WorldWideScience

Sample records for adaptation pattern information

  1. Recognizing lexical and semantic change patterns in evolving life science ontologies to inform mapping adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Dinh, Duy; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Mappings established between life science ontologies require significant efforts to maintain them up to date due to the size and frequent evolution of these ontologies. In consequence, automatic methods for applying modifications on mappings are highly demanded. The accuracy of such methods relies on the available description about the evolution of ontologies, especially regarding concepts involved in mappings. However, from one ontology version to another, a further understanding of ontology changes relevant for supporting mapping adaptation is typically lacking. This research work defines a set of change patterns at the level of concept attributes, and proposes original methods to automatically recognize instances of these patterns based on the similarity between attributes denoting the evolving concepts. This investigation evaluates the benefits of the proposed methods and the influence of the recognized change patterns to select the strategies for mapping adaptation. The summary of the findings is as follows: (1) the Precision (>60%) and Recall (>35%) achieved by comparing manually identified change patterns with the automatic ones; (2) a set of potential impact of recognized change patterns on the way mappings is adapted. We found that the detected correlations cover ∼66% of the mapping adaptation actions with a positive impact; and (3) the influence of the similarity coefficient calculated between concept attributes on the performance of the recognition algorithms. The experimental evaluations conducted with real life science ontologies showed the effectiveness of our approach to accurately characterize ontology evolution at the level of concept attributes. This investigation confirmed the relevance of the proposed change patterns to support decisions on mapping adaptation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  3. Algorithms for adaptive nonlinear pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Hayden, Eric; Key, Gary

    2011-09-01

    In Bayesian pattern recognition research, static classifiers have featured prominently in the literature. A static classifier is essentially based on a static model of input statistics, thereby assuming input ergodicity that is not realistic in practice. Classical Bayesian approaches attempt to circumvent the limitations of static classifiers, which can include brittleness and narrow coverage, by training extensively on a data set that is assumed to cover more than the subtense of expected input. Such assumptions are not realistic for more complex pattern classification tasks, for example, object detection using pattern classification applied to the output of computer vision filters. In contrast, we have developed a two step process, that can render the majority of static classifiers adaptive, such that the tracking of input nonergodicities is supported. Firstly, we developed operations that dynamically insert (or resp. delete) training patterns into (resp. from) the classifier's pattern database, without requiring that the classifier's internal representation of its training database be completely recomputed. Secondly, we developed and applied a pattern replacement algorithm that uses the aforementioned pattern insertion/deletion operations. This algorithm is designed to optimize the pattern database for a given set of performance measures, thereby supporting closed-loop, performance-directed optimization. This paper presents theory and algorithmic approaches for the efficient computation of adaptive linear and nonlinear pattern recognition operators that use our pattern insertion/deletion technology - in particular, tabular nearest-neighbor encoding (TNE) and lattice associative memories (LAMs). Of particular interest is the classification of nonergodic datastreams that have noise corruption with time-varying statistics. The TNE and LAM based classifiers discussed herein have been successfully applied to the computation of object classification in hyperspectral

  4. Information adaptation the interplay between Shannon information and semantic information in cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    This monograph demonstrates the interplay between Shannon information and semantic information in cognition. It shows that Shannon’s information acts as driving force for the formation of semantic information; and vice versa, namely, that semantic information participates in the formation of Shannonian information. The authors show that in cognition, Shannonian and semantic information are interrelated as two aspects of a cognitive process termed as information adaptation. In the latter the mind/brain adapts to the environment by the deflating and/or inflating of the information conveyed by the environment. In the process of information adaptation, quantitative variations in Shannon’s information entail different meanings while different meanings affect the quantity of information. The book illustrates the above conceptually and mathematically by reference to three cognitive processes: pattern recognition, face learning and the recognition of a moving object.

  5. Patterns of adaptation to children's food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, D A; McQuaid, E L; Faino, A; Strand, M; Cohen, S; Robinson, J; Atkins, D; Hourihane, J O'B; Klinnert, M D

    2016-04-01

    Families with food allergy (FA) are at risk of reduced quality of life and elevated anxiety. A moderate level of anxiety may be beneficial to sustain vigilance for food avoidance; however, excessive anxiety may increase risk for burden and maladjustment. The current study presents a framework for understanding the patterns of adaptation to FA across families and to identify typologies of families that would benefit from intervention. Participants included 57 children, 6-12 years old with documented FA, and their mothers. Families were assessed using the Food Allergy Management and Adaptation Scale. Families also completed measures of quality of life, anxiety, FA management, and psychosocial impairment. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that 56 of the 57 families of food-allergic children were categorized into four groups that differed on their adequacy of family FA management, levels of anxiety, and balanced psychosocial functioning: balanced responders (n = 23; 41%), high responders (n = 25; 45%), and low responders (n = 3; 5%). The fourth group, anxious high responders (n = 5; 9%), was characterized by extremely high maternal FA anxiety scores and low scores for balanced integration of FA management and psychosocial functioning. Families in clusters differed across illness and psychosocial outcome variables. Families with FA were characterized by patterns of FA management, anxiety, and ability to integrate FA demands into daily life. Identified adaptation patterns correspond with clinical impressions and provide a framework for identifying families in need of intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Spatiotemporal Wave Patterns: Information Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhail Rabinovich; Lev Tsimring

    2006-01-20

    Pattern formation has traditionally been studied in non-equilibrium physics from the viewpoint of describing the basic structures and their interactions. While this is still an important area of research, the emphasis in the last few years has shifted towards analysis of specific properties of patterns in various complex media. For example, diverse and unexpected phenomena occur in neuro-like media that are characterized by highly non-trivial local dynamics. We carried out an active research program on analysis of spatio-temporal patterns in various physical systems (convection, oscillating fluid layer, soap film), as well as in neuro-like media, with an emphasis on informational aspects of the dynamics. Nonlinear nonequilibrium media and their discrete analogs have a unique ability to represent, memorize, and process the information contained in spatio-temporal patterns. Recent neurophysiological experiments demonstrated a certain universality of spatio-temporal representation of information by neural ensembles. Information processing is also revealed in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular patterns in nonequilibrium media. It is extremely important for many applications to study the informational aspects of these dynamics, including the origins and mechanisms of information generation, propagation and storage. Some of our results are: the discovery of self-organization of periodically oscillatory patterns in chaotic heterogeneous media; the analysis of the propagation of the information along a chaotic media as function of the entropy of the signal; the analysis of wave propagation in discrete non-equilibrium media with autocatalytic properties, which simulates the calcium dynamics in cellular membranes. Based on biological experiments we suggest the mechanism by which the spatial sensory information is transferred into the spatio-temporal code in the neural media. We also found a new mechanism of self-pinning in cellular structures and the related phenomenon

  7. Sentence Level Information Patterns for Novelty Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    .... Given a user's information need, some information patterns in sentences such as combinations of query words, sentence lengths, named entities and phrases, and other sentence patterns, may contain...

  8. Improving information for community-based adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-10-15

    Community-based adaptation aims to empower local people to cope with and plan for the impacts of climate change. In a world where knowledge equals power, you could be forgiven for thinking that enabling this type of adaptation boils down to providing local people with information. Conventional approaches to planning adaptation rely on 'expert' advice and credible 'science' from authoritative information providers such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. But to truly support the needs of local communities, this information needs to be more site-specific, more user-friendly and more inclusive of traditional knowledge and existing coping practices.

  9. The Informational Patterns of Laughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, José A.; Marijuán, Pedro C.

    2003-06-01

    Laughter is one of the most characteristic -and enigmatic- communicational traits of human individuals. Its analysis has to take into account a variety of emotional, social, cognitive, and communicational factors densely interconnected. In this article we study laughter just as an auditive signal (as a 'neutral' information carrier), and we compare its structure with the regular traits of linguistic signals. In the experimental records of human laughter that we have performed, the most noticeable trait is the disorder content of frequencies. In comparison with the sonograms of vowels, the information content of which appears as a characteristic, regular function of the first vibration modes of the dynamic system formed, for each vowel, by the vocal cords and the accompanying resonance of the vocalization apparatus, the sonograms of laughter are highly irregular. In the episodes of laughter, a highly random content in frequencies appears, reason why it cannot be considered as a genuine codification of patterned information like in linguistic signals. In order to numerically gauge the disorder content of laughter frequencies, we have performed several "entropy" measures of the spectra -trying to unambiguously identify spontaneous laughter from "faked", articulated laughter. Interestingly, Shannon's entropy (the most natural candidate) performs rather poorly.

  10. The Informational Patterns of Laughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Marijuán

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Laughter is one of the most characteristic -and enigmatic- communicational traits of human individuals. Its analysis has to take into account a variety of emotional, social, cognitive, and communicational factors densely interconnected. In this article we study laughter just as an auditive signal (as a 'neutral' information carrier, and we compare its structure with the regular traits of linguistic signals. In the experimental records of human laughter that we have performed, the most noticeable trait is the disorder content of frequencies. In comparison with the sonograms of vowels, the information content of which appears as a characteristic, regular function of the first vibration modes of the dynamic system formed, for each vowel, by the vocal cords and the accompanying resonance of the vocalization apparatus, the sonograms of laughter are highly irregular. In the episodes of laughter, a highly random content in frequencies appears, reason why it cannot be considered as a genuine codification of patterned information like in linguistic signals. In order to numerically gauge the disorder content of laughter frequencies, we have performed several "entropy" measures of the spectra -trying to unambiguously identify spontaneous laughter from "faked", articulated laughter. Interestingly, Shannon's entropy (the most natural candidate performs rather poorly.

  11. Peculiarities of Pattern Information Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. Yurkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rates of modern technologies development is such that educational programs are constantly required to be enlarged with new material. However, the introduced supplements often do not take into account the limited possibilities of perceiving amounts of information offered in class. As a result, a significant number of graduates get diplomas of educational institutions with a number of pathologies. Despite heavy load during training, the knowledge of a graduate is often not enough to recognize him ready to participate in modern production. The problem of providing quality education by creating a technology making it possible to maximize students’ knowledge while reducing the number of messages transmitted in the classroom. Consideration of the educational process in the form of an information system with messages transmitted in the form of images is proposed as one of the ways of solving it. The work assumed that each message is reflected in the consciousness of the source and receiver of information in the form of mental images. Mental images of the teacher and student are considered as a convolution of information. The analysis of peculiarities of mental images formation and development is given, a model of the mechanism of pattern information transmission is proposed. The model of transmitting sign, pattern, and symbol information is described. The communication bandwidth between the participants  of the educational process is considered as depending on their goal setting, training, physiological and emotional features, as well as a number of other non-formalized factors. Graduates of educational institutions are considered as means of producing intellectual products, and the purpose of obtaining knowledge is proposed to be formed based on the definition of the attractor of developing the “teacher-student” system. A principle of organizing educational processes is proposed: the education technology should not violate the consistency

  12. Global adaptation patterns of Australian and CIMMYT spring bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ky L; Chapman, Scott C; Trethowan, Richard; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang; van Ginkel, Maarten; Crossa, Jose; Payne, Thomas; Delacy, Ian; Fox, Paul N; Cooper, Mark

    2007-10-01

    The International Adaptation Trial (IAT) is a special purpose nursery designed to investigate the genotype-by-environment interactions and worldwide adaptation for grain yield of Australian and CIMMYT spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). The IAT contains lines representing Australian and CIMMYT wheat breeding programs and was distributed to 91 countries between 2000 and 2004. Yield data of 41 reference lines from 106 trials were analysed. A multiplicative mixed model accounted for trial variance heterogeneity and inter-trial correlations characteristic of multi-environment trials. A factor analytic model explained 48% of the genetic variance for the reference lines. Pedigree information was then incorporated to partition the genetic line effects into additive and non-additive components. This model explained 67 and 56% of the additive by environment and non-additive by environment genetic variances, respectively. Australian and CIMMYT germplasm showed good adaptation to their respective target production environments. In general, Australian lines performed well in south and west Australia, South America, southern Africa, Iran and high latitude European and Canadian locations. CIMMYT lines performed well at CIMMYT's key yield testing location in Mexico (CIANO), north-eastern Australia, the Indo-Gangetic plains, West Asia North Africa and locations in Europe and Canada. Maturity explained some of the global adaptation patterns. In general, southern Australian germplasm were later maturing than CIMMYT material. While CIANO continues to provide adapted lines to northern Australia, selecting for yield among later maturing CIMMYT material in CIANO may identify lines adapted to southern and western Australian environments.

  13. Physical models of biological information and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C I

    1985-04-07

    The bio-informational equivalence asserts that biological processes reduce to processes of information transfer. In this paper, that equivalence is treated as a metaphor with deeply anthropomorphic content of a sort that resists constitutive-analytical definition, including formulation within mathematical theories of information. It is argued that continuance of the metaphor, as a quasi-theoretical perspective in biology, must entail a methodological dislocation between biological and physical science. It is proposed that a general class of functions, drawn from classical physics, can serve to eliminate the anthropomorphism. Further considerations indicate that the concept of biological adaptation is central to the general applicability of the informational idea in biology; a non-anthropomorphic treatment of adaptive phenomena is suggested in terms of variational principles.

  14. Two Perspectives on Information System Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Kjærgaard, Annemette; Svejvig, Per

    Institutional theory has proven to be a central analytical perspective for investigating the role of larger social and historical structures of Information System (IS) adaptation. However, it does not explicitly account for how organizational actors make sense of and enact IS in their local context...

  15. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  16. Are adaptation costs necessary to build up a local adaptation pattern?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, S.; Blanchet, E.; Egas, M.; Olivieri, I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ecological specialization is pervasive in phytophagous arthropods. In such specialization mode, limits to host range are imposed by trade-offs preventing adaptation to several hosts. The occurrence of such trade-offs is inferred by a pattern of local adaptation, i.e., a negative

  17. Transductive Pattern Learning for Information Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLernon, Brian; Kushmerick, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    .... We present TPLEX, a semi-supervised learning algorithm for information extraction that can acquire extraction patterns from a small amount of labelled text in conjunction with a large amount of unlabelled text...

  18. Multidimensional biochemical information processing of dynamical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-01

    Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.

  19. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiac adaptation to hypertension and obesity may be related to many factors such as race, gender and haemodynamic status. Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described among Caucasians. Objectives: To describe the sex specific pattern of left ...

  20. Functional connectivity patterns reflect individual differences in conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in the ability to utilize previous conflict information to optimize current conflict resolution, which is termed the conflict adaptation effect. Previous studies have linked individual differences in conflict adaptation to distinct brain regions. However, the network-based neural mechanisms subserving the individual differences of the conflict adaptation effect have not been studied. The present study employed a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis with a color-naming Stroop task to examine this issue. The main results were as follows: (1) the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded PPI revealed the involvement of the salience network (SN) in conflict adaptation, while the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-seeded PPI revealed the engagement of the central executive network (CEN). (2) Participants with high conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-CEN connectivity and lower intra-SN connectivity; while those with low conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-SN connectivity and lower intra-CEN connectivity. (3) The PPC-centered intra-CEN connectivity positively predicted the conflict adaptation effect; while the ACC-centered intra-SN connectivity had a negative correlation with this effect. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that conflict adaptation is likely supported by the CEN and the SN, providing a new perspective on studying individual differences in conflict adaptation on the basis of large-scale networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incremental exposure facilitates adaptation to sensory rearrangement. [vestibular stimulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J. R.; Lobovits, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    Visual-target pointing experiments were performed on 24 adult volunteers in order to compare the relative effectiveness of incremental (stepwise) and single-step exposure conditions on adaptation to visual rearrangement. The differences between the preexposure and postexposure scores served as an index of the adaptation elicited during the exposure period. It is found that both single-step and stepwise exposure to visual rearrangement elicit compensatory changes in sensorimotor coordination. However, stepwise exposure, when compared to single-step exposur in terms of the average magnitude of visual displacement over the exposure period, clearly enhances the rate of adaptation. It seems possible that the enhancement of adaptation to unusual patterns of sensory stimulation produced by incremental exposure reflects a general principle of sensorimotor function.

  2. Perspectives on Adaptivity in Information Retrieval Interaction (PAIRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger; Kelly, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Adaptivity in IR interactions requires the IR systems adapting to users’ situations and the users adapting to the systems. System adaption entails dynamic user modeling, effective information architecture and enhanced search features such as search integration and relevance feedback; user adaptat...

  3. Patterns of interval correlations in neural oscillators with adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eSchwalger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural firing is often subject to negative feedback by adaptationcurrents. These currents can induce strong correlations among the timeintervals between spikes. Here we study analytically the intervalcorrelations of a broad class of noisy neural oscillators withspike-triggered adaptation of arbitrary strength and time scale. Ourweak-noise theory provides a general relation between the correlationsand the phase-response curve (PRC of the oscillator, provesanti-correlations between neighboring intervals for adapting neuronswith type I PRC and identifies a single order parameter thatdetermines the qualitative pattern of correlations. Monotonicallydecaying or oscillating correlation structures can be related toqualitatively different voltage traces after spiking, which can beexplained by the phase plane geometry. At high firing rates, thelong-term variability of the spike train associated with thecumulative interval correlations becomes small, independent of modeldetails. Our results are verified by comparison with stochasticsimulations of the exponential, leaky, and generalizedintegrate-and-fire models with adaptation.

  4. WWER core pattern enhancement using adaptive improved harmony search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, T. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghaie, M., E-mail: M_Aghaie@sbu.ac.ir [Nuclear Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.; Norouzi, A. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The classical and improved harmony search algorithms are introduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The advantage of IHS is demonstrated in Shekel's Foxholes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CHS and IHS are compared with other Heuristic algorithms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adaptive improved harmony search is applied for two cases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cases of WWER core are optimized in BOC FA pattern. - Abstract: The efficient operation and fuel management of PWRs are of utmost importance. Core performance analysis constitutes an essential phase in core fuel management optimization. Finding an optimum core arrangement for loading of fuel assemblies, FAs, in a nuclear core is a complex problem. In this paper, application of classical harmony search (HS) and adaptive improved harmony search (IHS) in loading pattern (LP) design, for pressurized water reactors, is described. In this analysis, finding the best core pattern, which attains maximum multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, by considering maximum allowable power picking factors (PPF) is the main objective. Therefore a HS based, LP optimization code is prepared and CITATION code which is a neutronic calculation code, applied to obtain effective multiplication factor, neutron fluxes and power density in desired cores. Using adaptive improved harmony search and neutronic code, generated LP optimization code, could be applicable for PWRs core with many numbers of FAs. In this work, at first step, HS and IHS efficiencies are compared with some other heuristic algorithms in Shekel's Foxholes problem and capability of the adaptive improved harmony search is demonstrated. Results show, efficient application of IHS. At second step, two WWER cases are studied and then IHS proffered improved core patterns with regard to mentioned objective functions.

  5. WWER core pattern enhancement using adaptive improved harmony search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, T.; Aghaie, M.; Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.; Norouzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The classical and improved harmony search algorithms are introduced. ► The advantage of IHS is demonstrated in Shekel's Foxholes. ► The CHS and IHS are compared with other Heuristic algorithms. ► The adaptive improved harmony search is applied for two cases. ► Two cases of WWER core are optimized in BOC FA pattern. - Abstract: The efficient operation and fuel management of PWRs are of utmost importance. Core performance analysis constitutes an essential phase in core fuel management optimization. Finding an optimum core arrangement for loading of fuel assemblies, FAs, in a nuclear core is a complex problem. In this paper, application of classical harmony search (HS) and adaptive improved harmony search (IHS) in loading pattern (LP) design, for pressurized water reactors, is described. In this analysis, finding the best core pattern, which attains maximum multiplication factor, k eff , by considering maximum allowable power picking factors (PPF) is the main objective. Therefore a HS based, LP optimization code is prepared and CITATION code which is a neutronic calculation code, applied to obtain effective multiplication factor, neutron fluxes and power density in desired cores. Using adaptive improved harmony search and neutronic code, generated LP optimization code, could be applicable for PWRs core with many numbers of FAs. In this work, at first step, HS and IHS efficiencies are compared with some other heuristic algorithms in Shekel's Foxholes problem and capability of the adaptive improved harmony search is demonstrated. Results show, efficient application of IHS. At second step, two WWER cases are studied and then IHS proffered improved core patterns with regard to mentioned objective functions.

  6. Adaptive technologies for library and information services for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive technologies for library and information services for physically challenged in special education schools of Kaduna State. ... special education schools because; these are genuine demand from adaptive technology users of the library.

  7. Engineering the presentation layer of adaptable web information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiala, Z.; Frasincar, F.; Hinz, M.; Houben, G.J.P.M.; Barna, P.; Meissner, K.; Koch, N.; Fraternali, P.; Wirsing, M.

    2004-01-01

    Engineering adaptable Web Information Systems (WIS) requires systematic design models and specification frameworks. A complete model-driven methodology like Hera distinguishes between the conceptual, navigational, and presentational aspects of WIS design and identifies different adaptation hot-spots

  8. Sequential pattern recognition by maximum conditional informativity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-45 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Keywords : Multivariate statistics * Statistical pattern recognition * Sequential decision making * Product mixtures * EM algorithm * Shannon information Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Sci ence Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/grim-0428565.pdf

  9. User interaction with user-adaptive information filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, H.S.M.; Evers, V.; Someren, van M.W.; Wielinga, B.J.; Besselink, S.; Rutledge, L.W.; Stash, N.; Aroyo, L.M.; Aykin, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    User-adaptive information filters can be a tool to achieve timely delivery of the right information to the right person, a feat critical in crisis management. This paper explores interaction issues that need to be taken into account when designing a user-adaptive information filter. Two case studies

  10. User Interaction with User-Adaptive Information Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Cramer; V. Evers; M. van Someren; B. Wielinga; S. Besselink; L. Rutledge (Lloyd); N. Stash; L. Aroyo (Lora)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractUser-adaptive information filters can be a tool to achieve timely delivery of the right information to the right person, a feat critical in crisis management. This paper explores interaction issues that need to be taken into account when designing a user-adaptive information filter. Two

  11. Applying Maxi-adjustment to Adaptive Information Filtering Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Raymond; ter Hofstede, Arthur H. M.; Bruza, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Learning and adaptation is a fundamental property of intelligent agents. In the context of adaptive information filtering, a filtering agent's beliefs about a user's information needs have to be revised regularly with reference to the user's most current information preferences. This learning and adaptation process is essential for maintaining the agent's filtering performance. The AGM belief revision paradigm provides a rigorous foundation for modelling rational and minimal changes to an age...

  12. Adaptive Human aware Navigation based on Motion Pattern Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Søren; Svenstrup, Mikael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Respecting people’s social spaces is an important prerequisite for acceptable and natural robot navigation in human environments. In this paper, we describe an adaptive system for mobile robot navigation based on estimates of whether a person seeks to interact with the robot or not. The estimates...... are based on run-time motion pattern analysis compared to stored experience in a database. Using a potential field centered around the person, the robot positions itself at the most appropriate place relative to the person and the interaction status. The system is validated through qualitative tests...

  13. Test Information Targeting Strategies for Adaptive Multistage Testing Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecht, Richard M.; Burgin, William

    Adaptive multistage testlet (MST) designs appear to be gaining popularity for many large-scale computer-based testing programs. These adaptive MST designs use a modularized configuration of preconstructed testlets and embedded score-routing schemes to prepackage different forms of an adaptive test. The conditional information targeting (CIT)…

  14. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  15. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Sharlene E; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E

    2012-06-07

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage.

  16. Contraceptive security, information flow, and local adaptations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology : Morocco was selected for the case study. The researchers had ready access to key informants and information about the Logistics Management Information System. Because the study had time and resource constraints, research included desktop reviews and interview, rather than data collection in the field.

  17. Neural communication patterns underlying conflict detection, resolution, and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehrn, Carina R; Hanslmayr, Simon; Fell, Juergen; Deuker, Lorena; Kremers, Nico A; Do Lam, Anne T; Elger, Christian E; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2014-07-30

    In an ever-changing environment, selecting appropriate responses in conflicting situations is essential for biological survival and social success and requires cognitive control, which is mediated by dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). How these brain regions communicate during conflict processing (detection, resolution, and adaptation), however, is still unknown. The Stroop task provides a well-established paradigm to investigate the cognitive mechanisms mediating such response conflict. Here, we explore the oscillatory patterns within and between the DMPFC and DLPFC in human epilepsy patients with intracranial EEG electrodes during an auditory Stroop experiment. Data from the DLPFC were obtained from 12 patients. Thereof four patients had additional DMPFC electrodes available for interaction analyses. Our results show that an early θ (4-8 Hz) modulated enhancement of DLPFC γ-band (30-100 Hz) activity constituted a prerequisite for later successful conflict processing. Subsequent conflict detection was reflected in a DMPFC θ power increase that causally entrained DLPFC θ activity (DMPFC to DLPFC). Conflict resolution was thereafter completed by coupling of DLPFC γ power to DMPFC θ oscillations. Finally, conflict adaptation was related to increased postresponse DLPFC γ-band activity and to θ coupling in the reverse direction (DLPFC to DMPFC). These results draw a detailed picture on how two regions in the prefrontal cortex communicate to resolve cognitive conflicts. In conclusion, our data show that conflict detection, control, and adaptation are supported by a sequence of processes that use the interplay of θ and γ oscillations within and between DMPFC and DLPFC. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410438-15$15.00/0.

  18. Patterns of psychosocial adaptation and allergic disorders in Korean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JinAh; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kwon, Ji-Won; Song, Young Hwa; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Jee, Hye Mi; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Hong, Soo-Jong; Shin, Yee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    To date, there is little evidence to support an association between symptoms of pediatric allergic disorders and psychosocial factors in the general population, particularly in Asian countries. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and symptoms of allergic disorders and to investigate the association between behavior problems and biomarkers of atopy. A cross-sectional survey of parental responses to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was conducted from one elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Skin prick tests for 18 major allergens were also performed. A total of 780 children with valid CBCL surveys were included in the study. Externalizing problems were significantly larger in children with asthmatic symptoms, while internalizing problems were significantly larger in children with symptoms of both asthma and allergic rhinitis. Social adaptations were significantly lower in children with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Boys with more positive allergens via the skin prick tests showed larger internalizing problems. While school children with allergic symptoms have been reported to have more difficulties with psychosocial adaptation, the patterns of psychosocial problems varied somewhat according to the types of atopic disorder. There was a positive relationship between atopy and behavior problems, especially in boys. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Fringe pattern information retrieval using wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Patimo, Caterina; Manicone, Pasquale D.; Lamberti, Luciano

    2005-08-01

    Two-dimensional phase modulation is currently the basic model used in the interpretation of fringe patterns that contain displacement information, moire, holographic interferometry, speckle techniques. Another way to look to these two-dimensional signals is to consider them as frequency modulated signals. This alternative interpretation has practical implications similar to those that exist in radio engineering for handling frequency modulated signals. Utilizing this model it is possible to obtain frequency information by using the energy approach introduced by Ville in 1944. A natural complementary tool of this process is the wavelet methodology. The use of wavelet makes it possible to obtain the local values of the frequency in a one or two dimensional domain without the need of previous phase retrieval and differentiation. Furthermore from the properties of wavelets it is also possible to obtain at the same time the phase of the signal with the advantage of a better noise removal capabilities and the possibility of developing simpler algorithms for phase unwrapping due to the availability of the derivative of the phase.

  20. On the Adaptation of an Agile Information Systems Development Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, M.N.; Harmsen, F.; van Slooten, C.; Stegwee, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Little specific research has been conducted to date on the adaptation of agile information systems development (ISD) methods. This article presents the work practice in dealing with the adaptation of such a method in the ISD department of one of the leading financial institutes in Europe. Two forms

  1. Adaptation of an Agile Information System Development Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, M.N.; Harmsen, A.F.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Stegwee, R.A.; Siau, K.

    2007-01-01

    Little specific research has been conducted to date on the adaptation of agile information systems development (ISD) methods. This chapter presents the work practice in dealing with the adaptation of such a method in the ISD department of one of the leading financial institutes in Europe. The

  2. Energy Adaption for Multimedia Information Kiosks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urunuela, Richard; Muller, Gilles; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2006-01-01

    Video kiosks increasingly contain powerful PC-like embedded processors, allowing them to display video at a high level of quality. Such video display, however, entails significant energy consumption.This paper presents an approach to reducing energy consumption by adapting the CPU clock frequency....... In contrast to previous approaches, we exploit the specific behavior of a video kiosk. Because a kiosk plays the same set of movies over and over, we choose a CPU frequency for a given frame based on the computational requirements of the frame that were observed on earlier iterations. We have implemented our...... approach in the legacy video player MPlayer. On a PC like those that can be found in kiosks, we observe increases in battery lifetime of up to 2 times as compared to running at the maximum CPU frequency on a set of high resolution divx movies....

  3. Adapted SERVQUAL for evaluating the provision of information as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVQUAL) for measuring the provision of information as an Extension Service. It explores agricultural Extension Services as a customer service and SERVQUAL as a service evaluation tool. The study aims to provide an adapted SERVQUAL instrument ...

  4. Embedding information retrieval in adaptive hypermedia : IR meets AHA!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aroyo, L.M.; De Bra, P.M.E.; Houben, G.J.P.M.; De Bra, P.M.E.; etal, xx

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, adaptive hypermedia research concentrates on "closed" applications (with fixed contents). Certain applications ask for an extension of the contents considered, with data obtained through information retrieval. This paper addresses this issue, and tries to give an insight into research

  5. Paradigms for adaptive statistical information designs: practical experiences and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sue-Jane; Hung, H M James; O'Neill, Robert

    2012-11-10

    In the last decade or so, interest in adaptive design clinical trials has gradually been directed towards their use in regulatory submissions by pharmaceutical drug sponsors to evaluate investigational new drugs. Methodological advances of adaptive designs are abundant in the statistical literature since the 1970s. The adaptive design paradigm has been enthusiastically perceived to increase the efficiency and to be more cost-effective than the fixed design paradigm for drug development. Much interest in adaptive designs is in those studies with two-stages, where stage 1 is exploratory and stage 2 depends upon stage 1 results, but where the data of both stages will be combined to yield statistical evidence for use as that of a pivotal registration trial. It was not until the recent release of the US Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics (2010) that the boundaries of flexibility for adaptive designs were specifically considered for regulatory purposes, including what are exploratory goals, and what are the goals of adequate and well-controlled (A&WC) trials (2002). The guidance carefully described these distinctions in an attempt to minimize the confusion between the goals of preliminary learning phases of drug development, which are inherently substantially uncertain, and the definitive inference-based phases of drug development. In this paper, in addition to discussing some aspects of adaptive designs in a confirmatory study setting, we underscore the value of adaptive designs when used in exploratory trials to improve planning of subsequent A&WC trials. One type of adaptation that is receiving attention is the re-estimation of the sample size during the course of the trial. We refer to this type of adaptation as an adaptive statistical information design. Specifically, a case example is used to illustrate how challenging it is to plan a confirmatory adaptive statistical information

  6. A Framework for Adaptive Information Security Systems : A Holistic Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mwakalinga, Jeffy

    2011-01-01

    This research proposes a framework for adaptive information security systems that considers both the technical and social aspects of information systems security. Initial development of information systems security focused on computer technology and communication protocols. Researchers and designers did not consider culture, traditions, ethics, and other social issues of the people using the systems when designing and developing information security systems. They also seemed to ignore environ...

  7. Dynamic Information Encoding With Dynamic Synapses in Neural Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luozheng; Mi, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wenhao; Wang, Da-Hui; Wu, Si

    2018-01-01

    Adaptation refers to the general phenomenon that the neural system dynamically adjusts its response property according to the statistics of external inputs. In response to an invariant stimulation, neuronal firing rates first increase dramatically and then decrease gradually to a low level close to the background activity. This prompts a question: during the adaptation, how does the neural system encode the repeated stimulation with attenuated firing rates? It has been suggested that the neural system may employ a dynamical encoding strategy during the adaptation, the information of stimulus is mainly encoded by the strong independent spiking of neurons at the early stage of the adaptation; while the weak but synchronized activity of neurons encodes the stimulus information at the later stage of the adaptation. The previous study demonstrated that short-term facilitation (STF) of electrical synapses, which increases the synchronization between neurons, can provide a mechanism to realize dynamical encoding. In the present study, we further explore whether short-term plasticity (STP) of chemical synapses, an interaction form more common than electrical synapse in the cortex, can support dynamical encoding. We build a large-size network with chemical synapses between neurons. Notably, facilitation of chemical synapses only enhances pair-wise correlations between neurons mildly, but its effect on increasing synchronization of the network can be significant, and hence it can serve as a mechanism to convey the stimulus information. To read-out the stimulus information, we consider that a downstream neuron receives balanced excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the network, so that the downstream neuron only responds to synchronized firings of the network. Therefore, the response of the downstream neuron indicates the presence of the repeated stimulation. Overall, our study demonstrates that STP of chemical synapse can serve as a mechanism to realize dynamical neural

  8. Communicating climate change adaptation information using web-based platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karali, Eleni; Mattern, Kati

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate progress in climate change adaptation policy and practice, it is important not only to ensure the production of accurate, comprehensive and relevant information, but also the easy, timely and affordable access to it. This can contribute to better-informed decisions and improve the design and implementation of adaptation policies and other relevant initiatives. Web-based platforms can play an important role in communicating and distributing data, information and knowledge that become constantly available, reaching out to a large group of potential users. Indeed in the last decade there has been an extensive increase in the number of platforms developed for this purpose in many fields including climate change adaptation. This short paper concentrates on the web-based adaptation platforms developed in Europe. It provides an overview of the recently emerged landscape, examines the basic characteristics of a set of platforms that operate at national, transnational and European level, and discusses some of the key challenges related to their development, maintenance and overall management. Findings presented in this short paper are discussed in greater detailed in the Technical Report of the European Environment Agency Overview of climate change adaptation platforms in Europe.

  9. Communicating climate change adaptation information using web-based platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate progress in climate change adaptation policy and practice, it is important not only to ensure the production of accurate, comprehensive and relevant information, but also the easy, timely and affordable access to it. This can contribute to better-informed decisions and improve the design and implementation of adaptation policies and other relevant initiatives. Web-based platforms can play an important role in communicating and distributing data, information and knowledge that become constantly available, reaching out to a large group of potential users. Indeed in the last decade there has been an extensive increase in the number of platforms developed for this purpose in many fields including climate change adaptation. This short paper concentrates on the web-based adaptation platforms developed in Europe. It provides an overview of the recently emerged landscape, examines the basic characteristics of a set of platforms that operate at national, transnational and European level, and discusses some of the key challenges related to their development, maintenance and overall management. Findings presented in this short paper are discussed in greater detailed in the Technical Report of the European Environment Agency Overview of climate change adaptation platforms in Europe.

  10. Integration of Individual Processes and Information Demand Patterns: A Conceptual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leyer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals need a variety of information when performing their personal processes. However, companies typically know little about the underlying individual demand patterns in these processes. Conceptualizing information demand patterns of individuals is expected to allow for using these as foundation to extend the traditional internal information logistic perspective of companies. Digital options could then be used to align individual and organizational information leading not only to new product and service offers, but also to new work structures in organizations. Thus, we extend prior literature regarding business process management and information logistics by highlighting how information demand patterns (IDP have to be adapted to individual processes. Our exploratory approach is to demonstrate conceptually the conditions and implications of individual IDPs.

  11. Adaptive Robot to Person Encounter by Motion Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for adaptive control of a robot approaching a person controlled by the person's interest in interaction. For adjustment of the robot behavior a cost function centered in the person is adapted according to an introduced person evaluator method relying on the three...... variables: the distance between the person and the robot, the relative velocity between the two, and position of the person. The person evaluator method determine the person's interest by evaluating the spatial relationship between robot and person in a Case Based Reasoning (CBR) system that is trained...... to determine to which degree the person is interested in interaction. The outcome of the CBR system is used to adapt the cost function around the person, so that the robot's behavior is adapted to the expressed interest. The proposed methods are evaluated by a number of physical experiments that demonstrate...

  12. European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

    2010-09-01

    development in 2010 and is likely to manage the system after 2011. The European Commission in its Communication in 2009 on disaster risk prevention also calls for improving and better sharing of data on disasters, disaster risk mapping and disaster risk management, in the context of the EU civil protection mechanism. Such information might also be linked to the planned EU Clearinghouse on climate change adaptation. The activities of EEA on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (including disaster risk reduction) include indicators of the impacts of climate change; a regularly updated overview of national assessments and adaptation plans on the EEA web site and specific focused reports, e.g. on adaptation to the challenges of changing water resources in the Alps (2009) and on analysis of past trends in natural disasters (due in 2010) and regular expert meetings and workshops with EEA member countries. The ECAC presentation will include the latest developments in the EU Clearinghouse on adaptation and progress in relevant EEA activities.

  13. Partial Adaptation of Obtained and Observed Value Signals Preserves Information about Gains and Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J; Baddeley, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-09-28

    Given that the range of rewarding and punishing outcomes of actions is large but neural coding capacity is limited, efficient processing of outcomes by the brain is necessary. One mechanism to increase efficiency is to rescale neural output to the range of outcomes expected in the current context, and process only experienced deviations from this expectation. However, this mechanism comes at the cost of not being able to discriminate between unexpectedly low losses when times are bad versus unexpectedly high gains when times are good. Thus, too much adaptation would result in disregarding information about the nature and absolute magnitude of outcomes, preventing learning about the longer-term value structure of the environment. Here we investigate the degree of adaptation in outcome coding brain regions in humans, for directly experienced outcomes and observed outcomes. We scanned participants while they performed a social learning task in gain and loss blocks. Multivariate pattern analysis showed two distinct networks of brain regions adapt to the most likely outcomes within a block. Frontostriatal areas adapted to directly experienced outcomes, whereas lateral frontal and temporoparietal regions adapted to observed social outcomes. Critically, in both cases, adaptation was incomplete and information about whether the outcomes arose in a gain block or a loss block was retained. Univariate analysis confirmed incomplete adaptive coding in these regions but also detected nonadapting outcome signals. Thus, although neural areas rescale their responses to outcomes for efficient coding, they adapt incompletely and keep track of the longer-term incentives available in the environment. Optimal value-based choice requires that the brain precisely and efficiently represents positive and negative outcomes. One way to increase efficiency is to adapt responding to the most likely outcomes in a given context. However, too strong adaptation would result in loss of precise

  14. Adaptive resource management and the value of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Breininger, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The value of information is a general and broadly applicable concept that has been used for several decades to aid in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. Yet there are relatively few examples of its use in ecology and natural resources management, and almost none that are framed in terms of the future impacts of management decisions. In this paper we discuss the value of information in a context of adaptive management, in which actions are taken sequentially over a timeframe and both future resource conditions and residual uncertainties about resource responses are taken into account. Our objective is to derive the value of reducing or eliminating uncertainty in adaptive decision making. We describe several measures of the value of information, with each based on management objectives that are appropriate for adaptive management. We highlight some mathematical properties of these measures, discuss their geometries, and illustrate them with an example in natural resources management. Accounting for the value of information can help to inform decisions about whether and how much to monitor resource conditions through time.

  15. Information sources and utilization patterns of pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adequacy of pharmaceutical scientists' information environment in feeding their occupational activities. Data was collected through observation and through questionnaire administration to all the twenty-seven scientists in two large pharmaceutical companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Findings revealed ...

  16. Information Retrieval on social network: An Adaptive Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elveny, M.; Syah, R.; Elfida, M.; Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    Information Retrieval has become one of the areas for studying to get the trusty information, with which the recall and precision become the measurement form that represents it. Nevertheless, development in certain scientific fields make it possible to improve the performance of the Information Retrieval. In this case, through social networks whereby the role of social actor degrees plays a role. This is an implication of the query in which co-occurrence becomes an indication of social networks. An adaptive approach we use by involving this query in sequence to a stand-alone query, it has proven the relationship among them.

  17. A model-based exploration of the role of pattern generating circuits during locomotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjaninejad, Ali; Finley, James M

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we used a model-based approach to explore the potential contributions of central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) during adaptation to external perturbations during locomotion. We constructed a neuromechanical modeled of locomotion using a reduced-phase CPG controller and an inverted pendulum mechanical model. Two different forms of locomotor adaptation were examined in this study: split-belt treadmill adaptation and adaptation to a unilateral, elastic force field. For each simulation, we first examined the effects of phase resetting and varying the model's initial conditions on the resulting adaptation. After evaluating the effect of phase resetting on the adaptation of step length symmetry, we examined the extent to which the results from these simple models could explain previous experimental observations. We found that adaptation of step length symmetry during split-belt treadmill walking could be reproduced using our model, but this model failed to replicate patterns of adaptation observed in response to force field perturbations. Given that spinal animal models can adapt to both of these types of perturbations, our findings suggest that there may be distinct features of pattern generating circuits that mediate each form of adaptation.

  18. Gender specific pattern of left ventricular cardiac adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described ... used for analysis. ... risk due to LVH and that cardiac adaptation to ... had history taking, physical examination and ..... between the gender specific differences in cardiac ... A metaanalysis of individual.

  19. Geographical patterns of adaptation within a species' range : Interactions between drift and gene flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleaume-Benharira, M; Pen, IR; Ronce, O

    We use individual-based stochastic simulations and analytical deterministic predictions to investigate the interaction between drift, natural selection and gene flow on the patterns of local adaptation across a fragmented species' range under clinally varying selection. Migration between populations

  20. On valuing information in adaptive-management models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alana L; McCarthy, Michael A

    2010-08-01

    Active adaptive management looks at the benefit of using strategies that may be suboptimal in the near term but may provide additional information that will facilitate better management in the future. In many adaptive-management problems that have been studied, the optimal active and passive policies (accounting for learning when designing policies and designing policy on the basis of current best information, respectively) are very similar. This seems paradoxical; when faced with uncertainty about the best course of action, managers should spend very little effort on actively designing programs to learn about the system they are managing. We considered two possible reasons why active and passive adaptive solutions are often similar. First, the benefits of learning are often confined to the particular case study in the modeled scenario, whereas in reality information gained from local studies is often applied more broadly. Second, management objectives that incorporate the variance of an estimate may place greater emphasis on learning than more commonly used objectives that aim to maximize an expected value. We explored these issues in a case study of Merri Creek, Melbourne, Australia, in which the aim was to choose between two options for revegetation. We explicitly incorporated monitoring costs in the model. The value of the terminal rewards and the choice of objective both influenced the difference between active and passive adaptive solutions. Explicitly considering the cost of monitoring provided a different perspective on how the terminal reward and management objective affected learning. The states for which it was optimal to monitor did not always coincide with the states in which active and passive adaptive management differed. Our results emphasize that spending resources on monitoring is only optimal when the expected benefits of the options being considered are similar and when the pay-off for learning about their benefits is large.

  1. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial co...

  2. Patterns of coral bleaching: Modeling the adaptive bleaching hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J.R.; Fautin, D.G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Bleaching - the loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) from animals normally possessing them - can be induced by a variety of stresses, of which temperature has received the most attention. Bleaching is generally considered detrimental, but Buddemeier and Fautin have proposed that bleaching is also adaptive, providing an opportunity for recombining hosts with alternative algal types to form symbioses that might be better adapted to altered circumstances. Our mathematical model of this "adaptive bleaching hypothesis" provides insight into how animal-algae symbioses might react under various circumstances. It emulates many aspects of the coral bleaching phenomenon including: corals bleaching in response to a temperature only slightly greater than their average local maximum temperature; background bleaching; bleaching events being followed by bleaching of lesser magnitude in the subsequent one to several years; higher thermal tolerance of corals subject to environmental variability compared with those living under more constant conditions; patchiness in bleaching; and bleaching at temperatures that had not previously resulted in bleaching. ?? 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adaptive fringe-pattern projection for image saturation avoidance in 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Kofman, Jonathan

    2014-04-21

    In fringe-projection 3D surface-shape measurement, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured images of fringe patterns, leading to phase and measurement errors. An adaptive fringe-pattern projection (AFPP) method was developed to adapt the maximum input gray level in projected fringe patterns to the local reflectivity of an object surface being measured. The AFPP method demonstrated improved 3D measurement accuracy by avoiding image saturation in highly-reflective surface regions while maintaining high intensity modulation across the entire surface. The AFPP method can avoid image saturation and handle varying surface reflectivity, using only two prior rounds of fringe-pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns.

  4. Adaptive DSPI phase denoising using mutual information and 2D variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiyang; Li, Jian; Wu, Sijin; Li, Weixian; Yang, Lianxiang; Dong, Mingli; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2018-04-01

    In digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI), noise interference leads to a low peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and measurement errors in the phase map. This paper proposes an adaptive DSPI phase denoising method based on two-dimensional variational mode decomposition (2D-VMD) and mutual information. Firstly, the DSPI phase map is subjected to 2D-VMD in order to obtain a series of band-limited intrinsic mode functions (BLIMFs). Then, on the basis of characteristics of the BLIMFs and in combination with mutual information, a self-adaptive denoising method is proposed to obtain noise-free components containing the primary phase information. The noise-free components are reconstructed to obtain the denoising DSPI phase map. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce noise interference, giving a PSNR that is higher than that of two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition methods.

  5. USING THE ADAPTED DLP SYSTEM FOR BLOCKING INFORMATION LEAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Andryianava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of using the adapted DLP-system in the «Blocking» mode of leaking confidential information of the company is investigated. The scheme of interception of information security events in the «Copy» mode is given, the analysis of which reflects the main drawback of using this mode – the DLP-system works only with copies of confidential documents, while the originals were delivered to the recipient. Such cases inflict enormous damage on companies, so the transfer of critical information beyond the corporate network is unacceptable.A solution is proposed for transferring the operation of the DLP-system from the «Copy» mode to the «Blocking» mode. It is important that the operation of the DLP-system does not hinder the staff members from performing regular operations and does not hinder business processes. Therefore, it is mandatory to adapt the standard DLP-system to the specifics of the company’s activities. After that the transition of the adapted DLP-system to the «Blocking» mode is carried out.Developed: the transition procedure of the adapted DLP-system from the «Copy» mode to the «Blocking» mode, the scheme of the event capture by the DLP-system for the two modes. The main channels of data leaks were investigated, the main leaks were identified by the data type and by the transmission channel. The analysis of the DLP-system operation in the «Blocking» mode is performed.

  6. Adaptations in the gait pattern with experimental hamstring pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, J

    2011-01-01

    and little attention has been given to how pain in other muscles affects functional movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the gait patterns of healthy subjects that occur during experimental muscle pain in the biceps femoris. In a cross-over study design, 14 healthy volunteers...... underwent EMG assisted 3D gait analyses before, during and after experimental biceps femoris pain induced by intramuscular injections of hypertonic saline. Isotonic saline injections were administered as a non-painful control. The experimental biceps femoris pain led to reductions in hip extensor moments......, knee flexor and lateral rotator moments. No changes in lower extremity kinematics and EMG activity in any of the recorded muscles were observed. It is concluded that experimental muscle pain in the biceps femoris leads to changes in the gait pattern in agreement with unloading of the painful muscle...

  7. Signal Processing, Pattern Formation and Adaptation in Neural Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    rhythmic patterns. As such, our models are appropriate for describing various phenomena in the auditory system, including critical nonlinear...several distinct intrinsic behaviors available near a Hopf bifurcation or a Bautin (a.k.a. double limit cycle) bifurcation. Stability analysis shows...example the perception of pitch at event timescales (Meddis & O’Mard, 2006) and the perception of pulse and meter at rhythmic timescales (Large

  8. Methodology of Adaptive Integrated Accounting System in Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochulya Tetyana V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of logical and methodological justification of formation of the integrated system of accounting based on realities of the co-ordinated transformation of the society and economy and development of a new knowledge about formation and adjustment of the accounting system in it’s a priori new information competence with expansion of functionality for the justified idea of existence and development of business. Taking developments of the best representatives of the leading scientific society as a basis, the article offers a new vision of organisation of the accounting system, based on the modern projection of information competence and harmonisation of main processes of information service for adaptation of the system for multi-vector inquiries of consumers of information. Pursuant to results of the conducted study, the article makes an effort to change the established opinion about information and professional competences of the accounting system and attach a new qualitative significance to them. The article makes a proposal with respect to calculation of quality of the information system on the basis of key indicators of its information service. It lays the foundation of the prospective study of the problems of building the accounting system in such a projection, so that realities of internal and external processes were maximally co-ordinated based on the idea of their information development.

  9. Will current probabilistic climate change information, as such, improve adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A.; Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic climate scenarios are currently being provided to end users, to employ as probabilities in adaptation decision making, with the explicit suggestion that they quantify the impacts of climate change relevant to a variety of sectors. These "probabilities" are, however, rather sensitive to the assumptions in, and the structure of the modelling approaches used to generate them. It is often argued that stakeholders require probabilistic climate change information to adequately evaluate and plan adaptation pathways. On the other hand, some circumstantial evidence suggests that on the ground decision making rarely uses well defined probability distributions of climate change as inputs. Nevertheless it is within this context of probability distributions of climate change that we discuss possible drawbacks of supplying information that, while presented as robust and decision relevant, , is in fact unlikely to be so due to known flaws both in the underlying models and in the methodology used to "account for" those known flaws. How might one use a probability forecast that is expected to change in the future, not due to a refinement in our information but due to fundamental flaws in its construction? What then are the alternatives? While the answer will depend on the context of the problem at hand, a good approach will be strongly informed by the timescale of the given planning decision, and the consideration of all the non-climatic factors that have to be taken into account in the corresponding risk assessment. Using a water resources system as an example, we illustrate an alternative approach to deal with these challenges and make robust adaptation decisions today.

  10. Towards mapping land use patterns from volunteered geographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokar Arsanjani, J.; Helbich, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530349; Bakillah, M.; Hagenauer, J.; Zipf, A.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of applications have been launched to gather geo-located information from the public. This article introduces an approach toward generating land-use patterns from volunteered geographic information (VGI) without applying remote-sensing techniques and/or engaging official data. Hence,

  11. Nepotistic patterns of violent psychopathy: evidence for adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brian Krupp

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well-functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an individual’s inclusive fitness. Conversely, there is evidence that mental disorders can disrupt psychological mechanisms designed to protect relatives. Thus, mental disorder and adaptation accounts of psychopathy generate opposing hypotheses: psychopathy should be associated with an increase in the victimization of kin in the former account but not in the latter. Contrary to the mental disorder hypothesis, we show here in a sample of 289 violent offenders that variation in psychopathy predicts a decrease in the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders; that is, psychopathy predicts an increased likelihood of harming nonrelatives. Because nepotistic inhibition in violence may be caused by dispersal or kin discrimination, we examined the effects of psychopathy on (1 the dispersal of offenders and their kin and (2 sexual assault frequency (as a window on kin discrimination. Although psychopathy was negatively associated with coresidence with kin and positively associated with the commission of sexual assault, it remained negatively associated with the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders after removing cases of offenders who had coresided with kin and cases of sexual assault from the analyses. These results stand in contrast to models positing psychopathy as a pathology, and provide support for the hypothesis that psychopathy reflects an evolutionary strategy largely favoring the exploitation of nonrelatives.

  12. Adaptive UIX Layer for University Information SOA-BUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian DOSPINESCU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The user interface (UI layer is considered one of the key components of software applications since it connects their end-users to functionalities. Well-engineered and robust software applications could eventually fail to be adopted due to a weak UI layer. In the current market, when creating sites, UI designers have to determine how to plan the best interface according to the devices of the users, namely desktops, laptops, tablets or smartphones. Having this in mind, the current paper aims to present the adaptive UIX Layer for a University Information SOA-Bus (UISB – a topic discussed in previous works [1], [2]. In this respect, we reviewed the literature on responsive and adaptive web design in order to identify the best front-end approach to the UISB. According to our findings, there is a strong debate in the academic field as well in the IT business in what concerns UI design. Recent interests have shown that the new trend in drafting the front-end layer is choosing between a responsive and an adaptive design. While arguments provided by both sides have failed to ease the decision makers’ choices on what type of design to choose, we aim to bring some light on the subject by proposing different layers for the UISB.

  13. Understanding of the management information system based on MVC pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sida

    2018-04-01

    With the development of the society, people have come to realize the significance of information, not only linguistically but also in the written form. To build an effective and efficient working flow, a new subject called Management Information System (MIS) came up. MIS is an integrated discipline, which utilizes comprehensive and systematical methods to manage information, and it enhances the work efficiency through building structured information platform. This paper demonstrates the Management Information System from shallow too deep with the understanding of MVC pattern, including its basic structure and application with ASP.NET. Also some discussions about its features are made in the last section.

  14. Adaptive oriented PDEs filtering methods based on new controlling speed function for discontinuous optical fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei

    2018-01-01

    The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.

  15. Production Planning and Planting Pattern Scheduling Information System for Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitadiar, Tanhella Zein; Farikhin; Surarso, Bayu

    2018-02-01

    This paper present the production of planning and planting pattern scheduling faced by horticulture farmer using two methods. Fuzzy time series method use to predict demand on based on sales amount, while linear programming is used to assist horticulture farmers in making production planning decisions and determining the schedule of cropping patterns in accordance with demand predictions of the fuzzy time series method, variable use in this paper is size of areas, production advantage, amount of seeds and age of the plants. This research result production planning and planting patterns scheduling information system with the output is recommendations planting schedule, harvest schedule and the number of seeds will be plant.

  16. Intersegmental coordination of cockroach locomotion: adaptive control of centrally coupled pattern generator circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eFuchs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals’ ability to demonstrate both stereotyped and adaptive locomotor behavior is largely dependent on the interplay between centrally-generated motor patterns and the sensory inputs that shape them. We utilized a combined experimental and theoretical approach to investigate the relative importance of CPG interconnections vs. intersegmental afferents in the cockroach: an animal that is renowned for rapid and stable locomotion. We simultaneously recorded coxal levator and depressor motor neurons (MN in the thoracic ganglia of Periplaneta americana, while sensory feedback was completely blocked or allowed only from one intact stepping leg. In the absence of sensory feedback, we observed a coordination pattern with consistent phase relationship that shares similarities with a double tripod gait, suggesting central, feedforward control. This intersegmental coordination pattern was then reinforced in the presence of sensory feedback from a single stepping leg. Specifically, we report on transient stabilization of phase differences between activity recorded in the middle and hind thoracic MN following individual front-leg steps, suggesting a role for afferent phasic information in the coordination of motor circuits at the different hemiganglia. Data were further analyzed using stochastic models of coupled oscillators and maximum likelihood techniques to estimate underlying physiological parameters, such as uncoupled endogenous frequencies of hemisegmental oscillators and coupling strengths and directions. We found that descending ipsilateral coupling is stronger than ascending coupling, while left-right coupling in both the meso- and meta-thoracic ganglia appear to be symmetrical. We discuss our results in comparison with recent findings in stick insects that share similar neural and body architectures, and argue that the two species may exemplify opposite extremes of a fast-slow locomotion continuum, mediated through different intersegmental

  17. A Novel Unsupervised Adaptive Learning Method for Long-Term Electromyography (EMG) Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi; Yang, Dapeng; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Huajie; Liu, Hong; Kotani, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Performance degradation will be caused by a variety of interfering factors for pattern recognition-based myoelectric control methods in the long term. This paper proposes an adaptive learning method with low computational cost to mitigate the effect in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios. We presents a particle adaptive classifier (PAC), by constructing a particle adaptive learning strategy and universal incremental least square support vector classifier (LS-SVC). We compared PAC performance with incremental support vector classifier (ISVC) and non-adapting SVC (NSVC) in a long-term pattern recognition task in both unsupervised and supervised adaptive learning scenarios. Retraining time cost and recognition accuracy were compared by validating the classification performance on both simulated and realistic long-term EMG data. The classification results of realistic long-term EMG data showed that the PAC significantly decreased the performance degradation in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios compared with NSVC (9.03% ± 2.23%, p < 0.05) and ISVC (13.38% ± 2.62%, p = 0.001), and reduced the retraining time cost compared with ISVC (2 ms per updating cycle vs. 50 ms per updating cycle). PMID:28608824

  18. A Novel Unsupervised Adaptive Learning Method for Long-Term Electromyography (EMG Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance degradation will be caused by a variety of interfering factors for pattern recognition-based myoelectric control methods in the long term. This paper proposes an adaptive learning method with low computational cost to mitigate the effect in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios. We presents a particle adaptive classifier (PAC, by constructing a particle adaptive learning strategy and universal incremental least square support vector classifier (LS-SVC. We compared PAC performance with incremental support vector classifier (ISVC and non-adapting SVC (NSVC in a long-term pattern recognition task in both unsupervised and supervised adaptive learning scenarios. Retraining time cost and recognition accuracy were compared by validating the classification performance on both simulated and realistic long-term EMG data. The classification results of realistic long-term EMG data showed that the PAC significantly decreased the performance degradation in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios compared with NSVC (9.03% ± 2.23%, p < 0.05 and ISVC (13.38% ± 2.62%, p = 0.001, and reduced the retraining time cost compared with ISVC (2 ms per updating cycle vs. 50 ms per updating cycle.

  19. Patterns in Standards and Technologies for Economic Information Systems Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Irimia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presets results from a review of the current standards used for collaboration between economic information systems, including web services and service oriented architecture, EDI, ebXML framework, RosettaNet framework, cXML, xCBL UBL, BPMN, BPEL, WS-CDL, ASN.1, and others. Standards have a key role in promoting economic information system interoperability, and thus enable collaboration. Analyzing the current standards, technologies and applications used for economic information systems interoperability has revealed a common pattern that runs through all of them. From this pattern we construct a basic model of interoperability around which we relate and judge all standards, technologies and applications for economic information systems interoperability.

  20. Emerging Pattern in Utilizing Electronic Information Sources by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a detailed comparative analysis of electronic information sources (EIS) utilized by pharmacy lecturers in South-South universities in Nigeria. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent to which EIS are utilized among pharmacy lecturers in South-South Nigeria. The aim is to explore the emerging pattern of ...

  1. Information seeking-pattern of Nigerian textile market women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the information seeking-pattern of Nigerian textile market women and strategies for improvement of which the study was an ex-post-facto type and adopted survey research design. Disproportional stratified random technique was used to select markets for the study while questionnaire was used to ...

  2. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, M. [Environment Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Adaptation and Impacts Research Division

    2007-07-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs.

  3. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.

    2007-01-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs

  4. Patterns of trust in sources of health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rob; Forbes, Sarah; Williams, John

    2011-01-21

    To understand the different patterns of trust that exist regarding different sources of information about health issues. Data from a large national health lifestyles survey of New Zealanders was examined using a factor analysis of trust toward 24 health information sources (HIS). Differences in trust are compared across a range of demographic variables. Factor analysis identified six different groupings of health information. Variations in trust in sources for health information are identified by age, employment status, level of education, income, sex and ethnic group. Systematic variations exist in the trust that people report with respect to different sources of health information. Understanding these variations may assist policymakers and other agencies which are responsible for planning the dissemination of health information.

  5. Regional Logistics Information Resources Integration Patterns and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Shangguan, Xu-ming

    Effective integration of regional logistics information resources can provide collaborative services in information flow, business flow and logistics for regional logistics enterprises, which also can reduce operating costs and improve market responsiveness. First, this paper analyzes the realistic significance on the integration of regional logistics information. Second, this paper brings forward three feasible patterns on the integration of regional logistics information resources, These three models have their own strengths and the scope of application and implementation, which model is selected will depend on the specific business and the regional distribution of enterprises. Last, this paper discusses the related countermeasures on the integration of regional logistics information resources, because the integration of regional logistics information is a systems engineering, when the integration is advancing, the countermeasures should pay close attention to the current needs and long-term development of regional enterprises.

  6. Key principles for adapting South African settlement patterns to climate change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify key principles for adapting SA settlement patterns to climate change. Section 1 reviews the range of climate-related impacts likely to affect SA settlements using climate change models and scenarios as a context...

  7. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PATTERN DISCOVERY OF TRAJECTORIES USING CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Movement of point objects are highly sensitive to the underlying situations and conditions during the movement, which are known as contexts. Analyzing movement patterns, while accounting the contextual information, helps to better understand how point objects behave in various contexts and how contexts affect their trajectories. One potential solution for discovering moving objects patterns is analyzing the similarities of their trajectories. This article, therefore, contextualizes the similarity measure of trajectories by not only their spatial footprints but also a notion of internal and external contexts. The dynamic time warping (DTW method is employed to assess the multi-dimensional similarities of trajectories. Then, the results of similarity searches are utilized in discovering the relative movement patterns of the moving point objects. Several experiments are conducted on real datasets that were obtained from commercial airplanes and the weather information during the flights. The results yielded the robustness of DTW method in quantifying the commonalities of trajectories and discovering movement patterns with 80 % accuracy. Moreover, the results revealed the importance of exploiting contextual information because it can enhance and restrict movements.

  8. Multi-Dimensional Pattern Discovery of Trajectories Using Contextual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Alesheikh, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Movement of point objects are highly sensitive to the underlying situations and conditions during the movement, which are known as contexts. Analyzing movement patterns, while accounting the contextual information, helps to better understand how point objects behave in various contexts and how contexts affect their trajectories. One potential solution for discovering moving objects patterns is analyzing the similarities of their trajectories. This article, therefore, contextualizes the similarity measure of trajectories by not only their spatial footprints but also a notion of internal and external contexts. The dynamic time warping (DTW) method is employed to assess the multi-dimensional similarities of trajectories. Then, the results of similarity searches are utilized in discovering the relative movement patterns of the moving point objects. Several experiments are conducted on real datasets that were obtained from commercial airplanes and the weather information during the flights. The results yielded the robustness of DTW method in quantifying the commonalities of trajectories and discovering movement patterns with 80 % accuracy. Moreover, the results revealed the importance of exploiting contextual information because it can enhance and restrict movements.

  9. Stress adapted embroidered meshes with a graded pattern design for abdominal wall hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, J.; Bittrich, L.; Breier, A.; Spickenheuer, A.

    2017-10-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are one of the most relevant injuries of the digestive system with 25 million patients in 2013. Surgery is recommended primarily using allogenic non-absorbable wrap-knitted meshes. These meshes have in common that their stress-strain behaviour is not adapted to the anisotropic behaviour of native abdominal wall tissue. The ideal mesh should possess an adequate mechanical behaviour and a suitable porosity at the same time. An alternative fabrication method to wrap-knitting is the embroidery technology with a high flexibility in pattern design and adaption of mechanical properties. In this study, a pattern generator was created for pattern designs consisting of a base and a reinforcement pattern. The embroidered mesh structures demonstrated different structural and mechanical characteristics. Additionally, the investigation of the mechanical properties exhibited an anisotropic mechanical behaviour for the embroidered meshes. As a result, the investigated pattern generator and the embroidery technology allow the production of stress adapted mesh structures that are a promising approach for hernia reconstruction.

  10. Information and communication technology and climate change adaptation: Evidence from selected mining companies in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew I. Aleke

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mining sector is a significant contributor to the gross domestic product of many global economies. Given the increasing trends in climate-induced disasters and the growing desire to find lasting solutions, information and communication technology (ICT has been introduced into the climate change adaptation mix. Climate change-induced extreme weather events such as flooding, drought, excessive fog, and cyclones have compounded the environmental challenges faced by the mining sector. This article presents the adoption of ICT innovation as part of the adaptation strategies towards reducing the mining sector’s vulnerability and exposure to climate change disaster risks. Document analysis and systematic literature review were adopted as the methodology. Findings from the study reflect how ICT intervention orchestrated changes in communication patterns which are tailored towards the reduction in climate change vulnerability and exposure. The research concludes with a proposition that ICT intervention must be part of the bigger and ongoing climate change adaptation agenda in the mining sector. Keywords: ICT; climate change; disaster risk reduction; mining; adaptation; South Africa

  11. A novel approach for SEMG signal classification with adaptive local binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğrul, Ömer Faruk; Kaya, Yılmaz; Tekin, Ramazan

    2016-07-01

    Feature extraction plays a major role in the pattern recognition process, and this paper presents a novel feature extraction approach, adaptive local binary pattern (aLBP). aLBP is built on the local binary pattern (LBP), which is an image processing method, and one-dimensional local binary pattern (1D-LBP). In LBP, each pixel is compared with its neighbors. Similarly, in 1D-LBP, each data in the raw is judged against its neighbors. 1D-LBP extracts feature based on local changes in the signal. Therefore, it has high a potential to be employed in medical purposes. Since, each action or abnormality, which is recorded in SEMG signals, has its own pattern, and via the 1D-LBP these (hidden) patterns may be detected. But, the positions of the neighbors in 1D-LBP are constant depending on the position of the data in the raw. Also, both LBP and 1D-LBP are very sensitive to noise. Therefore, its capacity in detecting hidden patterns is limited. To overcome these drawbacks, aLBP was proposed. In aLBP, the positions of the neighbors and their values can be assigned adaptively via the down-sampling and the smoothing coefficients. Therefore, the potential to detect (hidden) patterns, which may express an illness or an action, is really increased. To validate the proposed feature extraction approach, two different datasets were employed. Achieved accuracies by the proposed approach were higher than obtained results by employed popular feature extraction approaches and the reported results in the literature. Obtained accuracy results were brought out that the proposed method can be employed to investigate SEMG signals. In summary, this work attempts to develop an adaptive feature extraction scheme that can be utilized for extracting features from local changes in different categories of time-varying signals.

  12. Natural hazards and climate change in Dhaka: future trends, social adaptation and informal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele-Eich, I.; Aßheuer, T.; Simmer, C.; Braun, B.

    2009-04-01

    Similar to many megacities in the world, Dhaka is regularly threatened by natural hazards. Risks associated with floods and cyclones in particular are expected to increase in the years to come because of global climate change and rapid urbanization. Greater Dhaka is expected to grow from 13.5 million inhabitants in 2007 to 22 million inhabitants by 2025. The vast majority of this growth will take place in informal settlements. Due to the setting of Greater Dhaka in a deltaic plain, the sprawl of slums is primarily taking place in wetlands, swamps and other flood-prone areas. Slum dwellers and informal businesses are vulnerable, but have somehow learned to cope with seasonal floods and developed specific adaptation strategies. An increase of precipitation extremes and tropical cyclones, however, would put considerable stress on the adaptability of the social and economic system. DhakaHazard, a joint research project of the Department of Meteorology at the University of Bonn and the Department of Geography at the University of Cologne, takes up these issues in an interdisciplinary approach. The project, which begun in November 2008, aims to achieve two main objectives: To link analyses of informal social and economic adaptation strategies to models on future climate change and weather extremes. To estimate more accurately the future frequency and magnitude of weather extremes and floods which are crucial for the future adaptability of informal systems. To fulfill these objectives, scientists at the Meteorological Institute are studying the evolution of natural hazards in Bangladesh, while researchers at the Department of Geography are undertaking the task of assessing these hazards from a social point of view. More specifically, the meteorologists are identifying global and regional weather conditions resulting in flooding of the Greater Dhaka region, while possible variations in flood-inducing weather patterns are analyzed by evaluating their frequency and magnitude

  13. A Motion-Adaptive Deinterlacer via Hybrid Motion Detection and Edge-Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Yuan Lin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel motion-adaptive deinterlacing algorithm with edge-pattern recognition and hybrid motion detection is introduced. The great variety of video contents makes the processing of assorted motion, edges, textures, and the combination of them very difficult with a single algorithm. The edge-pattern recognition algorithm introduced in this paper exhibits the flexibility in processing both textures and edges which need to be separately accomplished by line average and edge-based line average before. Moreover, predicting the neighboring pixels for pattern analysis and interpolation further enhances the adaptability of the edge-pattern recognition unit when motion detection is incorporated. Our hybrid motion detection features accurate detection of fast and slow motion in interlaced video and also the motion with edges. Using only three fields for detection also renders higher temporal correlation for interpolation. The better performance of our deinterlacing algorithm with higher content-adaptability and less memory cost than the state-of-the-art 4-field motion detection algorithms can be seen from the subjective and objective experimental results of the CIF and PAL video sequences.

  14. A Motion-Adaptive Deinterlacer via Hybrid Motion Detection and Edge-Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hsin-Te

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel motion-adaptive deinterlacing algorithm with edge-pattern recognition and hybrid motion detection is introduced. The great variety of video contents makes the processing of assorted motion, edges, textures, and the combination of them very difficult with a single algorithm. The edge-pattern recognition algorithm introduced in this paper exhibits the flexibility in processing both textures and edges which need to be separately accomplished by line average and edge-based line average before. Moreover, predicting the neighboring pixels for pattern analysis and interpolation further enhances the adaptability of the edge-pattern recognition unit when motion detection is incorporated. Our hybrid motion detection features accurate detection of fast and slow motion in interlaced video and also the motion with edges. Using only three fields for detection also renders higher temporal correlation for interpolation. The better performance of our deinterlacing algorithm with higher content-adaptability and less memory cost than the state-of-the-art 4-field motion detection algorithms can be seen from the subjective and objective experimental results of the CIF and PAL video sequences.

  15. Information-educational environment with adaptive control of learning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modjaev, A. D.; Leonova, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent years, a new scientific branch connected with the activities in social sphere management developing intensively and it is called "Social Cybernetics". In the framework of this scientific branch, theory and methods of management of social sphere are formed. Considerable attention is paid to the management, directly in real time. However, the decision of such management tasks is largely constrained by the lack of or insufficiently deep study of the relevant sections of the theory and methods of management. The article discusses the use of cybernetic principles in solving problems of control in social systems. Applying to educational activities a model of composite interrelated objects representing the behaviour of students at various stages of educational process is introduced. Statistical processing of experimental data obtained during the actual learning process is being done. If you increase the number of features used, additionally taking into account the degree and nature of variability of levels of current progress of students during various types of studies, new properties of students' grouping are discovered. L-clusters were identified, reflecting the behaviour of learners with similar characteristics during lectures. It was established that the characteristics of the clusters contain information about the dynamics of learners' behaviour, allowing them to be used in additional lessons. The ways of solving the problem of adaptive control based on the identified dynamic characteristics of the learners are planned.

  16. Adaptive enhancement of optical fringe patterns by selective reconstruction using FABEMD algorithm and Hilbert spiral transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof; Wielgus, Maciej

    2012-10-08

    Presented method for fringe pattern enhancement has been designed for processing and analyzing low quality fringe patterns. It uses a modified fast and adaptive bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (FABEMD) for the extraction of bidimensional intrinsic mode functions (BIMFs) from an interferogram. Fringe pattern is then selectively reconstructed (SR) taking the regions of selected BIMFs with high modulation values only. Amplitude demodulation and normalization of the reconstructed image is conducted using the spiral phase Hilbert transform (HS). It has been tested using computer generated interferograms and real data. The performance of the presented SR-FABEMD-HS method is compared with other normalization techniques. Its superiority, potential and robustness to high fringe density variations and the presence of noise, modulation and background illumination defects in analyzed fringe patterns has been corroborated.

  17. Local binary pattern variants-based adaptive texture features analysis for posed and nonposed facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Maryam; Bhatti, Naeem; Javed, Sajid; Jung, Soon Ki

    2017-09-01

    Facial expression recognition (FER) is an important task for various computer vision applications. The task becomes challenging when it requires the detection and encoding of macro- and micropatterns of facial expressions. We present a two-stage texture feature extraction framework based on the local binary pattern (LBP) variants and evaluate its significance in recognizing posed and nonposed facial expressions. We focus on the parametric limitations of the LBP variants and investigate their effects for optimal FER. The size of the local neighborhood is an important parameter of the LBP technique for its extraction in images. To make the LBP adaptive, we exploit the granulometric information of the facial images to find the local neighborhood size for the extraction of center-symmetric LBP (CS-LBP) features. Our two-stage texture representations consist of an LBP variant and the adaptive CS-LBP features. Among the presented two-stage texture feature extractions, the binarized statistical image features and adaptive CS-LBP features were found showing high FER rates. Evaluation of the adaptive texture features shows competitive and higher performance than the nonadaptive features and other state-of-the-art approaches, respectively.

  18. Internet-usage patterns of immigrants in the process of intercultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates Internet-usage patterns of immigrants, and seeks to identify the correlation between Internet use and intercultural adaptation. The study focuses on mainland Chinese immigrants in Singapore, and was conducted via a nationwide telephone survey. The results show that immigrants tend to change their preferences on Internet use to reflect their residence in the host country. In particular, the longer an immigrant resides in the host country, the less likely they would be to surf their original country's websites and the more likely they would be to communicate with local people via the Internet. More importantly, differences in Internet usage are found to have a significant impact on immigrants' intercultural adaptation. In an online environment, the social communication in the host country is a critical component that can facilitate or impede immigrants' successful adaptation to the host country, whereas ethnic social communication also plays a role at the initial stage of transition.

  19. Firing patterns in the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Richard; Marcille, Nicolas; Clopath, Claudia; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2008-11-01

    For simulations of large spiking neuron networks, an accurate, simple and versatile single-neuron modeling framework is required. Here we explore the versatility of a simple two-equation model: the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron. We show that this model generates multiple firing patterns depending on the choice of parameter values, and present a phase diagram describing the transition from one firing type to another. We give an analytical criterion to distinguish between continuous adaption, initial bursting, regular bursting and two types of tonic spiking. Also, we report that the deterministic model is capable of producing irregular spiking when stimulated with constant current, indicating low-dimensional chaos. Lastly, the simple model is fitted to real experiments of cortical neurons under step current stimulation. The results provide support for the suitability of simple models such as the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire neuron for large network simulations.

  20. Arabidopsis roots and shoots show distinct temporal adaptation patterns toward nitrogen starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Anne; Berthomé, Richard; Orsel, Mathilde; Mercey-Boutet, Stéphanie; Yu, Agnes; Castaings, Loren; Elftieh, Samira; Major, Hilary; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plants. N levels in soil vary widely, and plants have developed strategies to cope with N deficiency. However, the regulation of these adaptive responses and the coordinating signals that underlie them are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize N starvation in adult Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants in a spatiotemporal manner by an integrative, multilevel global approach analyzing growth, metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcript levels. We determined that the remobilization of N and carbon compounds to the growing roots occurred long before the internal N stores became depleted. A global metabolite analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed organ-specific differences in the metabolic adaptation to complete N starvation, for example, for several tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, but also for carbohydrates, secondary products, and phosphate. The activities of central N metabolism enzymes and the capacity for nitrate uptake adapted to N starvation by favoring N remobilization and by increasing the high-affinity nitrate uptake capacity after long-term starvation. Changes in the transcriptome confirmed earlier studies and added a new dimension by revealing specific spatiotemporal patterns and several unknown N starvation-regulated genes, including new predicted small RNA genes. No global correlation between metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcripts was evident. However, this multilevel spatiotemporal global study revealed numerous new patterns of adaptation mechanisms to N starvation. In the context of a sustainable agriculture, this work will give new insight for the production of crops with increased N use efficiency.

  1. Typologies and precursors of career adaptability patterns among emerging adults: a seven-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Vasalampi, Kati; Barr, Tamuz; Livne, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Pratt, Michael W

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined career adaptability in 100 Israeli emerging adults who were followed from ages 22 to 29. Participants were given an in depth interview and were asked to talk about their current work, difficulties they might have had in the past and how they coped with them. In addition they were asked to elaborate on the extent to which their job fits their interests and is meaningful to them. Analyses of interviews yielded three distinctive career adaptability patterns that were associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Integrated, Compromised, and Vague. A lower level of identified motivation measured seven years earlier predicted membership in the Compromised pattern. A higher level of extrinsic motivation combined with decreased parental support predicted membership in the Vague pattern. Findings are discussed within the framework of the occupational adaptations and compromises that young people must make when approaching the age of 30. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of the information content of patterns: an algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemi, M. Farhang; Beurle, R. L.

    1991-12-01

    A preliminary investigation confirmed the possibility of assessing the translational and rotational information content of simple artificial images. The calculation is tedious, and for more realistic patterns it is essential to implement the method on a computer. This paper describes an algorithm developed for this purpose which confirms the results of the preliminary investigation. Use of the algorithm facilitates much more comprehensive analysis of the combined effect of continuous rotation and fine translation, and paves the way for analysis of more realistic patterns. Owing to the volume of calculation involved in these algorithms, extensive computing facilities were necessary. The major part of the work was carried out using an ICL 3900 series mainframe computer as well as other powerful workstations such as a RISC architecture MIPS machine.

  3. Molecular evolution of rbcL in three gymnosperm families: identifying adaptive and coevolutionary patterns

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sen, Lin

    2011-06-03

    mutations put forward the conclusion that this evolutionary scenario has been possible through a complex interplay between adaptive mutations, often structurally destabilizing, and compensatory mutations. Our results unearth patterns of evolution that have likely optimized the Rubisco activity and uncover mutational dynamics useful in the molecular engineering of enzymatic activities. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Prof. Christian Blouin (nominated by Dr W Ford Doolittle), Dr Endre Barta (nominated by Dr Sandor Pongor), and Dr Nicolas Galtier.

  4. From epidemics to information propagation : Striking differences in structurally similar adaptive network models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajanovski, S.; Guo, D.; Van Mieghem, P.F.A.

    2015-01-01

    The continuous-time adaptive susceptible-infected-susceptible (ASIS) epidemic model and the adaptive information diffusion (AID) model are two adaptive spreading processes on networks, in which a link in the network changes depending on the infectious state of its end nodes, but in opposite ways:

  5. Awareness Becomes Necessary Between Adaptive Pattern Coding of Open and Closed Curvatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Visual pattern processing becomes increasingly complex along the ventral pathway, from the low-level coding of local orientation in the primary visual cortex to the high-level coding of face identity in temporal visual areas. Previous research using pattern aftereffects as a psychophysical tool to measure activation of adaptive feature coding has suggested that awareness is relatively unimportant for the coding of orientation, but awareness is crucial for the coding of face identity. We investigated where along the ventral visual pathway awareness becomes crucial for pattern coding. Monoptic masking, which interferes with neural spiking activity in low-level processing while preserving awareness of the adaptor, eliminated open-curvature aftereffects but preserved closed-curvature aftereffects. In contrast, dichoptic masking, which spares spiking activity in low-level processing while wiping out awareness, preserved open-curvature aftereffects but eliminated closed-curvature aftereffects. This double dissociation suggests that adaptive coding of open and closed curvatures straddles the divide between weakly and strongly awareness-dependent pattern coding. PMID:21690314

  6. Improved Information Retrieval Performance on SQL Database Using Data Adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husni, M.; Djanali, S.; Ciptaningtyas, H. T.; Wicaksana, I. G. N. A.

    2018-02-01

    The NoSQL databases, short for Not Only SQL, are increasingly being used as the number of big data applications increases. Most systems still use relational databases (RDBs), but as the number of data increases each year, the system handles big data with NoSQL databases to analyze and access data more quickly. NoSQL emerged as a result of the exponential growth of the internet and the development of web applications. The query syntax in the NoSQL database differs from the SQL database, therefore requiring code changes in the application. Data adapter allow applications to not change their SQL query syntax. Data adapters provide methods that can synchronize SQL databases with NotSQL databases. In addition, the data adapter provides an interface which is application can access to run SQL queries. Hence, this research applied data adapter system to synchronize data between MySQL database and Apache HBase using direct access query approach, where system allows application to accept query while synchronization process in progress. From the test performed using data adapter, the results obtained that the data adapter can synchronize between SQL databases, MySQL, and NoSQL database, Apache HBase. This system spends the percentage of memory resources in the range of 40% to 60%, and the percentage of processor moving from 10% to 90%. In addition, from this system also obtained the performance of database NoSQL better than SQL database.

  7. The Influence of Auditory Information on Visual Size Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Alessia; Cuturi, Luigi F; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Size perception can be influenced by several visual cues, such as spatial (e.g., depth or vergence) and temporal contextual cues (e.g., adaptation to steady visual stimulation). Nevertheless, perception is generally multisensory and other sensory modalities, such as auditory, can contribute to the functional estimation of the size of objects. In this study, we investigate whether auditory stimuli at different sound pitches can influence visual size perception after visual adaptation. To this aim, we used an adaptation paradigm (Pooresmaeili et al., 2013) in three experimental conditions: visual-only, visual-sound at 100 Hz and visual-sound at 9,000 Hz. We asked participants to judge the size of a test stimulus in a size discrimination task. First, we obtained a baseline for all conditions. In the visual-sound conditions, the auditory stimulus was concurrent to the test stimulus. Secondly, we repeated the task by presenting an adapter (twice as big as the reference stimulus) before the test stimulus. We replicated the size aftereffect in the visual-only condition: the test stimulus was perceived smaller than its physical size. The new finding is that we found the auditory stimuli have an effect on the perceived size of the test stimulus after visual adaptation: low frequency sound decreased the effect of visual adaptation, making the stimulus perceived bigger compared to the visual-only condition, and contrarily, the high frequency sound had the opposite effect, making the test size perceived even smaller.

  8. Extracting principles for information management adaptability during crisis response : A dynamic capability view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    During crises, relief agency commanders have to make decisions in a complex and uncertain environment, requiring them to continuously adapt to unforeseen environmental changes. In the process of adaptation, the commanders depend on information management systems for information. Yet there are still

  9. On the Automated Synthesis of Enterprise Integration Patterns to Adapt Choreography-based Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Autili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Future Internet is becoming a reality, providing a large-scale computing environments where a virtually infinite number of available services can be composed so to fit users' needs. Modern service-oriented applications will be more and more often built by reusing and assembling distributed services. A key enabler for this vision is then the ability to automatically compose and dynamically coordinate software services. Service choreographies are an emergent Service Engineering (SE approach to compose together and coordinate services in a distributed way. When mismatching third-party services are to be composed, obtaining the distributed coordination and adaptation logic required to suitably realize a choreography is a non-trivial and error prone task. Automatic support is then needed. In this direction, this paper leverages previous work on the automatic synthesis of choreography-based systems, and describes our preliminary steps towards exploiting Enterprise Integration Patterns to deal with a form of choreography adaptation.

  10. Needs-adapted Data Presentation in e-Information Tools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (iii) Lexicography is a genuine part of information science and can use theories and learn from practice in the information society, but it also needs special theories for lexicography. It is the third opinion we will maintain in this paper by discussing the information needs in the information society and partly using the function ...

  11. Adaptive Patterns of Mitogenome Evolution Are Associated with the Loss of Shell Scutes in Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Tibisay; Weadick, Cameron J; Antunes, Agostinho

    2017-10-01

    The mitochondrial genome encodes several protein components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway and is critical for aerobic respiration. These proteins have evolved adaptively in many taxa, but linking molecular-level patterns with higher-level attributes (e.g., morphology, physiology) remains a challenge. Turtles are a promising system for exploring mitochondrial genome evolution as different species face distinct respiratory challenges and employ multiple strategies for ensuring efficient respiration. One prominent adaptation to a highly aquatic lifestyle in turtles is the secondary loss of keratenized shell scutes (i.e., soft-shells), which is associated with enhanced swimming ability and, in some species, cutaneous respiration. We used codon models to examine patterns of selection on mitochondrial protein-coding genes along the three turtle lineages that independently evolved soft-shells. We found strong evidence for positive selection along the branches leading to the pig-nosed turtle (Carettochelys insculpta) and the softshells clade (Trionychidae), but only weak evidence for the leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) branch. Positively selected sites were found to be particularly prevalent in OXPHOS Complex I proteins, especially subunit ND2, along both positively selected lineages, consistent with convergent adaptive evolution. Structural analysis showed that many of the identified sites are within key regions or near residues involved in proton transport, indicating that positive selection may have precipitated substantial changes in mitochondrial function. Overall, our study provides evidence that physiological challenges associated with adaptation to a highly aquatic lifestyle have shaped the evolution of the turtle mitochondrial genome in a lineage-specific manner. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Information processing in patterned magnetic nanostructures with edge spin waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Antonio; Robledo Moreno, Javier; Guslienko, Konstantin Y; Aliev, Farkhad G

    2017-07-17

    Low dissipation data processing with spins is one of the promising directions for future information and communication technologies. Despite a significant progress, the available magnonic devices are not broadband yet and have restricted capabilities to redirect spin waves. Here we propose a breakthrough approach to spin wave manipulation in patterned magnetic nanostructures with unmatched characteristics, which exploits a spin wave analogue to edge waves propagating along a water-wall boundary. Using theory, micromagnetic simulations and experiment we investigate spin waves propagating along the edges in magnetic structures, under an in-plane DC magnetic field inclined with respect to the edge. The proposed edge spin waves overcome important challenges faced by previous technologies such as the manipulation of the spin wave propagation direction, and they substantially improve the capability of transmitting information at frequencies exceeding 10 GHz. The concept of the edge spin waves allows to design a broad of logic devices such as splitters, interferometers, or edge spin wave transistors with unprecedented characteristics and a potentially strong impact on information technologies.

  13. Spiritual well-being in individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome: relationships with symptom pattern variability, uncertainty, and psychosocial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Cheryl; Johnson, Mary; Zeller, Janice M; Fogg, Louis; Zetterlund, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationships among symptom pattern variability, uncertainty, spiritual well-being, and psychosocial adaptation in individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A survey design was used with 58 individuals with FMS. The Fibromyalgia Symptom Pattern Questionnaire, Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale--Community Form, Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self Report were used to collect data. Positive relationships were found between symptom pattern variability and uncertainty and between uncertainty and poor psychosocial adaptation; spiritual well-being moderated the relationship between uncertainty and psychosocial adaptation. A positive sense of well-being aided adaptation to symptoms and uncertainties of FMS. Spiritual well-being had a greater effect on the relationship between symptom pattern variability and uncertainty than expected.

  14. Health Information Research Platform (HIReP)--an architecture pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiweis, Björn; Schneider, Gerd; Eichner, Theresia; Bergh, Björn; Heinze, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Secondary use or single source is still far from routine in healthcare, although lots of data are available either structured or unstructured. As data are stored in multiple systems, using them for biomedical research is difficult. Clinical data warehouses already help overcoming this issue, but currently they are only used for certain parts of biomedical research. A comprehensive research platform based on a generic architecture pattern could increase the benefits of existing data warehouses for both patient care and research by meeting two objectives: serving as a so called single point-of-truth and acting as a mediator between them strengthening interaction and close collaboration. Another effect is to reduce boundaries for the implementation of data warehouses. Taking further settings into account the architecture of a clinical data warehouse supporting patient care and biomedical research needs to be integrated with biomaterial banks and other sources. This work provides a solution conceptualizing a comprehensive architecture pattern of a Health Information Research Platform (HIReP) derived from use cases of the patient care and biomedical research domain. It serves as single IT infrastructure providing solutions for any type of use case.

  15. A Dynamic and Adaptive Selection Radar Tracking Method Based on Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the battlefield environment has become much more complex and variable. This paper presents a quantitative method and lower bound for the amount of target information acquired from multiple radar observations to adaptively and dynamically organize the detection of battlefield resources based on the principle of information entropy. Furthermore, for minimizing the given information entropy’s lower bound for target measurement at every moment, a method to dynamically and adaptively select radars with a high amount of information for target tracking is proposed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method has higher tracking accuracy than that of tracking without adaptive radar selection based on entropy.

  16. Needs-adapted Data Presentation in e-Information Tools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Business, Aarhus, Denmark (hb@asb.dk) and extraordinary professor,. Department of ... Lexicography is a genuine part of information science and can use theories and learn from practice in the .... Different information needs over time.

  17. Adaptive Information Access on Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    information is challenged by dynamic nature of information elements. These challenges are more prominent in case of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, as the information that the sensor node collects are mostly dynamic in nature (say, temperature). Therefore, it is likely that there can be a mismatch...

  18. Between theory and quantification: An integrated analysis of metabolic patterns of informal urban settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacic, Zora; Giampietro, Mario

    2017-01-01

    As informal urban settlements grow in size and population across the developing world, the issue of how to design and implement effective policies to provide for the needs and the aspirations of dwellers becomes ever more pressing. This paper addresses the challenge of how to characterise in quantitative terms the complex and fast-changing phenomenon of informal urban settlements without falling into oversimplification and a narrow focus on the material deficits of informal settlements. Energy policies are taken as an example to illustrate the shortcomings of oversimplification in producing policy relevant information. We adopt a semantically open representation of informal settlements that can capture the diversity of adaptive strategies used by different settlement typologies, based on the societal metabolism approach. Results show that as settlements grow in size and complexity, they remain economically and politically marginalised and fail to integrate into the city. We argue that in the case of energy policy, the analysis must go beyond the definition of problems such as access to energy at the level of the individual, and focus on a multi-scale assessment including the household and community levels studying the capacity of the household to increase it energy throughput through exosomatic devices and infrastructure. - Highlights: • The policy challenges of fast changing informal urban settlements are assessed. • Metabolic patterns are used to assess and compare different typologies of slums. • Semantically open representations are used to capture the complexity of slums.

  19. HIERARCHICAL ADAPTIVE ROOD PATTERN SEARCH FOR MOTION ESTIMATION AT VIDEO SEQUENCE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Nguyen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with the motion estimation algorithms for the analysis of video sequences in compression standards MPEG-4 Visual and H.264. Anew algorithm has been offered based on the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithms. Method. Thealgorithm is called hierarchical adaptive rood pattern search (Hierarchical ARPS, HARPS. This new algorithm includes the classic adaptive rood pattern search ARPS and hierarchical search MP (Hierarchical search or Mean pyramid. All motion estimation algorithms have been implemented using MATLAB package and tested with several video sequences. Main Results. The criteria for evaluating the algorithms were: speed, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error and mean absolute deviation. The proposed method showed a much better performance at a comparable error and deviation. The peak signal to noise ratio in different video sequences shows better and worse results than characteristics of known algorithms so it requires further investigation. Practical Relevance. Application of this algorithm in MPEG-4 and H.264 codecs instead of the standard can significantly reduce compression time. This feature enables to recommend it in telecommunication systems for multimedia data storing, transmission and processing.

  20. Action recognition and movement direction discrimination tasks are associated with different adaptation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eDe La Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to discriminate between different actions is essential for action recognition and social interaction. Surprisingly previous research has often probed action recognition mechanisms with tasks that did not require participants to discriminate between actions, e.g. left-right direction discrimination tasks. It is not known to what degree visual processes in direction discrimination tasks are also involved in the discrimination of actions, e.g. when telling apart a handshake from a high-five. Here, we examined whether action discrimination is influenced by movement direction and whether direction discrimination depends on the type of action. We used an action adaptation paradigm to target action and direction discrimination specific visual processes. In separate conditions participants visually adapted to forward and backward moving handshake and high-five actions. Participants subsequently either categorized the action or the movement direction of an ambiguous action. The results showed that direction discrimination adaptation effects were modulated by the type of action but action discrimination adaptation effects were unaffected by movement direction. These results suggest that action discrimination and direction categorization rely on partly different visual information. We propose that action discrimination tasks should be considered for the exploration of visual action recognition mechanisms.

  1. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  2. Characterizing the Networks of Digital Information that Support Collaborative Adaptive Forest Management in Sierra Nevada Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shufei; Iles, Alastair; Kelly, Maggi

    2015-07-01

    Some of the factors that can contribute to the success of collaborative adaptive management—such as social learning, open communication, and trust—are built upon a foundation of the open exchange of information about science and management between participants and the public. Despite the importance of information transparency, the use and flow of information in collaborative adaptive management has not been characterized in detail in the literature, and currently there exist opportunities to develop strategies for increasing the exchange of information, as well as to track information flow in such contexts. As digital information channels and networks have been increased over the last decade, powerful new information monitoring tools have also been evolved allowing for the complete characterization of information products through their production, transport, use, and monitoring. This study uses these tools to investigate the use of various science and management information products in a case study—the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project—using a mixed method (citation analysis, web analytics, and content analysis) research approach borrowed from the information processing and management field. The results from our case study show that information technologies greatly facilitate the flow and use of digital information, leading to multiparty collaborations such as knowledge transfer and public participation in science research. We conclude with recommendations for expanding information exchange in collaborative adaptive management by taking advantage of available information technologies and networks.

  3. Characterizing the Networks of Digital Information that Support Collaborative Adaptive Forest Management in Sierra Nevada Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shufei; Iles, Alastair; Kelly, Maggi

    2015-07-01

    Some of the factors that can contribute to the success of collaborative adaptive management--such as social learning, open communication, and trust--are built upon a foundation of the open exchange of information about science and management between participants and the public. Despite the importance of information transparency, the use and flow of information in collaborative adaptive management has not been characterized in detail in the literature, and currently there exist opportunities to develop strategies for increasing the exchange of information, as well as to track information flow in such contexts. As digital information channels and networks have been increased over the last decade, powerful new information monitoring tools have also been evolved allowing for the complete characterization of information products through their production, transport, use, and monitoring. This study uses these tools to investigate the use of various science and management information products in a case study--the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project--using a mixed method (citation analysis, web analytics, and content analysis) research approach borrowed from the information processing and management field. The results from our case study show that information technologies greatly facilitate the flow and use of digital information, leading to multiparty collaborations such as knowledge transfer and public participation in science research. We conclude with recommendations for expanding information exchange in collaborative adaptive management by taking advantage of available information technologies and networks.

  4. Detecting consistent patterns of directional adaptation using differential selection codon models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, Sahar; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2017-06-23

    Phylogenetic codon models are often used to characterize the selective regimes acting on protein-coding sequences. Recent methodological developments have led to models explicitly accounting for the interplay between mutation and selection, by modeling the amino acid fitness landscape along the sequence. However, thus far, most of these models have assumed that the fitness landscape is constant over time. Fluctuations of the fitness landscape may often be random or depend on complex and unknown factors. However, some organisms may be subject to systematic changes in selective pressure, resulting in reproducible molecular adaptations across independent lineages subject to similar conditions. Here, we introduce a codon-based differential selection model, which aims to detect and quantify the fine-grained consistent patterns of adaptation at the protein-coding level, as a function of external conditions experienced by the organism under investigation. The model parameterizes the global mutational pressure, as well as the site- and condition-specific amino acid selective preferences. This phylogenetic model is implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework. After validation with simulations, we applied our method to a dataset of HIV sequences from patients with known HLA genetic background. Our differential selection model detects and characterizes differentially selected coding positions specifically associated with two different HLA alleles. Our differential selection model is able to identify consistent molecular adaptations as a function of repeated changes in the environment of the organism. These models can be applied to many other problems, ranging from viral adaptation to evolution of life-history strategies in plants or animals.

  5. Needs Adapted Data Presentation in e-Information Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bothma, Theo

    2011-01-01

    In the current debate about the status of lexicography there are at least three quite different opinions: 1. Lexicography does not have and does not need any kind of own theory but can use all relevant linguistic theories; 2. Lexicography needs a theory special for the lexicographical praxis, but...... needs in the information society partly using the function theory of lexicography. The paper will briefly address issues regarding information overload and information stress showing how commercial systems try to address this by means of relevance ranking based on system relevance....

  6. Removal of spike frequency adaptation via neuromodulation intrinsic to the Tritonia escape swim central pattern generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S; Frost, W N

    1997-10-15

    For the mollusc Tritonia diomedea to generate its escape swim motor pattern, interneuron C2, a crucial member of the central pattern generator (CPG) for this rhythmic behavior, must fire repetitive bursts of action potentials. Yet, before swimming, repeated depolarizing current pulses injected into C2 at periods similar those in the swim motor program are incapable of mimicking the firing rate attained by C2 on each cycle of a swim motor program. This resting level of C2 inexcitability is attributable to its own inherent spike frequency adaptation (SFA). Clearly, this property must be altered for the swim behavior to occur. The pathway for initiation of the swimming behavior involves activation of the serotonergic dorsal swim interneurons (DSIs), which are also intrinsic members of the swim CPG. Physiologically appropriate DSI stimulation transiently decreases C2 SFA, allowing C2 to fire at higher rates even when repeatedly depolarized at short intervals. The increased C2 excitability caused by DSI stimulation is mimicked and occluded by serotonin application. Furthermore, the change in excitability is not caused by the depolarization associated with DSI stimulation or serotonin application but is correlated with a decrease in C2 spike afterhyperpolarization. This suggests that the DSIs use serotonin to evoke a neuromodulatory action on a conductance in C2 that regulates its firing rate. This modulatory action of one CPG neuron on another is likely to play a role in configuring the swim circuit into its rhythmic pattern-generating mode and maintaining it in that state.

  7. Adaptive plasticity in speech perception: Effects of external information and internal predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, Sara; Fiez, Julie A; Holt, Lori L

    2016-07-01

    When listeners encounter speech under adverse listening conditions, adaptive adjustments in perception can improve comprehension over time. In some cases, these adaptive changes require the presence of external information that disambiguates the distorted speech signals, whereas in other cases mere exposure is sufficient. Both external (e.g., written feedback) and internal (e.g., prior word knowledge) sources of information can be used to generate predictions about the correct mapping of a distorted speech signal. We hypothesize that these predictions provide a basis for determining the discrepancy between the expected and actual speech signal that can be used to guide adaptive changes in perception. This study provides the first empirical investigation that manipulates external and internal factors through (a) the availability of explicit external disambiguating information via the presence or absence of postresponse orthographic information paired with a repetition of the degraded stimulus, and (b) the accuracy of internally generated predictions; an acoustic distortion is introduced either abruptly or incrementally. The results demonstrate that the impact of external information on adaptive plasticity is contingent upon whether the intelligibility of the stimuli permits accurate internally generated predictions during exposure. External information sources enhance adaptive plasticity only when input signals are severely degraded and cannot reliably access internal predictions. This is consistent with a computational framework for adaptive plasticity in which error-driven supervised learning relies on the ability to compute sensory prediction error signals from both internal and external sources of information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

    1994-01-01

    Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

  9. Health Information Exchange as a Complex and Adaptive Construct: Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather Akhlaq

    2017-01-01

    The concept of HIE is an evolving and adaptive one, reflecting the ongoing quest for integrated and interoperable information to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health systems, in a changing technological and policy environment.

  10. An Information Theoretic Investigation Of Complex Adaptive Supply Networks With Organizational Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    for the global pattern. A network view has proven useful in modeling a supply - chain for patterns of interaction. Queuing theory can be used to...phenomena. Second, operations management and supply - chain management lack metrics for evolution and dynamism in supply networks. Third, developing...robust theories in the presence of 14 adaptation is a formidable task. Supply - chain management theory can be built by identifying CAS phenomena and

  11. Climate change adaptation in informal settings: Understanding and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    People living in informal urban settings in Latin America and the Caribbean are ... by formal institutions in small- and medium-sized cities in Latin America and the ... the protection of humans and the built environment from water, and income ... for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), IDRC is pleased to ...

  12. Fair and adaptive data dissemination for traffic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Ohazulike, Anthony; Sommer, Christoph; Scholten, Johan; Dressler, Falko; Havinga, Paul J.M.; IEEE,

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to serve as support to the development of not only safety applications but also information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. Due to the continuous collection, processing, and dissemination of data, one crucial requirement

  13. Adapting the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System to OGC standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2010-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) provides web and desktop client access to hydrologic observations via water data web services using an XML schema called “WaterML”. The WaterML 1.x specification and the corresponding Water Data Services have been the backbone of the HIS service-oriented architecture (SOA) and have been adopted for serving hydrologic data by several federal agencies and many academic groups. The central discovery service, HIS Central, is based on an metadata catalog that references 4.7 billion observations, organized as 23 million data series from 1.5 million sites from 51 organizations. Observations data are published using HydroServer nodes that have been deployed at 18 organizations. Usage of HIS has increased by 8x from 2008 to 2010, and doubled in usage from 1600 data series a day in 2009 to 3600 data series a day in the first half of 2010. The HIS central metadata catalog currently harvests information from 56 Water Data Services. We collaborate on the catalog updates with two federal partners, USGS and US EPA: their data series are periodically reloaded into the HIS metadata catalog. We are pursuing two main development directions in the HIS project: Cloud-based computing, and further compliance with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The goal of moving to cloud-computing is to provide a scalable collaborative system with a simpler deployment and less dependence of hardware maintenance and staff. This move requires re-architecting the information models underlying the metadata catalog, and Water Data Services to be independent of the underlying relational database model, allowing for implementation on both relational databases, and cloud-based processing systems. Cloud-based HIS central resources can be managed collaboratively; partners share responsibility for their metadata by publishing data series information into the centralized catalog. Publishing data series will use REST-based service interfaces, like OData

  14. Pervasive adaptive protein evolution apparent in diversity patterns around amino acid substitutions in Drosophila simulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Sattath

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, multiple lines of evidence converge in suggesting that beneficial substitutions to the genome may be common. All suffer from confounding factors, however, such that the interpretation of the evidence-in particular, conclusions about the rate and strength of beneficial substitutions-remains tentative. Here, we use genome-wide polymorphism data in D. simulans and sequenced genomes of its close relatives to construct a readily interpretable characterization of the effects of positive selection: the shape of average neutral diversity around amino acid substitutions. As expected under recurrent selective sweeps, we find a trough in diversity levels around amino acid but not around synonymous substitutions, a distinctive pattern that is not expected under alternative models. This characterization is richer than previous approaches, which relied on limited summaries of the data (e.g., the slope of a scatter plot, and relates to underlying selection parameters in a straightforward way, allowing us to make more reliable inferences about the prevalence and strength of adaptation. Specifically, we develop a coalescent-based model for the shape of the entire curve and use it to infer adaptive parameters by maximum likelihood. Our inference suggests that ∼13% of amino acid substitutions cause selective sweeps. Interestingly, it reveals two classes of beneficial fixations: a minority (approximately 3% that appears to have had large selective effects and accounts for most of the reduction in diversity, and the remaining 10%, which seem to have had very weak selective effects. These estimates therefore help to reconcile the apparent conflict among previously published estimates of the strength of selection. More generally, our findings provide unequivocal evidence for strongly beneficial substitutions in Drosophila and illustrate how the rapidly accumulating genome-wide data can be leveraged to address enduring questions about the genetic basis

  15. Pervasive adaptive protein evolution apparent in diversity patterns around amino acid substitutions in Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattath, Shmuel; Elyashiv, Eyal; Kolodny, Oren; Rinott, Yosef; Sella, Guy

    2011-02-10

    In Drosophila, multiple lines of evidence converge in suggesting that beneficial substitutions to the genome may be common. All suffer from confounding factors, however, such that the interpretation of the evidence-in particular, conclusions about the rate and strength of beneficial substitutions-remains tentative. Here, we use genome-wide polymorphism data in D. simulans and sequenced genomes of its close relatives to construct a readily interpretable characterization of the effects of positive selection: the shape of average neutral diversity around amino acid substitutions. As expected under recurrent selective sweeps, we find a trough in diversity levels around amino acid but not around synonymous substitutions, a distinctive pattern that is not expected under alternative models. This characterization is richer than previous approaches, which relied on limited summaries of the data (e.g., the slope of a scatter plot), and relates to underlying selection parameters in a straightforward way, allowing us to make more reliable inferences about the prevalence and strength of adaptation. Specifically, we develop a coalescent-based model for the shape of the entire curve and use it to infer adaptive parameters by maximum likelihood. Our inference suggests that ∼13% of amino acid substitutions cause selective sweeps. Interestingly, it reveals two classes of beneficial fixations: a minority (approximately 3%) that appears to have had large selective effects and accounts for most of the reduction in diversity, and the remaining 10%, which seem to have had very weak selective effects. These estimates therefore help to reconcile the apparent conflict among previously published estimates of the strength of selection. More generally, our findings provide unequivocal evidence for strongly beneficial substitutions in Drosophila and illustrate how the rapidly accumulating genome-wide data can be leveraged to address enduring questions about the genetic basis of adaptation.

  16. Contraceptive security, information flow, and local adaptations: family planning Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandani, Y; Breton, G

    2001-12-01

    Many developing countries increasingly recognize and acknowledge family planning as a critical part of socio-economic development. However, with few health dollars to go around, countries tend to provide essential drugs for curative care, rather than for family planning products. Donors have historically provided free contraceptives for family planning services. Whether products are donated or purchased by the country, a successful family planning program depends on an uninterrupted supply of products, beginning with the manufacturer and ending with the customer. Any break in the supply chain may cause a family planning program to fail. A well-functioning logistics system can manage the supply chain and ensure that the customers have the products they need, when they need them. Morocco was selected for the case study. The researchers had ready access to key informants and information about the Logistics Management Information System. Because the study had time and resource constraints, research included desktop reviews and interview, rather than data collection in the field. The case study showed that even in a challenging environment an LMIS can be successfully deployed and fully supported by the users. It is critical to customize the system to a country-specific situation to ensure buy-in for the implementation. Significant external support funding and technical expertise are critical components to ensure the initial success of the system. Nonetheless, evidence from the case study shows that, after a system has been implemented, the benefits may not ensure its institutionalization. Other support, including local funding and technical expertise, is required.

  17. Contrasting Patterns of Coral Bleaching Susceptibility in 2010 Suggest an Adaptive Response to Thermal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, James R.; Baird, Andrew H.; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Muttaqin, Efin; Edwards, Alasdair J.; Campbell, Stuart J.; Yewdall, Katie; Affendi, Yang Amri; Chou, Loke Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral bleaching events vary in severity, however, to date, the hierarchy of susceptibility to bleaching among coral taxa has been consistent over a broad geographic range and among bleaching episodes. Here we examine the extent of spatial and temporal variation in thermal tolerance among scleractinian coral taxa and between locations during the 2010 thermally induced, large-scale bleaching event in South East Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings Surveys to estimate the bleaching and mortality indices of coral genera were carried out at three locations with contrasting thermal and bleaching histories. Despite the magnitude of thermal stress being similar among locations in 2010, there was a remarkable contrast in the patterns of bleaching susceptibility. Comparisons of bleaching susceptibility within coral taxa and among locations revealed no significant differences between locations with similar thermal histories, but significant differences between locations with contrasting thermal histories (Friedman = 34.97; pSingapore, where only 5% and 12% of colonies died. Conclusions/Significance The pattern of susceptibility among coral genera documented here is unprecedented. A parsimonious explanation for these results is that coral populations that bleached during the last major warming event in 1998 have adapted and/or acclimatised to thermal stress. These data also lend support to the hypothesis that corals in regions subject to more variable temperature regimes are more resistant to thermal stress than those in less variable environments. PMID:22428027

  18. Star pattern recognition algorithm aided by inertial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao; Wang, Ke-dong; Zhang, Chao

    2011-08-01

    Star pattern recognition is one of the key problems of the celestial navigation. The traditional star pattern recognition approaches, such as the triangle algorithm and the star angular distance algorithm, are a kind of all-sky matching method whose recognition speed is slow and recognition success rate is not high. Therefore, the real time and reliability of CNS (Celestial Navigation System) is reduced to some extent, especially for the maneuvering spacecraft. However, if the direction of the camera optical axis can be estimated by other navigation systems such as INS (Inertial Navigation System), the star pattern recognition can be fulfilled in the vicinity of the estimated direction of the optical axis. The benefits of the INS-aided star pattern recognition algorithm include at least the improved matching speed and the improved success rate. In this paper, the direction of the camera optical axis, the local matching sky, and the projection of stars on the image plane are estimated by the aiding of INS firstly. Then, the local star catalog for the star pattern recognition is established in real time dynamically. The star images extracted in the camera plane are matched in the local sky. Compared to the traditional all-sky star pattern recognition algorithms, the memory of storing the star catalog is reduced significantly. Finally, the INS-aided star pattern recognition algorithm is validated by simulations. The results of simulations show that the algorithm's computation time is reduced sharply and its matching success rate is improved greatly.

  19. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  20. Using Outreach and Engagement Efforts to Inform the Makah Tribe's Climate Adaptation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L. K.; Chang, M.; Howk, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Makah Tribe views climate change as one of the biggest challenges to their natural resource management, threatening their livelihoods, economy, and culture. As part of their work towards climate adaptation planning, the Makah Tribal Council and tribal natural resource managers prioritized early community outreach and engagement efforts in order to accomplish three goals: continually update and inform the tribal community about the Tribe's climate adaptation efforts; gather community input and priorities for the Makah Climate Adaptation Plan; and provide a series of targeted educational events to inform the tribal community about projected climate change impacts to our resources. Our first community climate event, the Makah Climate Change Awareness Dinner, was held on February 8, 2017. At this event, we provided an overview of the Makah Tribe's Climate Vulnerability Assessment and administered an initial climate survey that gathered information regarding community members' observed environmental changes, knowledge about climate change and impacts, and any concerns and priorities to include in the Tribe's adaptation plan. We developed a framework for incorporating community engagement into climate adaptation planning and used results of our community survey to ensure community concerns were being addressed in the plan in addition to risks identified in western science. We also used survey results to inform a series of educational events to address knowledge gaps in the community and requested topics. These are two of next steps that the Makah Tribe is pursuing towards climate adaptation planning.

  1. Selecting Informative Features of the Helicopter and Aircraft Acoustic Signals in the Adaptive Autonomous Information Systems for Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Hohlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article forms the rationale for selecting the informative features of the helicopter and aircraft acoustic signals to solve a problem of their recognition and shows that the most informative ones are the counts of extrema in the energy spectra of the input signals, which represent non-centered random variables. An apparatus of the multiple initial regression coefficients was selected as a mathematical tool of research. The application of digital re-circulators with positive and negative feedbacks, which have the comb-like frequency characteristics, solves the problem of selecting informative features. A distinguishing feature of such an approach is easy agility of the comb frequency characteristics just through the agility of a delay value of digital signal in the feedback circuit. Adding an adaptation block to the selection block of the informative features enables us to ensure the invariance of used informative feature and counts of local extrema of the spectral power density to the airspeed of a helicopter. The paper gives reasons for the principle of adaptation and the structure of the adaptation block. To form the discriminator characteristics are used the cross-correlation statistical characteristics of the quadrature components of acoustic signal realizations, obtained by Hilbert transform. The paper proposes to provide signal recognition using a regression algorithm that allows handling the non-centered informative features and using a priori information about coefficients of initial regression of signal and noise.The simulation in Matlab Simulink has shown that selected informative features of signals in regressive processing of signal realizations of 0.5 s duration have good separability, and based on a set of 100 acoustic signal realizations in each class in full-scale conditions, has proved ensuring a correct recognition probability of 0.975, at least. The considered principles of informative features selection and adaptation can

  2. Does information on the interdependence of climate adaptation measures stimulate collaboration? A case study analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Claire C.; Wal, van der Merel M.; Opdam, Paul F.M.; Coninx, Ingrid; Dewulf, Art R.P.J.; Steingröver, Eveliene G.; Stremke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    A key issue in implementing adaptation strategies at the landscape level is that landowners take measures on their land collectively. We explored the role of information in collective decision-making in a landscape planning process in the Baakse Beek region, the Netherlands. Information was provided

  3. Quantum Information Biology: From Theory of Open Quantum Systems to Adaptive Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    This chapter reviews quantum(-like) information biology (QIB). Here biology is treated widely as even covering cognition and its derivatives: psychology and decision making, sociology, and behavioral economics and finances. QIB provides an integrative description of information processing by bio-systems at all scales of life: from proteins and cells to cognition, ecological and social systems. Mathematically QIB is based on the theory of adaptive quantum systems (which covers also open quantum systems). Ideologically QIB is based on the quantum-like (QL) paradigm: complex bio-systems process information in accordance with the laws of quantum information and probability. This paradigm is supported by plenty of statistical bio-data collected at all bio-scales. QIB re ects the two fundamental principles: a) adaptivity; and, b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). In addition, quantum adaptive dynamics provides the most generally possible mathematical representation of these principles.

  4. Using engineering control principles to inform the design of adaptive interventions: a conceptual introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Daniel E; Pew, Michael D; Collins, Linda M

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role that control engineering principles can play in developing and improving the efficacy of adaptive, time-varying interventions. It is demonstrated that adaptive interventions constitute a form of feedback control system in the context of behavioral health. Consequently, drawing from ideas in control engineering has the potential to significantly inform the analysis, design, and implementation of adaptive interventions, leading to improved adherence, better management of limited resources, a reduction of negative effects, and overall more effective interventions. This article illustrates how to express an adaptive intervention in control engineering terms, and how to use this framework in a computer simulation to investigate the anticipated impact of intervention design choices on efficacy. The potential benefits of operationalizing decision rules based on control engineering principles are particularly significant for adaptive interventions that involve multiple components or address co-morbidities, situations that pose significant challenges to conventional clinical practice.

  5. Use of sensitivity-information for the adaptive simulation of thermo-hydraulic system codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the scope of this thesis the development of methods for online-adaptation of dynamical plant simulations of a thermal-hydraulic system code to measurement data is depicted. The described approaches are mainly based on the use of sensitivity-information in different areas: statistical sensitivity measures are used for the identification of the parameters to be adapted and online-sensitivities for the parameter adjustment itself. For the parameter adjustment the method of a ''system-adapted heuristic adaptation with partial separation'' (SAHAT) was developed, which combines certain variants of parameter estimation and control with supporting procedures to solve the basic problems. The applicability of the methods is shown by adaptive simulations of a PKL-III experiment and by selected transients in a nuclear power plant. Finally the main perspectives for the application of a tracking simulator on a system code are identified.

  6. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  7. Adaptation of Salmonella enterica Hadar under static magnetic field: effects on outer membrane protein pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoussi Sarra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serovar Hadar (S. Hadar is a highly prevalent foodborne pathogen and therefore a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Outer membrane proteins whose production is often regulated by environmental conditions also play important roles in the adaptability of bacterial pathogens to various environments. Results The present study investigated the adaptation of S. Hadar under the effect of acute static magnetic field exposure (200 mT, 9 h and the impact on the outer membrane protein pattern. Via two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we compared the proteome of enriched-outer membrane fraction before and after exposure to a magnetic field. A total of 11 proteins, displaying more than a two-fold change, were differentially expressed in exposed cells, among which 7 were up-regulated and 4 down-regulated. These proteins were involved in the integrity of cell envelope (TolB, Pal, in the response to oxidative stress (OmpW, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, UspF, in the oxidative stress status (bacterioferritin, in virulence (OmpX, Yfgl or in motility (FlgE and UspF. Complementary experiments associated the down-regulation of FlgE and UspF with an alteration of swarming, a flagella-driven motility, under SMF. Furthermore, the antibiotic disc diffusion method confirmed a decrease of gentamicin susceptibility in exposed cells. This decrease could be partly associated with the up-regulation of TolC, outer membrane component of an efflux pump. OmpA, a multifunctional protein, was up-regulated. Conclusions SMF (200 mT seems to maintain the cell envelope integrity and to submit the exposed cells to an oxidative stress. Some alterations suggest an increase of the ability of exposed cells to form biofilms.

  8. The method of adaptation under the parameters of the subject of the information interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инесса Анатольевна Воробьёва

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the effectiveness of settings (adaptation created software and hardware on the particular subject of the method was developed for adaptation under the parameters of the subject of information interaction in the form of a set of operations to build a network dialog procedures on the basis of accounting for entry-level qualification of the subject, assessment of the current level of skills and operational restructuring of the network in accordance with the assessment of his level.

  9. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  10. Contrasting patterns of coral bleaching susceptibility in 2010 suggest an adaptive response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, James R; Baird, Andrew H; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Muttaqin, Efin; Edwards, Alasdair J; Campbell, Stuart J; Yewdall, Katie; Affendi, Yang Amri; Chou, Loke Ming

    2012-01-01

    Coral bleaching events vary in severity, however, to date, the hierarchy of susceptibility to bleaching among coral taxa has been consistent over a broad geographic range and among bleaching episodes. Here we examine the extent of spatial and temporal variation in thermal tolerance among scleractinian coral taxa and between locations during the 2010 thermally induced, large-scale bleaching event in South East Asia. Surveys to estimate the bleaching and mortality indices of coral genera were carried out at three locations with contrasting thermal and bleaching histories. Despite the magnitude of thermal stress being similar among locations in 2010, there was a remarkable contrast in the patterns of bleaching susceptibility. Comparisons of bleaching susceptibility within coral taxa and among locations revealed no significant differences between locations with similar thermal histories, but significant differences between locations with contrasting thermal histories (Friedman = 34.97; pBleaching was much less severe at locations that bleached during 1998, that had greater historical temperature variability and lower rates of warming. Remarkably, Acropora and Pocillopora, taxa that are typically highly susceptible, although among the most susceptible in Pulau Weh (Sumatra, Indonesia) where respectively, 94% and 87% of colonies died, were among the least susceptible in Singapore, where only 5% and 12% of colonies died. The pattern of susceptibility among coral genera documented here is unprecedented. A parsimonious explanation for these results is that coral populations that bleached during the last major warming event in 1998 have adapted and/or acclimatised to thermal stress. These data also lend support to the hypothesis that corals in regions subject to more variable temperature regimes are more resistant to thermal stress than those in less variable environments.

  11. Adaptation in the visual cortex: influence of membrane trajectory and neuronal firing pattern on slow afterpotentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa F Descalzo

    Full Text Available The input/output relationship in primary visual cortex neurons is influenced by the history of the preceding activity. To understand the impact that membrane potential trajectory and firing pattern has on the activation of slow conductances in cortical neurons we compared the afterpotentials that followed responses to different stimuli evoking similar numbers of action potentials. In particular, we compared afterpotentials following the intracellular injection of either square or sinusoidal currents lasting 20 seconds. Both stimuli were intracellular surrogates of different neuronal responses to prolonged visual stimulation. Recordings from 99 neurons in slices of visual cortex revealed that for stimuli evoking an equivalent number of spikes, sinusoidal current injection activated a slow afterhyperpolarization of significantly larger amplitude (8.5 ± 3.3 mV and duration (33 ± 17 s than that evoked by a square pulse (6.4 ± 3.7 mV, 28 ± 17 s; p<0.05. Spike frequency adaptation had a faster time course and was larger during plateau (square pulse than during intermittent (sinusoidal depolarizations. Similar results were obtained in 17 neurons intracellularly recorded from the visual cortex in vivo. The differences in the afterpotentials evoked with both protocols were abolished by removing calcium from the extracellular medium or by application of the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine, suggesting that the activation of a calcium-dependent current is at the base of this afterpotential difference. These findings suggest that not only the spikes, but the membrane potential values and firing patterns evoked by a particular stimulation protocol determine the responses to any subsequent incoming input in a time window that spans for tens of seconds to even minutes.

  12. Loading pattern optimization with maximum utilization of discharging fuel employing adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T. K.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to find the most economical loading pattern (LP) considering multi-cycle fuel loading, multi-objective fuel LP optimization problems are examined by employing an adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function (ACDPF) method. This is an improved method to simplify the complicated acceptance logic of the original DPF method in that the stochastic effects caused by the different random number sequence can be reduced. The effectiveness of the multi-objective simulated annealing (SA) algorithm employing ACDPF is examined for the reload core LP of Cycle 4 of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 4. Several optimization runs are performed with different numbers of objectives consisting of cycle length and average burnup of fuels to be discharged or reloaded. The candidate LPs obtained from the multi-objective optimization runs turn out to be better than the reference LP in the aspects of cycle length and utilization of given fuels. It is note that the proposed ACDPF based MOSA algorithm can be a practical method to obtain an economical LP considering multi-cycle fuel loading. (authors)

  13. Into the dark: patterns of middle ear adaptations in subterranean eulipotyphlan mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyabu, Daisuke; Hosojima, Misato; Endo, Hideki

    2017-09-01

    Evolution of the middle ear ossicles was a key innovation for mammals, enhancing the transmission of airborne sound. Radiation into various habitats from a terrestrial environment resulted in diversification of the auditory mechanisms among mammals. However, due to the paucity of phylogenetically controlled investigations, how middle ear traits have diversified with functional specialization remains unclear. In order to identify the respective patterns for various lifestyles and to gain insights into fossil forms, we employed a high-resolution tomography technique and compared the middle ear morphology of eulipotyphlan species (moles, shrews and hedgehogs), a group that has radiated into various environments, such as terrestrial, aquatic and subterranean habitats. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis was conducted within a phylogenetically controlled framework. Quantitative shapes were found to strongly reflect the degree of subterranean lifestyle and weakly involve phylogeny. Our analyses demonstrate that subterranean adaptation should include a relatively shorter anterior process of the malleus, an enlarged incus, an enlarged stapes footplate and a reduction of the orbicular apophysis. These traits arguably allow improving low-frequency sound transmission at low frequencies and inhibiting the low-frequency noise which disturbs the subterranean animals in hearing airborne sounds.

  14. Adaptation and selective information transmission in the cricket auditory neuron AN2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Wimmer

    Full Text Available Sensory systems adapt their neural code to changes in the sensory environment, often on multiple time scales. Here, we report a new form of adaptation in a first-order auditory interneuron (AN2 of crickets. We characterize the response of the AN2 neuron to amplitude-modulated sound stimuli and find that adaptation shifts the stimulus-response curves toward higher stimulus intensities, with a time constant of 1.5 s for adaptation and recovery. The spike responses were thus reduced for low-intensity sounds. We then address the question whether adaptation leads to an improvement of the signal's representation and compare the experimental results with the predictions of two competing hypotheses: infomax, which predicts that information conveyed about the entire signal range should be maximized, and selective coding, which predicts that "foreground" signals should be enhanced while "background" signals should be selectively suppressed. We test how adaptation changes the input-response curve when presenting signals with two or three peaks in their amplitude distributions, for which selective coding and infomax predict conflicting changes. By means of Bayesian data analysis, we quantify the shifts of the measured response curves and also find a slight reduction of their slopes. These decreases in slopes are smaller, and the absolute response thresholds are higher than those predicted by infomax. Most remarkably, and in contrast to the infomax principle, adaptation actually reduces the amount of encoded information when considering the whole range of input signals. The response curve changes are also not consistent with the selective coding hypothesis, because the amount of information conveyed about the loudest part of the signal does not increase as predicted but remains nearly constant. Less information is transmitted about signals with lower intensity.

  15. Adaptive pixel-to-pixel projection intensity adjustment for measuring a shiny surface using orthogonal color fringe pattern projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Gao, Nan; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement based on fringe pattern projection techniques has been commonly used in various fields. One of the remaining challenges in fringe pattern projection is that camera sensor saturation may occur if there is a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface that causes measurement errors. To overcome this problem, a novel fringe pattern projection method is proposed to avoid image saturation and maintain high-intensity modulation for measuring shiny surfaces by adaptively adjusting the pixel-to-pixel projection intensity according to the surface reflectivity. First, three sets of orthogonal color fringe patterns and a sequence of uniform gray-level patterns with different gray levels are projected onto a measured surface by a projector. The patterns are deformed with respect to the object surface and captured by a camera from a different viewpoint. Subsequently, the optimal projection intensity at each pixel is determined by fusing different gray levels and transforming the camera pixel coordinate system into the projector pixel coordinate system. Finally, the adapted fringe patterns are created and used for 3D shape measurement. Experimental results on a flat checkerboard and shiny objects demonstrate that the proposed method can measure shiny surfaces with high accuracy.

  16. Towards a Pattern Language for Adaptive Web-Based Educational Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, P.; Vogiatzis, D.; Tzanavari, A.; Retalis, S.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive Web-based Educational Systems represent an emerging technology that provides a unique advantage over traditional Web-based Educational Systems; that is the ability to adapt to the user's needs, goals, preferences etc. Adaptive Web-based Educational Systems are increasingly becoming part of

  17. Design Patterns in Adaptive Web-Based Educational Systems : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Vogiatzis, Dimitrios; Tzanavari, Aimilia; Retalis, Symeon

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive Web-based Educational Systems represent an emerging technology that provides a unique advantage over traditional Web-based Educational Systems; that is the ability to adapt to the user's needs, goals, preferences etc. Adaptive Web-based Educational Systems are increasingly becoming part of

  18. Visualization of Time-Series Sensor Data to Inform the Design of Just-In-Time Adaptive Stress Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Moushumi; Raij, Andrew; Epstien, David; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Beck, J Gayle; Vhaduri, Sudip; Preston, Kenzie; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-09-01

    We investigate needs, challenges, and opportunities in visualizing time-series sensor data on stress to inform the design of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs). We identify seven key challenges: massive volume and variety of data, complexity in identifying stressors, scalability of space, multifaceted relationship between stress and time, a need for representation at multiple granularities, interperson variability, and limited understanding of JITAI design requirements due to its novelty. We propose four new visualizations based on one million minutes of sensor data (n=70). We evaluate our visualizations with stress researchers (n=6) to gain first insights into its usability and usefulness in JITAI design. Our results indicate that spatio-temporal visualizations help identify and explain between- and within-person variability in stress patterns and contextual visualizations enable decisions regarding the timing, content, and modality of intervention. Interestingly, a granular representation is considered informative but noise-prone; an abstract representation is the preferred starting point for designing JITAIs.

  19. The State and Pattern of Health Information Technology Adoption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fonkych, Kateryna; Taylor, Roger

    2005-01-01

    ... Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR-S) and Clinical Decision Support tools, has occurred. Government intervention has been called for to speed the adoption process for Health Information Technology (HIT...

  20. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  1. Soliciting scientific information and beliefs in predictive modeling and adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are

  2. Information Quality Aware Data Collection for Adaptive Monitoring of Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    frequency during run time. The data collection system should adapt to changing dynamics of the communication network and electrical grid. This paper first introduces adaptation functionalities for the data collection mechanism. To study and analyse the influence of configuration parameters that can......Abstract. Information from existing smart metering infrastructure, mainly used for billing purposes can also be utilised to monitor and control state of the grid. To add functionalities such as fault detection and real-time state estimation, data from smart meters should be accessed with increased...... be utilised for adaptation, a two-layer smart meter data access infrastructure is presented. An information quality metric, Mismatch Probability (mmPr) is introduced for the quantitative analysis of the two-layer data access system implemented in MATLAB based discrete event simulation study....

  3. Methodology for Simulation and Analysis of Complex Adaptive Supply Network Structure and Dynamics Using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rodewald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Supply networks existing today in many industries can behave as complex adaptive systems making them more difficult to analyze and assess. Being able to fully understand both the complex static and dynamic structures of a complex adaptive supply network (CASN are key to being able to make more informed management decisions and prioritize resources and production throughout the network. Previous efforts to model and analyze CASN have been impeded by the complex, dynamic nature of the systems. However, drawing from other complex adaptive systems sciences, information theory provides a model-free methodology removing many of those barriers, especially concerning complex network structure and dynamics. With minimal information about the network nodes, transfer entropy can be used to reverse engineer the network structure while local transfer entropy can be used to analyze the network structure’s dynamics. Both simulated and real-world networks were analyzed using this methodology. Applying the methodology to CASNs allows the practitioner to capitalize on observations from the highly multidisciplinary field of information theory which provides insights into CASN’s self-organization, emergence, stability/instability, and distributed computation. This not only provides managers with a more thorough understanding of a system’s structure and dynamics for management purposes, but also opens up research opportunities into eventual strategies to monitor and manage emergence and adaption within the environment.

  4. An Attention-Information-Based Spatial Adaptation Framework for Browsing Videos via Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Houqiang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of personal digital assistant devices and smart phones, more and more consumers are becoming quite enthusiastic to appreciate videos via mobile devices. However, limited display size of the mobile devices has been imposing significant barriers for users to enjoy browsing high-resolution videos. In this paper, we present an attention-information-based spatial adaptation framework to address this problem. The whole framework includes two major parts: video content generation and video adaptation system. During video compression, the attention information in video sequences will be detected using an attention model and embedded into bitstreams with proposed supplement-enhanced information (SEI structure. Furthermore, we also develop an innovative scheme to adaptively adjust quantization parameters in order to simultaneously improve the quality of overall encoding and the quality of transcoding the attention areas. When the high-resolution bitstream is transmitted to mobile users, a fast transcoding algorithm we developed earlier will be applied to generate a new bitstream for attention areas in frames. The new low-resolution bitstream containing mostly attention information, instead of the high-resolution one, will be sent to users for display on the mobile devices. Experimental results show that the proposed spatial adaptation scheme is able to improve both subjective and objective video qualities.

  5. E-Government and Geographical Information Based Collaboration Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve an efficient e-Government many factors must be considered. In the UN e-Government Survey from 2008 a holistic approach is recommended incorporating human capacity, infrastructure development and access to information and knowledge. In the same survey Denmark is ranked second i...

  6. Social adaptation in multi-agent model of linguistic categorization is affected by network information flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubek, Julian; Denkiewicz, Michał; Barański, Juliusz; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how information flow properties of a network affect the formation of categories shared between individuals, who are communicating through that network. Our work is based on the established multi-agent model of the emergence of linguistic categories grounded in external environment. We study how network information propagation efficiency and the direction of information flow affect categorization by performing simulations with idealized network topologies optimizing certain network centrality measures. We measure dynamic social adaptation when either network topology or environment is subject to change during the experiment, and the system has to adapt to new conditions. We find that both decentralized network topology efficient in information propagation and the presence of central authority (information flow from the center to peripheries) are beneficial for the formation of global agreement between agents. Systems with central authority cope well with network topology change, but are less robust in the case of environment change. These findings help to understand which network properties affect processes of social adaptation. They are important to inform the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of centralized systems.

  7. Cultural Adaptation of a Neurobiologically Informed Intervention in Local and International Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulak, Eric; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Longoria, Zayra; Garcia Isaza, Alejandra; Stevens, Courtney; Bell, Theodore; Burlingame, Sarah; Klein, Scott; Berlinski, Samuel; Attanasio, Orazio; Neville, Helen

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between early adversity and numerous negative outcomes across the lifespan is evident in a wide range of societies and cultures (e.g., Pakulak, Stevens, & Neville, 2018). Among the most affected neural systems are those supporting attention, self-regulation, and stress regulation. As such, these systems represent targets for neurobiologically informed interventions addressing early adversity. In prior work with monolingual native English-speaking families, we showed that a two-generation intervention targeting these systems in families improves outcomes across multiple domains including child brain function for selective attention (for detail, see Neville et al., 2013). Here, we discuss the translation and cultural adaptation (CA) of this intervention in local and international contexts, which required systematic consideration of cultural differences that could affect program acceptability. First, we conducted a translation and CA of our program to serve Latino families in the United States using the Cultural Adaptation Process (CAP), a model that works closely with stakeholders in a systematic, iterative process. Second, to implement the adapted program in Medellín, Colombia, we conducted a subsequent adaptation for Colombian culture using the same CAP. Our experience underscores the importance of consideration of cultural differences and a systematic approach to adaptation before assessing the efficacy of neurobiologically informed interventions in different cultural contexts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  9. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  10. Adaptation of thermal power plants: The (ir)relevance of climate (change) information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van

    2017-01-01

    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate and hydrological projections, is then numerically solved to analyze the adaptation decisions of a selection of real power plants. We find that operators that base their decisions on current climatic conditions are likely to make identical choices and perform just as well as operators that are fully ‘informed’ about climate change. Where electricity supply is mainly generated by thermal power plants, heat waves, droughts and low river flow may impact electricity supply for decades to come. - Highlights: • We analyze adaptation to climate change by thermal power plants. • A numerical investment model is applied to a coal plant and a nuclear power plant. • The numerical analysis is based on climate and hydrological projections. • Climate change information has a relatively small effect on a power plant's NPV. • Uncertainty and no-regret benefits lower the value of climate change information.

  11. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the contextualized technology adaptation process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians' workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors.

  12. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J.; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians’ workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors. PMID:25677251

  13. Multi-allelic major effect genes interact with minor effect QTLs to control adaptive color pattern variation in Heliconius erato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Papa

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that relatively few genomic regions are repeatedly involved in the evolution of Heliconius butterfly wing patterns. Although this work demonstrates a number of cases where homologous loci underlie both convergent and divergent wing pattern change among different Heliconius species, it is still unclear exactly how many loci underlie pattern variation across the genus. To address this question for Heliconius erato, we created fifteen independent crosses utilizing the four most distinct color pattern races and analyzed color pattern segregation across a total of 1271 F2 and backcross offspring. Additionally, we used the most variable brood, an F2 cross between H. himera and the east Ecuadorian H. erato notabilis, to perform a quantitative genetic analysis of color pattern variation and produce a detailed map of the loci likely involved in the H. erato color pattern radiation. Using AFLP and gene based markers, we show that fewer major genes than previously envisioned control the color pattern variation in H. erato. We describe for the first time the genetic architecture of H. erato wing color pattern by assessing quantitative variation in addition to traditional linkage mapping. In particular, our data suggest three genomic intervals modulate the bulk of the observed variation in color. Furthermore, we also identify several modifier loci of moderate effect size that contribute to the quantitative wing pattern variation. Our results are consistent with the two-step model for the evolution of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius and support a growing body of empirical data demonstrating the importance of major effect loci in adaptive change.

  14. STDP in adaptive neurons gives close-to-optimal information transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Hennequin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike-frequency adaptation is known to enhance the transmission of information in sensory spiking neurons, by rescaling the dynamic range for input processing, matching it to the temporal statistics of the sensory stimulus. Achieving maximal information transmission has also been recently postulated as a role for Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP. However, the link between optimal plasticity and STDP in cortex remains loose, and so does the relationship between STDP and adaptation processes. We investigate how STDP, as described by recent minimal models derived from experimental data, influences the quality of information transmission in an adapting neuron. We show that a phenomenological model based on triplets of spikes yields almost the same information rate as an optimal model specially designed to this end. In contrast, the standard pair-based model of STDP does not improve information transmission as much. This result holds not only for additive STDP with hard weight bounds, known to produce bimodal distributions of synaptic weights, but also for weight-dependent STDP in the context of unimodal but skewed weight distributions. We analyze the similarities between the triplet model and the optimal learning rule, and find that the triplet effect is an important feature of the optimal model when the neuron is adaptive. If STDP is optimized for information transmission, it must take into account the dynamical properties of the postsynaptic cell, which might explain the target-cell specificity of STDP. In particular, it accounts for the differences found in vitro between STDP at excitatory synapses onto principal cells and those onto fast-spiking interneurons.

  15. Flexible and adaptive water systems operations through more informed and dynamic decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2016-12-01

    Timely adapting the operations of water systems to be resilient against rapid changes in both hydroclimatic and socioeconomic forcing is generally recommended as a part of planning and managing water resources under uncertain futures. A great opportunity to make the operations more flexible and adaptive is offered by the unprecedented amount of information that is becoming available to water system operators, providing a wide range of data at increasingly higher temporal and spatial resolution. Yet, many water systems are still operated using very simple information systems, typically based on basic statistical analysis and the operator's experience. In this work, we discuss the potential offered by incorporating improved information to enhance water systems operation and increase their ability of adapting to different external conditions and resolving potential conflicts across sectors. In particular, we focus on the use of different variables associated to different dynamics of the system (slow and fast) diversely impacting the operating objectives on the short-, medium- and long-term. The multi-purpose operations of the Hoa Binh reservoir in the Red River Basin (Vietnam) is used to demonstrate our approach. Numerical results show that our procedure is able to automatically select the most valuable information for improving the Hoa Binh operations and mitigating the conflict between short-term objectives, i.e. hydropower production and flood control. Moreover, we also successfully identify low-frequency climate information associated to El-Nino Southern Oscillation for improving the performance in terms of long-term objectives, i.e. water supply. Finally, we assess the value of better informing operational decisions for adapting the system operations to changing conditions by considering different climate change projections.

  16. Modeling intrinsic potential for beaver (Castor canadensis) habitat to inform restoration and climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittbrenner, Benjamin J.; Pollack, Michael M.; Schilling, Jason W.; Olden, Julian D.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2018-01-01

    Through their dam-building activities and subsequent water storage, beaver have the potential to restore riparian ecosystems and offset some of the predicted effects of climate change by modulating streamflow. Thus, it is not surprising that reintroducing beaver to watersheds from which they have been extirpated is an often-used restoration and climate-adaptation strategy. Identifying sites for reintroduction, however, requires detailed information about habitat factors—information that is not often available at broad spatial scales. Here we explore the potential for beaver relocation throughout the Snohomish River Basin in Washington, USA with a model that identifies some of the basic building blocks of beaver habitat suitability and does so by relying solely on remotely sensed data. More specifically, we developed a generalized intrinsic potential model that draws on remotely sensed measures of stream gradient, stream width, and valley width to identify where beaver could become established if suitable vegetation were to be present. Thus, the model serves as a preliminary screening tool that can be applied over relatively large extents. We applied the model to 5,019 stream km and assessed the ability of the model to correctly predict beaver habitat by surveying for beavers in 352 stream reaches. To further assess the potential for relocation, we assessed land ownership, use, and land cover in the landscape surrounding stream reaches with varying levels of intrinsic potential. Model results showed that 33% of streams had moderate or high intrinsic potential for beaver habitat. We found that no site that was classified as having low intrinsic potential had any sign of beavers and that beaver were absent from nearly three quarters of potentially suitable sites, indicating that there are factors preventing the local population from occupying these areas. Of the riparian areas around streams with high intrinsic potential for beaver, 38% are on public lands and 17

  17. Modeling intrinsic potential for beaver (Castor canadensis) habitat to inform restoration and climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittbrenner, Benjamin J; Pollock, Michael M; Schilling, Jason W; Olden, Julian D; Lawler, Joshua J; Torgersen, Christian E

    2018-01-01

    Through their dam-building activities and subsequent water storage, beaver have the potential to restore riparian ecosystems and offset some of the predicted effects of climate change by modulating streamflow. Thus, it is not surprising that reintroducing beaver to watersheds from which they have been extirpated is an often-used restoration and climate-adaptation strategy. Identifying sites for reintroduction, however, requires detailed information about habitat factors-information that is not often available at broad spatial scales. Here we explore the potential for beaver relocation throughout the Snohomish River Basin in Washington, USA with a model that identifies some of the basic building blocks of beaver habitat suitability and does so by relying solely on remotely sensed data. More specifically, we developed a generalized intrinsic potential model that draws on remotely sensed measures of stream gradient, stream width, and valley width to identify where beaver could become established if suitable vegetation were to be present. Thus, the model serves as a preliminary screening tool that can be applied over relatively large extents. We applied the model to 5,019 stream km and assessed the ability of the model to correctly predict beaver habitat by surveying for beavers in 352 stream reaches. To further assess the potential for relocation, we assessed land ownership, use, and land cover in the landscape surrounding stream reaches with varying levels of intrinsic potential. Model results showed that 33% of streams had moderate or high intrinsic potential for beaver habitat. We found that no site that was classified as having low intrinsic potential had any sign of beavers and that beaver were absent from nearly three quarters of potentially suitable sites, indicating that there are factors preventing the local population from occupying these areas. Of the riparian areas around streams with high intrinsic potential for beaver, 38% are on public lands and 17% are

  18. Fluctuations and information filtering in coupled populations of spiking neurons with adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Moritz; Schwalger, Tilo; Naud, Richard; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2014-12-01

    Finite-sized populations of spiking elements are fundamental to brain function but also are used in many areas of physics. Here we present a theory of the dynamics of finite-sized populations of spiking units, based on a quasirenewal description of neurons with adaptation. We derive an integral equation with colored noise that governs the stochastic dynamics of the population activity in response to time-dependent stimulation and calculate the spectral density in the asynchronous state. We show that systems of coupled populations with adaptation can generate a frequency band in which sensory information is preferentially encoded. The theory is applicable to fully as well as randomly connected networks and to leaky integrate-and-fire as well as to generalized spiking neurons with adaptation on multiple time scales.

  19. Using evaluation to adapt health information outreach to the complex environments of community-based organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Cynthia A

    2005-10-01

    After arguing that most community-based organizations (CBOs) function as complex adaptive systems, this white paper describes the evaluation goals, questions, indicators, and methods most important at different stages of community-based health information outreach. This paper presents the basic characteristics of complex adaptive systems and argues that the typical CBO can be considered this type of system. It then presents evaluation as a tool for helping outreach teams adapt their outreach efforts to the CBO environment and thus maximize success. Finally, it describes the goals, questions, indicators, and methods most important or helpful at each stage of evaluation (community assessment, needs assessment and planning, process evaluation, and outcomes assessment). Literature from complex adaptive systems as applied to health care, business, and evaluation settings is presented. Evaluation models and applications, particularly those based on participatory approaches, are presented as methods for maximizing the effectiveness of evaluation in dynamic CBO environments. If one accepts that CBOs function as complex adaptive systems-characterized by dynamic relationships among many agents, influences, and forces-then effective evaluation at the stages of community assessment, needs assessment and planning, process evaluation, and outcomes assessment is critical to outreach success.

  20. Path Analysis: Health Promotion Information Access of Parent Caretaking Pattern through Parenting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarsih, Tri; Murti, Bhisma; Anantanyu, Sapja; Wijaya, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Parents often inhibit learning process organized by education, due to their ignorance about how to educate child well. Incapability of dealing with those changes leads to dysfunctional families, and problematic children. This research aimed: to analyzed the health promotion information access pattern of parent caretaking pattern through parenting…

  1. Using visual information analysis to explore complex patterns in the activity of designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of complex interlinked datasets poses a significant problem for design researchers. This is addressed by proposing an information visualisation method for analysing patterns of design activity, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to time. This method visualises the tempora...

  2. Corrigendum: Information Search in Decisions From Experience: Do Our Patterns of Sampling Foreshadow Our Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Original article: Hills, T. T., & Hertwig, R. (2010). Information search in decisions from experience: Do our patterns of sampling foreshadow our decisions? Psychological Science, 21, 1787-1792. doi:10.1177/0956797610387443.

  3. Utility and recognition of lines and linear patterns on electronic displays depicting aeronautical charting information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted to explore the utility and recognition of lines and linear patterns on electronic displays depicting aeronautical charting information. The study gathered data from a large number of pilots who conduct all type...

  4. Value of Information for Optimal Adaptive Routing in Stochastic Time-Dependent Traffic Networks: Algorithms and Computational Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    Real-time information is important for travelers' routing decisions in uncertain networks by enabling online adaptation to revealed traffic conditions. Usually there are spatial and/or temporal limitations in traveler information. In this research, a...

  5. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om P Rajora

    Full Text Available Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation.

  6. Consistent pattern of local adaptation during an experimental heat wave in a pipefish-trematode host-parasite system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne H Landis

    Full Text Available Extreme climate events such as heat waves are expected to increase in frequency under global change. As one indirect effect, they can alter magnitude and direction of species interactions, for example those between hosts and parasites. We simulated a summer heat wave to investigate how a changing environment affects the interaction between the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle as a host and its digenean trematode parasite (Cryptocotyle lingua. In a fully reciprocal laboratory infection experiment, pipefish from three different coastal locations were exposed to sympatric and allopatric trematode cercariae. In order to examine whether an extreme climatic event disrupts patterns of locally adapted host-parasite combinations we measured the parasite's transmission success as well as the host's adaptive and innate immune defence under control and heat wave conditions. Independent of temperature, sympatric cercariae were always more successful than allopatric ones, indicating that parasites are locally adapted to their hosts. Hosts suffered from heat stress as suggested by fewer cells of the adaptive immune system (lymphocytes compared to the same groups that were kept at 18°C. However, the proportion of the innate immune cells (monocytes was higher in the 18°C water. Contrary to our expectations, no interaction between host immune defence, parasite infectivity and temperature stress were found, nor did the pattern of local adaptation change due to increased water temperature. Thus, in this host-parasite interaction, the sympatric parasite keeps ahead of the coevolutionary dynamics across sites, even under increasing temperatures as expected under marine global warming.

  7. Adapting participatory design to design information system with rural Ethiopian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    Most of the Information and Communication Technology for Development initiatives introduced to communities in developing countries fails to deliver its promises due to the lack of intended beneficiary involvement. Participatory Design assumes to be effective as long as its nature of participations...... and methods are contextualized to a given settings. To this end, we discuss the implication of considering local (rural community) culture of participation practices, and propose a procedure to be followed in the early phases of information system development process. Finally we argue that, such adaption...... could advance the Participatory Action Research methodology....

  8. Patterns of information-seeking for cancer on the internet: an analysis of real world data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishai Ofran

    Full Text Available Although traditionally the primary information sources for cancer patients have been the treating medical team, patients and their relatives increasingly turn to the Internet, though this source may be misleading and confusing. We assess Internet searching patterns to understand the information needs of cancer patients and their acquaintances, as well as to discern their underlying psychological states. We screened 232,681 anonymous users who initiated cancer-specific queries on the Yahoo Web search engine over three months, and selected for study users with high levels of interest in this topic. Searches were partitioned by expected survival for the disease being searched. We compared the search patterns of anonymous users and their contacts. Users seeking information on aggressive malignancies exhibited shorter search periods, focusing on disease- and treatment-related information. Users seeking knowledge regarding more indolent tumors searched for longer periods, alternated between different subjects, and demonstrated a high interest in topics such as support groups. Acquaintances searched for longer periods than the proband user when seeking information on aggressive (compared to indolent cancers. Information needs can be modeled as transitioning between five discrete states, each with a unique signature representing the type of information of interest to the user. Thus, early phases of information-seeking for cancer follow a specific dynamic pattern. Areas of interest are disease dependent and vary between probands and their contacts. These patterns can be used by physicians and medical Web site authors to tailor information to the needs of patients and family members.

  9. Patterns of information-seeking for cancer on the internet: an analysis of real world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofran, Yishai; Paltiel, Ora; Pelleg, Dan; Rowe, Jacob M; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2012-01-01

    Although traditionally the primary information sources for cancer patients have been the treating medical team, patients and their relatives increasingly turn to the Internet, though this source may be misleading and confusing. We assess Internet searching patterns to understand the information needs of cancer patients and their acquaintances, as well as to discern their underlying psychological states. We screened 232,681 anonymous users who initiated cancer-specific queries on the Yahoo Web search engine over three months, and selected for study users with high levels of interest in this topic. Searches were partitioned by expected survival for the disease being searched. We compared the search patterns of anonymous users and their contacts. Users seeking information on aggressive malignancies exhibited shorter search periods, focusing on disease- and treatment-related information. Users seeking knowledge regarding more indolent tumors searched for longer periods, alternated between different subjects, and demonstrated a high interest in topics such as support groups. Acquaintances searched for longer periods than the proband user when seeking information on aggressive (compared to indolent) cancers. Information needs can be modeled as transitioning between five discrete states, each with a unique signature representing the type of information of interest to the user. Thus, early phases of information-seeking for cancer follow a specific dynamic pattern. Areas of interest are disease dependent and vary between probands and their contacts. These patterns can be used by physicians and medical Web site authors to tailor information to the needs of patients and family members.

  10. Adaptation of Australia’s Marine Ecosystems to Climate Change: Using Science to Inform Conservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that climate change poses for marine ecosystems are already manifesting in impacts at the species, population, and community levels in Australia, particularly in Tasmania and tropical northern Australia. Many species and habitats are already under threat as a result of human activities, and the additional pressure from climate change significantly increases the challenge for marine conservation and management. Climate change impacts are expected to magnify as sea surface temperatures, ocean chemistry, ocean circulation, sea level, rainfall, and storm patterns continue to change this century. In particular, keystone species that form the foundation of marine habitats, such as coral reefs, kelp beds, and temperate rocky reefs, are projected to pass thresholds with subsequent implications for communities and ecosystems. This review synthesises recent science in this field: the observed impacts and responses of marine ecosystems to climate change, ecological thresholds of change, and strategies for marine conservation to promote adaptation. Increasing observations of climate-related impacts on Australia’s marine ecosystems—both temperate and tropical—are making adaptive management more important than ever before. Our increased understanding of the impacts and responses of marine ecosystems to climate change provides a focus for “no-regrets” adaptations that can be implemented now and refined as knowledge improves.

  11. Coping with temperature at the warm edge--patterns of thermal adaptation in the microbial eukaryote Paramecium caudatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Krenek

    Full Text Available Ectothermic organisms are thought to be severely affected by global warming since their physiological performance is directly dependent on temperature. Latitudinal and temporal variations in mean temperatures force ectotherms to adapt to these complex environmental conditions. Studies investigating current patterns of thermal adaptation among populations of different latitudes allow a prediction of the potential impact of prospective increases in environmental temperatures on their fitness.In this study, temperature reaction norms were ascertained among 18 genetically defined, natural clones of the microbial eukaryote Paramecium caudatum. These different clones have been isolated from 12 freshwater habitats along a latitudinal transect in Europe and from 3 tropical habitats (Indonesia. The sensitivity to increasing temperatures was estimated through the analysis of clone specific thermal tolerances and by relating those to current and predicted temperature data of their natural habitats. All investigated European clones seem to be thermal generalists with a broad thermal tolerance and similar optimum temperatures. The weak or missing co-variation of thermal tolerance with latitude does not imply local adaptation to thermal gradients; it rather suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity among the whole European subpopulation. The tested Indonesian clones appear to be locally adapted to the less variable, tropical temperature regime and show higher tolerance limits, but lower tolerance breadths.Due to the lack of local temperature adaptation within the European subpopulation, P. caudatum genotypes at the most southern edge of their geographic range seem to suffer from the predicted increase in magnitude and frequency of summer heat waves caused by climate change.

  12. Behind the wheel: community consultation informs adaptation of safe-transport program for older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Kristy; Keay, Lisa

    2015-12-09

    Safe-transport is important to well-being in later life but balancing safety and independence for older drivers can be challenging. While self-regulation is a promising tool to promote road safety, more research is required to optimise programs. Qualitative research was used to inform the choice and adaptation of a safe-transport education program for older drivers. Three focus groups were conducted with older drivers living in northwest Sydney to explore four key areas related to driving in later life including aged-based licensing, stopping or limiting driving, barriers to driving cessation and alternative modes of transportation. Data were analysed using content analysis. Four categories emerged from the data; bad press for older drivers, COMPETENCE not age, call for fairness in licensing regulations, and hanging up the keys: It's complicated! Two key issues being (1) older drivers wanted to drive for as long as possible but (2) were not prepared for driving cessation; guided the choice and adaption of the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS) program. This program was adapted for the Australian context and focus group findings raised the need for practical solutions, including transport alternatives, to be added. Targeted messages were developed from the data using the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM), allowing the education to be tailored to the individual's stage of behaviour change. Adapting our program based on insights gained from community consultation should ensure the program is sensitive to the needs, skills and preferences of older drivers.

  13. User adaptation in long-term, open-loop myoelectric training: implications for EMG pattern recognition in prosthesis control

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiayuan; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Sheng, Xinjun; Farina, Dario; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recent studies have reported that the classification performance of electromyographic (EMG) signals degrades over time without proper classification retraining. This problem is relevant for the applications of EMG pattern recognition in the control of active prostheses. Approach. In this study we investigated the changes in EMG classification performance over 11 consecutive days in eight able-bodied subjects and two amputees. Main results. It was observed that, when the classifier was trained on data from one day and tested on data from the following day, the classification error decreased exponentially but plateaued after four days for able-bodied subjects and six to nine days for amputees. The between-day performance became gradually closer to the corresponding within-day performance. Significance. These results indicate that the relative changes in EMG signal features over time become progressively smaller when the number of days during which the subjects perform the pre-defined motions are increased. The performance of the motor tasks is thus more consistent over time, resulting in more repeatable EMG patterns, even if the subjects do not have any external feedback on their performance. The learning curves for both able-bodied subjects and subjects with limb deficiencies could be modeled as an exponential function. These results provide important insights into the user adaptation characteristics during practical long-term myoelectric control applications, with implications for the design of an adaptive pattern recognition system.

  14. Patterns of patient safety culture: a complexity and arts-informed project of knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gail J; Tregunno, Deborah; Gray, Julia; Ginsberg, Liane

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe patterns of patient safety culture that emerged from an innovative collaboration among health services researchers and fine arts colleagues. The group engaged in an arts-informed knowledge translation project to produce a dramatic expression of patient safety culture research for inclusion in a symposium. Scholars have called for a deeper understanding of the complex interrelationships among structure, process and outcomes relating to patient safety. Four patterns of patient safety culture--blinding familiarity, unyielding determination, illusion of control and dismissive urgency--are described with respect to how they informed creation of an arts-informed project for knowledge translation.

  15. From epidemics to information propagation: Striking differences in structurally similar adaptive network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanovski, Stojan; Guo, Dongchao; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2015-09-01

    The continuous-time adaptive susceptible-infected-susceptible (ASIS) epidemic model and the adaptive information diffusion (AID) model are two adaptive spreading processes on networks, in which a link in the network changes depending on the infectious state of its end nodes, but in opposite ways: (i) In the ASIS model a link is removed between two nodes if exactly one of the nodes is infected to suppress the epidemic, while a link is created in the AID model to speed up the information diffusion; (ii) a link is created between two susceptible nodes in the ASIS model to strengthen the healthy part of the network, while a link is broken in the AID model due to the lack of interest in informationless nodes. The ASIS and AID models may be considered as first-order models for cascades in real-world networks. While the ASIS model has been exploited in the literature, we show that the AID model is realistic by obtaining a good fit with Facebook data. Contrary to the common belief and intuition for such similar models, we show that the ASIS and AID models exhibit different but not opposite properties. Most remarkably, a unique metastable state always exists in the ASIS model, while there an hourglass-shaped region of instability in the AID model. Moreover, the epidemic threshold is a linear function in the effective link-breaking rate in the AID model, while it is almost constant but noisy in the AID model.

  16. An Adaptive Dense Matching Method for Airborne Images Using Texture Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Qing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-global matching (SGM is essentially a discrete optimization for the disparity value of each pixel, under the assumption of disparity continuities. SGM overcomes the influence of the disparity discontinuities by a set of parameters. Using smaller parameters, the continuity constraint is weakened, which will cause significant noises in planar and textureless areas, reflected as the fluctuations on the final surface reconstruction. On the other hands, larger parameters will impose too much constraints on continuities, which may lead to losses of sharp features. To address this problem, this paper proposes an adaptive dense stereo matching methods for airborne images using with texture information. Firstly, the texture is quantified, and under the assumption that disparity variation is directly proportional to the texture information, the adaptive parameters are gauged accordingly. Second, SGM is adopted to optimize the discrete disparities using the adaptively tuned parameters. Experimental evaluations using the ISPRS benchmark dataset and images obtained by the SWDC-5 have revealed that the proposed method will significantly improve the visual qualities of the point clouds.

  17. Plant species occurrence patterns in Eurasian grasslands reflect adaptation to nutrient ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeling, Ineke S.; Ozinga, Wim A.; van Dijk, Jerry; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of Eurasian grasslands have suggested that nutrient ratios, rather than absolute nutrient availabilities and associated productivity, may be driving plant species richness patterns. However, the underlying assumption that species occupy distinct niches along nutrient ratio gradients

  18. Robot-assisted adaptive training: custom force fields for teaching movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, James L; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2004-04-01

    Based on recent studies of neuro-adaptive control, we tested a new iterative algorithm to generate custom training forces to "trick" subjects into altering their target-directed reaching movements to a prechosen movement as an after-effect of adaptation. The prechosen movement goal, a sinusoidal-shaped path from start to end point, was never explicitly conveyed to the subject. We hypothesized that the adaptation would cause an alteration in the feedforward command that would result in the prechosen movement. Our results showed that when forces were suddenly removed after a training period of 330 movements, trajectories were significantly shifted toward the prechosen movement. However, de-adaptation occurred (i.e., the after-effect "washed out") in the 50-75 movements that followed the removal of the training forces. A second experiment suppressed vision of hand location and found a detectable reduction in the washout of after-effects, suggesting that visual feedback of error critically influences learning. A final experiment demonstrated that after-effects were also present in the neighborhood of training--44% of original directional shift was seen in adjacent, unpracticed movement directions to targets that were 60 degrees different from the targets used for training. These results demonstrate the potential for these methods for teaching motor skills and for neuro-rehabilitation of brain-injured patients. This is a form of "implicit learning," because unlike explicit training methods, subjects learn movements with minimal instructions, no knowledge of, and little attention to the trajectory.

  19. Potential contribution of natural enemies to patterns of local adaptation in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crémieux, L.; Bischoff, A.; Šmilauerová, M.; Lawson, C.S.; Mortimer, S. R.; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Edwards, A.R.; Brook, A.J.; Tscheulin, T.; Macel, M.; Lepš, Jan; Müller-Schärer, H.; Steinger, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 2 (2008), s. 524-533 ISSN 0028-646X Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK-2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : local adaptation * plant-parasite interaction * pathogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.178, year: 2008

  20. Motor adaptation in complex sports - the influence of visual context information on the adaptation of the three-point shot to altered task demands in expert basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Fries, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of visual context information on skilled motor behaviour and motor adaptation in basketball. The rules of basketball in Europe have recently changed, such that that the distance for three-point shots increased from 6.25 m to 6.75 m. As such, we tested the extent to which basketball experts can adapt to the longer distance when a) only the unfamiliar, new three-point line was provided as floor markings (NL group), or b) the familiar, old three-point line was provided in addition to the new floor markings (OL group). In the present study 20 expert basketball players performed 40 three-point shots from 6.25 m and 40 shots from 6.75 m. We assessed the percentage of hits and analysed the landing position of the ball. Results showed better adaptation of throwing performance to the longer distance when the old three-point line was provided as a visual landmark, compared to when only the new three-point line was provided. We hypothesise that the three-point line delivered relevant information needed to successfully adapt to the greater distance in the OL group, whereas it disturbed performance and ability to adapt in the NL group. The importance of visual landmarks on motor adaptation in basketball throwing is discussed relative to the influence of other information sources (i.e. angle of elevation relative to the basket) and sport practice.

  1. Empowering Children with Adaptive Technology Skills: Careful Engagement in the Digital Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftachul HUDA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological advancement occurring in the world today has a potency to create positive and negative side effects especially on children. The positive side may entail increased empathy and acceptance of diversity through modelling the prosocial behaviours, while the negative can be manifest in aggressive behaviour, risky sexual behaviour, and substance abuse. These challenges pose a need to draw a particular attention to children’s rights of protection and care in relation to the use of technology. This paper sought to critically explore the way in which children adapt technology skills and the way they respond towards media influences. The findings revealed that the adaptive technology skills are needed in providing a considerable guidance for child protection and careful engagement towards digital information as part of their rights to natural growth and development.

  2. How do cancer patients navigate the public information environment? Understanding patterns and motivations for movement among information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Romantan, Anca; Kelly, Bridget J; Stevens, Robin S; Gray, Stacy W; Hull, Shawnika J; Ramirez, A Susana; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about how patients move among information sources to fulfill unmet needs. We interviewed 43 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients. Using a grounded theory approach, we identified patterns and motivations for movement among information sources. Overall, patients reported using one source (e.g., newspaper) followed by the use of another source (e.g., Internet), and five key motivations for such cross-source movement emerged. Patients' social networks often played a central role in this movement. Understanding how patients navigate an increasingly complex information environment may help clinicians and educators to guide patients to appropriate, high-quality sources.

  3. Adaptive Spatial Filter Based on Similarity Indices to Preserve the Neural Information on EEG Signals during On-Line Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Delisle-Rodriguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new on-line adaptive filter, which is based on a similarity analysis between standard electrode locations, in order to reduce artifacts and common interferences throughout electroencephalography (EEG signals, but preserving the useful information. Standard deviation and Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC between target electrodes and its correspondent neighbor electrodes are analyzed on sliding windows to select those neighbors that are highly correlated. Afterwards, a model based on CCC is applied to provide higher values of weight to those correlated electrodes with lower similarity to the target electrode. The approach was applied to brain computer-interfaces (BCIs based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA to recognize 40 targets of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP, providing an accuracy (ACC of 86.44 ± 2.81%. In addition, also using this approach, features of low frequency were selected in the pre-processing stage of another BCI to recognize gait planning. In this case, the recognition was significantly ( p < 0.01 improved for most of the subjects ( A C C ≥ 74.79 % , when compared with other BCIs based on Common Spatial Pattern, Filter Bank-Common Spatial Pattern, and Riemannian Geometry.

  4. Pattern-based information portal for business plan co-creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontchev, Boyan; Ruskov, Petko; Tanev, Stoyan

    2011-03-01

    Creation of business plans helps entrepreneurs in managing identification of business opportunities and committing necessary resources for process evolution. Applying patterns in business plan creation facilitates the identification of effective solutions that were adopted in the past and may provide a basis for adopting similar solutions in the future within given business context. The article presents the system design of an information portal for business plan co-creation based on patterns. The portal is going to provide start-up and entrepreneurs with ready-to-modify business plan patterns in order to help them in development of effective and efficient business plans. It will facilitate entrepreneurs in co-experimenting and co-learning more frequently and faster. Moreover, the paper focuses on the software architecture of the pattern based portal and explains the functionality of its modules, namely the pattern designer, pattern repository services and agent-based pattern implementers. It explains their role for business process co-creation, storing and managing patterns described formally, and selecting patterns best suited for specific business case. Thus, innovative entrepreneurs will be guided by the portal in co-writing winning business plans and staying competitive in the present day dynamic globalized environment.

  5. Optimal Information Extraction of Laser Scanning Dataset by Scale-Adaptive Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Y.; Yang, B.

    2018-04-01

    3D laser technology is widely used to collocate the surface information of object. For various applications, we need to extract a good perceptual quality point cloud from the scanned points. To solve the problem, most of existing methods extract important points based on a fixed scale. However, geometric features of 3D object come from various geometric scales. We propose a multi-scale construction method based on radial basis function. For each scale, important points are extracted from the point cloud based on their importance. We apply a perception metric Just-Noticeable-Difference to measure degradation of each geometric scale. Finally, scale-adaptive optimal information extraction is realized. Experiments are undertaken to evaluate the effective of the proposed method, suggesting a reliable solution for optimal information extraction of object.

  6. Delinquent-Victim Youth-Adapting a Trauma-Informed Approach for the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The connection between victimization and later delinquency is well established and most youth involved with the juvenile justice system have at least one if not multiple victimizations in their history. Poly-victimized youth or those presenting with complex trauma require specialized assessment and services to prevent deleterious emotional, physical, and social life consequences. Empirical studies have provided information which can guide practitioners work with these youth and families, yet many of the policies and practices of the juvenile justice system are counter to this model. Many youth-serving organizations are beginning to review their operations to better match a trauma-informed approach and in this article the author will highlight how a trauma-informed care model could be utilized to adapt the juvenile justice system.

  7. OPTIMAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION OF LASER SCANNING DATASET BY SCALE-ADAPTIVE REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available 3D laser technology is widely used to collocate the surface information of object. For various applications, we need to extract a good perceptual quality point cloud from the scanned points. To solve the problem, most of existing methods extract important points based on a fixed scale. However, geometric features of 3D object come from various geometric scales. We propose a multi-scale construction method based on radial basis function. For each scale, important points are extracted from the point cloud based on their importance. We apply a perception metric Just-Noticeable-Difference to measure degradation of each geometric scale. Finally, scale-adaptive optimal information extraction is realized. Experiments are undertaken to evaluate the effective of the proposed method, suggesting a reliable solution for optimal information extraction of object.

  8. Patterns of Information Seeking Behaviour of Law Students in Digital Environment: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the enormous growth of modern information communication technologies and its massive use have influenced information users all over the world. Such a digital environment has drastically changed the information seeking patterns of information users of every community. These also tend law students to use various legal information sources and services in digital environments while seeking information. But there have been few empirical user studies on the aspect of digital information seeking behaviours of law students in either law or library and information science literatures. This paper aims to draw out patterns of information seeking behavior of students of law in digital environments at the University of Dhaka. A stratified random sample survey was conducted for this study. The results show that students prefer the electronic format of information rather than printed format. Major e-resources used by them and the influential factors of use were also identified in this study. This study also identified some crucial problems for seeking information and provides suggestions for the development of electronic legal information systems.

  9. The architecture of information architecture, interaction design and the patterning of digital information

    CERN Document Server

    Dade-Robertson, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    This book looks at relationships between the organization of physical objects in space and the organization of ideas. Historical, philosophical, psychological and architectural knowledge are united to develop an understanding of the relationship between information and its representation.Despite its potential to break the mould, digital information has relied on metaphors from a pre-digital era. In particular, architectural ideas have pervaded discussions of digital information, from the urbanization of cyberspace in science fiction, through to the adoption of spatial visualiz

  10. The impact of augmented information on visuo-motor adaptation in younger and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Hegele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjustment to a visuo-motor rotation is known to be affected by ageing. According to previous studies, the age-related differences primarily pertain to the use of strategic corrections and the generation of explicit knowledge on which strategic corrections are based, whereas the acquisition of an (implicit internal model of the novel visuo-motor transformation is unaffected. The present study aimed to assess the impact of augmented information on the age-related variation of visuo-motor adjustments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants performed aiming movements controlling a cursor on a computer screen. Visual feedback of direction of cursor motion was rotated 75 degrees relative to the direction of hand motion. Participants had to adjust to this rotation in the presence and absence of an additional hand-movement target that explicitly depicted the input-output relations of the visuo-motor transformation. An extensive set of tests was employed in order to disentangle the contributions of different processes to visuo-motor adjustment. Results show that the augmented information failed to affect the age-related variations of explicit knowledge, adaptive shifts, and aftereffects in a substantial way, whereas it clearly affected initial direction errors during practice and proprioceptive realignment. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, older participants apparently made no use of the augmented information, whereas younger participants used the additional movement target to reduce initial direction errors early during practice. However, after a first block of trials errors increased, indicating a neglect of the augmented information, and only slowly declined thereafter. A hypothetical dual-task account of these findings is discussed. The use of the augmented information also led to a selective impairment of proprioceptive realignment in the younger group. The mere finding of proprioceptive realignment in adaptation to a visuo

  11. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley.

  12. Developing services for climate impact and adaptation baseline information and methodologies for the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Impacts of climate change are observed and projected across a range of ecosystems and economic sectors, and mountain regions thereby rank among the hotspots of climate change. The Andes are considered particularly vulnerable to climate change, not only due to fragile ecosystems but also due to the high vulnerability of the population. Natural resources such as water systems play a critical role and are observed and projected to be seriously affected. Adaptation to climate change impacts is therefore crucial to contain the negative effects on the population. Adaptation projects require information on the climate and affected socio-environmental systems. There is, however, generally a lack of methodological guidelines how to generate the necessary scientific information and how to communicate to implementing governmental and non-governmental institutions. This is particularly important in view of the international funds for adaptation such as the Green Climate Fund established and set into process at the UNFCCC Conferences of the Parties in Cancun 2010 and Durban 2011. To facilitate this process international and regional organizations (World Bank and Andean Community) and a consortium of research institutions have joined forces to develop and define comprehensive methodologies for baseline and climate change impact assessments for the Andes, with an application potential to other mountain regions (AndesPlus project). Considered are the climatological baseline of a region, and the assessment of trends based on ground meteorological stations, reanalysis data, and satellite information. A challenge is the scarcity of climate information in the Andes, and the complex climatology of the mountain terrain. A climate data platform has been developed for the southern Peruvian Andes and is a key element for climate data service and exchange. Water resources are among the key livelihood components for the Andean population, and local and national economy, in particular for

  13. Dynamic Speed Adaptation for Path Tracking Based on Curvature Information and Speed Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez Serna, Citlalli; Ruichek, Yassine

    2017-06-14

    A critical concern of autonomous vehicles is safety. Different approaches have tried to enhance driving safety to reduce the number of fatal crashes and severe injuries. As an example, Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems warn the driver when the vehicle exceeds the recommended speed limit. However, these systems only take into account fixed speed limits without considering factors like road geometry. In this paper, we consider road curvature with speed limits to automatically adjust vehicle's speed with the ideal one through our proposed Dynamic Speed Adaptation (DSA) method. Furthermore, 'curve analysis extraction' and 'speed limits database creation' are also part of our contribution. An algorithm that analyzes GPS information off-line identifies high curvature segments and estimates the speed for each curve. The speed limit database contains information about the different speed limit zones for each traveled path. Our DSA senses speed limits and curves of the road using GPS information and ensures smooth speed transitions between current and ideal speeds. Through experimental simulations with different control algorithms on real and simulated datasets, we prove that our method is able to significantly reduce lateral errors on sharp curves, to respect speed limits and consequently increase safety and comfort for the passenger.

  14. Perceiving patterns of play in dynamic sport tasks: investigating the essential information underlying skilled performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willams, A Mark; Hodges, Nicola J; North, Jamie S; Barton, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    The perceptual-cognitive information used to support pattern-recognition skill in soccer was examined. In experiment 1, skilled players were quicker and more accurate than less-skilled players at recognising familiar and unfamiliar soccer action sequences presented on film. In experiment 2, these action sequences were converted into point-light displays, with superficial display features removed and the positions of players and the relational information between them made more salient. Skilled players were more accurate than less-skilled players in recognising sequences presented in point-light form, implying that each pattern of play can be defined by the unique relations between players. In experiment 3, various offensive and defensive players were occluded for the duration of each trial in an attempt to identify the most important sources of information underpinning successful performance. A decrease in response accuracy was observed under occluded compared with non-occluded conditions and the expertise effect was no longer observed. The relational information between certain key players, team-mates and their defensive counterparts may provide the essential information for effective pattern-recognition skill in soccer. Structural feature analysis, temporal phase relations, and knowledge-based information are effectively integrated to facilitate pattern recognition in dynamic sport tasks.

  15. Improving Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Long Duration Space Flight by Enhancing Vestibular Information Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Kofman, I. S.; De Dios, Y. E; Galvan, R.; Goel, R.; Miller, C.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Jeevarajan, J.; Reschke, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Crewmember adapted to the microgravity state may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons after gravitational transitions. The transition from one sensorimotor state to another consists of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic-adaptive and have been demonstrated in astronauts returning after long duration space flight. Strategic modifications represent "early adaptation" - immediate and transitory changes in control that are employed to deal with short-term changes in the environment. If these modifications are prolonged then plastic-adaptive changes are evoked that modify central nervous system function, automating new behavioral responses. More importantly, this longer term adaptive recovery mechanism was significantly associated with their strategic ability to recover on the first day after return to Earth G. We are developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance information transfer by improving the brain's ability to detect vestibular signals (Vestibular Stochastic Resonance, VSR) especially when combined with balance training exercises such as sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training for rapid improvement in functional skill, for standing and mobility. This countermeasure to improve detection of vestibular signals is a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing low imperceptible levels of white noise based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation). To determine efficacy of vestibular stimulation on physiological and perceptual responses during otolith-canal conflicts and dynamic perturbations we have conducted a series of studies: We have shown that imperceptible binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system across the mastoids enhances balance performance in the mediolateral (ML) plane while standing on an unstable surface. We have followed up on the previous study showing VSR stimulation improved balance

  16. Hunter-gatherer postcranial robusticity relative to patterns of mobility, climatic adaptation, and selection for tissue economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J T

    2006-10-01

    Human skeletal robusticity is influenced by a number of factors, including habitual behavior, climate, and physique. Conflicting evidence as to the relative importance of these factors complicates our ability to interpret variation in robusticity in the past. It remains unclear how the pattern of robusticity in the skeleton relates to adaptive constraints on skeletal morphology. This study investigates variation in robusticity in claviculae, humeri, ulnae, femora, and tibiae among human foragers, relative to climate and habitual behavior. Cross-sectional geometric properties of the diaphyses are compared among hunter-gatherers from southern Africa (n = 83), the Andaman Islands (n = 32), Tierra del Fuego (n = 34), and the Great Lakes region (n = 15). The robusticity of both proximal and distal limb segments correlates negatively with climate and positively with patterns of terrestrial and marine mobility among these groups. However, the relative correspondence between robusticity and these factors varies throughout the body. In the lower limb, partial correlations between polar second moment of area (J(0.73)) and climate decrease from proximal to distal section locations, while this relationship increases from proximal to distal in the upper limb. Patterns of correlation between robusticity and mobility, either terrestrial or marine, generally increase from proximal to distal in the lower and upper limbs, respectively. This suggests that there may be a stronger relationship between observed patterns of diaphyseal hypertrophy and behavioral differences between populations in distal elements. Despite this trend, strength circularity indices at the femoral midshaft show the strongest correspondence with terrestrial mobility, particularly among males.

  17. [Adapting health services to the specific needs and utilization patterns of the new Spaniards. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Cantarero, David; Pascual, Marta

    2008-04-01

    Because of the progressive increase in the number of immigrants and the uncertainty about the capacity of the Spanish health service to deal with the quantitative and qualitative increases in demand, the possibility of introducing changes to adapt our services to the new situation should be considered. Beginning with an analysis of the factors that influence health status and use of the health service, based on the National Health Survey (NHS), the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), we compare the health profiles and patterns of medical resources utilization between the national and foreign populations. The pattern of demand for health services in the immigrant population corresponds basically to the needs of a young population in good health. According to NHS data, resource utilization among immigrants can even be lower than that among the national population. Assessing the link between health status and demand for healthcare from a dynamic point of view, by identifying variations in patterns of health and patterns of demand for healthcare, is important to identify imbalances in resources and to establish an appropriate hierarchy of preventive and treatment priorities.

  18. [Neural Mechanisms That Facilitate Adaptive Behavior Based on Acquired Stimulus-Outcome Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masaaki

    2017-11-01

    In response to changing internal and external situations, we always need to adapt our behavior based on previous experiences, particularly, acquired stimulus-outcome information. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a prefrontal cortical region, is critical for this type of decision-making. The current understanding of the fundamental functions of the OFC has been reviewed by introducing, as an example, how the OFC contributes to the processing of uncertain rewards. Furthermore, the importance of revealing context and temporally specific causal roles of neural circuits including the OFC in decision-making, as well as the techniques to achieve the goal, have been discussed.

  19. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal

  20. An Adaptive Information Quantity-Based Broadcast Protocol for Safety Services in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle communication plays a significantly important role in implementing safe and efficient road traffic. When disseminating safety messages in the network, the information quantity on safety packets changes over time and space. However, most of existing protocols view each packet the same to disseminate, preventing vehicles from collecting more recent and precise safety information. Hence, an information quantity-based broadcast protocol is proposed in this paper to ensure the efficiency of safety messages dissemination. In particular, we propose the concept of emergency-degree to evaluate packets’ information quantity. Then we present EDCast, an emergency-degree-based broadcast protocol. EDCast differentiates each packet’s priority for accessing the channel based on its emergency-degree so as to provide vehicles with more safety information timely and accurately. In addition, an adaptive scheme is presented to ensure fast dissemination of messages in different network condition. We compare the performance of EDCast with those of three other representative protocols in a typical highway scenario. Simulation results indicate that EDCast achieves higher broadcast efficiency and less redundancy with less delivery delay. What we found demonstrates that it is feasible and necessary for incorporating information quantity of messages in designing an efficient safety message broadcast protocol.

  1. Health Information Technology (HIT) Adaptation: Refocusing on the Journey to Successful HIT Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Po-Yin; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Sieck, Cynthia J; Hefner, Jennifer L; Huerta, Timothy R

    2017-09-07

    In past years, policies and regulations required hospitals to implement advanced capabilities of certified electronic health records (EHRs) in order to receive financial incentives. This has led to accelerated implementation of health information technologies (HIT) in health care settings. However, measures commonly used to evaluate the success of HIT implementation, such as HIT adoption, technology acceptance, and clinical quality, fail to account for complex sociotechnical variability across contexts and the different trajectories within organizations because of different implementation plans and timelines. We propose a new focus, HIT adaptation, to illuminate factors that facilitate or hinder the connection between use of the EHR and improved quality of care as well as to explore the trajectory of changes in the HIT implementation journey as it is impacted by frequent system upgrades and optimizations. Future research should develop instruments to evaluate the progress of HIT adaptation in both its longitudinal design and its focus on adaptation progress rather than on one cross-sectional outcome, allowing for more generalizability and knowledge transfer. ©Po-Yin Yen, Ann Scheck McAlearney, Cynthia J Sieck, Jennifer L Hefner, Timothy R Huerta. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 07.09.2017.

  2. A model of adaptive decision-making from representation of information environment by quantum fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, F.; Haven, E.; Khrennikov, A.

    2017-10-01

    We present the mathematical model of decision-making (DM) of agents acting in a complex and uncertain environment (combining huge variety of economical, financial, behavioural and geopolitical factors). To describe interaction of agents with it, we apply the formalism of quantum field theory (QTF). Quantum fields are a purely informational nature. The QFT model can be treated as a far relative of the expected utility theory, where the role of utility is played by adaptivity to an environment (bath). However, this sort of utility-adaptivity cannot be represented simply as a numerical function. The operator representation in Hilbert space is used and adaptivity is described as in quantum dynamics. We are especially interested in stabilization of solutions for sufficiently large time. The outputs of this stabilization process, probabilities for possible choices, are treated in the framework of classical DM. To connect classical and quantum DM, we appeal to Quantum Bayesianism. We demonstrate the quantum-like interference effect in DM, which is exhibited as a violation of the formula of total probability, and hence the classical Bayesian inference scheme. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  3. A model of adaptive decision-making from representation of information environment by quantum fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, F; Haven, E; Khrennikov, A

    2017-11-13

    We present the mathematical model of decision-making (DM) of agents acting in a complex and uncertain environment (combining huge variety of economical, financial, behavioural and geopolitical factors). To describe interaction of agents with it, we apply the formalism of quantum field theory (QTF). Quantum fields are a purely informational nature. The QFT model can be treated as a far relative of the expected utility theory, where the role of utility is played by adaptivity to an environment (bath). However, this sort of utility-adaptivity cannot be represented simply as a numerical function. The operator representation in Hilbert space is used and adaptivity is described as in quantum dynamics. We are especially interested in stabilization of solutions for sufficiently large time. The outputs of this stabilization process, probabilities for possible choices, are treated in the framework of classical DM. To connect classical and quantum DM, we appeal to Quantum Bayesianism. We demonstrate the quantum-like interference effect in DM, which is exhibited as a violation of the formula of total probability, and hence the classical Bayesian inference scheme.This article is part of the themed issue 'Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Effects on referral patterns of reducing intensive informational campaigns about first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Auestad, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess referral patterns and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) following the partial dismantling of intensive, information campaigns (IC) to help detect first-episode, non-affective psychosis via early detection teams in the TIPS study.......The primary aim of this study was to assess referral patterns and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) following the partial dismantling of intensive, information campaigns (IC) to help detect first-episode, non-affective psychosis via early detection teams in the TIPS study....

  5. Design of an Adaptive Human-Machine System Based on Dynamical Pattern Recognition of Cognitive Task-Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Yin, Zhong; Wang, Rubin

    2017-01-01

    This paper developed a cognitive task-load (CTL) classification algorithm and allocation strategy to sustain the optimal operator CTL levels over time in safety-critical human-machine integrated systems. An adaptive human-machine system is designed based on a non-linear dynamic CTL classifier, which maps a set of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) related features to a few CTL classes. The least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is used as dynamic pattern classifier. A series of electrophysiological and performance data acquisition experiments were performed on seven volunteer participants under a simulated process control task environment. The participant-specific dynamic LSSVM model is constructed to classify the instantaneous CTL into five classes at each time instant. The initial feature set, comprising 56 EEG and ECG related features, is reduced to a set of 12 salient features (including 11 EEG-related features) by using the locality preserving projection (LPP) technique. An overall correct classification rate of about 80% is achieved for the 5-class CTL classification problem. Then the predicted CTL is used to adaptively allocate the number of process control tasks between operator and computer-based controller. Simulation results showed that the overall performance of the human-machine system can be improved by using the adaptive automation strategy proposed.

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adaptation night as determinants of sleep patterns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Uebel, Henrik; Albrecht, Bjoern; Banaschewski, Tobias; Yordanova, Juliana; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2012-12-01

    Sleep problems are a prominent feature in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but their relationships to sleep structure are not consistent across studies. We aimed at further examining the sleep architecture in children with ADHD, while considering the role of the first-night effect (FNE) as a possible confounder. Twenty unmedicated children with ADHD combined type (8-15 years old; mean 11.24, SD 2.31) and 19 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, underwent polysomnography during an adaptation and a consecutive second night. ADHD and controls displayed a typical FNE without group differences. Independently of testing night, children with ADHD spent more time in sleep and had shortened rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency and a greater amount of REM sleep relative to controls. However, the increased REM sleep amount in ADHD children was more expressed in the second night when it was also significantly related to scores of inattention and hyperactivity. Our results (1) document similar sleep adaptation processes in children with ADHD and typically developing children, (2) reveal that REM sleep changes in association with ADHD-specific psychopathology may characterize sleep in ADHD children, which is evident only when the FNE is accounted for, (3) indicate that ADHD psychopathology and adaptation night may exert opposite effects on REM sleep in children. These results may prompt the awareness of clinicians about the importance of actual sleep alterations and their precise evaluation in children with ADHD, which could significantly contribute to better diagnostic, treatment and early prevention strategies.

  7. Patterns of students' computer use and relations to their computer and information literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Gerick, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that there is a complex relationship between students’ computer and information literacy (CIL) and their use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for both recreational and school use. Methods: This study seeks to dig deeper into these complex...... relations by identifying different patterns of students’ school-related and recreational computer use in the 21 countries participating in the International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS 2013). Results: Latent class analysis (LCA) of the student questionnaire and performance data from......, raising important questions about differences in contexts. Keywords: ICILS, Computer use, Latent class analysis (LCA), Computer and information literacy....

  8. Disparate patterns of thermal adaptation between life stages in temperate vs. tropical Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, B L; Gupta, T; Scavotto, R

    2018-02-01

    Many terrestrial ectothermic species exhibit limited variation in upper thermal tolerance across latitude. However, these trends may not signify limited adaptive capacity to increase thermal tolerance in the face of climate change. Instead, thermal tolerance may be similar among populations because behavioural thermoregulation by mobile organisms or life stages may buffer natural selection for thermal tolerance. We compared thermal tolerance of adults and embryos among natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from a broad range of thermal habitats around the globe to assess natural variation of thermal tolerance in mobile vs. immobile life stages. We found no variation among populations in adult thermal tolerance, but embryonic thermal tolerance was higher in tropical strains than in temperate strains. We further report that embryos live closer to their upper thermal limits than adults - that is, thermal safety margins are smaller for embryos than adults. F1 hybrid embryos from crosses between temperate and tropical populations had thermal tolerance that matched that of tropical embryos, suggesting the dominance of heat-tolerant alleles. Together, our findings suggest that thermal selection has led to divergence in embryonic thermal tolerance but that selection for divergent thermal tolerance may be limited in adults. Further, our results suggest that thermal traits should be measured across life stages to better predict adaptive limits. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Adaptive Cycle as a Tool to Select Resilient Patterns of Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Salvia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in agriculture, including simultaneous intensification and abandonment, have significantly shaped the evolution of rural areas. The assessment of resilience in agricultural systems could provide insights into the ability of many rural areas to survive and regain competitiveness following disturbances. The aim of this study is to use the adaptive cycle heuristic as a diagnostic tool to study dynamics of change in two agricultural sectors (durum wheat/sheep and goat farming in the Basilicata region of Southern Italy over the last seventy years. The heuristic was applied through a participatory approach in a community of stakeholders who have conceived, in collaboration with researchers, the Manifesto “Let’s Think Basilicata” as a regional instrument of analysis and a laboratory of ideas and development of proposals. Despite some methodological difficulties, the adaptive cycle heuristic proved useful to describe processes of change in the socio-ecological system and could have enormous potential in shaping policy instruments for rural areas. However, much greater research is needed, both in terms of theory and methodology, before policy impacts on resilience in socio-ecological systems can be fully understood.

  10. Emergency Preparedness Education for Nurses: Core Competency Familiarity Measured Utilizing an Adapted Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgino, Madeline M; Kress, Terri; Alexander, Sheila; Beach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to measure trauma nurse improvement in familiarity with emergency preparedness and disaster response core competencies as originally defined by the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire after a focused educational program. An adapted version of the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire was utilized to measure familiarity of nurses with core competencies pertinent to first responder capabilities. This project utilized a pre- and postsurvey descriptive design and integrated education sessions into the preexisting, mandatory "Trauma Nurse Course" at large, level I trauma center. A total of 63 nurses completed the intervention during May and September 2014 sessions. Overall, all 8 competencies demonstrated significant (P < .001; 98% confidence interval) improvements in familiarity. In conclusion, this pilot quality improvement project demonstrated a unique approach to educating nurses to be more ready and comfortable when treating victims of a disaster.

  11. Cultural adaptation pattern analysis of McDonald's and KFC in the Chinese market

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qinjie; Zhou, Longyu

    2012-01-01

    KFC and McDonald’s are two representatives of American fast food brands who are operating in China.Considering the cultural differences between American and Chinese culture, whether and how they adaptthemselves to the Chinese culture caught the authors’ attention. This thesis aimed to explore the culturaladaptation patterns of these two brands, and find out what factors contribute to a successful culturaladaptation model from customers’ perspective.In order to find the answer, the authors bas...

  12. Turing pattern dynamics and adaptive discretization for a superdiffusive Lotka-Volterra system

    OpenAIRE

    Bendahmane , Mostafa; Ruiz-Baier , Ricardo; Tian , Canrong

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We focus our attention on the effects of introducing the fractional-in-space operator into a Lotka-Volterra competitive model describing population superdiffusion. First, we address the weak solvability of the coupled problem employing the Faedo-Galerkin method and compactness arguments. In addition, we are interested in how cross superdiffusion influences the formation of spatial patterns: a linear stability analysis has been carried out, showing that cross superdiffu...

  13. Adaptive Information Dissemination Control to Provide Diffdelay for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Huang, Changqin

    2017-01-12

    Applications running on the Internet of Things, such as the Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs) platform, generally have different quality of service (QoS) requirements. For urgent events, it is crucial that information be reported to the actuator quickly, and the communication cost is the second factor. However, for interesting events, communication costs, network lifetime and time all become important factors. In most situations, these different requirements cannot be satisfied simultaneously. In this paper, an adaptive communication control based on a differentiated delay (ACCDS) scheme is proposed to resolve this conflict. In an ACCDS, source nodes of events adaptively send various searching actuators routings (SARs) based on the degree of sensitivity to delay while maintaining the network lifetime. For a delay-sensitive event, the source node sends a large number of SARs to actuators to identify and inform the actuators in an extremely short time; thus, action can be taken quickly but at higher communication costs. For delay-insensitive events, the source node sends fewer SARs to reduce communication costs and improve network lifetime. Therefore, an ACCDS can meet the QoS requirements of different events using a differentiated delay framework. Theoretical analysis simulation results indicate that an ACCDS provides delay and communication costs and differentiated services; an ACCDS scheme can reduce the network delay by 11.111%-53.684% for a delay-sensitive event and reduce the communication costs by 5%-22.308% for interesting events, and reduce the network lifetime by about 28.713%.

  14. Informing Adaptation Decisions: What Do We Need to Know and What Do We Need to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Webb, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The demand for improved climate knowledge and information is well documented. As noted in the IPCC Reports (SREX, AR5) and other assessments, this demand has increased pressure for better information to support planning under changing rates of extremes event occurrence. This demand has focused on mechanisms used to respond to past variability and change, including, integrated resource management (watersheds, coasts), infrastructure design, information systems, technological optimization, financial risk management, and behavioral and institutional change. Climate inputs range from static site design statistics (return periods) to dynamic, emergent thresholds and transitions preceded by steep response curves and punctuated equilibria. Tradeoffs are evident in the use of risk-based anticipatory strategies vs. resilience measures. In such settings, annual decision calendars for operational requirements can confound adaptation expectations. Key knowledge assessment questions include: (1) How predictable are potential impacts of events in the context of other stressors, (2) how is action to anticipate such impacts informed, and (3) How often should criteria for "robustness" be reconsidered? To illustrate, we will discuss the climate information needs and uses for two areas of concern for both short and long-term risks (i) climate and disaster risk financing, and (ii) watershed management. The presentation will focus on the climate information needed for (1) improved monitoring, modeling and methods for understanding and analyzing exposure risks, (2) generating risk profiles, (3) developing information systems and scenarios for critical thresholds across climate time and space scales, (4) embedding annual decision calendars in the context of longer-term risk management, (5) gaming experiments to show the net benefits of new information. We will conclude with a discussion of the essential climate variables needed to implement services-delivery and development efforts such

  15. Pattern-based information portal for business plan co-creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Bontchev, Boyan; Ruskov, Petko

    2010-01-01

    in order to help them in development of effective and efficient business plans. It will facilitate entrepreneurs in co-experimenting and co-learning more frequently and faster. Moreover, the paper focuses on the software architecture of the pattern based portal and explains the functionality of its modules......Creation of business plans helps entrepreneurs in managing identification of business opportunities and committing necessary resources for process evolution. Applying patterns in business plan creation facilitates the identification of effective solutions that were adopted in the past and may...... provide a basis for adopting similar solutions in the future within given business context. The article presents the system design of an information portal for business plan cocreation based on patterns. The portal is going to provide start-up and entrepreneurs with ready-to-modify business plan patterns...

  16. Temporal patterns of scientific information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Elad; Sharon, Aviv J

    2017-11-01

    In response to the news coverage of scientific events and to science education, people increasingly go online to get more information. This study investigates how patterns of science and technology information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia change over time, in ways that differ between "ad hoc" terms that correspond to news coverage and "cyclic" terms that correspond to the academic period. Findings show that the science and technology activity in Google and Wikipedia was significantly associated with ad hoc and cyclic patterns. While the peak activity in Google and Wikipedia largely overlapped for ad hoc terms, it mismatched for cyclic terms. The findings indicate the importance of external cues such as news media and education, and also of the online engagement process, and particularly the crucial but different role played by Google and Wikipedia in gaining science and technology knowledge. Educators and policy makers could benefit from taking into account those different patterns.

  17. Patterns of informal reasoning in the context of socioscientific decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to a theoretical knowledge base through research by examining factors salient to science education reform and practice in the context of socioscientific issues. The study explores how individuals negotiate and resolve genetic engineering dilemmas. A qualitative approach was used to examine patterns of informal reasoning and the role of morality in these processes. Thirty college students participated individually in two semistructured interviews designed to explore their informal reasoning in response to six genetic engineering scenarios. Students demonstrated evidence of rationalistic, emotive, and intuitive forms of informal reasoning. Rationalistic informal reasoning described reason-based considerations; emotive informal reasoning described care-based considerations; and intuitive reasoning described considerations based on immediate reactions to the context of a scenario. Participants frequently relied on combinations of these reasoning patterns as they worked to resolve individual socioscientific scenarios. Most of the participants appreciated at least some of the moral implications of their decisions, and these considerations were typically interwoven within an overall pattern of informal reasoning. These results highlight the need to ensure that science classrooms are environments in which intuition and emotion in addition to reason are valued. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  18. Walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithms using gait phase information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Shing; Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Ho, Yu-Jen

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a walking pattern classification and a walking distance estimation algorithm using gait phase information. A gait phase information retrieval algorithm was developed to analyze the duration of the phases in a gait cycle (i.e., stance, push-off, swing, and heel-strike phases). Based on the gait phase information, a decision tree based on the relations between gait phases was constructed for classifying three different walking patterns (level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs). Gait phase information was also used for developing a walking distance estimation algorithm. The walking distance estimation algorithm consists of the processes of step count and step length estimation. The proposed walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithm have been validated by a series of experiments. The accuracy of the proposed walking pattern classification was 98.87%, 95.45%, and 95.00% for level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed walking distance estimation algorithm was 96.42% over a walking distance.

  19. Residency Patterns and Secondary Migration of Refugees: A State of the Information Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Susan

    This paper synthesizes available research regarding the residence patterns of refugees in the United States. Information is presented on both initial placement and secondary migration. The first section traces the evolution of U.S. policy and outcomes from 1945 to the start of the Indochinese resettlement program in 1975. The second section…

  20. Using an ontology pattern stack to engineer a core ontology of Accounting Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blums, Ivar; Weigand, Hans

    Although the field of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) has a long tradition, there is still a lack of a widely adopted conceptualization. In this paper, The UFO ontology patterns are regarded for application by analogy and extension in the engineering of a core ontology for AIS. The new IASB

  1. Using Clustering Techniques To Detect Usage Patterns in a Web-based Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Cooper, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    This study developed an analytical approach to detecting groups with homogenous usage patterns in a Web-based information system. Principal component analysis was used for data reduction, cluster analysis for categorizing usage into groups. The methodology was demonstrated and tested using two independent samples of user sessions from the…

  2. Stochastic Modeling of Usage Patterns in a Web-Based Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Cooper, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    Uses continuous-time stochastic models, mainly based on semi-Markov chains, to derive user state transition patterns, both in rates and in probabilities, in a Web-based information system. Describes search sessions from transaction logs of the University of California's MELVYL library catalog system and discusses sequential dependency. (Author/LRW)

  3. Vulnerability to climate change of cocoa in West Africa: Patterns, opportunities and limits to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; Läderach, Peter; Martinez-Valle, Armando Isaac; Bunn, Christian; Jassogne, Laurence

    2016-06-15

    The West African cocoa belt, reaching from Sierra Leone to southern Cameroon, is the origin of about 70% of the world's cocoa (Theobroma cacao), which in turn is the basis of the livelihoods of about two million farmers. We analyze cocoa's vulnerability to climate change in the West African cocoa belt, based on climate projections for the 2050s of 19 Global Circulation Models under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change intermediate emissions scenario RCP 6.0. We use a combination of a statistical model of climatic suitability (Maxent) and the analysis of individual, potentially limiting climate variables. We find that: 1) contrary to expectation, maximum dry season temperatures are projected to become as or more limiting for cocoa as dry season water availability; 2) to reduce the vulnerability of cocoa to excessive dry season temperatures, the systematic use of adaptation strategies like shade trees in cocoa farms will be necessary, in reversal of the current trend of shade reduction; 3) there is a strong differentiation of climate vulnerability within the cocoa belt, with the most vulnerable areas near the forest-savanna transition in Nigeria and eastern Côte d'Ivoire, and the least vulnerable areas in the southern parts of Cameroon, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; 4) this spatial differentiation of climate vulnerability may lead to future shifts in cocoa production within the region, with the opportunity of partially compensating losses and gains, but also the risk of local production expansion leading to new deforestation. We conclude that adaptation strategies for cocoa in West Africa need to focus at several levels, from the consideration of tolerance to high temperatures in cocoa breeding programs, the promotion of shade trees in cocoa farms, to policies incentivizing the intensification of cocoa production on existing farms where future climate conditions permit and the establishment of new farms in already deforested areas. Copyright © 2016

  4. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (Pinformation search patterns

  5. Semantic Network Adaptation Based on QoS Pattern Recognition for Multimedia Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposito, Ernesto; Gineste, Mathieu; Lamolle, Myriam; Gomez, Jorge

    This article proposes an ontology based pattern recognition methodology to compute and represent common QoS properties of the Application Data Units (ADU) of multimedia streams. The use of this ontology by mechanisms located at different layers of the communication architecture will allow implementing fine per-packet self-optimization of communication services regarding the actual application requirements. A case study showing how this methodology is used by error control mechanisms in the context of wireless networks is presented in order to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of this approach.

  6. An on-demand provision model for geospatial multisource information with active self-adaption services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Li, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Location-related data are playing an increasingly irreplaceable role in business, government and scientific research. At the same time, the amount and types of data are rapidly increasing. It is a challenge how to quickly find required information from this rapidly growing volume of data, as well as how to efficiently provide different levels of geospatial data to users. This paper puts forward a data-oriented access model for geographic information science data. First, we analyze the features of GIS data including traditional types such as vector and raster data and new types such as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). Taking into account these analyses, a classification scheme for geographic data is proposed and TRAFIE is introduced to describe the establishment of a multi-level model for geographic data. Based on this model, a multi-level, scalable access system for geospatial information is put forward. Users can select different levels of data according to their concrete application needs. Pull-based and push-based data access mechanisms based on this model are presented. A Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) was chosen for the data processing. The model of this study has been described by providing decision-making process of government departments with a simulation of fire disaster data collection. The use case shows this data model and the data provision system is flexible and has good adaptability.

  7. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.

  8. A robust impact assessment that informs actionable climate change adaptation: future sunburn browning risk in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Leanne; Darbyshire, Rebecca; Erwin, Tim; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-05-01

    Climate change impact assessments are predominantly undertaken for the purpose of informing future adaptation decisions. Often, the complexity of the methodology hinders the actionable outcomes. The approach used here illustrates the importance of considering uncertainty in future climate projections, at the same time providing robust and simple to interpret information for decision-makers. By quantifying current and future exposure of Royal Gala apple to damaging temperature extremes across ten important pome fruit-growing locations in Australia, differences in impact to ripening fruit are highlighted, with, by the end of the twenty-first century, some locations maintaining no sunburn browning risk, while others potentially experiencing the risk for the majority of the January ripening period. Installation of over-tree netting can reduce the impact of sunburn browning. The benefits from employing this management option varied across the ten study locations. The two approaches explored to assist decision-makers assess this information (a) using sunburn browning risk analogues and (b) through identifying hypothetical sunburn browning risk thresholds, resulted in varying recommendations for introducing over-tree netting. These recommendations were location and future time period dependent with some sites showing no benefit for sunburn protection from nets even by the end of the twenty-first century and others already deriving benefits from employing this adaptation option. Potential best and worst cases of sunburn browning risk and its potential reduction through introduction of over-tree nets were explored. The range of results presented highlights the importance of addressing uncertainty in climate projections that result from different global climate models and possible future emission pathways.

  9. A robust impact assessment that informs actionable climate change adaptation: future sunburn browning risk in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Leanne; Darbyshire, Rebecca; Erwin, Tim; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-05-01

    Climate change impact assessments are predominantly undertaken for the purpose of informing future adaptation decisions. Often, the complexity of the methodology hinders the actionable outcomes. The approach used here illustrates the importance of considering uncertainty in future climate projections, at the same time providing robust and simple to interpret information for decision-makers. By quantifying current and future exposure of Royal Gala apple to damaging temperature extremes across ten important pome fruit-growing locations in Australia, differences in impact to ripening fruit are highlighted, with, by the end of the twenty-first century, some locations maintaining no sunburn browning risk, while others potentially experiencing the risk for the majority of the January ripening period. Installation of over-tree netting can reduce the impact of sunburn browning. The benefits from employing this management option varied across the ten study locations. The two approaches explored to assist decision-makers assess this information (a) using sunburn browning risk analogues and (b) through identifying hypothetical sunburn browning risk thresholds, resulted in varying recommendations for introducing over-tree netting. These recommendations were location and future time period dependent with some sites showing no benefit for sunburn protection from nets even by the end of the twenty-first century and others already deriving benefits from employing this adaptation option. Potential best and worst cases of sunburn browning risk and its potential reduction through introduction of over-tree nets were explored. The range of results presented highlights the importance of addressing uncertainty in climate projections that result from different global climate models and possible future emission pathways.

  10. Patterns of Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Creation in New Information Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Meyer, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    and creation processes. The aim is to obtain a deeper comprehension of which factors determine whether the use of information technology becomes a success or a failure in relation to knowledge sharing and creation. The paper is based on three previous studies investigating the use of information technology......Do the knowledge sharing and creation processes in collaborating groups benefit from the use of new information environments or are the environments rather inhibitive to the development of these processes? A number of different studies have shown quite varied results when it comes to appraising...... the importance and value of using new information technology in knowledge sharing and creation processes. In this paper we will try to unveil the patterns appearing in the use of new information environment and the users' understanding of the significance of using information technology in knowledge sharing...

  11. Evidence-based adaptation and scale-up of a mobile phone health information service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly; Plourde, Kate F; Zan, Trinity

    2017-01-01

    The research base recommending the use of mobile phone interventions for health improvement is growing at a rapid pace. The use of mobile phones to deliver health behavior change and maintenance interventions in particular is gaining a robust evidence base across geographies, populations, and health topics. However, research on best practices for successfully scaling mHealth interventions is not keeping pace, despite the availability of frameworks for adapting and scaling health programs. m4RH-Mobile for Reproductive Health-is an SMS, or text message-based, health information service that began in two countries and over a period of 7 years has been adapted and scaled to new population groups and new countries. Success can be attributed to following key principles for scaling up health programs, including continuous stakeholder engagement; ongoing monitoring, evaluation, and research including extensive content and usability testing with the target audience; strategic dissemination of results; and use of marketing and sustainability principles for social initiatives. This article investigates how these factors contributed to vertical, horizontal, and global scale-up of the m4RH program. Vertical scale of m4RH is demonstrated in Tanzania, where the early engagement of stakeholders including the Ministry of Health catalyzed expansion of m4RH content and national-level program reach. Ongoing data collection has provided real-time data for decision-making, information about the user base, and peer-reviewed publications, yielding government endorsement and partner hand-off for sustainability of the m4RH platform. Horizontal scale-up and adaptation of m4RH has occurred through expansion to new populations in Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania, where best practices for design and implementation of mHealth programs were followed to ensure the platform meets the needs of target populations. m4RH also has been modified and packaged for global scale-up through licensing and toolkit

  12. Adaptive pattern recognition in real-time video-based soccer analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlipsing, Marc; Salmen, Jan; Tschentscher, Marc

    2017-01-01

    are taken into account. Our contribution is twofold: (1) the deliberate use of machine learning and pattern recognition techniques allows us to achieve high classification accuracy in varying environments. We systematically evaluate combinations of image features and learning machines in the given online......Computer-aided sports analysis is demanded by coaches and the media. Image processing and machine learning techniques that allow for "live" recognition and tracking of players exist. But these methods are far from collecting and analyzing event data fully autonomously. To generate accurate results......, human interaction is required at different stages including system setup, calibration, supervision of classifier training, and resolution of tracking conflicts. Furthermore, the real-time constraints are challenging: in contrast to other object recognition and tracking applications, we cannot treat data...

  13. Adaptation can explain evidence for encoding of probabilistic information in macaque inferior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vogels, Rufin

    2017-11-20

    In predictive coding theory, the brain is conceptualized as a prediction machine that constantly constructs and updates expectations of the sensory environment [1]. In the context of this theory, Bell et al.[2] recently studied the effect of the probability of task-relevant stimuli on the activity of macaque inferior temporal (IT) neurons and observed a reduced population response to expected faces in face-selective neurons. They concluded that "IT neurons encode long-term, latent probabilistic information about stimulus occurrence", supporting predictive coding. They manipulated expectation by the frequency of face versus fruit stimuli in blocks of trials. With such a design, stimulus repetition is confounded with expectation. As previous studies showed that IT neurons decrease their response with repetition [3], such adaptation (or repetition suppression), instead of expectation suppression as assumed by the authors, could explain their effects. The authors attempted to control for this alternative interpretation with a multiple regression approach. Here we show by using simulation that adaptation can still masquerade as expectation effects reported in [2]. Further, the results from the regression model used for most analyses cannot be trusted, because the model is not uniquely defined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A predictive model to inform adaptive management of double-crested cormorants and fisheries in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehaye, Iyob; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Fielder, David G.; Breck, James E.; Luukkonen, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of double-crested cormorants (DCCOs; Phalacrocorax auritus) in North America has raised concerns over their potential negative impacts on game, cultured and forage fishes, island and terrestrial resources, and other colonial water birds, leading to increased public demands to reduce their abundance. By combining fish surplus production and bird functional feeding response models, we developed a deterministic predictive model representing bird–fish interactions to inform an adaptive management process for the control of DCCOs in multiple colonies in Michigan. Comparisons of model predictions with observations of changes in DCCO numbers under management measures implemented from 2004 to 2012 suggested that our relatively simple model was able to accurately reconstruct past DCCO population dynamics. These comparisons helped discriminate among alternative parameterizations of demographic processes that were poorly known, especially site fidelity. Using sensitivity analysis, we also identified remaining critical uncertainties (mainly in the spatial distributions of fish vs. DCCO feeding areas) that can be used to prioritize future research and monitoring needs. Model forecasts suggested that continuation of existing control efforts would be sufficient to achieve long-term DCCO control targets in Michigan and that DCCO control may be necessary to achieve management goals for some DCCO-impacted fisheries in the state. Finally, our model can be extended by accounting for parametric or ecological uncertainty and including more complex assumptions on DCCO–fish interactions as part of the adaptive management process.

  15. Exploring the Complex Pattern of Information Spreading in Online Blog Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Sen; Muchnik, Lev; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming; Makse, Hernán A.

    2015-01-01

    Information spreading in online social communities has attracted tremendous attention due to its utmost practical values in applications. Despite that several individual-level diffusion data have been investigated, we still lack the detailed understanding of the spreading pattern of information. Here, by comparing information flows and social links in a blog community, we find that the diffusion processes are induced by three different spreading mechanisms: social spreading, self-promotion and broadcast. Although numerous previous studies have employed epidemic spreading models to simulate information diffusion, we observe that such models fail to reproduce the realistic diffusion pattern. In respect to users behaviors, strikingly, we find that most users would stick to one specific diffusion mechanism. Moreover, our observations indicate that the social spreading is not only crucial for the structure of diffusion trees, but also capable of inducing more subsequent individuals to acquire the information. Our findings suggest new directions for modeling of information diffusion in social systems, and could inform design of efficient propagation strategies based on users behaviors. PMID:25985081

  16. Objective assessment of chromatic and achromatic pattern adaptation reveals the temporal response properties of different visual pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Anthony G; Kulikowski, Janus J

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the temporal response properties of magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular visual pathways using increment/decrement changes in contrast to elicit visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Static achromatic and isoluminant chromatic gratings were generated on a monitor. Chromatic gratings were modulated along red/green (R/G) or subject-specific tritanopic confusion axes, established using a minimum distinct border criterion. Isoluminance was determined using minimum flicker photometry. Achromatic and chromatic VEPs were recorded to contrast increments and decrements of 0.1 or 0.2 superimposed on the static gratings (masking contrast 0-0.6). Achromatic increment/decrement changes in contrast evoked a percept of apparent motion when the spatial frequency was low; VEPs to such stimuli were positive in polarity and largely unaffected by high levels of static contrast, consistent with transient response mechanisms. VEPs to finer achromatic gratings showed marked attenuation as static contrast was increased. Chromatic VEPs to R/G or tritan chromatic contrast increments were of negative polarity and showed progressive attenuation as static contrast was increased, in keeping with increasing desensitization of the sustained responses of the color-opponent visual pathways. Chromatic contrast decrement VEPs were of positive polarity and less sensitive to pattern adaptation. The relative contribution of sustained/transient mechanisms to achromatic processing is spatial frequency dependent. Chromatic contrast increment VEPs reflect the sustained temporal response properties of parvocellular and koniocellular pathways. Cortical VEPs can provide an objective measure of pattern adaptation and can be used to probe the temporal response characteristics of different visual pathways.

  17. Patterns of adaptive and neutral diversity identify the Xiaoxiangling mountains as a refuge for the giant panda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Genetic variation plays a significant role in maintaining the evolutionary potential of a species. Comparing the patterns of adaptive and neutral diversity in extant populations is useful for understanding the local adaptations of a species. In this study, we determined the fine-scale genetic structure of 6 extant populations of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca using mtDNA and DNA fingerprints, and then overlaid adaptive variations in 6 functional Aime-MHC class II genes (DRA, DRB3, DQA1, DQA2, DQB1, and DQB2 on this framework. We found that: (1 analysis of the mtDNA and DNA fingerprint-based networks of the 6 populations identified the independent evolutionary histories of the 2 panda subspecies; (2 the basal (ancestral branches of the fingerprint-based Sichuan-derived network all originated from the smallest Xiaoxiangling (XXL population, suggesting the status of a glacial refuge in XXL; (3 the MHC variations among the tested populations showed that the XXL population exhibited extraordinary high levels of MHC diversity in allelic richness, which is consistent with the diversity characteristics of a glacial refuge; (4 the phylogenetic tree showed that the basal clades of giant panda DQB sequences were all occupied by XXL-specific sequences, providing evidence for the ancestor-resembling traits of XXL. Finally, we found that the giant panda had many more DQ alleles than DR alleles (33∶13, contrary to other mammals, and that the XXL refuge showed special characteristics in the DQB loci, with 7 DQB members of 9 XXL-unique alleles. Thus, this study identified XXL as a glacial refuge, specifically harboring the most number of primitive DQB alleles.

  18. Rich context information for just-in-time adaptive intervention promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, F; Nugent, C; Cleland, I; McCullagh, P

    2017-07-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and inadequate levels of physical activity represent two serious health risk factors. Nevertheless, within developed countries, 60% of people aged over 60 are deemed to be sedentary. Consequently, interest in behavior change to promote physical activity is increasing. In particular, the role of emerging mobile apps to facilitate behavior change has shown promising results. Smart technologies can help in providing rich context information including an objective assessment of the level of physical activity and information on the emotional and physiological state of the person. Collectively, this can be used to develop innovative persuasive solutions for adaptive behavior change. Such solutions offer potential in reducing levels of sedentary behavior. This work presents a study exploring new ways of employing smart technologies to facilitate behavior change. It is achieved by means of (i) developing a knowledge base on sedentary behaviors and recommended physical activity guidelines, and (ii) a context model able to combine information on physical activity, location, and a user's diary to develop a context-aware virtual coach with the ability to select the most appropriate behavior change strategy on a case by case basis.

  19. Adaptive Information Dissemination Control to Provide Diffdelay for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications running on the Internet of Things, such as the Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs platform, generally have different quality of service (QoS requirements. For urgent events, it is crucial that information be reported to the actuator quickly, and the communication cost is the second factor. However, for interesting events, communication costs, network lifetime and time all become important factors. In most situations, these different requirements cannot be satisfied simultaneously. In this paper, an adaptive communication control based on a differentiated delay (ACCDS scheme is proposed to resolve this conflict. In an ACCDS, source nodes of events adaptively send various searching actuators routings (SARs based on the degree of sensitivity to delay while maintaining the network lifetime. For a delay-sensitive event, the source node sends a large number of SARs to actuators to identify and inform the actuators in an extremely short time; thus, action can be taken quickly but at higher communication costs. For delay-insensitive events, the source node sends fewer SARs to reduce communication costs and improve network lifetime. Therefore, an ACCDS can meet the QoS requirements of different events using a differentiated delay framework. Theoretical analysis simulation results indicate that an ACCDS provides delay and communication costs and differentiated services; an ACCDS scheme can reduce the network delay by 11.111%–53.684% for a delay-sensitive event and reduce the communication costs by 5%–22.308% for interesting events, and reduce the network lifetime by about 28.713%.

  20. Shared human-chimpanzee pattern of perinatal femoral shaft morphology and its implications for the evolution of hominin locomotor adaptations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Morimoto

    Full Text Available Acquisition of bipedality is a hallmark of human evolution. How bipedality evolved from great ape-like locomotor behaviors, however, is still highly debated. This is mainly because it is difficult to infer locomotor function, and even more so locomotor kinematics, from fossil hominin long bones. Structure-function relationships are complex, as long bone morphology reflects phyletic history, developmental programs, and loading history during an individual's lifetime. Here we discriminate between these factors by investigating the morphology of long bones in fetal and neonate great apes and humans, before the onset of locomotion.Comparative morphometric analysis of the femoral diaphysis indicates that its morphology reflects phyletic relationships between hominoid taxa to a greater extent than taxon-specific locomotor adaptations. Diaphyseal morphology in humans and chimpanzees exhibits several shared-derived features, despite substantial differences in locomotor adaptations. Orangutan and gorilla morphologies are largely similar, and likely represent the primitive hominoid state.These findings are compatible with two possible evolutionary scenarios. Diaphyseal morphology may reflect retained adaptive traits of ancestral taxa, hence human-chimpanzee shared-derived features may be indicative of the locomotor behavior of our last common ancestor. Alternatively, diaphyseal morphology might reflect evolution by genetic drift (neutral evolution rather than selection, and might thus be more informative about phyletic relationships between taxa than about locomotor adaptations. Both scenarios are consistent with the hypothesis that knuckle-walking in chimpanzees and gorillas resulted from convergent evolution, and that the evolution of human bipedality is unrelated to extant great ape locomotor specializations.

  1. Patterns of media use in Brazil and their impact on political information levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir G Gramacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available REVISTA DEBATES OPEN JOURNAL SYSTEMS Journal Help USER Username Password Remember me Login LANGUAGE JOURNAL CONTENT Search Search Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals FONT SIZE Make font size smallerMake font size defaultMake font size larger INFORMATION For Readers For Authors For Librarians HOME ABOUT LOGIN REGISTER SEARCH CURRENT ARCHIVES UFRGS Home > Vol 9, No 3 (2015 >\tGramacho Patterns of media use in Brazil and their impact on political information levels Wladimir G Gramacho, André Jácomo Abstract The use of media repertoires that include internet is associated with higher levels of political information policy. This is the main conclusion of this article, whose argument is organized in three stages. The first describes the scene of the Brazilian audience fragmentation and identifies the media usage patterns in the country based on cluster analysis using data from the Brazilian Media Survey 2015. The second indicates the socio-economic characteristics prevailing in each pattern of media use. Finally, the third one examines the influence of these different media repertoires on levels of political information among Brazilians, based on an ordinal logistic regression model.

  2. Childbearing patterns among immigrant women and their daughters in Spain: Over-adaptation or structural constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo González-Ferrer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spain, a country with one of the lowest fertility levels in the world, has recently received intense immigration flows that may contribute to fertility recovery. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine whether the childbearing behaviour of immigrant women and their descendants shows a pattern of convergence with that of Spanish women born in or after 1950. Methods: After merging data from the Fertility and Values Survey (2006 and the National Immigrants Survey (2007, we analyse the transition to first, second, and third birth using event history models, to identify variations in timing and incidence of birth transitions between native Spanish women and immigrant groups. Results: Previous literature has found that migration disrupts immigrants' fertility only temporarily; however, in the case of Spain, most migrant women who moved before starting family formation do not seem to fully compensate for migration-related disruption of fertility at a later stage. Our findings challenge the widespread belief that immigrants' childbearing alone will allow Spain to leave behind the current lowest-low and latest-late fertility scenario. Contribution: This article analyzes for the first time the fertility of different immigrant generations in Spain compared to native women, applying event history techniques. Our findings challenge conventional wisdom that immigration will improve very low fertility levels in Spain.

  3. Formalization of the classification pattern: survey of classification modeling in information systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Chris; de Cesare, Sergio; Mitchell, Andrew; Odell, James

    2018-01-01

    Formalization is becoming more common in all stages of the development of information systems, as a better understanding of its benefits emerges. Classification systems are ubiquitous, no more so than in domain modeling. The classification pattern that underlies these systems provides a good case study of the move toward formalization in part because it illustrates some of the barriers to formalization, including the formal complexity of the pattern and the ontological issues surrounding the "one and the many." Powersets are a way of characterizing the (complex) formal structure of the classification pattern, and their formalization has been extensively studied in mathematics since Cantor's work in the late nineteenth century. One can use this formalization to develop a useful benchmark. There are various communities within information systems engineering (ISE) that are gradually working toward a formalization of the classification pattern. However, for most of these communities, this work is incomplete, in that they have not yet arrived at a solution with the expressiveness of the powerset benchmark. This contrasts with the early smooth adoption of powerset by other information systems communities to, for example, formalize relations. One way of understanding the varying rates of adoption is recognizing that the different communities have different historical baggage. Many conceptual modeling communities emerged from work done on database design, and this creates hurdles to the adoption of the high level of expressiveness of powersets. Another relevant factor is that these communities also often feel, particularly in the case of domain modeling, a responsibility to explain the semantics of whatever formal structures they adopt. This paper aims to make sense of the formalization of the classification pattern in ISE and surveys its history through the literature, starting from the relevant theoretical works of the mathematical literature and gradually shifting focus

  4. Vascular Adaptation: Pattern Formation and Cross Validation between an Agent Based Model and a Dynamical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbey, Marc; Casarin, Stefano; Berceli, Scott A

    2017-09-21

    Myocardial infarction is the global leading cause of mortality (Go et al., 2014). Coronary artery occlusion is its main etiology and it is commonly treated by Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery (Wilson et al, 2007). The long-term outcome remains unsatisfactory (Benedetto, 2016) as the graft faces the phenomenon of restenosis during the post-surgery, which consists of re-occlusion of the lumen and usually requires secondary intervention even within one year after the initial surgery (Harskamp, 2013). In this work, we propose an extensive study of the restenosis phenomenon by implementing two mathematical models previously developed by our group: a heuristic Dynamical System (DS) (Garbey and Berceli, 2013), and a stochastic Agent Based Model (ABM) (Garbey et al., 2015). With an extensive use of the ABM, we retrieved the pattern formations of the cellular events that mainly lead the restenosis, especially focusing on mitosis in intima, caused by alteration in shear stress, and mitosis in media, fostered by alteration in wall tension. A deep understanding of the elements at the base of the restenosis is indeed crucial in order to improve the final outcome of vein graft bypass. We also turned the ABM closer to the physiological reality by abating its original assumption of circumferential symmetry. This allowed us to finely replicate the trigger event of the restenosis, i.e. the loss of the endothelium in the early stage of the post-surgical follow up (Roubos et al., 1995) and to simulate the encroachment of the lumen in a fashion aligned with histological evidences (Owens et al., 2015). Finally, we cross-validated the two models by creating an accurate matching procedure. In this way we added the degree of accuracy given by the ABM to a simplified model (DS) that can serve as powerful predictive tool for the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359786-13$15.00/0.

  6. Putting User Stories First: Experiences Adapting the Legacy Data Models and Information Architecture at NASA JPL's PO.DAAC to Accommodate the New Information Lifecycle Required by SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbney, L. J.; Hausman, J.; Laurencelle, J. C.; Toaz, R., Jr.; McAuley, J.; Freeborn, D. J.; Stoner, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Surface Water & Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission brings together two communities focused on a better understanding of the world's oceans and its terrestrial surface waters. U.S. and French oceanographers and hydrologists and international partners have joined forces to develop this new space mission. At NASA JPL's PO.DAAC, the team is currently engaged in the gathering of SWOT User Stores (access patterns, metadata requirements, primary and value added product requirements, data access protocols, etc.) to better inform the adaptive planning of what will be known as the next generation PO.DAAC Information Architecture (IA). The IA effort acknowledges that missions such as SWOT (and NISAR) have few or no precedent in terms of data volume, hot and cold storage, archival, analysis, existing system engineering complexities, etc. and that the only way we can better understand the projected impacts of such requirements is to interface directly with the User Community. Additionally, it also acknowledges that collective learning has taken place to understand certain limitations in the existing data models (DM) underlying the existing PO.DAAC Data Management and Archival System. This work documents an evolutionary, use case based, standards driven approach to adapting the legacy DM and accompanying knowledge representation infrastructure at NASA JPL's PO.DAAC to address forthcoming DAAC mission requirements presented by missions such as SWOT. Some of the topics covered in this evolution include, but are not limited to: How we are leveraging lessons learned from the development of existing DM (such as that generated for SMAP) in an attempt to map them to SWOT. What is the governance model for the SWOT IA? What are the `governing' entities? What is the hierarchy of the `governed entities'? How are elements grouped? How is the design-working group formed? How is model independence maintained and what choices/requirements do we have for the implementation language? The use of

  7. On Assisting a Visual-Facial Affect Recognition System with Keyboard-Stroke Pattern Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, I.-O.; Alepis, E.; Tsihrintzis, G. A.; Virvou, M.

    Towards realizing a multimodal affect recognition system, we are considering the advantages of assisting a visual-facial expression recognition system with keyboard-stroke pattern information. Our work is based on the assumption that the visual-facial and keyboard modalities are complementary to each other and that their combination can significantly improve the accuracy in affective user models. Specifically, we present and discuss the development and evaluation process of two corresponding affect recognition subsystems, with emphasis on the recognition of 6 basic emotional states, namely happiness, sadness, surprise, anger and disgust as well as the emotion-less state which we refer to as neutral. We find that emotion recognition by the visual-facial modality can be aided greatly by keyboard-stroke pattern information and the combination of the two modalities can lead to better results towards building a multimodal affect recognition system.

  8. Regulative feedback in pattern formation: towards a general relativistic theory of positional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Johannes; Irons, David; Monk, Nick

    2008-10-01

    Positional specification by morphogen gradients is traditionally viewed as a two-step process. A gradient is formed and then interpreted, providing a spatial metric independent of the target tissue, similar to the concept of space in classical mechanics. However, the formation and interpretation of gradients are coupled, dynamic processes. We introduce a conceptual framework for positional specification in which cellular activity feeds back on positional information encoded by gradients, analogous to the feedback between mass-energy distribution and the geometry of space-time in Einstein's general theory of relativity. We discuss how such general relativistic positional information (GRPI) can guide systems-level approaches to pattern formation.

  9. Adaptive memory: young children show enhanced retention of fitness-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists propose that human cognition evolved through natural selection to solve adaptive problems related to survival and reproduction, with its ultimate function being the enhancement of reproductive fitness. Following this proposal and the evolutionary-developmental view that ancestral selection pressures operated not only on reproductive adults, but also on pre-reproductive children, the present study examined whether young children show superior memory for information that is processed in terms of its survival value. In two experiments, we found such survival processing to enhance retention in 4- to 10-year-old children, relative to various control conditions that also required deep, meaningful processing but were not related to survival. These results suggest that, already in very young children, survival processing is a special and extraordinarily effective form of memory encoding. The results support the functional-evolutionary proposal that young children's memory is "tuned" to process and retain fitness-related information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptive design optimization: a mutual information-based approach to model discrimination in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Daniel R; Myung, Jay I; Pitt, Mark A; Kujala, Janne V

    2010-04-01

    Discriminating among competing statistical models is a pressing issue for many experimentalists in the field of cognitive science. Resolving this issue begins with designing maximally informative experiments. To this end, the problem to be solved in adaptive design optimization is identifying experimental designs under which one can infer the underlying model in the fewest possible steps. When the models under consideration are nonlinear, as is often the case in cognitive science, this problem can be impossible to solve analytically without simplifying assumptions. However, as we show in this letter, a full solution can be found numerically with the help of a Bayesian computational trick derived from the statistics literature, which recasts the problem as a probability density simulation in which the optimal design is the mode of the density. We use a utility function based on mutual information and give three intuitive interpretations of the utility function in terms of Bayesian posterior estimates. As a proof of concept, we offer a simple example application to an experiment on memory retention.

  11. Informative gene selection using Adaptive Analytic Hierarchy Process (A2HP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bhola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression dataset derived from microarray experiments are marked by large number of genes, which contains the gene expression values at different sample conditions/time-points. Selection of informative genes from these large datasets is an issue of major concern for various researchers and biologists. In this study, we propose a gene selection and dimensionality reduction method called Adaptive Analytic Hierarchy Process (A2HP. Traditional analytic hierarchy process is a multiple-criteria based decision analysis method whose result depends upon the expert knowledge or decision makers. It is mainly used to solve the decision problems in different fields. On the other hand, A2HP is a fused method that combines the outcomes of five individual gene selection ranking methods t-test, chi-square variance test, z-test, wilcoxon test and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. At first, the preprocessing of gene expression dataset is done and then the reduced number of genes obtained, will be fed as input for A2HP. A2HP utilizes both quantitative and qualitative factors to select the informative genes. Results demonstrate that A2HP selects efficient number of genes as compared to the individual gene selection methods. The percentage of deduction in number of genes and time complexity are taken as the performance measure for the proposed method. And it is shown that A2HP outperforms individual gene selection methods.

  12. ARACNe-AP: gene network reverse engineering through adaptive partitioning inference of mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Alexander; Giorgi, Federico M; Lopez, Gonzalo; Califano, Andrea

    2016-07-15

    The accurate reconstruction of gene regulatory networks from large scale molecular profile datasets represents one of the grand challenges of Systems Biology. The Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe) represents one of the most effective tools to accomplish this goal. However, the initial Fixed Bandwidth (FB) implementation is both inefficient and unable to deal with sample sets providing largely uneven coverage of the probability density space. Here, we present a completely new implementation of the algorithm, based on an Adaptive Partitioning strategy (AP) for estimating the Mutual Information. The new AP implementation (ARACNe-AP) achieves a dramatic improvement in computational performance (200× on average) over the previous methodology, while preserving the Mutual Information estimator and the Network inference accuracy of the original algorithm. Given that the previous version of ARACNe is extremely demanding, the new version of the algorithm will allow even researchers with modest computational resources to build complex regulatory networks from hundreds of gene expression profiles. A JAVA cross-platform command line executable of ARACNe, together with all source code and a detailed usage guide are freely available on Sourceforge (http://sourceforge.net/projects/aracne-ap). JAVA version 8 or higher is required. califano@c2b2.columbia.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Information fusion in personal biometric authentication based on the iris pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenghua; Han, Jiuqiang

    2009-01-01

    Information fusion in biometrics has received considerable attention. This paper focuses on the application of information fusion techniques in iris recognition. To improve the reliability and accuracy of personal identification based on the iris pattern, this paper proposes the schemes of multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion. Multialgorithmic fusion integrates the improved phase algorithm and the DCT-based algorithm, and multiinstance fusion combines information from the left iris and the right iris of an individual. Both multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion are carried out at the matching score level and the support vector machine (SVM)-based fusion rule is utilized to generate fused scores for final decision. The experimental results on the noisy iris database UBIRIS demonstrate that the proposed fusion schemes can perform better than the single recognition systems, and further prove that information fusion techniques are feasible and effective to improve the accuracy and robustness of iris recognition especially under noisy conditions

  14. Use patterns of health information exchange through a multidimensional lens: conceptual framework and empirical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Liran; Codish, Shlomi; Sagy, Iftach; Fink, Lior

    2014-12-01

    Insights about patterns of system use are often gained through the analysis of system log files, which record the actual behavior of users. In a clinical context, however, few attempts have been made to typify system use through log file analysis. The present study offers a framework for identifying, describing, and discerning among patterns of use of a clinical information retrieval system. We use the session attributes of volume, diversity, granularity, duration, and content to define a multidimensional space in which each specific session can be positioned. We also describe an analytical method for identifying the common archetypes of system use in this multidimensional space. We demonstrate the value of the proposed framework with a log file of the use of a health information exchange (HIE) system by physicians in an emergency department (ED) of a large Israeli hospital. The analysis reveals five distinct patterns of system use, which have yet to be described in the relevant literature. The results of this study have the potential to inform the design of HIE systems for efficient and effective use, thus increasing their contribution to the clinical decision-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding Information Sharing Among Scientists Through a Professional Online Community: Analyses on Interaction Patterns and Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin, Eun-Ja

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Even through many professional organizations increasingly use Q&A sites in their online communities for information sharing, there are few studies which examine what is really going on in the Q&A activities in professional online communities (POC. This study aims to examine the interaction patterns and contents posted in the Q&A site of a POC, KOSEN, a science and technology online community in South Korea, focusing on how actively scientific information and knowledge are shared. The interaction patterns among the participants were identified through social network analysis (SNA and the contents in the Q&As were examined by content analysis. The results show that the overall network indicated a moderate level of participation and connection and answerers especially tended to be active. Also, there are different interaction patterns depending on academic fields. Relatively few participants were posting leaders who seemed to steer the overall interactions. Furthermore, some content related to manipulation and explanation for experiments, which are in urgent need, seem to be posted in the sites more frequently with more amounts. Combining both SNA and content analysis, this study demonstrated how actively information and knowledge is shared and what types of contents are exchanged. The findings have practical implications for POC managers and practitioners.

  16. Pattern of exposure to information and its impact on seasonal influenza vaccination uptake in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, E K H; Lee, S; Lee, S S

    2017-12-01

    Uptake of annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) varies, and remains at a suboptimal level in many countries. As HCWs are often exposed to a variety of information about vaccination, the pattern of exposure may impact their decision; this deserves further investigation. Practising nurses in Hong Kong were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey in February 2016, after the winter seasonal peak. The questionnaire covered demographics, work nature and experiences, vaccination uptake history and reasons for vaccination decisions. Two behavioural categories for access to information were defined - passive exposure to information and active information-seeking - differentiated by the source, type and nature of information accessed. Chi-squared test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression were performed to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated nurses. In total, 1177 valid returns were received from nurses. The median age of respondents was 32 years and 86% were female. The overall vaccination rate was 33%. Passive exposure to information from the workplace, professional body and social network was not predictive of vaccination decision, but passive exposure to information from mass media was predictive [odds ratio (OR) 1.78]. Active information-seeking, such as consulting a senior (OR 2.46), organizing promotional activities (OR 2.85) and undertaking an information search (OR 2.43), was significantly associated with increased vaccination uptake. A cumulative effect could be demonstrated for active information-seeking (OR 1.86), but not for passive exposure to information. The current strategy of promotions and campaigns for seasonal influenza vaccination in HCWs may not be effective in increasing vaccination coverage. Measures targeting information-seeking behaviours may serve as an alternative approach. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating Chinese Migrants’ Information-Seeking Patterns in Canada: Media Selection and Language Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Mao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking a quantitative approach, this research surveyed Chinese migrants in Canada regarding channels they rely on to seek various information. This research also investigates how Chinese migrants’ preferences of channels correlate with their intercultural sensitivity level. Chinese migrants prefer Chinese newspapers and websites for government/policy information and life information rather than English newspapers and websites. However, they use English newspapers and websites more frequently for job and career development information. Overall, English television and radio are more frequently used by Chinese migrants than Chinese television and radio broadcasts. The intercultural sensitivity levels of Chinese migrants have a positive correlation with their frequencies of using English information resources, including government websites, English newspapers, English non-government websites, government officers, personal non-Chinese social networks, and English television and radio. Findings of this research suggest that Chinese ethnic media play an important role in Chinese migrants’ information-seeking behaviours and patterns in Canada. On one hand, government and other organizations can reach the Chinese migrant community through information diffusion in Chinese ethnic media. On the other hand, Chinese migrants should make an active effort to improve their English proficiency and intercultural communication sensitivity to better integrate themselves into the Canadian society. A more balanced approach of seeking information from English and Chinese media sources could be more beneficial for Chinese migrants.

  18. Adaptation of machine translation for multilingual information retrieval in the medical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, Pavel; Dušek, Ondřej; Goeuriot, Lorraine; Hajič, Jan; Hlaváčová, Jaroslava; Jones, Gareth J F; Kelly, Liadh; Leveling, Johannes; Mareček, David; Novák, Michal; Popel, Martin; Rosa, Rudolf; Tamchyna, Aleš; Urešová, Zdeňka

    2014-07-01

    We investigate machine translation (MT) of user search queries in the context of cross-lingual information retrieval (IR) in the medical domain. The main focus is on techniques to adapt MT to increase translation quality; however, we also explore MT adaptation to improve effectiveness of cross-lingual IR. Our MT system is Moses, a state-of-the-art phrase-based statistical machine translation system. The IR system is based on the BM25 retrieval model implemented in the Lucene search engine. The MT techniques employed in this work include in-domain training and tuning, intelligent training data selection, optimization of phrase table configuration, compound splitting, and exploiting synonyms as translation variants. The IR methods include morphological normalization and using multiple translation variants for query expansion. The experiments are performed and thoroughly evaluated on three language pairs: Czech-English, German-English, and French-English. MT quality is evaluated on data sets created within the Khresmoi project and IR effectiveness is tested on the CLEF eHealth 2013 data sets. The search query translation results achieved in our experiments are outstanding - our systems outperform not only our strong baselines, but also Google Translate and Microsoft Bing Translator in direct comparison carried out on all the language pairs. The baseline BLEU scores increased from 26.59 to 41.45 for Czech-English, from 23.03 to 40.82 for German-English, and from 32.67 to 40.82 for French-English. This is a 55% improvement on average. In terms of the IR performance on this particular test collection, a significant improvement over the baseline is achieved only for French-English. For Czech-English and German-English, the increased MT quality does not lead to better IR results. Most of the MT techniques employed in our experiments improve MT of medical search queries. Especially the intelligent training data selection proves to be very successful for domain adaptation of

  19. An Experimental Investigation of Improving Human Problem-Solving Performance by Guiding Attention and Adaptively Proving Details on Information Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narayanan, N. H

    2007-01-01

    .... Results showed that various display strategies for augmenting information presented based on knowledge about both the viewer's gaze patterns and the problem solving procedure he or she is employing could indeed improve problem-solving performance.

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Improving Human Problem-Solving Performance by Guiding Attention and Adaptively Providing Details on Information Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narayanan, N. H

    2007-01-01

    .... Results showed that various display strategies for augmenting information presented based on knowledge about both the viewer's gaze patterns and the problem solving procedure he or she is employing could indeed improve problem-solving performance.

  1. An Experimental Investigation of Improving Human Problem-Solving Performance by Guiding Attention and Adaptively Providing Details on Information Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narayanan, N. H

    2007-01-01

    ... in real-time in response to the viewer's gaze patterns. Designs of these displays were based on a cognitive model of multimodal information comprehension developed in a previous ONR project (N00014-96-1-1187...

  2. An Experimental Investigation of Improving Human Problem-Solving Performance by Guiding Attention and Adaptively Proving Details on Information Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narayanan, N. H

    2007-01-01

    ... in real-time in response to the viewer's gaze patterns. Designs of these displays were based on a cognitive model of multimodal information comprehension developed in a previous ONR project (N0001496l1187...

  3. Adaptive management and the value of information: learning via intervention in epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Katriona; Tildesley, Michael J.; Runge, Michael C.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal intervention for disease outbreaks is often impeded by severe scientific uncertainty. Adaptive management (AM), long-used in natural resource management, is a structured decision-making approach to solving dynamic problems that accounts for the value of resolving uncertainty via real-time evaluation of alternative models. We propose an AM approach to design and evaluate intervention strategies in epidemiology, using real-time surveillance to resolve model uncertainty as management proceeds, with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) culling and measles vaccination as case studies. We use simulations of alternative intervention strategies under competing models to quantify the effect of model uncertainty on decision making, in terms of the value of information, and quantify the benefit of adaptive versus static intervention strategies. Culling decisions during the 2001 UK FMD outbreak were contentious due to uncertainty about the spatial scale of transmission. The expected benefit of resolving this uncertainty prior to a new outbreak on a UK-like landscape would be £45–£60 million relative to the strategy that minimizes livestock losses averaged over alternate transmission models. AM during the outbreak would be expected to recover up to £20.1 million of this expected benefit. AM would also recommend a more conservative initial approach (culling of infected premises and dangerous contact farms) than would a fixed strategy (which would additionally require culling of contiguous premises). For optimal targeting of measles vaccination, based on an outbreak in Malawi in 2010, AM allows better distribution of resources across the affected region; its utility depends on uncertainty about both the at-risk population and logistical capacity. When daily vaccination rates are highly constrained, the optimal initial strategy is to conduct a small, quick campaign; a reduction in expected burden of approximately 10,000 cases could result if campaign targets can be updated on

  4. PATTERNS OF INTERNET AND TRADITIONAL MEDIA USE FOR POLITICAL INFORMATION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zaini Abu Bakar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing academic interest in the role of new communication technology in the political process in Asia. The increasing influence of the Internet to diffuse political information may have facilitated high voter involvement in the political process in this region. This study examines patterns of on-line and traditional news media use among people who have access to the Internet in Malaysia. The results show an association between the use of the Internet and traditional media -- newspapers, television, and radio -- for political information among the respondents interviewed. This study suggests that the Internet is widely used to gather political information, but its use for this purpose is not replacing the newspapers and television. There is also an indication that the Internet users participate online in a limited number of political activities. However, the political knowledge gained from the Internet does not seem to influence the respondents’ choice of political candidate in elections.

  5. Adaptive rate transmission for spectrum sharing system with quantized channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2011-03-01

    The capacity of a secondary link in spectrum sharing systems has been recently investigated in fading environments. In particular, the secondary transmitter is allowed to adapt its power and rate to maximize its capacity subject to the constraint of maximum interference level allowed at the primary receiver. In most of the literature, it was assumed that estimates of the channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link and the interference level are made available at the secondary transmitter via an infinite-resolution feedback links between the secondary/primary receivers and the secondary transmitter. However, the assumption of having infinite resolution feedback links is not always practical as it requires an excessive amount of bandwidth. In this paper we develop a framework for optimizing the performance of the secondary link in terms of the average spectral efficiency assuming quantized CSI available at the secondary transmitter. We develop a computationally efficient algorithm for optimally quantizing the CSI and finding the optimal power and rate employed at the cognitive transmitter for each quantized CSI level so as to maximize the average spectral efficiency. Our results give the number of bits required to represent the CSI sufficient to achieve almost the maximum average spectral efficiency attained using full knowledge of the CSI for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Adaptive rate transmission for spectrum sharing system with quantized channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Salem, Ahmed H.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of a secondary link in spectrum sharing systems has been recently investigated in fading environments. In particular, the secondary transmitter is allowed to adapt its power and rate to maximize its capacity subject to the constraint of maximum interference level allowed at the primary receiver. In most of the literature, it was assumed that estimates of the channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link and the interference level are made available at the secondary transmitter via an infinite-resolution feedback links between the secondary/primary receivers and the secondary transmitter. However, the assumption of having infinite resolution feedback links is not always practical as it requires an excessive amount of bandwidth. In this paper we develop a framework for optimizing the performance of the secondary link in terms of the average spectral efficiency assuming quantized CSI available at the secondary transmitter. We develop a computationally efficient algorithm for optimally quantizing the CSI and finding the optimal power and rate employed at the cognitive transmitter for each quantized CSI level so as to maximize the average spectral efficiency. Our results give the number of bits required to represent the CSI sufficient to achieve almost the maximum average spectral efficiency attained using full knowledge of the CSI for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Informational Needs of Korean Women with Breast Cancer: Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Toronto Informational Needs Questionnaire of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungsun Yi, RN, DNS

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: The TINQ-BC, developed and tested in Canada, was adapted and successfully utilized in this study in Korea, indicating that it has the potential to assess the informational needs of women with breast cancer on an international basis. Health care professionals must be aware of the domains of information that these women perceive to be important so that educational interventions can be effectively planned and executed.

  8. Six Weeks Habituation of Simulated Barefoot Running Induces Neuromuscular Adaptations and Changes in Foot Strike Patterns in Female Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowailed, Iman Akef; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week training program of simulated barefoot running (SBR) on running kinetics in habitually shod (wearing shoes) female recreational runners. Material/Methods Twelve female runners age 25.7±3.4 years gradually increased running distance in Vibram FiveFingers minimal shoes over a 6-week period. The kinetic analysis of treadmill running at 10 Km/h was performed pre- and post-intervention in shod running, non-habituated SBR, and habituated SBR conditions. Spatiotemporal parameters, ground reaction force components, and electromyography (EMG) were measured in all conditions. Results Post-intervention data indicated a significant decrease across time in the habituation SBR for EMG activity of the tibialis anterior (TA) in the pre-activation and absorptive phase of running (Prunning, unhabituated SBR, and habituated SBR. Six weeks of SBR was associated with a significant decrease in the loading rates and impact forces. Additionally, SBR significantly decrease the stride length, step duration, and flight time, and stride frequency was significantly higher compared to shod running. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that changes in motor patterns in previously habitually shod runners are possible and can be accomplished within 6 weeks. Non-habituation SBR did not show a significant neuromuscular adaptation in the EMG activity of TA and GAS as manifested after 6 weeks of habituated SBR. PMID:26166443

  9. North-south patterning of millet agriculture on the Loess Plateau: Late Neolithic adaptations to water stress, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, P.; Shang, X.; Yang, L.; Jones, M.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Water availability and climatic condition profoundly affect agricultural system in different areas. The Loess Plateau, which lies on the marginal area of the East Asian monsoonal climatic zone, is one of the most ideal region to study the agricultural decision-making by ancient farm communities to adapt to different water stress level in same geographic region. Here we report new results of archaeobotanical research on the analysis of charred seeds from two late Neolithic sites on the northern Loess Plateau and review many contemporaneous archaeobotanical data recovered from the south and middle parts of the Loess Plateau. It is indicative of that common millet-based millet agriculture was developed in the arid northern Loess Plateau from the late Yangshao to Longshan periods (3000 1800 BC). Yet, there is a clear preference of foxtail millet farming with rice and wheat production as a supplement in the south and middle parts of the Loess Plateau during the same period. The north-south patterns of millet farming preferring by ancient farmers certainly promoted the social diversity and different evolutionary trajectories of human culture in both areas during the Mid-Late Holocene.

  10. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian Multistage Game with Nonclassical Information Pattern Using a Direct Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Joshua William

    Game theory has application across multiple fields, spanning from economic strategy to optimal control of an aircraft and missile on an intercept trajectory. The idea of game theory is fascinating in that we can actually mathematically model real-world scenarios and determine optimal decision making. It may not always be easy to mathematically model certain real-world scenarios, nonetheless, game theory gives us an appreciation for the complexity involved in decision making. This complexity is especially apparent when the players involved have access to different information upon which to base their decision making (a nonclassical information pattern). Here we will focus on the class of adversarial two-player games (sometimes referred to as pursuit-evasion games) with nonclassical information pattern. We present a two-sided (simultaneous) optimization solution method for the two-player linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) multistage game. This direct solution method allows for further interpretation of each player's decision making (strategy) as compared to previously used formal solution methods. In addition to the optimal control strategies, we present a saddle point proof and we derive an expression for the optimal performance index value. We provide some numerical results in order to further interpret the optimal control strategies and to highlight real-world application of this game-theoretic optimal solution.

  11. A New Skid Trail Pattern Design for Farm Tractors Using Linear Programing and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Gumus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm tractor skidding is one of the common methods of timber extraction in Turkey. However, the absence of an optimal skidding plan covering the entire production area can result in time loss and negative environmental impacts. In this study, the timber extraction by farm tractors was analyzed, and a new skid trail pattern design was developed using Linear Programming (LP and Geographical Information Systems (GIS. First, a sample skidding operation was evaluated with a time study, and an optimum skidding model was generated with LP. Then, the new skidding pattern was developed by an optimum skidding model and GIS analysis. At the end of the study, the developed new skid trail pattern was implemented in the study area and tested by running a time study. Using the newly developed “Direct Skid Trail Pattern (DSTP” model, a 16.84% increase in working time performance was observed when the products were extracted by farm tractors compared to the existing practices. On the other hand, the average soil compaction value measured in the study area at depths of 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm was found to be greater in the sample area skid trails than in the control points. The average density of the skid trails was 281 m/ha, while it decreased to 187 m/ha by using the developed pattern. It was also found that 44,829 ton/ha of soil losses were prevented by using the DSTP model; therefore, environmental damages were decreased.

  12. Adapting to Change: The Value of Change Information and Meaning-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Machteld; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this 3-wave study is to examine the micro process of how employees adapt to change over time. We combined Conservation of Resources theory with insights from the organizational change literature to study employees in a Dutch police district undergoing reorganization. A model was tested where employee adaptability, operationalized by…

  13. Algorithmic Information Dynamics of Persistent Patterns and Colliding Particles in the Game of Life

    KAUST Repository

    Zenil, Hector

    2018-02-18

    We demonstrate the way to apply and exploit the concept of \\\\textit{algorithmic information dynamics} in the characterization and classification of dynamic and persistent patterns, motifs and colliding particles in, without loss of generalization, Conway\\'s Game of Life (GoL) cellular automaton as a case study. We analyze the distribution of prevailing motifs that occur in GoL from the perspective of algorithmic probability. We demonstrate how the tools introduced are an alternative to computable measures such as entropy and compression algorithms which are often nonsensitive to small changes and features of non-statistical nature in the study of evolving complex systems and their emergent structures.

  14. Health information exchange technology on the front lines of healthcare: workflow factors and patterns of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how a health information exchange (HIE) fits into clinical workflow at multiple clinical sites. Materials and Methods The ethnographic qualitative study was conducted over a 9-month period in six emergency departments (ED) and eight ambulatory clinics in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Data were collected using direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and formal semi-structured interviews. The authors observed for over 180 h, during which providers used the exchange 130 times. Results HIE-related workflow was modeled for each ED site and ambulatory clinic group and substantial site-to-site workflow differences were identified. Common patterns in HIE-related workflow were also identified across all sites, leading to the development of two role-based workflow models: nurse based and physician based. The workflow elements framework was applied to the two role-based patterns. An in-depth description was developed of how providers integrated HIE into existing clinical workflow, including prompts for HIE use. Discussion Workflow differed substantially among sites, but two general role-based HIE usage models were identified. Although providers used HIE to improve continuity of patient care, patient–provider trust played a significant role. Types of information retrieved related to roles, with nurses seeking to retrieve recent hospitalization data and more open-ended usage by nurse practitioners and physicians. User and role-specific customization to accommodate differences in workflow and information needs may increase the adoption and use of HIE. Conclusion Understanding end users' perspectives towards HIE technology is crucial to the long-term success of HIE. By applying qualitative methods, an in-depth understanding of HIE usage was developed. PMID:22003156

  15. Risk and Ambiguity in Information Seeking: Eye Gaze Patterns Reveal Contextual Behavior in Dealing with Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Peter; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Darányi, Sándor; Gedeon, Tom; Lim, Ik Soo

    2016-01-01

    Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent. Ambiguity, on the other hand, is the opportunity cost of having higher quality patches elsewhere in the search space. The aforementioned tradeoff depends on many attributes, including traits of the user: at the two extreme ends of the spectrum, analytic and wholistic searchers employ entirely different strategies. The former type focuses on exploitation first, interspersed with bouts of exploration, whereas the latter type prefers to explore the search space first and consume later. Our findings from an eye-tracking study of experts' interactions with novel search interfaces in the biomedical domain suggest that user traits of cognitive styles and perceived search task difficulty are significantly correlated with eye gaze and search behavior. We also demonstrate that perceived risk shifts the balance between exploration and exploitation in either type of users, tilting it against vs. in favor of ambiguity minimization. Since the pattern of behavior in information foraging is quintessentially sequential, risk and ambiguity minimization cannot happen simultaneously, leading to a fundamental limit on how good such a tradeoff can be. This in turn connects information seeking with the emergent field of quantum decision theory.

  16. Efficient use of information in adaptive management with an application to managing recreation near golden eagle nesting sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L Fackler

    Full Text Available It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develops during the course of management to learn how the system works. To date, however, adaptive management has used a very limited information set to characterize the learning that is possible. This paper uses an extension of the Partial Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP framework to expand the information set used to update belief in competing models. This feature can potentially increase the speed of learning through adaptive management, and lead to better management in the future. We apply this framework to a case study wherein interest lies in managing recreational restrictions around golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos nesting sites. The ultimate management objective is to maintain an abundant eagle population in Denali National Park while minimizing the regulatory burden on park visitors. In order to capture this objective, we developed a utility function that trades off expected breeding success with hiker access. Our work is relevant to the management of human activities in protected areas, but more generally demonstrates some of the benefits of POMDP in the context of adaptive management.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rochelly do Nascimento Mota

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment CRA for use in Brazil with informal caregivers of dependent elderly METHOD A methodological study, of five steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, retro-translation, evaluation by a judge committee and a pre-test, with 30 informal caregivers of older persons in Fortaleza, Brazil. Content validity was assessed by five experts in gerontology and geriatrics. The cross-cultural adaptation was rigorously conducted, allowing for inferring credibility. RESULTS The Brazilian version of the CRA had a simple and fast application (ten minutes, easily understood by the target audience. It is semantically, idiomatically, experimentally and conceptually equivalent to the original version, with valid content to assess the burden of informal caregivers for the elderly (Content Validity Index = 0.883. CONCLUSION It is necessary that other psychometric properties of validity and reliability are tested before using in care practice and research.

  18. A novel patterning control strategy based on real-time fingerprint recognition and adaptive wafer level scanner optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Nije, Jelle; Ypma, Alexander; Bastani, Vahid; Sonntag, Dag; Niesing, Henk; Zhang, Linmiao; Ullah, Zakir; Subramony, Venky; Somasundaram, Ravin; Susanto, William; Matsunobu, Masazumi; Johnson, Jeff; Tabery, Cyrus; Lin, Chenxi; Zou, Yi

    2018-03-01

    In addition to lithography process and equipment induced variations, processes like etching, annealing, film deposition and planarization exhibit variations, each having their own intrinsic characteristics and leaving an effect, a `fingerprint', on the wafers. With ever tighter requirements for CD and overlay, controlling these process induced variations is both increasingly important and increasingly challenging in advanced integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing. For example, the on-product overlay (OPO) requirement for future nodes is approaching process induced variance to become extremely small. Process variance control is seen as an bottleneck to further shrink which drives the need for more sophisticated process control strategies. In this context we developed a novel `computational process control strategy' which provides the capability of proactive control of each individual wafer with aim to maximize the yield, without introducing a significant impact on metrology requirements, cycle time or productivity. The complexity of the wafer process is approached by characterizing the full wafer stack building a fingerprint library containing key patterning performance parameters like Overlay, Focus, etc. Historical wafer metrology is decomposed into dominant fingerprints using Principal Component Analysis. By associating observed fingerprints with their origin e.g. process steps, tools and variables, we can give an inline assessment of the strength and origin of the fingerprints on every wafer. Once the fingerprint library is established, a wafer specific fingerprint correction recipes can be determined based on its processing history. Data science techniques are used in real-time to ensure that the library is adaptive. To realize this concept, ASML TWINSCAN scanners play a vital role with their on-board full wafer detection and exposure correction capabilities. High density metrology data is created by the scanner for each wafer and on every layer during the

  19. Sensory processing patterns predict the integration of information held in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew X; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wilson, Kristin E; Ouslis, Natasha E; Barense, Morgan D; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    Given the limited resources of visual working memory, multiple items may be remembered as an averaged group or ensemble. As a result, local information may be ill-defined, but these ensemble representations provide accurate diagnostics of the natural world by combining gist information with item-level information held in visual working memory. Some neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by sensory processing profiles that predispose individuals to avoid or seek-out sensory stimulation, fundamentally altering their perceptual experience. Here, we report such processing styles will affect the computation of ensemble statistics in the general population. We identified stable adult sensory processing patterns to demonstrate that individuals with low sensory thresholds who show a greater proclivity to engage in active response strategies to prevent sensory overstimulation are less likely to integrate mean size information across a set of similar items and are therefore more likely to be biased away from the mean size representation of an ensemble display. We therefore propose the study of ensemble processing should extend beyond the statistics of the display, and should also consider the statistics of the observer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. How should agriculture adapt to worrying but uncertain information from climate science?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayman, P. [Climate Change Risk and Vulnerability, Allen Consulting Group, Melbourne (Australia)

    2006-02-15

    Overview of the impacts, adaptive capacity and vulnerability at crop, farm, industry and community level in the agricultural sector of the Murray-Darling basin and other key Australian agricultural areas.

  1. Hypercell : A bio-inspired information design framework for real-time adaptive spatial components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biloria, N.M.; Chang, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary explorations within the evolutionary computational domain have been heavily instrumental in exploring biological processes of adaptation, growth and mutation. On the other hand a plethora of designers owing to the increasing sophistication in computer aided design software are equally

  2. Adaptation by Stealth: Understanding climate information use across scales and decision spaces in water management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, C.; Vang Rasmussen, L.; Lemos, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    While there has been considerable focus on understanding how factors related to the creation of climate knowledge affect its uptake and use, less attention has been paid to the actors, decisions, and processes through which climate information supports, or fails to support, action. This is particularly the case concerning how different scales of decision-making influence information uptake. In this study, we seek to understand how water and resource managers' decision space influences climate information use in two Great Lakes watersheds. We find that despite the availability of tailored climate information, actual use of information in decision making remains low. Reasons include: a) lack of willingness to place climate on agendas because local managers perceive climate change as politically risky and a difficult and intangible problem; b) lack of formal mandate or authority at the city and county scale to translate climate information into on-the-ground action, c) problems with the information itself, and d) perceived lack of demand for climate information by those managers who have the mandate and authority (e.g. at the state level) to use (or help others use) climate information. Our findings suggest that 1) climate scientists and information brokers should produce information that meets a range of decision needs and reserve intensive tailoring efforts for decision makers who have authority and willingness to employ climate information, 2) without support from higher levels of decision-making (e.g. state) it is unlikely that climate information use for adaptation decisions will accelerate significantly in the next few years, and 3) the trend towards adopting more sustainability and resilience practices over climate-specific actions should be supported as an important component of the climate adaptation repertoire.

  3. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object, such as an anatomical feature. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the anatomical feature; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  4. Informing climate change adaptation in the Northeast and Midwest United States: The role of Climate Science Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A. M.; Morelli, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) is part of a federal network of eight Climate Science Centers created to provide scientific information and tools that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife, and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. The NE CSC partners with other federal agencies, universities, and NGOs to facilitate stakeholder interaction and delivery of scientific products. For example, NE CSC researchers have partnered with the National Park Service to help managers at Acadia National Park adapt their infrastructure, operations, and ecosystems to rising seas and more extreme events. In collaboration with the tribal College of Menominee Nation and Michigan State University, the NE CSC is working with indigenous communities in Michigan and Wisconsin to co-develop knowledge of how to preserve their natural and cultural values in the face of climate change. Recently, in its largest collaborative initiative to date, the NE CSC led a cross-institutional effort to produce a comprehensive synthesis of climate change, its impacts on wildlife and their habitats, and available adaptation strategies across the entire Northeast and Midwest region; the resulting document was used by wildlife managers in 22 states to revise their Wildlife Action Plans (WAPs). Additionally, the NE CSC is working with the Wildlife Conservation Society to help inform moose conservation management. Other research efforts include hydrological modeling to inform culvert sizing under greater rainfall intensity, forest and landscape modeling to inform tree planting that mitigates the spread of invasive species, species and habitat modeling to help identify suitable locations for wildlife refugia. In addition, experimental research is being conducted to improve our understanding of how species such as brook trout are responding to climate change. Interacting with stakeholders during all phases of

  5. Cultural Adaptation of an Evidence-Informed Psychosocial Intervention to Address the Needs of PHIV+ Youth in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Gisselle; Saisaengjan, Chutima; Gopalan, Priya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Lakhonpon, Sudrak; Nestadt, Danielle Friedman; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Mellins, Claude Ann; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2017-01-01

    Globally, pediatric HIV has largely become an adolescent epidemic. Thailand has the highest HIV prevalence in Asia (1.2%), with more than 14,000 children living with HIV. There is growing demand for evidence-based psychosocial interventions for this population that include health and mental health support and sexual risk reduction, which can be integrated into HIV care systems. To address this need, a multidisciplinary team of Thai and US researchers adapted an existing evidence-informed, family-based intervention, The Collaborative HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Program + (CHAMP+), which has been tested in multiple global trials. Using community-based participatory research methods, changes to the intervention curriculum were made to address language, culture, and Thai family life. Involvement of families, youth, and stakeholders in the adaptation process allowed for identification of salient issues and of program delivery methods that would increase engagement. Participants endorsed using a cartoon-based curriculum format for fostering discussion (as in CHAMP+ South Africa) given stigma around discussing HIV in the Thai context. The Thai version of CHAMP+ retained much of the curriculum content incorporating culturally appropriate metaphors and story line. Sessions focus on family communication, coping, disclosure, stigma, social support, and HIV education. This paper explores lessons learned through the adaption process of CHAMP+ Thailand that are applicable to other interventions and settings. It discusses how culturally informed adaptations can be made to interventions while maintaining core program components.

  6. Integrating scientific and local knowledge to inform risk-based management approaches for climate adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Kettle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based management approaches to climate adaptation depend on the assessment of potential threats, and their causes, vulnerabilities, and impacts. The refinement of these approaches relies heavily on detailed local knowledge of places and priorities, such as infrastructure, governance structures, and socio-economic conditions, as well as scientific understanding of climate projections and trends. Developing processes that integrate local and scientific knowledge will enhance the value of risk-based management approaches, facilitate group learning and planning processes, and support the capacity of communities to prepare for change. This study uses the Vulnerability, Consequences, and Adaptation Planning Scenarios (VCAPS process, a form of analytic-deliberative dialogue, and the conceptual frameworks of hazard management and climate vulnerability, to integrate scientific and local knowledge. We worked with local government staff in an urbanized barrier island community (Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina to consider climate risks, impacts, and adaptation challenges associated with sea level rise and wastewater and stormwater management. The findings discuss how the process increases understanding of town officials’ views of risks and climate change impacts to barrier islands, the management actions being considered to address of the multiple impacts of concern, and the local tradeoffs and challenges in adaptation planning. We also comment on group learning and specific adaptation tasks, strategies, and needs identified.

  7. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  8. Beyond the ridge pattern: multi-informative analysis of latent fingermarks by MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, S; Bradshaw, R; Ferguson, L S; Wolstenholme, R; Clench, M R; Bleay, S

    2013-08-07

    After over a century, fingerprints are still one of the most powerful means of biometric identification. The conventional forensic workflow for suspect identification consists of (i) recovering latent marks from crime scenes using the appropriate enhancement technique and (ii) obtaining an image of the mark to compare either against known suspect prints and/or to search in a Fingerprint Database. The suspect is identified through matching the ridge pattern and local characteristics of the ridge pattern (minutiae). However successful, there are a number of scenarios in which this process may fail; they include the recovery of partial, distorted or smudged marks, poor quality of the image resulting from inadequacy of the enhancement technique applied, extensive scarring/abrasion of the fingertips or absence of suspect's fingerprint records in the database. In all of these instances it would be very desirable to have a technology able to provide additional information from a fingermark exploiting its endogenous and exogenous chemical content. This opportunity could potentially provide new investigative leads, especially when the fingermark comparison and match process fails. We have demonstrated that Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) can provide multiple images of the same fingermark in one analysis simultaneous with additional intelligence. Here, a review on the pioneering use and development of MALDI MSI for the analysis of latent fingermarks is presented along with the latest achievements on the forensic intelligence retrievable.

  9. Adaptive PID formation control of nonholonomic robots without leader's velocity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dongbin; Sun, Weijie; Sun, Zhendong

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive proportional integral derivative (PID) algorithm to solve a formation control problem in the leader-follower framework where the leader robot's velocities are unknown for the follower robots. The main idea is first to design some proper ideal control law for the formation system to obtain a required performance, and then to propose the adaptive PID methodology to approach the ideal controller. As a result, the formation is achieved with much more enhanced robust formation performance. The stability of the closed-loop system is theoretically proved by Lyapunov method. Both numerical simulations and physical vehicle experiments are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive PID algorithm. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. LDPC product coding scheme with extrinsic information for bit patterned media recoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkwon Jeong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the density limit of the current perpendicular magnetic storage system will soon be reached, bit patterned media recording (BPMR is a promising candidate for the next generation storage system to achieve an areal density beyond 1 Tb/in2. Each recording bit is stored in a fabricated magnetic island and the space between the magnetic islands is nonmagnetic in BPMR. To approach recording densities of 1 Tb/in2, the spacing of the magnetic islands must be less than 25 nm. Consequently, severe inter-symbol interference (ISI and inter-track interference (ITI occur. ITI and ISI degrade the performance of BPMR. In this paper, we propose a low-density parity check (LDPC product coding scheme that exploits extrinsic information for BPMR. This scheme shows an improved bit error rate performance compared to that in which one LDPC code is used.

  11. LDPC product coding scheme with extrinsic information for bit patterned media recoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongkwon; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-05-01

    Since the density limit of the current perpendicular magnetic storage system will soon be reached, bit patterned media recording (BPMR) is a promising candidate for the next generation storage system to achieve an areal density beyond 1 Tb/in2. Each recording bit is stored in a fabricated magnetic island and the space between the magnetic islands is nonmagnetic in BPMR. To approach recording densities of 1 Tb/in2, the spacing of the magnetic islands must be less than 25 nm. Consequently, severe inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-track interference (ITI) occur. ITI and ISI degrade the performance of BPMR. In this paper, we propose a low-density parity check (LDPC) product coding scheme that exploits extrinsic information for BPMR. This scheme shows an improved bit error rate performance compared to that in which one LDPC code is used.

  12. Crop advisors as climate information brokers: Building the capacity of US farmers to adapt to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Lemos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of crop advisors as brokers of climate information to support US corn farmers to adapt to climatic change. It uses quantitative data collected from a broad survey of crop advisors in the US Corn Belt to examine the factors that shape advisors’ use of (and willingness to provide climate information to their clients. Building upon a general model of climate information usability we argue that advisors’ willingness to provide climate advice to farmers is influenced by three main factors: their information seeking habits and behavior, their experience with innovation in the past, and how climate information interplays with other kinds of information that they provide—especially agronomic advice. We find that advisors’ willingness to provide climate related information depends both on factors at the individual and organizational level and on the type of advice they provide. First, at the individual and organizational levels, advisors who work in supportive organizations and who collaborate with other advisors are more likely to provide climate information. Second, advisors are more likely to provide climate information if it does not interfere with their main profit making business (e.g. provision of agronomic advice. Third, there is a significant positive relationship between trust in a greater number or sources of information and use of climate information. Fourth, the way advisors perceive short- and long-term risk also influences their willingness to provide climate information; the more concerned they are about long-term climate-related risks to farming, the more likely they are to provide (or want to provide advice based on climate information. Differently from other empirical work in the literature, our analytical model suggests that neither negative experiences with climate information in the past nor the high level of uncertainty characteristic of climate information appear to influence advisors

  13. Is food-related lifestyle (FRL) able to reveal food consumption patterns in non-western cultural environments? Its adaptation and application in urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Perrea, Toula; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Research related to food-related behaviour in China is still scarce, one reason being the fact that food consumption patterns in East Asia do not appear to be easily analyzed by models originating in Western cultures. The objective of the present work is to examine the ability of the Food Related...... for the conceptual meaningfulness and applicability of FRL in non-Western food culture environments, when appropriately adapted....

  14. Longitudinal assessment of daily activity patterns on weight change after involuntary job loss: the ADAPT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Haynes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization has identified obesity as one of the most visible and neglected public health problems worldwide. Meta-analytic studies suggest that insufficient sleep increases the risk of developing obesity and related serious medical conditions. Unfortunately, the nationwide average sleep duration has steadily declined over the last two decades with 25% of U.S. adults reporting insufficient sleep. Stress is also an important indirect factor in obesity, and chronic stress and laboratory-induced stress negatively impact sleep. Despite what we know from basic sciences about (a stress and sleep and (b sleep and obesity, we know very little about how these factors actually manifest in a natural environment. The Assessing Daily Activity Patterns Through Occupational Transitions (ADAPT study tests whether sleep disruption plays a key role in the development of obesity for individuals exposed to involuntary job loss, a life event that is often stressful and disrupting to an individual’s daily routine. Methods This is an 18-month closed, cohort research design examining social rhythms, sleep, dietary intake, energy expenditure, waist circumference, and weight gain over 18 months in individuals who have sustained involuntary job loss. Approximately 332 participants who lost their job within the last 3 months are recruited from flyers within the Arizona Department of Economic Security (AZDES Unemployment Insurance Administration application packets and other related postings. Multivariate growth curve modeling will be used to investigate the temporal precedence of changes in social rhythms, sleep, and weight gain. Discussion It is hypothesized that: (1 unemployed individuals with less consistent social rhythms and worse sleep will have steeper weight gain trajectories over 18 months than unemployed individuals with stable social rhythms and better sleep; (2 disrupted sleep will mediate the relationship between

  15. Longitudinal assessment of daily activity patterns on weight change after involuntary job loss: the ADAPT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Patricia L; Silva, Graciela E; Howe, George W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Butler, Emily A; Quan, Stuart F; Sherrill, Duane; Scanlon, Molly; Rojo-Wissar, Darlynn M; Gengler, Devan N; Glickenstein, David A

    2017-10-10

    The World Health Organization has identified obesity as one of the most visible and neglected public health problems worldwide. Meta-analytic studies suggest that insufficient sleep increases the risk of developing obesity and related serious medical conditions. Unfortunately, the nationwide average sleep duration has steadily declined over the last two decades with 25% of U.S. adults reporting insufficient sleep. Stress is also an important indirect factor in obesity, and chronic stress and laboratory-induced stress negatively impact sleep. Despite what we know from basic sciences about (a) stress and sleep and (b) sleep and obesity, we know very little about how these factors actually manifest in a natural environment. The Assessing Daily Activity Patterns Through Occupational Transitions (ADAPT) study tests whether sleep disruption plays a key role in the development of obesity for individuals exposed to involuntary job loss, a life event that is often stressful and disrupting to an individual's daily routine. This is an 18-month closed, cohort research design examining social rhythms, sleep, dietary intake, energy expenditure, waist circumference, and weight gain over 18 months in individuals who have sustained involuntary job loss. Approximately 332 participants who lost their job within the last 3 months are recruited from flyers within the Arizona Department of Economic Security (AZDES) Unemployment Insurance Administration application packets and other related postings. Multivariate growth curve modeling will be used to investigate the temporal precedence of changes in social rhythms, sleep, and weight gain. It is hypothesized that: (1) unemployed individuals with less consistent social rhythms and worse sleep will have steeper weight gain trajectories over 18 months than unemployed individuals with stable social rhythms and better sleep; (2) disrupted sleep will mediate the relationship between social rhythm disruption and weight gain; and (3

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of parametrial tumour spread and regression patterns in adaptive cervix cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Maximilian P.; Fidarova, Elena [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)], e-mail: maximilian.schmid@akhwien.at; Poetter, Richard [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria)] [and others

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-morphologic differences in parametrial infiltration on tumour response during primary radio chemotherapy in cervical cancer. Material and methods: Eighty-five consecutive cervical cancer patients with FIGO stages IIB (n = 59) and IIIB (n = 26), treated by external beam radiotherapy ({+-}chemotherapy) and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy, underwent T2-weighted MRI at the time of diagnosis and at the time of brachytherapy. MRI patterns of parametrial tumour infiltration at the time of diagnosis were assessed with regard to predominant morphology and maximum extent of parametrial tumour infiltration and were stratified into five tumour groups (TG): 1) expansive with spiculae; 2) expansive with spiculae and infiltrating parts; 3) infiltrative into the inner third of the parametrial space (PM); 4) infiltrative into the middle third of the PM; and 5) infiltrative into the outer third of the PM. MRI at the time of brachytherapy was used for identifying presence (residual vs. no residual disease) and signal intensity (high vs. intermediate) of residual disease within the PM. Left and right PM of each patient were evaluated separately at both time points. The impact of the TG on tumour remission status within the PM was analysed using {chi}2-test and logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 170 PM were analysed. The TG 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 were present in 12%, 11%, 35%, 25% and 12% of the cases, respectively. Five percent of the PM were tumour-free. Residual tumour in the PM was identified in 19%, 68%, 88%, 90% and 85% of the PM for the TG 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The TG 3 - 5 had significantly higher rates of residual tumour in the PM in comparison to TG 1 + 2 (88% vs. 43%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: MRI-morphologic features of PM infiltration appear to allow for prediction of tumour response during external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A predominantly infiltrative tumour spread at the

  17. Sparse Signal Reconstruction with Multiple Side Information using Adaptive Weights for Multiview Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Seiler, Jürgen; Kaup, André

    2016-01-01

    weights by solving a proposed weighted $n$-$\\ell_{1}$ minimization.The proposed algorithm computes the adaptive weights in two levels, first eachindividual intra-SI and then inter-SI weights are iteratively updated at everyreconstructed iteration. This two-level optimization leads...

  18. Adapting to change : the value of change information and meaning-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Machteld; Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this 3-wave study is to examine the micro process of how employees adapt to change over time. We combined Conservation of Resources theory with insights from the organizational change literature to study employees in a Dutch police district undergoing reorganization. A model was

  19. Adapting to change: The value of change information and meaning-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, M.; Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this 3-wave study is to examine the micro process of how employees adapt to change over time. We combined Conservation of Resources theory with insights from the organizational change literature to study employees in a Dutch police district undergoing reorganization. A model was

  20. A Theory of Complex Adaptive Inquiring Organizations: Application to Continuous Assurance of Corporate Financial Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, John R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon the theories of complexity and complex adaptive systems and the Singerian Inquiring System from C. West Churchman's seminal work "The Design of Inquiring Systems" the dissertation herein develops a systems design theory for continuous auditing systems. The dissertation consists of discussion of the two foundational theories,…

  1. Spatio-temporal pattern of vestibular information processing after brief caloric stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelli, Vincenzo; Esposito, Fabrizio; Aragri, Adriana; Furia, Teresa; Riccardi, Pasquale; Tosetti, Michela; Biagi, Laura; Marciano, Elio; Di Salle, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Processing of vestibular information at the cortical and subcortical level is essential for head and body orientation in space and self-motion perception, but little is known about the neural dynamics of the brain regions of the vestibular system involved in this task. Neuroimaging studies using both galvanic and caloric stimulation have shown that several distinct cortical and subcortical structures can be activated during vestibular information processing. The insular cortex has been often targeted and presented as the central hub of the vestibular cortical system. Since very short pulses of cold water ear irrigation can generate a strong and prolonged vestibular response and a nystagmus, we explored the effects of this type of caloric stimulation for assessing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) dynamics of neural vestibular processing in a whole-brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. We evaluated the spatial layout and the temporal dynamics of the activated cortical and subcortical regions in time-locking with the instant of injection and were able to extract a robust pattern of neural activity involving the contra-lateral insular cortex, the thalamus, the brainstem and the cerebellum. No significant correlation with the temporal envelope of the nystagmus was found. The temporal analysis of the activation profiles highlighted a significantly longer duration of the evoked BOLD activity in the brainstem compared to the insular cortex suggesting a functional de-coupling between cortical and subcortical activity during the vestibular response.

  2. Information-Fusion Methods Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Robot Adapting to Search and Rescue Postdisaster Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first application of utilizing unique information-fusion SLAM (IF-SLAM methods is developed for mobile robots performing simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM adapting to search and rescue (SAR environments in this paper. Several fusion approaches, parallel measurements filtering, exploration trajectories fusing, and combination sensors’ measurements and mobile robots’ trajectories, are proposed. The novel integration particle filter (IPF and optimal improved EKF (IEKF algorithms are derived for information-fusion systems to perform SLAM task in SAR scenarios. The information-fusion architecture consists of multirobots and multisensors (MAM; multiple robots mount on-board laser range finder (LRF sensors, localization sonars, gyro odometry, Kinect-sensor, RGB-D camera, and other proprioceptive sensors. This information-fusion SLAM (IF-SLAM is compared with conventional methods, which indicates that fusion trajectory is more consistent with estimated trajectories and real observation trajectories. The simulations and experiments of SLAM process are conducted in both cluttered indoor environment and outdoor collapsed unstructured scenario, and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed information-fusion methods in improving SLAM performances adapting to SAR scenarios.

  3. Information geometric analysis of phase transitions in complex patterns: the case of the Gray-Scott reaction–diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Har-Shemesh, Omri; Quax, Rick; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Sloot, Peter M A

    2016-01-01

    The Fisher–Rao metric from information geometry is related to phase transition phenomena in classical statistical mechanics. Several studies propose to extend the use of information geometry to study more general phase transitions in complex systems. However, it is unclear whether the Fisher–Rao metric does indeed detect these more general transitions, especially in the absence of a statistical model. In this paper we study the transitions between patterns in the Gray-Scott reaction–diffusion model using Fisher information. We describe the system by a probability density function that represents the size distribution of blobs in the patterns and compute its Fisher information with respect to changing the two rate parameters of the underlying model. We estimate the distribution non-parametrically so that we do not assume any statistical model. The resulting Fisher map can be interpreted as a phase-map of the different patterns. Lines with high Fisher information can be considered as boundaries between regions of parameter space where patterns with similar characteristics appear. These lines of high Fisher information can be interpreted as phase transitions between complex patterns. (paper: disordered systems, classical and quantum)

  4. Change commitment in low-status merger partners: The role of information processing, relative ingroup prototypicality, and merger patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Miriam; Kavanagh, Eithne; Kounov, Pavel; Jarosz, Sywlia; Waldzus, Sven; Collins, Elizabeth C; Giessner, Steffen

    2017-09-01

    Merger announcements cause stress among employees, often leading to low change commitment, especially among employees from the lower-status merger partner. Such stress influences how deeply employees process merger-relevant information. Previous research examined how merger patterns that preserve versus change status differences impact merger support, but did not address how employees' information processing may influence this relationship. The current research addresses this gap through a scenario experiment, focusing on the low-status merger partner. The interplay between merger patterns and information processing was examined regarding employees' prototypicality claims in relation to merger support. Results suggest that an integration-equality merger pattern increases change commitment via prototypicality claims in the new organization, conditional to employees' systematic information processing. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Technologies, Development Tools, and Patterns for Automatic Generation and Customization of Adaptable Distributed Real-Time and Embedded (DRE) Middleware

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew; Mizuno, Masaaki; Singh, Gurdip; Daugherty, Gary

    2005-01-01

    .... PCES work has shown how model-integrated computing and adaptive and flexible middleware frameworks can be applied for defining, analyzing, generating, and customizing large-scale high-assurance, high...

  6. Geographic and seasonal patterns and limits on the adaptive response to temperature of European Mytilus spp. and Macoma balthica populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Pronker, A.E.; Kube, S.; Sokolowski, A.; Sola, J.C.; Marquiegui, M.A.; Scheidek, D.; Bonga, W.S.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variations in seawater temperature require extensive metabolic acclimatization in cold-blooded organisms inhabiting the coastal waters of Europe. Given the energetic costs of acclimatization, differences in adaptive capacity to climatic conditions are to be expected among distinct

  7. Start Position Strongly Influences Fixation Patterns during Face Processing: Difficulties with Eye Movements as a Measure of Information Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizpe, Joseph; Kravitz, Dwight J.; Yovel, Galit; Baker, Chris I.

    2012-01-01

    Fixation patterns are thought to reflect cognitive processing and, thus, index the most informative stimulus features for task performance. During face recognition, initial fixations to the center of the nose have been taken to indicate this location is optimal for information extraction. However, the use of fixations as a marker for information use rests on the assumption that fixation patterns are predominantly determined by stimulus and task, despite the fact that fixations are also influenced by visuo-motor factors. Here, we tested the effect of starting position on fixation patterns during a face recognition task with upright and inverted faces. While we observed differences in fixations between upright and inverted faces, likely reflecting differences in cognitive processing, there was also a strong effect of start position. Over the first five saccades, fixation patterns across start positions were only coarsely similar, with most fixations around the eyes. Importantly, however, the precise fixation pattern was highly dependent on start position with a strong tendency toward facial features furthest from the start position. For example, the often-reported tendency toward the left over right eye was reversed for the left starting position. Further, delayed initial saccades for central versus peripheral start positions suggest greater information processing prior to the initial saccade, highlighting the experimental bias introduced by the commonly used center start position. Finally, the precise effect of face inversion on fixation patterns was also dependent on start position. These results demonstrate the importance of a non-stimulus, non-task factor in determining fixation patterns. The patterns observed likely reflect a complex combination of visuo-motor effects and simple sampling strategies as well as cognitive factors. These different factors are very difficult to tease apart and therefore great caution must be applied when interpreting absolute

  8. Mobile agents in crisis situations - adapting information to user’s affective state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Winterboer, A.; Cramer, H.; Pavlin, G.; Groen, F.; Evers, V.

    2010-01-01

    Emotion has been found to influence humans’ cognitive information processing and decision-making (Schwarz, 2000). A state of sadness, for example, is accompanied by substantive information processing, with greater attention to detail, whereas people in a happier state tend to process information

  9. A Web Based Geographic Information Platform to Support Urban Adaptation to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Philip J [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Mei, Rui [ORNL; Ernst, Kathleen M [ORNL; Absar, Mariya [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The urban climate is changing rapidly. Therefore, climate change and its projected impacts on environmental conditions must be considered in assessing and comparing urban planning alternatives. In this paper, we present an integrated framework for urban climate adaptation tool (Urban-CAT) that will help cities to plan for, rather than react to, possible risks. Urban-CAT will be developed as a scenario planning tool that is locally relevant to existing urban decision-making processes.

  10. Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Horne, Jon S.; Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Durner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although sea ice loss is the primary threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus), little can be done to mitigate its effects without global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other factors, however, could exacerbate the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bears, such as exposure to increased industrial activity. The Arctic Ocean has enormous oil and gas potential, and its development is expected to increase in the coming decades. Estimates of polar bear resource selection will inform managers how bears use areas slated for oil development and to help guide conservation planning. We estimated temporally-varying resource selection patterns for non-denning adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Sea population (2008–2012) at two scales (i.e., home range and weekly steps) to identify factors predictive of polar bear use throughout the year, before any offshore development. From the best models at each scale, we estimated scale-integrated resource selection functions to predict polar bear space use across the population's range and determined when bears were most likely to use the region where offshore oil and gas development in the United States is slated to occur. Polar bears exhibited significant intra-annual variation in selection patterns at both scales but the strength and annual patterns of selection differed between scales for most variables. Bears were most likely to use the offshore oil and gas planning area during ice retreat and growth with the highest predicted use occurring in the southern portion of the planning area. The average proportion of predicted high-value habitat in the planning area was >15% of the total high-value habitat for the population during sea ice retreat and growth and reached a high of 50% during November 2010. Our results provide a baseline on which to judge future changes to non-denning adult female polar bear resource selection in the Chukchi Sea and help guide offshore development in the region. Lastly, our study provides a

  11. Technical Perspective on Using Information Demand Pattern in a Collaborative Recommendation System for Improving E-Mail Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Stamer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today e-mail communication information is widely used in organizations to distribute information. The increasing volume of received e-mails hinders an efficient work. It becomes more and more difficult to identify relevant e-mails inside this enormous volume of information. This work presents a solution in a multi-user environment by improving an established e-mail client extension based on information demand pattern with a recommendation system. The contributions of this work are (1 the concept and implementation of the solution for a single-user environment using information demand pattern, (2 the concept and architecture to use the solution in a multi-user environment (3 a detailed technical description about the proposed solutions.

  12. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E; Epstein, Richard H

    2011-01-07

    No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1). Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data for most scenarios (43 of 45). Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of individualized assessments. Our technical advance is the

  13. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. Methods A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1. Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS data for most scenarios (43 of 45. Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Results Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of

  14. Information processing in the adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to osmotic stress: an analysis of the phosphorelay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uschner, Friedemann; Klipp, Edda

    2014-12-01

    Cellular signaling is key for organisms to survive immediate stresses from fluctuating environments as well as relaying important information about external stimuli. Effective mechanisms have evolved to ensure appropriate responses for an optimal adaptation process. For them to be functional despite the noise that occurs in biochemical transmission, the cell needs to be able to infer reliably what was sensed in the first place. For example Saccharomyces cerevisiae are able to adjust their response to osmotic shock depending on the severity of the shock and initiate responses that lead to near perfect adaptation of the cell. We investigate the Sln1-Ypd1-Ssk1-phosphorelay as a module in the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway by incorporating a stochastic model. Within this framework, we can imitate the noisy perception of the cell and interpret the phosphorelay as an information transmitting channel in the sense of C.E. Shannon's "Information Theory". We refer to the channel capacity as a measure to quantify and investigate the transmission properties of this system, enabling us to draw conclusions on viable parameter sets for modeling the system.

  15. A Geographic Information Science (GISc) Approach to Characterizing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Terrorist Incidents in Iraq, 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Siebeneck, Laura K. [University of Utah; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.

  16. Model of adaptive dialogue in intelligent information systems for the formation of a given set of competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инесса Анатольевна Воробьёва

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To implement the adaptive dialogue with a wide range of subjects in the most rational use of the composition of different types of models of complex information dialog procedures which may be prepared by combining them in various ways. The article defined this operation on the graph dialogue procedures (GFC, which allows the synthesis of the Count of GFC policy, taking into account the linguistic aspect. What is included in the GFC lists messages that are exchanged between the system and the subject of the dialogue process.

  17. Lessons Learned in Using and Adapting an Information Exchange Data Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chamberlain, Sam; Keltz, Ilean

    2008-01-01

    ...) that provide default organizational and forces structure data for the Department of Defense (DOD). The data in the OSs are produced and maintained by the agencies across the DOD who are responsible for this information...

  18. An Adaptive Sensor Mining Framework for Pervasive Computing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J.

    Analyzing sensor data in pervasive computing applications brings unique challenges to the KDD community. The challenge is heightened when the underlying data source is dynamic and the patterns change. We introduce a new adaptive mining framework that detects patterns in sensor data, and more importantly, adapts to the changes in the underlying model. In our framework, the frequent and periodic patterns of data are first discovered by the Frequent and Periodic Pattern Miner (FPPM) algorithm; and then any changes in the discovered patterns over the lifetime of the system are discovered by the Pattern Adaptation Miner (PAM) algorithm, in order to adapt to the changing environment. This framework also captures vital context information present in pervasive computing applications, such as the startup triggers and temporal information. In this paper, we present a description of our mining framework and validate the approach using data collected in the CASAS smart home testbed.

  19. Adaptive information-theoretic bounded rational decision-making with parametric priors

    OpenAIRE

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Deviations from rational decision-making due to limited computational resources have been studied in the field of bounded rationality, originally proposed by Herbert Simon. There have been a number of different approaches to model bounded rationality ranging from optimality principles to heuristics. Here we take an information-theoretic approach to bounded rationality, where information-processing costs are measured by the relative entropy between a posterior decision strategy and a given fix...

  20. AUTOMATIC LUNG NODULE SEGMENTATION USING AUTOSEED REGION GROWING WITH MORPHOLOGICAL MASKING (ARGMM AND FEATURE EX-TRACTION THROUGH COMPLETE LOCAL BINARY PATTERN AND MICROSCOPIC INFORMATION PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient Autoseed Region Growing with Morphological Masking(ARGMM is imple-mented in this paper on the Lung CT Slice to segment the 'Lung Nodules',which may be the potential indicator for the Lung Cancer. The segmentation of lung nodules car-ried out in this paper through Multi-Thresholding, ARGMM and Level Set Evolution. ARGMM takes twice the time compared to Level Set, but still the number of suspected segmented nodules are doubled, which make sure that no potential cancerous nodules go unnoticed at the earlier stages of diagnosis. It is very important not to panic the patient by finding the presence of nodules from Lung CT scan. Only 40 percent of nod-ules can be cancerous. Hence, in this paper an efficient Shape and Texture analysis is computed to quantitatively describe the segmented lung nodules. The Frequency spectrum of the lung nodules is developed and its frequency domain features are com-puted. The Complete Local binary pattern of lung nodules is computed in this paper by constructing the combine histogram of Sign and Magnitude Local Binary Patterns. Lo-cal Configuration Pattern is also determined in this work for lung nodules to numeri-cally model the microscopic information of nodules pattern.

  1. Assessing spatial patterns of HIV knowledge in rural Mozambique using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Charlotte P; Blevins, Meridith; Ossemane, Ezequiel B; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Vermund, Sten H; Sidat, Mohsin; Olupona, Omo; Moon, Troy D

    2015-03-01

    To conduct a cross-sectional mapping analysis of HIV knowledge in Zambézia Province, Mozambique, and to examine spatial patterns of HIV knowledge and associated household characteristics. A population-based cluster survey was administered in 2010; data were analysed from 201 enumeration areas in three geographically diverse districts: Alto Molócuè, Morrumbala and Namacurra. We assessed HIV knowledge scores (0-9 points) using previously validated assessment tools. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we mapped hot spots of high and low HIV knowledge. Our multivariable linear regression model estimated HIV knowledge associations with distance to nearest clinic offering antiretroviral therapy, respondent age, education, household size, number of children under five, numeracy, literacy and district of residence. We found little overall HIV knowledge in all three districts. People in Alto Molócuè knew comparatively most about HIV, with a median score of 3 (IQR 2-5) and 22 of 51 (43%) enumeration areas scoring ≥4 of 9 points. Namacurra district, closest to the capital city and expected to have the best HIV knowledge levels, had a median score of 1 (IQR 0-3) and only 3 of 57 (5%) enumeration areas scoring ≥4 points. More HIV knowledge was associated with more education, age, household size, numeracy and proximity to a health facility offering antiretroviral therapy. HIV knowledge is critical for its prevention and treatment. By pinpointing areas of poor HIV knowledge, programme planners can prioritize educational resources and outreach initiatives within the context of antiretroviral therapy expansion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Impact of a direct-to-consumer information campaign on prescription patterns for overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Tomio, Jun; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2018-05-03

    Direct-to-consumer information (DTCI) campaign is a new medium to inform and empower patients in their decision-making without directly promoting specific drugs. However, little is known about the impact of DTCI campaigns, expanding rapidly in developed countries, on changes in prescription patterns. We sought to determine whether a DTCI campaign on overactive bladder increases the prescription rate for overactive bladder treatment drugs. We performed a 3-year retrospective cohort study of 1332 participants who were diagnosed overactive bladder but not prescribed treatment drugs prior to the examined DTCI campaign (exposure), using the health insurance claims dataset of the Japan Medical Data Center (November 19, 2010 to November 18, 2013). The DTCI campaign for overactive bladder included television, Internet, and print advertising (November 19, 2011 to December 22, 2011). We divided the study period into Pre-Campaign Year (2010-2011), Year 1 (2011-2012), and Year 2 (2012-2013). Each year began on November 19 and included Period 1 (weeks 1-5) through Period 10 (weeks 46-50). The main outcome was first-time prescription of the treatment drug for each patient, measured by 5-week periods. Using Period 10 in the Pre-Campaign Year as the referent period, we applied the Cox proportional hazard model for each period. Additionally, we performed the interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) for the first-time prescription rate per 5-week period. Following the DTCI campaign, patients were about seven times more likely to receive a first prescription of a treatment drug during Period 4 in Year 1 (hazard ratio 7.09; 95% CI, 2.11-23.8; p-valueimpact on the level of prescription rate (one-time increase in the regression-intercept) that increased by 1128.1 [per standardized 100,000 persons] (p < .05) during Period 4 in Year 1. The examined DTCI campaign appeared to increase the prescription rate among patients with overactive bladder for 15 weeks with a 15-week delay. Clinical

  3. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-07-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  4. An innovative information fusion method with adaptive Kalman filter for integrated INS/GPS navigation of autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Fan, Xiaoqian; Lv, Chen; Wu, Jian; Li, Liang; Ding, Dawei

    2018-02-01

    Information fusion method of INS/GPS navigation system based on filtering technology is a research focus at present. In order to improve the precision of navigation information, a navigation technology based on Adaptive Kalman Filter with attenuation factor is proposed to restrain noise in this paper. The algorithm continuously updates the measurement noise variance and processes noise variance of the system by collecting the estimated and measured values, and this method can suppress white noise. Because a measured value closer to the current time would more accurately reflect the characteristics of the noise, an attenuation factor is introduced to increase the weight of the current value, in order to deal with the noise variance caused by environment disturbance. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a series of road tests are carried out in urban environment. The GPS and IMU data of the experiments were collected and processed by dSPACE and MATLAB/Simulink. Based on the test results, the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is 20% higher than that of a traditional Adaptive Kalman Filter. It also shows that the precision of the integrated navigation can be improved due to the reduction of the influence of environment noise.

  5. Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation/Completion of Episodic Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimone, James Bradley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betty, Rita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation/Completion of Episodic Information - Sandia researchers developed novel methods and metrics for studying the computational function of neurogenesis, thus generating substantial impact to the neuroscience and neural computing communities. This work could benefit applications in machine learning and other analysis activities.

  6. Adaptive Sensing and Fusion of Multi-Sensor Data and Historical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-06

    integrate MTL and semi-supervised learning into a single framework , thereby exploiting two forms of contextual information. A key new objective of the...this report we integrate MTL and semi-supervised learning into a single framework , thereby exploiting two forms of contextual information. A key new...process [8], denoted as X ∼ BeP (B), where B is a measure on Ω. If B is continuous, X is a Poisson process with intensity B and can be constructed as X = N

  7. A Combination of Central Pattern Generator-based and Reflex-based Neural Networks for Dynamic, Adaptive, Robust Bipedal Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Canio, Giuliano; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    Robotic systems inspired from humans have always been lightening up the curiosity of engineers and scientists. Of many challenges, human locomotion is a very difficult one where a number of different systems needs to interact in order to generate a correct and balanced pattern. To simulate...... the interaction of these systems, implementations with reflexbased or central pattern generator (CPG)-based controllers have been tested on bipedal robot systems. In this paper we will combine the two controller types, into a controller that works with both reflex and CPG signals. We use a reflex-based neural...... network to generate basic walking patterns of a dynamic bipedal walking robot (DACBOT) and then a CPG-based neural network to ensure robust walking behavior...

  8. Information Processing and Risk Perception: An Adaptation of the Heuristic-Systematic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes heuristic-systematic information-processing model and risk perception--the two major conceptual areas of the analysis. Discusses the proposed model, describing the context of the data collections (public health communication involving cancer epidemiology) and providing the results of a set of three replications using the proposed model.…

  9. Adaptation to Cognitive Context and Item Information in the Medial Temporal Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2012-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) play an essential role in episodic memory, and accumulating evidence indicates that two MTL subregions--the perirhinal (PRc) and parahippocampal (PHc) cortices--might have different functions. According to the binding of item and context theory ( [16] and [21]), PRc is involved in processing item information, the…

  10. On the applicability of fair and adaptive data dissemination in traffic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Ohazulike, Anthony; Sommer, Christoph; Scholten, Johan; Dressler, Falko; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to serve as support to the development of not only safety applications but also information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. Due to the continuous collection, processing, and dissemination of data, one crucial requirement

  11. Does Preference for Abstract Patterns Relate to Information Processing and Perceived Duration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Palumbo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive prestimulation, in the form of click trains, is known to alter a wide range of cognitive and perceptual judgments. To date, no research has explored whether click trains also influence subjective preferences. This is plausible because preference is related to perceptual fluency and clicks may increase fluency, or, because preference is related to arousal and clicks may increase arousal. In Experiment 1, participants heard a click train, white noise, or silence through headphones and then saw an abstract symmetrical pattern on the screen for 0.5, 1, or 1.5 s. They rated the pattern on a 7-point scale. Click trains had no effect on preference ratings, although patterns that lasted longer were preferred. In Experiment 2, we again presented a click train, silence, or white noise but included both symmetrical and random patterns. Participants made both a duration and a preference judgment on every trial. Auditory click trains increased perceived duration, and symmetrical patterns were perceived as lasting longer than random patterns. Again there was no effect of auditory click trains on preference, and again patterns that were presented for longer were preferred. We conclude that click trains alter perceptual and cognitive processes, but not preferences. This helps clarify the nature of the click train effect and shows which predictions implicit in the existing literature are supported.

  12. Information-Theoretic Approaches for Evaluating Complex Adaptive Social Simulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose information-theoretic approaches for comparing and evaluating complex agent-based models. In information theoretic terms, entropy and mutual information are two measures of system complexity. We used entropy as a measure of the regularity of the number of agents in a social class; and mutual information as a measure of information shared by two social classes. Using our approaches, we compared two analogous agent-based (AB) models developed for regional-scale social-simulation system. The first AB model, called ABM-1, is a complex AB built with 10,000 agents on a desktop environment and used aggregate data; the second AB model, ABM-2, was built with 31 million agents on a highperformance computing framework located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and fine-resolution data from the LandScan Global Population Database. The initializations were slightly different, with ABM-1 using samples from a probability distribution and ABM-2 using polling data from Gallop for a deterministic initialization. The geographical and temporal domain was present-day Afghanistan, and the end result was the number of agents with one of three behavioral modes (proinsurgent, neutral, and pro-government) corresponding to the population mindshare. The theories embedded in each model were identical, and the test simulations focused on a test of three leadership theories - legitimacy, coercion, and representative, and two social mobilization theories - social influence and repression. The theories are tied together using the Cobb-Douglas utility function. Based on our results, the hypothesis that performance measures can be developed to compare and contrast AB models appears to be supported. Furthermore, we observed significant bias in the two models. Even so, further tests and investigations are required not only with a wider class of theories and AB models, but also with additional observed or simulated data and more comprehensive performance measures.

  13. Transcription of the var genes from a freshly-obtained field isolate of Plasmodium falciparum shows more variable switching patterns than long laboratory-adapted isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Run; Zhang, Dongmei; Chen, Biaobang; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yilong; Wang, Shengyue; Pan, Weiqing

    2015-02-07

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum involves switching among multicopy var gene family and is responsible for immune evasion and the maintenance of chronic infections. Current understanding of var gene expression and switching patterns comes from experiments conducted on long laboratory-adapted strains, with little known about their wild counterparts. Genome sequencing was used to obtain 50 var genes from a parasite isolated from the China-Myanmar border. Four clones with different dominant var genes were cultured in vitro in replicates for 50 generations. Transcription of the individual var gene was detected by real-time PCR and then the switching process was analysed. The expression of multicopy var genes is mutually exclusive in clones of a wild P. falciparum isolate. The activation of distinct primary dominant var genes leads to different and favoured switching patterns in the four clones. The on/off rates of individual var genes are variable and the choice of subsequent dominant var genes are random, which results in the different switching patterns among replicates of each clonal wild P. falciparum isolate with near identical initial transcription profiles. This study suggests that the switching patterns of var genes are abundant, which consist of both conserved and random parts.

  14. Assessment of adaptive evolution between wheat and rice as deduced from full-length common wheat cDNA sequence data and expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashizaki Yoshihide

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an allopolyploid plant that harbors a huge, complex genome. Therefore, accumulation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for wheat is becoming particularly important for functional genomics and molecular breeding. We prepared a comprehensive collection of ESTs from the various tissues that develop during the wheat life cycle and from tissues subjected to stress. We also examined their expression profiles in silico. As full-length cDNAs are indispensable to certify the collected ESTs and annotate the genes in the wheat genome, we performed a systematic survey and sequencing of the full-length cDNA clones. This sequence information is a valuable genetic resource for functional genomics and will enable carrying out comparative genomics in cereals. Results As part of the functional genomics and development of genomic wheat resources, we have generated a collection of full-length cDNAs from common wheat. By grouping the ESTs of recombinant clones randomly selected from the full-length cDNA library, we were able to sequence 6,162 independent clones with high accuracy. About 10% of the clones were wheat-unique genes, without any counterparts within the DNA database. Wheat clones that showed high homology to those of rice were selected in order to investigate their expression patterns in various tissues throughout the wheat life cycle and in response to abiotic-stress treatments. To assess the variability of genes that have evolved differently in wheat and rice, we calculated the substitution rate (Ka/Ks of the counterparts in wheat and rice. Genes that were preferentially expressed in certain tissues or treatments had higher Ka/Ks values than those in other tissues and treatments, which suggests that the genes with the higher variability expressed in these tissues is under adaptive selection. Conclusion We have generated a high-quality full-length cDNA resource for common wheat, which is essential for continuation of the

  15. Design science research methods and patterns innovating information and communication technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaishnavi, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Presenting innovative research methods, this second edition of a bestseller describes a simple and practical methodology for conducting cutting-edge design science research (DSR). It provides comprehensive guidance on how to conduct such research and supplies in-depth treatment of design science theory and the different types of theory that can be generated in design science research.Making novel use of the concept of patterns, it presents 84 research patterns for conducting effective DSR. It emphasizes design science theory throughout and is filled with practical examples of using patterns to

  16. A vector-product information retrieval system adapted to heterogeneous, distributed computing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Vector-product information retrieval (IR) systems produce retrieval results superior to all other searching methods but presently have no commercial implementations beyond the personal computer environment. The NASA Electronic Library Systems (NELS) provides a ranked list of the most likely relevant objects in collections in response to a natural language query. Additionally, the system is constructed using standards and tools (Unix, X-Windows, Notif, and TCP/IP) that permit its operation in organizations that possess many different hosts, workstations, and platforms. There are no known commercial equivalents to this product at this time. The product has applications in all corporate management environments, particularly those that are information intensive, such as finance, manufacturing, biotechnology, and research and development.

  17. Patterns of free amino acids in German convenience food products: marked mismatch between label information and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, M; Gonder, U; Jakobs, C; Stegemann, D; Hoffmann, G

    2010-01-01

    Free amino acids affect food palatability. As information on amino acids in frequently purchased pre-packaged food is virtually absent, we analyzed free amino acid patterns of 17 frequently purchased ready-to-serve convenience food products, and compared them with the information obtained from the respective food labels. Quantitative amino acid analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were verified using a stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The patterns of free amino acids were compared with information obtained from food labels. An obvious mismatch between free amino acid patterns and food label information was detected. Even on considering that tomatoes and cereal proteins are naturally rich in glutamate, the concentrations of free glutamate outranged the natural concentration of this amino acid in several products, and strongly suggested artificial enrichment. Free glutamate was found to be elevated even in dishes that explicitly state 'no glutamate added'. Arginine was markedly elevated in lentils. Free cysteine was generally low, possibly reflecting thermal destruction of this amino acid during food processing. The meat and brain-specific dipeptide carnosine (CARN) was present in most meat-containing products. Some products did not contain detectable amounts of CARN in spite of meat content being claimed on the food labels. We detected GABA at concentrations that contribute significantly to the taste sensation. This investigation highlights a marked mismatch between food label information and food composition.

  18. Carbon source utilization patterns of Bacillus simplex ecotypes do not reflect their adaptation to ecologically divergent slopes in 'Evolution Canyon', Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Johannes; Pukall, Rüdiger; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2008-10-01

    The 'Evolution Canyons' I and II in Israel are model habitats to study adaptation and speciation of bacteria in the environment. These canyons represent similar ecological replicates, separated by 40 km, with a strongly sun-exposed and hot 'African' south-facing slope (SFS) vs. a cooler and mesic-lush 'European' north-facing slope (NFS). Previously, among 131 Bacillus simplex isolates, distinct genetic lineages (ecotypes), each specific for either SFS or NFS, were identified, suggesting a temperature-driven slope-specific adaptation. Here, we asked whether the ecological heterogeneity of SFS vs. NFS also affected carbon utilization abilities, as determined using the Biolog assay. Contrary to expectation, a correlation between substrate utilization patterns and the ecological origin of strains was not found. Rather, the patterns split according to the two major phylogenetic lineages each of which contain SFS and NFS ecotypes. We conclude that traits related to the general energy metabolism, as far as assessed here, are neither shaped by the major abiotic features of 'Evolution Canyon', namely solar radiation, temperature, and drought, nor by the soil characteristics. We further conclude that some traits diverge rather neutrally from each other, whereas other, more environmentally related traits are shaped by natural selection and show evolutionary convergence.

  19. Adapting the design of Anesthesia Information Management Systems to innovations depicted in Industrial Property documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos, B; Tzavaras, A; Zogogianni, D; Botsivaly, M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the design and the current development status of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS). For this system, the physical and technical advances, depicted in relevant, recently published Industrial Property documents, have been taken into account. Additional innovative sensors create further data-load to be managed. Novel wireless data-transmission modes demand eventually compliance to further proper standards, so that interoperability between AIMS and the existing Hospital Information Systems is being sustained. We attempted to define, the state-of-the-art concerning the functions, the design-prerequisites and the relevant standards and of an "emerging" AIMS that is combining hardware innovation, real-time data acquisition, processing and displaying and lastly enabling the necessary interoperability with the other components of the existing Hospital Information Systems. Finally, we report based on this approach, about the design and implementation status, of our "real-world" system under development and discuss the multifarious obstacles encountered during this still on-going project.

  20. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An evaluation of the coping patterns of rape victims: integration with a schema-based information-processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather

    2007-08-01

    The current study sought to provide an expansion of Resick and Schnicke's information-processing model of interpersonal violence response. Their model posits that interpersonal violence threatens victims' schematic beliefs and that victims can resolve this threat through assimilation, accommodation, or overaccommodation. In addition, it is hypothesized that how victims resolve schematic threat affects their coping strategies. To test this hypothesis, a cluster analysis of rape victims' coping patterns was conducted. Victims' coping patterns were related to distress, self-worth, and rape label in ways consistent with predictions. Thus, future research should focus on the implications of how victims integrate trauma with schemas.

  2. Qualitative interviews with healthcare staff in four European countries to inform adaptation of an intervention to increase chlamydia testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna; Ricketts, Ellie J; Fredlund, Hans; Uusküla, Anneli; Town, Katy; Rugman, Claire; Tisler-Sala, Anna; Mani, Alix; Dunais, Brigitte; Folkard, Kate; Allison, Rosalie; Touboul, Pia

    2017-09-25

    To determine the needs of primary healthcare general practice (GP) staff, stakeholders and trainers to inform the adaptation of a locally successful complex intervention (Chlamydia Intervention Randomised Trial (CIRT)) aimed at increasing chlamydia testing within primary healthcare within South West England to three EU countries (Estonia, France and Sweden) and throughout England. Qualitative interviews. European primary healthcare in England, France, Sweden and Estonia with a range of chlamydia screening provision in 2013. 45 GP staff, 13 trainers and 18 stakeholders. The iterative interview schedule explored participants' personal attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural controls around provision of chlamydia testing, sexual health services and training in general practice. Researchers used a common thematic analysis. Findings were similar across all countries. Most participants agreed that chlamydia testing and sexual health services should be offered in general practice. There was no culture of GP staff routinely offering opportunistic chlamydia testing or sexual health advice, and due to other priorities, participants reported this would be challenging. All participants indicated that the CIRT workshop covering chlamydia testing and sexual health would be useful if practice based, included all practice staff and action planning, and was adequately resourced. Participants suggested minor adaptations to CIRT to suit their country's health services. A common complex intervention can be adapted for use across Europe, despite varied sexual health provision. The intervention (ChlamydiA Testing Training in Europe (CATTE)) should comprise: a staff workshop covering sexual health and chlamydia testing rates and procedures, action planning and patient materials and staff reminders via computer prompts, emails or newsletters, with testing feedback through practice champions. CATTE materials are available at: www.STItraining.eu. © Article author(s) (or their

  3. Farmers' climate information needs for long-term adaptive decisions: A case study of almonds in CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, K. A.; Jones, A. D.; Pathak, T. B.; Kerr, A. C.; Doll, D.

    2016-12-01

    Despite advances in climate modeling and projections, several sources report that current tools and models are not widely used in the agriculture sector. Farmers, depending on their local context, require information on very specific climatic metrics such as start of rains during the planting season, number of low temperature days during the growing season, etc. However, such specific climatic information is either not available, and/or is not synthesized and communicated in a manner that is accessible to these decision-makers. This research aims to bridge the gap between climate information and decision-making needs, by providing an improved understanding of what farmers' consider as relevant climate information, and how these needs compare with current modeling capabilities. Almond is a perennial crop, so any changes in climate within its 25-30 year lifetime can have an adverse impact on crop yield. This makes almond growers vulnerable to medium and long-term climate change. Hence, providing appropriate information on future climate projections can help guide their decisions on crop types & varieties, as well as management practices that are better adapted to future climatic conditions. Semi-structured exploratory interviews have been conducted with almond growers, farm advisors, and other industry stakeholders, with three goals: (1) to understand how growers have used climate information in the past; (2) to identify key climatic variables that are relevant - including appropriate temporal scales and acceptable uncertainty levels; and (3) to understand communication methods that could improve the usability of climate information for farm-level decision-making. The interviews showcased a great diversity amongst growers in terms of how they used weather/climate information. Discussions also indicated that there was a potential for climate information to impact long-term decisions, but only if it is provided within the right context, terminology, and communication

  4. Adaptive Channel Estimation based on Soft Information Processing in Broadband Spatial Multiplexing Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Beinschob

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel approach in Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM channel estimation technique based on a Decision Directed Recursive Least Squares (RLS algorithm in which no pilot symbols need to be integrated in the data after a short initial preamble. The novelty and key concept of the proposed technique is the block-wise causal and anti-causal RLS processing that yields two independent processings of RLS along with the associated decisions. Due to the usage of low density parity check (LDPC channel code, the receiver operates with soft information, which enables us to introduce a new modification of the Turbo principle as well as a simple information combining approach based on approximated aposteriori log-likelihood ratios (LLRs. Although the computational complexity is increased by both of our approaches, the latter is relatively less complex than the former. Simulation results show that these implementations outperform the simple RLS-DDCE algorithm and yield lower bit error rates (BER and more accurate channel estimates.

  5. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  6. Methods of extending signatures and training without ground information. [data processing, pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, R. G.; Thomas, G. S.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of performing signature extension, using LANDSAT-1 data, are explored. The emphasis is on improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of large area wheat surveys. Two methods were developed: ASC, and MASC. Two methods, Ratio, and RADIFF, previously used with aircraft data were adapted to and tested on LANDSAT-1 data. An investigation into the sources and nature of between scene data variations was included. Initial investigations into the selection of training fields without in situ ground truth were undertaken.

  7. Development of a central information system, communication system and cooperation system for the German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (IKK-DAS); Aufbau eines zentralen Informations-, Kommunikations- und Kooperationssystems fuer die Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie an den Klimawandel (IKK-DAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloser, Marcus [IKU GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Venjakob, Johannes [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany); Wilforth, Stephan [tetraeder.com GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The research project started in April, 2008 before adoption of the cabinet report of the Federal Government to the German strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change. The German Strategy for Adaptation emphasizes the meaning of information about requirements for adaptation and the active involvement of all social groups in the other process of the strategy. For this the research project has made concrete proposals for the information, communication and participation of social groups. These proposals are based in the essentials on an interest analysis about interviews with stakeholders and the economy to their demands and expectations to the German strategy for Adaptation. Besides we have researched international examples for the adaptation to the climate change for the public relations. For the interactive development of the Internet platform www.anpassung.net concrete proposals were developed. (orig.)

  8. Using consumer perspectives to inform the cultural adaptation of psychological treatments for depression: a mixed methods study from South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Balaji, Madhumitha; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Rahman, Atif; Verdeli, Helena; Araya, Ricardo; Jordans, M J D; Chowdhary, Neerja; Patel, Vikram

    2014-07-01

    Integrating consumer perspectives in developing and adapting psychological treatments (PTs) can enhance their acceptability in diverse cultural contexts. To describe the explanatory models (EMs) of depression in South Asia with the goal of informing the content of culturally appropriate PTs for this region. Two methods were used: a systematic review of published literature on the EMs of depression in South Asia; and in-depth interviews with persons with depression and family caregivers in two sites in India. Findings from both were analysed independently and then triangulated. There were 19 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Interviews were conducted with 27 patients and 10 caregivers. Findings were grouped under four broad categories: illness descriptions, perceived impact, causal beliefs and self-help forms of coping. Depression was characterised predominantly by somatic complaints, stress, low mood, and negative and ruminative thoughts. Patients experienced disturbances in interpersonal relationships occupational functioning, and stigma. Negative life events, particularly relationship difficulties, were perceived as the main cause. Patients mostly engaged in distracting activities, religious practices, and received support from family and friends to cope with the illness. The primary data are entirely from India but the studies from the literature review covering South Asia are consistent with these findings. This study also does not include literature in local languages or explore how consumer perspectives change over time. EMs can inform cultural adaptations to PTs for depression in South Asia by defining target outcomes, content for psycho-education, and culturally appropriate treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive Fusion of Information for Seeing into Ordos Basin, China: A China-Germany-US Joint Venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. C. J.; Yin, L.; Sauter, M.; Hu, R.; Ptak, T.; Hou, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive fusion of information for seeing into geological basins is the theme of this joint venture. The objective of this venture is to initiate possible collaborations between scientists from China, Germany, and US to develop innovative technologies, which can be utilized to characterize geological and hydrological structures and processes as well as other natural resources in regional scale geological basins of hundreds of thousands of kilometers (i.e., the Ordos Basin, China). This adaptive fusion of information aims to assimilate active (manmade) and passive (natural) hydrologic and geophysical tomography surveys to enhance our ability of seeing into hydrogeological basins at the resolutions of our interests. The active hydrogeophysical tomography refers to recently developed hydraulic tomgoraphic surveys by Chinese and German scientists, as well as well-established geophysical tomography surveys (such as electrical resistivity tomography, cross-borehole radars, electrical magnetic surveys). These active hydrogeophysical tomgoraphic surveys have been proven to be useful high-resolution surveys for geological media of tens and hundreds of meters wide and deep. For basin-scale (i.e., tens and hundreds of kilometers) problems, their applicabilities are however rather limited. The passive hydrogeophysical tomography refers to unexplored technologies that exploit natural stimuli as energy sources for tomographic surveys, which include direct lightning strikes, groundwater level fluctuations due to earthquakes, river stage fluctuations, precipitation storms, barometric pressure variations, and long term climate changes. These natural stimuli are spatially varying, recurrent, and powerful, influencing geological media over great distances and depths (e.g., tens and hundreds of kilometers). Monitoring hydrological and geophysical responses of geological media to these stimuli at different locations is tantamount to collecting data of naturally occurring tomographic

  10. The development of adaptive memory: Young children show enhanced retention of animacy-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; John, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Previous developmental work has indicated that animacy is a foundational ontogenetic category that is given priority already early in life. Here, we investigated whether such priority is also present in children's episodic memory, examining whether young children show enhanced retention of animacy-related information. Kindergartners and younger and older elementary school children were presented with fictitious (non)words (e.g., BULA, LAFE) paired with properties characteristic of humans (e.g., "likes music"), (nonhuman) animals (e.g., "builds nests"), and inanimate things (e.g., "has four edges") and were asked to rate the animacy status of each nonword. After a retention interval, a surprise recognition test for the nonwords was administered. We found enhanced recognition of nonwords paired with human and animal properties compared with (the same) nonwords paired with inanimate properties. The size of this animacy advantage was comparable across age groups, suggesting developmental invariance of the advantage over the age range examined (i.e., 4-11years). The results support a functional-evolutionary view on memory, suggesting that already young children's memory is "tuned" to process and retain animacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Information flows around the globe: predicting opening gaps from overnight foreign stock price patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Diks, C.G.H.; Gatarek, L.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a forecasting exercise of close-to-open returns on major global stock indices, based on price patterns from foreign markets that have become available overnight. As the close-to-open gap is a scalar response variable to a functional variable, it is natural to focus on functional

  12. Information Flows around the Globe: Predicting Opening Gaps from Overnight Foreign Stock Price Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. de Gooijer (Jan); C.G.H. Diks (Cees); L. Gatarek (Lukasz)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes a forecasting exercise of close-to-open returns on major global stock indices, based on price patterns from foreign markets that have become available overnight. As the close-to-open gap is a scalar response variable to a functional variable, it is natural to focus

  13. Information flows around the globe: predicting opening gaps from overnight foreign stock price patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Diks, C.G.H.; Gatarek, L.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a forecasting exercise of close-to-open returns on major global stock indices, based on high-frequency price patterns that have become available in foreign markets overnight. Generally speaking, out-ofsample forecast performance depends on the forecast method as well as the

  14. Computational model-informed design and bioprinting of cell-patterned constructs for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Aurélie; Skvortsov, Gözde Akdeniz; Hafezi, Forough; Ferraris, Eleonora; Patterson, Jennifer; Koç, Bahattin; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2016-05-17

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a rapidly advancing tissue engineering technology that holds great promise for the regeneration of several tissues, including bone. However, to generate a successful 3D bone tissue engineering construct, additional complexities should be taken into account such as nutrient and oxygen delivery, which is often insufficient after implantation in large bone defects. We propose that a well-designed tissue engineering construct, that is, an implant with a specific spatial pattern of cells in a matrix, will improve the healing outcome. By using a computational model of bone regeneration we show that particular cell patterns in tissue engineering constructs are able to enhance bone regeneration compared to uniform ones. We successfully bioprinted one of the most promising cell-gradient patterns by using cell-laden hydrogels with varying cell densities and observed a high cell viability for three days following the bioprinting process. In summary, we present a novel strategy for the biofabrication of bone tissue engineering constructs by designing cell-gradient patterns based on a computational model of bone regeneration, and successfully bioprinting the chosen design. This integrated approach may increase the success rate of implanted tissue engineering constructs for critical size bone defects and also can find a wider application in the biofabrication of other types of tissue engineering constructs.

  15. Brain-based decoding of mentally imagined film clips and sounds reveals experience-based information patterns in film professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, Aline W; Valente, Giancarlo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Tikka, Pia

    2016-04-01

    In the perceptual domain, it has been shown that the human brain is strongly shaped through experience, leading to expertise in highly-skilled professionals. What has remained unclear is whether specialization also shapes brain networks underlying mental imagery. In our fMRI study, we aimed to uncover modality-specific mental imagery specialization of film experts. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis we decoded from brain activity of professional cinematographers and sound designers whether they were imagining sounds or images of particular film clips. In each expert group distinct multi-voxel patterns, specific for the modality of their expertise, were found during classification of imagery modality. These patterns were mainly localized in the occipito-temporal and parietal cortex for cinematographers and in the auditory cortex for sound designers. We also found generalized patterns across perception and imagery that were distinct for the two expert groups: they involved frontal cortex for the cinematographers and temporal cortex for the sound designers. Notably, the mental representations of film clips and sounds of cinematographers contained information that went beyond modality-specificity. We were able to successfully decode the implicit presence of film genre from brain activity during mental imagery in cinematographers. The results extend existing neuroimaging literature on expertise into the domain of mental imagery and show that experience in visual versus auditory imagery can alter the representation of information in modality-specific association cortices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive Forming of the Beam Pattern of Microstrip Antenna with the Use of an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Dudczyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip antenna has been recently one of the most innovative fields of antenna techniques. The main advantage of such an antenna is the simplicity of its production, little weight, a narrow profile, and easiness of integration of the radiating elements with the net of generators power systems. As a result of using arrays consisting of microstrip antennas; it is possible to decrease the size and weight and also to reduce the costs of components production as well as whole application systems. This paper presents possibilities of using artificial neural networks (ANNs in the process of forming a beam from radiating complex microstrip antenna. Algorithms which base on artificial neural networks use high parallelism of actions which results in considerable acceleration of the process of forming the antenna pattern. The appropriate selection of learning constants makes it possible to get theoretically a solution which will be close to the real time. This paper presents the training neural network algorithm with the selection of optimal network structure. The analysis above was made in case of following the emission source, setting to zero the pattern of direction of expecting interference, and following emission source compared with two constant interferences. Computer simulation was made in MATLAB environment on the basis of Flex Tool, a programme which creates artificial neural networks.

  17. The Analysis of Tree Species Distribution Information Extraction and Landscape Pattern Based on Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The forest ecosystem is the largest land vegetation type, which plays the role of unreplacement with its unique value. And in the landscape scale, the research on forest landscape pattern has become the current hot spot, wherein the study of forest canopy structure is very important. They determines the process and the strength of forests energy flow, which influences the adjustments of ecosystem for climate and species diversity to some extent. The extraction of influencing factors of canopy structure and the analysis of the vegetation distribution pattern are especially important. To solve the problems, remote sensing technology, which is superior to other technical means because of its fine timeliness and large-scale monitoring, is applied to the study. Taking Lingkong Mountain as the study area, the paper uses the remote sensing image to analyze the forest distribution pattern and obtains the spatial characteristics of canopy structure distribution, and DEM data are as the basic data to extract the influencing factors of canopy structure. In this paper, pattern of trees distribution is further analyzed by using terrain parameters, spatial analysis tools and surface processes quantitative simulation. The Hydrological Analysis tool is used to build distributed hydrological model, and corresponding algorithm is applied to determine surface water flow path, rivers network and basin boundary. Results show that forest vegetation distribution of dominant tree species present plaque on the landscape scale and their distribution have spatial heterogeneity which is related to terrain factors closely. After the overlay analysis of aspect, slope and forest distribution pattern respectively, the most suitable area for stand growth and the better living condition are obtained.

  18. Patterns of Internet-based health information seeking in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridy, Mechelle D; Hudson, Melissa M; Caplan, Lee; Mitby, Pauline A; Leisenring, Wendy; Smith, Selina A; Robison, Leslie L; Mertens, Ann C

    2018-05-01

    To assess where, when, and why survivors of childhood cancer seek health information. Data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort (n = 1386) and Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 2385) were analyzed to determine the health information seeking strategies of childhood cancer survivors. Descriptive frequencies, χ 2 analyses, t-tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were used. To seek health-related information for themselves, 54% (n = 742) of the childhood survivors reported using the Internet in the past 12 months, compared to 45% of the general population (adjusted OR: 2.76; 95% CI: 2.40-3.19). Childhood cancer survivors who used the Internet for health information were more likely to be female, between the ages of 18-34, have received some college education or be a college graduate, and report being in poor health. Although survivors were less likely than the general population to trust health information from the Internet (P < 0.01), they indicated that they would like a secure website that uses information from their medical records to provide individualized health-related information. The use of the Internet to access health information among the childhood cancer survivors was over 50%. Information on late effects was a high priority for most survivors, as was their interest in websites related to late effects and a website on patient information tailored to personal situations. Identification of factors associated with searching the Internet for cancer information may provide direction for development of effective cancer communication interventions for this at-risk population. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. Methods An online survey of 17 522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. ...

  20. Study of pattern formation in multilayer adaptive network of phase oscillators in application to brain dynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsanov, Daniil V.; Nedaivozov, Vladimir O.; Makarov, Vladimir V.; Goremyko, Mikhail V.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2017-04-01

    In the report we study the mechanisms of phase synchronization in the model of adaptive network of Kuramoto phase oscillators and discuss the possibility of the further application of the obtained results for the analysis of the neural network of brain. In our theoretical study the model network represents itself as the multilayer structure, in which the links between the elements belonging to the different layers are arranged according to the competitive rule. In order to analyze the dynamical states of the multilayer network we calculate and compare the values of local and global order parameter, which describe the degree of coherence between the neighboring nodes and the elements over whole network, respectively. We find that the global synchronous dynamics takes place for the large values of the coupling strength and are characterized by the identical topology of the interacting layers and a homogeneous distribution of the link strength within each layer. We also show that the partial (or cluster) synchronization, occurs for the small values of the coupling strength, lead to the emergence of the scale-free topology, within the layers.

  1. Water Resource Impacts Embedded in the Western US Electrical Energy Trade; Current Patterns and Adaptation to Future Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E. A.; Herron, S.; Qiu, Y.; Tidwell, V. C.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Water resources are a key element in the global coupled natural-human (CNH) system, because they are tightly coupled with the world's social, environmental, and economic subsystems, and because water resources are under increasing pressure worldwide. A fundamental adaptive tool used especially by cities to overcome local water resource scarcity is the outsourcing of water resource impacts through substitutionary economic trade. This is generally understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as ';virtual water' trade. This work employs generalized CNH methods to reveal the trade in water resource impacts embedded in electrical energy within the Western US power grid, and utilizes a general equilibrium economic trade model combined with drought and demand growth constraints to estimate the future status of this trade. Trade in embedded water resource impacts currently increases total water used for electricity production in the Western US and shifts water use to more water-limited States. Extreme drought and large increases in electrical energy demand increase the need for embedded water resource impact trade, while motivating a shift to more water-efficient generation technologies and more water-abundant generating locations. Cities are the largest users of electrical energy, and in the 21st Century will outsource a larger fraction of their water resource impacts through trade. This trade exposes cities to risks associated with disruption of long-distance transmission and distant hydrological droughts.

  2. Social Information Processing Patterns, Social Skills, and School Readiness in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair

    2013-01-01

    The links among social information processing, social competence, and school readiness were examined in this short-term longitudinal study with a sample of 198 preschool children. Data on social information processing were obtained via child interview, data on child social competence were obtained via teacher report, and data on school readiness…

  3. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  4. Social Information-Processing Patterns of Maltreated Children in Two Social Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Vivien; Price, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations among social information-processing (SIP) variables in the domains of peer provocation and peer group entry. Using Crick and Dodge's [Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). "A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment." "Psychological Bulletin," 115, 74-101]…

  5. Adapting instruments and modifying statements: The confirmation method for the inventory and model for information sharing behavior using social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiny Azleen Binti Yahaya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to confirm the information sharing behavior using social media scale and to vali-date every item and make it reliable as an inventory by using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA. The researcher adapted the measuring instruments for every latent construct from the literature and customized the items to suit this particular study. The study sent the revised questionnaire to 262 respondents in order to gather the pilot study data and able to get 163 filled ones as final data. The set of questionnaires consists of 66 items that assess the 6 constructs. Data is analyzed using SPSS AMOS Version 21.0. The results show that every construct achieved its Bartletts’ Test of Spherici-ty 6.0 with the result of Information Sharing Behavior .000 and .871; Intention .000 and .782; Belief Expectancy .000 and .911; Attitude Influence .000 and .925; Readiness For Change .000 and .959; and Self-Efficacy .000 and .902. The entire item of the construct has exceeded the minimum limit of 0.7 reliability of Alpha Cronbach value to achieve the Internal Reliability. The new integrate model has been proposed due to this finding.

  6. Lack of Physiological Depth Patterns in Conspecifics of Endemic Antarctic Brown Algae: A Trade-Off between UV Stress Tolerance and Shade Adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Gómez

    Full Text Available A striking characteristic of endemic Antarctic brown algae is their broad vertical distribution. This feature is largely determined by the shade adaptation in order to cope with the seasonal variation in light availability. However, during spring-summer months, when light penetrates deep in the water column these organisms have to withstand high levels of solar radiation, including UV. In the present study we examine the light use characteristics in parallel to a potential for UV tolerance (measured as content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and maximum quantum yield of fluorescence in conspecific populations of four Antarctic brown algae (Ascoseira mirabilis, Desmarestia menziesii, D. anceps and Himantothallus grandifolius distributed over a depth gradient between 5 and 30 m. The main results indicated that a photosynthetic efficiency was uniform along the depth gradient in all the studied species, and b short-term (6 h exposure to UV radiation revealed a high tolerance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence, phlorotannin content and antioxidant capacity. Multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that light requirements for photosynthesis, soluble phlorotannins and antioxidant capacity are the variables determining the responses along the depth gradient in all the studied species. The suite of physiological responses of algae with a shallower distribution (A. mirabilis and D. menziesii differed from those with deeper vertical range (D. anceps and H. grandifolius. These patterns are consistent with the underwater light penetration that defines two zones: 0-15 m, with influence of UV radiation (1% of UV-B and UV-A at 9 m and 15 m respectively and a zone below 15 m marked by PAR incidence (1% up to 30 m. These results support the prediction that algae show a UV stress tolerance capacity along a broad depth range according to their marked shade adaptation. The high contents of phlorotannins and antioxidant potential appear to be

  7. In vitro fermentation pattern of D-tagatose is affected by adaptation of the microbiota from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laerke, H N; Jensen, B B; Højsgaard, S

    2000-07-01

    Knowledge of the fermentation pattern of D-tagatose is important for the assessment of energy value and compliance of D-tagatose. In vitro fermentation experiments with pig intestinal contents and bacteria harvested from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs were used to investigate the degradation of D-tagatose and the formation of fermentation products. Two groups of eight pigs were fed either a control diet containing 150 g/kg sucrose or a diet which had 100 g/kg of the sucrose replaced by D-tagatose. After 18 d the pigs were killed and the gastrointestinal contents collected for in vitro studies. No microbial fermentation of D-tagatose occurred in the stomach or in the small intestine, whereas the sugar was fermented in the cecum and colon. Formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, caproate and some heptanoate were produced by the microbial fermentation of D-tagatose by gut microbiota. Hydrogen and methane were also produced. The population of D-tagatose-degrading bacteria in fecal samples and the capacity of bacteria from the hindgut to degrade D-tagatose were higher in the pigs adapted to D-tagatose compared with unadapted pigs. In unadapted pigs, the major fermentation product from D-tagatose was acetic acid. Much more butyric and valeric acids were produced from D-tagatose by bacterial slurries of tagatose-adapted pigs compared with unadapted pigs; this was especially the case for samples from the colon. We conclude that D-tagatose is not fermented in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the ability of the large intestinal microbiota to ferment D-tagatose is dependent on adaptation.

  8. Evaluation of optical data gained by ARAMIS-measurement of abdominal wall movements for an anisotropic pattern design of stress-adapted hernia meshes produced by embroidery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, A.; Bittrich, L.; Hahn, J.; Spickenheuer, A.

    2017-10-01

    For the sustainable repair of abdominal wall hernia the application of hernia meshes is required. One reason for the relapse of hernia after surgery is seen in an inadequate adaption of the mechanical properties of the mesh to the movements of the abdominal wall. Differences in the stiffness of the mesh and the abdominal tissue cause tension, friction and stress resulting in a deficient tissue response and subsequently in a recurrence of a hernia, preferentially in the marginal area of the mesh. Embroidery technology enables a targeted influence on the mechanical properties of the generated textile structure by a directed thread deposition. Textile parameters like stitch density, alignment and angle can be changed easily and locally in the embroidery pattern to generate a space-resolved mesh with mechanical properties adapted to the requirement of the surrounding tissue. To determine those requirements the movements of the abdominal wall and the resulting distortions need to be known. This study was conducted to gain optical data of the abdominal wall movements by non-invasive ARAMIS-measurement on 39 test persons to estimate direction and value of the major strains.

  9. Climate adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  10. A Dynamic Information Framework: A Multi-Sector, Geospatial Gateway for Environmental Conservation and Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E. C.; Norbu, C.; Juizo, D.; Wangdi, T.; Richey, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Landscapes, watersheds, and their downstream coastal and lacustrine zones are facing a series of challenges critical to their future, centered on the availability and distribution of water. Management options cover a range of issues, from bringing safe water to local villages for the rural poor, developing adaptation strategies for both rural and urban populations and large infrastructure, and sustaining environmental flows and ecosystem services needed for natural and human-dominated ecosystems. These targets represent a very complex set of intersecting issues of scale, cross-sector science and technology, education, politics, and economics, and the desired sustainable development is closely linked to how the nominally responsible governmental Ministries respond to the information they have. In practice, such information and even perspectives are virtually absent, in much of the developing world. A Dynamic Information Framework (DIF) is being designed as a knowledge platform whereby decision-makers in information-sparse regions can consider rigorous scenarios of alternative futures and obtain decision support for complex environmental and economic decisions is essential. The DIF is geospatial gateway, with functional components of base data layers, directed data layers focused on synthetic objectives, geospatially-explicit, process-based, cross-sector simulation models (requiring data from the directed data layers), and facilitated input/output (including visualizations), and decision support system and scenario testing capabilities. A fundamental aspect to a DIF is not only the convergence of multi-sector information, but how that information can be (a) integrated (b) used for robust simulations and projections, and (c) conveyed to policymakers and stakeholders, in the most compelling, and visual, manner. Examples are given of emerging applications. The ZambeziDIF was used to establish baselines for agriculture, biodiversity, and water resources in the lower

  11. Health marketing information: an assessment of past and future utilization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSurely, H B; Fullerton, S

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 108 members of the Academy of Health Services Marketing provided bibliographic citations of 629 sources of information which have been important to them in their jobs. The results indicate that the propensity to rely upon a source is dependent upon the topic of the information sought. The sources under scrutiny were consultants, books, journals, magazines, seminars, conferences, video tapes, and audio tapes. The topics considered included the variables of the marketing mix as well as market planning and marketing research. The discussion provides insight about where seekers of health care marketing knowledge go for specific kinds of information. It also suggests types of media that information-providers should consider for dissemination of their material.

  12. Information resources and the correlation of response patterns between biological end points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malling, H.V. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper focuses on the analysis of information for mutagenesis, a biological end point that is important in the overall process of assessing possible adverse health effects from chemical exposure. 17 refs.

  13. A generalization of the theory of fringe patterns containing displacement information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Bhat, G.

    The theory that provides the interpretation of interferometric fringes as frequency modulated signals, is used to show that the electrooptical system used to analyze fringe patterns can be considered as a simultaneous Fourier spectrum analyzer. This interpretation generalizes the quasi-heterodyning techniques. It is pointed out that the same equations that yield the discrete Fourier transform as summations, yield correct values for a reduced number of steps. Examples of application of the proposed technique to electronic holography are given. It is found that for a uniform field the standard deviation of the individual readings is 1/20 of the fringe spacing.

  14. Separation of magnetic from non-magnetic information in the Bitter pattern method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, Witold

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of separating magnetic and non-magnetic contributions to the image contrast in the Bitter pattern method. With the help of the digital image difference procedure, it is demonstrated for the first time for the Bitter method that the separation is easy to achieve for relatively soft magnetic specimens, when an external field can be applied to simply produce the non-magnetic reference image of the specimen area under study. It is also shown that obtaining satisfactory results is principally impossible when removing the colloid from the specimen surface is used for the purpose of recording the non-magnetic image

  15. Studies on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability. Kotai sagyo ni yoru suimin dotai to hiro oyobi sono sagyo tekiosei no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, N.; Yokota, A. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    Studies were made on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability with respect to the following items: (1) With a nurse work system as the object, a survey of rectum temperature, heart rate and rhythm before and after a midnight shift, and sleep at rising in the morning using the OSA survey method; (2) To analyze actual conditions of cumulative fatigue felt by shift workers and fatigue factors, a survey on shift work history, overtime work time, work patterns, symptoms of cumulative fatigue, and and life satisfaction; (3) A survey on daytime sleep record maintained at working places of guards including those of middle or advanced age, and sleep as affected by a nap; (4) A method of improving complains of circadian rhythm disorders because of variations in sleep and emergence rhythms experienced by shift workers, and discussions of usability of light radiation; and (5) Establishment of a technique to indicate effects of psychological burdens and psychogenic stress on visual functions of shift workers using tensions in focal adjustment. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Effects of different loading patterns on the trabecular bone morphology of the proximal femur using adaptive bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, S Mohammad Ali; Oftadeh, Ramin; Nazarian, Ara; Goebel, Ruben; Vaziri, Ashkan; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the changes in the bone density of human femur model as a result of different loadings were investigated. The model initially consisted of a solid shell representing cortical bone encompassing a cubical network of interconnected rods representing trabecular bone. A computationally efficient program was developed that iteratively changed the structure of trabecular bone by keeping the local stress in the structure within a defined stress range. The stress was controlled by either enhancing existing beam elements or removing beams from the initial trabecular frame structure. Analyses were performed for two cases of homogenous isotropic and transversely isotropic beams.Trabecular bone structure was obtained for three load cases: walking, stair climbing and stumbling without falling. The results indicate that trabecular bone tissue material properties do not have a significant effect on the converged structure of trabecular bone. In addition, as the magnitude of the loads increase, the internal structure becomes denser in critical zones. Loading associated with the stumbling results in the highest density;whereas walking, considered as a routine daily activity, results in the least internal density in different regions. Furthermore, bone volume fraction at the critical regions of the converged structure is in good agreement with previously measured data obtained from combinations of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). The results indicate that the converged bone architecture consisting of rods and plates are consistent with the natural bone morphology of the femur. The proposed model shows a promising means to understand the effects of different individual loading patterns on the bone density.

  17. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  18. Evolving Consumption Patterns of Various Information Media via Handheld Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitza Geri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines diverse information media in order to identify those formats that are most suitable for consumption via handheld mobile devices, namely, smartphones and tablets. The preferences of the users are measured objectively by analyzing actual data of their relative use of handheld mobile devices and personal computing (PC desktop devices, including laptops and notebooks, for consumption of information presented in various formats. Our findings are based on Google Analytics pageview data of five course Websites during a period of three semesters, by 11,557 undergraduate students. M-learning contexts were chosen, since in a learning environment the interests of information providers (i.e., the instructors are in accord with those of the information consumers (i.e., the students, whereas in commercial settings there may be conflicts of interests. Our findings demonstrate that although about 90% of the pageviews were via PC devices, the rate of smartphone use for consuming learning content in diverse information media is gradually increasing as time goes by, whereas the rate of tablet use for these purposes is stagnant. The most promising direction for smartphone development, emanating from the findings, is online video content.

  19. Effects of culture-sensitive adaptation of patient information material on usefulness in migrants: a multicentre, blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. 37 primary care practices. 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. provision of standard translated material. Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high level of immersion (p=0.005). Cultural adaptation of patient information material provides benefits over high quality

  20. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. Methods An online survey of 17 522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. Results High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. Conclusions US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. PMID:24935893

  1. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-07-01

    Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. An online survey of 17,522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Dengue virus genomic variation associated with mosquito adaptation defines the pattern of viral non-coding RNAs and fitness in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V Filomatori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus includes a large number of medically relevant pathogens that cycle between humans and arthropods. This host alternation imposes a selective pressure on the viral population. Here, we found that dengue virus, the most important viral human pathogen transmitted by insects, evolved a mechanism to differentially regulate the production of viral non-coding RNAs in mosquitos and humans, with a significant impact on viral fitness in each host. Flavivirus infections accumulate non-coding RNAs derived from the viral 3'UTRs (known as sfRNAs, relevant in viral pathogenesis and immune evasion. We found that dengue virus host adaptation leads to the accumulation of different species of sfRNAs in vertebrate and invertebrate cells. This process does not depend on differences in the host machinery; but it was found to be dependent on the selection of specific mutations in the viral 3'UTR. Dissecting the viral population and studying phenotypes of cloned variants, the molecular determinants for the switch in the sfRNA pattern during host change were mapped to a single RNA structure. Point mutations selected in mosquito cells were sufficient to change the pattern of sfRNAs, induce higher type I interferon responses and reduce viral fitness in human cells, explaining the rapid clearance of certain viral variants after host change. In addition, using epidemic and pre-epidemic Zika viruses, similar patterns of sfRNAs were observed in mosquito and human infected cells, but they were different from those observed during dengue virus infections, indicating that distinct selective pressures act on the 3'UTR of these closely related viruses. In summary, we present a novel mechanism by which dengue virus evolved an RNA structure that is under strong selective pressure in the two hosts, as regulator of non-coding RNA accumulation and viral fitness. This work provides new ideas about the impact of host adaptation on the variability and evolution of

  3. Informal settlements and squatting in Romania: socio-spatial patterns and typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of informal settlements in Romania is the result of a mix of factors, including some social and urban planning policies from the communist and post-communist period. Squatting was initially a secondary effect of the relocation process and demolition of housing in communist urban renewal projects, and also a voluntary social and housing policy for the poorest of the same period. Extension and multiple forms of informal settlements and squatting were performed in the post-communist era due to the inappropriate or absence of the legislative tools on urban planning, properties’ restitution and management, weak control of the construction sector. The study analyzes the characteristics and spatial typologies of the informal settlements and squatters in relationship with the political and social framework of these types of housing development.

  4. How Patterns of Learning About Sexual Information Among Adolescents Are Related to Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Khurana, Atika; Hennessy, Michael; Ellithorpe, Morgan

    2018-03-01

    Parents, peers and media are informal sources of sexual information for adolescents. Although the content of sexual information communicated by these sources is known to vary, little is known about what adolescents report actually learning from each source. Data from 1,990 U.S.14-17-year-olds who participated in an online survey in 2015 were used to assess learning about four topics (sex, condoms, hormonal birth control and romantic relationships) from three informal sources (parents, peers, and television and movies). Gender and race differences in learning by source and topic were assessed using t tests. Following a factor analysis, learning about all topics was grouped by source, and regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between learning from each source and three outcomes: sexual activity, condom use and hormonal birth control use. Models included interactions between information sources and race and gender. White adolescents reported learning more from parents and less from media than black adolescents. Compared with males, females learned more about hormonal birth control and less about condoms from their parents, and more about relationships from peers and media. Learning from parents and from peers were positively associated with adolescents' sexual activity (unstandardized coefficients, 0.26 and 0.52, respectively). Learning from parents was positively associated with condom use (odds ratio, 1.5). Adolescents' learning about sex from informal sources varies by race and gender. Future research should examine whether sexual health interventions and message development can capitalize on these differences. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  5. Examining patterns of association with defensive information processing about colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Amy; Swank, Paul R; Vernon, Sally W

    2014-11-01

    To reduce negative psychological affect from information or behavior that is inconsistent with one's positive self-concept, individuals use a variety of defensive strategies. It is unknown whether correlates differ across defenses. We examined correlates of four levels of defensive information processing about colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by a convenience sample of 287 adults aged 50-75 years. Defenses measures were more consistently associated with individual differences (especially avoidant coping styles); however, situational variables involving health-care providers also were important. Future research should examine changes in defenses after risk communication and their relative impact on colorectal cancer screening. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Change Support in Process-Aware Information Systems - A Pattern-Based Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Barbara; Rinderle, S.B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    In today's dynamic business world the economic success of an enterprise increasingly depends on its ability to react to changes in its environment in a quick and flexible way. Process-aware information systems (PAIS) offer promising perspectives in this respect and are increasingly employed for

  7. Future urbanization patterns: in the Netherlands under the influence of information and communication technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhammad, S.

    2007-01-01

    Computer-based Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are revolutionary in that they change the meaning of distance and accessibility in society. People can now access opportunities (jobs, shopping, education, recreation etc.) in virtual space in a matter of seconds, which in physical

  8. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Neural Activity Associated with Information Selection in Open-ended Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siyuan; Chen, Shi; Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Qingbai; Zhou, Zhijin; Lu, Chunming

    2018-02-10

    Novel information selection is a crucial process in creativity and was found to be associated with frontal-temporal functional connectivity in the right brain in closed-ended creativity. Since it has distinct cognitive processing from closed-ended creativity, the information selection in open-ended creativity might be underlain by different neural activity. To address this issue, a creative generation task of Chinese two-part allegorical sayings was adopted, and the trials were classified into novel and normal solutions according to participants' self-ratings. The results showed that (1) novel solutions induced a higher lower alpha power in the temporal area, which might be associated with the automatic, unconscious mental process of retrieving extensive semantic information, and (2) upper alpha power in both frontal and temporal areas and frontal-temporal alpha coherence were higher in novel solutions than in normal solutions, which might reflect the selective inhibition of semantic information. Furthermore, lower alpha power in the temporal area showed a reduction with time, while the frontal-temporal and temporal-temporal coherence in the upper alpha band appeared to increase from the early to the middle phase. These dynamic changes in neural activity might reflect the transformation from divergent thinking to convergent thinking in the creative progress. The advantage of the right brain in frontal-temporal connectivity was not found in the present work, which might result from the diversity of solutions in open-ended creativity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Ultrasonic Directional Tidal Breathing Pattern Sensor: Equitable Design Realization Based on Phase Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Arijit; Rakshit, Raj; Khasnobish, Anwesha; Chakravarty, Tapas; Ghosh, Deb; Pal, Arpan

    2017-08-11

    Pulmonary ailments are conventionally diagnosed by spirometry. The complex forceful breathing maneuver as well as the extreme cost of spirometry renders it unsuitable in many situations. This work is aimed to facilitate an emerging direction of tidal breathing-based pulmonary evaluation by designing a novel, equitable, precise and portable device for acquisition and analysis of directional tidal breathing patterns, in real time. The proposed system primarily uses an in-house designed blow pipe, 40-kHz air-coupled ultrasound transreceivers, and a radio frequency (RF) phase-gain integrated circuit (IC). Moreover, in order to achieve high sensitivity in a cost-effective design philosophy, we have exploited the phase measurement technique, instead of selecting the contemporary time-of-flight (TOF) measurement; since application of the TOF principle in tidal breathing assessments requires sub-micro to nanosecond time resolution. This approach, which depends on accurate phase measurement, contributed to enhanced sensitivity using a simple electronics design. The developed system has been calibrated using a standard 3-L calibration syringe. The parameters of this system are validated against a standard spirometer, with maximum percentage error below 16%. Further, the extracted respiratory parameters related to tidal breathing have been found to be comparable with relevant prior works. The error in detecting respiration rate only is 3.9% compared to manual evaluation. These encouraging insights reveal the definite potential of our tidal breathing pattern (TBP) prototype for measuring tidal breathing parameters in order to extend the reach of affordable healthcare in rural regions and developing areas.

  10. Adaptation to Recent Conflict in the Classical Color-Word Stroop-Task Mainly Involves Facilitation of Processing of Task-Relevant Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha ePurmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e. reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect. These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4α, while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA. Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information.

  11. Adaptation to recent conflict in the classical color-word Stroop-task mainly involves facilitation of processing of task-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purmann, Sascha; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    To process information selectively and to continuously fine-tune selectivity of information processing are important abilities for successful goal-directed behavior. One phenomenon thought to represent this fine-tuning are conflict adaptation effects in interference tasks, i.e., reduction of interference after an incompatible trial and when incompatible trials are frequent. The neurocognitive mechanisms of these effects are currently only partly understood and results from brainimaging studies so far are mixed. In our study we validate and extend recent findings by examining adaption to recent conflict in the classical Stroop task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Consistent with previous research we found increased activity in a fronto-parietal network comprising the medial prefrontal cortex, ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex when contrasting incompatible with compatible trials. These areas have been associated with attentional processes and might reflect increased cognitive conflict and resolution thereof during incompatible trials. While carefully controlling for non-attentional sequential effects we found smaller Stroop interference after an incompatible trial (conflict adaptation effect). These behavioral conflict adaptation effects were accompanied by changes in activity in visual color-selective areas (V4, V4α), while there was no modulation by previous trial compatibility in a visual word-selective area (VWFA). Our results provide further evidence for the notion, that adaptation to recent conflict seems to be based mainly on enhancement of processing of the task-relevant information.

  12. The evolution of concepts of vestibular peripheral information processing: toward the dynamic, adaptive, parallel processing macular model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.

    2003-01-01

    In a letter to Robert Hooke, written on 5 February, 1675, Isaac Newton wrote "If I have seen further than certain other men it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." In his context, Newton was referring to the work of Galileo and Kepler, who preceded him. However, every field has its own giants, those men and women who went before us and, often with few tools at their disposal, uncovered the facts that enabled later researchers to advance knowledge in a particular area. This review traces the history of the evolution of views from early giants in the field of vestibular research to modern concepts of vestibular organ organization and function. Emphasis will be placed on the mammalian maculae as peripheral processors of linear accelerations acting on the head. This review shows that early, correct findings were sometimes unfortunately disregarded, impeding later investigations into the structure and function of the vestibular organs. The central themes are that the macular organs are highly complex, dynamic, adaptive, distributed parallel processors of information, and that historical references can help us to understand our own place in advancing knowledge about their complicated structure and functions.

  13. Mathematical models utilized in the retrieval of displacement information encoded in fringe patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Lamberti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    All the techniques that measure displacements, whether in the range of visible optics or any other form of field methods, require the presence of a carrier signal. A carrier signal is a wave form modulated (modified) by an input, deformation of the medium. A carrier is tagged to the medium under analysis and deforms with the medium. The wave form must be known both in the unmodulated and the modulated conditions. There are two basic mathematical models that can be utilized to decode the information contained in the carrier, phase modulation or frequency modulation, both are closely connected. Basic problems connected to the detection and recovery of displacement information that are common to all optical techniques will be analyzed in this paper, focusing on the general theory common to all the methods independently of the type of signal utilized. The aspects discussed are those that have practical impact in the process of data gathering and data processing.

  14. Using pattern structures to support information retrieval with Formal Concept Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Codocedo , Victor; Lykourentzou , Ioanna; Astudillo , Hernan; Napoli , Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we introduce a novel approach to information retrieval (IR) based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). The use of concept lattices to support the task of document retrieval in IR has proven effective since they allow querying in the space of terms modelled by concept intents and navigation in the space of documents modelled by concept extents. However, current approaches use binary representations to illustrate the relations between documents and terms (''do...

  15. Rates and patterns of deforestation in the Philippines: application of geographic information system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawning S. Lui; Louis R. Iverson; Sandra Brown

    1993-01-01

    Land-use maps for 1934 and 1988, and a 1941 road map of the Philippines were digitized into a geographic information system. These maps were then analyzed to determine the rates of deforestation and their relationship with factors such as the distance of forests to roads and forest fragmentation (measured by perimeter-to-area ratio (P/A ratio) of forest patches) for...

  16. Medical Information Exchange: Pattern of Global Mobile Messenger Usage among Otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil; Dagan, Elad; Wolf, Michael; Duvdevani, Shay; Alon, Eran E

    2016-11-01

    Information technology has revolutionized health care. However, the development of dedicated mobile health software has been lagging, leading to the use of general mobile applications to fill in the void. The use of such applications has several legal, ethical, and regulatory implications. We examined the experience and practices governing the usage of a global mobile messenger application (WhatsApp) for mobile health purposes in a national cohort of practicing otolaryngologists in Israel, a known early adaptor information technology society. Cross-sectional data were collected from practicing otolaryngologists and otolaryngology residents via self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of a demographic section, a section surveying the practices of mobile application use, mobile health application use, and knowledge regarding institutional policies governing the transmission of medical data. The sample included 22 otolaryngology residents and 47 practicing otolaryngologists. Of the physicians, 83% worked in academic centers, and 88% and 40% of the physicians who worked in a hospital setting or a community clinic used WhatsApp for medical use, respectively. Working with residents increased the medical usage of WhatsApp from 50% to 91% (P = .006). Finally, 72% were unfamiliar with any institutional policy regarding the transfer of medical information by personal smartphones. Mobile health is becoming an integral part of modern medical systems, improving accessibility, efficiency, and possibly quality of medical care. The need to incorporate personal mobile devices in the overall information technology standards, guidelines, and regulation is becoming more acute. Nonetheless, practices must be properly instituted to prevent unwanted consequences. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  17. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze geographic and demographic patterns related to forensic case recovery locations in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpan, Katharine E; Warren, Michael

    2017-12-01

    This paper highlights how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be utilized to analyze biases and patterns related to physical and cultural geography in Florida. Using case recovery locations from the C. Addison Pound Human Identification Laboratory (CAPHIL), results indicate that the majority of CAPHIL cases are recovered from urban areas with medium to low population density and low rates of crime. The results also suggest that more accurate record keeping methods would enhance the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adapting a geographical information system-based water resource management to the needs of the Romanian water authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutter, Marc; Alexandrescu, Maria; Schenk, Colin; Drobot, Radu

    2009-08-01

    The need for global and integrated approaches to water resources management, both from the quantitative and the qualitative point of view, has long been recognized. Water quality management is a major issue for sustainable development and a mandatory task with respect to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive as well as the Swiss legislation. However, data modelling to develop relational databases and subsequent geographic information system (GIS)-based water management instruments are a rather recent and not that widespread trend. The publication of overall guidelines for data modelling along with the EU Water Framework Directive is an important milestone in this area. Improving overall water quality requires better and more easily accessible data, but also the possibility to link data to simulation models. Models are to be used to derive indicators that will in turn support decision-making processes. For this whole chain to become effective at a river basin scale, all its components have to become part of the current daily practice of the local water administration. Any system, tool, or instrument that is not designed to meet, first of all, the fundamental needs of its primary end-users has almost no chance to be successful in the longer term. Although based on a pre-existing water resources management system developed in Switzerland, the methodological approach applied to develop a GIS-based water quality management system adapted to the Romanian context followed a set of well-defined steps: the first and very important step is the assessment of needs (on the basis of a careful analysis of the various activities and missions of the water administration and other relevant stakeholders in water management related issues). On that basis, a conceptual data model (CDM) can be developed, to be later on turned into a physical database. Finally, the specifically requested additional functionalities (i.e. functionalities not provided by classical

  19. The Internet as a source of health information among Singaporeans: prevalence, patterns of health surfing and impact on health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siow, T R; Soh, I P; Sreedharan, S; Das De, S; Tan, P P; Seow, A; Lun, K C

    2003-11-01

    The Internet is an increasingly popular source of healthcare information. This study describes the prevalence of health surfers in Singapore and their health-surfing patterns. It also assesses their confidence in online health information and the impact the Internet has on health-seeking behaviour. A cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire was carried out among residents aged 13 to 55 years in 1852 units in Bishan North. These units were selected by single-stage simple random cluster sampling method. The household response rate was 51% (n = 950) and the individual response rate was 69% (n = 1646). Responding and non-responding households were similar in terms of ethnicity and housing type. Of the responders, 62.9% surfed the Internet and 37.7% have surfed for health information. Health surfers tended to be younger (20 to 39 years) and have higher education status. Indians were also more likely than other ethnic groups to surf for health. Professional health-related sites comprised the majority (68%) of sites visited, and the most common search keywords concern chronic degenerative diseases, e.g. hypertension. The top preferred sources of health information were doctors (25.9%), the Internet (25.3%) and the traditional mass media (20.5%). Almost half (45.1%) considered online health information trustworthy if it was from a professional source or if the website displayed the source, while 10.6% trusted the information if it concurred with the doctors' advice. The vast majority (91.7%) had taken some action in response to the information. The Internet is being used as an accessible source of health information by a substantial proportion of the lay public. While this can facilitate greater partnership in healthcare, it underlines the need for doctors to be pro-active in the practice of evidence-based medicine, and for guidelines to enable patients to use this tool in a discerning manner.

  20. Validation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) computerized adaptive tests in cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Barrett S; Bhatt, Surabhi; Mazmudar, Aditya S; Hsu, Wellington K; Rothrock, Nan E; Patel, Alpesh A

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), which is funded by the National Institutes of Health, is a set of adaptive, responsive assessment tools that measures patient-reported health status. PROMIS measures have not been validated for surgical patients with cervical spine disorders. The objective of this project is to evaluate the validity (e.g., convergent validity, known-groups validity, responsiveness to change) of PROMIS computer adaptive tests (CATs) for pain behavior, pain interference, and physical function in patients undergoing cervical spine surgery. METHODS The legacy outcome measures Neck Disability Index (NDI) and SF-12 were used as comparisons with PROMIS measures. PROMIS CATs, NDI-10, and SF-12 measures were administered prospectively to 59 consecutive tertiary hospital patients who were treated surgically for degenerative cervical spine disorders. A subscore of NDI-5 was calculated from NDI-10 by eliminating the lifting, headaches, pain intensity, reading, and driving sections and multiplying the final score by 4. Assessments were administered preoperatively (baseline) and postoperatively at 6 weeks and 3 months. Patients presenting for revision surgery, tumor, infection, or trauma were excluded. Participants completed the measures in Assessment Center, an online data collection tool accessed by using a secure login and password on a tablet computer. Subgroup analysis was also performed based on a primary diagnosis of either cervical radiculopathy or cervical myelopathy. RESULTS Convergent validity for PROMIS CATs was supported with multiple statistically significant correlations with the existing legacy measures, NDI and SF-12, at baseline. Furthermore, PROMIS CATs demonstrated known-group validity and identified clinically significant improvements in all measures after surgical intervention. In the cervical radiculopathy and myelopathic cohorts, the PROMIS measures demonstrated similar responsiveness to the

  1. GnRH-induced Ca2+ signaling patterns and gonadotropin secretion in pituitary gonadotrophs. Functional adaptations to both ordinary and extraordinary physiological demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa eDurán-Pastén

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary gonadotrophs are a small fraction of the anterior pituitary population, yet they synthesize gonadotropins: luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating (FSH, essential for gametogenesis and steroidogenesis. LH is secreted via a regulated pathway while FSH release is mostly constitutive and controlled by synthesis. Although gonadotrophs fire action potentials spontaneously, the intracellular Ca2+ rises produced do not influence secretion, which is mainly driven by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH, a decapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus and released in a pulsatile manner into the hypophyseal portal circulation. GnRH binding to G protein coupled receptors triggers Ca2+ mobilization from InsP3-sensitive intracellular pools, generating the global Ca2+ elevations necessary for secretion. Ca2+ signaling responses to increasing [GnRH] vary in stereotyped fashion from subthreshold to baseline spiking (oscillatory, to biphasic (spike-oscillatory or spike-plateau. This progression varies somewhat in gonadotrophs from different species and biological preparations. Both baseline spiking and biphasic GnRH-induced Ca2+ signals control LH/FSH synthesis and exocytosis. Estradiol and testosterone regulate gonadotropin secretion through feedback mechanisms, while FSH synthesis and release are influenced by activin, inhibin and follistatin. Adaptation to physiological events like the estrous cycle, involves changes in GnRH sensitivity and LH/FSH synthesis: in proestrus, estradiol feedback regulation abruptly changes from negative to positive, causing the pre-ovulatory LH surge. Similarly, when testosterone levels drop after orquiectomy the lack of negative feedback on pituitary and hypothalamus boosts both GnRH and LH secretion, gonadotrophs GnRH sensitivity increases and Ca2+ signaling patterns change. In addition, gonadotrophs proliferate and grow. These plastic changes denote a more vigorous functional adaptation in response to an extraordinary

  2. Species‐ and habitat‐specific otolith chemistry patterns inform riverine fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radigan, William; Carlson, Andrew K.; Kientz, Jeremy; Chipps, Steven R.; Fincel, Mark J.; Graeb, Brian D. S.

    2018-01-01

    Geology and hydrology are drivers of water chemistry and thus important considerations for fish otolith chemistry research. However, other factors such as species and habitat identity may have predictive ability, enabling selection of appropriate elemental signatures prior to costly, perhaps unnecessary water/age‐0 fish sampling. The goal of this study was to develop a predictive methodology for using species and habitat identity to design efficient otolith chemistry studies. Duplicate water samples and age‐0 fish were collected from 61 sites in 4 Missouri River reservoirs for walleye Sander vitreus and one impoundment (Lake Sharpe, South Dakota) for other fishes (bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, smallmouth bass M. dolomieu, white bass Morone chrysops, white crappie P. annularis, and yellow perch Perca flavescens). Water chemistry (barium:calcium [Ba:Ca], strontium:calcium [Sr:Ca]) was temporally stable, spatially variable, and highly correlated with otolith chemistry for all species except yellow perch. Classification accuracies based on bivariate Ba:Ca and Sr:Ca signatures were high (84% across species) yet varied between floodplain and main‐channel habitats in a species‐specific manner. Thus, to maximize the reliability of otolith chemistry, researchers can use species classifications presented herein to inform habitat selection (e.g., study reservoir‐oriented species such as white bass in main‐channel environments) and habitat‐based classifications to inform species selection (e.g., focus floodplain studies on littoral species such as largemouth bass). Overall, species and habitat identity are important considerations for efficient, effective otolith chemistry studies that inform and advance fisheries and aquatic resource management.

  3. Cognitive patterns of neuroanatomy concepts: Knowledge organizations that emerge from problem solving versus information gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Jeanne Margaret O'malley

    2000-10-01

    This study was motivated by some of the claims that are found in the literature on Problem-Based Learning (PBL). This instructional technique, which uses case studies as its primary instructional tool, has been advanced as an alternative to traditional instruction in order to foster more meaningful, integrative learning of scientific concepts. Several of the advantages attributed to Problem-Based Learning are that it (1) is generally preferred by students because it appears to foster a more nurturing and enjoyable learning experience, (2) fosters greater retention of knowledge and concepts acquired, and (3) results in increased ability to apply this knowledge toward solving new problems. This study examines the differences that result when students learn neuroanatomy concepts under two instructional contexts: problem solving vs. information gathering. The technological resource provided to students to support learning under each of these contexts was the multimedia program BrainStorm: An Interactive Neuroanatomy Atlas (Coppa & Tancred, 1995). The study explores the influence of context with regard to subjects' performance on objective post-tests, organization of knowledge as measured by Pathfinder Networks, differential use of the multimedia software and discourse differences emerging from the transcripts. The findings support previous research in the literature that problem-solving results in less knowledge acquisition in the short term, greater retention of material over time, and a subjects' preference for the method. However, both the degree of retention and preference were influenced by subjects' prior knowledge of the material in the exercises, as there was a significant difference in performance between the two exercises: for the exercise about which subjects appeared to have greater background information, memory decay was less, and subject attitude toward the problem solving instructional format was more favorable, than for the exercise for which subjects

  4. iRaster: a novel information visualization tool to explore spatiotemporal patterns in multiple spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, J; Stuart, L; Sernagor, E; Borisyuk, R

    2010-12-15

    Over the last few years, simultaneous recordings of multiple spike trains have become widely used by neuroscientists. Therefore, it is important to develop new tools for analysing multiple spike trains in order to gain new insight into the function of neural systems. This paper describes how techniques from the field of visual analytics can be used to reveal specific patterns of neural activity. An interactive raster plot called iRaster has been developed. This software incorporates a selection of statistical procedures for visualization and flexible manipulations with multiple spike trains. For example, there are several procedures for the re-ordering of spike trains which can be used to unmask activity propagation, spiking synchronization, and many other important features of multiple spike train activity. Additionally, iRaster includes a rate representation of neural activity, a combined representation of rate and spikes, spike train removal and time interval removal. Furthermore, it provides multiple coordinated views, time and spike train zooming windows, a fisheye lens distortion, and dissemination facilities. iRaster is a user friendly, interactive, flexible tool which supports a broad range of visual representations. This tool has been successfully used to analyse both synthetic and experimentally recorded datasets. In this paper, the main features of iRaster are described and its performance and effectiveness are demonstrated using various types of data including experimental multi-electrode array recordings from the ganglion cell layer in mouse retina. iRaster is part of an ongoing research project called VISA (Visualization of Inter-Spike Associations) at the Visualization Lab in the University of Plymouth. The overall aim of the VISA project is to provide neuroscientists with the ability to freely explore and analyse their data. The software is freely available from the Visualization Lab website (see www.plymouth.ac.uk/infovis). Copyright © 2010

  5. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  6. Patterns and effects of GC3 heterogeneity and parsimony informative sites on the phylogenetic tree of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Wu, Qi; Hu, Yibo; Wei, Fuwen

    2018-05-20

    The explosive growth in genomic data has provided novel insights into the conflicting signals hidden in phylogenetic trees. Although some studies have explored the effects of the GC content and parsimony informative sites (PIS) on the phylogenetic tree, the effect of the heterogeneity of the GC content at the first/second/third codon position on parsimony informative sites (GC1/2/3 PIS ) among different species and the effect of PIS on phylogenetic tree construction remain largely unexplored. Here, we used two different mammal genomic datasets to explore the patterns of GC1/2/3 PIS heterogeneity and the effect of PIS on the phylogenetic tree of genes: (i) all GC1/2/3 PIS have obvious heterogeneity between different mammals, and the levels of heterogeneity are GC3 PIS  > GC2 PIS  > GC1 PIS ; (ii) the number of PIS is positively correlated with the metrics of "good" gene tree topologies, and excluding the third codon position (C3) decreases the quality of gene trees by removing too many PIS. These results provide novel insights into the heterogeneity pattern of GC1/2/3 PIS in mammals and the relationship between GC3/PIS and gene trees. Additionally, it is necessary to carefully consider whether to exclude C3 to improve the quality of gene trees, especially in the super-tree method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial adaptation as the Madurese migrant resilience form at urban informal sector workers settlement: a case study of Kotalama settlement - Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Damayanti; Antariksa; Dwi Wulandari, Lisa; Indira Rukmi, Wara

    2017-12-01

    Migration is the movement of the population that will bring the change of society's behavior because of the adjustments occuring at the destination of migrant area. The availability of houses in urban area is not a proportional comparison to the increasing of limited housing space, thus it encourages urban migrants to adapt to the existing conditions. Adaptation will be closely linked to the resilience of migrants in the process of interacting with their environment. The theory of urban settlement architecture continues to grow constantly, so the used paradigm should be interdisciplinary. Thereby, the understanding of adaptation, which is used will concern to various aspects of physical and non-physical environment, and it is viewed as a process and product of human interactions with the environment holistically. Malang city is one of the migration destinations of Madurese people since 1930s, and Kotalama Malang settlement is the settlement that holds the largest Madurese migrant working in informal sector, which has been developed since 1950s. This study was conducted to determine the spatial adaptation of Madurese migrants in urban settlement area as a resilience form towards their settlement environment. The qualitative descriptive method with the discourse analysis approach of searching the data through the observation and the in-depth interview of key person were used to know the adaptation process that happened. The study result indicated that spatial adaptation as a process and product on meso and micro scale conducted by Madurese migrants was the form of resilience towards their settlement environment.

  8. Assessment of adaptation strategies to flooding: A comparative study between informal settlements of Keko Machungwa in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Sangkrah in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of informal settlements in developing countries are located in high risk areas(low-lying lands and on river banks. This situation is caused by poverty and the inabilityof authorities to supply planned plots for building to meet demands of the growing urbanpopulations. Informal settlements have, in turn, triggered disaster risks, flooding being just oneof them. As a way of reducing impacts of flooding, residents in informal settlements have resortedto the use of structural adaptation strategies. Despite these efforts, the vulnerability of peopleand properties in informal settlements is increasing. This article aimed to provide an answer as towhy this is the case, by assessing and comparing the technical suitability of adaptation strategiesto flooding in the informal settlements of Sangkrah and Keko Machungwa and recommendingmeasures for improvement. Household interviews, physical observation (visual inspections ofsigns of damage and deterioration, measurements of height of physical adaptation strategies,mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews were the key methods employed. Generally,in both cases, it was determined that flood mitigation and risk minimisation measures throughstructural adaptation strategies were hardly achieved at the household level, as adaptationstrategies were constructed with little or no attention to acceptable technical considerations.However, when levels of compliance to technical considerations in the construction of houseswere compared between the two cases, they were found to be slightly higher in Sangkrah thanin Keko Machungwa. Residents in Sangkrah demonstrated a slight difference, especially in theuse of reinforced concrete (4.3% for constructing a building’s foundation, as well as in the useof ceramics (72.9% to construct the floor. In order to deliver technically suitable adaptationstrategies, efforts need to be directed toward: regulating and controlling the construction ofstructures for

  9. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  10. Contextual information management: An example of independent-checking in the review of laboratory-based bloodstain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nikola K P; Taylor, Michael C

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a New Zealand forensic agency's contextual information management protocol for bloodstain pattern evidence examined in the laboratory. In an effort to create a protocol that would have minimal impact on current work-flow, while still effectively removing task-irrelevant contextual information, the protocol was designed following an in-depth consultation with management and forensic staff. The resulting design was for a protocol of independent-checking (i.e. blind peer-review) where the checker's interpretation of the evidence is conducted in the absence of case information and the original examiner's notes or interpretation(s). At the conclusion of a ten-case trial period, there was widespread agreement that the protocol had minimal impact on the number of people required, the cost, or the time to complete an item examination. The agency is now looking to adopt the protocol into standard operating procedures and in some cases the protocol has been extended to cover other laboratory-based examinations (e.g. fabric damage, shoeprint examination, and physical fits). The protocol developed during this trial provides a useful example for agencies seeking to adopt contextual information management into their workflow. Copyright © 2018 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Swedish Forest Owners' Information and Knowledge-Sharing Networks for Decision-Making: Insights for Climate Change Communication and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Karin; Baird, Julia; Gerger Swartling, Åsa; Vulturius, Gregor; Plummer, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    To further the understanding of climate change adaptation processes, more attention needs to be paid to the various contextual factors that shape whether and how climate-related knowledge and information is received and acted upon by actors involved. This study sets out to examine the characteristics of forest owners' in Sweden, the information and knowledge-sharing networks they draw upon for decision-making, and their perceptions of climate risks, their forests' resilience, the need for adaptation, and perceived adaptive capacity. By applying the concept of ego-network analysis, the empirical data was generated by a quantitative survey distributed to 3000 private forest owners' in Sweden in 2014 with a response rate of 31%. The results show that there is a positive correlation, even though it is generally weak, between forest owner climate perceptions and (i) network features, i.e. network size and heterogeneity, and (ii) presence of certain alter groups (i.e. network members or actors). Results indicate that forest owners' social networks currently serve only a minimal function of sharing knowledge of climate change and adaptation. Moreover, considering the fairly infrequent contact between respondents and alter groups, the timing of knowledge sharing is important. In conclusion we suggest those actors that forest owners' most frequently communicate with, especially forestry experts providing advisory services (e.g. forest owner associations, companies, and authorities) have a clear role to communicate both the risks of climate change and opportunities for adaptation. Peers are valuable in connecting information about climate risks and adaptation to the actual forest property.

  12. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Madise, Nyovani J; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Mutua, Martin K; Gitau, Tabither M; Yatich, Nelly

    2011-05-26

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99%) having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37%) were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability); health seeking behaviour (place of delivery) and; neighbourhood (slum of residence). The study indicates poor

  13. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutua Martin K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organisation (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Methods Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. Results There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99% having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37% were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability; health seeking behaviour (place of delivery and; neighbourhood

  14. Cognitive methodology for forecasting oil and gas industry using pattern-based neural information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, O.; Gafurov, D.; Syryamkin, V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper analyses a field of computer science formed at the intersection of such areas of natural science as artificial intelligence, mathematical statistics, and database theory, which is referred to as "Data Mining" (discovery of knowledge in data). The theory of neural networks is applied along with classical methods of mathematical analysis and numerical simulation. The paper describes the technique protected by the patent of the Russian Federation for the invention “A Method for Determining Location of Production Wells during the Development of Hydrocarbon Fields” [1–3] and implemented using the geoinformation system NeuroInformGeo. There are no analogues in domestic and international practice. The paper gives an example of comparing the forecast of the oil reservoir quality made by the geophysicist interpreter using standard methods and the forecast of the oil reservoir quality made using this technology. The technical result achieved shows the increase of efficiency, effectiveness, and ecological compatibility of development of mineral deposits and discovery of a new oil deposit.

  15. The Impact of PMIS Training: Patterns of Benefit Realization in Project Management Information Systems Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCarty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of project, program, and portfolio management software toolsets can be enhanced through training. Little is known about the realization of positive, beneficial outcomes and Project Management Information System (PMIS training. This research seeks to improve understanding of project management software toolset training practices and outcomes. This study examines the prevalence, effectiveness, and impact-per-hour efficiency of training in real-world organizations. We further explore relationships between individual and organizational characteristics and training outcomes. Formulae for estimating training costs are derived using regression modeling. Surveys were collected from 1,021 active professionals and analyzed using quantitative methods. Research participants were practitioners recruited by eight different companies, industry groups, and professional organizations within the PMIS community. The findings of this research indicate significant differences in utilization, efficacy, and efficiency of PMIS training in practice. The outcomes and methodologies of this study are being incorporated into ongoing research that focuses on improving PMIS training delivery, evaluation, and planning. The outcomes of this research may result in more effective, efficient, and economical PMIS training that is better tailored to the unique needs of each organization.

  16. Temporal Patterns of Happiness and Information in a Global Social Network: Hedonometrics and Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Harris, Kameron Decker; Kloumann, Isabel M.; Bliss, Catherine A.; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Individual happiness is a fundamental societal metric. Normally measured through self-report, happiness has often been indirectly characterized and overshadowed by more readily quantifiable economic indicators such as gross domestic product. Here, we examine expressions made on the online, global microblog and social networking service Twitter, uncovering and explaining temporal variations in happiness and information levels over timescales ranging from hours to years. Our data set comprises over 46 billion words contained in nearly 4.6 billion expressions posted over a 33 month span by over 63 million unique users. In measuring happiness, we construct a tunable, real-time, remote-sensing, and non-invasive, text-based hedonometer. In building our metric, made available with this paper, we conducted a survey to obtain happiness evaluations of over 10,000 individual words, representing a tenfold size improvement over similar existing word sets. Rather than being ad hoc, our word list is chosen solely by frequency of usage, and we show how a highly robust and tunable metric can be constructed and defended. PMID:22163266

  17. Investigation of Acupuncture Sensation Patterns under Sensory Deprivation Using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissner, Florian; Marzolff, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The study of acupuncture-related sensations, like deqi and propagated sensations along channels (PSCs), has a long tradition in acupuncture basic research. The phenomenon itself, however, remains poorly understood. To study the connection between PSC and classical meridians, we applied a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze sketches of acupuncture sensations from healthy volunteers after laser acupuncture. As PSC can be subtle, we aimed at reducing the confounding impact of external stimuli by carrying out the experiment in a floatation tank under restricted environmental stimulation. 82.4% of the subjects experienced PSC, that is, they had line-like or 2-dimensional sensations, although there were some doubts that these were related to the laser stimulation. Line-like sensations on the same limb were averaged to calculate sensation mean courses, which were then compared to classical meridians by measuring the mean distance between the two. Distances ranged from 0.83 cm in the case of the heart (HT) and spleen (SP) meridian to 6.27 cm in the case of the kidney (KI) meridian. Furthermore, PSC was observed to “jump” between adjacent meridians. In summary, GIS has proven to be a valuable tool to study PSC, and our results suggest a close connection between PSC and classical meridians. PMID:23243458

  18. Surplus N in US maize production: Informing data-driven policies using the Adapt-N model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Shai; van-Es, Harold; McLellan, Eileen; Margerison, Rebecca; Melkonian, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) production accounts for the largest share of crop land area in the U.S, and is the largest consumer of nitrogen (N) fertilizers of all US crops. Over-application of N fertilizer in excess of crop needs often lead to surplus of N in the soil, resulting in well-documented environmental problems and social costs associated with high reactive N losses. There is a potential to reduce these costs through better application timing, use of enhanced efficiency products, and more precise rate calculations. However, promoting management changes by means of environmental policies requires robust analysis of the possible environmental outcomes associated with these policies. This research gap is addressed using Adapt-N, a computational tool that combines soil, crop and management information with near-real-time weather data to estimate optimum N application rates for maize. Using results from a large synthetic dataset of 8100 simulations spanning 6 years (2010-2015), we have explored the total applied N rates, surplus of N (total N applied minus N removed by the crop) and the environmental losses resulting from seven N management scenarios applied in the top 5 US maize production states - IL, IN, IA, MN and NE. To cover a wide range of weather and production environments, all scenarios were applied at five randomly selected locations in each state, using combinations of three soil texture classes and two organic matter contents. The results indicate that fall applications typically lead to the highest total amount of N applied, highest N surplus and substantial amounts of environmental N losses. Nitrification inhibitors were found to have a marginal benefits for fall applied N. Spring pre-plant N applications were found to have lower N surplus than fall applications, but could still lead to high N losses under wet spring conditions. These losses were reduced (12%) when nitrification and urease inhibitors were applied. Out of all simulated N management

  19. The morphological / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation or service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sogoni, Zukisa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available , it is of the utmost importance that a critical evaluation of settlement structure and patterns is undertaken to directly inform the manner in which social services are delivered in different settlement types....

  20. Library usage patterns in the electronic information environment. Electronic journals, Use studies, Libraries, Medical libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franklin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the methodology and results from Web-based surveys of more than 15,000 networked electronic services users in the United States between July 1998 and June 2003 at four academic health sciences libraries and two large main campus libraries serving a variety of disciplines. A statistically valid methodology for administering simultaneous Web-based and print-based surveys using the random moments sampling technique is discussed and implemented. Results from the Web-based surveys showed that at the four academic health sciences libraries, there were approximately four remote networked electronic services users for each in-house user. This ratio was even higher for faculty, staff, and research fellows at the academic health sciences libraries, where more than five remote users for each in-house user were recorded. At the two main libraries, there were approximately 1.3 remote users for each in-house user of electronic information. Sponsored research (grant funded research accounted for approximately 32% of the networked electronic services activity at the health sciences libraries and 16% at the main campus libraries. Sponsored researchers at the health sciences libraries appeared to use networked electronic services most intensively from on-campus, but not from in the library. The purpose of use for networked electronic resources by patrons within the library is different from the purpose of use of those resources by patrons using the resources remotely. The implications of these results on how librarians reach decisions about networked electronic resources and services are discussed.

  1. Accessibility patterns and community integration among previously homeless adults: a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dara V; Gopal, Sucharita; Helfrich, Christine A

    2014-11-01

    Although a desired rehabilitation goal, research continues to document that community integration significantly lags behind housing stability success rates for people of a variety of ages who used to be homeless. While accessibility to resources is an environmental factor that may promote or impede integration activity, there has been little empirical investigation into the impact of proximity of community features on resource use and integration. Using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach, the current study examines how accessibility or proximity to community features in Boston, United States related to the types of locations used and the size of an individual's "activity space," or spatial presence in the community. Significant findings include an inverse relationship between activity space size and proximity to the number and type of community features in one's immediate area. Specifically, larger activity spaces were associated with neighborhoods with less community features, and smaller activity spaces corresponded with greater availability of resources within one's immediate area. Activity space size also varied, however, based on proximity to different types of resources, namely transportation and health care. Greater community function, or the ability to navigate and use community resources, was associated with better accessibility and feeling part of the community. Finally, proximity to a greater number of individual identified preferred community features was associated with better social integration. The current study suggests the ongoing challenges of successful integration may vary not just based on accessibility to, but relative importance of, specific community features and affinity with one's surroundings. Community integration researchers and housing providers may need to attend to the meaning attached to resources, not just presence or use in the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  3. Robust fault detection of turbofan engines subject to adaptive controllers via a Total Measurable Fault Information Residual (ToMFIR) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chowdhury, Fahmida N; Djuric, Ana; Yeh, Chih-Ping

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides a new design of robust fault detection for turbofan engines with adaptive controllers. The critical issue is that the adaptive controllers can depress the faulty effects such that the actual system outputs remain the pre-specified values, making it difficult to detect faults/failures. To solve this problem, a Total Measurable Fault Information Residual (ToMFIR) technique with the aid of system transformation is adopted to detect faults in turbofan engines with adaptive controllers. This design is a ToMFIR-redundancy-based robust fault detection. The ToMFIR is first introduced and existing results are also summarized. The Detailed design process of the ToMFIRs is presented and a turbofan engine model is simulated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed ToMFIR-based fault-detection strategy. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mid and later life care work migration: Patterns of re-organising informal care obligations in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gudrun; Österle, August

    2016-04-01

    Many women in mid or later life from Central and Eastern Europe commute for live-in 24-hour care work to Austria. In addition to paid care work abroad, the majority of women in this age group is confronted with informal (family) care obligations towards children, towards older relatives or towards grandchildren. This study aims to explore the patterns of re-organising these informal care obligations (childcare, long-term care and domestic work) in the respective home country and to analyse the factors that determine the re-organisation. The study builds on qualitative interviews with 20 migrant care workers aged 40years and over, 9 Romanian and 11 Slovakian women providing 24-hour care work in Austria. All interviewees commute in 2- to 4-weekly shifts between the home country and Austria and report multiple informal care obligations towards family members in the respective home country. In most cases, members of the nuclear and extended family, and in many cases husbands or partners of migrant care workers, act as the main substitute caregivers. Institutional care provision plays a more important role for child care as against for older people in need of care for whom care services are hardly available or accessible in the countries observed. While re-organisation depends much on the specific family constellations, strong assumptions towards family care, the limitations in (monetary) resources and the lack of public welfare provisions strongly co-determine the arrangements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diluted connectivity in pattern association networks facilitates the recall of information from the hippocampus to the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2015-01-01

    The recall of information stored in the hippocampus involves a series of corticocortical backprojections via the entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and one or more neocortical stages. Each stage is considered to be a pattern association network, with the retrieval cue at each stage the firing of neurons in the previous stage. The leading factor that determines the capacity of this multistage pattern association backprojection pathway is the number of connections onto any one neuron, which provides a quantitative basis for why there are as many backprojections between adjacent stages in the hierarchy as forward projections. The issue arises of why this multistage backprojection system uses diluted connectivity. One reason is that a multistage backprojection system with expansion of neuron numbers at each stage enables the hippocampus to address during recall the very large numbers of neocortical neurons, which would otherwise require hippocampal neurons to make very large numbers of synapses if they were directly onto neocortical neurons. The second reason is that as shown here, diluted connectivity in the backprojection pathways reduces the probability of more than one connection onto a receiving neuron in the backprojecting pathways, which otherwise reduces the capacity of the system, that is the number of memories that can be recalled from the hippocampus to the neocortex. For similar reasons, diluted connectivity is advantageous in pattern association networks in other brain systems such as the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala; for related reasons, in autoassociation networks in, for example, the hippocampal CA3 and the neocortex; and for the different reason that diluted connectivity facilitates the operation of competitive networks in forward-connected cortical systems. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation and Completion of Episodic Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimone, James Bradley; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Vineyard, Craig Michael; Verzi, Stephen Joseph.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus region of the brain is a neurobiological process that is believed to contribute to the brain's advanced abilities in complex pattern recognition and cognition. Here, we describe how realistic scale simulations of the neurogenesis process can offer both a unique perspective on the biological relevance of this process and confer computational insights that are suggestive of novel machine learning techniques. First, supercomputer based scaling studies of the neurogenesis process demonstrate how a small fraction of adult-born neurons have a uniquely larger impact in biologically realistic scaled networks. Second, we describe a novel technical approach by which the information content of ensembles of neurons can be estimated. Finally, we illustrate several examples of broader algorithmic impact of neurogenesis, including both extending existing machine learning approaches and novel approaches for intelligent sensing.

  7. Cultural Adaptation of the LINQ (Lung Information Needs Questionnaire Questionnaire in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Disease in a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cecilia Wilches Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To perform a cultural adaptation of the LINQ (Lung Information Needs Questionnaire for patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Method: Descriptive study. After the translation of the questionnaire by a certified translator, and after its cultural adaptation, it was applied in eight patients in order to identify the difficulties and doubts related to an understanding of the questions and of its terminology, not only to evaluate the quality of the translation, but to verify practical aspects of its application, as well. Afterward, a second translation was done from Spanish to English, and sent back to the authors to ensure the original content of the questionnaire was maintained, and to obtain endorsement for its use. Results: During the cultural adaptation phase, the sample was constituted by 6 men and 2 women, with an average age of 61 years. The Spa-nish version of the LINQ, as well as the cultural adaptation, was easy to use and did not show any discrepancies with the original version during the re-translation process. Conclusions: The LINQ’s translation to Spanish and the cultural adaptation proved to be adequate, because the patients did not express any difficulties in understanding and answering the questions. This will facilitate future studies that evaluate the educational component in the pulmonary rehabilitation program.

  8. [Quantitative evaluation of printing accuracy and tissue surface adaptation of mandibular complete denture polylactic acid pattern fabricated by fused deposition modeling technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, K H; Wang, Y; Chen, H; Zhao, Y J; Zhou, Y S; Sun, Y C

    2017-06-09

    Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the adaptation of polylactic acid (PLA) pattern of mandibular complete denture fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology. Methods: A mandibular complete denture digital model was designed through a complete denture design software based on a pair of standard maxillomandibular edentulous plaster model and their occlusion bases. Ten PLA mandibular complete dentures were printed with a FDM machine. The dentures were scanned with and without the plaster model using a three-dimensional (3D) scanner. In Geomagic software, the scanning data of printed dentures were registered to its computer aided design (CAD) data, and the printing error was analyzed using the multipoint registration command. For quantitatively evaluating the adaptation of the denture, the data of plaster model and PLA denture were registered to the whole data of denture located in the plaster model using the best-fit alignment command, the 3D deviation of the plaster model and tissue surface of the denture represent the space between them. The overall area was separated into three parts: primary stress-bearing area, secondary stress-bearing area and border seal area, and the average deviations of these three parts were measured. The values were analyzed using analysis of variance. Results: Compared with the CAD data, the printing error was (0.013±0.004) mm. The overall 3D deviation between PLA denture and plaster model was (0.164±0.033) mm, in which the primary stress-bearing area was (0.165± 0.045) mm, the secondary stress-bearing area was (0.153 ± 0.027) mm, the border seal area was (0.186 ± 0.043) mm. These showed a good fit in the majority parts of the FDM denture to the plaster model. No statistically significant difference was observed between the three areas ( F =1.857, P =0.175>0.05). Conclusions: Combined with the 3D scanning, CAD and FDM technology, a FDM 3D printing process of complete denture for injection moulding can be established

  9. Manifestation Pattern of Early-Late Vaginal Morbidity After Definitive Radiation (Chemo)Therapy and Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Nout, Remi A. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark); Westerveld, Henrike [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haie-Meder, Christine [Department of Radiotherapy, Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Petrič, Primož [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Radiotherapy, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Doha (Qatar); Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    Background and Purpose: Brachytherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer has changed substantially because of the introduction of combined intracavitary/interstitial applicators and an adaptive target concept, which is the focus of the prospective, multi-institutional EMBRACE study ( (www.embracestudy.dk)) on image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). So far, little has been reported about the development of early to late vaginal morbidity in the frame of IGABT. Therefore, the aim of the present EMBRACE analysis was to evaluate the manifestation pattern of vaginal morbidity during the first 2 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: In total, 588 patients with a median follow-up time of 15 months and information on vaginal morbidity were included. Morbidity was prospectively assessed at baseline, every 3 months during the first year, and every 6 months in the second year according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, regarding vaginal stenosis, dryness, mucositis, bleeding, fistula, and other symptoms. Crude incidence rates, actuarial probabilities, and prevalence rates were analyzed. Results: At 2 years, the actuarial probability of severe vaginal morbidity (grade ≥3) was 3.6%. However, mild and moderate vaginal symptoms were still pronounced (grade ≥1, 89%; grade ≥2, 29%), of which the majority developed within 6 months. Stenosis was most frequently observed, followed by vaginal dryness. Vaginal bleeding and mucositis were mainly mild and infrequently reported. Conclusion: Severe vaginal morbidity within the first 2 years after definitive radiation (chemo)therapy including IGABT with intracavitary/interstitial techniques for locally advanced cervical cancer is limited and is significantly less than has been reported from earlier studies. Thus, the new adaptive target concept seems to be a safe treatment with regard to the vagina being an organ at risk. However, mild to moderate vaginal morbidity

  10. Manifestation Pattern of Early-Late Vaginal Morbidity After Definitive Radiation (Chemo)Therapy and Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Nout, Remi A.; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Westerveld, Henrike; Haie-Meder, Christine; Petrič, Primož; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Brachytherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer has changed substantially because of the introduction of combined intracavitary/interstitial applicators and an adaptive target concept, which is the focus of the prospective, multi-institutional EMBRACE study ( (www.embracestudy.dk)) on image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). So far, little has been reported about the development of early to late vaginal morbidity in the frame of IGABT. Therefore, the aim of the present EMBRACE analysis was to evaluate the manifestation pattern of vaginal morbidity during the first 2 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: In total, 588 patients with a median follow-up time of 15 months and information on vaginal morbidity were included. Morbidity was prospectively assessed at baseline, every 3 months during the first year, and every 6 months in the second year according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, regarding vaginal stenosis, dryness, mucositis, bleeding, fistula, and other symptoms. Crude incidence rates, actuarial probabilities, and prevalence rates were analyzed. Results: At 2 years, the actuarial probability of severe vaginal morbidity (grade ≥3) was 3.6%. However, mild and moderate vaginal symptoms were still pronounced (grade ≥1, 89%; grade ≥2, 29%), of which the majority developed within 6 months. Stenosis was most frequently observed, followed by vaginal dryness. Vaginal bleeding and mucositis were mainly mild and infrequently reported. Conclusion: Severe vaginal morbidity within the first 2 years after definitive radiation (chemo)therapy including IGABT with intracavitary/interstitial techniques for locally advanced cervical cancer is limited and is significantly less than has been reported from earlier studies. Thus, the new adaptive target concept seems to be a safe treatment with regard to the vagina being an organ at risk. However, mild to moderate vaginal morbidity

  11. A stated adaptation approach to assess changes in individuals’ activity-travel behavior in presence of personalized travel information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvaneh, Zahra; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The rapid and inevitable growth of availability of travel information for travellers has increased expectations among policy makers about the benefits of travel information. It is increasingly expected that providing advanced travel information can trigger particular travel behaviors that would

  12. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  13. Cultural Adaptation of the Family Communication Patterns Instrument-R Adaptación cultural del Instrumento “Patrones de Comunicación Familiar- R”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeli Rivero

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain a culturally adapted Spanish version of the “Revised family communication patterns instrument (RFCP, using rigorous procedures in the retro-translation process and in the subsequent empirical study. The sampling consisted of 455 university students and two subscales for the conversation orientation were obtained (“Ideas expression” and “Differences acceptance” and two for the conformity orientations (“Differences rejection” and “Obedience encourage”. All the scales proved to have good psychometric qualities and suitable convergent, concurrent and content validity, yet it is necessary to go more deeply into the conformity orientation. The construct validity was supported by a confirmatory factorial analysis showing that the RFCP is a useful instrument for family assessment. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido obtener una versión española adaptada culturalmente del instrumento “Patrones de comunicación familiar (PCFR, versión revisada, empleando procedimientos rigurosos en el proceso de retrotraducción y en el estudio empírico posterior. La muestra consistió en 455 estudiantes universitarios y se obtuvieron dos subescalas para la dimensión de la orientación a la conversación (“Expresión de ideas” y “Aceptación de la diferencia” y dos para la dimensión de la orientación a la conformidad (“Rechazo de la diferencia” y “Ánimo a la obediencia”. Las escalas demostraron buenas cualidades psicométricas y una adecuada validez convergente, concurrente y de contenido, aunque es necesario profundizar en las dimensiones “orientación a la conformidad”. El análisis factorial confirmatorio respaldó la validez de constructo del instrumento, demostrando su utilidad en la evaluación familiar.

  14. Adaptation of the Pivotal-Differential Genome Pattern for the Induction of Intergenomic Chromosome Recombination in Hybrids of Synthetic Amphidiploids within Triticeae Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal T. Kwiatek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A pivotal-differential evolution pattern is when two allopolyploids share a common genome, which is called pivotal, and differ with respect to the other genome or genomes, called differential. This feature induces the intergenomic recombination between chromosomes of differential genomes, which can lead to speciation. Our study is a cytomolecular insight into this mechanism which was adapted for the induction of intergenomic chromosome recombination in hybrids of synthetic amphidiploids Aegilops biuncialis × S. cereale (UUMMRR and triticale (AABBRR where R-genome was pivotal. We observed chromosome recombination events which were induced by both: (1 random chromosome fragmentation and non-homologous chromosome end joining at mitosis of root meristem cells and (2 intergenomic chromosome associations at meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs of F1 hybrids. Reciprocal chromosome translocations were identified in six F1 plants and 15 plants of F2 generation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with DNA clones (pTa-86, pTa-k374, pTa-465, pTa-535, pTa-k566, and pTa-713. We observed signals of pTa-86, pTa-535, and pTa-k566 probes in several chromosome breakpoints. The comparison of the DNA clone sequences distinguished a number of common motifs, which can be considered as characteristics of chromosome breakpoint loci. Immunodetection of synaptonemal complex proteins and genomic in situ hybridization analysis at meiosis of PMCs of F1 hybrids showed, that the homologous pairing of pivotal R—genome chromosomes is crucial for the fertility of F1 hybrids, however, these chromosomes can be also involved in the intergeneric recombination.

  15. Information theoretic measures of network coordination in high-frequency scalp EEG reveal dynamic patterns associated with seizure termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Schomer, Donald L; Chang, Bernard S

    2013-08-01

    How a seizure terminates is still under-studied and, despite its clinical importance, remains an obscure phase of seizure evolution. Recent studies of seizure-related scalp EEGs at frequencies >100 Hz suggest that neural activity, in the form of oscillations and/or neuronal network interactions, may play an important role in preictal/ictal seizure evolution (Andrade-Valenca et al., 2011; Stamoulis et al., 2012). However, the role of high-frequency activity in seizure termination, is unknown, if it exists at all. Using information theoretic measures of network coordination, this study investigated ictal and immediate postictal neurodynamic interactions encoded in scalp EEGs from a relatively small sample of 8 patients with focal epilepsy and multiple seizures originating in temporal and/or frontal brain regions, at frequencies ≤ 100 Hz and >100 Hz, respectively. Despite some heterogeneity in the dynamics of these interactions, consistent patterns were also estimated. Specifically, in several seizures, linear or non-linear increase in high-frequency neuronal coordination during ictal intervals, coincided with a corresponding decrease in coordination at frequencies interval, which continues during the postictal interval. This may be one of several possible mechanisms that facilitate seizure termination. In fact, inhibition of pairwise interactions between EEGs by other signals in their spatial neighborhood, quantified by negative interaction information, was estimated at frequencies ≤ 100 Hz, at least in some seizures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate Information and Agricultural Practice in Adaptation to Climate Variability: The Case of Climate Field Schools in Indramayu, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crane, T.A.; Siregar, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the Farmer Field School methodology, a “Climate Field School” was conducted with farmers in the Indramayu region of Indonesia in 2003 to promote adaptive application of climate forecasts to crop selection decisions. However, five years after the Climate Field School, use of the forecasts

  17. Googling in anatomy education: Can google trends inform educators of national online search patterns of anatomical syllabi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Nigel; Davy, Shane; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Barry, Denis S

    2017-03-01

    The role of e-learning platforms in anatomy education continues to expand as self-directed learning is promoted in higher education. Although a wide range of e-learning resources are available, determining student use of non-academic internet resources requires novel approaches. One such approach that may be useful is the Google Trends © web application. To determine the feasibility of Google Trends to gain insights into anatomy-related online searches, Google Trends data from the United States from January 2010 to December 2015 were analyzed. Data collected were based on the recurrence of keywords related to head and neck anatomy generated from the American Association of Clinical Anatomists and the Anatomical Society suggested anatomy syllabi. Relative search volume (RSV) data were analyzed for seasonal periodicity and their overall temporal trends. Following exclusions due to insufficient search volume data, 29 out of 36 search terms were analyzed. Significant seasonal patterns occurred in 23 search terms. Thirty-nine seasonal peaks were identified, mainly in October and April, coinciding with teaching periods in anatomy curricula. A positive correlation of RSV with time over the 6-year study period occurred in 25 out of 29 search terms. These data demonstrate how Google Trends may offer insights into the nature and timing of online search patterns of anatomical syllabi and may potentially inform the development and timing of targeted online supports to ensure that students of anatomy have the opportunity to engage with online content that is both accurate and fit for purpose. Anat Sci Educ 10: 152-159. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Is "the perfect model" really needed? - Analysis of the quality level of climate information necessary for supporting adaptation in agriculture and forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálos, Borbála; Ostler, Wolf-Uwe; Csáki, Péter; Bidló, András; Panferov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    Recent results of climate science (e.g. IPCC AR5, 2013) and statements of climate policy (e.g. Paris Agreement) confirm that climate change is an ongoing issue. The consequences will be noticeable for a long time even if the 2 Degree goal is reached. Therefore, action plans are necessary for adaptation and mitigation on national and international level. Forestry and agriculture are especially threatened by the probable increase of the frequency and/or intensity of climate extremes. Severe impacts of recurrent droughts/heat waves that were observed in the last decades in the sensitive and vulnerable ecosystems and regions are very likely to occur with increasing probability throughout the 21st century. For the adequate climate impact assessments, for adaptation strategies as well as for supporting decisions in the above mentioned sectors the reliable information on the long-term climate tendencies and on ecosystem responses are required. Here are the two major problems: on the one hand the information on current climate and future climate developments are highly uncertain. On the other hand, due to limited knowledge on ecosystem responses, it is difficult to define how certain or accurate the provided climate data should be for the plausible application in agricultural/forestry research and practice. Considering agriculture and forestry, our research is focusing on the following questions: • What is the climate information demand of practice and impact research in the two sectors? • What quality level of climate information is necessary for adaptation support? • How does the accuracy of climate input affect the results of the climate impact assessments? The agriculture and forestry operate at two very different time scales and have a different reaction times and adaptation capacities. Agriculture requires short-term information on current conditions and short-/medium-term weather forecast. To assess the degree of information accuracy required by practical

  19. What works for you? Using teacher feedback to inform adaptations of pivotal response training for classroom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Aubyn C; Suhrheinrich, Jessica; Reed, Sarah; Schreibman, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Several evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been identified as efficacious for the education of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, effectiveness research has rarely been conducted in schools and teachers express skepticism about the clinical utility of EBPs for the classroom. Innovative methods are needed to optimally adapt EBPs for community use. This study utilizes qualitative methods to identify perceived benefits and barriers of classroom implementation of a specific EBP for ASD, Pivotal Response Training (PRT). Teachers' perspectives on the components of PRT, use of PRT as a classroom intervention strategy, and barriers to the use of PRT were identified through guided discussion. Teachers found PRT valuable; however, they also found some components challenging. Specific teacher recommendations for adaptation and resource development are discussed. This process of obtaining qualitative feedback from frontline practitioners provides a generalizable model for researchers to collaborate with teachers to optimally promote EBPs for classroom use.

  20. Influence of Changing Rainfall Patterns on the Yield of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. and Selection of Genotypes in Known Drought-tolerant Fruit Species for Climate Change Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablito M. Magdalita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In fruit crop production, rainfall, water stress, temperature, and wind are key variables for success, and the present changes in rainfall patterns could affect the flowering and yield of the rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Other fruit species like macopa (Syzygium samarangense, siniguelas (Spondias purpurea, and native santol or cotton fruit (Sandoricum koetjape remain productive despite extreme climatic changes. This study assessed the influence of rainfall on rambutan yield and evaluated and selected tree genotypes of known drought-tolerant fruit species. Rambutan yield in a selected farm in Calauan, Laguna, Philippines, dropped remarkably from 152.2 kg/tree in 2008 to 8.6 kg/tree in 2009. This reduction could be attributed to the high rainfall in April 2009 at 334.4 mm, and possibly other environmental factors like temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and strong wind. Furthermore, wet months in 2009 also inhibited the flowering of rambutan. However, a low yield obtained in 2010 at 45.5 kg/tree could be partly attributed to the very low rainfall in May 2010 at only 9.1 mm. On the other hand, in relation to changing climate, selection of tree genotypes for use as varieties in known drought- and flood-tolerant fruit species based on important fruit qualities like sweetness, juiciness, and high edible portion was done. Among 103 macopa genotypes, Mc-13, 43, and 91 were selected and the best (i.e. , Mc-13 had sweet (7.15 °Brix and crispy fruits weighing 49.44 g, creamy white (RHCC 155 A, and had high edible portion (EP, 93.22%. Among 114 siniguelas genotypes, Sg-41, 42 and 105 were selected and the best selection (i.e., Sg-41, had sweet (12.50 °Brix and juicy fruit weighing 20.42 g, ruby red (RHCC 59 A, and had high EP (83.27%. Among 101 native santol genotypes, Sn-47, 59, and 74 were selected and the best selection (i.e. , Sn-59 had relatively sweet (5.56 °Brix and juicy fruits weighing 51.96 g, maize yellow (RHCC 21 B, and had

  1. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  2. Adaptation of regulatory information and knowledge through knowledge maps in the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority within the framework of nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahab, Martin; Dawyd, Noelia

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the new framework of nuclear renaissance in the world in general, and in Argentina in particular, proper and efficient management of information and knowledge produced in the past and to be produced during renaissance becomes critically important. The fact that in the nuclear sector across the world human resources are going through significant change as a result of the massive number of experts who are retiring from the workforce, the ensuing general gap, the new generation of workers who are joining the nuclear rank and file with different training, values and cultural beliefs, and the slow information and knowledge transfer process call for carefully considering and assessing new methods to manage information and knowledge. This paper discusses the topic of knowledge maps as a method to adapt historical information and knowledge and to make it more readily available for future workers; the paper also deals with a new management approach to such information. Knowledge maps probably represent an up-to-date method to manage both historical and new information and knowledge, adapting to a number of new cultural features, including but not limited to the intensive use of information technologies and the tendency to summarize and integrate concepts. A distinguishing feature of this new method of organizing information and knowledge is the need for a closer interrelation across the organisation's sectors. As a result, knowledge maps help create and improve manuals and procedures related to the specific tasks performed in the institution, based on the analysis carried out by those creating the maps. This tool also helps better analyze the tasks already conducted or to be conducted by workers, all of which optimizes the job description process in the area of human resources. Another benefit of knowledge maps is that they help preserve the information and knowledge that can be used to train the staff in merely technical or induction issues as well as in an

  3. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-09-13

    The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the experiences of deaf people who use ASL. The final HINTS

  4. Identification of {sup 192}Ir seeds in localization images using a novel statistical pattern recognition approach and a priori information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, William F; Chaney, Edward L; Coggins, James M

    1995-07-01

    Purpose / Objective: Manual labeling of individual {sup 192}Ir seeds in localization images for dosimetry of multi-strand low-dose-rate (LDR) implants is labor intensive, tedious and prone to error. The objective of this investigation is to develop computer-based methods that analyze digitized localization images, improve dosimetric efficiency, and reduce labeling errors. Materials and Methods: {sup 192}Ir localization films were digitized with a scanned-laser system and analyzed using Multiscale, Geometric, Statistical Pattern Recognition (MGSPR), a technique that recognizes and classifies pixels in gray-scale images based on their surrounding, neighborhood geometry. To 'teach' MGSPR how to recognize specific objects, a Gaussian-based mathematical filter set is applied to training images containing user-labeled examples of the desired objects. The filters capture a broad range of descriptive geometric information at multiple spatial scales. Principled mathematical analysis is used to determine the linear combination of filters from a large base set that yields the best discrimination between object types. Thus the sensitivity of the filters can be 'tuned' to detect specific objects such as{sup 192} Ir seeds. For a given pixel, the output of the filter is a multi-component feature vector that uniquely describes the pixel's geometric characteristics. Pixels with similar geometric attributes have feature vectors that naturally 'cluster', or group, in the multidimensional space called 'feature space'. After statistically quantifying the training-set clusters in feature space, pixels found in new images are automatically labeled by correlation with the nearest cluster, e.g., the cluster representing {sup 192}Ir seeds. One of the greatest challenges in statistical pattern recognition is to determine which filters result in the best labeling. Good discrimination is achieved when clusters are compact and well isolated from one another in feature space. The filters used in

  5. Identification of 192Ir seeds in localization images using a novel statistical pattern recognition approach and a priori information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, William F.; Chaney, Edward L.; Coggins, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose / Objective: Manual labeling of individual 192 Ir seeds in localization images for dosimetry of multi-strand low-dose-rate (LDR) implants is labor intensive, tedious and prone to error. The objective of this investigation is to develop computer-based methods that analyze digitized localization images, improve dosimetric efficiency, and reduce labeling errors. Materials and Methods: 192 Ir localization films were digitized with a scanned-laser system and analyzed using Multiscale, Geometric, Statistical Pattern Recognition (MGSPR), a technique that recognizes and classifies pixels in gray-scale images based on their surrounding, neighborhood geometry. To 'teach' MGSPR how to recognize specific objects, a Gaussian-based mathematical filter set is applied to training images containing user-labeled examples of the desired objects. The filters capture a broad range of descriptive geometric information at multiple spatial scales. Principled mathematical analysis is used to determine the linear combination of filters from a large base set that yields the best discrimination between object types. Thus the sensitivity of the filters can be 'tuned' to detect specific objects such as 192 Ir seeds. For a given pixel, the output of the filter is a multi-component feature vector that uniquely describes the pixel's geometric characteristics. Pixels with similar geometric attributes have feature vectors that naturally 'cluster', or group, in the multidimensional space called 'feature space'. After statistically quantifying the training-set clusters in feature space, pixels found in new images are automatically labeled by correlation with the nearest cluster, e.g., the cluster representing 192 Ir seeds. One of the greatest challenges in statistical pattern recognition is to determine which filters result in the best labeling. Good discrimination is achieved when clusters are compact and well isolated from one another in feature space. The filters used in this study are

  6. Adaptation of a paradigm for examining the development of fear beliefs through the verbal information pathway in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Lara S; Schofield, Casey A; Beard, Courtney; Armstrong, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Verbal threat information has been shown to induce fear beliefs in school-age children (i.e. 6-12 years; for a review see Muris & Field, 2010). The current study adapted an existing paradigm (Field & Lawson, 2003) to examine the impact of verbal threat information on self-report and behavioral measures of fear in preschool-age children. Thirty children (aged 3-5) were provided with threat, positive, or no information about three novel Australian marsupials. There was a significant increase in fear belief for the animal associated with threat information compared to the animal associated with positive or no information. Verbal threat information did not impact behavioral avoidance in the complete sample; however, findings from an exploratory subgroup analysis excluding three-year-olds indicated that children demonstrated significant behavioral avoidance for the threat condition compared to the positive condition. These findings provide additional support for Rachman's theory of fear acquisition (1977, 1991) and suggest this paradigm may be used to examine the age at which verbal threat information becomes a relevant mode of fear acquisition for young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of physical workload and modality of information presentation on pattern recognition and navigation task performance by high-fit young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabi, Maryam; Zhang, Wenjuan; Pankok, Carl; Lau, Mei Ying; Shirley, James; Kaber, David

    2017-11-01

    Many occupations require both physical exertion and cognitive task performance. Knowledge of any interaction between physical demands and modalities of cognitive task information presentation can provide a basis for optimising performance. This study examined the effect of physical exertion and modality of information presentation on pattern recognition and navigation-related information processing. Results indicated males of equivalent high fitness, between the ages of 18 and 34, rely more on visual cues vs auditory or haptic for pattern recognition when exertion level is high. We found that navigation response time was shorter under low and medium exertion levels as compared to high intensity. Navigation accuracy was lower under high level exertion compared to medium and low levels. In general, findings indicated that use of the haptic modality for cognitive task cueing decreased accuracy in pattern recognition responses. Practitioner Summary: An examination was conducted on the effect of physical exertion and information presentation modality in pattern recognition and navigation. In occupations requiring information presentation to workers, who are simultaneously performing a physical task, the visual modality appears most effective under high level exertion while haptic cueing degrades performance.

  8. Studying Human Resource Information Systems Implementation using Adaptive Structuration Theory: The Case of an HRIS Implementation at Dow Chemical Company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Chiemeke, Charles C.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Research on Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) implementation lacks theoretical depth and richness. For that reason this paper applies a theory to HRIS implementation developed by Gerardine DeSanctis and Marshal Scott Poole originally for studying information systems implementation, namely

  9. Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering: Adaptation of Linguistic Paradigm for Circumstance of Engineering Epoch

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Halina

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems of linguistic knowledge in the Engineering Epoch. Engineering Epoch is the time of adaptation to the information flows by knowledge management, The system of adaptation mechanisms is connected with linguistic and linguistic technologies, forming in new linguistic patterns Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering.

  10. Assess and Adapt: Coordinated Ecoregional Forest Vulnerability Assessments Covering the Upper Midwest and Northeast in Support of Climate-informed Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.; Handler, S.; Butler, P.; Brandt, L.; Iverson, L.; Thompson, F.; Ontl, T.; Shannon, D.

    2016-12-01

    Forest ecosystem vulnerability assessments are rapidly becoming an integral component of forest management planning, in which there is increasing public expectation that even near-term activities explicitly incorporate information about anticipated climate impacts and risks. There is a clear desire among forest managers for targeted assessments that address critical questions about species and ecosystem vulnerabilities while delivering this information in an accessible format. We developed the Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment Approach (EVAA), which combines multiple quantitative models, expert elicitation from scientists and land managers, and a templated report structure oriented to natural resource managers. The report structure includes relevant information on the contemporary landscape, past climate, future climate projections, impact model results, and a transparent vulnerability assessment of species and ecosystems. We have used EVAA in seven ecoregional assessments covering 246 million acres of forestland across the upper Midwest and Northeast (www.forestadaptation.org; five published, two in review). We convened a panel of local forest ecology and management experts in each assessment area to examine projected climate effects on system drivers, stressors, and dominant species, as well as the current adaptive capacity of the major ecoregional forest ecosystems. The panels provided a qualitative assessment of the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to climate change over the next century. Over 130 authors from dozens of organizations collaborated on these peer-reviewed assessment publications, which are delivered to thousands of stakeholders through live and recorded webinars, online briefs, and in-person trainings and seminars. The assessments are designed to be used with the Adaptation Workbook (www.adaptationworkbook.org), a planning tool that works at multiple scales and has generated more than 200 real-world forest adaptation demonstration projects.

  11. The effect of four user interface concepts on visual scan pattern similarity and information foraging in a complex decision making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Sandra D; Baber, Chris

    2018-07-01

    User interface (UI) design can affect the quality of decision making, where decisions based on digitally presented content are commonly informed by visually sampling information through eye movements. Analysis of the resulting scan patterns - the order in which people visually attend to different regions of interest (ROIs) - gives an insight into information foraging strategies. In this study, we quantified scan pattern characteristics for participants engaging with conceptually different user interface designs. Four interfaces were modified along two dimensions relating to effort in accessing information: data presentation (either alpha-numerical data or colour blocks), and information access time (all information sources readily available or sequential revealing of information required). The aim of the study was to investigate whether a) people develop repeatable scan patterns and b) different UI concepts affect information foraging and task performance. Thirty-two participants (eight for each UI concept) were given the task to correctly classify 100 credit card transactions as normal or fraudulent based on nine transaction attributes. Attributes varied in their usefulness of predicting the correct outcome. Conventional and more recent (network analysis- and bioinformatics-based) eye tracking metrics were used to quantify visual search. Empirical findings were evaluated in context of random data and possible accuracy for theoretical decision making strategies. Results showed short repeating sequence fragments within longer scan patterns across participants and conditions, comprising a systematic and a random search component. The UI design concept showing alpha-numerical data in full view resulted in most complete data foraging, while the design concept showing colour blocks in full view resulted in the fastest task completion time. Decision accuracy was not significantly affected by UI design. Theoretical calculations showed that the difference in achievable

  12. The morphological /settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sogoni, Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery Zukisa Sogoni Planning Africa Conference 2016 4 July 2Project Focus and Background • CSIR... services. • Purpose is to support application & planning for new investment & prevent “unsustainable” investments / White elephants. 3Outputs • National set of service delivery catchments • Profile information per individual catchment • Ranking...

  13. Why and how selection patterns in classroom networks differ between students.The potential influence of networks size preferences, level of information, and group membership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baerveldt, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High school students can select class mates for new friendships using a repertoire of patterns. They can actively pursue new friendships, make use of the existing network structure, and/ or use the scarce and often erroneous information about candidates. In this theoretical paper, we argue that such selection patterns should not be studied as the result of general rules, as is usually done in social network studies. Specifically, we state that network size preferences, the level of information about individual attributes of fellow classmates, and group membership are likely to differ among high school students, and that as a result, also their selection patterns are likely to be different. In this paper we sketch the theoretical articulations between these.

  14. Needs-adapted Data Presentation in e-Information Tools Data-aanbieding aangepas volgens behoefte in e-inligtinghulpmiddels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Bergenholtz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In the current debate about the status of lexicography there are at least three quite different opinions:

    (i Lexicography does not have or need any kind of own theory but can use all relevant linguistic theories.

    (ii Lexicography needs a special theory for the lexicographical praxis, but this discipline is still a part of linguistics.

    (iii Lexicography is a genuine part of information science and can use theories and learn from practice in the information society, but it also needs special theories for lexicography.

    It is the third opinion we will maintain in this paper by discussing the information needs in the information society and partly using the function theory of lexicography.

    Keywords: lexicography; function theory; information tool; dictionary; fixed expression; information overload; information stress; user needs; complex user situation; context; cognitive situation; communicative situation; operative situation; interpretative situation; monofunctional information tool; polyfunctional information tool; integrated information tool; database; data presentation

    In die huidige debat oor die status van leksikografie is daar minstens drie wyd uiteenlopende standpunte:

    (i Leksikografie het nie en benodig ook nie enige tipe eie teorie nie, maar kan van alle relevante taalkundige teorieë gebruik maak.

    (ii Leksikografie benodig 'n spesiale teorie vir die leksikografiese praktyk, maar hierdie dissipline is nog steeds deel van taalkunde.

    (iii Leksikografie is 'n ware deel van inligtingkunde en kan die teorieë gebruik en uit die gebruike in die inligtingsamelewing leer, maar dit benodig spesiale teorieë vir leksikografie.

    Ons handhaaf die laaste standpunt in hierdie artikel waarin inligtingbehoeftes in die inligtinggemeenskap bespreek word met gedeeltelike gebruik van die

  15. Negotiating the Boundaries between the Formal and the Informal: An Experienced Teacher's Refective Adaptations of Informal Learning in a Keyboard Class for At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes-Onishi, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to address the important questions raised in literature on the intersections between formal and informal learning. Specifically, this will be discussed within the concept of "productive dissonance" and the pedagogical tensions that arise in the effort of experienced teachers to transition from the formal to…

  16. Adaptation and patterns of its effects on the continuity of a healthy way of life of senior pupil and first-year students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vovk V.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed and analyzed the literature on adaptation of youth. The results of the monitoring of the impact of factors on the process of adapting a healthy lifestyle succession of senior and first-year students. The experiment involved 298 high school students and 296 first-year students. It is established that the category of "adaptation" is the most important educational component of a healthy lifestyle. This category is effectively influence the process of succession healthy living and active sports activity pupils and students. The strategic goal of secondary and higher education should be to create an environment that promotes the physical and moral improvement of young people, promoting a healthy lifestyle. It is proved that adjustment disorder is expressed in the deterioration of health, physical development, bio-energy physical activity of young people.

  17. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J.; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study’s qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants’ narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention. PMID:26554330

  18. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K

    2015-11-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study's qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants' narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention.

  19. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  20. The Need to Adapt to New Financial Accounting Technologies Information in the Context of Global Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique BONSON-PONTE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, accounting is a necessity and not a desire. Concerns for the improvement of accounting practices are necessary, especially in Romania, where these activities are strengthened with the progress of the Romanian economy integration into the structures of the European Union. This paper carried an objective analysis of how the web report is now being made by financial and accounting information, presents the disadvantages of this approach to reporting introduced, but the potential benefits that could be created by the rapid adoption of international standards for reporting financial information website, too. At the same time, the paper tries to create new opportunities as soon as possible regarding the adoption of intelligent technologies, which, coupled with language Web reporting financial information.

  1. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  2. Learning to Adapt. Organisational Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.; Hertin, J.; Gann, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new evidence presented from empirical research into adaptation in nine case-study companies. It argues that adaptation to climate change has many similarities with processes of organisational learning. The paper suggests that business organisations face a number of obstacles in learning how to adapt to climate change impacts, especially in relation to the weakness and ambiguity of signals about climate change and the uncertainty about benefits flowing from adaptation measures. Organisations rarely adapt 'autonomously', since their adaptive behaviour is influenced by policy and market conditions, and draws on resources external to the organisation. The paper identifies four adaptation strategies that pattern organisational adaptive behaviour

  3. Seasonal adaptations to day length in ecotypes of Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inform selection of agents against saltcedars (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Peter; Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Carney, Vanessa A; Eberts, Debra; Gardner, Kevin T; Hebertson, Elizabeth; Jones, Erin N; Kazmer, David J; Michels, G J; O'Meara, Scott A; Thompson, David C

    2010-10-01

    Seasonal adaptations to daylength often limit the effective range of insects used in biological control of weeds. The leaf beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) was introduced into North America from Fukang, China (latitude 44° N) to control saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but failed to establish south of 38° N latitude because of a mismatched critical daylength response for diapause induction. The daylength response caused beetles to enter diapause too early in the season to survive the duration of winter at southern latitudes. Using climate chambers, we characterized the critical daylength response for diapause induction (CDL) in three ecotypes of Diorhabda beetles originating from 36, 38, and 43° N latitudes in Eurasia. In a field experiment, the timing of reproductive diapause and voltinism were compared among ecotypes by rearing the insects on plants in the field. CDL declined with latitude of origin among Diorhabda ecotypes. Moreover, CDL in southern (42° N latitude) ecotypes, however, CDL was relatively insensitive to temperature. The southern ecotypes produced up to four generations when reared on plants in the field at sites south of 38° N, whereas northern ecotypes produced only one or two generations. The study reveals latitudinal variation in how Diorhabda ecotypes respond to daylength for diapause induction and how these responses affect insect voltinism across the introduced range.

  4. Spatial Patterns of Ischemic Heart Disease in Shenzhen, China: A Bayesian Multi-Disease Modelling Approach to Inform Health Planning Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Du

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the information of hypertension, this paper applies Bayesian multi-disease analysis to model the spatial patterns of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD risks. Patterns of harmful alcohol intake (HAI and overweight/obesity are also modelled as they are common risk factors contributing to both IHD and hypertension. The hospitalization data of IHD and hypertension in 2012 were analyzed with three Bayesian multi-disease models at the sub-district level of Shenzhen. Results revealed that the IHD high-risk cluster shifted slightly north-eastward compared with the IHD Standardized Hospitalization Ratio (SHR. Spatial variations of overweight/obesity and HAI were found to contribute most to the IHD patterns. Identified patterns of IHD risk would benefit IHD integrated prevention. Spatial patterns of overweight/obesity and HAI could supplement the current disease surveillance system by providing information about small-area level risk factors, and thus benefit integrated prevention of related chronic diseases. Middle southern Shenzhen, where high risk of IHD, overweight/obesity, and HAI are present, should be prioritized for interventions, including alcohol control, innovative healthy diet toolkit distribution, insurance system revision, and community-based chronic disease intervention. Related health resource planning is also suggested to focus on these areas first.

  5. Spatial Patterns of Ischemic Heart Disease in Shenzhen, China: A Bayesian Multi-Disease Modelling Approach to Inform Health Planning Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qingyun; Zhang, Mingxiao; Li, Yayan; Luan, Hui; Liang, Shi; Ren, Fu

    2016-04-20

    Incorporating the information of hypertension, this paper applies Bayesian multi-disease analysis to model the spatial patterns of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) risks. Patterns of harmful alcohol intake (HAI) and overweight/obesity are also modelled as they are common risk factors contributing to both IHD and hypertension. The hospitalization data of IHD and hypertension in 2012 were analyzed with three Bayesian multi-disease models at the sub-district level of Shenzhen. Results revealed that the IHD high-risk cluster shifted slightly north-eastward compared with the IHD Standardized Hospitalization Ratio (SHR). Spatial variations of overweight/obesity and HAI were found to contribute most to the IHD patterns. Identified patterns of IHD risk would benefit IHD integrated prevention. Spatial patterns of overweight/obesity and HAI could supplement the current disease surveillance system by providing information about small-area level risk factors, and thus benefit integrated prevention of related chronic diseases. Middle southern Shenzhen, where high risk of IHD, overweight/obesity, and HAI are present, should be prioritized for interventions, including alcohol control, innovative healthy diet toolkit distribution, insurance system revision, and community-based chronic disease intervention. Related health resource planning is also suggested to focus on these areas first.

  6. Robust Adaptive Thresholder For Document Scanning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, To R.

    1982-12-01

    In document scanning applications, thresholding is used to obtain binary data from a scanner. However, due to: (1) a wide range of different color backgrounds; (2) density variations of printed text information; and (3) the shading effect caused by the optical systems, the use of adaptive thresholding to enhance the useful information is highly desired. This paper describes a new robust adaptive thresholder for obtaining valid binary images. It is basically a memory type algorithm which can dynamically update the black and white reference level to optimize a local adaptive threshold function. The results of high image quality from different types of simulate test patterns can be obtained by this algorithm. The software algorithm is described and experiment results are present to describe the procedures. Results also show that the techniques described here can be used for real-time signal processing in the varied applications.

  7. Partitioning of Multivariate Phenotypes using Regression Trees Reveals Complex Patterns of Adaptation to Climate across the Range of Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Wendpouire Oubida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Local adaptation to climate in temperate forest trees involves the integration of multiple physiological, morphological, and phenological traits. Latitudinal clines are frequently observed for these traits, but environmental constraints also track longitude and altitude. We combined extensive phenotyping of 12 candidate adaptive traits, multivariate regression trees, quantitative genetics, and a genome-wide panel of SNP markers to better understand the interplay among geography, climate, and adaptation to abiotic factors in Populus trichocarpa. Heritabilities were low to moderate (0.13 to 0.32 and population differentiation for many traits exceeded the 99th percentile of the genome-wide distribution of FST, suggesting local adaptation. When climate variables were taken as predictors and the 12 traits as response variables in a multivariate regression tree analysis, evapotranspiration (Eref explained the most variation, with subsequent splits related to mean temperature of the warmest month, frost-free period (FFP, and mean annual precipitation (MAP. These grouping matched relatively well the splits using geographic variables as predictors: the northernmost groups (short FFP and low Eref had the lowest growth, and lowest cold injury index; the southern British Columbia group (low Eref and intermediate temperatures had average growth and cold injury index; the group from the coast of California and Oregon (high Eref and FFP had the highest growth performance and the highest cold injury index; and the southernmost, high-altitude group (with high Eref and low FFP performed poorly, had high cold injury index, and lower water use efficiency. Taken together, these results suggest variation in both temperature and water availability across the range shape multivariate adaptive traits in poplar.

  8. Adaptation of the European Commission-recommended user testing method to patient medication information leaflets in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Michiko Yamamoto,1 Hirohisa Doi,1 Ken Yamamoto,2 Kazuhiro Watanabe,2 Tsugumichi Sato,3 Machi Suka,4 Takeo Nakayama,5 Hiroki Sugimori6 1Department of Drug Informatics, Center for Education & Research on Clinical Pharmacy, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Center for Education & Research on Clinical Pharmacy, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba, Japan; 4Department of Public Health and Environmental Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Health Informatics, Kyoto University School of Public, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Sports and Health Sciences, Daito Bunka University, Saitama, Japan Background: The safe use of drugs relies on providing accurate drug information to patients. In Japan, patient leaflets called Drug Guide for Patients are officially available; however, their utility has never been verified. This is the first attempt to improve Drug Guide for Patients via user testing in Japan.Purpose: To test and improve communication of drug information to minimize risk for patients via user testing of the current and revised versions of Drug Guide for Patients, and to demonstrate that this method is effective for improving Drug Guide for Patients in Japan.Method: We prepared current and revised versions of the Drug Guide for Patients and performed user testing via semi-structured interviews with consumers to compare these versions for two guides for Mercazole and Strattera. We evenly divided 54 participants into two groups with similar distributions of sex, age, and literacy level to test the differing versions of the Mercazole guide. Another group of 30 participants were divided evenly to test the versions of the Strattera guide. After completing user testing, the participants evaluated both guides in terms of amount of information

  9. ADAPTIVE CARTOGRAPHY FOR THE MODERN INFORMATION SOCIETY: FROM MULTI-PURPOSE MAP RESOURCE TO «SMART» MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Dyshlyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the conceptual foundations of cartography was influenced by the needs of human activities and possibilities of technical realization of basic processes. In the midtwentieth century, the international community understood the science of cartography maps as a specific way of modeling and image of the surrounding space, their creation and use. At the same time, which is very important, cartography has been focused on the visual perception of the world through map compositions in the form of specific figurative-symbolic metric model. This model served as an information product, had a number of useful properties, characterized by a set of assumed functions, but have some limitations [Lissitzky, 2015; strategic, 2015]. Card, as the basic product of cartography, is a specific information model of the earth's surface, surfaces of other celestial bodies, has a number of properties and characteristics, primarily the metric precision, the imagery, the symbolism, scalability, ability of the