rumen volumes enables animals to consume large amounts of poor roughages; fat depots in distinct regions of the body allow them to withstand regulation and fluctuating supply of nutrients, seasonality of reproduction matches requirement to seasonal variation in food supply. 3. Biochemical. There are species differences in the ability to recycle N to the rumen (buffaloes in the requirement for glucose to accommodate several days of fasting (camels, and in adaptation to low atmospheric oxygen tension (yaks. Such adaptations are important and should be considered when animals exported to areas where climates and feeds are different.

  8. Promoting physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Machteld Heleen van den

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study: 1. The engagement of patients with RA in various forms of physical activity and their preferences regarding the delivery of physical activity interventions; 2. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions delivered by means of the I

  9. Physical Activity and Youth with Disabilities: Barriers and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Martin E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Moran, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity and active use of leisure time is important for everyone but particularly important for youth with disabilities. Unfortunately, youth with disabilities often have a difficult time or are even excluded from participating in physical activity due to limited physical and cognitive skills, attitudinal barriers in the community, lack…

  10. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  11. Physical activity in young children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, J. Nathalie; van Schie, Petra E. M.; Becher, Jules G.; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Gorter, Jan Willem; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of 5- and 7-year-old children with cerebral palsy (CP, n = 97), to compare their physical activity levels with those of typically developing peers (TD, n = 57) and the Dutch recommendation for physical activity, and to inves

  12. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  13. Toward university modeling instruction--biology: adapting curricular frameworks from physics to biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, Seth; Brewe, Eric

    2013-06-01

    University Modeling Instruction (UMI) is an approach to curriculum and pedagogy that focuses instruction on engaging students in building, validating, and deploying scientific models. Modeling Instruction has been successfully implemented in both high school and university physics courses. Studies within the physics education research (PER) community have identified UMI's positive impacts on learning gains, equity, attitudinal shifts, and self-efficacy. While the success of this pedagogical approach has been recognized within the physics community, the use of models and modeling practices is still being developed for biology. Drawing from the existing research on UMI in physics, we describe the theoretical foundations of UMI and how UMI can be adapted to include an emphasis on models and modeling for undergraduate introductory biology courses. In particular, we discuss our ongoing work to develop a framework for the first semester of a two-semester introductory biology course sequence by identifying the essential basic models for an introductory biology course sequence.

  14. Fuzzy physical programming for Space Manoeuvre Vehicles trajectory optimization based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Runqi; Savvaris, Al; Tsourdos, Antonios

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy physical programming (FPP) method has been introduced for solving multi-objective Space Manoeuvre Vehicles (SMV) skip trajectory optimization problem based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods. The dynamic model of SMV is elaborated and then, by employing hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods, the problem has been transformed to nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. According to the mission requirements, the solutions were calculated for each single-objective scenario. To get a compromised solution for each target, the fuzzy physical programming (FPP) model is proposed. The preference function is established with considering the fuzzy factor of the system such that a proper compromised trajectory can be acquired. In addition, the NSGA-II is tested to obtain the Pareto-optimal solution set and verify the Pareto optimality of the FPP solution. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective and feasible in terms of dealing with the multi-objective skip trajectory optimization for the SMV.

  15. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  16. Effect of dronabinol therapy on physical activity in anorexia nervosa: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Alin; Gram, Bibi; Støving, René Klinkby

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The level of physical activity is inappropriately high in up to 80 % of the patients suffering of anorexia nervosa (AN), as a result of conscious efforts to lose weight, affect regulation and biological adaptive changes to starvation induced by hypothermia and neuroendocrine mechanisms. ...

  17. Promoting Children's Physical Activity in Physical Education: The Role of Active Video Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Moore, William; Gu, Xiangli; Chu, Tsz Lun; Gao, Zan

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of the children in the United States do not meet the global physical activity guidelines, and many children adopt sedentary lifestyles. Given the fact about two-thirds children are classified as overweight or obese, traditional video games have been blamed as a major contributor to children's sedentary behavior and excessive…

  18. Relationship between physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in independent community-living elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Bermúdez, A B; Kortajarena, M; Zarrazquin, I; Maquibar, A; Yanguas, J J; Sánchez-Fernández, C E; Gil, J; Irazusta, A; Ruiz-Litago, F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between objective data of physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in older men and women. Participants were old adults, aged≥60years (61 women and 34 men) who were all capable of performing basic daily activities by themselves and lived on their own. To describe physical activity we used objective data measured by accelerometers which record active and sedentary periods during everyday life for five days. Determination of oxidative stress was conducted from three perspectives: determination plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e., glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and membrane lipid peroxidation (TBARS). In the group of women, those who met physical activity recommendations (WR) had lower level of TAS. In addition, the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively correlated with TAS. Simultaneously, MVPA was correlated with increase in the GPx antioxidant enzyme activity, and the counts per minute were positively correlated with CAT activity. In the group of men, the cpm and the MVPA were negatively correlated with lipid peroxidation while lifestyle physical activity was positively correlated with CAT activity. These findings suggest that MVPA in the elderly although it is related to a decrease in the TAS in women, induces adaptive increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in both women and men. These results suggest that at this time of life, it is not only the amount of physical activity performed that is important but also its intensity.

  19. A qualitative study of two older workers' adaptation to physically demanding work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Martha J; McCready, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of older blue collar workers are remaining in the workforce. However, the effect of age-related changes on older workers' job performance is not well documented. This study examined how older blue collar workers continue to perform physically demanding jobs as they age. The research question was: How do older maintenance workers adapt to their job tasks given age-related changes in functioning? Qualitative case studies were conducted on two older workers: a Custodian and a Mechanic. Workers completed a Musculoskeletal Body Map and participated in multiple semi-structured interviews and work observations over a two month period. Triangulated data revealed that older workers self-initiated job adaptations for age-related and medical conditions that impacted their jobs. The most common job adaptations were means to reduce the physical demands of their jobs. Three other contextual themes emerged relative to the context of work and older adulthood: job content ("what's important in a job"), generational differences, and the broader role of work in older adulthood ("you can't separate home and work"). Findings are discussed relative to theories of successful aging and adaptation. Recommendations for managing and promoting successful aging for older workers are provided based on study results. PMID:19289864

  20. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshini Rajappan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical inactivity levels are rising in developing countries and Malaysia is of no exception. Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003 reported that the prevalence of physical inactivity was 39.7% and the prevalence was higher for women (42.6% than men (36.7%. In Malaysia, the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006 reported that 43.7% (5.5 million of Malaysian adults were physically inactive. These statistics show that physically inactive is an important public health concern in Malaysia. College students have been found to have poor physical activity habits. The objective of this study was to identify the physical activity level among students of Asia Metropolitan University (AMU in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross sectional survey. A total of 100 participants comprising of 50 male and 50 female students were selected for the study by means of convenience sampling. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short form was used to identify the physical activity level. Results: A greater percentage of males (56% showed high physical activity level than females (24%. In contrast, females showed high percentage of low physical activity level. Students in the age range of 22-25 years depicted more percentage (43.5% of high physical activity level. When comparison of physical activity levels were done among different races, Indian students showed greater percentage (61.8% of high physical activity level. Furthermore, students who were underweight and overweight had 50% and 46.7% of high physical activity levels respectively which are greater than the values observed in normal body weight students. Conclusion: The physical activity level among students was found satisfactory although the percentage of low level of physical activity was found higher in female students.

  1. Prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive demand side energy optimization in cyber physical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyao; Wang, Xue; Wu, Jiangwei; Liu, Youda

    2014-05-01

    Cyber physical systems(CPS) recently emerge as a new technology which can provide promising approaches to demand side management(DSM), an important capability in industrial power systems. Meanwhile, the manufacturing center is a typical industrial power subsystem with dozens of high energy consumption devices which have complex physical dynamics. DSM, integrated with CPS, is an effective methodology for solving energy optimization problems in manufacturing center. This paper presents a prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive energy optimization method for demand side management in cyber physical systems. To gain prior knowledge of DSM operating results, a sparse Bayesian learning based componential forecasting method is introduced to predict 24-hour electric load levels for specific industrial areas in China. From this data, a pricing strategy is designed based on short-term load forecasting results. To minimize total energy costs while guaranteeing manufacturing center service quality, an adaptive demand side energy optimization algorithm is presented. The proposed scheme is tested in a machining center energy optimization experiment. An AMI sensing system is then used to measure the demand side energy consumption of the manufacturing center. Based on the data collected from the sensing system, the load prediction-based energy optimization scheme is implemented. By employing both the PSO and the CPSO method, the problem of DSM in the manufacturing center is solved. The results of the experiment show the self-adaptive CPSO energy optimization method enhances optimization by 5% compared with the traditional PSO optimization method.

  2. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity. PMID:22318531

  3. Objective and perceived availability of physical activity opportunities: Differences in associations with physical activity behavior among urban adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst Klazine; Oenema Anke; Prins Richard G; Brug Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the associations of the perceived and objective environment with adolescent engagement in sports activities and walking and cycling in leisure time. It also explored the degree of agreement between objective and perceived availability of physical activity (PA) facilities in neighborhoods. Methods Cross-sectional data on physical activity, the perceived availability of physical activity opportunities (perceived physical environment) was assessed through ...

  4. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste Scientific activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains three parts. Part 1 is a general review of the scientific activities of the Centre in 1991, including a statistical digest. Part II presents the scientific programme of the Centre in the following fields: Fundamental Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Mathematics, Physics and Energy, Physics and Environment, Applied Physics, Adriatico Research Conferences, as well as other aspects of the Centre activities in 1991. Part III lists the publications issued in 1991. Tabs

  5. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  6. Daily Spousal Influence on Physical Activity in Knee Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Lynn M.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Mogle, Jacqueline; Schulz, Richard; Brach, Jennifer; Keefe, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity is critical for the management of knee osteoarthritis, and the spouse may play a role in encouraging or discouraging physical activity. Purpose To examine four types of spousal influence—spouses' daily activity, autonomy support, pressure, and persuasion--on the daily physical activity of adults living with knee osteoarthritis. Methods A total of 141 couples reported their daily experiences for 22 days using a handheld computer, and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results Spouses' autonomy support for patient physical activity, as well as their own level of activity, was concurrently associated with patients' greater daily moderate activity and steps. In addition, on days when male patients perceived that spouses exerted more pressure to be active, they spent less time in moderate activity. Conclusions Couple-oriented interventions for knee osteoarthritis should target physical activity in both partners and spousal strategies for helping patients stay active. PMID:23161472

  7. A National Strategy for Promoting Physical Activity in Oman; A call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Mabry

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of chronic disease in Oman is a public health challenge. Available evidence in Oman on physical inactivity, the fourth leading risk factor for chronic disease, calls for urgent action to reduce physical inactivity as part of a key strategy to address chronic disease in Oman. The public health implications of this evidence for Oman are considered in light of recommendations outlined in the Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. The charter provides a systematic approach of physical activity and outlines an action plan that could be adapted to the Omani context. Urgent intersectoral action focusing on a shared goal and a more deliberate public health response addressing physical inactivity is required. Further research is needed on the determinants of physical inactivity and culturally appropriate interventions in order to guide future public health actions.

  8. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wientzek

    Full Text Available In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC, physical activity (PA has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  9. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included semantically irreversible ("The boy is eating the apple") and reversible ("The boy is pushing the girl") sentences at three levels of syntactic complexity. As expected, patients performed well above chance on irreversible sentences, and at chance on reversible sentences of high complexity. Comprehension of reversible non-complex sentences ranged from nearly perfect to chance, and was highly correlated with offline measures of language comprehension. Lesion analysis revealed that comprehension deficits for reversible sentences were predicted by damage to the left temporal lobe. Although aphasic patients activated homologous areas in the right temporal lobe, such activation was not correlated with comprehension performance. Rather, patients with better comprehension exhibited increased activity in dorsal fronto-parietal regions. Correlations between performance and dorsal network activity occurred bilaterally during perception of sentences, and in the right hemisphere during a post-sentence memory delay. These results suggest that effortful reprocessing of perceived sentences in short-term memory can support improved comprehension in aphasia, and that strategic recruitment of alternative networks, rather than homologous takeover, may account for some findings of right hemisphere language activation in aphasia. PMID:23566891

  10. Correlates of Physical Activity in Asian Adolescents: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husna Hidayati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is important to prevent several chronic diseases in adulthood. Nowadays, young people do not regularly perform physical activity. Several factors may influence their decision. Most of studies were conducted in western countries. However the findings might not be generalized regarding the differences in culture and social condition. Therefore, reviewing the correlates of physical activity among adolescents in Asian countries is essential. Purpose: To update the state of knowledge on factors associated with adolescents’ physical activity in Asian countries. Methods: Literature review on existing articles retrieved from electronic databases was conducted. The review on factors of physical activity was set based on the setting of study, adolescents as participants of the study and the year of publication ranged from 2002-2011. Result: The findings compiled the evidence of relationships between physical activity and several influencing factors. Intrapersonal factors age, gender, socioeconomic status, parental education, and perceptions related to physical activity- perceived self efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, interpersonal factors (family and peer influences and extra-personal factors (school policy and living arrangement were identified. Self efficacy was manifested as the strongest influencing factor in most studies. This review highlighted the cultural issues on physical activities of adolescents in Asian countries. Conclusion: This paper provided comprehensive knowledge related to factors influencing physical activity in Asian adolescents. The issue of cultural sensitivity should be considered in the future intervention program designed to improve physical activity of adolescents. Keyword: adolescent, physical activity, health Promotion, Asian countries

  11. Attachment relationships and physical activity motivation of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; Smith, Alan L; Cox, Anne E

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the link of attachment relationships with physical activity motivation. Potential mediators of this link were examined in a cross-sectional study targeting college student physical activity motivation and behaviour. Participants completed self-reports of attachment relationships (with mother, father and best friend), self-determined motivation for physical activity, physical activity behaviour and the hypothesised mediator variables of perceived competence, autonomy and relatedness. The results provide support for the mediating role of these variables in the association of father attachment with self-determined motivation. Meaningful variance in self-determined motivation for physical activity and physical activity behaviour was explained. Overall, attachment relationships appear to be relevant, albeit modestly, to physical activity motivation of college students. The findings support continued efforts to integrate attachment and motivational perspectives in the study of college student health behaviour.

  12. The Benefits of Natural Environments for Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Danielle F; Franco, Lara; Lin, Brenda B; Gaston, Kevin J; Fuller, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Urbanisation has a profound effect on both people and the environment, as levels of physical activity decline and many natural ecosystems become lost or degraded. Here we draw on emerging research to examine the role of green spaces in providing a venue for outdoor physical activity, and in enhancing the benefit of a given amount of physical activity for urban residents. We identify critical knowledge gaps, including (1) whether (and for whom) levels of physical activity increase as new green spaces are introduced or old spaces reinvigorated; (2) which characteristics of nature promote physical activity; (3) the extent to which barriers to outdoor physical activity are environmental or social; and (4) whether the benefits of physical activity and experiences of nature accrue separately or synergistically. A clear understanding of these issues will help guide effective investment in green space provision, ecological enhancement and green exercise promotion. PMID:26886475

  13. [Assessing and evaluating physical activity during counseling in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagströmer, Maria; Wisén, Anita; Hassmén, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To make individualized counseling possible, valid and reliable measures of physical activity are necessary. In health care, quality must be continuously secured and developed. Follow-up of life-style habits such as physical activity does not differ from monitoring of other treatment in the health care setting.  After counseling and appropriate period of time, evaluation should be done to assess if there has been any change in the physical activity level. For assessment and evaluation of physical activity in routine clinical practice the National Board for Health and Social Welfare indicator questions regarding physical activity are recommended. For a more detailed assessment and evaluation of physical activity and sedentary behavior comprehensive validated instruments/diaries should be used. For precise and objective assessment and evaluation of both physical activity and sedentary behavior, movement sensors are recommended.

  14. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tallner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  15. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-07-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  16. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. Scientific activities in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics from Trieste for 1993 contains four parts. Part I gives statistical data on the main activities of the Centre. Part II presents the scientific programme structured as follows: Fundamental physics, Condensed matter physics, Mathematics, Physics and energy, Physics and environment, Physics of the living state, Applied physics, Adriatico Research Conferences, Diploma Course, Laboratories, Long-term visitors, Network of Associate Members and Federal Institutes, Training and research at italian laboratories, External Activities, Science, High Technology and Development Programme, Meeting hosted, Awards. Part III lists the publications issued in 1993. Part IV presents the scientific support services. Tabs

  17. International Centre for Theoretical Physics: Scientific activities in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the scientific activities of the Centre in 1986, including workshops, research and training-for-research is presented. The scientific program consists of eight main fields: Physics and Energy, Fundamental Physics, Physics of Condensed Matter, Applied Physics, Mathematics, Physics of the Environment and of National Resources, Physics of the Living State, Physics and Development. In addition to a brief description of each workshop, symposium, college and meeting, tables summarizing the participation of ICTP activities are given. A list of preprints and internal reports issued in 1986 is included

  18. Millikan Lecture 1996: Promoting active learning based on physics education research in introductory physics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Early in his career Robert Millikan experimented with a laboratory-based method of teaching introductory physics that bears close resemblance to Workshop Physics.® In this talk, key elements of Workshop Physics are summarized. Some Workshop Physics activities are described which involve apparati that are used for rapid observations of conceptual aspects of physical phenomena as well as for equation verification experiments. Challenges are discussed that must be faced if recently developed activity-based approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of physics education research are to provide a foundation for a major paradigm shift in physics teaching.

  19. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, scientific activities in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains three parts. Part I is a programme overview of 1992 including a description of scientific activities and statistics about participation by geographic areas and by activities. Part II presents the scientific programme in the following fields: fundamental physics, condensed matter physics, mathematics, physics related to the energy problems, physics and the environment, physics of the living state (of matter), and applied physics. Conferences and other activities by the centre are also listed. Part III lists the publications issued in 1992. 5 tabs

  20. Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines and Musculoskeletal Injury: The WIN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R.; DeFina, Laura F.; Leonard, David; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Custodio, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The United States Department of Health and Human Services disseminated physical activity guidelines for Americans in 2008. The guidelines are based on appropriate quantities of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity and resistance exercise associated with decreased morbidity and mortality risk and increased health benefits. However, increases in physical activity levels are associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries. We related the amount and type of physical activity conducted on a weekly basis with the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Methods Prospective, observational study using weekly Internet tracking of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and resistance exercise behaviors and musculoskeletal injuries in 909 community-dwelling women for up to 3 years. Primary outcome was self-reported musculoskeletal injuries (total, physical activity-related, and non physical activity-related) interrupting typical daily work and/or exercise behaviors for ≥2 days or necessitating health care provider visit. Results Meeting versus not meeting physical activity guidelines was associated with more musculoskeletal injuries during physical activity (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 – 1.85, P = 0.02), but was not associated with musculoskeletal injuries unrelated to physical activity (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.75 – 1.29, P = 0.92), or with musculoskeletal injuries overall (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.95 – 1.39, P = 0.14). Conclusions Results illustrate the risk of musculoskeletal injury with physical activity. Musculoskeletal injury risk rises with increasing physical activity. Despite this modest increase in musculoskeletal injuries, the known benefits of aerobic and resistance physical activities should not hinder physicians from encouraging patients to meet current physical activity guidelines for both moderate-to-vigorous exercise and resistance exercise behaviors with the intent of achieving health benefits

  1. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Sedentary Behavior in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckworth, Janet; Nigg, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviors in 493 college students who were enrolled in 10 conditioning activity classes and had completed questionnaires at the beginning of the course. They analyzed sedentary activities and indicators of participation in exercise and physical activity by…

  2. Activation of the reward system boosts innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shaanan, Tamar L; Azulay-Debby, Hilla; Dubovik, Tania; Starosvetsky, Elina; Korin, Ben; Schiller, Maya; Green, Nathaniel L; Admon, Yasmin; Hakim, Fahed; Shen-Orr, Shai S; Rolls, Asya

    2016-08-01

    Positive expectations contribute to the clinical benefits of the placebo effect. Such positive expectations are mediated by the brain's reward system; however, it remains unknown whether and how reward system activation affects the body's physiology and, specifically, immunity. Here we show that activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key component of the reward system, strengthens immunological host defense. We used 'designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs' (DREADDs) to directly activate dopaminergic neurons in the mouse VTA and characterized the subsequent immune response after exposure to bacteria (Escherichia coli), using time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF) and functional assays. We found an increase in innate and adaptive immune responses that were manifested by enhanced antibacterial activity of monocytes and macrophages, reduced in vivo bacterial load and a heightened T cell response in the mouse model of delayed-type hypersensitivity. By chemically ablating the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), we showed that the reward system's effects on immunity are, at least partly, mediated by the SNS. Thus, our findings establish a causal relationship between the activity of the VTA and the immune response to bacterial infection. PMID:27376577

  3. Studies on the Mechanisms of Microbial Adaptation to the Physical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, M. R.; Tromp, S. W. (Editor); Bouma, J. J. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The environmental factors which affect humans and other animals also influence the microorganisms which are such an important part of our ecology. Some of the microorganisms are very closely associated with animals, living in the digestive tract and synthesizing essential nutrients for the host. For these microbes, most external physical changes are of little consequence, because they are well shielded by the animals' homeostatic systems. The vast majority of microorganisms, however, live free in nature, especially in the soil and oceans. It has been estimated that the upper 15 cm of a fertile soil may contain over 4000 kg of bacteria and fungi per hectare. These organisms are responsible for degrading the complex molecules of plants and animals when they die, eventually producing simple organics, carbon dioxide, and inorganics, which are then used for the next cycle of plant growth. It is believed that over 90 % of the biologically produced carbon dioxide results from the metabolic activity of bacteria and fungi. In addition to recycling plant nutrients, soil bacteria also provide new nutrients through 'fixation' of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia and nitrate, the forms which can be used by plants. Microorganisms so have an enormous capacity for detoxifying both natural and man-made poisons. All of these functions of microorganisms are essential to the operation of the material cycles on Earth. This is true of all locations on the planet, regardless of the climate or other environmental factors. In fact, one of the most impressive attributes of microorganisms is their ability to adapt to every stable environment on Earth. These include such extremes as polar regions, hot springs, water saturated with salt, mountain tops, ocean depths, acid and alkaline waters, deserts, intense radioactivity, soil and water contaminated with toxic chemicals or petroleum, and areas devoid of oxygen.

  4. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  5. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  6. Physical Activity & Sport for the Secondary School Student. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Neil J., Ed.

    This collection of papers offers a comprehensive text about contemporary physical activities and sports forms. It provides students with an overview of the various physical activities, skill technique required, safety, scoring, rules and etiquette, strategies, equipment, and related terminology. The 26 papers are: (1) "Physical Fitness" (Carolyn…

  7. Maintenance of physical activity in patients with rheumaoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several exercise trials indicate that physical activity (PA) may improve physical function and quality of life, and reduce pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 1, 2. Few of these studies have included physical activity maintenance. Thus, it is still unknown how and why some...

  8. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Children Physical Activity Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity…

  9. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  10. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  11. Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Hartman, Esther; Moolenaar, Ben J.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) often experience difficulty in understanding and engaging in interactive behavior with other children, which may lead to reduced daily physical activity and fitness levels. The present study evaluated the physical activity and physical fitness lev

  12. Physical and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Physical Activity in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Boezen, H. Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H.; ten Hacken, Nick H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess physical activity and sitting time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate which physical and psychosocial factors are associated with physical activity and sitting time. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Patients were recruited at

  13. Effects of a Physical Education Supportive Curriculum and Technological Devices on Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily Dean; Sullivan, Eileen C.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education supportive curriculum and technological devices, heart rate monitor (HRM) and pedometer (PED), on physical activity. A single-subject ABAB research design was used to examine amount and level of participation in physical activity among 106 suburban fourth and fifth…

  14. Adolescent Physical Self-Perceptions, Sport/Exercise and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, N. D.; Cooke, C. B.; Mahoney, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Domain and sub-domain physical self-perceptions have been associated with adolescent moderate intensity physical activity although the association with different types of adolescent moderate intensity physical activity remains unclear. This study seeks to examine the relationship between personal self-perceptions and adolescent…

  15. Adaptation of muscle gene expression to changes in contractile activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Babij, P.; Thomason, D. B.; Wong, T. S.; Morrison, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the existing literature regarding the effects of different types of physical activities on the gene expression of adult skeletal muscles leads us to conclude that each type of exercise training program has, as a result, a different phenotype, which means that there are multiple mechanisms, each producing a unique phenotype. A portion of the facts which support this position is presented and interpreted here. [Abstract translated from the original French by NASA].

  16. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. Scientific activities in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication gives a comprehensive overview of the scientific activities during 1994 of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. In particular, it gives (i) a summary of these activities accompanied by statistical data (comparison with 1993, participation by geographical area, breakdown by field of activity, activities held at and outside the ICTP, and participation by activity); (ii) an overview of the scientific programme (fundamental physics, condensed matter physics, mathematics, physics and energy, physics and the environment, physics of the living state, applied physics, diploma courses, and other research) while listing long-term visitors, networks of associate members and federal institutes, training and research at Italian laboratories, external activities, science, the high technology and development programme, the books and equipment programme, award; (iii) a list of publications, and (iv) a list of scientific support services

  17. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models.

  18. Factors determining physical activity of Ukrainian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bergier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. Scientific reports provide information concerning an insufficient level of physical activity of societies. The objective of the study is recognition of the level of physical activity among Ukrainian students, and factors which condition this activity: gender, place of residence, self-reported physical fitness, and the BMI. [b]Methods[/b]. The study was conducted in 2013 among 2,125 Ukrainian students using a long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, supplemented with data concerning the respondents’ physical development. [b]Results[/b]. The results of the study showed that the mean total physical activity of students was 3.560 MET, and its highest percentage pertained to the area of activity in sports – 1.124 MET. Significantly higher statistically physical activity was observed among males than females. In males, the highest activity was related to participation in sports classes, while in females – engagement in household chores. It was found that males, compared to females, were significantly more physically active in such areas as occupational activity (education and sports activity, whereas females showed higher activity performing household chores. According to the place of residence, inhabitants of medium-size towns and rural areas obtained the most favourable results in activity, while the inhabitants of large cities the poorest. Self-reported physical fitness was significantly correlated with the results in physical activity obtained by the students. No relationship was found between the BMI and the level of student’s physical activity. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Considering the very large population of respondents, the results obtained may be considered as an up-to-date pattern of physical activity among Ukrainian students.

  19. Travel Mode and Physical Activity at Sydney University

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Rissel; Ding Ding; Corinne Mulley

    2013-01-01

    How staff and students travel to university can impact their physical activity level. An online survey of physical activity and travel behaviour was conducted in early November 2012 to inform planning of physical activity and active travel promotion programs at the University of Sydney, Australia as part of the “Sit Less, Move More” sub-committee of the Healthy University Initiative, and as baseline data for evaluation. There were 3,737 useable responses, 60% of which were from students. Four...

  20. Associations between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing.

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, DK; Goodman, A.; Ogilvie, D

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a relationship exists between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing. METHOD: In 2009, cross-sectional postal questionnaire data were collected from a sample of working adults (aged 16 and over) in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. Travel behaviour and physical activity were ascertained using the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) and a seven-day travel-to-work recall instrument from which weekly time spent in active commuting (w...

  1. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, A; Ji, B-T; Shu, X-O; Chow, W-H; Xue, S; Yang, G; Li, H-L; Rothman, N.; Gao, Y-T; Zheng, W.; Matthews, C E

    2011-01-01

    Background: The influence of different types and intensities of physical activity on risk for breast cancer is unclear. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 73 049 Chinese women (40–70 years), who had worked outside the home, we studied breast cancer risk in relation to specific types of self-reported and work history-related physical activity, including adolescent and adult exercise and household activity and walking and cycling for transportation. Occupational sitting time and physical activ...

  2. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, A; Ji, B. T.; Shu, X. O.; Chow, W H; Xue, S; Yang, G; H.L. Li; Rothman, N.; Gao, Y. T.; Zheng, W.; Matthews, C E

    2011-01-01

    Background: The influence of different types and intensities of physical activity on risk for breast cancer is unclear. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 73 049 Chinese women (40-70 years), who had worked outside the home, we studied breast cancer risk in relation to specific types of self-reported and work history-related physical activity, including adolescent and adult exercise and household activity and walking and cycling for transportation. Occupational sitting time and physical activ...

  3. The Association between Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults’ physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults’ physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate

  4. Physical activity programs for refugee Somali women: working out in a new country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Pauline B; Diiriye, Roda Omar; Corrigan, Callie; Guerin, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Islamic refugee women from non-westernized countries face a number of challenges in adapting to their new country, especially when that new country is westernized and is not Islamic. Refugees are primarily women and children, so it is important that women be in their best health because they usually bear the responsibility of caring for each other and children, often in very difficult situations. Maintaining or obtaining good levels of physical activity contributes to good health: mentally, physically and socially. At the request of women in the local Somali community, a number of initiatives were taken to increase their opportunities for physical activity. Through interviews, observations and conversations we explored barriers to fitness and exercise, the social, physical, and cultural effects of physical activity, and solutions to facilitate Somali women's access to fitness and exercise opportunities. Physical activity interventions included exercise classes in a community center used by the Somali community, trial memberships at a local women-only fitness center, and walking and sports groups. We discuss the procedural issues relating to setting-up these physical activity opportunities, the results of interviews with 37 of the women about their health and perceptions and issues relating to the physical activity options, and our recommendations for setting up similar classes with other Somali or Islamic communities.

  5. Linking Physical Activity with Academics: Strategies for Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for physical activity-integrated lessons for classroom teachers, provide strategies for effective integration, and encourage physical education teachers to be an additional

  6. Operationalizing physical literacy: The potential of active video games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichun Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The core idea of physical literacy is a mind-body integrated, holistic approach to physical activity. A physically literate individual is expected to be cognitively knowledgeable, physically competent, and mentally motivated for a physically active life throughout the lifespan. The advancement of technology in recent years, especially those in active video games (AVGs, seems to have allowed the mind-body integrated physical activity accessible to children at all ages. This article reviews findings from research and critique research on AVGs in light with the theoretical and pedagogical tenets of physical literacy and, on the basis of the review, elaborates the potential that AVGs could contribute to enhancing children's physical literacy.

  7. Status of Older Adult Physical Activity Programs in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Helen M.

    1984-01-01

    Physical fitness and recreation programs can be a deterrent to premature aging. State-funded physical activity programs for older adults in Illinois offer minimal benefits due to volunteer and untrained personnel. Results of this study are presented. (DF)

  8. Factors Predicting Physical Activity Among Children With Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Yazdani, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. Methods We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child’s and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child’s exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Results Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child’s lack of interest (43%, lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%, too many behavioral problems (32%, and parents’ lack of time (29%. However, child’s lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children’s physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01. Conclusion In this group of students with special needs, children’s physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  9. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  10. International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Scientific activities in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the scientific activities of the ICTP Trieste in 1987, including workshops, research and training for research is presented. The scientific program consists of eight main fields: fundamental physics, condensed matter, atomic and molecular physics, mathematics, physics and energy, physics and environment, applied physics and high technology, physics and development. In addition to a brief description of each workshop, symposium, college, meeting and activity or project sponsored by ICTP, a list of preprints and internal reports issued in 1987 is included. Tabs

  11. The Value of Fun in Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    According to students, fun, good grades and time with friends are the three key outcomes of physical education. A further review of fun in physical education, from the perspective of students, is included in this article. Selected responses from interviews with high school students reference fun as an important part of their experience in physical…

  12. Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

  13. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Neto Cláudio F.; Neto Gabriel R.; Araújo Adenilson T.; Sousa Maria S. C.; Sousa Juliana B. C.; Batista Gilmário R.; Reis Victor M. M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness tr...

  14. Physical activity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L; Hammond, Cara C; Reifsteck, Erin J; Jehu, Christine M; Williams, Rennae A; Adams, Melanie M; Lange, Elizabeth H; Becofsky, Katie; Rodriguez, Enid; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) professionals and participants recognize enhanced quality of life (QoL) as a benefit of and motivator for PA. However, QoL measures are often problematic and rarely consider the participants'perspective. This paper focuses on recent findings from a larger project on the role of QoL in PA and health promotion. More specifically, we focus on the views of participants and potential participants to better understand the relationship of PA and QoL. In earlier stages of the project we began with a conceptual model of QoL and developed a survey. We now focus on participants' views and ask two questions: 1) what is QoL? and 2) how does PA relate to QoL? We first asked those questions of a large sample of university students and community participants as open-ended survey items, and then asked focus groups of community participants. Overall, participants' responses reflected the multidimensional, integrative QoL model, but the responses and patterns provided information that may not be picked up with typical survey measures. Findings suggest that PA contributes to multiple aspects of QoL, that social and emotional benefits are primary motivators and outcomes for participants, and that the meaning of QoL and PA benefits is subjective and contextualized, varying across individuals and settings. Programs that directly target and highlight the multiple dimensions and integrative QoL, while considering the individual participants and contexts, may enhance both PA motivation and participants' health and QoL.

  15. Gene-physical activity interactions and their impact on diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    to an equal bout of physical activity. Individuals with specific genetic profiles are also expected to be more responsive to the beneficial effects of physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Identification of such gene-physical activity interactions could give new insights into the biological...... the reader to the recent advances in the genetics of type 2 diabetes, summarize the current evidence on gene-physical activity interactions in relation to type 2 diabetes, and outline how information on gene-physical activity interactions might help improve the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes....... Finally, we will discuss the existing and emerging strategies that might enhance our ability to identify and exploit gene-physical activity interactions in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel....

  16. Physical Activity in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Carrie; Aronow, Laura; Mackey, Eleanor; Streisand, Randi

    2016-09-01

    Youth with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and regular physical activity is strongly recommended as one strategy for prevention, as well as for good glycemic control. Despite recommendations, families in this pediatric population face unique barriers to physical activity, including fear of hypoglycemia. Moreover, families are not routinely counseled in the specific health and psychosocial benefits of following physical activity recommendations for youth with type 1 diabetes. To bridge this gap, the recent literature regarding physical activity in children with type 1 diabetes is reviewed with particular focus on young children. A discussion of the limitations of the current body of research, and recommendations for objectively measured physical activity are provided. Specific recommendations for clinical practice are given, including provider endorsements for regular physical activity for longer than 60 minutes, at least three times a week. PMID:27475093

  17. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  18. Physical activity for people with a disability - A conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; van der Beek, AJ; van der Woude, LHV; van Mechelen, W

    2004-01-01

    The promotion of a physically active lifestyle has become an important issue in health policy in first-world countries. A physically active lifestyle is accompanied by several fitness and health benefits. Individuals with a disability can particularly benefit from an active lifestyle: not only does

  19. Common Problems and Solutions for Being Physically Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the road again… Take workout clothes when you travel. Use your hotel's health club or pool. If there isn't one, ... Concerns • What Can I Expect? Introduction Getting Physically Active - Introduction - Physical Activity & Health - What Type of Activity is Best? - Develop a ...

  20. Association of physical workload and leisure time physical activity with incident mobility limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, M; Møller, A; Nilsson, C;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine individual as well as joint associations of physical workload and leisure time physical activity with incident mobility limitations in initially well-functioning middle-aged workers. METHODS: This study is based on 6-year follow-up data of the Danish Longitudinal Study...... on Work, Unemployment and Health. Physical workload was reported at baseline and categorised as light, moderate or heavy. Baseline leisure time physical activity level was categorised as sedentary or active following the current recommendations on physical activity. Incidence of mobility limitations...... with higher workload regardless of level of leisure time physical activity, although the risks tended to be higher among those with sedentary leisure time compared with their active counterparts. All in all, the risk for onset of mobility limitations was highest among those with heavy workload combined...

  1. Feasibility of a mobile phone application to promote physical activity in cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular participation in physical activity is associated with improved physical and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors. However, physical activity levels are low during and after cancer treatment. Interventions to promote physical activity in this population are needed. Mobile technology has potential, but currently, there is no mobile phone application designed to promote physical activity in cancer survivors. Objectives: The first aim is to assess feasibility and acceptability of an existing physical activity mobile application (‘app’ designed for the general population, in a sample of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer survivors. A further aim is to understand how the application could be adapted to overcome barriers to physical activity participation in this population. Methods: A feasibility study was carried out that investigated acceptability of and participants’ opinions on the application. A total of 11 cancer survivors tested the application for 6 weeks. Physical activity (Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, wellbeing (FACT-G, fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue scale, quality of life (EQ5D, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were self-reported at baseline and at 6-week follow-up. Participants completed qualitative telephone interviews about their experiences of using the app, and these were coded using thematic analysis. Results: The application was acceptable among the participants; 73% of people who responded to the study advertisement agreed to participate, and 100% of participants who started the study completed. There was a significant increase in participants’ mean strenuous physical activity of 51.91 minutes per week from baseline to 6-week follow-up (P=0.005. There was also a significant reduction in reported sleep problems from baseline (mean=9.27, SD=6.72 to 6-week follow-up (mean=6.72, SD=5.50; P=0.01. There were no other

  2. Determinants of Change in Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Craggs, Christopher; Corder, Kirsten; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Simon J Griffin

    2011-01-01

    Context Data are available on correlates of physical activity in children and adolescents, less is known about the determinants of change. This review aims to systematically review the published evidence regarding determinants of change in physical activity in children and adolescents. Evidence acquisition Prospective quantitative studies investigating change in physical activity in children and adolescents aged 4–18 years were identified from seven databases (to November 2010): PubMed, SCOPU...

  3. The effects of the quantity of physical activity in cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Susano, João Paulo Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Exercício e Saúde Exercise promotes the increase of cognitive performance (Aberg et al., 2009), however, the quantity of physical activity needed to achieve this effect is not clearly defined. The present study aimed to research the effects of the quantity of physical activity practice on the executive function of healthy adults, measured by performance on the Stroop test. Results showed that the sedentary group had a worst performance than both groups of physically active indi...

  4. Physical activity and brain plasticity in late adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain shrinks with advancing age, but recent research suggests that it is also capable of remarkable plasticity, even in late life. In this review we summarize the research linking greater amounts of physical activity to less cortical atrophy, better brain function, and enhanced cognitive function, and argue that physical activity takes advantage of the brain's natural capacity for plasticity. Further, although the effects of physical activity on the brain are relatively widespread,...

  5. Physical Activity, Brain Plasticity, and Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Weinstein, Andrea M.; Lopez, Oscar L.

    2012-01-01

    In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases ...

  6. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Strychar, Irene; Mircescu, Hortensia

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine, in an adult population with type 1 diabetes, barriers to regular physical activity using a diabetes-specific barriers measure (the Barriers to Physical Activity in Diabetes [type 1] [BAPAD1] scale) and factors associated with these barriers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—One hundred adults with type 1 diabetes answered a questionnaire assessing perceived barriers to physical activity and related factors. A1C was obtained from the medical chart of each individual. RESULTS...

  7. A study of predictors of adolescents’ physical activity intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis; Despoina Ourda; Vassilis Barkoukis; Lambros Lazuras

    2011-01-01

    The present study used an integrated theoretical framework based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Prototype/Willingness model to examine the social cognitive predictors of leisure time physical activity intentions among Greek secondary school students (N = 254, M age = 13.59 years, SD = 1.18). A cross-sectional survey method was employed to assess physical activity intentions and related psychosocial beliefs, as well as self-reported physical activity behaviour. Multiple regression ...

  8. Physical activity as an important determinant in developing childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Bukara-Radujković Gordana; Zdravković Dragan

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between physical activity and sedentary life style was investigated as a determinant of the body mass index in children and adolescents in Banjaluka region. The study involved 1204 children and adolescents, 6-17 years old, 578 boys, 626 girls. BMI was calculated from their height and weight using standard formula. Each child, together with their parents answered the questions considering their level of involvement in physical versus sedentary activities. Physical activity was ...

  9. Summary of International Guidelines for Physical Activity Following Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Mottola, Michelle F.; Owe, Katrine M.; Rousham, Emily K.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum physical activity can improve mood, maintain cardiorespiratory fitness, improve weight control, promote weight loss, and reduce depression and anxiety. This review summarizes current guidelines for postpartum physical activity worldwide. PubMed (MedLINE) was searched for country-specific government and clinical guidelines on physical activity following pregnancy through the year 2013. Only the most recent guideline was included in the review. An abstraction form facilitated extract...

  10. Multiple myeloma and physical activity: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, L; McCourt, O.; Heinrich, M.; Paton, B.; Yong, K.; Wardle, J; Fisher, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Multiple myeloma is the second most common haematological cancer. A growing body of literature is emerging that investigates the role physical activity plays in all stages of multiple myeloma (prevention and survivorship) and to date no attempt has been made to collate and understand this literature. Therefore, this scoping review aims to (1) outline what is already known about physical activity in all stages of multiple myeloma (2) map the literature on physical activity and mult...

  11. Increased physical activity, physician recommendation, and senior center participation

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, James H.; Keith Turner; Shilpa Shashidhara; David Sanders

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is a recognized preventive health measure for seniors and an important focus for senior centers. This paper employs the Andersen Behavioral Model to explore increased physical activity and participation in three types of senior center activities: physical fitness, dance/aerobic classes, and chair exercises. Data were collected in 2006 on 798 and in 2007 on 742 participants at 21 multipurpose senior centers in a large urban county. Logistic regression analysis (PROC RLOG...

  12. Physical activity barriers and facilitators among working mothers and fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Mailey, Emily L.; Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background The transition to parenthood is consistently associated with declines in physical activity. In particular, working parents are at risk for inactivity, but research exploring physical activity barriers and facilitators in this population has been scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine perceptions of physical activity among working parents. Methods Working mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 12) were recruited to participate in one of four focus group sessions a...

  13. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  14. Effects of individually tailored physical and daily activities in nursing home residents on activities of daily living, physical performance and physical activity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Frändin, Kerstin; Bergland, Astrid;

    2012-01-01

    participants in the IG and CG on measures of balance, physical activity and transfers. The CG significantly improved walking/wheelchair speed and functional leg muscle strength. The CG had significantly deteriorated in ADL, balance and transfers. Persons who had taken part in the intervention for more than 150...... min/week significantly improved their balance and physical activity level. Participation in more than 10 weeks of intervention significantly improved physical activity and walking/wheelchair speed, while a deterioration was seen in those who had participated less. Conclusion: Individually tailored...

  15. Fostering Engagement Activities To Advance Adaptation And Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissen, J.; Owen, T.; Brewer, M.; Hollingshead, A.; Mecray, E. L.; Werner, K.

    2015-12-01

    As the understanding of climate risks grows for public and private companies, the dissemination of meaningful climate and environmental information becomes important for improved risk management practices and innovation. In a broader effort to build capacity for adaptation and demonstrate the value of investment in resiliency, NCEI and its partners have made several shifts to showcase an improved understanding of uses and applications of climate and environmental data and information. The NOAA NCEI engagement initiative includes actively exploring ways to: 1) identify opportunities in data use and applications and 2) characterize needs and requirements from customers to help inform investment in the relevant science. This presentation will highlight: 1) NCEI's engagement initiative strategy, 2) our regional and national partnerships as agents of engagement in the region, 3) a few examples of uses of climate information with select stakeholders and 4) justification of customer engagement and requirements as a critical component in informing the science agenda.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF EXERGAMING ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG INACTIVE CHILDREN IN A PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM

    OpenAIRE

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4...

  17. The influence of self-determination in physical education on leisure-time physical activity behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2007-09-01

    Using a multitheory approach, this study was designed to investigate the influence of urban adolescents' perceived autonomy and competence in physical education on their physical activity intentions and behaviors during leisure time. A transcontextual model was hypothesized and tested. Urban adolescents (N=653, ages 11-15 years) completed questionnaires assessing relevant psychological constructs and moderate to vigorous physical activity and then had their cardiorespiratory fitness assessed with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Based on our structural equation modeling analyses and fit indexes, the transcontextual model adequately fit the data. We concluded that the two theoretical frameworks--SDT and theory of planned behavior--can be integrated to provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of physical education on leisure-time physical activity. The results revealed that perceived autonomy and competence in physical education are interrelated and function as a whole for enhancing leisure-time physically active intentions and behavior.

  18. Physical activity increases survival after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Kikkenborg berg, Selina;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased physical activity predicts survival and reduces risk of readmission in patients with coronary heart disease. However, few data show how physical activity is associated with survival and readmission after heart valve surgery. Objective were to assess the association between...... physical activity levels 6-12 months after heart valve surgery and (1) survival, (2) hospital readmission 18-24 months after surgery and (3) participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with registry data from The CopenHeart survey, The Danish National Patient...... of physical activity after heart valve surgery are positively associated with higher survival rates and participation in cardiac rehabilitation....

  19. Identifying and understanding Indigenous ways of evaluating physical activity programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Erica Blue; Butler Iii, James; Green, Kerry M; Chaudhary, Kaushal Raj

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous evaluation frameworks have not been investigated in the context of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) physical activity programs, an important area given the relationship between effective physical activity programs and quality of life among these populations. To address this gap, staff members of AI/AN physical activity programs were interviewed to explore their understanding of and experiences with evaluation. Findings suggest that Indigenous evaluation is perceived as narrative and holistic, Indigenous knowledge is used in program decision making, though it is not always acknowledged as evaluation, and there is not a universally desired way to evaluate AI/AN physical activity programs. PMID:27668593

  20. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  1. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  2. Diffusing a Research-based Physical Activity Promotion Program for Seniors Into Diverse Communities: CHAMPS III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Stewart, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increasing the physical activity levels of older adults through diffusion of successful research-based programs into community settings is challenging because of differences between research and real-world settings. This project diffused the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS II, an individual-level research-based physical activity promotion program, through three community organizations to reach lower-income and minority (primarily Hispanic or Latino and African American seniors. Methods Through an academic–community partnership, university staff worked with each organization to adapt the program to be appealing and effective, enable their staff and volunteers to provide the program, increase participants’ physical activity, and leave sustainable programs in place. Evaluation was based on methods recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results The adapted programs, referred to as CHAMPS III, differed from the original program and among organizations. Group-based components and resource guides were included and new features were added; however, individualized components were not offered because of limited resources. A total of 321 people enrolled among three organizations; there was a trend toward increased physical activity at two organizations (an estimated increase of 481 kcal/week [P = .08] and 437 kcal/week [P = .06] expended in physical activity. Evaluation revealed challenges and unexpected community-level benefits. All organizations are continuing efforts to promote physical activity for older adults. Conclusion This project enabled community organizations to implement physical activity promotion programs. The overarching challenge was to retain original program features within each organization’s resources yet be sustainable. Although the programs differed from the original research program, they were a catalyst for numerous community-level changes. Our findings can

  3. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON CARDIAC STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: A TWIN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urho M.Kujala

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that athletic training or other physical activity causes structural and functional adaptations in the heart, but less is known how long-term physical activity affects heart when genetic liability and childhood environment are taken into account. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term physical activity vs. inactivity on cardiac structure and function in twin pairs discordant for physical activity for 32 years. Twelve same-sex twin pairs (five monozygotic and seven dizygotic, 50-67 years were studied as a part of the TWINACTIVE study. Discordance in physical activity was initially determined in 1975 and it remained significant throughout the follow-up. At the end of the follow-up in 2007, resting echocardiographic and electrocardiographic measurements were performed. During the follow-up period, the active co-twins were on average 8.2 (SD 4.0 MET hours/day more active than their inactive co-twins (p < 0.001. At the end of the follow-up, resting heart rate was lower in the active than inactive co-twins [59 (SD 5 vs. 68 (SD 10 bpm, p=0.03]. The heart rate-corrected QT interval was similar between the co-twins. Also, there was a tendency for left ventricular mass per body weight to be greater and T wave amplitude in lead II to be higher in the active co-twins (18% and 15%, respectively, p=0.08 for both. Similar trends were found for both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. In conclusion, the main adaptation to long- term physical activity is lowered resting heart rate, even after partially or fully controlling for genetic liability and childhood environment

  4. Do attributes in the physical environment influence children's physical activity? A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Catherine T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many youth today are physically inactive. Recent attention linking the physical or built environment to physical activity in adults suggests an investigation into the relationship between the built environment and physical activity in children could guide appropriate intervention strategies. Method Thirty three quantitative studies that assessed associations between the physical environment (perceived or objectively measured and physical activity among children (ages 3 to 18-years and fulfilled selection criteria were reviewed. Findings were categorized and discussed according to three dimensions of the physical environment including recreational infrastructure, transport infrastructure, and local conditions. Results Results across the various studies showed that children's participation in physical activity is positively associated with publicly provided recreational infrastructure (access to recreational facilities and schools and transport infrastructure (presence of sidewalks and controlled intersections, access to destinations and public transportation. At the same time, transport infrastructure (number of roads to cross and traffic density/speed and local conditions (crime, area deprivation are negatively associated with children's participation in physical activity. Conclusion Results highlight links between the physical environment and children's physical activity. Additional research using a transdisciplinary approach and assessing moderating and mediating variables is necessary to appropriately inform policy efforts.

  5. Effects of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular adaptations in adults with poststroke hemiparesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R;

    2011-01-01

    Hemiparesis-disability and muscle weakness of 1 side of the body-is a common consequence of stroke. High-intensity strength training may be beneficial to regain function, but strength coaches in the field of rehabilitation need evidence-based guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate...... the effect of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular and functional adaptations in outpatients suffering from hemiparesis after stroke. A within-subject repeated-measures design with the paretic leg as the experimental leg and the nonparetic leg as the control leg was used. Eleven outpatients...... with hemiparesis after stroke participated in 12 weeks of intensive physical rehabilitation comprising unilateral high-intensity strength training with near-maximal loads (4-12 repetition maximum) and body weight supported treadmill training. At baseline and 12-week follow-up, the patients went through testing...

  6. Autophagy is not required to sustain exercise and PRKAA1/AMPK activity but is important to prevent mitochondrial damage during physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Verso, Francesca; Carnio, Silvia; Vainshtein, Anna; Sandri, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity has been recently documented to play a fundamental physiological role in the regulation of autophagy in several tissues. It has also been reported that autophagy is required for exercise itself and for training-induced adaptations in glucose homeostasis. These autophagy-mediated metabolic improvements are thought to be largely dependent on the activation of the metabolic sensor PRKAA1/AMPK. However, it is unknown whether these important benefits stem from systemic adaptation...

  7. MRED: A New Adaptive Active Queue Management Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGMing; WUChunming; ZHUMiaoliang

    2004-01-01

    To address the problems of TCP (Transport control protocol) end-to-end congestion control mechanism, the IETF (Internet engineering task force) advocates deploying active queue management mechanisms in the network. RED is a popular AQM algorithm. It uses average queue size to detect the incipient network congestion. RED can effectively resolve the problems of traditional Drop-Tail. However, there are still some problems with RED. RED is too sensitive to its parameters and the changes of the number of active TCP connections. On the other hand, the congestion notification sending rate of RED algorithm is determined by maxp and the value of maxp is fixed. As a result, these will lead to queue size oscillation which causes queuing delay and jitter. This paper proposes a new adaptive AQM algorithm named “MRED”(Modified RED). Our goal is to stabilized the queue size in a wide variety of traffic scenarios. MRED can adjust the value of maxp to the changes of the traffic load so that the congestion notification can be sent to sufficient TCP sources to mitigate the congestion level. Simulation results indicate that MRED can effectively avoid the queue overfiow and stabilize the queue occupation independent of the number of active TCP connections thus resulting in a more predictable packet delay in the network.

  8. Validation of the historical adulthood physical activity questionnaire (HAPAQ against objective measurements of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Christopher J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifetime physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE is an important determinant of risk for many chronic diseases but remains challenging to measure. Previously reported historical physical activity (PA questionnaires appear to be reliable, but their validity is less well established. Methods We sought to design and validate an historical adulthood PA questionnaire (HAPAQ against objective PA measurements from the same individuals. We recruited from a population-based cohort in Cambridgeshire, UK, (Medical Research Council Ely Study in whom PA measurements, using individually calibrated heart rate monitoring, had been obtained in the past, once between 1994 and 1996 and once between 2000 and 2002. 100 individuals from this cohort attended for interview. Historical PA within the domains of home, work, transport, sport and exercise was recalled using the questionnaire by asking closed questions repeated for several discrete time periods from the age of 20 years old to their current age. The average PAEE from the 2 periods of objective measurements was compared to the self-reported data from the corresponding time periods in the questionnaire. Results Significant correlations were observed between HAPAQ-derived and objectively measured total PAEE for both time periods (Spearman r = 0.44; P Conclusions HAPAQ demonstrates convergent validity for total PAEE and vigorous PA. This instrument will be useful for ranking individuals according to their past PA in studies of chronic disease aetiology, where activity may be an important underlying factor contributing to disease pathogenesis.

  9. Physical activity and health outcomes in persons with haemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, X; Poon, J L; Riske, B; Zhou, Z Y; Ullman, M; Lou, M; Baker, J; Koerper, M; Curtis, R; Nichol, M B

    2014-11-01

    Regular participation in physical activity helps to prevent damage and maintain joint health in persons with haemophilia. This study describes self-reported physical activity participation among a sample of people with haemophilia B in the US and measures its association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Data on 135 participants aged 5-64 years were abstracted from Hemophilia Utilization Group Study Part Vb. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire assessed physical activity among participants aged 15-64 years, and the Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire abstracted from the Canadian Community Health Survey was used for participants aged 5-14 years. SF-12 was used to measure HRQoL and the EuroQol (EQ-5D-3L) was used to measure health status for participants older than 18 years of age. PedsQL was used to measure HRQoL in children aged 5-18 years. Sixty-two percent of participants in the 15-64 year-old age cohort reported a high level of physical activity, 29% reported moderate activity and 9% reported low activity. For children aged 5-14 years, 79% reported participating in physical activity for at least 4 days over a typical week. Based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 79% of adults achieved the recommended physical activity level. Multivariable regression models indicated that adults who engaged in a high level of physical activity reported EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores that were 11.7 (P = 0.0726) points greater than those who engaged in moderate/low activity, indicating better health outcomes. Among children, no statistically significant differences in health outcomes were found between high and moderate or low activity groups.

  10. Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Belgian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) levels in Belgian adults were provided and compared to PA scores reported in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The representative sample (N = 1,239) of the Belgian population took on average 9,655 (4,526) steps/day. According to pedometer indices 58.4% were insufficiently active.…

  11. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  12. Validation of psychosocial scales for physical activity in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miranda Tassitano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Translate the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, adapt it cross-culturally and identify the psychometric properties of the psychosocial scales for physical activity in young university students.METHODS The Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire is made up of 39 items divided into constructs based on the social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model. The analyzed constructs were, as follows: behavior change strategy (15 items, decision-making process (10, self-efficacy (6, support from family (4, and support from friends (4. The validation procedures were conceptual, semantic, operational, and functional equivalences, in addition to the equivalence of the items and of measurements. The conceptual, of items and semantic equivalences were performed by a specialized committee. During measurement equivalence, the instrument was applied to 717 university students. Exploratory factor analysis was used to verify the loading of each item, explained variance and internal consistency of the constructs. Reproducibility was measured by means of intraclass correlation coefficient.RESULTS The two translations were equivalent and back-translation was similar to the original version, with few adaptations. The layout, presentation order of the constructs and items from the original version were kept in the same form as the original instrument. The sample size was adequate and was evaluated by the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, with values between 0.72 and 0.91. The correlation matrix of the items presented r 0.40, varying between 0.43 and 0.80, which explained between 45.4% and 59.0% of the variance. Internal consistency was satisfactory (α ≥ 0.70, with support from friends being 0.70 and 0.92 for self-efficacy. Most items (74.3% presented values above 0.70 for the reproducibility test.CONCLUSIONS The validation process steps were considered satisfactory and adequate for applying

  13. Validation of psychosocial scales for physical activity in university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; de Farias, José Cazuza; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Tenório, Maria Cecília Marinho; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Translate the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, adapt it cross-culturally and identify the psychometric properties of the psychosocial scales for physical activity in young university students. METHODS The Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire is made up of 39 items divided into constructs based on the social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model. The analyzed constructs were, as follows: behavior change strategy (15 items), decision-making process (10), self-efficacy (6), support from family (4), and support from friends (4). The validation procedures were conceptual, semantic, operational, and functional equivalences, in addition to the equivalence of the items and of measurements. The conceptual, of items and semantic equivalences were performed by a specialized committee. During measurement equivalence, the instrument was applied to 717 university students. Exploratory factor analysis was used to verify the loading of each item, explained variance and internal consistency of the constructs. Reproducibility was measured by means of intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS The two translations were equivalent and back-translation was similar to the original version, with few adaptations. The layout, presentation order of the constructs and items from the original version were kept in the same form as the original instrument. The sample size was adequate and was evaluated by the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, with values between 0.72 and 0.91. The correlation matrix of the items presented r 0.40), varying between 0.43 and 0.80, which explained between 45.4% and 59.0% of the variance. Internal consistency was satisfactory (α ≥ 0.70), with support from friends being 0.70 and 0.92 for self-efficacy. Most items (74.3%) presented values above 0.70 for the reproducibility test. CONCLUSIONS The validation process steps were considered satisfactory and adequate for applying to the

  14. Physical Activity and Self-Esteem: "Jonny's Story"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Kristy; Bowen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has proposed that physical exercise can raise self-esteem. This paper will examine the extent to which physical activity interventions, within one case study primary school supported the development of self-esteem of a (junior) year 5 child over a period of five months. Jonny was 10 years old when the physical activity…

  15. The role of physical activity and physical fitness in postcancer fatigue: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Heijmen, L.; Zwarts, M.J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Heerschap, A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients suffering from postcancer fatigue have both an inferior physical activity and physical fitness compared to non-fatigued cancer survivors. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the effect of cognitive behavior therapy, an effective treatment for postcancer fatigue, on physical

  16. Physical Activity and Self-Perceptions among Hong Kong Chinese with an Acquired Physical Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Cindy H. P.; Lau, Caren H. L.; Vertinsky, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the association between physical activity and self-perceptions such as body image, physical self-concept, and self-esteem among persons with an acquired physical disability in a non-Western population. Other personal variables such as gender and time of onset of disability were also examined. A convenience sample of 66 Hong…

  17. Emplotment, Embodiment, Engagement: Narrative Technology in Support of Physical Education, Sport and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a keynote lecture delivered at the International Association of Physical Education in Higher Education 2011 Conference, University of Limerick, on the sub theme: "Technologies in Support of Physical Education, Sport, and Physical Activity." The paper outlines and illustrates a framework: narrative technology, which can be…

  18. What Are the Contributory and Compensatory Relationships between Physical Education and Physical Activity in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles F.; Beighle, Aaron; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2007-01-01

    Limited data are available on the contributory and compensatory relationships between physical education and physical activity in children. Four hundred eighty-five (280 girls) children in first through sixth grades wore sealed pedometers during waking hours, including normally scheduled physical education lessons. The least, moderately, and most…

  19. A Prospective Study of Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Physical Self-Perceptions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles F.; Graser, Susan Vincent; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    There have been limited prospective studies investigating physical activity and physical self-perceptions in children. In this investigation, mean steps/day did not significantly change from late elementary to junior high for either boys or girls; however, boys accumulated more steps both at baseline and follow-up. Physical self-perception…

  20. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  1. Physical fitness related to age and physical activity in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.; Ormel, J.; Rispens, P

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated physical fitness as a function of age and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in a community-based sample of 624 persons aged 57 yr and older. Methods: LTPA during the last 12 months was assessed through personal interviews. A wide range of physical fitness compo

  2. Adiposity and Age Explain Most of the Association between Physical Activity and Fitness in Physically Active Men

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Sánchez, José A.; Safira Delgado-Guerra; Hugo Olmedillas; Amelia Guadalupe-Grau; Rafael Arteaga-Ortiz; Joaquín Sanchis-Moysi; Cecilia Dorado; Calbet, José A. L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine if there is an association between physical activity assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and eighty-two young males (age range: 20-55 years) completed the short form of the IPAQ to assess physical activity. Body composition (dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry), muscular fitness (static and dynamic muscle force and power, vertical ...

  3. The Effect of Outdoor Activity Context on Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.; Morley, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a method for assessing the effect of outdoor activity context on level of physical activity in preschool children. The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children was used to define the test conditions and various levels of physical activity within a multielement design.…

  4. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  5. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ashley R; Goodman, Anna; Page, Angie S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth have been reported to vary by sex, age, weight status and country. However, supporting data are often self-reported and/or do not encompass a wide range of ages or geographical locations. This study aimed to describe objectively.......8-18.4 years) who provided at least three days of valid accelerometer data. Linear regression was used to examine associations between age, sex, weight status, country and physical activity outcomes. RESULTS: Boys were less sedentary and more active than girls at all ages. After 5 years of age...... there was an average cross-sectional decrease of 4.2 % in total physical activity with each additional year of age, due mainly to lower levels of light-intensity physical activity and greater time spent sedentary. Physical activity did not differ by weight status in the youngest children, but from age seven onwards...

  6. How Do Adults With Down Syndrome Perceive Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis

    2016-07-01

    Adults with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have low physical activity levels, which may relate to how they perceive participation in physical activities. The current study entailed interviews with 30 adults with DS (age 18-71 yr, 18 women) to examine how they perceived physical activity, exercise, and sport. Through qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory, the investigators found that adults with DS have positive perceptions of physical activity that center on enjoyment. Three facets of enjoyment were identified: interaction, achievement, and process. Interaction reflected enjoyment of social contact with others including relatives, peers, caregivers, and animals. Achievement involved enjoyment of achieving particular ends including accomplishment of tasks, material rewards, formation of athletic identities, and improvement of health. Process represented enjoyment from performing a particular activity itself. This multifaceted enjoyment expressed by adults with DS may facilitate physical activity and should be considered when developing programs to improve their well-being. PMID:27623609

  7. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  8. Physical Activity in Adolescent Females with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Schweiger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to identify amount of physical activity and relationship of physical activity to glycemic control among adolescent females 11 to 19 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. We also sought to evaluate associations of age and ethnicity with physical activity levels. Research Design and Methods. Adolescent females ages 11–19 years (n=203 were recruited during their outpatient diabetes appointment. Physical activity was obtained by self-report and was categorized as the number of days subjects had accumulated 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during the past 7 days and for a typical week. Results. Girls reported being physically active for at least 60 minutes per day on 2.7±2.3 days in the last week, and on 3.1±2.2 days in a typical week. A greater number of physically active days in a typical week were associated with lower A1c (P=.049 in linear regression analysis. Conclusion. Adolescent females with T1DM report exercising for at least 60 minutes about 3 days per week, which does not meet the international recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity per day. It is particularly important that adolescent girls with T1DM be encouraged to exercise since a greater number of physically active days per week is associated with better glycemic control.

  9. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. Scientific activities in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics from Trieste for 1995 contains three parts. Part 1 includes statistical data on the main activities of the Centre. Part 2 presents the scientific programme in various fields (Physics of Condensed Matter, Physics of High and Intermediate Energies, Mathematics, Physics and Energy, Physics of the Environment, Physics of Living State, Applied Physics and Miscellaneous) as well as other activities such as diploma course, long-term scientific visitors, associate members and federation arrangements, training and research at Italian laboratories, external activities, books and equipment donation programme, awards, and meetings hosted. Part 3 lists the publications issued in 1995 and gives information about the library of the Centre. 6 tabs

  10. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES, ENJOYMENT, STATE ANXIETY, AND SELF-REPORTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Yli-Piipari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000 and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213 completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1 the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2 the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education.

  11. Physical activity as leisure: the meaning of physical activity for the health and well-being of adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Fiona; Magnusson, Josetine

    2007-01-01

    Globally, low participation in physical activity by adolescent young women is a major health concern. While the barriers to activity for this group are well documented, little is known about the views and experiences of nonathlete, but active, young women. In order to gain an understanding of young women's lived experiences of the relationship between physical activity as leisure and health, data were collected through focus groups. Active nonathlete young women in the United Kingdom attached significant meaning to physical activity as a space for leisure, and used it to enhance their health and well-being.

  12. Promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.J. Nooijen (Carla)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Introduction: After discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, physical activity levels in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) are known to decline. Primary objective: To evaluate the added value of a behavioral intervention promoting an active lifestyle after discharge

  13. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined.

  14. Adaptive active control of periodic vibration using maglev actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengyan; Sun, Hongling; Li, Xiaodong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, active control of periodic vibration is implemented using maglev actuators which exhibit inherent nonlinear behaviors. A multi-channel feedforward control algorithm is proposed to solve these nonlinear problems, in which maglev actuators are treated as single-input-single-output systems with unknown time-varying nonlinearities. A radial basis function network is used by the algorithm as its controller, whose parameters are adapted only with the model of the linear system in the secondary path. Compared with the strategies in the conventional magnetic-levitation system control as well as nonlinear active noise/vibration control, the proposed algorithm has the advantage that the nonlinear modeling procedure of maglev actuators and the usage of displacement sensors could be both avoided. Numerical simulations and real-time experiments are carried out based on a multiple-degree-of-freedom vibration isolation system. The results show that the proposed algorithm not only could efficiently compensate for the actuators' time-varying nonlinearities, but also has the ability to greatly attenuate the energy of periodic vibration.

  15. Parent influences on physical activity participation and physical fitness of deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J; Dummer, Gail M

    2014-04-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that parents' values toward physical activity and fitness have strongly influenced the physical activity habits of hearing children (Welk, G. J., Wood, K., & Morss, G. [2003]. Parental influences on physical activity in children: An exploration of potential mechanisms. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 19-33). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether similar findings are obtained for deaf (1) children. The influence of parents' hearing status and parents' involvement in Deaf sport (2) was assessed in addition to their values toward sports participation and physical fitness for their deaf children. Deaf children's physical activity habits were determined by the number of activities participated per week, and fitness levels by the number of scores within the Healthy Fitness Zone from the Fitnessgram test. Parents demonstrated positive values toward physical fitness regardless of hearing status; this finding was strongest among deaf parents of deaf children. Significant positive relationships were found among parents' values toward physical fitness and sport participation and children's physical activity and fitness levels, as well as between Deaf sport involvement by deaf parents and children's physical activity levels.

  16. The Effect of Physical Education Climates on Elementary Students’ Physical Activity Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gell, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND With the growing need for children from underserved populations to be physically active it is imperative to create developmentally appropriate and enjoyable physical education programs that promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mastery and performance climates on physical activity during physical education. METHODS Children (N = 108) in grades K-2 from a rural southeastern elementary school in the US were randomly assigned to a mastery or performance oriented climate. The climates were implemented over 10 school days during regular scheduled physical education classes, and physical activity was measured with pedometers and SOFIT. Two experts in mastery motivational climates served as teachers for the study and were counterbalanced between conditions. RESULTS Results showed that steps/minute were significantly higher for the mastery condition and participants in the mastery condition spent significantly less time sitting (p < .001) and in management (p < .001) and more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; p = .002) and fitness activities (p = .001). CONCLUSION Results indicate that a mastery approach, which allows children the opportunity to drive their own physical activity, elicits higher step counts and more time spent in MVPA compared to a performance-oriented approach. PMID:23516997

  17. Adaptation of active tone in the mouse descending thoracic aorta under acute changes in loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtada, S-I; Lewin, S; Arner, A; Humphrey, J D

    2016-06-01

    Arteries can adapt to sustained changes in blood pressure and flow, and it is thought that these adaptive processes often begin with an altered smooth muscle cell activity that precedes any detectable changes in the passive wall components. Yet, due to the intrinsic coupling between the active and passive properties of the arterial wall, it has been difficult to delineate the adaptive contributions of active smooth muscle. To address this need, we used a novel experimental-computational approach to quantify adaptive functions of active smooth muscle in arterial rings excised from the proximal descending thoracic aorta of mice and subjected to short-term sustained circumferential stretches while stimulated with various agonists. A new mathematical model of the adaptive processes was derived and fit to data to describe and predict the effects of active tone adaptation. It was found that active tone was maintained when the artery was adapted close to the optimal stretch for maximal active force production, but it was reduced when adapted below the optimal stretch; there was no significant change in passive behavior in either case. Such active adaptations occurred only upon smooth muscle stimulation with phenylephrine, however, not stimulation with KCl or angiotensin II. Numerical simulations using the proposed model suggested further that active tone adaptation in vascular smooth muscle could play a stabilizing role for wall stress in large elastic arteries.

  18. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Saraiva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  19. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  20. Physical Activity - A Neat Solution to An Impending Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Alison M. McManus

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity is arguably the most significant global public health threat, yet effective strategies to contain or prevent the disease are not available. This review examines the physical activity patterns of children and the role physical activity plays in daily energy expenditure. The prevailing focus on moderate to vigorous activity in childhood means there is limited objective information on either sedentary behaviour or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), the energy expended ...