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Sample records for ad lib smoking

  1. EFFECTS OF THE NICOTINIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST MECAMYLAMINE ON AD-LIB SMOKING BEHAVIOR, TOPOGRAPHY, AND NICOTINE LEVELS IN SMOKERS WITH AND WITHOUT SCHIZOPHRENIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Sherry A.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Harrison, Emily L. R.; Coppola, Sabrina; George, Tony P.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have higher plasma nicotine levels in comparison to non-psychiatric smokers, even when differences in smoking are equated. This difference may be related to how intensely cigarettes are smoked but this has not been well-studied. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, which has been shown to increase ad-lib smoking and to affect smoking topography, was used in the current study as a pharmacological probe to incr...

  2. Effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, and nicotine levels in smokers with and without schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Weinberger, Andrea H; Harrison, Emily L R; Coppola, Sabrina; George, Tony P

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have higher plasma nicotine levels in comparison to non-psychiatric smokers, even when differences in smoking are equated. This difference may be related to how intensely cigarettes are smoked but this has not been well studied. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, which has been shown to increase ad-lib smoking and to affect smoking topography, was used in the current study as a pharmacological probe to increase our understanding of smoking behavior, smoking topography, and resulting nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia. This preliminary study used a within-subject, placebo-controlled design in smokers with schizophrenia (n=6) and healthy control smokers (n=8) to examine the effects of MEC (10mg/day) on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, nicotine levels, and tobacco craving across two smoking deprivation conditions (no deprivation and 12-h deprivation). MEC, compared to placebo, increased the number of cigarettes smoked and plasma nicotine levels. MEC increased smoking intensity and resulted in greater plasma nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia compared to controls, although these results were not consistent across deprivation conditions. MEC also increased tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia but not in control smokers. Our results suggest that antagonism of high-affinity nAChRs in smokers with schizophrenia may prompt compensatory smoking, increasing the intensity of smoking and nicotine exposure without alleviating craving. Further work is needed to assess whether nicotine levels are directly mediated by how intensely the cigarettes are smoked, and to confirm whether this effect is more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia.

  3. AD-LIBS: inferring ancestry across hybrid genomes using low-coverage sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2017-04-04

    Inferring the ancestry of each region of admixed individuals' genomes is useful in studies ranging from disease gene mapping to speciation genetics. Current methods require high-coverage genotype data and phased reference panels, and are therefore inappropriate for many data sets. We present a software application, AD-LIBS, that uses a hidden Markov model to infer ancestry across hybrid genomes without requiring variant calling or phasing. This approach is useful for non-model organisms and in cases of low-coverage data, such as ancient DNA. We demonstrate the utility of AD-LIBS with synthetic data. We then use AD-LIBS to infer ancestry in two published data sets: European human genomes with Neanderthal ancestry and brown bear genomes with polar bear ancestry. AD-LIBS correctly infers 87-91% of ancestry in simulations and produces ancestry maps that agree with published results and global ancestry estimates in humans. In brown bears, we find more polar bear ancestry than has been published previously, using both AD-LIBS and an existing software application for local ancestry inference, HAPMIX. We validate AD-LIBS polar bear ancestry maps by recovering a geographic signal within bears that mirrors what is seen in SNP data. Finally, we demonstrate that AD-LIBS is more effective than HAPMIX at inferring ancestry when preexisting phased reference data are unavailable and genomes are sequenced to low coverage. AD-LIBS is an effective tool for ancestry inference that can be used even when few individuals are available for comparison or when genomes are sequenced to low coverage. AD-LIBS is therefore likely to be useful in studies of non-model or ancient organisms that lack large amounts of genomic DNA. AD-LIBS can therefore expand the range of studies in which admixture mapping is a viable tool.

  4. Satiation deficits and binge eating: Probing differences between bulimia nervosa and purging disorder using an ad lib test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Pamela K; Haedt-Matt, Alissa A; Hildebrandt, Britny; Bodell, Lindsay P; Wolfe, Barbara E; Jimerson, David C

    2018-04-11

    Purging disorder (PD) has been included as a named condition within the DSM-5 category of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder and differs from bulimia nervosa (BN) in the absence of binge-eating episodes. The current study evaluated satiation through behavioral and self-report measures to understand how this construct may explain distinct symptom presentations for bulimia nervosa (BN) and purging disorder (PD). Women (N = 119) were recruited from the community if they met DSM-5 criteria for BN (n = 57), PD (n = 31), or were free of eating pathology (n = 31 controls). Participants completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires and an ad lib test meal during which they provided reports of subjective states. Significant group differences were found on self-reported symptoms, ad lib test meal intake, and subjective responses to food intake between individuals with eating disorders and controls and between BN and PD. Further, ad lib intake was associated with self-reported frequency and size of binge episodes. In a multivariable model, the amount of food consumed during binges as reported during clinical interviews predicted amount of food consumed during the ad lib test meal, controlling for other binge-related variables. Satiation deficits distinguish BN from PD and appear to be specifically linked to the size of binge episodes. Future work should expand exploration of physiological bases of these differences to contribute to novel interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nicotine levels, withdrawal symptoms, and smoking reduction success in real world use: A comparison of cigarette smokers and dual users of both cigarettes and E-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorenby, Douglas E; Smith, Stevens S; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate how experienced dual users used cigarettes and e-cigarettes in real-world use and under different levels of cigarette availability. Dual users (cigarettes+e-cigarettes; n=74) and a smoke-only group (just cigarettes; n=74) engaged in a 26-day study with two ad lib use intervals, a week of 75% cigarette reduction and three days of 100% cigarette reduction. After a week of ad lib use of products, all participants were asked to reduce smoking by 75% (dual users were free to use their e-cigarettes as they wished), followed by another week of ad lib use. All participants were then asked to reduce smoking by 100% (cessation) for three days. Primary outcomes were biological samples (carbon monoxide, urinary nicotine and cotinine). Participants also provided real-time reports of product use, craving, and withdrawal symptoms using a smartphone app. Dual users did not smoke fewer cigarettes than smoke-only participants during ad lib periods, but quadrupled their use of e-cigarettes during smoking reduction periods. Dual users were significantly more likely to maintain 100% reduction (97.1% vs. 81.2%). Amongst women, dual use was associated with higher nicotine levels and withdrawal suppression. Among a group of experienced dual users, e-cigarettes helped maintain smoking reduction and reduced some withdrawal symptoms, although both withdrawal symptoms and nicotine levels varied as a function of gender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecological momentary assessment of antecedents and consequences of smoking in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Dennis, Michelle F; English, Joseph S; Dennis, Paul A; Brightwood, Amy; Beckham, Jean C; Kollins, Scott H

    2014-09-01

    The current study assessed antecedents and consequences of ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Adult smokers with ADHD (n = 17) completed 870 smoking and 622 nonsmoking electronic diary entries over a 7-day observation period of their naturalistic smoking behavior. Data collection occurred from 2011 to 2012. Generalized estimating equations indicated that ADHD smokers were more likely to smoke when urge to smoke, negative affect, boredom, stress, worry, and restlessness were elevated. In addition, participants were more likely to smoke in situations that elicited higher levels of nervousness and frustration. ADHD symptoms, in general, did not differ between smoking and nonsmoking contexts, though hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were elevated prior to smoking in frustrating situations. Additional situational antecedent variables were associated with smoking, including being in the presence of others smoking, being in a bar or restaurant, while outside, and while consuming caffeinated or alcoholic beverages. Participants also reported a significant improvement in urge to smoke, negative affect, stress, hunger, and ADHD symptoms after smoking a cigarette. Findings suggest certain contextual factors that may maintain ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers with ADHD and identify potential treatment targets in smoking cessation interventions for this at-risk group. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

  7. Industry sponsored anti-smoking ads and adolescent reactance: test of a boomerang effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, L; Dauphinee, A L; Wang, Y; Fortmann, S P

    2006-02-01

    To examine whether adolescents' exposure to youth smoking prevention ads sponsored by tobacco companies promotes intentions to smoke, curiosity about smoking, and positive attitudes toward the tobacco industry. A randomised controlled experiment compared adolescents' responses to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a tobacco company (Philip Morris or Lorillard), or to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a non-profit organisation (the American Legacy Foundation), or to five ads about preventing drunk driving. A large public high school in California's central valley. A convenience sample of 9th and 10th graders (n = 832) ages 14-17 years. Perceptions of ad effectiveness, intention to smoke, and attitudes toward tobacco companies measured immediately after exposure. As predicted, adolescents rated Philip Morris and Lorillard ads less favourably than the other youth smoking prevention ads. Adolescents' intention to smoke did not differ as a function of ad exposure. However, exposure to Philip Morris and Lorillard ads engendered more favourable attitudes toward tobacco companies. This study demonstrates that industry sponsored anti-smoking ads do more to promote corporate image than to prevent youth smoking. By cultivating public opinion that is more sympathetic toward tobacco companies, the effect of such advertising is likely to be more harmful than helpful to youth.

  8. Rotating and propagating LIB stabilized by self-induced magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Aoki, T.; Kawata, S.; Niu, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rotating motion of a propagating LIB is analyzed in order to suppress the mixed mode of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, the tearing instability and the sausage instability by the action of a self-induced magnetic field in the axial direction. The beams are assumed to be charge-neutralized but not current-neutralized. The steady-state solutions of a propagating LIB with rotation are first obtained numerically. Through the dispersion relation with respect to the ikonal type of perturbations, which are added to the steady-state solutions, the growth rates of instabilities appearing in an LIB are obtained. It is concluded that if the mean rotating velocity of an LIB is comparable to the propagation velocity, the instability disappears in the propagating ion beam. (author)

  9. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  10. Quantitative LIBS analysis of vanadium in samples of hexagonal mesoporous silica catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzar, Miloslav; Kratochvíl, Tomás; Capek, Libor; Smoláková, Lucie; Cernohorský, Tomás; Krejcová, Anna; Hromádko, Ludek

    2011-02-15

    The method for the analysis of vanadium in hexagonal mesoporous silica (V-HMS) catalysts using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) was suggested. Commercially available LIBS spectrometer was calibrated with the aid of authentic V-HMS samples previously analyzed by ICP OES after microwave digestion. Deposition of the sample on the surface of adhesive tape was adopted as a sample preparation method. Strong matrix effect connected with the catalyst preparation technique (1st vanadium added in the process of HMS synthesis, 2nd already synthesised silica matrix was impregnated by vanadium) was observed. The concentration range of V in the set of nine calibration standards was 1.3-4.5% (w/w). Limit of detection was 0.13% (w/w) and it was calculated as a triple standard deviation from five replicated determinations of vanadium in the real sample with a very low vanadium concentration. Comparable results of LIBS and ED XRF were obtained if the same set of standards was used for calibration of both methods and vanadium was measured in the same type of real samples. LIBS calibration constructed using V-HMS-impregnated samples failed for measuring of V-HMS-synthesized samples. LIBS measurements seem to be strongly influenced with different chemical forms of vanadium in impregnated and synthesised samples. The combination of LIBS and ED XRF is able to provide new information about measured samples (in our case for example about procedure of catalyst preparation). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Underwater inverse LIBS (iLIBS) for marine archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, J.; Magde, M.; Elford, J.; Magde, D.; Parfenov, V.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years there have been enormous advances in nautical archaeology through developments in SONAR technologies as well as in manned and robotic submersible vehicles. The number of sunken vessel discoveries has escalated in many of the seas of the world in response to the widespread application of these and other new tools. Customarily, surviving artifacts within the debris field of a wreck are collected and then moved to laboratories, centers, or institutions for analyses and possible conservation. Frequently, the conservation phase involves chemical treatments to stabilize an artefact to standard temperature, pressure, and humidity instead of an undersea environment. Many of the artefacts encountered at an underwater site are now characterized and restored in-situ in accordance with modern trends in art conservation. Two examples of this trend are exemplified by the resting place of the wreck of the Titanic in the Atlantic and the Cancun Underwater Park in the Caribbean Sea. These two debris fields have been turned into museums for diving visitors. Several research groups have investigated the possibility of adapting the well-established analytical tool Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to in-situ elemental analyses of underwater cultural, historic, and archaeological artefacts where discovered, rather than as a phase of a salvage operation. As the underwater laser ablation associated with LIBS generates a "snowplough" shockwave within the aqueous matrix, the atomic emission spectrum is usually severely attenuated in escaping from the target. Consequently, probative experiments to date generally invoke a submerged air chamber or air jet to isolate water from the interaction zone as well as employ more complex double-pulse lasers. These measures impose severe logistical constraints on the examination of widely dispersed underwater artefacts. In order to overcome this constraint we report on water-immersion LIBS experiments performed with oblique

  12. Návrh posuvu fokusačního objektivu uvnitř interakční komory LIBS aparatury

    OpenAIRE

    Olejník, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Diplomová práca popisuje návrh posuvu fokusačného objektívu vo vnútri interakčnej komory LIBS. Obsahuje popis základných vlastností a funkcií LIBS spektroskopie. Opisuje prehžad použitežných komponentov, hodnotí ich vlastnosti a vhodnosť použitia v konštrukcii posuvu do vákua. Ďalej uvádza výsledné konštrukčné riešenie lineárneho posuvu do vákua a hodnotí jeho výhody pre metódu LIBS. This diploma thesis describes the design of a translation stage for focusing objective inside the LIBS inte...

  13. Added Healthcare Charges Conferred by Smoking in Outpatient Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieffert, Michelle R; Johnson, R Michael; Fox, Justin P

    2018-01-31

    A history of smoking confers additional risk of complications following plastic surgical procedures, which may require hospital-based care to address. To determine if patients with a smoking history experience higher rates of complications leading to higher hospital-based care utilization, and therefore greater healthcare charges, after common outpatient plastic surgeries. Using ambulatory surgery data from California, Florida, Nebraska, and New York, we identified adult patients who underwent common facial, breast, or abdominal contouring procedures from January 2009 to November 2013. Our primary outcomes were hospital-based, acute care (hospital admissions and emergency department visits), serious adverse events, and cumulative healthcare charges within 30 days of discharge. Multivariable regression models were used to compare outcomes between patients with and without a smoking history. The final sample included 214,761 patients, of which 10,426 (4.9%) had a smoking history. Compared to patients without, those with a smoking history were more likely to have a hospital-based, acute care encounter (3.4% vs 7.1%; AOR = 1.36 [1.25-1.48]) or serious adverse event (0.9% vs 2.2%; AOR = 1.38 [1.18-1.60]) within 30 days. On average, these events added $1826 per patient with a smoking history. These findings were consistent when stratified by specific procedure and controlled for patient factors. Patients undergoing common outpatient plastic surgery procedures who have a history of smoking are at risk for more frequent complications, and incur higher healthcare charges than patients who are nonsmokers. © 2018 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (pexercise condition (pexercise condition (pExercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using LIBS Method in Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs-Szeles, E.; Almasi, I.

    2015-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopic technique which is capable to detect almost all the elements from the periodic table in different sample types (solid, liquid or gas). Other advantage of the technique is that a LIBS analysis is much faster than a conventional laboratory technique. Beside the easy usability and fastness of the system the main advantages of the technique is that portable systems are also available. Using a so-called ''backpack'' version in-field analysis can be carried out. Therefore, LIBS is a more and more popular technique also e.g., in the nuclear analytics due to its several advantages. It is also tested for Safeguards purposes as a novel technology. In this work development and test of a portable LIBS system is discussed in detail. Detector system with higher resolution and specific software for evaluation of uranium isotope composition has been developed. Different kind of uranium fuel pellets with various enrichments was analyzed as test samples. Concerning the test measurements the developed LIBS instrument was found well-applicable for analysis of Safeguards samples and determination of higher enrichment of uranium in-field. The method is rapid and simple enough for short in-field sample analysis. (author)

  16. Effects of varying marijuana potency on deposition of tar and delta9-THC in the lung during smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, P; Tashkin, D P; Marques-Magallanes, J A; Wilkins, J N; Simmons, M S

    1997-12-01

    To determine whether smoking more, compared to less, potent marijuana (MJ) cigarettes to a desired level of intoxication ("high") reduces pulmonary exposure to noxious smoke components, in 10 habitual smokers of MJ, we measured respiratory delivery and deposition of tar and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) boost, smoking topography, including cumulative puff volume (CPV) and breathholding time, change in heart rate (deltaHR) and "high" during ad lib smoking of 0, 1.77, and 3.95% MJ cigarettes on 3 separate days. At each session, subjects had access to only a single MJ cigarette. On average, smoking topography and COHb boost did not differ across the different strengths of MJ, while THC delivery, as well as HR, were significantly greater (p studies using a standardized smoking technique revealed a mean 25% lower tar yield from 3.95% than 1.77% MJ (p marijuana. Under the conditions of this study, we conclude that tar delivery is reduced relative to THC content in a minority of subjects, and this reduction appears to be due to a reduced intake of smoke (decreased CPV) and/or a reduced tar yield from the stronger MJ preparation.

  17. Adding smoking to the Fardal model of cost-effectiveness for the life-time treatment of periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardal, Øystein; Grytten, Jostein; Martin, John; Ellingsen, Stig; Fardal, Patrick; Heasman, Peter; Linden, Gerard J

    2018-05-16

    Little is known about the financial costs that smoking adds to the life-time treatment of periodontal disease. The total life-time cost of periodontal treatment was modelled using data from private periodontal practice. The costs of initial and supportive therapy, re-treatment and tooth replacements (with bridgework or implants) were identified using average dental charges from the American Dental Association survey. Smoking costs at $6 and $10 for 20 cigarettes were compared to the costs of life-time periodontal treatment for stable and unstable compliant patients. Smoking added 8.8% to the financial cost of the life-time cost of periodontal therapy in stable maintenance patients, 40.1% in patients who needed one extra maintenance visit and 71.4% in patients who needed two extra maintenance visits per year in addition to added re-treatment. The cost of smoking far exceeded the cost of periodontal treatment; For patients who smoked 10 to 40 cigarettes per day at the cost of $6 or $10 a pack, the cost of smoking exceeded the cost of life-time periodontal treatment by between 2.7 and 17.9 times. Smoking 40 cigarettes at $10 a packet for 3.4 years would pay for the entire life-time cost of periodontal treatment. Smoking adds considerable extra financial costs to the life-time treatment of periodontal diseases. The cost of smoking itself exceeds the cost of periodontal therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  18. Nicotine delivery, tolerability and reduction of smoking urge in smokers following short-term use of one brand of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ruiz, Carl D; Graff, Donald W; Yan, X Sherwin

    2015-09-30

    This randomized, partially single-blinded, 6-period crossover clinical study of adult smokers compared the nicotine pharmacokinetics, impacts on smoking urge and tolerability of various formulations of one brand of e-cigarettes with that of a tobacco cigarette. Five e-cigarettes with different e-liquid formulations containing 1.6 % and 2.4 % nicotine and a conventional tobacco cigarette were randomized among 24 subjects under two exposure sessions consisting of a 30-min controlled and a one-hour ad lib use period to assess plasma nicotine levels, impacts on smoking urge and adverse events. The 30-min controlled use session comprised an intensive use of the e-cigarettes with a total of 50 puffs taken every 30 s for comparison to a single conventional cigarette having a typical machine-measured nicotine yield (~0.8 mg). Ad lib product use conditions provided insight into more naturalistic product use behaviors and their accompanying smoking urge reductions. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed by the Principal Investigator. Significant (p e-cigarette use and significant (p E-cigarette and cigarette nicotine plasma levels were comparable for up to one hour of use. After both sessions (90 min), nicotine exposure was the highest for the cigarette, with all e-cigarettes showing 23 % to 53 % lower plasma concentrations. During controlled use, peak reduction in smoking urge for e-cigs occurred later than for the cigarette. After completion of both sessions, significant smoking urge reduction persisted for most of the tested e-cigarettes, albeit at levels lower than that provided by the tobacco cigarette. Nicotine content, vehicle differences, and the presence of menthol did not significantly affect smoking urge reduction by the e-cigarettes. No subjects were discontinued due to AEs. The most frequently reported AEs events included cough, throat irritation, headache, and dizziness. Blood plasma nicotine levels obtained from short-term use of e-cigarettes containing 1

  19. Expanding Library Services and Instruction Through LibGuides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Tim; Parker-Kelly, Darlene

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2012, the Charles R. Drew University (CDU) Health Sciences Library used LibGuides in a number of innovative ways. Librarians constructed e-book databases, in-depth tutorials on technology-related topics, and web pages highlighting special events. To assess similar LibGuides innovation, CDU librarians developed an eight-question survey distributed to health sciences and hospital libraries throughout Southern California and Arizona. Results showed that libraries used LibGuides primarily to deliver access to online resources and to provide supplementary materials supporting instruction. Responses also revealed that many libraries had not yet adopted LibGuides. These findings were analyzed and compared to past and current LibGuides design at CDU.

  20. Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on LIBS Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Effenberger, Andrew J.; Scott, Jill R.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is typically performed at ambient Earth atmospheric conditions. However, interest in LIBS in other atmospheric conditions has increased in recent years, especially for use in space exploration (e.g., Mars and Lunar) or to improve resolution for isotopic signatures. This review focuses on what has been reported about the performance of LIBS in reduced pressure environments as well as in various gases other than air.

  1. Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on LIBS Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, Andrew J.; Scott, Jill R.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is typically performed at ambient Earth atmospheric conditions. However, interest in LIBS in other atmospheric conditions has increased in recent years, especially for use in space exploration (e.g., Mars and Lunar) or to improve resolution for isotopic signatures. This review focuses on what has been reported about the performance of LIBS in reduced pressure environments as well as in various gases other than air. PMID:22399914

  2. Adding Bite to the Bark: Using LibGuides2 Migration as Impetus to Introduce Strong Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, Melia; Pitts, Joelle E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss the long-term accumulation of unstandardized and inaccessible content within the Libguides system and the decision-making process to create and implement a set of standards using the migration to the LibGuides2 platform as a vehicle for change. Included in the discussion are strategies for the creation of standards and…

  3. A cosmology forecast toolkit — CosmoLib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhiqi, E-mail: zqhuang@cita.utoronto.ca [CEA, Institut de Physique Théorique, Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cédex (France)

    2012-06-01

    The package CosmoLib is a combination of a cosmological Boltzmann code and a simulation toolkit to forecast the constraints on cosmological parameters from future observations. In this paper we describe the released linear-order part of the package. We discuss the stability and performance of the Boltzmann code. This is written in Newtonian gauge and including dark energy perturbations. In CosmoLib the integrator that computes the CMB angular power spectrum is optimized for a l-by-l brute-force integration, which is useful for studying inflationary models predicting sharp features in the primordial power spectrum of metric fluctuations. As an application, CosmoLib is used to study the axion monodromy inflation model that predicts cosine oscillations in the primordial power spectrum. In contrast to the previous studies by Aich et al. and Meerburg et al., we found no detection or hint of the osicllations. We pointed out that the CAMB code modified by Aich et al. does not have sufficient numerical accuracy. CosmoLib and its documentation are available at http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/∼zqhuang/CosmoLib.

  4. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  5. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  6. Dûhan /Smoke in the Context Verse 10 of Sura ad - Duk han

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ATMACA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Holy Qur’an is the last book was sent to mankind as guidance. Prophet has notified the Qur’an. This is because the task for him. He also explained the Qur’an. Companions of the Prophet are appealed to the Prophet when they do not understand the issue. After the Prophet’s death continued activities to understand the Qur’an. For this reason, efforts have been made to understand the Qur’an. It is also written with commentary that explains the verse. There are various opinions on the books of taf sir about the meaning of the verse. Each commentators have described the verse based on their knowledge and understanding. They were found in the preferences among the various opinions. Mufessir sometimes unanimously agreed on the meaning of the verse. Som etimes opinions are different. One of the verse is that the variety of opinions about the 10th verse of Surah ad - Dukhan. Translation of the verse is: “ Then watch thou for the Day that the sky will bring forth a kind of smoke (or mist/ Dûhan plainly visible . ” There are various opinions about what the words mean the smoke/ Dûhan . There are still various views on this incident when or where when. There are several proofs for each view. There are three views about the smoke. According to the first view is from the stink of smoke signals. Therefore, this event has not yet occurred. According to the second opinion. The Prophet prayed against Meccan unbelievers. There famine occurred. As a result, they were subjected to fasting. They start seeing smoke because of h unger. According to a third opinions. Smoke appeared on the day of the conquest of Mecca. Because that day a rising dust set, and covered the sky in the form of smoke .

  7. Overview of applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a method of performing elemental analyses of solids, liquids, and gases using the microplasma produced by a focused laser pulse. Because the microplasma is formed by optical radiation, LIBS has some important advantages compared to conventional laboratory based analytical methods. Three applications are discussed which use the LIBS method. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  8. LiB and its boron-deficient variants under pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Hermann, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    Results of computational investigations of the structural and electronic properties of the ground states of binary compounds LiB x with 0.67 ≤x≤1.00 under pressure are reported. Structure predictions based on evolutionary algorithms and particle swarm optimization reveal that with increasing pressure, stoichiometric 1:1-LiB undergoes a variety of phase transitions, is significantly stabilized with respect to the elements and takes up a diamondoid boron network at high pressures. The Zintl picture is very useful in understanding the evolution of structures with pressure. The experimentally seen finite range of stability for LiB x phases with 0.8≤x≤1.00 is modeled both by boron-deficient variants of the 1:1-LiB structure and lithium-enriched intercalation structures. We find that the finite stability range vanishes at pressures P≥40GPa, where stoichiometric compounds then become more stable. A metal-to-insulator transition for LiB is predicted at P = 70 GPa. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  9. LiB and its boron-deficient variants under pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Hermann, Andreas; Suarez-Alcubilla, Ainhoa; Gurtubay, Idoia G.; Yang, Li-Ming; Bergara, Aitor; Ashcroft, N. W.; Hoffmann, Roald

    2012-01-01

    Results of computational investigations of the structural and electronic properties of the ground states of binary compounds LiB x with 0.67 ≤x≤1.00 under pressure are reported. Structure predictions based on evolutionary algorithms and particle swarm optimization reveal that with increasing pressure, stoichiometric 1:1-LiB undergoes a variety of phase transitions, is significantly stabilized with respect to the elements and takes up a diamondoid boron network at high pressures. The Zintl picture is very useful in understanding the evolution of structures with pressure. The experimentally seen finite range of stability for LiB x phases with 0.8≤x≤1.00 is modeled both by boron-deficient variants of the 1:1-LiB structure and lithium-enriched intercalation structures. We find that the finite stability range vanishes at pressures P≥40GPa, where stoichiometric compounds then become more stable. A metal-to-insulator transition for LiB is predicted at P = 70 GPa. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  10. Characterization of organic materials by LIBS for exploration of correlation between molecular and elemental LIBS signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Rai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is performed for the preparation of a database by accumulating LIBS spectra of 4-nitroaniline and 4-nitrotoluene in air and argon. Changes in the behavior of the molecular bands of the C2 Swan system and CN violet system as well as of atomic lines of C, H and N in the LIBS signal are appreciable in argon. In order to explore the correlation between observed LIBS signal and molecular composition of these materials, normalized intensities of the emission lines have been estimated for each compound. It has been found that the relative rates of increase/decrease in the normalized intensities for all sets are higher for 4-nitrotoluene in argon. The cause of the higher rate for 4-nitrotoluene might be due to the possession of a distinctive functional group. The ultimate goal behind the whole study is to use this data-base as input for the discrimination of energetic materials.

  11. Study of different concentric rings inside gallstones with LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Rai, Nilesh Kumar; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar; Rai, Pradeep Kumar; Rai, Pramod Kumar; Rai, Suman; Baruah, G D

    2011-07-01

    Gallstones obtained from patients from the north-east region of India (Assam) were studied using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. LIBS spectra of the different layers (in cross-section) of the gallstones were recorded in the spectral region 200-900 nm. Several elements, including calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, silicon, phosphorus, iron, sodium and potassium, were detected in the gallstones. Lighter elements, including carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen were also detected, which demonstrates the superiority of the LIBS technique over other existing analytical techniques. The LIBS technique was applied to investigate the evolution of C(2) swan bands and CN violet bands in the LIBS spectra of the gallstones in air and an argon atmosphere. The different layers (dark and light layers) of the gallstones were discriminated on the basis of the presence and intensities of the spectral lines for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and copper. An attempt was also made to correlate the presence of major and minor elements in the gallstones with the common diet of the population of Assam.

  12. Identification of Polymers by Means of LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Jesús M.; Bello-Gálvez, Cristina; Lasheras, Roberto J.

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is mainly an elemental analysis technique which is applied several fields. However, molecular materials are almost entirely atomized when exposed to intense laser radiation sufficient for breakdown. This limitation has been solved by researchers using statistical tools as chemometric techniques. In this chapter, the authors expose one review about the identification of polymeric materials using LIBS; and particularly, the different chemometric techniques.

  13. Micro-Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Micro-LIBS) Study on Ancient Roman Mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnotta, Stefano; Lezzerini, Marco; Ripoll-Seguer, Laura; Hidalgo, Montserrat; Grifoni, Emanuela; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Poggialini, Francesco; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used for analyzing the composition of an ancient Roman mortar (5th century A.D.), exploiting an experimental setup which allows the determination of the compositions of binder and aggregate in few minutes, without the need for sample treatment. Four thousand LIBS spectra were acquired from an area of 10 mm 2 , with a 50 µm lateral resolution. The elements of interest in the mortar sample (H, C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe) were detected and mapped. The collected data graphically shown as compositional images were interpreted using different statistical approaches for the determination of the chemical composition of the binder and aggregate fraction. The methods of false color imaging, blind separation, and self-organizing maps were applied and their results are discussed in this paper. In particular, the method based on the use of self-organizing maps gives well interpretable results in very short times, without any reduction in the dimensionality of the system.

  14. LIBS analysis of artificial calcified tissues matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem, M A; Gonzalez, J J; Russo, R E; Harith, M A

    2013-04-15

    In most laser-based analytical methods, the reproducibility of quantitative measurements strongly depends on maintaining uniform and stable experimental conditions. For LIBS analysis this means that for accurate estimation of elemental concentration, using the calibration curves obtained from reference samples, the plasma parameters have to be kept as constant as possible. In addition, calcified tissues such as bone are normally less "tough" in their texture than many samples, especially metals. Thus, the ablation process could change the sample morphological features rapidly, and result in poor reproducibility statistics. In the present work, three artificial reference sample sets have been fabricated. These samples represent three different calcium based matrices, CaCO3 matrix, bone ash matrix and Ca hydroxyapatite matrix. A comparative study of UV (266 nm) and IR (1064 nm) LIBS for these three sets of samples has been performed under similar experimental conditions for the two systems (laser energy, spot size, repetition rate, irradiance, etc.) to examine the wavelength effect. The analytical results demonstrated that UV-LIBS has improved reproducibility, precision, stable plasma conditions, better linear fitting, and the reduction of matrix effects. Bone ash could be used as a suitable standard reference material for calcified tissue calibration using LIBS with a 266 nm excitation wavelength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementing LibGuides 2: An Academic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Vicky; Lucky, Shannon; McLean, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    Since 1997, the University of Saskatchewan Library has used "subject pages" to highlight key library resources. When Springshare announced it was launching LibGuides v2, a project team was assembled to transition a mixture of locally produced guides and guides created with the original LibGuides v1 software. This article synthesizes best…

  16. Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a

  17. Évaluation de la qualité de la connaissance dans une perspective délibérative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, J.P.; Douguet, J.M.; O'Connor, M.; Ravetz, J.

    2008-01-01

    sh Cet article propose une vision des démarches d’évaluation de l’adéquation de la connaissance scientifique dans des situations d’incertitude forte et irréductible en recourant à des processus délibératifs élargis. Dans l’optique de la Science Post-Normale, la démarche s’appuie, d’un point de vue

  18. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elemental misinterpretation in automated analysis of LIBS spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübert, Waldemar; Ankerhold, Georg

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the Stark effect is shown to be mainly responsible for wrong elemental allocation by automated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) software solutions. Due to broadening and shift of an elemental emission line affected by the Stark effect, its measured spectral position might interfere with the line position of several other elements. The micro-plasma is generated by focusing a frequency-doubled 200 mJ pulsed Nd/YAG laser on an aluminum target and furthermore on a brass sample in air at atmospheric pressure. After laser pulse excitation, we have measured the temporal evolution of the Al(II) ion line at 281.6 nm (4s(1)S-3p(1)P) during the decay of the laser-induced plasma. Depending on laser pulse power, the center of the measured line is red-shifted by 130 pm (490 GHz) with respect to the exact line position. In this case, the well-known spectral line positions of two moderate and strong lines of other elements coincide with the actual shifted position of the Al(II) line. Consequently, a time-resolving software analysis can lead to an elemental misinterpretation. To avoid a wrong interpretation of LIBS spectra in automated analysis software for a given LIBS system, we recommend using larger gate delays incorporating Stark broadening parameters and using a range of tolerance, which is non-symmetric around the measured line center. These suggestions may help to improve time-resolving LIBS software promising a smaller probability of wrong elemental identification and making LIBS more attractive for industrial applications.

  20. OML for the Libs+ system using PFW

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, J A

    1999-01-01

    Passport for Windows (PFW) is not limited to accessing OCLC's systems. It can also access a local Libs+ system through the Internet. Such a connection makes it possible to use the automation capabilities of the OCLC Macro Language (OML), which is built into PFW, for the local Libs+ system. Once certain setup requirements have been completed, PFW can be used to quickly accomplish many routine tasks and thereby increase productivity and decrease error rates. Because it can be used to automate many local tasks, PFW remains an important tool for librarians. (0 refs).

  1. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a rapid tool for material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T; Gondal, M A

    2013-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a novel technique for elemental analysis based on laser-generated plasma. In this technique, laser pulses are applied for ablation of the sample, resulting in the vaporization and ionization of sample in hot plasma which is finally analyzed by the spectrometer. The elements are identified by their unique spectral signatures. LIBS system was developed for elemental analysis of solid and liquid samples. The developed system was applied for qualitative as well as quantitative measurement of elemental concentration present in iron slag and open pit ore samples. The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm on test samples to study the capabilities of LIBS as a rapid tool for material analysis. The concentrations of various elements of environmental significance such as cadmium, calcium, magnesium, chromium, manganese, titanium, barium, phosphorus, copper, iron, zinc etc., in these samples were determined. Optimal experimental conditions were evaluated for improving the sensitivity of developed LIBS system through parametric dependence study. The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) results were compared with the results obtained using standard analytical technique such as inductively couple plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). Limit of detection (LOD) of our LIBS system were also estimated for the above mentioned elements. This study demonstrates that LIBS could be highly appropriate for rapid online analysis of iron slag and open pit waste.

  2. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a rapid tool for material analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T.; Gondal, M. A.

    2013-06-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a novel technique for elemental analysis based on laser-generated plasma. In this technique, laser pulses are applied for ablation of the sample, resulting in the vaporization and ionization of sample in hot plasma which is finally analyzed by the spectrometer. The elements are identified by their unique spectral signatures. LIBS system was developed for elemental analysis of solid and liquid samples. The developed system was applied for qualitative as well as quantitative measurement of elemental concentration present in iron slag and open pit ore samples. The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm on test samples to study the capabilities of LIBS as a rapid tool for material analysis. The concentrations of various elements of environmental significance such as cadmium, calcium, magnesium, chromium, manganese, titanium, barium, phosphorus, copper, iron, zinc etc., in these samples were determined. Optimal experimental conditions were evaluated for improving the sensitivity of developed LIBS system through parametric dependence study. The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) results were compared with the results obtained using standard analytical technique such as inductively couple plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP). Limit of detection (LOD) of our LIBS system were also estimated for the above mentioned elements. This study demonstrates that LIBS could be highly appropriate for rapid online analysis of iron slag and open pit waste.

  3. Effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on [3H]TdR incorporation into DNA in ad lib fed and fasted CD2F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheving, L.A.; Tsai, T.H.; Scheving, L.E.; Hoke, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of EGF on the incorporation of [ 3 H]TdR into DNA (DNA synthesis) was determined in the esophagus, liver, pancreas, and kidney in mice standardized to 12 hours (hr) of light alternating with 12 hr of darkness. A question asked was whether intraperitoneally administered EGF could alter the circadian patterns of DNA synthesis in these organs. The most marked effects of EGF were: an increase in DNA synthesis but only after a specific duration of time after treatment, ranging from 8 to 23 hr, which differed for each tissue, a similarity in the response of the esophagus in both ad lib fed and fasted mice, but not in the response of the liver, where the stimulatory effect of EGF observed in fed mice was dramatically reduced in fasted ones, and an advance in the phasing of the circadian rhythm in DNA synthesis of the esophagus by about 12 hr. In addition, no sex differences in fasted animals were found under the conditions of this study

  4. [Quantitative analysis of Cu in water by collinear DP-LIBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mei-Lan; Yao, Ming-Yin; Chen, Tian-Bing; Lin, Yong-Zeng; Li, Wen-Bing; Liu, Mu-Hua

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the influence of double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) on the sensitivity of Cu in water. The water solution of Cu was tested by collinear DP-LIBS in this article. The results show that spectral intensity of Cu can be enhanced obviously by DP-LIBS, compared with single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (SP-LIBS). Besides, the experimental results were significantly impacted by delay time between laser pulse and spectrometer acquisition, delay time of double laser pulse and energy of laser pulse and so on. The paper determined the best conditions for DP-LIBS detecting Cu in water. The optimal acquisition delay time was 1 380 ns. The best laser pulse delay time was 25 ns. The most appropriate energy of double laser pulse was 100 mJ. Characteristic analysis of spectra of Cu at 324.7 and 327.4 nm was done for quantitative analysis. The detection limit was 3.5 microg x mL(-1) at 324.7 nm, and the detection limit was 4.84 microg x mL(-1) at 327.4 nm. The relative standard deviation of the two characteristic spectral lines was within 10%. The calibration curve of characteristic spectral line, established by 327.4 nm, was verified with 500 microg x mL(-1) sample. Concentration of the sample was 446 microg x mL(-1) calculated by the calibration curve. This research shows that the detection sensitivity of Cu in water can be improved by DP-LIBS. At the same time, it had high stability.

  5. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  6. Study of archaeological coins of different dynasties using libs coupled with multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shikha; Kumar, Rohit; Rai, G. K.; Rai, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission spectroscopic technique having unique capability of an in-situ monitoring tool for detection and quantification of elements present in different artifacts. Archaeological coins collected form G.R. Sharma Memorial Museum; University of Allahabad, India has been analyzed using LIBS technique. These coins were obtained from excavation of Kausambi, Uttar Pradesh, India. LIBS system assembled in the laboratory (laser Nd:YAG 532 nm, 4 ns pulse width FWHM with Ocean Optics LIBS 2000+ spectrometer) is employed for spectral acquisition. The spectral lines of Ag, Cu, Ca, Sn, Si, Fe and Mg are identified in the LIBS spectra of different coins. LIBS along with Multivariate Analysis play an effective role for classification and contribution of spectral lines in different coins. The discrimination between five coins with Archaeological interest has been carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show the potential relevancy of the methodology used in the elemental identification and classification of artifacts with high accuracy and robustness.

  7. [Comparative investigation of underwater-LIBS using 532 and 1 064 nm lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiao-Jian; Tian, Ye; Lu, Yuan; Li, Ying; Zheng, Rong-Er

    2014-11-01

    With the hope of applying laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the ocean applications, the laser energy at 532 and 1 064 nm wavelength with 3 and 40 mj respectively was used, which was near their breakdown threshold. Extensive experimental investigations of LIBS from CaCl2 water solution were carried out in this paper using different laser wavelengths of 532 and 1 064 nm. The obtained results show that compared with the 532 nm laser, the 1 064 nm laser can induce the plasma in water with higher emission intensity and longer lifetime, while the reproducibility of LIBS signal under 1 064 nm laser is poorer. On the other hand, due to the different attenuation ratios of 532 and 1 064 nm laser energies in water, the LIBS signal of 1 064 nm laser decreases a lot within the transmission distance range 2-5 cm, while LIBS signal of 532 nm remains the same, because that the wavelength of 532 nm lies in the "transmission window" of the water solution. This study will provide valuable design considerations for the development of LIBS-sea system in near future.

  8. SeqLib: a C ++ API for rapid BAM manipulation, sequence alignment and sequence assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wala, Jeremiah; Beroukhim, Rameen

    2017-03-01

    We present SeqLib, a C ++ API and command line tool that provides a rapid and user-friendly interface to BAM/SAM/CRAM files, global sequence alignment operations and sequence assembly. Four C libraries perform core operations in SeqLib: HTSlib for BAM access, BWA-MEM and BLAT for sequence alignment and Fermi for error correction and sequence assembly. Benchmarking indicates that SeqLib has lower CPU and memory requirements than leading C ++ sequence analysis APIs. We demonstrate an example of how minimal SeqLib code can extract, error-correct and assemble reads from a CRAM file and then align with BWA-MEM. SeqLib also provides additional capabilities, including chromosome-aware interval queries and read plotting. Command line tools are available for performing integrated error correction, micro-assemblies and alignment. SeqLib is available on Linux and OSX for the C ++98 standard and later at github.com/walaj/SeqLib. SeqLib is released under the Apache2 license. Additional capabilities for BLAT alignment are available under the BLAT license. jwala@broadinstitue.org ; rameen@broadinstitute.org. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Long-wave, infrared laser-induced breakdown (LIBS) spectroscopy emissions from energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter

    2012-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown great promise for applications in chemical, biological, and explosives sensing and has significant potential for real-time standoff detection and analysis. In this study, LIBS emissions were obtained in the mid-infrared (MIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions for potential applications in explosive material sensing. The IR spectroscopy region revealed vibrational and rotational signatures of functional groups in molecules and fragments thereof. The silicon-based detector for conventional ultraviolet-visible LIBS operations was replaced with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector for MIR-LWIR spectral detection. The IR spectral signature region between 4 and 12 μm was mined for the appearance of MIR and LWIR-LIBS emissions directly indicative of oxygenated breakdown products as well as dissociated, and/or recombined sample molecular fragments. Distinct LWIR-LIBS emission signatures from dissociated-recombination sample molecular fragments between 4 and 12 μm are observed for the first time.

  10. LIBS coupled with ICP/OES for the spectral analysis of betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, I.; Rehan, K.; Sultana, S.; Khan, M. Z.; Muhammad, R.

    2018-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was optimized and was applied for the elemental analysis and exposure of the heavy metals in betel leaves in air. Pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) in conjunction with a suitable detector (LIBS 2000+, Ocean Optics, Inc) having the optical resolution of 0.06 nm was used to record the emission spectra from 200 to 720 nm. Elements like Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, P, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr, and Zn were found to be present in the samples. The abundances of observed elements were calculated through normalized calibration curve method, integrated intensity ratio method, and calibration free-LIBS approach. Quantitative analyses were accomplished under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and optically thin plasma. LIBS findings were validated by comparing its results with the results obtained using a typical analytical technique of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP/OES). Limit of detection (LOD) of the LIBS system was also estimated for heavy metals.

  11. LIBS Sensor for Sub-surface CO2 Leak Detection in Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh JAIN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring carbon sequestration poses numerous challenges to the sensor community. For example, the subsurface environment is notoriously harsh, with large potential mechanical, thermal, and chemical stresses, making long-term stability and survival a challenge to any potential in situ monitoring method. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been demonstrated as a promising technology for chemical monitoring of harsh environments and hard to reach places. LIBS has a real- time monitoring capability and can be used for the elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of the probe design and the use of fiber- optics has made LIBS particularly suited for remote measurements. The paper focuses on developing a LIBS instrument for downhole high-pressure, high-temperature brine experiments, where CO2 leakage could result in changes in the trace mineral composition of an aquifer. The progress in fabricating a compact, robust, and simple LIBS sensor for widespread subsurface leak detection is presented.

  12. ImgLib2--generic image processing in Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzsch, Tobias; Preibisch, Stephan; Tomancák, Pavel; Saalfeld, Stephan

    2012-11-15

    ImgLib2 is an open-source Java library for n-dimensional data representation and manipulation with focus on image processing. It aims at minimizing code duplication by cleanly separating pixel-algebra, data access and data representation in memory. Algorithms can be implemented for classes of pixel types and generic access patterns by which they become independent of the specific dimensionality, pixel type and data representation. ImgLib2 illustrates that an elegant high-level programming interface can be achieved without sacrificing performance. It provides efficient implementations of common data types, storage layouts and algorithms. It is the data model underlying ImageJ2, the KNIME Image Processing toolbox and an increasing number of Fiji-Plugins. ImgLib2 is licensed under BSD. Documentation and source code are available at http://imglib2.net and in a public repository at https://github.com/imagej/imglib. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics Online. saalfeld@mpi-cbg.de

  13. Wavelength dependence of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on questioned document investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherbiny, Nany; Aied Nassef, O

    2015-07-01

    The fast and nearly non-destructive criteria of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been exploited for forensic purposes, specifically, document investigation. The dependence of the optical emission spectra of different black gel ink samples on the excitation laser wavelength, namely the visible wavelength at λ=532 nm and the IR wavelength at λ=1064 nm, was studied. The inks of thirty black gel-ink pens comprising ten brands were analyzed to determine the variation of the chemical composition of ink and to discriminate among them with minimum mass removal and minimum damage to the document's paper. Under the adopted experimental conditions, the ability of the visible LIBS to differentiate among the different ink samples was successful compared to IR LIBS at the same laser pulse energy (~25 mJ/pulse, laser fluence is ~1400J·cm(-2) for visible laser and ~1100J·cm(-2) for IR laser) which could be attributed to the IR absorption effects by the black ink. However, the visible LIBS produces deeper crater with respect to that produced by IR LIBS. Applying IR LIBS with higher pulse energy of ~87mJ (laser fluence is ~4100J·cm(-2)), identification and differentiation of the adopted samples was performed with producing a larger-diameter but superficial crater. The plasma parameters are discussed at the adopted experimental conditions. The results support the potential of LIBS technique using both the visible and IR lasers to be commercially developed for forensic document examination. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and sorting of materials with portable LIBS before decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vors, Evelyne; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Dehayem-Massop, Alix; Gallou, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique of elemental analysis. A laser beam is focused on the surface of the sample to be analyzed. A small quantity of matter is ablated and a plasma formed by the atomized compounds is created. The spectral lines of the light emitted by the plasma are detected by an optical spectrometer. LIBS is a fully optical, multi-elementary and fast analytical technique, requiring no or little sample preparation. These features make the LIBS technique particularly suited for in situ measurements, and portable instruments are currently developed. LIBS analysis can be applied to the identification of materials using chemometric statistical methods (multivariate analysis) connecting the spectrum to the nature of the sample. Such methods have been successfully applied in our laboratory to the determination of the geographical origin of yellow cakes and to the identification of alloys. We present here the work performed with a portable LIBS instrument to meet the needs of waste sorting in industrial domain and in nuclear domain (inventory before decommissioning). A data base of LIBS spectra was built with a commercial instrument (IVEA SAS Easylibs) with samples of four categories of interest for industrial waste sorting: alloys, plastics, concrete and glasses. Different correct identification rates are requested by categories. The alloy spectra contain characteristic spectral lines and sub-categories can be easily discriminated (for example, different steel classes can be identified). The components of the plastics (mainly C, H, O and N) give rise to less characteristic lines and the plastics identification requires a separate study. Supervised statistical models are built with the data base spectra and predictions are instantly calculated for the spectra of unknown materials to identify in order to direct them to the correct waste stream. (authors)

  15. [Rapid measurement of trace mercury in aqueous solutions with optical-electrical dual pulse LIBS technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Yu-Qi; Li, Run-Hua

    2011-02-01

    A wood slice was used as absorber to transfer liquid sample to solid sample in order to solve the problems existing in directly analyzing aqueous solutions with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). An optical-electrical dual pulse LIBS (OEDP-LIBS) technique was first used to enhance atomic emission of mercury in laser-induced plasma. The calibration curves of mercury were obtained by typical single pulse LIBS and OEDP-LIBS techniques. The limit of detection (LOD) of mercury in these two techniques reaches 2.4 and 0.3 mg x L(-1), respectively. Under current experimental conditions, the time-integrated a tomic emission of mercury at 253.65 nm was enhanced 50 times and the LOD of mercury was improved by one order, if comparing OEDP-LIBS to single pulse LIBS. The required time for a whole analysis process is less than 5 minutes. As the atomic emission of mercury decays slowly while increasing the delay time between electrical pulse and laser pulse, increasing the electrical pulse width can further enhance the time integrated intensity of mercury emission and improve the detection sensitivity of mercury by OEDP-LIBS technique.

  16. Laser induced spectroscopy breakdown (LIBS) application to heavy metal detection in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbini, R.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S.; Colao, F.; Capitelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    LIBS (Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) is a new spectroscopic technique suitable to the use in the analysis of samples of environmental interest, such as soils and rocks, and of industrial interest, such as alloys. Results dealing with the application of the technique to heterogeneous soil samples certified by Ispra Joint Research Centre in the contest of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) with an agronomical interest are presented in this report. In the LIBS technique, a high power laser beam is focused onto the sample in order to generate a small volume of plasma at its surface. Emissions from single atomic species are collected by a lens system coupled to an optical fiber bundle, dispersed on a monochromator and analyzed by an iCCD. the identification and the assignment of emission lines relevant to single atomic species allows to determine the sample elemental composition and, after calibration against reference samples, to perform quantitative analysis for a large number of species. This technique requires no sample pre-treatment, a part from eventually compacting powders by mechanical press. This is a considerable advantage with respect to traditional spectroscopic techniques, such as the ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) which needs sample mineralization by acid attack. Measurements performed on soil samples by means of the LIBS technique at ENEA Frascati were compared with the results obtained by ICP, which is considered a traditional technique for this kind of analysis. Results showed a general overestimation of the LIBS values with respect to the ICP ones, probably due to differences in lytologic matrix between the analyzed samples and the standard. The phenomenon is usually referred to the matrix effect, which is held responsible for the deviation from linearity between single element concentration and its row intensity. The effect is due to local plasma density variations and limit the correlation between the plasma elemental composition

  17. LibKiSAO: a Java library for Querying KiSAO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Anna; Adams, Richard; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2012-09-24

    The Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology (KiSAO) supplies information about existing algorithms available for the simulation of Systems Biology models, their characteristics, parameters and inter-relationships. KiSAO enables the unambiguous identification of algorithms from simulation descriptions. Information about analogous methods having similar characteristics and about algorithm parameters incorporated into KiSAO is desirable for simulation tools. To retrieve this information programmatically an application programming interface (API) for KiSAO is needed. We developed libKiSAO, a Java library to enable querying of the KiSA Ontology. It implements methods to retrieve information about simulation algorithms stored in KiSAO, their characteristics and parameters, and methods to query the algorithm hierarchy and search for similar algorithms providing comparable results for the same simulation set-up. Using libKiSAO, simulation tools can make logical inferences based on this knowledge and choose the most appropriate algorithm to perform a simulation. LibKiSAO also enables simulation tools to handle a wider range of simulation descriptions by determining which of the available methods are similar and can be used instead of the one indicated in the simulation description if that one is not implemented. LibKiSAO enables Java applications to easily access information about simulation algorithms, their characteristics and parameters stored in the OWL-encoded Kinetic Simulation Algorithm Ontology. LibKiSAO can be used by simulation description editors and simulation tools to improve reproducibility of computational simulation tasks and facilitate model re-use.

  18. Changing attitudes toward smoking and smoking susceptibility through peer crowd targeting: more evidence from a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Sussman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Peer crowd identification consistently predicts an adolescent's smoking behavior. As such, several interventions have targeted adolescents and young adults based on their identification with a specific crowd (e.g., Hipsters). This study uses a controlled experimental design to isolate and test the effect of peer crowd targeting in an antismoking ad on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Two hundred and thirty-nine adolescents, age 13-15 years, completed a baseline survey and then viewed an antismoking ad targeting one of eight crowds; 1 week later they completed a posttest. Participants were assessed on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Adolescents who strongly identified with the crowd targeted by the ad reported stronger antismoking attitudes and lower levels of smoking susceptibility. Those who disidentified with the crowd targeted in the ad exhibited not statistically significant increases in smoking susceptibility and weaker antismoking attitudes at posttest. These findings indicate that targeting youths based on their peer crowd is a useful strategy for antismoking interventions. Additional research should further examine whether youths who disidentify with the targeted crowd in an ad exhibit reactance against the message.

  19. libRoadRunner: a high performance SBML simulation and analysis library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre T; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie; Glazier, James A; König, Matthias; Medley, J Kyle; Swat, Maciej H; Sauro, Herbert M

    2015-10-15

    This article presents libRoadRunner, an extensible, high-performance, cross-platform, open-source software library for the simulation and analysis of models expressed using Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). SBML is the most widely used standard for representing dynamic networks, especially biochemical networks. libRoadRunner is fast enough to support large-scale problems such as tissue models, studies that require large numbers of repeated runs and interactive simulations. libRoadRunner is a self-contained library, able to run both as a component inside other tools via its C++ and C bindings, and interactively through its Python interface. Its Python Application Programming Interface (API) is similar to the APIs of MATLAB ( WWWMATHWORKSCOM: ) and SciPy ( HTTP//WWWSCIPYORG/: ), making it fast and easy to learn. libRoadRunner uses a custom Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler built on the widely used LLVM JIT compiler framework. It compiles SBML-specified models directly into native machine code for a variety of processors, making it appropriate for solving extremely large models or repeated runs. libRoadRunner is flexible, supporting the bulk of the SBML specification (except for delay and non-linear algebraic equations) including several SBML extensions (composition and distributions). It offers multiple deterministic and stochastic integrators, as well as tools for steady-state analysis, stability analysis and structural analysis of the stoichiometric matrix. libRoadRunner binary distributions are available for Mac OS X, Linux and Windows. The library is licensed under Apache License Version 2.0. libRoadRunner is also available for ARM-based computers such as the Raspberry Pi. http://www.libroadrunner.org provides online documentation, full build instructions, binaries and a git source repository. hsauro@u.washington.edu or somogyie@indiana.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written

  20. Laser induced spectroscopy breakdown (LIBS) application to heavy metal detection in soils; Applicazioni della tecnica Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) alla determinazione dei metalli pesanti nei suoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S.; Colao, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata; Capitelli, F. [Bari, Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia e Chimica Agroforestale ed Ambientale

    2000-07-01

    LIBS (Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) is a new spectroscopic technique suitable to the use in the analysis of samples of environmental interest, such as soils and rocks, and of industrial interest, such as alloys. Results dealing with the application of the technique to heterogeneous soil samples certified by Ispra Joint Research Centre in the contest of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) with an agronomical interest are presented in this report. In the LIBS technique, a high power laser beam is focused onto the sample in order to generate a small volume of plasma at its surface. Emissions from single atomic species are collected by a lens system coupled to an optical fiber bundle, dispersed on a monochromator and analyzed by an iCCD. the identification and the assignment of emission lines relevant to single atomic species allows to determine the sample elemental composition and, after calibration against reference samples, to perform quantitative analysis for a large number of species. This technique requires no sample pre-treatment, a part from eventually compacting powders by mechanical press. This is a considerable advantage with respect to traditional spectroscopic techniques, such as the ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) which needs sample mineralization by acid attack. Measurements performed on soil samples by means of the LIBS technique at ENEA Frascati were compared with the results obtained by ICP, which is considered a traditional technique for this kind of analysis. Results showed a general overestimation of the LIBS values with respect to the ICP ones, probably due to differences in lytologic matrix between the analyzed samples and the standard. The phenomenon is usually referred to the matrix effect, which is held responsible for the deviation from linearity between single element concentration and its row intensity. The effect is due to local plasma density variations and limit the correlation between the plasma elemental composition

  1. Effective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) detection using double pulse at optimum configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Jin; Yoh, Jack J

    2011-08-01

    A short laser pulse is irradiated on a sample to create a highly energetic plasma that emits light of a specific peak wavelength according to the material. By identifying different peaks for the analyzed samples, their chemical composition can be rapidly determined. The characteristics of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma are strongly dependent on the ambient conditions. Research aimed at enhancing LIBS intensity is of great benefit in advancing LIBS for the exploration of harsh environments. By using double-pulse LIBS, the signal intensity of Al and Ca lines was enhanced by five times compared to the single-pulse signal. Also, the angles of the target and detector are adjusted to simulate samples of arbitrary shape. We verified that there exists an optimal angle at which specific elements of a test sample may be detected with stronger signal intensity. We provide several optimum configurations for the LIBS system for maximizing the signal intensity for the analysis of a nonstandard aluminum sample.

  2. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  3. Remote-LIBS characterization of ITER-like plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Maddaluno, G.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Description of a LIBS set-up as remote diagnostics in new generation fusion machines. ► Identification of the atomic composition of samples simulating plasma facing components. ► Submicrometric resolution in depth profiling the elemental composition of the samples. ► Identification of elements present in traces or as impurities on the sample surface. ► Discussion on the applicability of the Calibration Free method for quantitative analysis. - Abstract: The occurrence of several plasma-wall interaction processes, eventually affecting the overall system performances, is expected in a working fusion device chamber. Monitoring the changes in the composition of the plasma facing component (PFC) surface layer, as a result of erosion and redeposition mechanisms, can provide useful information on the possible plasma pollution and fuel retention. To this aim, suitable diagnostic techniques able to perform depth profiling analysis of the superficial layers on the PFCs have been developed. Due to the constraints commonly found in fusion devices, the measuring apparatus must be non invasive, remote and sensitive to light elements. These requirements make LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) an ideal candidate for on-line monitoring the walls of current and of next generation (as ITER) fusion devices. LIBS is a well established tool for qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of surfaces, with micro-destructive characteristics and some capabilities for stratigraphy. In this work, LIBS depth profiling capability has been verified for the determination of the composition of multilayer structures simulating plasma facing components covered with deposited impurity layers. A new experimental setup has been designed and realized in order to optimize the characteristics of a LIBS system working in vacuum conditions and remotely, two noticeable properties for an ITER-relevant diagnostics. A quantitative

  4. Effects of smoking cues and argument strength of antismoking advertisements on former smokers' self-efficacy, attitude, and intention to refrain from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyoung; Cappella, Joseph N; Lerman, Caryn; Strasser, Andrew A

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the impact of smoking cues employed in antismoking advertisements on former smokers. Previous findings indicate that visual smoking cues in antismoking advertisements with weak antismoking arguments can elicit smoking urges in smokers and undermine message effectiveness. This study extends these observations to former smokers asking whether smoking cues in antismoking advertisements influence former smokers' self-efficacy, attitudes, and intention to refrain from smoking, along with smoking urges and perceived message effectiveness. The study was a mixed 2 (smoking cues; present vs. absent) × 2 (argument strength [AS]; high vs. low) design where smoking cue was a between-subject factor and AS was a within-subject factor. Potential participants recruited via online ads were screened in a phone interview for their eligibility. A total of 105 former smokers (aged 21-65) participated in the study, which was conducted in a laboratory setting. Repeated measure ANOVA and MANOVA were used for the analyses. The results showed that the presence of smoking cues in antismoking ads undermines former smokers' behavioral self-efficacy, attitude, and intention about smoking abstinence, which increased as AS for the ads increased. Former smokers' reports of smoking urge were not affected by smoking cues or AS. However, consistent with previous findings for smokers, the presence of cues weakened perceived message effectiveness of antismoking ads rated by former smokers. The effect of smoking cues on former smokers' self-efficacy, attitude, and intention to refrain from smoking is problematic. Inclusion of smoking cues in antismoking ads should be undertaken only when accompanied by strong arguments.

  5. Emission Characteristics of Laser-Induced Plasma Using Collinear Long and Short Dual-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Liu, Renwei; Ikutomo, Akihiro; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie; Liu, Jiping; Shiou, Fang-Jung

    2017-09-01

    Collinear long and short dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) was employed to clarify the emission characteristics from laser-induced plasma. The plasma was sustained and became stable by the long pulse-width laser with the pulse width of 60 μs under free running (FR) conditions as an external energy source. Comparing the measurement results of stainless steel in air using single-pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) and DP-LIBS, the emission intensity was markedly enhanced using DP-LIBS. The temperature of plasma induced by DP-LIBS was maintained at a higher temperature under different gate delay time and short pulse-width laser power conditions compared with those measured using short SP-LIBS. Moreover, the variation rates of plasma temperatures measured using DP-LIBS were also lower. The superior detection ability was verified by the measurement of aluminum sample in water. The spectra were clearly detected using DP-LIBS, whereas it cannot be identified using SP-LIBS of short and long pulse widths. The effects of gate delay time and short pulse-width laser power were also discussed. These results demonstrate the feasibility and enhanced detection ability of the proposed collinear long and short DP-LIBS method.

  6. HPLC-MS Determination of Acrolein and Acetone Generated from 13C3 -Labeled Glycerol Added to Cigarette Tobacco Using Two Machine-Smoking Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yip SH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The extent of blend glycerol degradation in a burning cigarette to form acrolein and acetone has been quantitatively determined by the addition of glycerol-13C3 to three styles of a leading commercial cigarette brand. Multiple Cambridge pads soaked with a solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH were employed to trap hydrazone derivatives of low molecular weight carbonyl compounds in both mainstream and sidestream smoke. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with negative ion mass spectrometry was used to isolate DNPH derivatives of the volatile carbonyl products of combustion and to ascertain their concentration. Acrolein, acetone, and propionaldehyde were the principal compounds of interest. The DNPH derivatives of acrolein-13C3 and acetone-13C3 were independently synthesized, and they served as external standards for absolute quantitation. The cost of fully labeled propionaldehyde precluded its use in this study. The brand styles selected for study represent the cigarette design features that are most prevalent in the U.S. market today and afford a representative range of standardized “tar” yields (14, 10, and 5 mg/cig, respectively by the Cambridge Filter Method. The brand styles studied are part of a commercial cigarette brand family that does not contain additives to the tobacco blend, including glycerol. Mainstream smoke was generated by an automated smoking machine employing the standard Cambridge Filter Smoking Regime and a more intense regime requiring larger, more frequent puffs and 100% vent blocking that is specified for regulatory purposes by the Canadian federal government. The research indicated that only a small fraction of added glycerol (~0.25%-0.30%, w/w was converted to the two compounds of interest, with the larger portion generally observed in sidestream smoke. Less than 0.1% of the added glycerol was converted to acrolein in mainstream smoke for all cigarette designs and smoking regimes studied.

  7. libChEBI: an API for accessing the ChEBI database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainston, Neil; Hastings, Janna; Dekker, Adriano; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; May, John; Steinbeck, Christoph; Mendes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ChEBI is a database and ontology of chemical entities of biological interest. It is widely used as a source of identifiers to facilitate unambiguous reference to chemical entities within biological models, databases, ontologies and literature. ChEBI contains a wealth of chemical data, covering over 46,500 distinct chemical entities, and related data such as chemical formula, charge, molecular mass, structure, synonyms and links to external databases. Furthermore, ChEBI is an ontology, and thus provides meaningful links between chemical entities. Unlike many other resources, ChEBI is fully human-curated, providing a reliable, non-redundant collection of chemical entities and related data. While ChEBI is supported by a web service for programmatic access and a number of download files, it does not have an API library to facilitate the use of ChEBI and its data in cheminformatics software. To provide this missing functionality, libChEBI, a comprehensive API library for accessing ChEBI data, is introduced. libChEBI is available in Java, Python and MATLAB versions from http://github.com/libChEBI, and provides full programmatic access to all data held within the ChEBI database through a simple and documented API. libChEBI is reliant upon the (automated) download and regular update of flat files that are held locally. As such, libChEBI can be embedded in both on- and off-line software applications. libChEBI allows better support of ChEBI and its data in the development of new cheminformatics software. Covering three key programming languages, it allows for the entirety of the ChEBI database to be accessed easily and quickly through a simple API. All code is open access and freely available.

  8. The use and effectiveness of the eLib subject gateways: a preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, M.; Burton, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Internet subject gateways were set up under the Electronic Libraries Programme (eLib) in order to address some of the problems of searching the Internet which have been identified by information professionals, i.e. locating relevant, good quality information. This preliminary study examines the extent to which academics in two universities use three eLib subject gateways (EEVL, OMNI and SOSIG). The results are generally encouraging for the eLib programme, but it is necessary for the gateways ...

  9. Effects of Smoking Cues and Argument Strength of Antismoking Advertisements on Former Smokers’ Self-efficacy, Attitude, and Intention to Refrain From Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyoung

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the impact of smoking cues employed in antismoking advertisements on former smokers. Previous findings indicate that visual smoking cues in antismoking advertisements with weak antismoking arguments can elicit smoking urges in smokers and undermine message effectiveness. This study extends these observations to former smokers asking whether smoking cues in antismoking advertisements influence former smokers’ self-efficacy, attitudes, and intention to refrain from smoking, along with smoking urges and perceived message effectiveness. Methods: The study was a mixed 2 (smoking cues; present vs. absent) × 2 (argument strength [AS]; high vs. low) design where smoking cue was a between-subject factor and AS was a within-subject factor. Potential participants recruited via online ads were screened in a phone interview for their eligibility. A total of 105 former smokers (aged 21–65) participated in the study, which was conducted in a laboratory setting. Repeated measure ANOVA and MANOVA were used for the analyses. Results: The results showed that the presence of smoking cues in antismoking ads undermines former smokers’ behavioral self-efficacy, attitude, and intention about smoking abstinence, which increased as AS for the ads increased. Former smokers’ reports of smoking urge were not affected by smoking cues or AS. However, consistent with previous findings for smokers, the presence of cues weakened perceived message effectiveness of antismoking ads rated by former smokers. Conclusions: The effect of smoking cues on former smokers’ self-efficacy, attitude, and intention to refrain from smoking is problematic. Inclusion of smoking cues in antismoking ads should be undertaken only when accompanied by strong arguments. PMID:22949578

  10. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  11. Feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for classification of sea salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Man Minh; Cui, Sheng; Yoo, Jonghyun; Han, Song-Hee; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Nam, Sang-Ho; Lee, Yonghoon

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a fast, reliable classification tool for sea salts. For 11 kinds of sea salts, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and aluminum (Al), concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and the LIBS spectra were recorded in the narrow wavelength region between 760 and 800 nm where K (I), Mg (I), Ca (II), Al (I), and cyanide (CN) band emissions are observed. The ICP-AES measurements revealed that the K, Mg, Ca, and Al concentrations varied significantly with the provenance of each salt. The relative intensities of the K (I), Mg (I), Ca (II), and Al (I) peaks observed in the LIBS spectra are consistent with the results using ICP-AES. The principal component analysis of the LIBS spectra provided the score plot with quite a high degree of clustering. This indicates that classification of sea salts by chemometric analysis of LIBS spectra is very promising. Classification models were developed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and evaluated. In addition, the Al (I) peaks enabled us to discriminate between different production methods of the salts. © 2012 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  12. Analysis of LiSn alloy at several depths using LIBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchoňová, M., E-mail: maria.suchonova@fmph.uniba.sk [Dept. of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Krištof, J.; Pribula, M. [Dept. of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Veis, M. [Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Science, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Tabarés, F.L. [Fusion Department, Ciemat, Av Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Veis, P., E-mail: pavel.veis@fmph.uniba.sk [Dept. of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2017-04-15

    The difference between the composition of the surface and the inner part of the LiSn sample was studied using Calibration Free Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) method. The sample was analysed under the low pressure (1330 Pa) in Ar atmosphere. The spectra were record using Echelle spectrometer (Mechelle ME5000). Gate delay and gate width was optimised and set to 300 ns. In order to analyse depth profile the LIBS spectra was recorded after each laser shot. The electron density analysed by laser induced plasma was determined separately for each laser shot, which means for each ablated layer of investigated sample. The difference between the individual shots taken at distinct sites of the sample are shown. The CF-LIBS method was used to determine the elemental composition near the surface and in the central part of the LiSn sample.

  13. A combined remote Raman and LIBS instrument for characterizing minerals with 532 nm laser excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Lucey, Paul G; Lentz, Rachel C F

    2009-08-01

    The authors have developed an integrated remote Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system for measuring both the Raman and LIBS spectra of minerals with a single 532 nm laser line of 35 mJ/pulse and 20 Hz. The instrument has been used for analyzing both Raman and LIBS spectra of carbonates, sulfates, hydrous and anhydrous silicates, and iron oxide minerals in air. These experiments demonstrate that by focusing a frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with a 10x beam expander to a 529-microm diameter spot on a mineral surface located at 9 m, it is possible to measure simultaneously both the remote Raman and LIBS spectra of calcite, gypsum and olivine by adjusting the laser power electronically. The spectra of calcite, gypsum, and olivine contain fingerprint Raman lines; however, it was not possible to measure the remote Raman spectra of magnetite and hematite at 9 m because of strong absorption of 532 nm laser radiation and low intensities of Raman lines from these minerals. The remote LIBS spectra of both magnetite and hematite contain common iron emission lines but show difference in the minor amount of Li present in these two minerals. Remote Raman and LIBS spectra of a number of carbonates, sulfates, feldspars and phyllosilicates at a distance of 9 m were measured with a 532-nm laser operating at 35 mJ/pulse and by changing photon flux density at the sample by varying the spot diameter from 10 mm for Raman to 530 microm for LIBS measurements. The complementary nature of these spectra is highlighted and discussed. The combined Raman and LIBS system can also be re-configured to perform micro-Raman and micro-LIBS analyses, which have applications in trace/residue analysis and analysis of very small samples in the nano-gram range.

  14. Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2011-07-01

    A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was LIBS limits of detection were LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization.

  15. The added value of accounting for activity space when examining the association between tobacco retailer availability and smoking among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Vallée, Julie; Datta, Geetanjali; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    Despite a declining prevalence in many countries, smoking rates remain consistently high among young adults. Targeting contextual influences on smoking, such as the availability of tobacco retailers, is one promising avenue of intervention. Most studies have focused on residential or school neighbourhoods, without accounting for other settings where individuals spend time, that is, their activity space. We investigated the association between tobacco retailer availability in the residential neighbourhood and in the activity space, and smoking status. Cross-sectional baseline data from 1994 young adults (aged 18-25) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (Montreal, Canada, 2011-2012) were analysed. Residential and activity locations served to derive two measures of tobacco retailer availability: counts within 500 m buffers and proximity to the nearest retailer. Prevalence ratios for the association between each tobacco retailer measure and smoking status were estimated using log-binomial regression. Participants encountering high numbers of tobacco retailers in their residential neighbourhood, and both medium and high retailer counts in their activity space, were more likely to smoke compared to those exposed to fewer retailers. While residential proximity was not associated with smoking, we found 36% and 42% higher smoking prevalence among participants conducting activities within medium and high proximity to tobacco retailers compared to those conducting activities further from such outlets. This study adds to the sparse literature on contextual correlates of smoking among young adults, and illustrates the added value of considering individuals' activity space in contextual studies of smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of calcium ions dissolved in water using filter paper substrates: an ideal internal standard for precision improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daewoong; Gong, Yongdeuk; Nam, Sang-Ho; Han, Song-Hee; Yoo, Jonghyun; Lee, Yonghoon

    2014-01-01

    We report an approach for selecting an internal standard to improve the precision of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis for determining calcium (Ca) concentration in water. The dissolved Ca(2+) ions were pre-concentrated on filter paper by evaporating water. The filter paper was dried and analyzed using LIBS. By adding strontium chloride to sample solutions and using a Sr II line at 407.771 nm for the intensity normalization of Ca II lines at 393.366 or 396.847 nm, the analysis precision could be significantly improved. The Ca II and Sr II line intensities were mapped across the filter paper, and they showed a strong positive shot-to-shot correlation with the same spatial distribution on the filter paper surface. We applied this analysis approach for the measurement of Ca(2+) in tap, bottled, and ground water samples. The Ca(2+) concentrations determined using LIBS are in good agreement with those obtained from flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Finally, we suggest a homologous relation of the strongest emission lines of period 4 and 5 elements in groups IA and IIA based on their similar electronic structures. Our results indicate that the LIBS can be effectively applied for liquid analysis at the sub-parts per million level with high precision using a simple drying of liquid solutions on filter paper and the use of the correct internal standard elements with the similar valence electronic structure with respect to the analytes of interest.

  17. Optimalizace experimentálních parametrů v sestavě dvoupulzní LIBS

    OpenAIRE

    Roščák, Michal

    2010-01-01

    V diplomovej práci je opísaná metóda spektroskopie laserom indukovanej plazmy (LIBS) ako aj možnosť zníženia detekčných limitov použitím metódy dvojpulznej LIBS (DP-LIBS). Práca taktiež pojednáva o vlastnostiach laserom indukovanej plazmy (LIP). Obsahuje opis DP-LIBS aparatúry laboratória laserovej spektroskopie Fakulty strojního inženýrství, Vysoké učení technické v Brně, ako aj postup optimalizácie jej parametrov. Optimalizácia bola vykonaná pre detekciu chrómu v oceli s ohľadom na detekčné...

  18. Novel high-density packaging of solid state diode pumped eye-safe laser for LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Kim; Torgerson, Justin; McNeil, Laine; Maine, Patrick; Patterson, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has proven to be a useful research tool for material analysis for decades. However, because of the amount of energy required in a few nanosecond pulse to generate a stable and reliable LIBS signal, the lasers are often large and inefficient, relegating their implementation to research facilities, factory floors, and assembly lines. Small portable LIBS systems are now possible without having to compromise on energy needs by leveraging off of advances in high-density packaging of electronics, opto-mechanics, and highly efficient laser resonator architecture. This paper explores the integration of these techniques to achieve a mJ class eye-safe LIBS laser source, while retaining a small, light-weight package suitable for handheld systems.

  19. The effect of nutrient media water purity on LIBS based identification of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used as the basis for discrimination between 3 genera of Gram-negative bacteria and 2 genera of gram-positive bacteria representing pathogenic threats commonly found in poultry processing rinse waters. Because LIBS-based discrimination reli...

  20. [An automatic peak detection method for LIBS spectrum based on continuous wavelet transform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Fei; Tian, Di; Qiao, Shu-Jun; Yang, Guang

    2014-07-01

    Spectrum peak detection in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an essential step, but the presence of background and noise seriously disturb the accuracy of peak position. The present paper proposed a method applied to automatic peak detection for LIBS spectrum in order to enhance the ability of overlapping peaks searching and adaptivity. We introduced the ridge peak detection method based on continuous wavelet transform to LIBS, and discussed the choice of the mother wavelet and optimized the scale factor and the shift factor. This method also improved the ridge peak detection method with a correcting ridge method. The experimental results show that compared with other peak detection methods (the direct comparison method, derivative method and ridge peak search method), our method had a significant advantage on the ability to distinguish overlapping peaks and the precision of peak detection, and could be be applied to data processing in LIBS.

  1. Detection of Anomalies in Citrus Leaves Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Ehsani, Reza; Morgan, Kelly T

    2015-08-01

    Nutrient assessment and management are important to maintain productivity in citrus orchards. In this study, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for rapid and real-time detection of citrus anomalies. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected from citrus leaves with anomalies such as diseases (Huanglongbing, citrus canker) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, manganese, magnesium, zinc), and compared with those of healthy leaves. Baseline correction, wavelet multivariate denoising, and normalization techniques were applied to the LIBS spectra before analysis. After spectral pre-processing, features were extracted using principal component analysis and classified using two models, quadratic discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM). The SVM resulted in a high average classification accuracy of 97.5%, with high average canker classification accuracy (96.5%). LIBS peak analysis indicated that high intensities at 229.7, 247.9, 280.3, 393.5, 397.0, and 769.8 nm were observed of 11 peaks found in all the samples. Future studies using controlled experiments with variable nutrient applications are required for quantification of foliar nutrients by using LIBS-based sensing.

  2. Gallium Content in PuO2 Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.A.; Martinez, M.A.; Veirs, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the semi-quantitative analysis of gallium in plutonium oxide at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The oxide samples were generated by the Thermally Induced Gallium Removal (TIGR) process, a pretreatment step prior to MOX fuel processing. The TIGR process uses PuO 2 containing 1 wt% gallium (nominal) as feed material. Following the TIGR process, gallium content was analyzed by LIBS and also by conventional wet chemical analysis (ICP-MS). Although the data range was insufficient to obtain an adequate calibration, general agreement between the two techniques was good. LIBS was found to have a useful analytical range of 34-400 ppm for Ga in PuO 2

  3. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  4. Quantitative analysis of titanium concentration using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitun; Prasetyo, S.; Suliyanti, M. M.; Isnaeni; Herbani, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can be used for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) is a method to quantitatively analyze concentration of elements in a sample in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions without using available matrix-matched calibration. In this study, we apply CF-LIBS for quantitative analysis of Ti in TiO2 sample. TiO2 powder sample was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol and formed into pellets. An Nd:YAG pulsed laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm was focused onto the sample to generate plasma. The spectrum of plasma was recorded using spectrophotometer then compared to NIST spectral line to determine energy levels and other parameters. The value of plasma temperature obtained using Boltzmann plot is 8127.29 K and electron density from calculation is 2.49×1016 cm-3. Finally, the concentration of Ti in TiO2 sample from this study is 97% that is in proximity with the sample certificate.

  5. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): an overview of recent progress and future potential for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehse, S J; Salimnia, H; Miziolek, A W

    2012-02-01

    The recent progress made in developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has transformed LIBS from an elemental analysis technique to one that can be applied for the reagentless analysis of molecularly complex biological materials or clinical specimens. Rapid advances in the LIBS technology have spawned a growing number of recently published articles in peer-reviewed journals which have consistently demonstrated the capability of LIBS to rapidly detect, biochemically characterize and analyse, and/or accurately identify various biological, biomedical or clinical samples. These analyses are inherently real-time, require no sample preparation, and offer high sensitivity and specificity. This overview of the biomedical applications of LIBS is meant to summarize the research that has been performed to date, as well as to suggest to health care providers several possible specific future applications which, if successfully implemented, would be significantly beneficial to humankind.

  6. Barriers to Quitting Smoking among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; Cassidy, Rachel; Murphy, Cara M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n = 18...

  7. Recall and Effectiveness of Messages Promoting Smoke-Free Policies in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karen M.; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Kostygina, Ganna; Langley, Ronald E.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Low-cost media campaigns increase demand for smoke-free policies in underserved rural areas. The study examined the impact of loss- and gain-framed smoke-free print ads on recall and perceived effectiveness in rural communities, controlling for personal characteristics. Methods: Following 6- to 9-month print media campaigns in three rural counties, recall and perceived effectiveness of loss-framed (ie, targeting dangers of secondhand smoke [SHS]) and gain-framed (ie, highlighting positive aspects of smoke-free air) ads were assessed using random-digit-dial phone surveys. Respondents were asked if they remembered each ad, whether they liked it, whether they were prompted to contact a smoke-free coalition, whether the ad made them think, and whether it prompted emotion. Mixed modeling assessed whether personal factors predicted ad recall or perceived effectiveness. Results: Loss-framed ads were less likely to be recalled but more likely to prompt emotion. For ads of both frame types, females reported greater recall and perceived effectiveness than males. Those with less education reported higher perceived effectiveness of the ads but lower recall. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to perceive the ads as effective. Knowledge of SHS risk and support for smoke-free workplaces were positively associated with recall and effectiveness. Conclusions: Ad recall and perceived effectiveness were associated with framing and demographic and personal characteristics. Smoke-free efforts in rural areas may be bolstered by continuing to promote benefits of smoke-free workplace policies and educate on SHS risks. Rural areas may need to provide a combination of ad types and framing strategies to appeal to a wide audience. Implications: Rural communities are disproportionately affected by SHS and less likely to be protected by smoke-free policies. This study adds evidence-based guidance for tailoring rural smoke-free media campaigns using different framing

  8. Applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in Molten Metal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Shaymus W.; Craparo, Joseph; De Saro, Robert; Apelian, Diran

    2017-10-01

    In order for metals to meet the demand for critical applications in the automotive, aerospace, and defense industries, tight control over the composition and cleanliness of the metal must be achieved. The use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for applications in metal processing has generated significant interest for its ability to perform quick analyses in situ. The fundamentals of LIBS, current techniques for deployment on molten metal, demonstrated capabilities, and possible avenues for development are reviewed and discussed.

  9. ADS-Lib/V1.0. A test library for Accelerator Driven Systems. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Aldama, D.; Trkov, A.

    2005-08-01

    The report describes the generation of a test library for a number of code systems used in the analysis of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The generation of the ADS library was undertaken by IAEA-NDS and the data files are available to users at http://wwwnds. iaea.org/ads/ and also as CD-ROM (upon request).The source of the evaluated nuclear data was the JEFF-3.1 library. Processing was carried out using NJOY-99.90 with the local updates at IAEA-NDS. The resulting processed files are available in ACE format for MCNP and in MATXS format for multi-group transport calculations. (author)

  10. ANALISIS KUALITATIF PADA BATU KECUBUNG KOPI MENGGUNAKAN LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Gede Kusuma Dewi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been conducted research on the qualitative analysis on amethyst coffee using LIBS.This study aims to determine the content of the element in amethyst coffee that can later be used as a comparison or reference further research in the elemental analysis amethyst coffee. With treatment, the laser irradiated amethyst coffee at 100 mJ, and the data retrieved by the accumulation of 3, delay time 1 µs and repetition as much as 3 points in different areas of each region analysis of depth function (Depth Profile with 60 times the laser irradiation. The main element as a constituent amethyst Coffee is silicon (Si, Sodium (Na, calcium (Ca, potassium (K and oxygen (O2, while the element on its outer surface is iron (Fe and phosphorus (P were analyzed using LIBS.

  11. Acute electronic cigarette use: nicotine delivery and subjective effects in regular users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Corcoran, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes are becoming increasingly popular among smokers worldwide. Commonly reported reasons for use include the following: to quit smoking, to avoid relapse, to reduce urge to smoke, or as a perceived lower-risk alternative to smoking. Few studies, however, have explored whether electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) deliver measurable levels of nicotine to the blood. This study aims to explore in experienced users the effect of using an 18-mg/ml nicotine first-generation e-cigarette on blood nicotine, tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and urge to smoke. Fourteen regular e-cigarette users (three females), who are abstinent from smoking and e-cigarette use for 12 h, each completed a 2.5 h testing session. Blood was sampled, and questionnaires were completed (tobacco-related withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, positive and negative subjective effects) at four stages: baseline, 10 puffs, 60 min of ad lib use and a 60-min rest period. Complete sets of blood were obtained from seven participants. Plasma nicotine concentration rose significantly from a mean of 0.74 ng/ml at baseline to 6.77 ng/ml 10 min after 10 puffs, reaching a mean maximum of 13.91 ng/ml by the end of the ad lib puffing period. Tobacco-related withdrawal symptoms and urge to smoke were significantly reduced; direct positive effects were strongly endorsed, and there was very low reporting of adverse effects. These findings demonstrate reliable blood nicotine delivery after the acute use of this brand/model of e-cigarette in a sample of regular users. Future studies might usefully quantify nicotine delivery in relation to inhalation technique and the relationship with successful smoking cessation/harm reduction.

  12. Development of LIBS for online analysis of solid nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    With the objective to implement a fast, online analysis technique for control of solid metal nuclear materials, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is developed for quantitative analysis in uranium and plutonium. Since these matrices have a very dense emission spectrum in the UV-Visible range, the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) spectral range, less rich in lines, is explored. The aim of this thesis is to perform the analytical development of VUV-LIBS for quantitative analysis between 500 and 5000 ppm with an uncertainty of 3%. For that purpose, four steps were defined. First, for practical and safety reasons, it is generally better to perform experiments on surrogate materials. LIBS based on laser-material interaction, it is relevant to seek a surrogate of material of interest from the viewpoint of the ablated mass. Thus, a complete study of laser ablation of several metals was enabled to build a predictive model of the ablation efficiency. Titanium and stainless steel were defined as surrogate materials of plutonium and uranium for laser ablation. Secondly, the VUV-LIBS setup analytical performances were optimized for several elements of interest in four metals. Then, two calibration methods are used to determine the analytical performances. The limits of quantification are of the order of a few hundreds of ppm for all studied matrices, which validates the objective of impurities quantitation in the 500-5000 ppm range. Uncertainty is lower than 3% in the best cases. Finally, the calibration transfer between the four matrices was studied. A normalization of the nickel net signal measured in three matrices was presented. (author) [fr

  13. Feasibility Study for Monitoring Actinide Elements in Process Materials Using FO-LIBS at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bo-Young; Choi, Daewoong; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Ho-Dong [Nonproliferation System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Dae, Dongsun [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Whitehouse, Andrew I. [Applied Photonics Ltd., Unit 8 Carleton Business Park, Skipton, North Yorkshire BD23 2DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been developing the design and deployment methodology of Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for safeguards application within the argon hot cell environment at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF), where ACPF is a facility being refurbished for the laboratory-scaled demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process. LIBS is an analysis technology used to measure the emission spectra of excited elements in the local plasma of a target material induced by a laser. The spectra measured by LIBS are analyzed to verify the quality and quantity of the specific element in the target matrix. Recently LIBS has been recognized as a promising technology for safeguards purposes in terms of several advantages including a simple sample preparation and in-situ analysis capability. In particular, a feasibility study of LIBS to remotely monitor the nuclear material in a high radiation environment has been carried out for supporting the IAEA safeguards implementation. Fiber-Optic LIBS (FO-LIBS) deployment was proposed by Applied Photonics Ltd because the use of fiber optics had benefited applications of LIBS by delivering the laser energy to the target and by collecting the plasma light. The design of FO-LIBS instrument for the measurement of actinides in the spent fuel and high temperature molten salt at ACPF had been developed in cooperation with Applied Photonics Ltd. FO-LIBS has some advantages as followings: the detectable plasma light wavelength range is not limited by the optical properties of the thick lead-glass shield window and the potential risk of laser damage to the lead-glass shield window is not considered. The remote LIBS instrument had been installed at ACPF and then the feasibility study for monitoring actinide elements such as uranium, plutonium, and curium in process materials has been carried out. (authors)

  14. Feasibility Study for Monitoring Actinide Elements in Process Materials Using FO-LIBS at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bo-Young; Choi, Daewoong; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Ho-Dong; Dae, Dongsun; Whitehouse, Andrew I.

    2015-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been developing the design and deployment methodology of Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for safeguards application within the argon hot cell environment at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF), where ACPF is a facility being refurbished for the laboratory-scaled demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process. LIBS is an analysis technology used to measure the emission spectra of excited elements in the local plasma of a target material induced by a laser. The spectra measured by LIBS are analyzed to verify the quality and quantity of the specific element in the target matrix. Recently LIBS has been recognized as a promising technology for safeguards purposes in terms of several advantages including a simple sample preparation and in-situ analysis capability. In particular, a feasibility study of LIBS to remotely monitor the nuclear material in a high radiation environment has been carried out for supporting the IAEA safeguards implementation. Fiber-Optic LIBS (FO-LIBS) deployment was proposed by Applied Photonics Ltd because the use of fiber optics had benefited applications of LIBS by delivering the laser energy to the target and by collecting the plasma light. The design of FO-LIBS instrument for the measurement of actinides in the spent fuel and high temperature molten salt at ACPF had been developed in cooperation with Applied Photonics Ltd. FO-LIBS has some advantages as followings: the detectable plasma light wavelength range is not limited by the optical properties of the thick lead-glass shield window and the potential risk of laser damage to the lead-glass shield window is not considered. The remote LIBS instrument had been installed at ACPF and then the feasibility study for monitoring actinide elements such as uranium, plutonium, and curium in process materials has been carried out. (authors)

  15. Fire debris analysis for forensic fire investigation using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soojin; Yoh, Jack J.

    2017-08-01

    The possibility verification of the first attempt to apply LIBS to arson investigation was performed. LIBS has capabilities for real time in-situ analysis and depth profiling. It can provide valuable information about the fire debris that are complementary to the classification of original sample components and combustion residues. In this study, fire debris was analyzed to determine the ignition source and existence of a fire accelerant using LIBS spectra and depth profiling analysis. Fire debris chemical composition and carbon layer thickness determines the possible ignition source while the carbon layer thickness of combusted samples represents the degree of sample carbonization. When a sample is combusted with fire accelerants, a thicker carbon layer is formed because the burning rate is increased. Therefore, depth profiling can confirm the existence of combustion accelerants, which is evidence of arson. Also investigation of fire debris by depth profiling is still possible when a fire is extinguished with water from fire hose. Such data analysis and in-situ detection of forensic signals via the LIBS may assist fire investigation at crime scenes.

  16. LIBS: study of elemental profile of different layers of the optical window of Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Gulab Singh; Jyotsna, Aradhana; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar; Ajai Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In the Tokamak, during confinement of plasma, impurities are deposited on optical window, mirror, limiters, etc. of the tokamak. Thus a layer of impurity on the surface of the optical window causes less visibility which creates problem in the study of plasma parameters and other diagnostics of the plasma generated in the tokamak. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a useful atomic spectroscopic technique for analysis of materials in any phase (Solid, Liquid, Gas etc). LIBS spectra of optical window have been recorded in the spectral range of 200-500 nm. In present study we have focused laser on the surface of the window, to study the layer-wise elemental profile of optical window, we have recorded the LIBS spectra with increasing number of laser shots on the same point of the window. In first laser shot, spectral signature of Cr, Fe, and Ni etc. are present in the LIBS spectra, which is related with the impurity but after five to six laser shots at the same point of the optical window spectral signature Si, B are observed which is related to the glass material. Thus our study demonstrates the capability of LIBS as an in-situ monitoring tool for detection of elemental profile in different layers of optical window of the Tokamak. (author)

  17. Does LibQUAL+[TM] Account for Student Loyalty to a University College Library?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Oyvind; Nesset, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out whether LibQUAL+[TM]can account for student loyalty to the library of an institution of higher education. LibQUAL+[TM] is a marketing tool that is used to measure perceived service quality of libraries, and the present analysis aims at validating this service quality instrument within a more…

  18. Rapid detection of soils contaminated with heavy metals and oils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibaek; Kwak, Jihyun; Kim, Ki-Rak; Lee, Heesung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yang, Hyeon; Park, Kihong

    2013-12-15

    A laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) coupled with the chemometric method was applied to rapidly discriminate between soils contaminated with heavy metals or oils and clean soils. The effects of the water contents and grain sizes of soil samples on LIBS emissions were also investigated. The LIBS emission lines decreased by 59-75% when the water content increased from 1.2% to 7.8%, and soil samples with a grain size of 75 μm displayed higher LIBS emission lines with lower relative standard deviations than those with a 2mm grain size. The water content was found to have a more pronounced effect on the LIBS emission lines than the grain size. Pelletizing and sieving were conducted for all samples collected from abandoned mining areas and military camp to have similar water contents and grain sizes before being analyzed by the LIBS with the chemometric analysis. The data show that three types of soil samples were clearly discerned by using the first three principal components from the spectral data of soil samples. A blind test was conducted with a 100% correction rate for soil samples contaminated with heavy metals and oil residues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In situ semi-quantitative analysis of polluted soils by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaël, Amina; Bousquet, Bruno; Michel-Le Pierrès, Karine; Travaillé, Grégoire; Canioni, Lionel; Roy, Stéphane

    2011-05-01

    Time-saving, low-cost analyses of soil contamination are required to ensure fast and efficient pollution removal and remedial operations. In this work, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been successfully applied to in situ analyses of polluted soils, providing direct semi-quantitative information about the extent of pollution. A field campaign has been carried out in Brittany (France) on a site presenting high levels of heavy metal concentrations. Results on iron as a major component as well as on lead and copper as minor components are reported. Soil samples were dried and prepared as pressed pellets to minimize the effects of moisture and density on the results. LIBS analyses were performed with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm, 60 mJ per 10 ns pulse, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with a diameter of 500 μm on the sample surface. Good correlations were obtained between the LIBS signals and the values of concentrations deduced from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This result proves that LIBS is an efficient method for optimizing sampling operations. Indeed, "LIBS maps" were established directly on-site, providing valuable assistance in optimizing the selection of the most relevant samples for future expensive and time-consuming laboratory analysis and avoiding useless analyses of very similar samples. Finally, it is emphasized that in situ LIBS is not described here as an alternative quantitative analytical method to the usual laboratory measurements but simply as an efficient time-saving tool to optimize sampling operations and to drastically reduce the number of soil samples to be analyzed, thus reducing costs. The detection limits of 200 ppm for lead and 80 ppm for copper reported here are compatible with the thresholds of toxicity; thus, this in situ LIBS campaign was fully validated for these two elements. Consequently, further experiments are planned to extend this study to other chemical elements and other

  20. Combined Raman/LIBS spectrometer elegant breadboard: built and tested - and flight model spectrometer unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, B.; Hutchinson, I.; Ingley, R.

    2017-11-01

    A spectrometer for combined Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is amongst the different instruments that have been pre-selected for the Pasteur payload of the ExoMars rover. It is regarded as a fundamental, next-generation instrument for organic, mineralogical and elemental characterisation of Martian soil, rock samples and organic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities [1]. The combined Raman / LIBS instrument has been recommended as the highest priority mineralogy instrument to be included in the rover's analytical laboratory for the following tasks: Analyse surface and sub-surface soil and rocks on Mars, identify organics in the search for life and determine soil origin & toxicity. The synergy of the system is evident: the Raman spectrometer is dedicated to molecular analysis of organics and minerals; the LIBS provides information on the sample's elemental composition. An international team, under ESA contract and with the leadership of TNO Science and Industry, has built and tested an Elegant Bread Board (EBB) of the combined Raman / LIBS instrument. The EBB comprises a specifically designed, extremely compact, spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. The EBB also includes lasers, illumination and imaging optics as well as fibre optics for light transfer. A summary of the functional and environmental requirements together with a description of the optical design and its expected performance are described in [2]. The EBB was developed and constructed to verify the instruments' end-to-end functional performance with natural samples. The combined Raman / LIBS EBB realisation and test results of natural samples will be presented. For the Flight Model (FM) instrument, currently in the design phase, the Netherlands will be responsible for the design, development and verification of the

  1. Recall and Effectiveness of Messages Promoting Smoke-Free Policies in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen M; Wiggins, Amanda T; Kostygina, Ganna; Langley, Ronald E; Hahn, Ellen J

    2016-05-01

    Low-cost media campaigns increase demand for smoke-free policies in underserved rural areas. The study examined the impact of loss- and gain-framed smoke-free print ads on recall and perceived effectiveness in rural communities, controlling for personal characteristics. Following 6- to 9-month print media campaigns in three rural counties, recall and perceived effectiveness of loss-framed (ie, targeting dangers of secondhand smoke [SHS]) and gain-framed (ie, highlighting positive aspects of smoke-free air) ads were assessed using random-digit-dial phone surveys. Respondents were asked if they remembered each ad, whether they liked it, whether they were prompted to contact a smoke-free coalition, whether the ad made them think, and whether it prompted emotion. Mixed modeling assessed whether personal factors predicted ad recall or perceived effectiveness. Loss-framed ads were less likely to be recalled but more likely to prompt emotion. For ads of both frame types, females reported greater recall and perceived effectiveness than males. Those with less education reported higher perceived effectiveness of the ads but lower recall. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to perceive the ads as effective. Knowledge of SHS risk and support for smoke-free workplaces were positively associated with recall and effectiveness. Ad recall and perceived effectiveness were associated with framing and demographic and personal characteristics. Smoke-free efforts in rural areas may be bolstered by continuing to promote benefits of smoke-free workplace policies and educate on SHS risks. Rural areas may need to provide a combination of ad types and framing strategies to appeal to a wide audience. Rural communities are disproportionately affected by SHS and less likely to be protected by smoke-free policies. This study adds evidence-based guidance for tailoring rural smoke-free media campaigns using different framing: gain-framed messages (ie, benefits of smoke-free environments) to

  2. A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

  3. Comparison of LIBS and {mu}-XRF measurements on bronze alloys for monitoring plasma effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberghina, M F; Barraco, R; Brai, M; Schillaci, T; Tranchina, L, E-mail: tschillaci@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze Ed. 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is often used as atomic spectroscopic technique for elemental analysis of materials. However, it presents some drawbacks that make an accurate quantitative analysis difficult. Since the plasma properties, such as spatial inhomogeneity and plume stoichiometry strongly depend on the experimental conditions, the measurements are less reproducible. In order to evaluate the measurement fluctuations, we propose to use the more established micro X-Ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) technique for validating LIBS data. In particular, the quantitative data, obtained by varying the laser fluence, the shot numbers and the temporal acquisition parameters, were compared with those obtained by {mu}-XRF on laboratory made samples of binary, ternary and quaternary bronze alloys. For LIBS measurements a mobile double pulse laser instrument equipped with an high resolution Echelle type monochromator coupled to an intensified CCD camera was used. {mu}-XRF analyses were performed with a portable instrument that uses a micro collimated X-Ray beam and it is equipped with an high resolution detector. The LIBS results show a strong dependence both on the instrumental set up and the chemical-physical properties of the sample. With our findings we could identify the most suitable parameters to be used in the investigation of the different bronze alloys. The possibility to carry out a quantitative analysis by using the LIBS technique was checked through the comparison with related {mu}-XRF data. In particular in this paper we identified a set of reliable LIBS parameters for the quantitative analysis of copper, tin and zinc. Further analyses will be necessary to reach this goal also for the minor constituents as lead.

  4. Barriers to Quitting Smoking among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; Cassidy, Rachel; Murphy, Cara M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n = 184 and 340). Both components (General Barriers, Weight Concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General Barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; Weight Concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. PMID:26979552

  5. Potential effectiveness of anti-smoking advertisement types in ten low and middle income countries: do demographics, smoking characteristics and cultural differences matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Bayly, Megan; Cotter, Trish; Mullin, Sandra; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-12-01

    Unlike high income countries, there is limited research to guide selection of anti-tobacco mass media campaigns in low and middle income countries, although some work suggests that messages emphasizing serious health harms perform better than other message types. This study aimed to determine whether certain types of anti-smoking advertisements are more likely to be accepted and perceived as effective across smokers in 10 low to middle income countries. 2399 18-34 year old smokers were recruited in Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Turkey and Vietnam to view and rate 10 anti-tobacco ads. Five ads were shown in all countries and five ads were chosen by country representatives, providing a total of 37 anti-smoking ads across all countries (10 graphic health effects ads, 6 simulated health effects, 8 emotional stories of health effects, 7 other health effects and 6 non-health effects). Smokers rated ads on a series of 5-point scales containing aggregated measures of Message Acceptance and Perceived Effectiveness. All ads and materials were translated into the local language of the testing regions. In multivariate analysis, graphic health effects ads were most likely to be accepted and perceived as effective, followed by simulated health effects ads, health effects stories, other health effects ads, and then non-health effects ads. Interaction analyses indicated that graphic health effects ads were less likely to differ in acceptance or perceived effectiveness across countries, gender, age, education, parental status and amount smoked, and were less likely to be affected by cultural differences between characters and contexts in ads and those within each country. Ads that did not emphasize the health effects of smoking were most prone to inconsistent impact across countries and population subgroups. Graphic ads about the negative health effects of smoking may be most suitable for wide population broadcast in low and middle income

  6. Effects of laser wavelengths and pulse energy ratio on the emission enhancement in dual pulse LIBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Iqbal, Javed; Baig, M Aslam

    2015-01-01

    We present new studies on the effects of laser wavelengths, pulse energy ratio and interpulse delay between two laser pulses in the collinear dual pulse configuration of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on an iron sample in air using the fundamental (1064 nm) and the second harmonics (532 nm) of Nd:YAG lasers. In the dual pulse LIBS, an optimum value of interpulse delay with an appropriate combination of laser wavelengths, and laser pulse energy ratio, yields a 30 times signal intensity enhancement in the neutral iron lines as compared with single pulse LIBS. A comparison in the spatial variations of electron temperature along the axis of the plume expansion in single and double pulse LIBS has also been studied. (letter)

  7. New Library, New Librarian, New Student: Using LibGuides to Reach the Virtual Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sara; Hunter, Dwight

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the virtual pathfinder and its relationship with distance education students. Various topics are addressed in relation to virtual students, LibGuides and collaborative efforts between librarians and teaching faculty. A brief history of the subject guide is presented, advantages and disadvantages of LibGuides are discussed and…

  8. Accuracy Enhancement of Raman Spectroscopy Using Complementary Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with Geologically Mixed Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soojin; Kim, Dongyoung; Yang, Junho; Yoh, Jack J

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative Raman analysis was carried out with geologically mixed samples that have various matrices. In order to compensate the matrix effect in Raman shift, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis was performed. Raman spectroscopy revealed the geological materials contained in the mixed samples. However, the analysis of a mixture containing different matrices was inaccurate due to the weak signal of the Raman shift, interference, and the strong matrix effect. On the other hand, the LIBS quantitative analysis of atomic carbon and calcium in mixed samples showed high accuracy. In the case of the calcite and gypsum mixture, the coefficient of determination of atomic carbon using LIBS was 0.99, while the signal using Raman was less than 0.9. Therefore, the geological composition of the mixed samples is first obtained using Raman and the LIBS-based quantitative analysis is then applied to the Raman outcome in order to construct highly accurate univariate calibration curves. The study also focuses on a method to overcome matrix effects through the two complementary spectroscopic techniques of Raman spectroscopy and LIBS.

  9. Ultrasonic Nebulizer Assisted LIBS: a Promising Metal Elements Detection Method for Aqueous Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shilei; Zheng Ronger; Lu Yuan; Cheng Kai; Xiu Junshan

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed approach for trace metal elements detection for aqueous samples analysis is presented in this paper. The idea of this approach is to improve ablation efficiency by transforming the liquid sample into a dense cloud of droplets using an ultrasonic nebulizer. The resulting droplets are then subjected to analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A purpose-built ultrasonic nebulizer assisted LIBS (UN-LIBS) system has been applied to the analysis of aqueous samples at trace levels of concentration. Experimental investigations of solution samples were carried out with various dissolved trace metal elements (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mg and Na) using this approach. The characteristics of UN-LIBS signal of the elements were investigated regarding the lifetime and S/B ratio and the calibration curves for trace metal elements analyses. The obtained LODs are comparable or much better than the LODS of the reported signal enhancement approaches when the laser pulse energy was as low as 30 mJ. The good linearity of calibration curves and the low LODs shows the potential ability of this method for metal elements analysis application. The density of the electrons was calculated by measuring the Stark width of the line of H α . The possible mechanism of the LIBS signal enhancement of this approach was briefly discussed. (paper)

  10. [Rapid multi-elemental analysis on four precious Tibetan medicines based on LIBS technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-na; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jia, Shuai-yun; Zhao, Na; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-06-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to perform a qualitative elementary analysis on four precious Tibetan medicines, i. e. Renqing Mangjue, Renqing Changjue, 25-herb coral pills and 25-herb pearl pills. The specific spectra of the four Tibetan medicines were established. In the experiment, Nd: YAG and 1 064 nm-baseband pulse laser were adopted to collect the spectra. A laser beam focused on the surface of the samples to generate plasma. Its spectral signal was detected by using spectrograph. Based on the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) database, LIBS spectral lines were indentified. The four Tibetan medicines mainly included Ca, Na, K, Mg and other elements and C-N molecular band. Specifically, Fe was detected in Renqing Changjue and 25-herb pearl pills; heavy mental elements Hg and Cu were shown in Renqing Mangjue and Renqing Changjue; Ag was found in Renqing Changjue. The results demonstrated that LIBS is a reliable and rapid multi-element analysis on the four Tibetan medicines. With Real-time, rapid and nondestructive advantages, LIBS has a wide application prospect in the element analysis on ethnic medicines.

  11. In-vitro analysis of early calcification in aortic valvular interstitial cells using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Seyyed Ali; Masjedi, Shirin; Ferdous, Zannatul; Mukherjee, Dibyendu

    2018-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cardiovascular disorder caused by osteogenic differentiation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) within aortic valves. Conventional methods like colorimetric assays and histology fail to detect small calcium depositions during in-vitro VIC cultures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a robust analytical tool used for inorganic materials characterizations, but relatively new to biomedical applications. We employ LIBS, for the first time, for quantitative in-vitro detection of calcium depositions in VICs at various osteogenic differentiation stages. VICs isolated from porcine aortic valves were cultured in osteogenic media over various days. Colorimetric calcium assays based on arsenazo dye and Von Kossa staining measured the calcium depositions within VICs. Simultaneously, LIBS signatures for Ca I (422.67 nm) atomic emission lines were collected for estimating calcium depositions in lyophilized VIC samples. Our results indicate excellent linear correlation between the calcium assay and our LIBS measurements. Furthermore, unlike the assay results, the LIBS results could resolve calcium signals from cell samples with as early as 2 days of osteogenic culture. Quantitatively, the LIBS measurements establish the limit of detection for calcium content in VICs to be ∼0.17±0.04 μg which indicates a 5-fold improvement over calcium assay. Picture: Quantitative LIBS enables in-vitro analysis for early stage detection of calcium deposition within aortic valvular interstitial cells (VICs). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The content of cigarette counter-advertising: are perceived functions of smoking addressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nancy; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Eno, Cassie A; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    Media campaigns can be an effective tool in reducing adolescent smoking. To better understand the types of ads that have been used in campaigns in the United States, a content analysis was conducted of ads available at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Media Campaign Resource Center (MCRC; Waves 1 through 7). A total of 487 ads were coded. Ads were coded for target audience, primary theme present in the ad, and sensation value-production techniques that have been demonstrated to attract attention and increase arousal. Primary themes extended earlier studies by focusing on the perceived functions of smoking (weight lose, stress management, controlling negative affect) as well as the traditional themes of industry attack, the health consequences of smoking, secondhand smoke, quitting, and the social image of smokers. A majority of ads were rated as having moderate sensation value, and ads targeted at teens and children were, on the average, higher in sensation value than those targeting general audiences. Changes across time suggest that campaigns are focusing more on adolescent smoking and relying more on attacking the tobacco industry. Research indicates that the functions of stress relief, mood regulation, and weight loss are strong reasons for initiating and continuing to smoke cigarettes; however, none of the 487 ads addressed these functional themes. Implications for developing campaigns that more closely relate to the functions of smoking are discussed.

  13. Final report on feasibility of real-time geochemical analysis at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using LIBS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.D.; Pettit, D.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytic method whereby an intense laser pulse is used to vaporize and excite a small volume of material into atomic emission. Calibrated spectral analysis of the laser spark light provides detection and quantification of the elemental composition of the target material. We performed laboratory and field tests to assess the feasibility of developing field-portable LIBS-based instruments for real-time analyses of Yucca Mountain rocks in conjunction with Yucca Mountain Project drilling, coring, sampling, and characterization tasks. We developed one prototype instrument designed to analyze air core drilling dust and another prototype instrument designed to analyze rock and fracture surfaces. In realistic field tests at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, we demonstrated that the LIBS prototypes are capable of measuring major, minor, and some trace elements in real time. Laboratory LIBS analyses show that we can identify characteristic element ratios in a range of manganese oxide minerals present at Yucca Mountain as fracture surface coatings and matrix grains. Preliminary LIBS analyses also indicate that the U/Na ratio may distinguish tuffs containing the hazardous zeolite mineral erionite from non-erionite bearing tuffs, and that a LIBS-based instrument may be useful to detect in real time the probable presence of erionite encountered in core drilling and other operations at Yucca Mountain

  14. Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS Remote Sensing Composition Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice S.; Bender, S.; Barraclough, B. L.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H.; Vaniman, D.; Clegg, S.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, will provide remote-sensing composition information for rock and soil samples within seven meters of the rover using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system, and will provide context imaging with a resolution of 0.10 mradians using the remote micro-imager (RMI) camera. The high resolution is needed to image the small analysis footprint of the LIBS system, at 0.2-0.6 mm diameter. This fine scale analytical capability will enable remote probing of stratigraphic layers or other small features the size of "blueberries" or smaller. ChemCam is intended for rapid survey analyses within 7 m of the rover, with each measurement taking less than 6 minutes. Repeated laser pulses remove dust coatings and provide depth profiles through weathering layers, allowing detailed investigation of rock varnish features as well as analysis of the underlying pristine rock composition. The LIBS technique uses brief laser pulses greater than 10 MW/square mm to ablate and electrically excite material from the sample of interest. The plasma emits photons with wavelengths characteristic of the elements present in the material, permitting detection and quantification of nearly all elements, including the light elements H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O. ChemCam LIBS projects 14 mJ of 1067 nm photons on target and covers a spectral range of 240-850 nm with resolutions between 0.15 and 0.60 nm FWHM. The Nd:KGW laser is passively cooled and is tuned to provide maximum power output from -10 to 0 C, though it can operate at 20% degraded energy output at room temperature. Preliminary calibrations were carried out on the flight model (FM) in 2008. However, the detectors were replaced in 2009, and final calibrations occurred in April-June, 2010. This presentation describes the LIBS calibration and characterization procedures and results, and details plans for final analyses during rover system thermal testing

  15. Application and development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrumentation for international safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barefield, II, James E.; Le, Loan; Lopez, Leon; Jolin, John L.; Clegg, Samuel M. [Chemical Diagnostic and Engineering and Physical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Advanced methodologies and improvements to current measurements techniques are needed to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards. The primary tool employed by the IAEA to detect undeclared processes and activities at special nuclear material facilities and sites still is environmental sampling. This type of environmental sampling is both time consuming and costly since many samples must be collected, packaged, and shipped to an analytical laboratory for analysis that in some cases can take weeks to months to complete. Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently investigating potential uses of LIBS for safeguards applications, including(1) a user-friendly man-portable LIBS system to characterize samples in real to near-real time (typical analysis time are on the order of minutes) across a wide range of elements in the periodic table from hydrogen up to heavy elements like plutonium and uranium, (2) a LIBS system that can be deployed in harsh environments such as hot cells and glove boxes providing relative compositional analysis of process streams for example, ratios like Cm Division-Slash Pu and Cm Division-Slash / U, (3) an inspector field deployable system that can be used to analyze microscopic and single particle samples containing plutonium and uranium, and (4) a high resolution LIBS system that can be used to determine the isotopic composition of samples containing for example uranium and plutonium. In this paper, we will describe our current development and performance testing results for LIBS instrumentation both in a fixed lab and measurements in field deployable configurations.

  16. Barriers to Quitting Smoking Among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Cassidy, Rachel N; Murphy, Cara M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2016-05-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n=184 and 340). Both components (general barriers, weight concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; weight concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antismoking Ads at the Point of Sale: The Influence of Ad Type and Context on Ad Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Nonnemaker, James; Guillory, Jamie; Shafer, Paul; Parvanta, Sarah; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Efforts are underway to educate consumers about the dangers of smoking at the point of sale (POS). Research is limited about the efficacy of POS antismoking ads to guide campaign development. This study experimentally tests whether the type of antismoking ad and the context in which ads are viewed influence people's reactions to the ads. A national convenience sample of 7,812 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 39 conditions. Participants viewed one of the four types of antismoking ads (negative health consequences-graphic, negative social consequences-intended emotive, benefits of quitting-informational, benefits of quitting-graphic) in one of the three contexts (alone, next to a cigarette ad, POS tobacco display). We assessed participants' reactions to the ads, including perceived effectiveness, negative emotion, affective dissonance, and motivational reaction. Graphic ads elicited more negative emotion and affective dissonance than benefits of quitting ads. Graphic ads elicited higher perceived effectiveness and more affective dissonance than intended emotive ads. Antismoking ads fared best when viewed alone, and graphic ads were least influenced by the context in which they were viewed. These results suggest that in developing POS campaigns, it is important to consider the competitive pro-tobacco context in which antismoking ads will be viewed.

  18. Relations between passage rates of rumen fluid and particulate matter and foam production in rumen contents of cattle fed on different diets ad lib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Hardin, R T

    1989-03-01

    1. A group of six cattle, three of which had a non-bloating history (group A) and had been ruminally cannulated for the previous 2 years, and three with a history of being bloat-prone (group B) and which had been ruminally cannulated only 3 months before the study, were fed ad lib. on chopped lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay, lucerne pellets, or a 100 g chopped hay and 900 g rolled barley grain/kg diet over three periods of 30 d each. Flow of rumen digesta, by reference to CoEDTA and chromium-mordanted fibres, and foam production from samples of rumen contents were measured. 2. Samples of rumen contents (50 ml) from group A produced foam heights of 150 and 60 mm, 2 and 4 h after feeding respectively, compared with 240 and 150 mm for group B (P less than 0.05). 3. The fractional passage rate of the 1-2 mm particles mordanted with Cr did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between groups. 4. The fractional outflow rates (FOR) for CoEDTA 0-2 h and 2-7 h after feed was offered were 0.205 and 0.160/h for group A and 0.093 and 0.086/h for group B respectively (P less than 0.05). 5. Rumen-fluid FOR 0-2 h and 2-7 h after provision of feed were significantly (P less than 0.05) inversely correlated (r -0.74 and -0.85 respectively) with the amount of foam produced from rumen contents at these times.

  19. Qualitative evaluation of maternal milk and commercial infant formulas via LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Al Sharnoubi, J; Harith, M A

    2013-10-15

    This study focuses on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the evaluation of the nutrients in maternal milk and some commercially available infant formulas. The results of such evaluation are vital for adequate and healthy feeding for babies during lactation period. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy offers special advantages in comparison to the other conventional analytical techniques. Specifically, LIBS is a straightforward technique that can be used in situ to provide qualitative analytical information in few minutes for the samples under investigation without preparation processes. The samples studied in the current work were maternal milk samples collected during the first 3 months of lactation (not colostrum milk) and samples from six different types of commercially available infant formulas. The samples' elemental composition has been compared with respect to the relative abundance of the elements of nutrition importance, namely Mg, Ca, Na, and Fe using their spectral emission lines in the relevant LIBS spectra. In addition, CN and C2 molecular emission bands in the same spectra have been studied as indicators of proteins content in the samples. The obtained analytical results demonstrate the higher elemental contents of the maternal milk compared with the commercial formulas samples. Similar results have been obtained as for the proteins content. It has been also shown that calcium and proteins have similar relative concentration trends in the studied samples. This work demonstrates the feasibility of adopting LIBS as a fast, safe, less costly technique evaluating qualitatively the nutrients content of both maternal and commercial milk samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in a Novel Molten Salt Aerosol System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ammon N; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2017-04-01

    In the pyrochemical separation of used nuclear fuel (UNF), fission product, rare earth, and actinide chlorides accumulate in the molten salt electrolyte over time. Measuring this salt composition in near real-time is advantageous for operational efficiency, material accountability, and nuclear safeguards. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been proposed and demonstrated as a potential analytical approach for molten LiCl-KCl salts. However, all the studies conducted to date have used a static surface approach which can lead to issues with splashing, low repeatability, and poor sample homogeneity. In this initial study, a novel molten salt aerosol approach has been developed and explored to measure the composition of the salt via LIBS. The functionality of the system has been demonstrated as well as a basic optimization of the laser energy and nebulizer gas pressure used. Initial results have shown that this molten salt aerosol-LIBS system has a great potential as an analytical technique for measuring the molten salt electrolyte used in this UNF reprocessing technology.

  1. Analysis of heterogeneous gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Brij Bir S; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Jitendra; Rai, Pradeep K; Gondal, Mohammed A; Gondal, Bilal; Singh, Vivek K

    2016-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, no specific sample preparation requirements, non-destructiveness, and versatility. It has been proven to be a robust elemental analysis tool attracting interest because of being applied to a wide range of materials including biomaterials. In this paper, we have performed spectroscopic studies on gallstones which are heterogeneous in nature using LIBS and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) techniques. It has been observed that the presence and relative concentrations of trace elements in different kind of gallstones (cholesterol and pigment gallstones) can easily be determined using LIBS technique. From the experiments carried out on gallstones for trace elemental mapping and detection, it was found that LIBS is a robust tool for such biomedical applications. The stone samples studied in the present paper were classified using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. WD-XRF spectroscopy has been applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major and trace elements present in the gallstone which was compared with the LIBS data. The results obtained in the present paper show interesting prospects for LIBS and WD-XRF to study cholelithiasis better.

  2. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  3. Which types of anti-smoking television advertisements work better in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ling; Friedman, Daniela B; Lin, Feng-Chang; Thrasher, James F

    2018-06-01

    Research in high income countries suggests that anti-smoking television advertisements with emotionally evocative graphic messages or personal testimonials that depict serious consequences from smoking are the most effective. Research to determine the most effective smoking cessation messages for low- and middle-income countries is needed to inform campaign development in these countries. Fifty-four male Taiwanese smokers, aged 18-34, rated advertisements and participated in a focus group to evaluate eight antismoking television advertisements with contrasting messaging strategies. Participants individually evaluated advertisements, after which they participated in a semi-structured focus group discussion (10 groups, 2-9 smokers per group). One week after this session, participants were called to assess advertisement recall. Both quantitative and qualitative data indicated that highly emotional testimonial ads that featured a graphic portrayal of personal suffering from the consequences of smoking and visceral graphic ads were more effective. The ad on tobacco industry denormalization that focuses on the responsibility of the industry for smoking-related harms was considered ineffective because smokers perceived it as having little personal relevance. Humorous advertisements were evaluated as the least effective because they lacked strong emotional content linked to smoking consequences. Qualitative results suggest that advertisement characteristics are more important than the demographic characteristics of people featured in advertisements. Study findings provide preliminary evidence that testimonial ads that involve graphic and emotionally evocative portrayals of smoking-attributed diseases and visceral graphic ads may have the greater potential to motivate Taiwanese smokers to quit smoking.

  4. A Simple Device for Lens-to-Sample Distance Adjustment in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Juliana; Farias Filho, Benedito B; Fontes, Laiane M; Pasquini, Celio; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; de Souza Lins Borba, Flávia

    2017-04-01

    A simple device based on two commercial laser pointers is described to assist in the analysis of samples that present uneven surfaces and/or irregular shapes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The device allows for easy positioning of the sample surface at a reproducible distance from the focusing lens that conveys the laser pulse to generate the micro-plasma in a LIBS system, with reproducibility better than ±0.2 mm. In this way, fluctuations in the fluence (J cm -2 ) are minimized and the LIBS analytical signals can be obtained with a better precision even when samples with irregular surfaces are probed.

  5. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking.

  6. Skills Methods to Prevent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking with sixth-grade students from two schools. Skills conditions subjects learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention…

  7. MEvoLib v1.0: the first molecular evolution library for Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Jarreta, Jorge; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2016-10-28

    Molecular evolution studies involve many different hard computational problems solved, in most cases, with heuristic algorithms that provide a nearly optimal solution. Hence, diverse software tools exist for the different stages involved in a molecular evolution workflow. We present MEvoLib, the first molecular evolution library for Python, providing a framework to work with different tools and methods involved in the common tasks of molecular evolution workflows. In contrast with already existing bioinformatics libraries, MEvoLib is focused on the stages involved in molecular evolution studies, enclosing the set of tools with a common purpose in a single high-level interface with fast access to their frequent parameterizations. The gene clustering from partial or complete sequences has been improved with a new method that integrates accessible external information (e.g. GenBank's features data). Moreover, MEvoLib adjusts the fetching process from NCBI databases to optimize the download bandwidth usage. In addition, it has been implemented using parallelization techniques to cope with even large-case scenarios. MEvoLib is the first library for Python designed to facilitate molecular evolution researches both for expert and novel users. Its unique interface for each common task comprises several tools with their most used parameterizations. It has also included a method to take advantage of biological knowledge to improve the gene partition of sequence datasets. Additionally, its implementation incorporates parallelization techniques to enhance computational costs when handling very large input datasets.

  8. Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sklute, Elizabeth [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyare, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), part II: review of instrumental and methodological approaches to material analysis and applications to different fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, David W; Omenetto, Nicoló

    2012-04-01

    The first part of this two-part review focused on the fundamental and diagnostics aspects of laser-induced plasmas, only touching briefly upon concepts such as sensitivity and detection limits and largely omitting any discussion of the vast panorama of the practical applications of the technique. Clearly a true LIBS community has emerged, which promises to quicken the pace of LIBS developments, applications, and implementations. With this second part, a more applied flavor is taken, and its intended goal is summarizing the current state-of-the-art of analytical LIBS, providing a contemporary snapshot of LIBS applications, and highlighting new directions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, such as novel approaches, instrumental developments, and advanced use of chemometric tools. More specifically, we discuss instrumental and analytical approaches (e.g., double- and multi-pulse LIBS to improve the sensitivity), calibration-free approaches, hyphenated approaches in which techniques such as Raman and fluorescence are coupled with LIBS to increase sensitivity and information power, resonantly enhanced LIBS approaches, signal processing and optimization (e.g., signal-to-noise analysis), and finally applications. An attempt is made to provide an updated view of the role played by LIBS in the various fields, with emphasis on applications considered to be unique. We finally try to assess where LIBS is going as an analytical field, where in our opinion it should go, and what should still be done for consolidating the technique as a mature method of chemical analysis. © 2012 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  10. Raman/LIBS Data Fusion via Two-Way Variational Autoencoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, M.; Gemp, I.

    2018-04-01

    We propose an original solution to extracting mineral abundances from Raman spectra by combining Raman data with LIBS using a novel deep learning model based on variational autoencoders and data fusion, which outperforms the current state of the art.

  11. Secular Variation and Physical Characteristics Determination of the HADS Star EH Lib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J. H.; Villarreal, C.; Pina, D. S.; Renteria, A.; Soni, A., Guillen, J. Calderon, J.

    2017-12-01

    Physical parameters of EH Lib have been determined based on observations carried out in 2015 with photometry. They have also served, along with samples from the years 1969 and 1986, to analyse the frequency content of EH Lib with Fourier Transforms. Recent CCD observations increased the times of maximum with twelve new times which helped us study the secular variation of the period with a method based on the minimization of the standard deviation of the O-C residuals. It is concluded that there may be a long-term period change.

  12. Zlepšování limitů detekce spektroskopie laserem indukovaného plazmatu (LIBS) pomocí aplikace nanočástic

    OpenAIRE

    Képeš, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Bakalárska práca popisuje možnosti zlepšovania detekčných limít metódy spektroskopie laserom indukovanej plazmy (LIBS). Zhŕňa modifikácie klasickej aparatúry, ktoré využívajú metódy double-pulsed LIBS (DPLIBS), Townsend effect plasma sectroscopy (TEPS), resonance enhanced LIBS (RELIBS), spark discharge LIBS (SDLIBS), flame-enhanced LIBS (FELIBS) aj nové postupy pri príprave vzoriek, ktoré používa metóda nanoparticle enhanced LIBS (NELIBS). Popisuje mechanizmy, ktoré využívajú jednotlivé metód...

  13. A brief history of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: From the concept of atoms to LIBS 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, Leon; Cremers, David

    2013-01-01

    LIBS did not appear de novo in 1962, but was built upon accomplishments of the past. These started with very old concepts of indivisible units (atomos), chemical and physical experiments and theoretical advances that took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the development of the laser, the discovery of gas breakdown, and the realization of the application to spectrochemistry. We sketch the historical developments and focus as well on the advances in LIBS methodology and instrumentation over the past 50 years, culminating with a synopsis of the LIBS 2012 Conference in Luxor, Egypt

  14. A brief history of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: From the concept of atoms to LIBS 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radziemski, Leon, E-mail: ljrbwr@comcast.net [Tucson, AZ (United States); Cremers, David [Applied Research Associates Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    LIBS did not appear de novo in 1962, but was built upon accomplishments of the past. These started with very old concepts of indivisible units (atomos), chemical and physical experiments and theoretical advances that took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the development of the laser, the discovery of gas breakdown, and the realization of the application to spectrochemistry. We sketch the historical developments and focus as well on the advances in LIBS methodology and instrumentation over the past 50 years, culminating with a synopsis of the LIBS 2012 Conference in Luxor, Egypt.

  15. Application of Handheld Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to Geochemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Brendan; Somers, Andrew; Day, David

    2016-05-01

    While laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been in use for decades, only within the last two years has technology progressed to the point of enabling true handheld, self-contained instruments. Several instruments are now commercially available with a range of capabilities and features. In this paper, the SciAps Z-500 handheld LIBS instrument functionality and sub-systems are reviewed. Several assayed geochemical sample sets, including igneous rocks and soils, are investigated. Calibration data are presented for multiple elements of interest along with examples of elemental mapping in heterogeneous samples. Sample preparation and the data collection method from multiple locations and data analysis are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Personal values, advertising, and smoking motivation in Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chingching

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the role that personal values plays in motivating Taiwanese adolescents to smoke. In a nationwide survey of high school students, smokers attached greater importance to hedonic gratification values and less importance to idealism values than did nonsmokers. Hedonic gratification values were associated with favorable attitudes toward smoking, while idealism values were associated with unfavorable attitudes toward smoking. Attitudes toward smoking predicted adolescent smoking behavior. Evidence suggested that advertising plays an important role in motivating adolescents with hedonic gratification values to smoke. First, in the survey, hedonic gratification values were associated with paying attention to and expressing favorable attitudes toward cigarette advertising. Second, a content analysis of cigarette ads in magazines found hedonic gratification values to be the most commonly portrayed values, occurring in 62.7% of ads.

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of a portable LIBS system for detection of CWA on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Hermite, D; Vors, E; Vercouter, T; Moutiers, G

    2016-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a laser-based optical technique particularly suited for in situ surface analysis. A portable LIBS instrument was tested to detect surface chemical contamination by chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Test of detection of surface contamination was carried out in a toxlab facility with four CWAs, sarin (GB), lewisite (L1), mustard gas (HD), and VX, which were deposited on different substrates, wood, concrete, military green paint, gloves, and ceramic. The CWAs were detected by means of the detection of atomic markers (As, P, F, Cl, and S). The LIBS instrument can give a direct response in terms of detection thanks to an integrated interface for non-expert users or so called end-users. We have evaluated the capability of automatic detection of the selected CWAs. The sensitivity of our portable LIBS instrument was confirmed for the detection of a CWA at surface concentrations above 15 μg/cm(2). The simultaneous detection of two markers may lead to a decrease of the number of false positive.

  18. Remote quantitative analysis of minerals based on multispectral line-calibrated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a feasible remote sensing technique used for mineral analysis in some unapproachable places where in situ probing is needed, such as analysis of radioactive elements in a nuclear leak or the detection of elemental compositions and contents of minerals on planetary and lunar surfaces. Here a compact custom 15 m focus optical component, combining a six times beam expander with a telescope, has been built, with which the laser beam of a 1064 nm Nd ; YAG laser is focused on remote minerals. The excited LIBS signals that reveal the elemental compositions of minerals are collected by another compact single lens-based signal acquisition system. In our remote LIBS investigations, the LIBS spectra of an unknown ore have been detected, from which the metal compositions are obtained. In addition, a multi-spectral line calibration (MSLC) method is proposed for the quantitative analysis of elements. The feasibility of the MSLC and its superiority over a single-wavelength determination have been confirmed by comparison with traditional chemical analysis of the copper content in the ore.

  19. Identification of offal adulteration in beef by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Hasan Murat; Sezer, Banu; Bilge, Gonca; Baytur, Süleyman Efe; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2018-04-01

    Minced meat is the major ingredient in sausages, beef burgers, and similar products; and thus it is the main product subjected to adulteration with meat offal. Determination of this kind of meat adulteration is crucial due to religious, economic and ethical concerns. The aim of the present study is to discriminate the beef meat and offal samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). To this end, LIBS and multivariate data analysis were used to discriminate pure beef and offal samples qualitatively and to determine the offal mixture adulteration quantitatively. In this analysis, meat samples were frozen and LIBS analysis were performed. The results indicate that by using principal component analysis (PCA), discrimination of pure offal and offal mixture adulterated beef samples can be achieved successfully. Besides, adulteration ratio can be determined using partial least square analysis method (PLS) with 0.947 coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and 3.8% of limit of detection (LOD) values for offal mixture adulterated beef samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mid-infrared, long wave infrared (4-12 μm) molecular emission signatures from pharmaceuticals using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe H; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to augment the atomic emission spectra of conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and to provide an increase in selectivity, mid-wave to long-wave infrared (IR), LIBS studies were performed on several organic pharmaceuticals. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signature molecular emissions of target organic compounds are observed for the first time in the IR fingerprint spectral region between 4-12 μm. The IR emission spectra of select organic pharmaceuticals closely correlate with their respective standard Fourier transform infrared spectra. Intact and/or fragment sample molecular species evidently survive the LIBS event. The combination of atomic emission signatures derived from conventional ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared LIBS with fingerprints of intact molecular entities determined from IR LIBS promises to be a powerful tool for chemical detection.

  1. Loading of deuterium and helium by Pilot-PSI plasma and their detection by in-situ LIBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piip, K.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Bystrov, K.; Hämarik, L.; Karhunen, J.; Aints, M.; Laan, M.; Paris, P.; Seemen, H.; Hakola, A.; Brezinsek, S.

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising method for quantifying the fuel content of the plasma-facing components of ITER both in between plasma discharges (in-situ) and after maintenance operations. The aim of the present study is to test the applicability of in-situ LIBS for

  2. EggLib: processing, analysis and simulation tools for population genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Mita Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the considerable growth of available nucleotide sequence data over the last decade, integrated and flexible analytical tools have become a necessity. In particular, in the field of population genetics, there is a strong need for automated and reliable procedures to conduct repeatable and rapid polymorphism analyses, coalescent simulations, data manipulation and estimation of demographic parameters under a variety of scenarios. Results In this context, we present EggLib (Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics Library, a flexible and powerful C++/Python software package providing efficient and easy to use computational tools for sequence data management and extensive population genetic analyses on nucleotide sequence data. EggLib is a multifaceted project involving several integrated modules: an underlying computationally efficient C++ library (which can be used independently in pure C++ applications; two C++ programs; a Python package providing, among other features, a high level Python interface to the C++ library; and the egglib script which provides direct access to pre-programmed Python applications. Conclusions EggLib has been designed aiming to be both efficient and easy to use. A wide array of methods are implemented, including file format conversion, sequence alignment edition, coalescent simulations, neutrality tests and estimation of demographic parameters by Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC. Classes implementing different demographic scenarios for ABC analyses can easily be developed by the user and included to the package. EggLib source code is distributed freely under the GNU General Public License (GPL from its website http://egglib.sourceforge.net/ where a full documentation and a manual can also be found and downloaded.

  3. EggLib: processing, analysis and simulation tools for population genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mita, Stéphane; Siol, Mathieu

    2012-04-11

    With the considerable growth of available nucleotide sequence data over the last decade, integrated and flexible analytical tools have become a necessity. In particular, in the field of population genetics, there is a strong need for automated and reliable procedures to conduct repeatable and rapid polymorphism analyses, coalescent simulations, data manipulation and estimation of demographic parameters under a variety of scenarios. In this context, we present EggLib (Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics Library), a flexible and powerful C++/Python software package providing efficient and easy to use computational tools for sequence data management and extensive population genetic analyses on nucleotide sequence data. EggLib is a multifaceted project involving several integrated modules: an underlying computationally efficient C++ library (which can be used independently in pure C++ applications); two C++ programs; a Python package providing, among other features, a high level Python interface to the C++ library; and the egglib script which provides direct access to pre-programmed Python applications. EggLib has been designed aiming to be both efficient and easy to use. A wide array of methods are implemented, including file format conversion, sequence alignment edition, coalescent simulations, neutrality tests and estimation of demographic parameters by Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). Classes implementing different demographic scenarios for ABC analyses can easily be developed by the user and included to the package. EggLib source code is distributed freely under the GNU General Public License (GPL) from its website http://egglib.sourceforge.net/ where a full documentation and a manual can also be found and downloaded.

  4. Studies of Basalt Through Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS for the Manufacturing of Lapilli Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael De la Viuda-Pérez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Basaltic samples selected from different areas of Tenerife were analyzed by applying laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS, Raman spectroscopy and X Ray Diffraction (XRD in order to identify the basic chemical composition and mineralogy. The basic composition obtained from the analysis was: O, F, Na, K, Mg, Al Si, Ca, Ti and Fe. Raman spectroscopic and XRD analyses indicated a basaltic mineralogy which is consistent with the basic composition results obtained from LIBS. The results of the analyses carried out using portable instrumentation proved the suitability of the LIBS, specially combined with the Raman spectroscopy for their application in the mineralogical-chemical identification in the areas where basalts and lapilli are extracted for construction works in Tenerife.

  5. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  6. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  7. Improved intact soil-core carbon determination applying regression shrinkage and variable selection techniques to complete spectrum laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricklemyer, Ross S; Brown, David J; Turk, Philip J; Clegg, Sam M

    2013-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a potential method for rapid, in situ soil C measurement. In previous research on the application of LIBS to intact soil cores, we hypothesized that ultraviolet (UV) spectrum LIBS (200-300 nm) might not provide sufficient elemental information to reliably discriminate between soil organic C (SOC) and inorganic C (IC). In this study, using a custom complete spectrum (245-925 nm) core-scanning LIBS instrument, we analyzed 60 intact soil cores from six wheat fields. Predictive multi-response partial least squares (PLS2) models using full and reduced spectrum LIBS were compared for directly determining soil total C (TC), IC, and SOC. Two regression shrinkage and variable selection approaches, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and sparse multivariate regression with covariance estimation (MRCE), were tested for soil C predictions and the identification of wavelengths important for soil C prediction. Using complete spectrum LIBS for PLS2 modeling reduced the calibration standard error of prediction (SEP) 15 and 19% for TC and IC, respectively, compared to UV spectrum LIBS. The LASSO and MRCE approaches provided significantly improved calibration accuracy and reduced SEP 32-55% over UV spectrum PLS2 models. We conclude that (1) complete spectrum LIBS is superior to UV spectrum LIBS for predicting soil C for intact soil cores without pretreatment; (2) LASSO and MRCE approaches provide improved calibration prediction accuracy over PLS2 but require additional testing with increased soil and target analyte diversity; and (3) measurement errors associated with analyzing intact cores (e.g., sample density and surface roughness) require further study and quantification.

  8. Development of laser-based technology for the routine first wall diagnostic on the tokamak EAST: LIBS and LIAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.; Gierse, N.; Li, C.; Liu, P.; Zhao, D.; Sun, L.; Oelmann, J.; Nicolai, D.; Wu, D.; Wu, J.; Mao, H.; Ding, F.; Brezinsek, S.; Liang, Y.; Ding, H.; Luo, G.; Linsmeier, C.; EAST Team

    2017-12-01

    A laser based method combined with spectroscopy, such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser-induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS), is a promising technology for plasma-wall interaction studies. In this work, we report the development of in situ laser-based diagnostics (LIBS and LIAS) for the assessment of static and dynamic fuel retention on the first wall without removing the tiles between and during plasma discharges in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The fuel retention on the first wall was measured after different wall conditioning methods and daily plasma discharges by in situ LIBS. The result indicates that the LIBS can be a useful tool to predict the wall condition in EAST. With the successful commissioning of a refined timing system for LIAS, an in situ approach to investigate fuel retention is proposed.

  9. Mediators and moderators of magazine advertisement effects on adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Slater, Michael D; Cruickshank, Courtney C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between magazine advertising for cigarettes and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants (242 adolescents) reported their frequency of reading 46 magazines and their attention to cigarette ads. Recognition of cigarette ads, passive peer pressure (i.e., normative beliefs), and the smoker image also were assessed. Results indicate that exposure to cigarette advertising and recognition of ads augment the effect of passive peer pressure on smoking. In addition, a positive smoker image was associated with attention to advertising and mediated the relation between attention and smoking. It is suggested that the effect of magazine ads on adolescents should be considered in policymaking on cigarette advertising.

  10. Temperature and Electron Density Determination on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Plasmas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, Maya L.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory is designed for physical chemistry students to gain experience using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in understanding plasma diagnostics. LIBS uses a high-powered laser that is focused on the sample causing a plasma to form. The emission of this plasma is then spectrally resolved and detected. Temperature and electron…

  11. Występowanie szarej pleśni tulipanow – Botrytis tulipae (Lib. Lind na plantacjach produkcyjnych [Botrytis tulipae (Lib. Lind in tulip plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cz. Zamorski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of disease caused by Botrytis tulipae (Lib. Lind was studied in selected tulip plantations. Primary and secondary infection, as well as infections of daughter bulbs were observed. The number of affected plants differed according (to the variety, season, and rainfall.

  12. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn in vitrified Mn-doped glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Unnikrishnan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS, an atomic emission spectroscopy method, has rapidly grown as one of the best elemental analysis techniques over the past two decades. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn in manganese-doped glasses have been carried out using an optimized LIBS system employing a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser as the source of excitation. The glass samples have been prepared using conventional vitrification methods. The laser pulse irradiance on the surface of the glass samples placed in air at atmospheric pressure was about 1.7×109 W/cm2. The spatially integrated plasma emission was collected and imaged on to the spectrograph slit using an optical-fiber-based collection system. Homogeneity was checked by recording LIBS spectra from different sites on the sample surface and analyzing the elemental emission intensities for concentration determination. Validation of the observed LIBS results was done by comparison with scanning electron microscope- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX surface elemental mapping. The analytical performance of the LIBS system has been evaluated through the correlation of the LIBS determined concentrations of Mn with its certified values. The results are found to be in very good agreement with the certified concentrations.

  13. Monitoring of Cr, Cu, Pb, V and Zn in polluted soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, Marcella; Gaudiuso, Rosalba; Senesi, Giorgio S; De Giacomo, Alessandro; Zaccone, Claudio; Miano, Teodoro M; De Pascale, Olga

    2011-05-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a fast and multi-elemental analytical technique particularly suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of heavy metals in solid samples, including environmental ones. Although LIBS is often recognised in the literature as a well-established analytical technique, results about quantitative analysis of elements in chemically complex matrices such as soils are quite contrasting. In this work, soil samples of various origins have been analyzed by LIBS and data compared to those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The emission intensities of one selected line for each of the five analytes (i.e., Cr, Cu, Pb, V, and Zn) were normalized to the background signal, and plotted as a function of the concentration values previously determined by ICP-OES. Data showed a good linearity for all calibration lines drawn, and the correlation between ICP-OES and LIBS was confirmed by the satisfactory agreement obtained between the corresponding values. Consequently, LIBS method can be used at least for metal monitoring in soils. In this respect, a simple method for the estimation of the soil pollution degree by heavy metals, based on the determination of an anthropogenic index, was proposed and determined for Cr and Zn.

  14. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): a new spectrochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, L.J.; Loree, T.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the breakdown spark from a focused laser beam to generate analytically useful emission spectra of minor constituents in air and other carrier gases. The medium was sampled directly. It was not necessary to reduce the sample to solution nor to introduce electrodes. The apparatus is particularly simple; a pulsed laser, spectrometer, and some method for time resolution. The latter is essential in laser-induced-breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) because of the strong early continuum. High temperatures in the spark result in vaporization of small particles, dissociation of molecules, and excitation of atomic and ionic spectra, including species which are normally difficult to detect. In one application, we have monitored beryllium in air at conventrations below 1 μg/m 3 , which is below 1 ppB (w/w). In another we have monitored chlorine and fluorine atoms in real time. LIBS has the potential for real-time direct sampling of contaminants in situ

  15. [Effect of Characteristic Variable Extraction on Accuracy of Cu in Navel Orange Peel by LIBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-bing; Yao, Ming-yin; Huang, Lin; Chen, Tian-bing; Zheng, Jian-hong; Fan, Shi-quan; Liu Mu-hua HE, Mu-hua; Lin, Jin-long; Ouyang, Jing-yi

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metals pollution in foodstuffs is more and more serious. It is impossible to satisfy the modern agricultural development by conventional chemical analysis. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging technology with the characteristic of rapid and nondestructive detection. But LIBS' s repeatability, sensitivity and accuracy has much room to improve. In this work, heavy metal Cu in Gannan Navel Orange which is the Jiangxi specialty fruit will be predicted by LIBS. Firstly, the navel orange samples were contaminated in our lab. The spectra of samples were collected by irradiating the peel by optimized LIBS parameters. The laser energy was set as 20 mJ, delay time of Spectral Data Gathering was set as 1.2 micros, the integration time of Spectral data gathering was set as 2 ms. The real concentration in samples was obtained by AAS (atom absorption spectroscopy). The characteristic variables Cu I 324.7 and Cu I 327.4 were extracted. And the calibration model was constructed between LIBS spectra and real concentration about Cu. The results show that relative error of the predicted concentrations of three relational model were 7.01% or less, reached a minimum of 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.02% respectively. The average relative errors were 2.33%, 3.10% and 26.3%. Tests showed that different characteristic variables decided different accuracy. It is very important to choose suitable characteristic variable. At the same time, this work is helpful to explore the distribution of heavy metals between pulp and peel.

  16. Simulated In Situ Determination of Soil Profile Organic and Inorganic Carbon With LIBS and VisNIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricklemyer, R. S.; Brown, D. J.; Clegg, S. M.; Barefield, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (VisNIR) are complementary analytical techniques that have the potential to fill that need. The LIBS method provides precise elemental analysis of soils, but generally cannot distinguish between organic C and inorganic C. VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for measuring soil properties including SOC and inorganic carbon (IC). As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership, 240 intact core samples (3.8 x 50 cm) have been collected from six agricultural fields in north central Montana, USA. Each of these core samples were probed concurrently with LIBS and VisNIR at 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 22.5, 27.5, 35 and 45 cm (+/- 1.5 cm) depths. VisNIR measurements were taken using an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Boulder, CO, USA) Agrispec spectrometer to determine the partition of SOC vs. IC in the samples. The LIBS scans were collected with the LANL LIBS Core Scanner Instrument which collected the entire 200 - 900 nm plasma emission including the 247.8 nm carbon emission line. This instrument also collected the emission from the elements typically found in inorganic carbon (Ca and Mg) and organic carbon (H, O, and N). Subsamples of soil (~ 4 g) were taken from interrogation points for laboratory determination of SOC and IC. Using this analytical data, we constructed several full spectrum multivariate VisNIR/LIBS calibration models for SOC and IC. These models were then applied to independent validation cores for model evaluation.

  17. Multi-Pulse Excitation for Underwater Analysis of Copper-Based Alloys Using a Novel Remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, Salvador; Fortes, Francisco J; Laserna, J Javier

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the use of multi-pulse excitation has been evaluated as an effective solution to mitigate the preferential ablation of the most volatile elements, namely Sn, Pb, and Zn, observed during laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of copper-based alloys. The novel remote LIBS prototype used in this experiments featured both single-pulse (SP-LIBS) and multi-pulse excitation (MP-LIBS). The remote instrument is capable of performing chemical analysis of submersed materials up to a depth of 50 m. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis was performed at air pressure settings simulating the conditions during a real subsea analysis. A set of five certified bronze standards with variable concentration of Cu, As, Sn, Pb, and Zn were used. In SP-LIBS, signal emission is strongly sensitive to ambient pressure. In this case, fractionation effect was observed. Multi-pulse excitation circumvents the effect of pressure over the quantitative analysis, thus avoiding the fractionation phenomena observed in single pulse LIBS. The use of copper as internal standard minimizes matrix effects and discrepancies due to variation in ablated mass. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  19. [Determination of Cu in Shell of Preserved Egg by LIBS Coupled with PLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-qin; Xu, Xue-hong; Liu, Mu-hua; Tu, Jian-ping; Huang, Le; Huang, Lin; Yao, Ming-yin; Chen, Tian-bing; Yang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the content of copper in the shell of preserved eggs were determined directly by Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and the characteristics lines of Cu was obtained. The samples of eggshell were pretreated by acid wet digestion, and the real content of Cu was obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Due to the test precision and accuracy of LIBS was influenced by a serious of factors, for example, the complex matrix effect of sample, the enviro nment noise, the system noise of the instrument, the stability of laser energy and so on. And the conventional unvariate linear calibration curve between LIBS intensity and content of element of sample, such as by use of Schiebe G-Lomakin equation, can not meet the requirement of quantitative analysis. In account of that, a kind of multivariate calibration method is needed. In this work, the data of LIBS spectra were processed by partial least squares (PLS), the precision and accuracy of PLS model were compared by different smoothing treatment and five pretreatment methods. The result showed that the correlation coefficient and the accuracy of the PLS model were improved, and the root mean square error and the average relative error were reduced effectively by 11 point smoothing with Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) pretreatment. The results of the study show that, heavy metal Cu in preserved egg shells can be direct detected accurately by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, and the next step batch tests will been conducted to find out the relationship of heavy metal Cu content in the preserved egg between the eggshell, egg white and egg yolk. And the goal of the contents of heavy metals in the egg white, egg yolk can be knew through determinate the eggshell by the LIBS can be achieved, to provide new method for rapid non-destructive testing technology for quality and satety of agricultural products.

  20. Evaluation of Optical Depths and Self-Absorption of Strontium and Aluminum Emission Lines in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarraj, Bader A; Bhatt, Chet R; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a widely used laser spectroscopic technique in various fields, such as material science, forensic science, biological science, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In most LIBS work, the analysis is performed using radiative transitions from atomic emissions. In this study, the plasma temperature and the product [Formula: see text] (the number density N and the absorption path length [Formula: see text]) were determined to evaluate the optical depths and the self-absorption of Sr and Al lines. A binary mixture of strontium nitrate and aluminum oxide was used as a sample, consisting of variety of different concentrations in powder form. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected by varying various parameters, such as laser energy, gate delay time, and gate width time to optimize the LIBS signals. Atomic emission from Sr and Al lines, as observed in the LIBS spectra of different sample compositions, was used to characterize the laser induced plasma and evaluate the optical depths and self-absorption of LIBS.

  1. Contestation internationale contre élites mondiales : l’action directe et la politique délibérative sont-elles conciliables ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Dupuis-Déri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, j’analyse à la lumière des normes libérales de la politique délibérative le bien-fondé de l’action directe contre les institutions internationales associées au néolibéralisme et à la mondialisation du capitalisme (Banque mondiale, Organisation mondiale du commerce, etc.. Le processus délibératif de ces organismes étant illégitime du point de vue de la théorie de la politique délibérative, les activistes du mouvement altermondialiste sont en droit de contester ces organismes. De plus, une attitude de contestation peut avoir en elle-même une valeur délibérative pour au moins sept raisons : (1 lancer une délibération ; (2 élargir la participation à la délibération ; (3 renforcer la représentativité ; (4 faire circuler l’information et faire connaître les arguments (publicité ; (5 stimuler l’imagination ; (6 pousser à l’action ; (7 relancer la délibération. Finalement, les mouvements sociaux tels que le mouvement altermondialiste peuvent être vus comme des forums délibératifs. Ainsi, qui veut évaluer la légitimité de l’action directe doit prendre en considération la nature délibérative du processus par lequel les activistes choisissent les moyens les plus efficaces à utiliser pour corriger les défauts du processus délibératif officiel et pour faire avancer l’égalité, la liberté et la justice.In this article I examine the legitimacy of direct action in relation to liberal deliberative norms and global institutions (World Bank, World Trade Organization, etc.. Since the deliberative processes of these institutions are illegitimate according to the theory of deliberative politics, the activists of the movement for global justice should be legitimate to confront these institutions. Moreover, confrontational action in itself may have a deliberative value for at least seven reasons: (1 initiating deliberation (agenda-setting ; (2 enlarging participation ; (3 enlarging

  2. Association of atopic dermatitis with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantor, Robert; Kim, Ashley; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco exposure might be a modifiable risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: We examine the association between AD and exposure to tobacco smoke. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (n = 86) in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus...

  3. Forensic Discrimination of Latent Fingerprints Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Chemometric Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Ho; Yoh, Jack J

    2018-01-01

    A novel technique is reported for separating overlapping latent fingerprints using chemometric approaches that combine laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multivariate analysis. The LIBS technique provides the capability of real time analysis and high frequency scanning as well as the data regarding the chemical composition of overlapping latent fingerprints. These spectra offer valuable information for the classification and reconstruction of overlapping latent fingerprints by implementing appropriate statistical multivariate analysis. The current study employs principal component analysis and partial least square methods for the classification of latent fingerprints from the LIBS spectra. This technique was successfully demonstrated through a classification study of four distinct latent fingerprints using classification methods such as soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The novel method yielded an accuracy of more than 85% and was proven to be sufficiently robust. Furthermore, through laser scanning analysis at a spatial interval of 125 µm, the overlapping fingerprints were reconstructed as separate two-dimensional forms.

  4. Advanced recognition of explosives in traces on polymer surfaces using LIBS and supervised learning classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jorge; Moros, Javier; Sánchez, Carlos; Macías, Jorge; Laserna, J Javier

    2014-01-02

    The large similarity existing in the spectral emissions collected from organic compounds by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a limiting factor for the use of this technology in the real world. Specifically, among the most ambitious challenges of today's LIBS involves the recognition of an organic residue when neglected on the surface of an object of identical nature. Under these circumstances, the development of an efficient algorithm to disclose the minute differences within this highly complex spectral information is crucial for a realistic application of LIBS in countering explosive threats. An approach cemented on scatter plots of characteristic emission features has been developed to identify organic explosives when located on polymeric surfaces (teflon, nylon and polyethylene). By using selected spectral variables, the approach allows to design a concise classifier for alerting when one of four explosives (DNT, TNT, RDX and PETN) is present on the surface of the polymer. Ordinary products (butter, fuel oil, hand cream, olive oil and motor oil) cause no confusion in the decisions taken by the classifier. With rates of false negatives and false positives below 5%, results demonstrate that the classification algorithm enables to label residues according to their harmful nature in the most demanding scenario for a LIBS sensor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An exploratory study of the potential of LIBS for visualizing gunshot residue patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, María; Alvarez-Llamas, César; Pisonero, Jorge; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Bordel, Nerea

    2017-04-01

    The study of gunshot residue (GSR) patterns can assist in the reconstruction of shooting incidences. Currently, there is a real need of methods capable of furnishing simultaneous elemental analysis with higher specificity for the GSR pattern visualization. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a multi-elemental analysis of the sample, requiring very small amounts of material and no sample preparation. Due to these advantages, this study aims at exploring the potential of LIBS imaging for the visualization of GSR patterns. After the spectral characterization of individual GSR particles, the distribution of Pb, Sb and Ba over clothing targets, shot from different distances, were measured in laser raster mode. In particular, an array of spots evenly spaced at 800μm, using a stage displacement velocity of 4mm/s and a laser frequency of 5Hz was employed (e.g. an area of 130×165mm 2 was measured in less than 3h). A LIBS set-up based on the simultaneous use of two spectrographs with iCCD cameras and a motorized stage was used. This set-up allows obtaining information from two different wavelength regions (258-289 and 446-463nm) from the same laser induced plasma, enabling the simultaneous detection of the three characteristic elements (Pb, Sb, and Ba) of GSR particles from conventional ammunitions. The ability to visualize the 2D distribution GSR pattern by LIBS may have an important application in the forensic field, especially for the ballistics area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid Analysis of Ash Composition Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic compounds are known to be problematic in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to syngas and ultimately hydrocarbon fuels. The elements Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe, and Al are particularly problematic and are known to influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams. Substantial quantities of inorganic species can be entrained in the bark of trees during harvest operations. Herbaceous feedstocks often have even greater quantities of inorganic constituents, which can account for as much as one-fifth of the total dry matter. Current methodologies to measure the concentrations of these elements, such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry (ICP-OES/MS) are expensive in time and reagents. This study demonstrates that a new methodology employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can rapidly and accurately analyze the inorganic constituents in a wide range of biomass materials, including both woody and herbaceous examples. This technique requires little or no sample preparation, does not consume any reagents, and the analytical data is available immediately. In addition to comparing LIBS data with the results from ICP-OES methods, this work also includes discussions of sample preparation techniques, calibration curves for interpreting LIBS spectra, minimum detection limits, and the use of internal standards and standard reference materials.

  7. Study of atomic and molecular emission spectra of Sr by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chet R; Alfarraj, Bader; Ayyalasomayajula, Krishna K; Ghany, Charles; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P

    2015-12-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an ideal analytical technique for in situ analysis of elemental composition. We have performed a comparative study of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of atomic and molecular emission from LIBS spectra. In our experiments, a mixture of SrCl2 and Al2O3 in powder form was used as a sample. The atomic emission from Sr and molecular emission from SrCl and SrO observed in LIBS spectra were analyzed. The optimum laser energies, gate delays, and gate widths for selected atomic lines and molecular bands were determined from spectra recorded at various experimental parameters. These optimum experimental conditions were used to collect calibration data, and the calibration curves were used to predict the Sr concentration. Limits of detection (LODs) for selected atomic and molecular emission spectra were determined.

  8. Standoff Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Using a Miniature Wide Field of View Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer with Sub-Microsteradian Collection Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Patrick D; Lamsal, Nirmal; Angel, S Michael

    2017-04-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) is described for standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. The spatial heterodyne LIBS spectrometer (SHLS) is a diffraction grating based interferometer with no moving parts that offers a very large field of view, high light throughput, and high spectral resolution in a small package. The field of view of the SHLS spectrometer is shown to be ∼1° in standoff LIBS measurements. In the SHLS system described here, the collection aperture was defined by the 10 mm diffraction gratings in the SHS and standoff LIBS measurements were made up to 20 m with no additional collection optics, corresponding to a collection solid angle of 0.2 μsr, or f/2000, and also using a small telescope to increase the collection efficiency. The use of a microphone was demonstrated to rapidly optimize laser focus for 20 m standoff LIBS measurements.

  9. [Research on fast classification based on LIBS technology and principle component analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Ma, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Hua-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and the principle component analysis (PCA) were combined to study aluminum alloy classification in the present article. Classification experiments were done on thirteen different kinds of standard samples of aluminum alloy which belong to 4 different types, and the results suggested that the LIBS-PCA method can be used to aluminum alloy fast classification. PCA was used to analyze the spectrum data from LIBS experiments, three principle components were figured out that contribute the most, the principle component scores of the spectrums were calculated, and the scores of the spectrums data in three-dimensional coordinates were plotted. It was found that the spectrum sample points show clear convergence phenomenon according to the type of aluminum alloy they belong to. This result ensured the three principle components and the preliminary aluminum alloy type zoning. In order to verify its accuracy, 20 different aluminum alloy samples were used to do the same experiments to verify the aluminum alloy type zoning. The experimental result showed that the spectrum sample points all located in their corresponding area of the aluminum alloy type, and this proved the correctness of the earlier aluminum alloy standard sample type zoning method. Based on this, the identification of unknown type of aluminum alloy can be done. All the experimental results showed that the accuracy of principle component analyses method based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is more than 97.14%, and it can classify the different type effectively. Compared to commonly used chemical methods, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy can do the detection of the sample in situ and fast with little sample preparation, therefore, using the method of the combination of LIBS and PCA in the areas such as quality testing and on-line industrial controlling can save a lot of time and cost, and improve the efficiency of detection greatly.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Water Based on LIBS with an Automatic Device for Sample Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Li; Zhao Nanjing; Liu Wenqing; Meng Deshuo; Fang Li; Wang Yin; Yu Yang; Ma Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals in water can be deposited on graphite flakes, which can be used as an enrichment method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and is studied in this paper. The graphite samples were prepared with an automatic device, which was composed of a loading and unloading module, a quantitatively adding solution module, a rapid heating and drying module and a precise rotating module. The experimental results showed that the sample preparation methods had no significant effect on sample distribution and the LIBS signal accumulated in 20 pulses was stable and repeatable. With an increasing amount of the sample solution on the graphite flake, the peak intensity at Cu I 324.75 nm accorded with the exponential function with a correlation coefficient of 0.9963 and the background intensity remained unchanged. The limit of detection (LOD) was calculated through linear fitting of the peak intensity versus the concentration. The LOD decreased rapidly with an increasing amount of sample solution until the amount exceeded 20 mL and the correlation coefficient of exponential function fitting was 0.991. The LOD of Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr and Zn after evaporating different amounts of sample solution on the graphite flakes was measured and the variation tendency of their LOD with sample solution amounts was similar to the tendency for Cu. The experimental data and conclusions could provide a reference for automatic sample preparation and heavy metal in situ detection. (paper)

  11. Development of an Automated LIBS Analytical Test System Integrated with Component Control and Spectrum Analysis Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yu; Tian Di; Chen Feipeng; Chen Pengfei; Qiao Shujun; Yang Guang; Li Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    The present paper proposes an automated Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) analytical test system, which consists of a LIBS measurement and control platform based on a modular design concept, and a LIBS qualitative spectrum analysis software and is developed in C#. The platform provides flexible interfacing and automated control; it is compatible with different manufacturer component models and is constructed in modularized form for easy expandability. During peak identification, a more robust peak identification method with improved stability in peak identification has been achieved by applying additional smoothing on the slope obtained by calculation before peak identification. For the purpose of element identification, an improved main lines analysis method, which detects all elements on the spectral peak to avoid omission of certain elements without strong spectral lines, is applied to element identification in the tested LIBS samples. This method also increases the identification speed. In this paper, actual applications have been carried out. According to tests, the analytical test system is compatible with components of various models made by different manufacturers. It can automatically control components to get experimental data and conduct filtering, peak identification and qualitative analysis, etc. on spectral data. (paper)

  12. A Combined Remote LIBS and Raman Spectroscopic Study of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, H. W.; Ghosh, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Horton, K. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Angel, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of remote LIBS combined with pulsed-laser Raman spectroscopy for mineral analysis at a distance of 10 meters. Samples analyzed include: carbonates (both biogenic and abiogenic), silicates, and sulfates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition in unsexed broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santoso

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition of unsexed broilers. Four hundreds seven-day old unsexed broilers (Arbor Acres CP 707 were distributed into eight treatment groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. Two types of house (cage vs litter and four levels of feeding (ad lib., 75% ad lib., 50% ad lib. and 25% ad lib. were tested as treatment factors. Broilers were feed-restricted for 6 days from 7 to 13 days of age and thereafter they were fed ad lib. Feed intake of restricted broilers during restriction period was calculated from feed consumed by ad lib. group in the previous day. Results showed that unsexed broilers raised in litter had higher body weight (P<0.05, lower abdominal fat and higher triglyceride concentration at 42 days of age (P<0.05, and lower liver fat and higher carcass percentage at 56 days of age (P<0.05. Early feed restriction reduced body weight of 42-day old unsexed broilers except for broilers fed 75% ad lib. At 56 days of age, restricted broilers had similar body weight to those fed ad lib. At 56 days of age, broilers fed 25% ad lib. had lower FCR (P<0.05, lower abdominal fat (P<0.05 and lower triglyceride concentration (P<0,05. In conclusion, unsexed broilers fed 25% ad lib. showed compensatory growth with better FCR and lower fat accumulation at 56 days of age. Broilers raised in litter had higher body weight and lower abdominal and liver fat deposition.

  14. Assessment and forensic application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the discrimination of Australian window glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Speers, Naomi; Eggins, Stephen; Foster, Simon; Robertson, James; Lennard, Chris

    2014-08-01

    A commercially available laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument was evaluated for the determination of elemental composition of twenty Australian window glass samples, consisting of 14 laminated samples and 6 non-laminated samples (or not otherwise specified) collected from broken windows at crime scenes. In this study, the LIBS figures of merit were assessed in terms of accuracy, limits of detection and precision using three standard reference materials (NIST 610, 612, and 1831). The discrimination potential of LIBS was compared to that obtained using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), X-ray microfluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) for the analysis of architectural window glass samples collected from crime scenes in the Canberra region, Australia. Pairwise comparisons were performed using a three-sigma rule, two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test at 95% confidence limit in order to investigate the discrimination power for window glass analysis. The results show that the elemental analysis of glass by LIBS provides a discrimination power greater than 97% (>98% when combined with refractive index data), which was comparable to the discrimination powers obtained by LA-ICP-MS and μXRF. These results indicate that LIBS is a feasible alternative to the more expensive LA-ICP-MS and μXRF options for the routine forensic analysis of window glass samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. El vuelo zumbón de la libélula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando González Cajiao

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Delírium titerensis. Tres obras de la Libélula Dorada: el dulce encanto de la isla Acracic, Los espíritus lúdicos y Ese chivo es puro cuento (ilustraciones de Carlos Rojas. Arango Editores, Bogotá, 1991, 129 págs.

  16. Getting More Value from the LibQUAL+® Survey: The Merits of Qualitative Analysis and Importance-Satisfaction Matrices in Assessing Library Patron Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, Brian; Ball, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the merit of conducting a qualitative analysis of LibQUAL+® survey comments as a means of leveraging quantitative LibQUAL+ results, and using importance-satisfaction matrices to present and assess qualitative findings. Comments collected from the authors' institution's LibQUAL+ survey were analyzed using a codebook based on…

  17. LibGuide som social platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne; Volder Kjær, Berit; Andersen, Bente Thorup

    2011-01-01

    undervisningsforløb. Det er formålet herved at højne både kvaliteten af undervisningen og udviklingen af elevernes informationskompetence. LibGuide er planlagt til at skulle understøtte en kommunikativ forståelse og samarbejdet mellem eleverne og bibliotekar/lærer, dvs. der er fokus på det sociale aspekt. Artiklen...... viser at de nævnte mål indebærer et eksplorativt udviklingsforløb. Udviklingen af et værktøj, der skal indfri de nævnte samarbejdsmæssige aspekter, forudsætter en evalueringsproces, hvor der gives tid til erhvervelsen af mange erfaringer og refleksioner. Artiklen gør rede for de ideer, der ligger bag...

  18. ANALISIS UNSUR Ag PADA SAMPEL CAIR DENGAN LASER INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROSCOPY (LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinaga Natalia Declarossy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been done research on the analysis of Ag element in the liquid electrolyte with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS through electrolysis method. Observations conducted by LIBS using Nd-YAG laser (1064nm, 7ns. Prior to analyze, first looking for the optimum conditions of experiments had been done. The results showed that the optimum laser energy to the characterization of the elements Ag was 100 mJ and optimum conditions of electric current and time deposition on electrolysis process were 4.93 mA and 10 minutes, respectively. These conditions, next, for the application of quantitative analysis of Ag solution that started from concentration 300 ppm to the lowest concentration and limit of detection obtained 1 ppm.

  19. Decomposition and correction overlapping peaks of LIBS using an error compensation method combined with curve fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Huang, Min; Zhu, Qibing; Guo, Ya; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-09-01

    The laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is an effective method to detect material composition by obtaining the plasma emission spectrum. The overlapping peaks in the spectrum are a fundamental problem in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of LIBS. Based on a curve fitting method, this paper studies an error compensation method to achieve the decomposition and correction of overlapping peaks. The vital step is that the fitting residual is fed back to the overlapping peaks and performs multiple curve fitting processes to obtain a lower residual result. For the quantitative experiments of Cu, the Cu-Fe overlapping peaks in the range of 321-327 nm obtained from the LIBS spectrum of five different concentrations of CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O solution were decomposed and corrected using curve fitting and error compensation methods. Compared with the curve fitting method, the error compensation reduced the fitting residual about 18.12-32.64% and improved the correlation about 0.86-1.82%. Then, the calibration curve between the intensity and concentration of the Cu was established. It can be seen that the error compensation method exhibits a higher linear correlation between the intensity and concentration of Cu, which can be applied to the decomposition and correction of overlapping peaks in the LIBS spectrum.

  20. Using LibGuides to enhance library services a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, Aaron W

    2013-01-01

    The easy-to-use tools in Springshare's LibGuides help you organize webpages, improve students' research experience and learning, and offer an online community of librarians sharing their work and ideas. Editors Dobbs, Sittler, and Cook have recruited expert contributors to address specific applications, creating a one-stop reference.

  1. Effect of smoking on global cognitive function in nondemented elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, A; Andersen, K; Dewey, M E

    2004-01-01

    Contrary to early case-control studies that suggested smoking protects against Alzheimer disease (AD), recent prospective studies have shown that elderly who smoke may be at increased risk for dementia....

  2. [Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Water with LIBS Based on Signal-to-Background Ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhao, Nan-jing; Liu, Wen-qing; Fang, Li; Zhang, Da-hai; Wang, Yin; Meng, De Shuo; Yu, Yang; Ma, Ming-jun

    2015-07-01

    There are many influence factors in the precision and accuracy of the quantitative analysis with LIBS technology. According to approximately the same characteristics trend of background spectrum and characteristic spectrum along with the change of temperature through in-depth analysis, signal-to-background ratio (S/B) measurement and regression analysis could compensate the spectral line intensity changes caused by system parameters such as laser power, spectral efficiency of receiving. Because the measurement dates were limited and nonlinear, we used support vector machine (SVM) for regression algorithm. The experimental results showed that the method could improve the stability and the accuracy of quantitative analysis of LIBS, and the relative standard deviation and average relative error of test set respectively were 4.7% and 9.5%. Data fitting method based on signal-to-background ratio(S/B) is Less susceptible to matrix elements and background spectrum etc, and provides data processing reference for real-time online LIBS quantitative analysis technology.

  3. Applicability of Machine-Learning Enabled LIBS in Post Irradiation Nuclear Forensic Analysis of High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onkongi, J.; Maina, D.; Angeyo, H.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Forensics seeks Information to determine; Chemical Composition, Routes of transit, Origin (Provenance) and Intended use. Post Irradiation/Post detonation NF In a post-detonation event could you get clues/signatures from glass debris, minute sample sizes? Nuclear Forensic Technique Should be State-of -the art that is Rapid, Non-invasive, Remote ability and Non-destructive. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) unlike other Analytic Techniques that require tedious sample preparations such as Dissolution, digestion & matrix removal, which generate additional nuclear wastes that require proper Procedures for handling, storage & ultimate disposal, LIBS overcomes these limitations. Utility of Machine Learning Techniques employed include; Artificial Neural Networks, ANN (Regression/Modelling), Principal component Analysis, PCA (Classification) and Support Vector Machine SVM (Comparative study/Classification Machine Learning coupled with LIBS gives a state of the art analytic method. Utility of the technic in safeguards security and non-proliferation

  4. Correlation between Fe–V–C alloys surface hardness and plasma temperature via LIBS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaoud Aberkane, S., E-mail: smessaoud@cdta.dz [Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Bendib, A. [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Yahiaoui, K.; Boudjemai, S.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T. [Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Amara, S.E. [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Harith, M.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • New application of LIBS in industry. • Hardness of metallic alloys estimation using LIBS calibration curves. • Linear correlation between the plasma temperature and the hardness of metallic alloys. • The shock wave is fast when the material is hard. - Abstract: Surface hardness is a very important characteristic of metals. Its monitoring plays a key role in industry. In the present paper, using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Fe–V{sub 18%}–C{sub 1%} alloys with different heat treatments have been used for making the correlation between surface hardness and laser-induced plasma temperatures. All investigated samples were characterized by the same ferrite phase with different Vickers surface hardnesses. The differences in hardness values were attributed to the crystallite size changes. A linear relationship has been obtained between the Vickers surface hardness and the laser induced plasma temperature. For comparison the relation between surface hardness and the ratio of the vanadium ionic to atomic spectral lines intensities (VII/VI) provided good linear results too. However, adopting the proposed approach of using the plasma temperature, instead, is more reliable in view of the difficulties that could be encountered in choosing the proper ionic and atomic spectral lines. To validate this approach we have investigated the shock wave speed induced by laser interaction with the used samples. It was found that harder is the material faster is the shock wave. The determination of the surface hardness via measuring T{sub e} shows the feasibility of using LIBS as an easy and reliable method for in situ industrial application for production control.

  5. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: Results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Christopher L.; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-01

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ('Ad lib') larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ('Ration') larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V total (Control, 'C'), 109 ppm (Low, 'L'), and 363 ppm (High, 'H'). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at α = 0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited

  6. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: Results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Christopher L. [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, P.O. Box 38, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States)], E-mail: Rowe@cbl.umces.edu; Heyes, Andrew [University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, P.O. Box 38, Solomons, MD 20688 (United States); Hopkins, William [Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 100 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ('Ad lib') larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ('Ration') larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V{sub total} (Control, 'C'), 109 ppm (Low, 'L'), and 363 ppm (High, 'H'). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at {alpha} = 0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources

  7. Detection of pesticides and dioxins in tissue fats and rendering oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multari, Rosalie A; Cremers, David A; Scott, Thomas; Kendrick, Peter

    2013-03-13

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), a series of powerful laser pulses are directed at a surface to form microplasmas from which light is collected and spectrally analyzed to identify the surface material. In most cases, no sample preparation is needed, and results can be automated and made available within seconds to minutes. Advances in LIBS spectral data analysis using multivariate regression techniques have led to the ability to detect organic chemicals in complex matrices such as foods. Here, the use of LIBS to differentiate samples contaminated with aldrin, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, chlorpyrifos, and dieldrin in the complex matrices of tissue fats and rendering oils is described. The pesticide concentrations in the samples ranged from 0.005 to 0.1 μg/g. All samples were successfully differentiated from each other and from control samples. Sample concentrations could also be differentiated for all of the pesticides and the dioxin included in this study. The results presented here provide first proof-of-principle data for the ability to create LIBS-based instrumentation for the rapid analysis of pesticide and dioxin contamination in tissue fat and rendered oils.

  8. Confounding and Statistical Significance of Indirect Effects: Childhood Adversity, Education, Smoking, and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to (i assess the mediating role of smoking in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood, and (ii assess the change in estimates due to different mediator-response confounding factors (education, alcohol intake, and social support. The present analysis used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4,530, a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Seven childhood adversities (low mother's education, low father's education, low financial conditions, exposure to passive smoke, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress were used to create a childhood adversity score. Smoking status was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years (Tromsø IV, and ADS in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years (Tromsø V. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect and the proportion of mediated effect (% of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood via smoking in adulthood. The test-retest reliability of smoking was good (Kappa: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.63; 0.71 in this sample. Childhood adversity was associated with a 10% increased risk of smoking in adulthood (Relative risk: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.18, and both childhood adversity and smoking in adulthood were associated with greater levels of ADS in adulthood (p < 0.001. Smoking in adulthood did not significantly

  9. Smoking and Cerebral Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution: A Dreadful Equation with Particulate Matter Involved and One More Powerful Reason Not to Smoke Anything!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2016-07-22

    Smoking has serious health effects. Cigarettes, including tobacco, marijuana, and electronic nicotine delivery systems are very effective ways to inhale harmful amounts of fine and ultrafine particulate matter. Does size matter? Yes, indeed! The smaller the particle you inhale, the higher the ability to produce reactive oxygen species and to readily access the brain. In this issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Durazzo provides evidence of an association between active cigarette tobacco smoking in cognitively-normal elders and increased cerebral oxidative stress, while in actively smoking Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, the association was also seen with smaller left and total hippocampal volumes. This paper has highly relevant results of interest across the US and the world because millions of people are active smokers and they have other genetic and environmental risk factors that could play a key role in the development/worsening of brain oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Smoking basically anything producing aerosols with particulate matter in the fine and ultrafine size range is detrimental to your brain. Marijuana and e-cigarette use has grown steadily among adolescents and young adults. Smoking-related cerebral oxidative stress is a potential mechanism promoting AD pathology and increased risk for AD. Current knowledge also relates fine and ultrafine particles exposures influencing neurodevelopmental processes in utero. The results from Durazzo et al. should be put in a broader context, a context that includes evaluating the oxidative stress of nano-aerosols associated with cigarette emissions and their synergistic effects with air pollution exposures. AD is expected to increase in the US threefold by the year 2050, and some of these future AD patients are smoking and vaping right now. Understanding the impact of everyday exposures to long-term harmful consequences for brain health is imperative.

  10. Direct measurements of sample heating by a laser-induced air plasma in pre-ablation spark dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Janna; Scaffidi, Jonathan; Angel, S Michael

    2012-08-01

    Direct measurements of temperature changes were made using small thermocouples (TC), placed near a laser-induced air plasma. Temperature changes up to ~500 °C were observed. From the measured temperature changes, estimates were made of the amount of heat absorbed per unit area. This allowed calculations to be made of the surface temperature, as a function of time, of a sample heated by the air plasma that is generated during orthogonal pre-ablation spark dual-pulse (DP) LIBS measurements. In separate experiments, single-pulse (SP) LIBS emission and sample ablation rate measurements were performed on nickel at sample temperatures ranging from room temperature to the maximum surface temperature that was calculated using the TC measurement results (500 °C). A small, but real sample temperature-dependent increase in both SP LIBS emission and the rate of sample ablation was found for nickel samples heated up to 500 °C. Comparison of DP LIBS emission enhancement values for bulk nickel samples at room temperature versus the enhanced SP LIBS emission and sample ablation rates observed as a function of increasing sample temperature suggests that sample heating by the laser-induced air plasma plays only a minor role in DP LIBS emission enhancement.

  11. Effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition in unsexed broilers

    OpenAIRE

    U Santoso

    2002-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition of unsexed broilers. Four hundreds seven-day old unsexed broilers (Arbor Acres CP 707) were distributed into eight treatment groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. Two types of house (cage vs litter) and four levels of feeding (ad lib., 75% ad lib., 50% ad lib. and 25% ad lib.) were tested as treatment factors. B...

  12. Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) embedded polymer electret for mechanical sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S.; Praveen, E.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Jayakumar, K.

    2017-05-01

    Lithium tri borate (LiB3O5) particles were synthesized by precipitation assisted high temperature solid state reaction. The particles were embedded in chitosan polymer and used as an electret. This electret was characterized for the suitability as a sensing element in vibration accelerometer. It is observed that LiB3O5 embedded electret exhibiting piezoelectric property. The electret is also giving an isolation of > 999 MΩ at 100 Vdc, 250 Vdc, 500 Vdc and 1kVdc confirms compatible for intrinsically safe sensing alternative in vibration accelerometer.

  13. FermiLib v0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-27

    FermiLib is an open source software package designed to facilitate the development and testing of algorithms for simulations of fermionic systems on quantum computers. Fermionic simulations represent an important application of early quantum devices with a lot of potential high value targets, such as quantum chemistry for the development of new catalysts. This software strives to provide a link between the required domain expertise in specific fermionic applications and quantum computing to enable more users to directly interface with, and develop for, these applications. It is an extensible Python library designed to interface with the high performance quantum simulator, ProjectQ, as well as application specific software such as PSI4 from the domain of quantum chemistry. Such software is key to enabling effective user facilities in quantum computation research.

  14. Characterizing smoking topography of cannabis in heavy users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Vandrey, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Little is known about the smoking topography characteristics of heavy cannabis users. Such measures may be able to predict cannabis use-related outcomes and could be used to validate self-reported measures of cannabis use. Objectives The current study was conducted to measure cannabis smoking topography characteristics during periods of ad libitum use and to correlate topography assessments with measures of self-reported cannabis use, withdrawal and craving during abstinence, and cognitive task performance. Methods Participants (N=20) completed an inpatient study in which they alternated between periods of ad libitum cannabis use and abstinence. Measures of self-reported cannabis use, smoking topography, craving, withdrawal, and sleep measures were collected. Results Participants smoked with greater intensity (e.g., greater volume, longer duration) on initial cigarette puffs with a steady decline on subsequent puffs. Smoking characteristics were significantly correlated with severity of withdrawal, notably sleep quality and architecture, and craving during abstinence, suggesting dose-related effects of cannabis use on these outcomes. Smoking characteristics generally were not significantly associated with cognitive performance. Smoking topography measures were significantly correlated with self-reported measures of cannabis use, indicating validity of these assessments, but topography measures were more sensitive than self-report in predicting cannabis-related outcomes. Conclusions A dose–effect relationship between cannabis consumption and outcomes believed to be clinically important was observed. With additional research, smoking topography assessments may become a useful clinical tool. PMID:21922170

  15. What makes an ad a cigarette ad? Commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E.; Offen, N.; Malone, R.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the extent of commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) press. Methods: Content analysis of all advertising containing tobacco related text or imagery in 20 LGB community periodicals, published between January 1990 and December 2000. Results: 3428 ads were found: 689 tobacco product ads, 1607 ads for cessation products or services, 99 ads with a political message about tobacco, and 1033 non-tobacco ads that showed tobacco (NAST). Although cessation ads were numerically dominant, tobacco product ads and NAST occupied more space and were more likely to use images. NAST almost never had an anti-tobacco message. Formal sponsorship between tobacco and other companies was very rare. Lesbian periodicals had proportionally more NAST and fewer cessation ads. Conclusions: Cigarette ads were outnumbered by NAST. Although these ads do not usually show brands, and are unlikely to be the result of formal sponsorship agreements, they may be "selling" smoking. Tobacco control advocates should persuade editors to refuse tobacco product ads and those with gratuitous tobacco imagery. PMID:16286500

  16. The Effect of a "Class Smoke Free Pledge" on Breath Carbon Monoxide in Arabic Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Khader, Yousef S; Shah, Smita; Roydhouse, Jessica K; Gallagher, Robyn

    2018-04-02

    Arabic male adolescents have a high smoking prevalence. Introduction of "Class smoke-free" pledges have been successful amongst European adolescents but have not been evaluated using objective valid measures. We tested the impact of adding a smoke free pledge strategy to a proven peer-led asthma and smoking prevention program on breath carbon monoxide level (BCO) in male high-school students in Jordan. We enrolled male students from four high-schools in Irbid, Jordan. Schools were randomly assigned to receive either TAJ (Triple A in Jordan, n = 218) or TAJ-Plus (with added class smoke-free pledge, n = 215). We hypothesized that students receiving TAJ-Plus would have greater reduction in BCO levels than those only receiving the TAJ intervention. Asthma and smoking status were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Smoking outcomes were collected using a BCO Monitor. Both groups had significant reductions in BCO levels post-intervention (p smoking status (p = .085), asthma status (p = .602), or a combination of the two (p = .702). An added smoke-free pledge strategy to a proven peer-led asthma education program appears to be a promising approach to motivate adolescents to abstain from smoking in Jordan. Future research is required to determine if these results can be extended to Jordanian adolescent females. A commitment by students via a "class smoke-free" pledge can be an added incentive to motivate adolescents in Arabic-speaking countries to abstain from smoking. Social influence approaches in schools can be useful in countering the aggressive tobacco marketing campaigns targeting Jordanian and other Arabic-speaking youth. The combination of "class smoke-free" pledges and an evidence-based peer-led asthma and smoking education can be implemented in schools to influence adolescents with asthma to abstain from smoking.

  17. Incorporation of support vector machines in the LIBS toolbox for sensitive and robust classification amidst unexpected sample and system variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Barman, Ishan; Myakalwar, Ashwin Kumar; Tewari, Surya P; Kumar Gundawar, Manoj

    2012-03-20

    Despite the intrinsic elemental analysis capability and lack of sample preparation requirements, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has not been extensively used for real-world applications, e.g., quality assurance and process monitoring. Specifically, variability in sample, system, and experimental parameters in LIBS studies present a substantive hurdle for robust classification, even when standard multivariate chemometric techniques are used for analysis. Considering pharmaceutical sample investigation as an example, we propose the use of support vector machines (SVM) as a nonlinear classification method over conventional linear techniques such as soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for discrimination based on LIBS measurements. Using over-the-counter pharmaceutical samples, we demonstrate that the application of SVM enables statistically significant improvements in prospective classification accuracy (sensitivity), because of its ability to address variability in LIBS sample ablation and plasma self-absorption behavior. Furthermore, our results reveal that SVM provides nearly 10% improvement in correct allocation rate and a concomitant reduction in misclassification rates of 75% (cf. PLS-DA) and 80% (cf. SIMCA)-when measurements from samples not included in the training set are incorporated in the test data-highlighting its robustness. While further studies on a wider matrix of sample types performed using different LIBS systems is needed to fully characterize the capability of SVM to provide superior predictions, we anticipate that the improved sensitivity and robustness observed here will facilitate application of the proposed LIBS-SVM toolbox for screening drugs and detecting counterfeit samples, as well as in related areas of forensic and biological sample analysis.

  18. The effect of bacterial environmental and metabolic stresses on a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based identification of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus viridans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Qassem; Palchaudhuri, Sunil; Rehse, Steven J

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect that adverse environmental and metabolic stresses have on the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) identification of bacterial specimens. Single-pulse LIBS spectra were acquired from a non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli cultured in two different nutrient media: a trypticase soy agar and a MacConkey agar with a 0.01% concentration of deoxycholate. A chemometric discriminant function analysis showed that the LIBS spectra acquired from bacteria grown in these two media were indistinguishable and easily discriminated from spectra acquired from two other non-pathogenic E. coli strains. LIBS spectra were obtained from specimens of a nonpathogenic E. coli strain and an avirulent derivative of the pathogen Streptococcus viridans in three different metabolic situations: live bacteria reproducing in the log-phase, bacteria inactivated on an abiotic surface by exposure to bactericidal ultraviolet irradiation, and bacteria killed via autoclaving. All bacteria were correctly identified regardless of their metabolic state. This successful identification suggests the possibility of testing specimens that have been rendered safe for handling prior to LIBS identification. This would greatly enhance personnel safety and lower the cost of a LIBS-based diagnostic test. LIBS spectra were obtained from pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria that were deprived of nutrition for a period of time ranging from one day to nine days by deposition on an abiotic surface at room temperature. All specimens were successfully classified by species regardless of the duration of nutrient deprivation. © 2011 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  19. Depth-resolved multilayer pigment identification in paintings: combined use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszewska, Ewa A; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Marczak, Jan; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Szmit-Naud, Elżbieta; Anglos, Demetrios; Targowski, Piotr

    2013-08-01

    A detailed feasibility study on the combined use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with optical coherence tomography (LIBS/OCT), aiming at a realistic depth-resolved elemental analysis of multilayer stratigraphies in paintings, is presented. Merging a high spectral resolution LIBS system with a high spatial resolution spectral OCT instrument significantly enhances the quality and accuracy of stratigraphic analysis. First, OCT mapping is employed prior to LIBS analysis in order to assist the selection of specific areas of interest on the painting surface to be examined in detail. Then, intertwined with LIBS, the OCT instrument is used as a precise profilometer for the online determination of the depth of the ablation crater formed by individual laser pulses during LIBS depth-profile analysis. This approach is novel and enables (i) the precise in-depth scaling of elemental concentration profiles, and (ii) the recognition of layer boundaries by estimating the corresponding differences in material ablation rate. Additionally, the latter is supported, within the transparency of the object, by analysis of the OCT cross-sectional views. The potential of this method is illustrated by presenting results on the detailed analysis of the structure of an historic painting on canvas performed to aid planned restoration of the artwork.

  20. Evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for measurement of silica on filter samples of coal dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipe, Christopher B; Miller, Arthur L; Brown, Jonathan; Guevara, Edward; Cauda, Emanuele

    2012-11-01

    Airborne silica dust (quartz) is common in coal mines and represents a respiratory hazard that can lead to silicosis, a potentially fatal lung disease. With an eye toward developing a portable monitoring device for rapid analysis of silica dust, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to quantify quartz in coal dust samples collected on filter media. Pure silica (Min-U-Sil™ 5), Georgia kaolin, and Pittsburgh-4 and Illinois-6 coal dusts were deposited separately and at multiple mass loadings onto 37-mm polyvinylchloride (PVC) filters. LIBS-generated silicon emission was monitored at 288.16 nm, and non-silica contributions to that signal from kaolinite were removed by simultaneously detecting aluminum. Measurements of the four samples were used to calculate limits of detection (LOD) for silicon and aluminum of approximately 0.08 μg/cm(2) and 0.05 μg/cm(2), respectively (corresponding to 0.16 μg/cm(2) and 0.20 μg/cm(2) for silica and kaolinite, respectively). Relative errors of prediction are around 10%. Results demonstrate that LIBS can dependably quantify silica on filter samples of coal dust and confirm that accurate quantification can be achieved for very lightly loaded samples, which supports the potential application of LIBS for rapid, in-field monitoring.

  1. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Geological Samples Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chet R; Jain, Jinesh C; Goueguel, Christian L; McIntyre, Dustin L; Singh, Jagdish P

    2018-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to detect rare earth elements (REEs) in natural geological samples. Low and high intensity emission lines of Ce, La, Nd, Y, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy were identified in the spectra recorded from the samples to claim the presence of these REEs. Multivariate analysis was executed by developing partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models for the quantification of Ce, La, and Nd. Analysis of unknown samples indicated that the prediction results of these samples were found comparable to those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Data support that LIBS has potential to quantify REEs in geological minerals/ores.

  2. A matrix effect and accuracy evaluation for the determination of elements in milk powder LIBS and laser ablation/ICP-OES spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilon, N; El-Haddad, J; Stankova, A; Lei, W; Ma, Q; Motto-Ros, V; Yu, J

    2011-11-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-OES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were investigated for the determination of Ca, Mg, Zn and Na in milk samples. The accuracy of both methods was evaluated by comparison of the concentration found using LA-ICP-OES and LIBS with classical wet digestion associated with ICP-OES determination. The results were not fully acceptable, with biases from less than 1% to more than 60%. Matrix effects were also investigated. The sample matrix can influence the temperature, electron number density (n (e)) and other excitation characteristics in the ICP. These ICP characteristics were studied and evaluated during ablation of eight milk samples. Differences in n (e) (from 8.9 to 13.8 × 10(14) cm(-3)) and rotational temperature (ranging from 3,400 to 4,400 K) occurred with no correlation with trueness. LIBS results obtained after classical external calibration procedure gave degraded accuracy, indicating a strong matrix effect. The LIBS measurements clearly showed that the major problem in LA-ICP was related to the ablation process and that LIBS spectroscopy is an excellent diagnostic tool for LA-ICP techniques.

  3. Applicability of Machine-Learning Enabled LIBS in Post Irradiation Nuclear Forensic Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onkongi, J.; Maina, D.; Angeyo, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Forensics seeks Information to determine; Chemical Composition, Routes of transit, Origin (Provenance) and Intended use. Post Irradiation/Post detonation NF In a post-detonation event could you get clues/signatures from glass debris, minute sample sizes? Nuclear Forensic Technique Should be State-of -the art that is Rapid, Non-invasive, Remote ability and Non-destructive. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) unlike other Analytic Techniques that require tedious sample preparations such as Dissolution, digestion & matrix removal, which generate additional nuclear wastes that require proper Procedures for handling, storage & ultimate disposal, LIBS overcomes these limitations. Utility of Machine Learning Techniques employed include; Artificial Neural Networks, ANN (Regression/Modelling), Principal component Analysis, PCA (Classification) and Support Vector Machine SVM (Comparative study/Classification Machine Learning coupled with LIBS gives a state of the art analytic method. Utility of the technic in safeguards security and non-proliferation

  4. Fabrication of Si negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) using cross-linked polymer binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Suk-Yong; Han, Sien-Ho

    2016-12-19

    Currently, Si as an active material for LIBs has been attracting much attention due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3572 mAh g -1 ). However, a disadvantage when using a Si negative electrode for LIBs is the abrupt drop of its capabilities during the cycling process. Therefore, there have been a few studies of polymers such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) given that the robust structure of a polymeric binder to LIBs anodes is a promising means by which to enhance the performance of high-capacity anodes. These studies essentially focused mainly on modifying of the linear-polymer component or on copolymers dissolved in solvents. Cross-linking polymers as a binder may be preferred due to their good scratch resistance, excellent chemical resistance and high levels of adhesion and resilience. However, because these types of polymers (with a rigid structure and cross-linking points) are also insoluble in general organic solvents, applying these types in this capacity is virtually impossible.

  5. Partial Least Squares and Neural Networks for Quantitative Calibration of Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBs) of Geologic Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Morris, Richard V.; Clegg, S. M.; Humphries, S. D.; Wiens, R. C.; Bell, J. F., III; Mertzman, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument [1] on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover will be used to obtain the chemical composition of surface targets within 7 m of the rover using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). ChemCam analyzes atomic emission spectra (240-800 nm) from a plasma created by a pulsed Nd:KGW 1067 nm laser. The LIBS spectra can be used in a semiquantitative way to rapidly classify targets (e.g., basalt, andesite, carbonate, sulfate, etc.) and in a quantitative way to estimate their major and minor element chemical compositions. Quantitative chemical analysis from LIBS spectra is complicated by a number of factors, including chemical matrix effects [2]. Recent work has shown promising results using multivariate techniques such as partial least squares (PLS) regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict elemental abundances in samples [e.g. 2-6]. To develop, refine, and evaluate analysis schemes for LIBS spectra of geologic materials, we collected spectra of a diverse set of well-characterized natural geologic samples and are comparing the predictive abilities of PLS, cascade correlation ANN (CC-ANN) and multilayer perceptron ANN (MLP-ANN) analysis procedures.

  6. Determination of the penetration hardness and analysis of stainless steel alloys by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Vahid Dastjerdi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A significant feature of alloys is the surfaces hardness that is always accompanied by challenges when it’s measured by common mechanical techniques. In this investigation, we used Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS as a replacement method for common mechanical techniques to measure the surfaces hardness of different alloys. After recording the spectrum of alloy samples in order to identify the surface hardness of analyzed sample, K-Nearest Neighbors method (KNN was used and obtained results showed that the LIBS-KNN method can separate and identify the surfaces hardness of samples with precision of 93.3%. In addition, in order to identify the percentage of constituent elements of alloys and their hardness, calibration approach was investigated that showed there is an appropriate linear relation between recorded emission lines from the LIB spectra of sample alloys and the percentage of their constituent elements and also their Vickers hardness numbers. Therefore, According to exclusive advantages of LIBS technique i.e. high speed analysis, non-destructive analysis and being portable, some of available difficulties in conventional mechanical techniques can be removed.

  7. Rapid analysis of pharmaceutical drugs using LIBS coupled with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, P K; Awasthi, S; Kumar, R; Anand, R K; Rai, P K; Rai, A K

    2018-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes drug tablets containing voglibose having dose strengths of 0.2 and 0.3 mg of various brands have been examined, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. The statistical methods such as the principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least square regression analysis (PLSR) have been employed on LIBS spectral data for classifying and developing the calibration models of drug samples. We have developed the ratio-based calibration model applying PLSR in which relative spectral intensity ratios H/C, H/N and O/N are used. Further, the developed model has been employed to predict the relative concentration of element in unknown drug samples. The experiment has been performed in air and argon atmosphere, respectively, and the obtained results have been compared. The present model provides rapid spectroscopic method for drug analysis with high statistical significance for online control and measurement process in a wide variety of pharmaceutical industrial applications.

  8. Different milk feeding intensities during the first 4 weeks of rearing in dairy calves: Part 1: Effects on performance and production from birth over the first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korst, M; Koch, C; Kesser, J; Müller, U; Romberg, F-J; Rehage, J; Eder, K; Sauerwein, H

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to test the effects of ad libitum feeding of whole milk (WM) or milk replacer (MR) versus restrictive feeding of MR during the first 4 wk of life on growth performance and on milk yield in the first lactation. We studied 57 German Holstein calves (29 females, 28 males) from birth until d 110 of life (trial 1). The 28 females from trial 1 were further studied during their first lactation (trial 2). In trial 1, all calves were randomly allocated at birth to 1 of 3 groups: MR-res [n = 20, 6.78 kg MR (11.5% solids)/calf per day], MR-ad lib (n = 17, 13.8% solids) or WM-ad lib (n = 20). All calves received colostrum ad libitum from their dam until d 3 of age. From d 4 to 27, calves were fed according to their group regimen. From d 28 to 55, all calves received MR-res feeding and were then gradually weaned until d 69. We recorded body weight (until d 110) and feed intake (amount, metabolizable energy, and frequency of liquid feed intake until weaning). We estimated the profitability of the different feeding regimens, taking into account income from milk yield (trial 2) and feed costs during rearing. In trial 1, the calves from WM-ad lib and MR-ad lib had total metabolizable energy intakes 2.02- and 1.65-fold greater than the MR-res group during the first 4 wk of life. During this period, concentrate intake did not differ among groups, but tended to be greater in WM-ad lib than in MR-ad lib calves from d 28 to 69. The MR-res calves visited the automatic feeders more often than the ad libitum-fed groups during differential feeding, but 70% of the visits were unrewarded (calves). When all calves were fed at the MR-res level, the average proportion of unrewarded visits was 65% in all groups. Average daily gain and body weight were greater among MR-ad lib and WM-ad lib calves than among MR-res animals during the first 4 wk of life, but not from d 1 to 110. In trial 2, age at first calving, dry matter intake, and body weight over the first 10 mo of lactation were not

  9. Recall of "The Real Cost" Anti-Smoking Campaign Is Specifically Associated With Endorsement of Campaign-Targeted Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Elissa C; Gibson, Laura A; Hornik, Robert C

    2017-10-01

    Though previous research suggests the FDA's "The Real Cost" anti-smoking campaign has reduced smoking initiation, the theorized pathway of effects (through targeted beliefs) has not been evaluated. This study assesses the relationship between recall of campaign television advertisements and ad-specific anti-smoking beliefs. Respondents in a nationally representative survey of nonsmoking youths age 13-17 (n = 4,831) reported exposure to four The Real Cost advertisements and a fake ad, smoking-relevant beliefs, and nonsmoking intentions. Analyses separately predicted each targeted belief from specific ad recall, adjusting for potential confounders and survey weights. Parallel analyses with non-targeted beliefs showed smaller effects, strengthening claims of campaign effects. Recall of four campaign ads (but not the fake ad) significantly predicted endorsement of the ad-targeted belief (Mean β = .13). Two-sided sign tests indicated stronger ad recall associations with the targeted belief relative to the non-targeted belief (p < .05). Logistic regression analyses indicated that respondents who endorsed campaign-targeted beliefs were more likely to have no intention to smoke (p < .01). This study is the first to demonstrate a relationship between recall of ads from The Real Cost campaign and the theorized pathway of effects (through targeted beliefs). These analyses also provide a methodological template for showing campaign effects despite limitations of available data.

  10. Calibration-free quantitative analysis of elemental ratios in intermetallic nanoalloys and nanocomposites using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Seyyed Ali; Hu, Sheng; Mukherjee, Dibyendu

    2017-03-01

    Intermetallic nanoalloys (NAs) and nanocomposites (NCs) have increasingly gained prominence as efficient catalytic materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. But their morphology and chemical compositions play critical role in tuning their catalytic activities, and precious metal contents. While advanced microscopy techniques facilitate morphological characterizations, traditional chemical characterizations are either qualitative or extremely involved. In this study, we apply Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for quantitative compositional analysis of NAs and NCs synthesized with varied elemental ratios by our in-house built pulsed laser ablation technique. Specifically, elemental ratios of binary PtNi, PdCo (NAs) and PtCo (NCs) of different compositions are determined from LIBS measurements employing an internal calibration scheme using the bulk matrix species as internal standards. Morphology and qualitative elemental compositions of the aforesaid NAs and NCs are confirmed from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) measurements. LIBS experiments are carried out in ambient conditions with the NA and NC samples drop cast on silicon wafers after centrifugation to increase their concentrations. The technique does not call for cumbersome sample preparations including acid digestions and external calibration standards commonly required in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) techniques. Yet the quantitative LIBS results are in good agreement with the results from ICP-OES measurements. Our results indicate the feasibility of using LIBS in future for rapid and in-situ quantitative chemical characterizations of wide classes of synthesized NAs and NCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifikasi Unsur Radioaktif Pada Batako Ringan Aerasi Citicon Dengan Metode Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyulianti Wahyulianti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research has been done to identify the radioactive elements in the Citicon aerated lightweight concrete block sample. In this research used a Citicon aerated lightweight concrete block as a sample with 1 cm x 3 cm in size and identification process used LIBS method. Radioactive elements identified in Citicon aerated lightweight concrete block the LIBS method were Th, Ra, and K. The number of photon emission intensity at the wavelength of each element is 396.710 nm, 620.033 nm, and 766.497 nm respectively by 62.33 a.u, 1.67 a.u, and 72.75 a.u.

  12. Single-shot LIBS spectral quality for waste particles in open air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, H.; Bakker, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the ability of LIBS to produce quality spectra from small particles of concrete demolition waste using single-shot spectra collected in open air. The 2–8?mm materials are rounded river gravel, green glass shards, and plastic flakes. Considered are focal length, air, moisture,

  13. Moon4You : a combined Raman/LIBS instrument for lunar exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.C.; Ahlers, B.; Westrenen, W.V.; Heiligers, J.; Wielders, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moon4You is a project led by the Dutch Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, with partners from industry and universities in the Netherlands that aims to provide a combined Raman/LIBS instrument as scientific payload for lunar exploration missions. It is the first time that Raman

  14. Moon4You: A combined Raman / LIBS instrument for lunar exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.C.; Ahlers, B.; van Westrenen, W.; Heiligers, J.; Wielders, A.

    2009-01-01

    Moon4You is a project led by the Dutch Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, with partners from industry and universities in the Netherlands that aims to provide a combined Raman/LIBS instrument as scientific payload for lunar exploration missions. It is the first time that Raman

  15. arriba-lib: evaluation of an electronic library of decision aids in primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The successful implementation of decision aids in clinical practice initially depends on how clinicians perceive them. Relatively little is known about the acceptance of decision aids by physicians and factors influencing the implementation of decision aids from their point of view. Our electronic library of decision aids (arriba-lib is to be used within the encounter and has a modular structure containing evidence-based decision aids for the following topics: cardiovascular prevention, atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, oral antidiabetics, conventional and intensified insulin therapy, and unipolar depression. The aim of our study was to evaluate the acceptance of arriba-lib in primary care physicians. Methods We conducted an evaluation study in which 29 primary care physicians included 192 patients. The physician questionnaire contained information on which module was used, how extensive steps of the shared decision making process were discussed, who made the decision, and a subjective appraisal of consultation length. We used generalised estimation equations to measure associations within patient variables and traditional crosstab analyses. Results Only a minority of consultations (8.9% was considered to be unacceptably extended. In 90.6% of consultations, physicians said that a decision could be made. A shared decision was perceived by physicians in 57.1% of consultations. Physicians said that a decision was more likely to be made when therapeutic options were discussed “detailed”. Prior experience with decision aids was not a critical variable for implementation within our sample of primary care physicians. Conclusions Our study showed that it might be feasible to apply our electronic library of decision aids (arriba-lib in the primary care context. Evidence-based decision aids offer support for physicians in the management of medical information. Future studies should monitor the long-term adoption of

  16. Proteomic analysis of fetal programming-related obesity markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Yoo, Jae Young; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Lee, Sang Mi; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Young Ju

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze fetal programming in rat brain using proteomic analysis and to identify fetal programming-related obesity markers. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four feeding groups: (i) the Ad Libitum (AdLib)/AdLib group was given a normal diet during pregnancy and the lactation period; (ii) the AdLib/maternal food restriction group (FR) was subjected to 50% FR during the lactation period; (iii) the FR/AdLib group was subjected to 50% FR during pregnancy; and (iv) the FR/FR group was subjected to 50% FR during pregnancy and the lactation period. Offspring from each group were sacrificed at 3 weeks of age and whole brains were dissected. To obtain a maximum number of protein markers related to obesity, 2DE and Pathway Studio bioinformatics analysis were performed. The identities of the markers among the selected and candidate proteins were confirmed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Proteomic and bioinformatics analyses revealed that expression of ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) and Secernin 1 (SCRN1) were significantly different in the FR/AdLib group compared with the AdLib/AdLib group for both male and female offspring. These findings suggest that UCHL1 and SCRN1 may be used as fetal programming-related obesity markers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Formation of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Part 1, FTC Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report evaluates the formation of nitrosonornicotine (NNN and of 4-(methyl-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK from nicotine, and of NNN from nornicotine in the mainstream smoke of a burning cigarette. The cigarettes analyzed in the study were Kentucky reference cigarettes 1R4F and 2R4F, and five other cigarettes, three of them having tobaccos with low levels of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs. All cigarettes had ‘tar’ levels around 10 mg [where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water]. Cigarettes were smoked according to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC puffing regimen, using a 35 mL puff volume, 2 sec puff duration and 60 sec puff intervals. Three separate experiments were performed in this study to evaluate the proportion of TSNAs transferred from preexistent tobacco TSNAs and the proportion formed during smoking (pyrosynthesized. In one experiment, the results were obtained by GC/MS analysis of 13C3-TSNAs formed in smoke when 13C3-nicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes. Another experiment used GC analysis with chemiluminescence detection of TSNAs from smoke before and after an excess of nornicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes, and another experiment consisted of LC/MS/MS analysis of 2H4-TSNAs formed in the smoke when 2H4-nicotine and when 2H4-nornicotine were intentionally added to cigarettes. The use of different analytical methods for the study of TSNA formation conveyed an additional level of confidence regarding the reliability of the results obtained. It was found that NNK was generated during smoking from nicotine with 3 × 10-5% to 8 × 10-5% conversion (0.3 ppm to 0.8 ppm conversion of the nicotine while the result for NNN generation was not conclusive. One experiment demonstrated the formation of NNN from nicotine between 4 × 10-5% and 1.5 × 10-4% (0.4 ppm to 1.5 ppm reported to nicotine, but another experiment did not

  18. Creating Effective Media Messaging for Rural Smoke-free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Carol A; Butler, Karen M; Ricks, JaNelle M; Record, Rachael A; Begley, Kathy; Anderson, Debra Gay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives were to (1) explore perceived effectiveness of existing smoke-free print advertisements in rural communities and (2) generate message content, characteristics, and media delivery channels that resonate with residents. Qualitative methods design. Thirty-nine rural adults recruited by community partners. Content analysis of findings from individuals in four focus groups who participated in general discussion and reviewed eight print ads related to secondhand smoke (SHS) and smoke-free policy. Six content themes were identified: smoking/SHS dangers, worker health, analogies, economic impact, rights, and nostalgia. Seven message characteristics were recognized: short/to the point, large enough to read, graphic images, poignant stories, statistics/charts/graphs, message sender, and messages targeting different groups. Four media delivery channels were considered most effective: local media, technology, billboard messages, and print materials. Seeking input from key informants is essential to reaching rural residents. Use of analogies in media messaging is a distinct contribution to the literature on effective smoke-free campaigns. Other findings support previous studies of effective messaging and delivery channels. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of themes related to message content in smoke-free ads and delivery strategies. Effective media messaging can lead to policy change in rural communities to reduce exposure to SHS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks from 3 weeks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    giving some idea of the physiological phenomena that accompany feed restriction. Ses manlike en 24 vroulike Cherry Valley Pekineendjies is ... bepaaI. Die drie behandelings was as volg: 50% van ad lib.-inname vanaf 3 tot 20 weke; 50% van ad lib. inname vanaf 8 tot 20 weke; en ad lib. inname vir die volle periode.

  20. Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) Molecular Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Emissions of Thin Solid Explosive Powder Films Deposited on Aluminum Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Brown, Ei E; Hommerich, Uwe; Tripathi, Ashish; Samuels, Alan C

    2017-04-01

    Thin solid films made of high nitro (NO 2 )/nitrate (NO 3 ) content explosives were deposited on sand-blasted aluminum substrates and then studied using a mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared region (LWIR; ∼5.6-10 µm). Despite the similarities of their chemical compositions and structures, thin films of three commonly used explosives (RDX, HMX, and PETN) studied in this work can be rapidly identified in the ambient air by their molecular LIBS emission signatures in the LWIR region. A preliminary assessment of the detection limit for a thin film of RDX on aluminum appears to be much lower than 60 µg/cm 2 . This LWIR LIBS setup is capable of rapidly probing and charactering samples without the need for elaborate sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous ultraviolet visible and LWIR LIBS measurement.

  1. Direct Determination of Contaminants and Major and Minor Nutrients in Solid Fertilizers Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Daniel F; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues

    2016-10-11

    Contaminants (Cd, Cr, and Pb) as well as minor (B, Cu, Mn, Na, and Zn) and major (Ca and Mg) elements were directly determined in solid fertilizer samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Factorial designs were used to define the most appropriate LIBS parameters and pellet pressure on solid fertilizers. Emission lines for all of the analytes were collected and employed 12 signal normalization modes. The best results were obtained using a laser energy of 75 mJ, a spot size of 50 μm, a pressure of 10 t/in., and a delay of 2.0 μs. Good correlation was obtained between the calibration model's prediction using the proposed LIBS method and the reference values obtained with ICP-OES. The limits of detection (LOD) for the proposed method varied from 2 mg/kg (for Cd) to 1% (for Zn).

  2. Socioeconomic variation in recall and perceived effectiveness of campaign advertisements to promote smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Farrelly, Matthew C; Nonnemaker, James; Davis, Kevin C; Wagner, Lauren

    2011-03-01

    There are large disparities in cigarette smoking rates by socioeconomic status (SES) in many countries. There is mixed evidence about the relative effectiveness of smoking cessation media campaigns in promoting quitting between lower and higher SES populations, and studies suggest that some types of ad content may have differential effects by SES. We analyzed data from five waves of the New York Media Tracking Survey Online (MTSO), a web survey involving over 7000 adult smokers conducted between 2007 and 2009, to assess SES variation in response to smoking cessation ads. Smokers with low levels of education and income less often recalled ads focused on how to quit, and perceived them as less effective, than ads using graphic imagery or personal testimonials to convey why to quit. Contrary to predictions offered by the Stages of Change Model, we found no evidence that variation in readiness to quit smoking explained patterns of response by education. Results offer guidance for theorists and campaign planners in developing campaigns that are likely to promote cessation among less educated populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of milk for the detection of adulteration by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, S; Manzoor, S; Rosales, J D; Anzano, J; Caceres, J O

    2017-10-01

    The present work focuses on the development of a fast and cost effective method based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to the quality control, traceability and detection of adulteration in milk. Two adulteration cases have been studied; a qualitative analysis for the discrimination between different milk blends and quantification of melamine in adulterated toddler milk powder. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and neural networks (NN) have been used to analyze LIBS spectra obtaining a correct classification rate of 98% with a 100% of robustness. For the quantification of melamine, two methodologies have been developed; univariate analysis using CN emission band and multivariate calibration NN model obtaining correlation coefficient (R 2 ) values of 0.982 and 0.999 respectively. The results of the use of LIBS technique coupled with chemometric analysis are discussed in terms of its potential use in the food industry to perform the quality control of this dairy product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for rapid analysis of ash, potassium and magnesium in gluten free flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz-Keszycka, Maria; Casado-Gavalda, Maria P; Cama-Moncunill, Xavier; Cama-Moncunill, Raquel; Dixit, Yash; Cullen, Patrick J; Sullivan, Carl

    2018-04-01

    Gluten free (GF) diets are prone to mineral deficiency, thus effective monitoring of the elemental composition of GF products is important to ensure a balanced micronutrient diet. The objective of this study was to test the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis combined with chemometrics for at-line monitoring of ash, potassium and magnesium content of GF flours: tapioca, potato, maize, buckwheat, brown rice and a GF flour mixture. Concentrations of ash, potassium and magnesium were determined with reference methods and LIBS. PCA analysis was performed and presented the potential for discrimination of the six GF flours. For the quantification analysis PLSR models were developed; R 2 cal were 0.99 for magnesium and potassium and 0.97 for ash. The study revealed that LIBS combined with chemometrics is a convenient method to quantify concentrations of ash, potassium and magnesium and present the potential to classify different types of flours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Good practices in LIBS analysis: Review and advices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Haddad, J.; Canioni, L.; Bousquet, B., E-mail: bruno.bousquet@u-bordeaux.fr

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a review on the analytical results obtained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In the first part, results on identification and classification of samples are presented including the risk of misclassification, and in the second part, results on concentration measurement based on calibration are accompanied with significant figures of merit including the concept of accuracy. Both univariate and multivariate approaches are discussed with special emphasis on the methodology, the way of presenting the results and the assessment of the methods. Finally, good practices are proposed for both classification and concentration measurement.

  6. Good practices in LIBS analysis: Review and advices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haddad, J.; Canioni, L.; Bousquet, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the analytical results obtained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In the first part, results on identification and classification of samples are presented including the risk of misclassification, and in the second part, results on concentration measurement based on calibration are accompanied with significant figures of merit including the concept of accuracy. Both univariate and multivariate approaches are discussed with special emphasis on the methodology, the way of presenting the results and the assessment of the methods. Finally, good practices are proposed for both classification and concentration measurement

  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of human nails to find correlation between nutrients and vitamin D deficiency using LIBS and ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almessiere, M A; Altuwiriqi, R; Gondal, M A; AlDakheel, R K; Alotaibi, H F

    2018-08-01

    In this work, we analysed human fingernails of people who suffer from vitamin D deficiency using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy(LIBS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)techniques. The measurements have been conducted on 71 nail samples collected randomly from volunteers of different genders and ages ranged between 20 and 50 years. The main aim of this study is to find the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and the intensity of some dominated lines in the LIBS spectra. A LIBS spectrum consists of dominant lines of fifteen elements including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, titanium, iron, chloride, sulphur, copper, chromium, zinc, nitrogen, phosphor, and oxygen. By recording the spectrum in specific ranges and focusing on calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium, we found a correlation between the intensity of the potassium (K) lines at (766.5 and 769.9 nm)and vitamin D level in both age groups (20 and 25 years old), with weak correlation for the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sodium (Na) lines. To verify the validity of the LIBS results, we analysed the nail samples with ICP, a standard analytical technique. The elements detected with our LIBS technique are in a good agreement with those identified by ICP-AES. From the health and physiological perspectives, the LIBS system, which is used for spectral analysis in this work, is appropriate for diagnostic purposes such as to find the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and potassium content, especially for hypertensive patients who simultaneously take potassium-based medication and vitamin D supplement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Navázání svazku Ti:Sa laseru do interakční komory v sestavě LIBS+LIFS

    OpenAIRE

    Vémola, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Práce se zabývá problematikou navázání svazku Ti:Safírového laseru do interakní komory v soustavě LIBS+LIFS. Cílem je navrhnout optickou soustavu s požadovanými vlastnostmi. Součástí práce je i teoretický popis základních principů atomové spektroskopie s důrazem na metodu LIBS+LIFS. In this work, the problem of focusing Ti:Sapphire laser beam into LIBS+LIFS interaction chamber is resolved. The task is to design an optical setup with demanded properties. Short theoretical description of the...

  9. Skills methods to prevent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D; Schilling, R F; Snow, W H; Bobo, J K

    1986-01-01

    School health educators have devoted much attention to cigarette smoking. Recent years have seen the testing of interventions to prevent smoking. To date, controlled studies have not evaluated the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking. This article describes such an evaluation with sixth-grade students from two schools. Subjects were pretested and randomly assigned to receive conventional health education methods or to receive skills intervention. Both conditions included films, peer testimonials, discussions, and homework. Health education condition subjects additionally participated in oral quizzes, games, and debates. Skills condition subjects additionally learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. At postintervention, skills condition subjects, more than health education condition subjects, had better scores on measures of smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. In addition, reported cigarette use, validated by biochemical data collection, was lower in the skills condition than in the health education condition at all postintervention measurements, including a 24-month follow-up. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention efforts in schools.

  10. Effect of self-absorption correction on surface hardness estimation of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys via LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanian, Zahra; Darbani, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Majd, Abdollah Eslami

    2017-08-20

    The effect of self-absorption was investigated on the estimation of surface hardness of Fe-Cr-Ni metallic alloys by the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. For this purpose, the linear relationship between the ratio of chromium ionic to atomic line intensities (CrII/CrI) and surface hardness was studied, both before and after correcting the self-absorption effect. The correlation coefficient significantly increased from 47% to 90% after self-absorption correction. The results showed the measurements of surface hardness using LIBS can be more accurate and valid by correcting the self-absorption effect.

  11. Detection of heavy metals in soils by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirven, Jean-Baptiste

    2006-01-01

    In the fields of analysis, control and physical measurement, the laser constitutes a particularly powerful and multi-purpose metrological tool, capable to bring concrete solutions to various matters, including of a societal nature. Among the latter, contamination of sites and soils by heavy metals is an important issue of public health which requires to have measurement means adapted to existing regulations and whose use be sufficiently flexible. As a fast technique which does not need any sample preparation, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers very interesting advantages for making on-site measurements of heavy metals content at the 10-ppm level; the design of a portable system is conceivable in the medium term. In this work we first show that the femtosecond regime presents no advantages with respect to the standard nanosecond regime for our issue. Then we implement an advanced treatment of LIBS spectra by chemometric techniques whose performances significantly improve the results of qualitative and quantitative analyses of soils samples. (author)

  12. The extraction and determination of free lithium in Li-B alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilroy, W.P.; Angres, I.

    1979-01-01

    Extraction of the lithium phase from lithium-rich Li-B alloys was achieved by reaction of the alloy with dry naphthalene dissolved in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran. The resulting radical anion was hydrolyzed and the lithium was determined by potentiometric titration from the moles of hydroxide formed. The composition of the Lisub(x)Bsub(y) residue was determined by difference. (Auth.)

  13. Education et Libération

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Pierre Lagnaux

    2013-01-01

    Vente d’artisanat du Tiers Monde Jeudi 23 et vendredi 24 mai 2013 CERN, Bâtiment principal Togo, Ecole Arc en ciel, construction des salles de classe. Appel pour le financement de ce chantier afin de libérer l’école de la charge des loyers payés pendant des années. Après nos réalisations en Amérique latine et au Bénin, nous mobilisons nos efforts pour l’école Arc en ciel de Kpeme, au Togo, sur les bords de l’Océan, à mi-chemin entre Lome et la frontière entre le Bénin et le Togo. Il s’agit d’une école primaire privée, laïque qui a très bonne réputation en termes de résultats, notamment pour les écoliers  en fin de scolarité primaire. Cela fait plusieurs années déjà que no...

  14. Development of a compact underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system and preliminary results in sea trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinjia; Lu, Yuan; Cheng, Kai; Song, Jiaojian; Ye, Wangquan; Li, Nan; Zheng, Ronger

    2017-10-10

    The exploitation and research of deep-sea hydrothermal vent has been an issue of great interest in ocean research in recent years. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has great potential for ocean application due to the capabilities of stand-off, multiphase, and multielement analysis. In this work, a newly developed compact 4000 m rated LIBS system (LIBSea) is introduced with preliminary results of sea trials. The underwater system consists of an Nd:YAG single-pulsed laser operating at 1064 nm, an optical fiber spectrometer, an optics module, and an electronic controller module. The whole system is housed in an L800  mm×ϕ258  mm pressure housing with an optical window on the end cap. It was deployed on the remote operated vehicle Faxian on the research vessel Kexue, and in June 2015 was successfully applied for hydrothermal field measurements at the Manus area. The obtained results are shown that the LIBS system is capable of detecting elements Li, Na, K, Ca, and Mg in the hydrothermal area. Profiles of LIBS signals of elements K and Ca have also been obtained during the sea trial. The results show that the K emission line is gradually broadened with depth from sea surface to sea floor (1800 m or so); the K intensity shows a hump shape with maximum value at about 1050 m. The Ca emission line is rapidly broadened below 400 m and slowly narrowed to the sea floor; the Ca intensity shows no obvious change below 400 m and increases continuously to sea floor. A very interesting finding is that the small fluctuations of intensity profile curve of Ca show a degree of correlation with seawater temperature change. The sea trial results prove the performance of LIBSea. After further optimization, it is hoped to apply the LIBS system to the in situ mineral deposits and hydrothermal vent fluid detection in deep sea.

  15. Mixed Methods Not Mixed Messages: Improving LibGuides with Student Usability Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Almeida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – This article describes a mixed methods usability study of research guides created using the LibGuides 2.0 platform conducted in 2016 at an urban, public university library. The goal of the study was to translate user design and learning modality preferences into executable design principles, and ultimately to improve the design and usage of LibGuides at the New York City College of Technology Library. Methods – User-centred design demands that stakeholders participate in each stage of an application’s development and that assumptions about user design preferences are validated through testing. Methods used for this usability study include: a task analysis on paper prototypes with a think aloud protocol (TAP, an advanced scribbling technique modeled on the work of Linek and Tochtermann (2015, and semi-structured interviews. The authors introduce specifics of each protocol in addition to data collection and analysis methods. Results – The authors present quantitative and qualitative student feedback on navigation layouts, terminology, and design elements and discuss concrete institutional and technical measures they will take to implement best practices. Additionally, the authors discuss students’ impressions of multimedia, text-based, and interactive instructional content in relation to specific research scenarios defined during the usability test. Conclusion – The authors translate study findings into best practices that can be incorporated into custom user-centric LibGuide templates and assets. The authors also discuss relevant correlations between students’ learning modality preferences and design feedback, and identify several areas that warrant further research. The authors believe this study will spark a larger discussion about relationships between instructional design, learning modalities, and research guide use contexts.

  16. New ways for the quantification by the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy; Neue Wege zur Quantifizierung mit der laserinduzierten Plasmaspektroskopie (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Maike

    2010-04-27

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is capable of a fast and multielement analysis of various samples types and matrices which makes the method particularly attractive for industrial process analysis. However, for LIBS to become well accepted as an analytical method some issues in calibration and understanding of the underlying transient plasma processes have to be solved. The objective of this work was to identify influential instrumental parameters and plasma conditions in order to improve the overall quantitative performance of LIBS. As the spectral sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the detector represents a decisive element for the application of LIBS in an industrial environment, two detectors, an ICCD and CCD camera, were compared. In combination with a high-resolution echelle spectrograph, the superior or at least equivalent efficiency of the non-intensified CCD was experimentally demonstrated and supported by corresponding plasma simulations. Further investigations of the plasma expansion under different atmospheric conditions revealed that the geometry of observing the expanding plasma influences the sensitivity and reproducibility of the measurements considerably. The diagnostics of self-absorbed spectral lines and their use for calibration purposes were studied with a mirror-based duplication method and a statistical line shape analysis employing linear correlation. The linear correlation approach displayed good performance for identifying the on-set of self absorption in comparison to the duplication method. As matrixmatched reference materials are essential to validate laser ablation methods, two novel preparations of individual calibration standards based on a copper-and polyacrylamide matrix were tested for their applicability to LIBS. (orig.)

  17. LIB LAB the Library Laboratory: hands-on multimedia science communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Aaron; Niemeyer, Kyle

    2017-11-01

    Teaching scientific research topics to K-12 audiences in an engaging and meaningful way does not need to be hard; with the right insight and techniques it can be fun to encourage self-guided STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) exploration. LIB LAB, short for Library Laboratory, is an educational video series produced by Aaron J. Fillo at Oregon State University in partnership with the Corvallis-Benton County Public Library targeted at K-12 students. Each episode explores a variety of scientific fundamentals with playful experiments and demonstrations. The video lessons are developed using evidence-based practices such as dispelling misconceptions, and language immersion. Each video includes directions for a related experiment that young viewers can conduct at home. In addition, science kits for these at-home experiments are distributed for free to students through the public library network in Benton County, Oregon. This talk will focus on the development of multimedia science education tools and several techniques that scientists can use to engage with a broad audience more effectively. Using examples from the LIB LAB YouTube Channel and collection of hands-on science demonstrations and take-home kits, this talk will present STEAM education in action. Corvallis-Benton County Public Library.

  18. Cigarette advertising and media coverage of smoking and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E

    1985-02-07

    In the US, media coverage of the health hazards of cigarette smoking is consored by the tobacco industry. Tobacco companies, which in 1983 alone spent US$2.5 billion on smoking promtion, are a major source of advertising revenue for many media organizations. As a result media organizations frequently refuse to publish antismoking information, tent to tone down coverage of antismoking news events, and often refuse to accept antismoking advertisements. In a 1983 "Newsweek" supplement on personal health, prepared by the American Medical Association, only 4 sentences were devoted to the negative effects of smoking. A spokesman for the association reported that "Newsweek" editors refused to allow the association to use the forum to present a strong antismoking message. In 1984 a similar type of health supplement, published by "Time," failed to mention smoking at all. An examination of 10 major women's magazines revealed that between 1967-79, 4 of the magazines published no articles about the hazards of smoking and only 8 such articles appeared in the other 6 magazines. All of these magazines carried smoking advertisements. During the same time period, 2 magazines, which refused to publish cigarette ads, published a total of 16 articles on the hazards of smoking. Small magazines which publish antismoking articles are especially vulnerable to pressure from the tobacco industry. For example, the tobacco industry canceled all its ads in "Mother Jones" after the magazine printed 2 antismoking articles. 22 out of 36 magazines refused to run antismoking advertisements when they were requested to do so. Due to poor media coverage, th public's knowledge of the hazards of smoking is deficient. Recent surveys found that 2/3 of the public did not know that smoking could cause heart attacks, and 1/2 of the respondents did not know that smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. An analysis of time trends in cigarette smoking indicates that the public does respond to antismoking

  19. Qualitative Analysis of Dairy and Powder Milk Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarraj, Bader A; Sanghapi, Herve K; Bhatt, Chet R; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P

    2018-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used to compare various types of commercial milk products. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were investigated for the determination of the elemental composition of soy and rice milk powder, dairy milk, and lactose-free dairy milk. The analysis was performed using radiative transitions. Atomic emissions from Ca, K, Na, and Mg lines observed in LIBS spectra of dairy milk were compared. In addition, proteins and fat level in milks can be determined using molecular emissions such as CN bands. Ca concentrations were calculated to be 2.165 ± 0.203 g/L in 1% of dairy milk fat samples and 2.809 ± 0.172 g/L in 2% of dairy milk fat samples using the standard addition method (SAM) with LIBS spectra. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis methods showed that the contents of major mineral elements were higher in lactose-free dairy milk than those in dairy milk. The principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to discriminate four milk samples depending on their mineral elements concentration. In addition, proteins and fat level in dairy milks were determined using molecular emissions such as CN band. We applied partial least squares regression (PLSR) and simple linear regression (SLR) models to predict levels of milk fat in dairy milk samples. The PLSR model was successfully used to predict levels of milk fat in dairy milk sample with the relative accuracy (RA%) less than 6.62% using CN (0,0) band.

  20. Entwicklung der Reglementierung von 10 MEM-Berufen im Kontext von Bildungsreformen und dem Wandel in der Arbeitswelt: Eine Kurzstudie im Auftrag von LIBS: Eine Kurzstudie im Auftrag von LIBS Industrielle Berufslehren Schweiz, Baden

    OpenAIRE

    Egg, Maria Esther; Renold, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Im Auftrag der LIBS Industrielle Berufslehren Schweiz, hat die KOF die Entwicklung von 10 MEM1-Berufsbildern seit dem ersten Berufsbildungsgesetz dargestellt und diese eingebettet in eine kurze Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten Etappenschritte des Schweizer Berufsbildungssystems.

  1. The determination of V and Mo by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Amanda M. D. de; Aguirre Pastor, Miguel Ángel; Hidalgo Núñez, Montserrat; Canals Hernández, Antonio; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising analytical technique with well-known advantages and limitations. However, despite its growing popularity, this technique has been applied mainly to solid samples and there have been a smaller number of studies devoted to liquid samples. This lack of studies is mainly due to experimental difficulties in the analysis of liquid matrices. Sensitivity can be improved and matrix effects minimized in the LIBS analysis of aqueous samples by u...

  2. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary: biology and molecular traits of a cosmopolitan pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, M.D.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Nelson, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing disease in a wide range of plants. This review summarizes current knowledge of mechanisms employed by the fungus to parasitize its host with emphasis on biology, physiology and molecular aspects of pathogenicity. In

  3. Ion smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, Georges.

    1976-01-01

    This invention covers an ion smoke detector in which the capacity that the smoke will cross, in the event of an accident, is irradiated by a very low energy radioactive source. The gas in the containment is thus partially ionised. Smoke in this containment reduces the mobility of the ions, thereby increasing the impedance of the measuring chamber. A leak tight reference chamber that therefore receives no smoke is added to the measuring chamber. This chamber is filled with the same gas as that present in the measuring chamber and undergoes the same irradiation. It is of course subjected to the same conditions of temperature, atmospheric pressure and hygrometry as the measuring chamber. This makes it possible to break free from the fluctuations of the impedance of the chamber which would seem to be due to these interferences. One only radioactive source irradiates the measuring chamber and the reference chamber. The measuring chamber is in the shape of a cylinder open at one end and the reference chamber is annular and encompasses the measuring chamber. Provision is made for detecting an increase in the potential across the terminals of the measuring chamber in relation to the reference chamber, which is characteristic of the presence of smoke and other provisions separate from the former for dectecting a reduction in potential between the electrodes of the first ionisation chamber, which is characteristic of a change in the detector [fr

  4. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to measure quantitatively soil carbon with emphasis on soil organic carbon. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, Giorgio S; Senesi, Nicola

    2016-09-28

    Soil organic carbon (OC) measurement is a crucial factor for quantifying soil C pools and inventories and monitoring the inherent temporal and spatial heterogeneity and changes of soil OC content. These are relevant issues in addressing sustainable management of terrestrial OC aiming to enhance C sequestration in soil, thus mitigating the impact of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and related effects on global climate change. Nowadays, dry combustion by an elemental analyzer or wet combustion by dichromate oxidation of the soil sample are the most recommended and commonly used methods for quantitative soil OC determination. However, the unanimously recognized uncertainties and limitations of these classical laboursome methods have prompted research efforts focusing on the development and application of more advanced and appealing techniques and methods for the measurement of soil OC in the laboratory and possibly in situ in the field. Among these laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has raised the highest interest for its unique advantages. After an introduction and a highlight of the LIBS basic principles, instrumentation, methodologies and supporting chemometric methods, the main body of this review provides an historical and critical overview of the developments and results obtained up-to-now by the application of LIBS to the quantitative measurement of soil C and especially OC content. A brief critical summary of LIBS advantages and limitations/drawbacks including some final remarks and future perspectives concludes this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cigarette smoking accelerated brain aging and induced pre-Alzheimer-like neuropathology in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Shan Ho

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD. To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia.

  6. Cigarette Smoking Accelerated Brain Aging and Induced Pre-Alzheimer-Like Neuropathology in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yuen-Shan; Yang, Xifei; Yeung, Sze-Chun; Chiu, Kin; Lau, Chi-Fai; Tsang, Andrea Wing-Ting; Mak, Judith Choi-Wo; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β–amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia. PMID:22606286

  7. Determination of calcium to phosphate elemental ratio in natural hydroxypatite using LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazalan, Elham; Chaudhary, Kashif; Haider, Zuhaib; Hadi, Siti Fatimah Abd; Ali, Jalil

    2018-05-01

    In this work, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is employed for determination of calcium to phosphate (Ca/P) ratio in hydroxyapatite (HA) extracted from animal bones. HA was extracted from the biological bones of lamb, bovine, and fish separately. Fresh bones were boiled in deuterium-depleted water (DDW) for 4 hours and immersed it in acetone for 15 hours followed by drying process in the oven. Dried bones were heated at 600 °C and crushed into powder form which was then mixed with potassium bromide (KBr) in a known quantity. The mixture for each sample was palletized into pellets of identical mass using a hydraulic press. The palletized samples of HA extracted from the bones were ablated with 10 ns Q-switched Nd-YAG laser pulses having an energy of 320 mJ/pulse. The optical emissions produced from the laser induced plasma were recorded. Ca and P emission lines are identified and the Ca/P is calculated. Ca/P ratio by LIBS analysis has been verified by EDX measurements and are found in good agreement.

  8. Controlled laser cleaning of artworks via low resolution LIBS and linear correlation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentjes, M.; Dickmann, Klaus; Meijer, J.; Ostendof, A.; Hoult, A.; Lu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Based on a fibre optic miniature spectrometer (spectral range 200-1100 nm, λ-resolution 2 nm) we have built up a LIBS-system (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) for online monitoring during laser cleaning of artworks. This system is unsuitable for high resolved elemental identification but is

  9. Calibration Transfer in LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy for Planetary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, M. D.; Thomas, B. F.; Parente, M.; Gemp, I.; Mullen, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary scientists rely on spectral libraries and instrument reproducibility to interpret results from missions. Major investments have been made into assembling libraries, but they often naively assume that spectra of single crystals versus powders and from varying instruments will be the same. Calibration transfer (CT) seeks to algorithmically resolve discrepancies among datasets from different instruments or conditions. It offers the ability to align suites of spectra with a small number of common samples, allowing better models to be built with combined data sets. LIBS and Raman data present different challenges for CT. Quantitative geochemical analyses by LIBS spectroscopy are limited by lack of consistency among repeated laser shots and across instruments. Many different factors affect the presence/absence of emission lines and their intensities, such as laser power/plasma temperature, angle of incidence, detector sensitivity/resolution. To overcome these, models in which disparate datasets are projected into a joint low-dimensional subspace where all data can be aligned before quantitative analysis, such as Correlation Analysis for Domain Adaptation (CADA), have proven very effective. They require some overlap between the populations of spectra to be aligned. For example, prediction of SiO2 on 80 samples from two different LIBS labs show errors of ±16-29 wt.% when the training and test sets have no overlap, and ±4.94 wt% SiO2 when CADA is used. Uncorrected Earth-Mars spectral differences are likely to cause errors with the same order of magnitude. As with other types of reflectance spectroscopy, Raman data are plagued by differences among single crystal/powder samples and laser wavelength that affect peak intensities, and by spectral offsets from instruments with varying resolution and wavenumber alignment schemes. These problems persist even within the archetypal RRUFF database. Pre-processing transformation functions such as optimized baseline removal

  10. A Deep Learning Approach to LIBS Spectroscopy for Planetary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. H.; Parente, M.; Gemp, I.; Dyar, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Curiousity rover has collected >440,000 laser-induced breakdown spectra (LIBS) from 1500 different geological targets since 2012. The team is using a pipeline of preprocessing and partial least squares techniques to predict compositions of surface materials [1]. Unfortunately, such multivariate techniques are plagued by hard-to-meet assumptions involving constant hyperparameter tuning to specific elements and the amount of training data available; if the whole distribution of data is not seen, the method will overfit to the training data and generalizability will suffer. The rover only has 10 calibration targets on-board that represent a small subset of the geochemical samples the rover is expected to investigate. Deep neural networks have been used to bypass these issues in other fields. Semi-supervised techniques allow researchers to utilized small labeled datasets and vast amounts of unlabeled data. One example is the variational autoencoder model, a semi-supervised generative model in the form of a deep neural network. The autoencoder assumes that LIBS spectra are generated from a distribution conditioned on the elemental compositions in the sample and some nuisance. The system is broken into two models: one that predicts elemental composition from the spectra and one that generates spectra from compositions that may or may not be seen in the training set. The synthesized spectra show strong agreement with geochemical conventions to express specific compositions. The predictions of composition show improved generalizability to PLS. Deep neural networks have also been used to transfer knowledge from one dataset to another to solve unlabeled data problems. Given that vast amounts of laboratry LIBS spectra have been obtained in the past few years, it is now feasible train a deep net to predict elemental composition from lab spectra. Transfer learning (manifold alignment or calibration transfer) [2] is then used to fine-tune the model

  11. Multivariate innovative approaches to the treatment of the emission of LIBS plasmas. Application to chemical online analysis in a nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Rakwe, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Online and in situ analysis is now a strategic development for analytical chemistry. This is especially true in the nuclear field for which the security constraints related to the radioactivity of samples, and the need to minimize waste from analyzes argue for remote measurement techniques without sampling or sample preparation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for elemental analysis of materials based on laser ablation and the optical emission spectroscopy, has these qualities. It is a technique of choice for online analysis. However, processes involved in LIBS, namely laser ablation, atomization, plasma formation and emission, are quite complex and difficult to control because the underlying physical phenomena are coupled and nonlinear. In addition, the analytical performance of the LIBS technique depends strongly on the choice of experimental conditions. Finally, an online analysis system should be as robust as possible face to uncontrolled variations in measurement conditions. The objective of this thesis is to improve control and performance of quantitative analysis by LIBS using multivariate methods capable of handling multi-dimensionality, nonlinearity and the coupling between parameters and data. For this, the work is divided into two parts. First the optimization is carried out using a central composite design to model the relationship between the experimental parameters of laser ablation (pulse energy and beam focusing parameters) and signal detection (delay time) to the physical characteristics of plasma (ablated mass, temperature) and the analytical performance (intensity and repeatability of the signal). The optimization parameters that results is then interpreted as the best compromise for the quantitative analysis between efficiency of laser ablation and plasma heating. Secondly, a multivariate methodology based on MCR-ALS, ICA and PLS techniques, was developed to quantify certain elements in different metallic matrices

  12. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  13. Investigation of non-uniformity and inclusions in 6LiInSe2 utilizing laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Brenden; Tupitsyn, Eugene; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Rowe, Emmanuel; Lukosi, Eric; Chvala, Ondrej; Burger, Arnold; Stowe, Ashley

    2013-09-01

    Impurity analysis and compositional distribution studies have been conducted on a crystal of LiInSe2, a compound semiconductor which recently has been shown to respond to ionizing radiation. IR microscopy and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) revealed the presence of inclusions within the crystal lattice. These precipitates were revealed to be alkali and alkaline earth elemental impurities with non-uniform spatial distribution in the crystal. LIBS compositional maps correlate the presence of these impurities with visual color differences in the crystal as well as a significant shift of the band gap. Further, LIBS revealed variation in the ratio of I-III-VI2 elemental constituents throughout the crystal. Analysis of compositional variation and impurities will aid in discerning optimal synthesis and crystal growth parameters to maximize the mobility-lifetime product and charge collection efficiency in the LiInSe2 crystal. Preliminary charge trapping calculations have also been conducted with the Monte Carlo N-particle eXtended (MCNPx) package indicating preferential trapping of holes during irradiation with thermal neutrons.

  14. Le délibéré aux assises, ultime point aveugle dans l’affaire d’Outreau

    OpenAIRE

    Fayol-Noireterre, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Cet article envisage les délibérés des cours d’assises, en premier ressort et en appel, de l’affaire d’Outreau, à partir des auditions de la commission d’enquête parlementaire, et à la lumière d’une expérience professionnelle de magistrat (17 années comme juge des enfants, 16 années comme président d'assises). Cette libre projection permet de parcourir, à partir des textes de loi, des pratiques de conduites de délibérés. Il s'agit aussi d'aborder les problèmes inhérents au traitement judiciai...

  15. Libéralisation commerciale et pauvreté en Afrique | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 mai 2010 ... Bien que le principal argument des partisans de la libéralisation commerciale soit les gains de bien-être, à l'échange, ceux-ci reconnaissent qu'il y a des gagnants et des perdants. Face à ce constat, la problématique de la répartition des gains de l'échange dans les pays en développement, où les ...

  16. Quantitative Analysis of KF-LiF-ZrF4 Molten Salt by Probe Assisted in-situ LIBS Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Moon, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Hwang, I.S.; Lee, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Pyro-processing draws attention as a recycling process of spent nuclear fuel for future nuclear reactor. In the aspect of process control and safeguards of the pyro-processing, it requires a technology to measure the concentration of molten salt in real-time. The existing technologies measure the concentration by chemical analysis of sampled molten salt in the hot cell but it is disadvantageous in the aspects of cost, safety and time. The LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) is a form of atomic emission spectroscopy in which a pulsed laser is used as the excitation source. LIBS technology is appropriate to measure sensitive nuclear materials in hot cell because it is capable of measuring specimen quantitatively and qualitatively by exited atom by laser. Spectrum obtained from plasma is largely influenced by laser operation conditions and physical properties of specimens. Also, plasma induction is limited on the surface of specimen, so analysis of composition inside of the molten salt is extremely difficult. Thus, several restrictions should be overcome in order to apply LIBS for the measurement of molten salt (KF-LiF-ZrF 4 ) composition in real-time. In this study probe assisted LIBS system will be introduced with KF-LiF-ZrF 4 to quantitatively measure molten salt composition. Echelle spectrometer was used and the measurable wavelength area was 250-400 nm, the range of UV ray. NIST atomic spectra database measured the wavelength for molten salt composition, and each element was selected high signal intensity and wavelength range that is not overlapped by other elements. (authors)

  17. Early life adversity influences stress response association with smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Westra, Ruth; Allen, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that stress-related blunting of cortisol in smokers is particularly pronounced in those with a history of severe life adversity. The two aims of this study were first to examine hormonal, craving, and withdrawal symptoms during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence in smokers who experienced high or low levels of adversity. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between adversity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones to predict relapse during the first month of a smoking cessation attempt. Hormonal and self-report measures were collected from 103 smokers (49 women) during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence. HPA hormones were measured during baseline rest and in response to acute stress in both conditions. All smokers were interested in smoking cessation, and we prospectively used stress response measures to predict relapse during the first 4 weeks of the smoking cessation attempt. The results showed that high adversity was associated with higher distress and smoking withdrawal symptoms. High level of early life adversity was associated with elevated HPA activity, which was found in both salivary and plasma cortisol. Enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress response was evident in high-adversity but not in low-adversity relapsers. This study demonstrated that early life adversity is associated with stress-related HPA responses. The study also demonstrated that, among smokers who experienced a high level of life adversity, heightened ACTH and cortisol responses were linked with increased risk for smoking relapse.

  18. Ibuprofen prevents synthetic smoke-induced pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozawa, Y.; Hales, C.; Jung, W.; Burke, J.

    1986-12-01

    Multiple potentially injurious agents are present in smoke but the importance of each of these agents in producing lung injury as well as the mechanisms by which the lung injury is produced are unknown. In order to study smoke inhalation injury, we developed a synthetic smoke composed of a carrier of hot carbon particles of known size to which a single known common toxic agent in smoke, in this case HCI, could be added. We then exposed rats to the smoke, assayed their blood for the metabolites of thromboxane and prostacyclin, and intervened shortly after smoke with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin or ibuprofen to see if the resulting lung injury could be prevented. Smoke exposure produced mild pulmonary edema after 6 h with a wet-to-dry weight ratio of 5.6 +/- 0.2 SEM (n = 11) compared with the non-smoke-exposed control animals with a wet-to-dry weight ratio of 4.3 +/- 0.2 (n = 12), p less than 0.001. Thromboxane B, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha rose to 1660 +/- 250 pg/ml (p less than 0.01) and to 600 +/- 100 pg/ml (p greater than 0.1), respectively, in the smoke-injured animals compared with 770 +/- 150 pg/ml and 400 +/- 100 pg/ml in the non-smoke-exposed control animals. Indomethacin (n = 11) blocked the increase in both thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites but failed to prevent lung edema.

  19. Measurement system for high-sensitivity LIBS analysis using ICCD camera in LabVIEW environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, S M; Popov, A M; Zorov, N B; Labutin, T A

    2014-01-01

    A measurement system based on ultrafast (up to 10 ns time resolution) intensified CCD detector ''Nanogate-2V'' (Nanoscan, Russia) was developed for high-sensitivity analysis by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS). LabVIEW environment provided a high level of compatibility with variety of electronic instruments and an easy development of user interface, while Visual Studio environment was used for creation of LabVIEW compatible dll library with the use of ''Nanogate-2V'' SDK. The program for camera management and laser-induced plasma spectra registration was created with the use of Call Library Node in LabVIEW. An algorithm of integration of the second device ADC ''PCI-9812'' (ADLINK) to the measurement system was proposed and successfully implemented. This allowed simultaneous registration of emission and acoustic signals under laser ablation. The measured resolving power of spectrometer-ICCD system was equal to 12000 at 632 nm. An electron density of laser plasma was estimated with the use of H-α Balmer line. Steel spectra obtained at different delays were used for selection of the optimal conditions for manganese analytical signal registration. The feature of accumulation of spectra from several laser pulses was shown. The accumulation allowed reliable observation of silver signal at 328.07 nm in the LIBS spectra of soil (C Ag = 4.5 ppm). Finally, the correlation between acoustic and emission signals of plasma was found. Thus, technical possibilities of the developed LIBS system were demonstrated both for plasma diagnostics and analytical measurements

  20. Fast detection and characterization of organic and inorganic gunshot residues on the hands of suspects by CMV-GC-MS and LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarifa, Anamary; Almirall, José R

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method for the characterization of both organic and inorganic components of gunshot residues (GSR) is proposed as an alternative tool to facilitate the identification of a suspected shooter. In this study, two fast screening methods were developed and optimized for the detection of organic compounds and inorganic components indicative of GSR presence on the hands of shooters and non-shooters. The proposed methods consist of headspace extraction of volatile organic compounds using a capillary microextraction of volatiles (CMV) device previously reported as a high-efficiency sampler followed by detection by GC-MS. This novel sampling technique has the potential to yield fast results (LIBS) screening method for the detection of the inorganic components indicative of the presence of GSR (Sb, Pb and Ba) is described. The sampling method for the inorganics consists of liquid extraction of the target elements from the same cotton swabs (previously analyzed for VOCs) and an additional 30 swab samples followed by spiking 1μL of the extract solution onto a Teflon disk and then analyzed by LIBS. Advantages of LIBS include fast analysis (~12s per sample) and high selectivity and sensitivity, with expected LODs 0.1-18ng for each of the target elements after sampling. The analytical performance of the LIBS method is also compared to previously reported methods (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The combination of fast CMV sampling, unambiguous organic compound identification with GC-MS and fast LIBS analysis provides the basis for a new comprehensive screening method for GSR. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  2. LibAnswers: Analyzing tickets (questions) to improve our library's virtual reference service(s)

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    Analyze the questions received in LibAnswers (ticketing system) in order to improve the quality of our virtual reference services. Tickets that were received between June 2015 to April 2017 were analyzed and categorized. It was noted that most questions asked revolved around electronic resources issues as well as circulation/access issues.

  3. LibAnswers: Analyzing tickets (questions) to improve our library's virtual reference service(s)

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.; Ba-Rayyan, Faten A.

    2017-01-01

    Analyze the questions received in LibAnswers (ticketing system) in order to improve the quality of our virtual reference services. Tickets that were received between June 2015 to April 2017 were analyzed and categorized. It was noted that most questions asked revolved around electronic resources issues as well as circulation/access issues.

  4. The Ability of the FTC Method to Quantify Nicotine as a Function of Ammonia in Mainstream Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callicutt CH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether ammonia-forming ingredients added to tobacco and ammonia in smoke affect the ability of the Cambridge filter pad to trap nicotine in the Federal Trade Commission (FTC method was examined. Three commercial cigarettes, two industry reference cigarettes, and four specially designed test cigarettes were used in this study to represent cigarettes with different construction and mainstream (MS smoke yield characteristics. One of the commercial cigarettes, a US 1998 Marlboro Lights¯ King Size cigarette, was used as a control cigarette for the four experimental test cigarettes. The test cigarettes differed from the control cigarette as follows: first, a reduction in ammonia-forming ingredients added to the reconstituted tobaccos; second, no ammonia-forming ingredients added to the reconstituted tobacco; third, no ingredients at all added to the reconstituted tobaccos; and fourth, no ingredients at all added to the entire tobacco blend. An XAD-4 tube was placed downstream of the standard Cambridge filter pad in the FTC method to trap the gas-vapor phase nicotine for subsequent analysis. The Cambridge filter pad used in the FTC method was determined to provide greater than 99% trapping efficiency for MS smoke nicotine from cigarettes with widely different soluble ammonia levels in filler and MS smoke ammonia yields.

  5. Projecting future mortality in the Netherlands taking into account mortality delay and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; de Beer, J.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of future mortality often prove inaccurate as conventional extrapolative mortality projection methods do not capture the impact of smoking nor the mortality delay: the shift in the age-at-death distribution towards older ages. The added value of incorporating information on smoking into

  6. Éducation et Libération

    CERN Multimedia

    Education et Libération

    2013-01-01

    Vente d’artisanat du Tiers Monde Mardi 29 et mercredi 30 octobre 2013 CERN, Bâtiment principal Togo, Ecole Arc en ciel, construction des salles de classe. Appel pour le financement de ce chantier afin de libérer l’école de la charge des loyers payés pendant des années. Après nos réalisations en Amérique latine et au Bénin, nous mobilisons nos efforts pour l’école Arc en ciel de Kpeme, au Togo, sur les bords de l’Océan, à mi-chemin entre Lome et la frontière entre le Bénin et le Togo. Il s’agit d’une école primaire privée, laïque qui a très bonne réputation en termes de résultats, notamment pour les écoliers  en fin de scolarité primaire. Cela fait plusieurs années déjà q...

  7. Status update: is smoke on your mind? Using social media to assess smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ford

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to wildland fire smoke is associated with negative effects on human health. However, these effects are poorly quantified. Accurately attributing health endpoints to wildland fire smoke requires determining the locations, concentrations, and durations of smoke events. Most current methods for assessing these smoke events (ground-based measurements, satellite observations, and chemical transport modeling are limited temporally, spatially, and/or by their level of accuracy. In this work, we explore using daily social media posts from Facebook regarding smoke, haze, and air quality to assess population-level exposure for the summer of 2015 in the western US. We compare this de-identified, aggregated Facebook dataset to several other datasets that are commonly used for estimating exposure, such as satellite observations (MODIS aerosol optical depth and Hazard Mapping System smoke plumes, daily (24 h average surface particulate matter measurements, and model-simulated (WRF-Chem surface concentrations. After adding population-weighted spatial smoothing to the Facebook data, this dataset is well correlated (R2 generally above 0.5 with the other methods in smoke-impacted regions. The Facebook dataset is better correlated with surface measurements of PM2. 5 at a majority of monitoring sites (163 of 293 sites than the satellite observations and our model simulation. We also present an example case for Washington state in 2015, for which we combine this Facebook dataset with MODIS observations and WRF-Chem-simulated PM2. 5 in a regression model. We show that the addition of the Facebook data improves the regression model's ability to predict surface concentrations. This high correlation of the Facebook data with surface monitors and our Washington state example suggests that this social-media-based proxy can be used to estimate smoke exposure in locations without direct ground-based particulate matter measurements.

  8. Status update: is smoke on your mind? Using social media to assess smoke exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Bonne; Burke, Moira; Lassman, William; Pfister, Gabriele; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to wildland fire smoke is associated with negative effects on human health. However, these effects are poorly quantified. Accurately attributing health endpoints to wildland fire smoke requires determining the locations, concentrations, and durations of smoke events. Most current methods for assessing these smoke events (ground-based measurements, satellite observations, and chemical transport modeling) are limited temporally, spatially, and/or by their level of accuracy. In this work, we explore using daily social media posts from Facebook regarding smoke, haze, and air quality to assess population-level exposure for the summer of 2015 in the western US. We compare this de-identified, aggregated Facebook dataset to several other datasets that are commonly used for estimating exposure, such as satellite observations (MODIS aerosol optical depth and Hazard Mapping System smoke plumes), daily (24 h) average surface particulate matter measurements, and model-simulated (WRF-Chem) surface concentrations. After adding population-weighted spatial smoothing to the Facebook data, this dataset is well correlated (R2 generally above 0.5) with the other methods in smoke-impacted regions. The Facebook dataset is better correlated with surface measurements of PM2. 5 at a majority of monitoring sites (163 of 293 sites) than the satellite observations and our model simulation. We also present an example case for Washington state in 2015, for which we combine this Facebook dataset with MODIS observations and WRF-Chem-simulated PM2. 5 in a regression model. We show that the addition of the Facebook data improves the regression model's ability to predict surface concentrations. This high correlation of the Facebook data with surface monitors and our Washington state example suggests that this social-media-based proxy can be used to estimate smoke exposure in locations without direct ground-based particulate matter measurements.

  9. Children and youth perceive smoking messages in an unbranded advertisement from a NIKE marketing campaign: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background How youth perceive marketing messages in sports is poorly understood. We evaluated whether youth perceive that the imagery of a specific sports marketing advertisement contained smoking-related messages. Methods Twenty grade 7 to 11 classes (397 students) from two high schools in Montréal, Canada were recruited to participate in a cluster randomised single-blind controlled trial. Classes were randomly allocated to either a NIKE advertisement containing the phrase 'LIGHT IT UP' (n = 205) or to a neutral advertisement with smoking imagery reduced and the phrase replaced by 'GO FOR IT' (n = 192). The NIKE logo was removed from both advertisements. Students responded in class to a questionnaire asking open-ended questions about their perception of the messages in the ad. Reports relating to the appearance and text of the ad, and the product being promoted were evaluated. Results Relative to the neutral ad, more students reported that the phrase 'LIGHT IT UP' was smoking-related (37.6% vs. 0.5%) and that other parts of the ad resembled smoking-related products (50.7% vs. 10.4%). The relative risk of students reporting that the NIKE ad promoted cigarettes was 4.41 (95% confidence interval: 2.64-7.36; P promoting NIKE hockey products appears to have contained smoking-related messages. This particular marketing campaign may have promoted smoking. This suggests that the regulation of marketing to youth may need to be more tightly controlled. PMID:21477307

  10. Children and youth perceive smoking messages in an unbranded advertisement from a NIKE marketing campaign: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Knäuper, Bärbel; Raynault, Marie-France; Pless, Barry

    2011-04-08

    How youth perceive marketing messages in sports is poorly understood. We evaluated whether youth perceive that the imagery of a specific sports marketing advertisement contained smoking-related messages. Twenty grade 7 to 11 classes (397 students) from two high schools in Montréal, Canada were recruited to participate in a cluster randomised single-blind controlled trial. Classes were randomly allocated to either a NIKE advertisement containing the phrase 'LIGHT IT UP' (n = 205) or to a neutral advertisement with smoking imagery reduced and the phrase replaced by 'GO FOR IT' (n = 192). The NIKE logo was removed from both advertisements. Students responded in class to a questionnaire asking open-ended questions about their perception of the messages in the ad. Reports relating to the appearance and text of the ad, and the product being promoted were evaluated. Relative to the neutral ad, more students reported that the phrase 'LIGHT IT UP' was smoking-related (37.6% vs. 0.5%) and that other parts of the ad resembled smoking-related products (50.7% vs. 10.4%). The relative risk of students reporting that the NIKE ad promoted cigarettes was 4.41 (95% confidence interval: 2.64-7.36; P NIKE hockey products appears to have contained smoking-related messages. This particular marketing campaign may have promoted smoking. This suggests that the regulation of marketing to youth may need to be more tightly controlled.

  11. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kew, R.R.; Ghebrehiwet, B.; Janoff, A.

    1987-01-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of [ 14 C]methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little [ 14 C]methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers

  12. A hybrid LIBS-Raman system combined with chemometrics: an efficient tool for plastic identification and sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K M Muhammed; Choudhari, Khoobaram S; Bankapur, Aseefhali; Kulkarni, Suresh D; Unnikrishnan, V K; George, Sajan D; Kartha, V B; Santhosh, C

    2017-05-01

    Classification of plastics is of great importance in the recycling industry as the littering of plastic wastes increases day by day as a result of its extensive use. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of a combined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-Raman system for the rapid identification and classification of post-consumer plastics. The atomic information and molecular information of polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were studied using plasma emission spectra and scattered signal obtained in the LIBS and Raman technique, respectively. The collected spectral features of the samples were analyzed using statistical tools (principal component analysis, Mahalanobis distance) to categorize the plastics. The analyses of the data clearly show that elemental information and molecular information obtained from these techniques are efficient for classification of plastics. In addition, the molecular information collected via Raman spectroscopy exhibits clearly distinct features for the transparent plastics (100% discrimination), whereas the LIBS technique shows better spectral feature differences for the colored samples. The study shows that the information obtained from these complementary techniques allows the complete classification of the plastic samples, irrespective of the color or additives. This work further throws some light on the fact that the potential limitations of any of these techniques for sample identification can be overcome by the complementarity of these two techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  14. Diversité des théories libérales en Grèce au XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane D. Argyropoulos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Étudier l'émergence du mouvement libéral en Grèce au XIXe siècle implique une série de difficultés d'interprétation. C'est appréhender un univers qui a été légué par la Révolution française et nous conduit à l'acquisition de principes indispensables au fonctionnement d'une société démocratique moderne. Υ travers des types de discours différents, nous essayons de suivre les traces de cette mise en œuvre du principe de la liberté de 1830 jusqu'à la veille du premier conflit mondial. On assiste après 1830, à une période de transition mais également de mise en œuvre des idées novatrices des Lumières. Les libéraux grecs ont pris fait et cause pour des combats concernant le respect de la vie humaine, la réciprocité des droits et des devoirs et sont dominés par la préoccupation de la liberté d'expression et de création, l'abolition de la peine de mort, l'idéal républicain, l'instruction publique, le défi du progrès. Depuis les années 1830 jusqu'en 1870, se réclamer du libéralisme, c'est s'inscrire dans les forces progressistes. Mais, la dernière phase de son édification fut liée à la montée du socialisme et du marxisme, qu'il allait remettre en question, et dans les années qui ont suivi la défaite de 1897, le libéralisme est confronté à des théories comme la pensée polyvalente de Nietzsche. Dans les différentes phases de l'évolution de la pensée libérale en Grèce, on observe des variations qui pour la plupart sont des étapes du processus vers la démocratie.

  15. Dehydrated Carbon Coupled with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) for the Determination of Heavy Metals in Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guanghui; Shi, Qi; Xu, Mingjun; Lai, Hongjun; Lin, Qingyu; Liu, Kunping; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-10-01

    In this article, a novel and alternative method of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis for liquid sample is proposed, which involves the removal of metal ions from a liquid to a solid substrate using a cost-efficient adsorbent, dehydrated carbon, obtained using a dehydration reaction. Using this new technique, researchers can detect trace metal ions in solutions qualitatively and quantitatively, and the drawbacks of performing liquid analysis using LIBS can be avoided because the analysis is performed on a solid surface. To achieve better performance using this technique, we considered parameters potentially influencing both adsorption performance and LIBS analysis. The calibration curves were evaluated, and the limits of detection obtained for Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cr(3+) were 0.77, 0.065, and 0.46 mg/L, respectively, which are better than those in the previous studies. In addition, compared to other absorbents, the adsorbent used in this technique is much cheaper in cost, easier to obtain, and has fewer or no other elements other than C, H, and O that could result in spectral interference during analysis. We also used the recommended method to analyze spiked samples, obtaining satisfactory results. Thus, this new technique is helpful and promising for use in wastewater analysis and management.

  16. [Influence of Spectral Pre-Processing on PLS Quantitative Model of Detecting Cu in Navel Orange by LIBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-bing; Yao, Lin-tao; Liu, Mu-hua; Huang, Lin; Yao, Ming-yin; Chen, Tian-bing; He, Xiu-wen; Yang, Ping; Hu, Hui-qin; Nie, Jiang-hui

    2015-05-01

    Cu in navel orange was detected rapidly by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with partial least squares (PLS) for quantitative analysis, then the effect on the detection accuracy of the model with different spectral data ptetreatment methods was explored. Spectral data for the 52 Gannan navel orange samples were pretreated by different data smoothing, mean centralized and standard normal variable transform. Then 319~338 nm wavelength section containing characteristic spectral lines of Cu was selected to build PLS models, the main evaluation indexes of models such as regression coefficient (r), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were compared and analyzed. Three indicators of PLS model after 13 points smoothing and processing of the mean center were found reaching 0. 992 8, 3. 43 and 3. 4 respectively, the average relative error of prediction model is only 5. 55%, and in one word, the quality of calibration and prediction of this model are the best results. The results show that selecting the appropriate data pre-processing method, the prediction accuracy of PLS quantitative model of fruits and vegetables detected by LIBS can be improved effectively, providing a new method for fast and accurate detection of fruits and vegetables by LIBS.

  17. Libéralisation du commerce des biens et services TIC : enjeux et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Libéralisation du commerce des biens et services TIC : enjeux et implications pour la mise en oeuvre de politiques publiques en Afrique de l'Ouest. En Afrique de l'Ouest, les entreprises du secteur privé des technologies d'information et de la communication (TIC) ont démontré leur capacité à créer des emplois et à stimuler ...

  18. Cost-effective smoke-free multiunit housing media campaigns: connecting with local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modayil, Mary V; Consolacion, Theodora B; Isler, Jonathan; Soria, Sandra; Stevens, Colleen

    2011-11-01

    Presented are cost-effective paid media strategies to educate Californians to advocate for stronger smoke-free multiunit housing (SF-MUH) policies between 2006 and 2008. Included is a summary of general market and specific ethnic market costs that correspond to SF-MUH attitudes and home smoking bans. Statewide questionnaires indicated that half of the intended general market saw an antitobacco TV ad and half of the intended ethnic markets heard radio ads. Analyses indicated that it cost $0.67 and $0.78 per person to see Caution Tape and Apartment TV ads, respectively. Slightly higher per capita costs corresponded with positive attitudes toward SF-MUH: $0.87 for Caution Tape and $1.00 for Apartment. Lessons learned from this campaign included effectiveness of specific ads in ethnic markets, impact on SF-MUH work plan policy objectives, and the need for collaborations among state and local partners throughout the message development process.

  19. The effects of smoking-related television advertising on smoking and intentions to quit among adults in the United States: 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry; Kim, Yoonsang; Choi, Young Ku; Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-04-01

    We investigated whether state-sponsored antitobacco advertisements are associated with reduced adult smoking, and interactions between smoking-related advertising types. We measured mean exposure to smoking-related advertisements with television ratings for the top-75 US media markets from 1999 to 2007. We combined these data with individual-level Current Population Surveys Tobacco Use Supplement data and state tobacco control policy data. Higher exposure to state-sponsored, Legacy, and pharmaceutical advertisements was associated with less smoking; higher exposure to tobacco industry advertisements was associated with more smoking. Higher exposure to state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements was positively associated with intentions to quit and having made a past-year quit attempt; higher exposure to ads for pharmaceutical cessation aids was negatively associated with having made a quit attempt. There was a significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements. Exposure to state-sponsored advertisements was far below Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended best practices. The significant negative relationships between antismoking advertising and adult smoking provide strong evidence that tobacco-control media campaigns help reduce adult smoking. The significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertising suggests that the campaigns reinforce one another.

  20. Mercury Amalgam Diffusion in Human Teeth Probed Using Femtosecond LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Liciane Toledo; da Ana, Patricia Aparecida; Santos, Dário; Krug, Francisco José; Zezell, Denise Maria; Vieira, Nilson Dias; Samad, Ricardo Elgul

    2017-04-01

    In this work the diffusion of mercury and other elements from amalgam tooth restorations through the surrounding dental tissue (dentin) was evaluated using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (fs-LIBS). To achieve this, seven deciduous and eight permanent extracted human molar teeth with occlusal amalgam restorations were half-sectioned and analyzed using pulses from a femtosecond laser. The measurements were performed from the amalgam restoration along the amalgam/dentin interface to the apical direction. It was possible to observe the presence of metallic elements (silver, mercury, copper and tin) emission lines, as well as dental constituent ones, providing fingerprints of each material and comparable data for checking the consistence of the results. It was also shown that the elements penetration depth values in each tooth are usually similar and consistent, for both deciduous and permanent teeth, indicating that all the metals diffuse into the dentin by the same mechanism. We propose that this diffusion mechanism is mainly through liquid dragging inside the dentin tubules. The mercury diffused further in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth, probably due to the longer diffusion times due to the age of the restorations. It was possible to conclude that the proposed femtosecond-LIBS system can detect the presence of metals in the dental tissue, among the tooth constituent elements, and map the distribution of endogenous and exogenous chemical elements, with a spatial resolution that can be brought under 100 µm.

  1. Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Andrew K.; Scherbarth, Nancy L.; Cremers, David A.; Ferris, Monty J.

    2000-01-01

    Early in the next century, several space missions are planned with the goal of landing craft on asteroids, comets, the Moon, and Mars. To increase the scientific return of these missions, new methods are needed to provide (1) significantly more analyses per mission lifetime, and (2) expanded analytical capabilities. One method that has the potential to meet both of these needs for the elemental analysis of geological samples is laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). These capabilities are possible because the laser plasma provides rapid analysis and the laser pulse can be focused on a remotely located sample to perform a stand-off measurement. Stand-off is defined as a distance up to 20 m between the target and laser. Here we present the results of a characterization of LIBS for the stand-off analysis of soils at reduced air pressures and in a simulated Martian atmosphere (5-7 torr pressure of CO 2 ) showing the feasibility of LIBS for space exploration. For example, it is demonstrated that an analytically useful laser plasma can be generated at distances up to 19 m by using only 35 mJ/pulse from a compact laser. Some characteristics of the laser plasma at reduced pressure were also investigated. Temporally and spectrally resolved imaging showed significant changes in the plasma as the pressure was reduced and also showed that the analyte signals and mass ablated from a target were strongly dependent on pressure. As the pressure decreased from 590 torr to the 40-100 torr range, the signals increased by a factor of about 3-4, and as the pressure was further reduced the signals decreased. This behavior can be explained by pressure-dependent changes in the mass of material vaporized and the frequency of collisions between species in the plasma. Changes in the temperature and the electron density of the plasmas with pressure were also examined and detection limits for selected elements were determined. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  2. Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Andrew K. [Group CST-1, MS J565, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Scherbarth, Nancy L. [Group CST-1, MS J565, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Cremers, David A. [Group CST-1, MS J565, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ferris, Monty J. [Group CST-1, MS J565, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Early in the next century, several space missions are planned with the goal of landing craft on asteroids, comets, the Moon, and Mars. To increase the scientific return of these missions, new methods are needed to provide (1) significantly more analyses per mission lifetime, and (2) expanded analytical capabilities. One method that has the potential to meet both of these needs for the elemental analysis of geological samples is laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). These capabilities are possible because the laser plasma provides rapid analysis and the laser pulse can be focused on a remotely located sample to perform a stand-off measurement. Stand-off is defined as a distance up to 20 m between the target and laser. Here we present the results of a characterization of LIBS for the stand-off analysis of soils at reduced air pressures and in a simulated Martian atmosphere (5-7 torr pressure of CO{sub 2}) showing the feasibility of LIBS for space exploration. For example, it is demonstrated that an analytically useful laser plasma can be generated at distances up to 19 m by using only 35 mJ/pulse from a compact laser. Some characteristics of the laser plasma at reduced pressure were also investigated. Temporally and spectrally resolved imaging showed significant changes in the plasma as the pressure was reduced and also showed that the analyte signals and mass ablated from a target were strongly dependent on pressure. As the pressure decreased from 590 torr to the 40-100 torr range, the signals increased by a factor of about 3-4, and as the pressure was further reduced the signals decreased. This behavior can be explained by pressure-dependent changes in the mass of material vaporized and the frequency of collisions between species in the plasma. Changes in the temperature and the electron density of the plasmas with pressure were also examined and detection limits for selected elements were determined. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  3. Monitoring uranium, hydrogen, and lithium and their isotopes using a compact laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) probe and high-resolution spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, David A; Beddingfield, Alan; Smithwick, Robert; Chinni, Rosemarie C; Jones, C Randy; Beardsley, Burt; Karch, Larry

    2012-03-01

    The development of field-deployable instruments to monitor radiological, nuclear, and explosive (RNE) threats is of current interest for a number of assessment needs such as the on-site screening of suspect facilities and nuclear forensics. The presence of uranium and plutonium and radiological materials can be determined through monitoring the elemental emission spectrum using relatively low-resolution spectrometers. In addition, uranium compounds, explosives, and chemicals used in nuclear fuel processing (e.g., tributyl-phosphate) can be identified by applying chemometric analysis to the laser-induced breakdown (LIBS) spectrum recorded by these spectrometers. For nuclear forensic applications, however, isotopes of U and Pu and other elements (e.g., H and Li) must also be determined, requiring higher resolution spectrometers given the small magnitude of the isotope shifts for some of these elements (e.g., 25 pm for U and 13 pm for Pu). High-resolution spectrometers will be preferred for several reasons but these must fit into realistic field-based analysis scenarios. To address the need for field instrumentation, we evaluated a previously developed field-deployable hand-held LIBS interrogation probe combined with two relatively new high-resolution spectrometers (λ/Δλ ~75,000 and ~44,000) that have the potential to meet field-based analysis needs. These spectrometers are significantly smaller and lighter in weight than those previously used for isotopic analysis and one unit can provide simultaneous wide spectral coverage and high resolution in a relatively small package. The LIBS interrogation probe was developed initially for use with low resolution compact spectrometers in a person-portable backpack LIBS instrument. Here we present the results of an evaluation of the LIBS probe combined with a high-resolution spectrometer and demonstrate rapid detection of isotopes of uranium and hydrogen and highly enriched samples of (6)Li and (7)Li. © 2012 Society for

  4. Superhumps linked to X-ray emission. The superoutbursts of SSS J122221.7-311525 and GW Lib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustroev, V. V.; Page, K. L.; Kuulkers, E.; Osborne, J. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Knigge, C.; Marsh, T.; Suleimanov, V. F.; Zharikov, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Context. We present more than 4 years of Swift X-ray observations of the 2013 superoutburst, subsequent decline and quiescence of the WZ Sge-type dwarf nova SSS J122221.7-311525 (SSS J122222) from 6 days after discovery. Aims: Only a handful of WZ Sge-type dwarf novae have been observed in X-rays, and until recently GW Lib was the only binary of this type with complete coverage of an X-ray light curve throughout a superoutburst. We collected extensive X-ray data of a second such system to understand the extent to which the unexpected properties of GW Lib are common to the WZ Sge class. Methods: We collected 60 Swift-XRT observations of SSS J122222 between 2013 January 6 and 2013 July 1. Four follow-up observations were performed in 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017. The total exposure time of our observations is 86.6 ks. We analysed the X-ray light curve and compared it with the behaviour of superhumps which were detected in the optical light curve. We also performed spectral analysis of the data. The results were compared with the properties of GW Lib, for which new X-ray observations were also obtained. Results: SSS J122222 was variable and around five times brighter in 0.3-10 keV X-rays during the superoutburst than in quiescence, mainly because of a significant strengthening of a high-energy component of the X-ray spectrum. The post-outburst decline of the X-ray flux lasted at least 500 d. The data show no evidence of the expected optically thick boundary layer in the system during the outburst. SSS J122222 also exhibited a sudden X-ray flux change in the middle of the superoutburst, which occurred exactly at the time of the superhump stage transition. A similar X-ray behaviour was also detected in GW Lib. Conclusions: We show that the X-ray flux exhibits changes at the times of changes in the superhump behaviour of both SSS J122222 and GW Lib. This result demonstrates a relationship between the outer disc and the white dwarf boundary layer for the first time, and

  5. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  6. Changes in circulating peptide YY and ghrelin are associated with early smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine M; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) during ad libitum smoking have been associated with decreased reported craving (ghrelin) and increased positive affect (PYY), and higher baseline ghrelin levels predicted subsequent increased risk of smoking relapse. The current study assessed PYY and ghrelin during ad libitum smoking and again after the initial 48h of a smoking cessation attempt. The data compared smokers who abstained for 28days (n=37), smokers who relapsed (n=54), and nonsmokers (n=37). Plasma samples and subjective measures assessing craving and mood were collected at the beginning of each session. Results showed that relapsers experienced greater levels of distress (ps <0.01). While nonsmokers and abstainers showed no change in ghrelin across the initial 48h, relapsers declined (p <0.01). With PYY, relapsers increased (p <0.05) across the early abstinent phase. PYY and ghrelin may be useful predictors of relapse, specifically in reference to early withdrawal. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. L'institutionnalisation des délibérations dans l'espace public au sein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    16 sept. 2010 ... prise de décision occuperont une place importante dans cette étude, l'accent sera surtout mis sur le processus par lequel la délibération dans l' ...... autorités traditionnelles mettent en œuvre pour essayer de faire face aux.

  8. Sausage instability of Z-discharged plasma channel in LIB-fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Kawata, S.; Niu, K.

    1982-07-01

    Current-carring plasma channels have been proposed for transporting intense ion beams from diodes to a target in a LIB-fusion device. In this paper, the growth rate of the most dangerous surface mode, that is, axisymmetric sausage instability is examined for the plasma channel. The growth rate is shown to be smaller than that of the plasma channel with no fluid motion in a sharp boundary. It is concluded that the stable plasma channel can be formed. (author)

  9. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  10. University of São Paulo Reasons for Smoking Scale: a new tool for the evaluation of smoking motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Elisa Sebba Tosta de; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Martinez, José Antônio Baddini

    2010-01-01

    To develop a new scale aimed at evaluating smoking motivation by incorporating questions and domains from the 68-item Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) into the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS). Nine WISDM-68 questions regarding affiliative attachment, cue exposure/associative processes, and weight control were added to the 21 questions of the MRSS. The new scale, together with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), was administered to 311 smokers (214 males; mean age = 37.6 ± 10.8 years; mean number of cigarettes smoked per day = 15.0 ± 9.2), who also provided additional information. We used exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the factor structure of the scale. The influence that certain clinical features had on the scores of the final factor solution was also analyzed. The factor analysis revealed a 21-question solution grouped into nine factors: addiction, pleasure from smoking, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, handling, social smoking, weight control, and affiliative attachment. For the overall scale, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.83. Females scored significantly higher for addiction, tension reduction, handling, weight control, and affiliative attachment than did males. The FTND score correlated positively with addiction, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, social smoking, and affiliative attachment. The number of cigarettes smoked per day was associated with addiction, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, affiliative attachment, and handling. The level of exhaled CO correlated positively with addiction, automatism, and affiliative attachment. The new scale provides an acceptable framework of motivational factors for smoking, with satisfactory psychometric properties and reliability.

  11. The 1064 nm laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) inspection to detect the nutrient elements in freshly cut carrot samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudasari, N.; Prasetyo, S.; Suliyanti, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was applied to detect the nutrient elements contained in fresh carrot. Nd:YAG laser the wavelength of 1064 nm was employed in the experiments for ablation. Employing simple set-up of LIBS and preparing the sample with less step method, we are able to detect 18 chemical elements including some fundamental element of carrot, i.e Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ca, and Mn. By applying normalized profiles calculation on some of the element, we are able to compare the concentration level of each element of the outer and inner part of carrot.

  12. Curiosity predicts smoking experimentation independent of susceptibility in a US national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodora, Jesse; Hartman, Sheri J; Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa E; White, Martha M; Portnoy, David B; Choiniere, Conrad J; Vullo, Genevieve C; Pierce, John P

    2014-12-01

    To improve smoking prevention efforts, better methods for identifying at-risk youth are needed. The widely used measure of susceptibility to smoking identifies at-risk adolescents; however, it correctly identifies only about one third of future smokers. Adding curiosity about smoking to this susceptibility index may allow us to identify a greater proportion of future smokers while they are still pre-teens. We use longitudinal data from a recent national study on parenting to prevent problem behaviors. Only oldest children between 10 and 13years of age were eligible. Participants were identified by RDD survey and followed for 6years. All baseline never smokers with at least one follow-up assessment were included (n=878). The association of curiosity about smoking with future smoking behavior was assessed. Then, curiosity was added to form an enhanced susceptibility index and sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated. Among committed never smokers at baseline, those who were 'definitely not curious' were less likely to progress toward smoking than both those who were 'probably not curious' (ORadj=1.89; 95% CI=1.03-3.47) or 'probably/definitely curious' (ORadj=2.88; 95% CI=1.11-7.45). Incorporating curiosity into the susceptibility index increased the proportion identified as at-risk to smoke from 25.1% to 46.9%. The sensitivity (true positives) for this enhanced susceptibility index for both experimentation and established smoking increased from 37-40% to over 50%, although the positive predictive value did not improve. The addition of curiosity significantly improves the identification and classification of which adolescents will experiment with smoking or become established smokers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Sanuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Humphries, Seth D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vaniman, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, S. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Misra, A. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Dyar, M. D. [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Smrekar, S. E. [JET PROPULSION LAB.

    2010-12-13

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to

  14. Updates of the KArLE Experiment: New Libs Calibration Under High Vacuum for the Quantification of Potassium in Basalt for In Situ Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, B. A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary exploration, in situ absolute geochronology is one of the main important measurements that needs to be accomplished. Until now, on Mars, the age of the surface is only determined by crater density counting, which gives relative ages. These ages can have a lot of uncertainty as they depend on many parameters. More than that, the curves must be ties to absolute ages. Thus far, only the lost lander Beagle 2 was designed to conduct absolute geochronology measurements, though some recent attempts using MSL Curiosity show that this investigation is feasible and should be strongly encouraged for future flight. Experimental: The Potassium (K)-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) is being developed at MSFC through the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP). The goal of this experiment is to provide in situ geochronology based on the K-Ar method. A laser ablates a rock under high vacuum, creating a plasma which is sensed by an optical spectrometer to do Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The ablated material frees gases, including radiogenic 40Ar,which is measured by a mass spectrometer (MS). As the potassium is a content and the 40Ar is a quantity, the ablated mass needed in order to relate them. The mass is given by the product of the ablated volume by the density of this material. So we determine the mineralogy of the ablated material with the LIBS spectra and images and calculate its density. The volume of the pit is measured by using microscopy. LIBS measurement of K under high vacuum: Three independant projects [1, 2, 3] including KArLE, are developing geochronological instruments based on this LA-LIBS-MS method. Despite several differences in their setup, all of them have validated the methods with analyses and ages. However, they all described difficulties with the LIBS measurements of K [3,4]. At ambient pressure, the quantification of K by LIBS on geological materials can be accurate [5]. However the protocol of the LA-LIBS

  15. Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutouquet, C.; Le Bihan, O.; Dermigny, A.; Frejafon, E.; Gallou, G.; Sirven, J.B.; Torralba, B.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment.Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. (authors)

  16. Children and youth perceive smoking messages in an unbranded advertisement from a NIKE marketing campaign: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mark

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How youth perceive marketing messages in sports is poorly understood. We evaluated whether youth perceive that the imagery of a specific sports marketing advertisement contained smoking-related messages. Methods Twenty grade 7 to 11 classes (397 students from two high schools in Montréal, Canada were recruited to participate in a cluster randomised single-blind controlled trial. Classes were randomly allocated to either a NIKE advertisement containing the phrase 'LIGHT IT UP' (n = 205 or to a neutral advertisement with smoking imagery reduced and the phrase replaced by 'GO FOR IT' (n = 192. The NIKE logo was removed from both advertisements. Students responded in class to a questionnaire asking open-ended questions about their perception of the messages in the ad. Reports relating to the appearance and text of the ad, and the product being promoted were evaluated. Results Relative to the neutral ad, more students reported that the phrase 'LIGHT IT UP' was smoking-related (37.6% vs. 0.5% and that other parts of the ad resembled smoking-related products (50.7% vs. 10.4%. The relative risk of students reporting that the NIKE ad promoted cigarettes was 4.41 (95% confidence interval: 2.64-7.36; P Conclusions The unbranded imagery of an advertisement in a specific campaign aimed at promoting NIKE hockey products appears to have contained smoking-related messages. This particular marketing campaign may have promoted smoking. This suggests that the regulation of marketing to youth may need to be more tightly controlled.

  17. Répercussions de la libéralisation du commerce des services sur le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Répercussions de la libéralisation du commerce des services sur le développement. La documentation économique a démontré l'importance du secteur des services dans le processus de croissance économique et de développement social. Le principal défi auquel sont confrontés aujourd'hui les pays en développement ...

  18. La libéralisation comme source du dérèglement des transports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés: Libéralisation - Transport public - Chronologie - Urbain - Organisation. English Title: Liberalization as a source of deregulation of public transport in Annaba city. English Abstract. Similarly at almost of the Algerian cities, after the dissolution of the Municipal Board RMCA, the city of Annaba doesn't escape from the ...

  19. Recent advances in the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a rapid point-of-care pathogen diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehse, Steven J.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2012-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has made tremendous progress in becoming a viable technology for rapid bacterial pathogen detection and identification. The significant advantages of LIBS include speed (present the latest advances achieved in LIBS-based bacterial sensing including the ability to uniquely identify species from more than five bacterial genera with high-sensitivity and specificity. Bacterial identifications are completely unaffected by environment, nutrition media, or state of growth and accurate diagnoses can be made on autoclaved or UV-irradiated specimens. Efficient discrimination of bacteria at the strain level has been demonstrated. A rapid urinary tract infection diagnosis has been simulated with no sample preparation and a one second diagnosis of a pathogen surrogate has been demonstrated using advanced chemometric analysis with a simple "stop-light" user interface. Stand-off bacterial identification at a 20-m distance has been demonstrated on a field-portable instrument. This technology could be implemented in doctors' offices, clinics, or hospital laboratories for point-of-care medical specimen analysis; mounted on military medical robotic platforms for in-the- field diagnostics; or used in stand-off configuration for remote sensing and detection.

  20. Classification of red wine based on its protected designation of origin (PDO) using Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, S; Rosales, J D; Izquierdo-Hornillos, R; Anzano, J; Caceres, J O

    2016-09-01

    This work reports on a simple and fast classification procedure for the quality control of red wines with protected designation of origin (PDO) by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique combined with Neural Networks (NN) in order to increase the quality assurance and authenticity issues. A total of thirty-eight red wine samples from different PDO were analyzed to detect fake wines and to avoid unfair competition in the market. LIBS is well known for not requiring sample preparation, however, in order to increase its analytical performance a new sample preparation treatment by previous liquid-to-solid transformation of the wine using a dry collagen gel has been developed. The use of collagen pellets allowed achieving successful classification results, avoiding the limitations and difficulties of working with aqueous samples. The performance of the NN model was assessed by three validation procedures taking into account their sensitivity (internal validation), generalization ability and robustness (independent external validation). The results of the use of a spectroscopic technique coupled with a chemometric analysis (LIBS-NN) are discussed in terms of its potential use in the food industry, providing a methodology able to perform the quality control of alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), part I: review of basic diagnostics and plasma-particle interactions: still-challenging issues within the analytical plasma community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, David W; Omenetto, Nicoló

    2010-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become a very popular analytical method in the last decade in view of some of its unique features such as applicability to any type of sample, practically no sample preparation, remote sensing capability, and speed of analysis. The technique has a remarkably wide applicability in many fields, and the number of applications is still growing. From an analytical point of view, the quantitative aspects of LIBS may be considered its Achilles' heel, first due to the complex nature of the laser-sample interaction processes, which depend upon both the laser characteristics and the sample material properties, and second due to the plasma-particle interaction processes, which are space and time dependent. Together, these may cause undesirable matrix effects. Ways of alleviating these problems rely upon the description of the plasma excitation-ionization processes through the use of classical equilibrium relations and therefore on the assumption that the laser-induced plasma is in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Even in this case, the transient nature of the plasma and its spatial inhomogeneity need to be considered and overcome in order to justify the theoretical assumptions made. This first article focuses on the basic diagnostics aspects and presents a review of the past and recent LIBS literature pertinent to this topic. Previous research on non-laser-based plasma literature, and the resulting knowledge, is also emphasized. The aim is, on one hand, to make the readers aware of such knowledge and on the other hand to trigger the interest of the LIBS community, as well as the larger analytical plasma community, in attempting some diagnostic approaches that have not yet been fully exploited in LIBS.

  2. Enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Detection limit using a low-pressure and short-pulse laser-induced plasma process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen Zhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Kuwahara, Masakazu; Yan, Jun Jie; Liu, Ji Ping

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology is an appealing technique compared with many other types of elemental analysis because of the fast response, high sensitivity, real-time, and noncontact features. One of the challenging targets of LIBS is the enhancement of the detection limit. In this study, the detection limit of gas-phase LIBS analysis has been improved by controlling the pressure and laser pulse width. In order to verify this method, low-pressure gas plasma was induced using nanosecond and picosecond lasers. The method was applied to the detection of Hg. The emission intensity ratio of the Hg atom to NO (IHg/INO) was analyzed to evaluate the LIBS detection limit because the NO emission (interference signal) was formed during the plasma generation and cooling process of N2 and O2 in the air. It was demonstrated that the enhancement of IHg/INO arose by decreasing the pressure to a few kilopascals, and the IHg/INO of the picosecond breakdown was always much higher than that of the nanosecond breakdown at low buffer gas pressure. Enhancement of IHg/INO increased more than 10 times at 700 Pa using picosecond laser with 35 ps pulse width. The detection limit was enhanced to 0.03 ppm (parts per million). We also saw that the spectra from the center and edge parts of plasma showed different features. Comparing the central spectra with the edge spectra, IHg/INO of the edge spectra was higher than that of the central spectra using the picosecond laser breakdown process.

  3. Smoking topography in Korean American and white men: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M

    2015-06-01

    This is the first study of Korean Americans' smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 h. Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking with greater puff flows and shorter interpuff intervals than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day.

  4. A study of using femtosecond LIBS in analyzing metallic thin film-semiconductor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmed, A. H.; Kassem, A. K.; von Bergmann, H.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Metals and metal alloys are usually employed as interconnections to guide electrical signals between components into the very large scale integrated (VLSI) devices. These devices demand higher complexity, better performance and lower cost. Thin film is a common geometry for these metallic applications, requiring a substrate for rigidity. Accurate depth profile analysis of coatings is becoming increasingly important with expanding industrial use in technological fields. A number of articles devoted to LIBS applications for depth-resolved analysis have been published in recent years. In the present work, we are studying the ability of femtosecond LIBS to make depth profiling for a Ti thin film of thickness 213 nm deposited onto a silicon (100) substrate before and after thermal annealing. The measurements revealed that an average ablation rates of 15 nm per pulse have been achieved. The thin film was examined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), while the formation of the interface was examined using Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) before and after annealing. To verify the depth profiling results, a theoretical simulation model is presented that gave a very good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Design and development of a LIBS system on linear plasma device PSI-2 for in situ real-time diagnostics of plasma-facing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS is a strong candidate for detecting and monitoring the H/D/T content on the surface of plasma facing components (PFCs due to its capability of fast direct in situ measurement in extreme environment (e.g., vacuum, magnetic field, long distance, complex geometry. To study the feasibilities and encounter the challenges of LIBS on plasma devices, a LIBS system has been set up on the linear plasma device PSI-2. A number of key parameters including laser energy, the influence of magnetic field and the persistence of laser induced plasma are studied. Real-time measurements of deuterium outgassing on tungsten samples exposed to deuterium plasma of 1025 D/m2 are performed in the first 40–130 min after plasma exposure. The experimental results are compared to the calculations in the literature.

  6. Perceptions of the Harm and Addictiveness of Conventional Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescent E-Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotomo, Olusegun; Maslowsky, Julie; Loukas, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity. National samples of 8th- and 10th-grade students from 2014 and 2015 (N = 14,151) were obtained from the Monitoring the Future Study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between adolescent smoking status and perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking while controlling for potential confounders. E-cigarette users had lower perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking compared with nonusers but higher than cigarette smokers and dual users. E-cigarette users reported lower influence by antismoking ads, more conventional cigarette-smoking peers, and greater risk-taking propensity than nonusers. E-cigarette users and cigarette smokers did not differ in their perceived harm of conventional cigarette smoking or in their risk-taking propensity. E-cigarette users' attitudes and perceptions regarding conventional cigarette smoking may leave them vulnerable to becoming conventional cigarette smokers. Future studies should explore the prospective relationship between smoking-related perceptions of conventional cigarette smoking among e-cigarette users and the onset of cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  7. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  8. Catalytic Reduction of NO and NOx Content in Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkovic N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen oxides (NO content in mainstream tobacco smoke, a new class of catalyst based on Cu-ZSM-5 zeolite has been synthesized. The effectiveness of the new catalyst (degree of reduction and specific catalytic ability was tested both by adding Cu-ZSM-5 zeolite directly to the tobacco blend and by addition to the filter. We have determined that adding the catalyst to the tobacco blend does not cause any changes in the physical, chemical or organoleptic properties of the cigarette blend. But, the addition reduces the yield of nitrogen oxides while having no influence on nicotine and “tar” content in the tobacco smoke of the modified blend. The catalyst addition increases the static burning rate (SBR. The changes in the quantity of NO and NOmay be explained by changes in burning conditions due to the increase of Oobtained from catalytic degradation of NO and NO, and adsorptive and diffusive properties of the catalyst. The changes in mainstream smoke analytes are also given on a puff-by-puff basis.

  9. Effects of exercise on craving and cigarette smoking in the human laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse

    2014-06-01

    Exercise is increasingly being pursued as a treatment to reduce cigarette smoking. The efficacy of clinical, exercise-based cessation interventions may be enhanced by conducting laboratory studies to determine maximally effective conditions for reducing smoking, and the mechanisms through which the effects on smoking are achieved. The main purpose of this study was to assess whether the effects of exercise on two components of craving (anticipated reward from smoking, anticipated relief from withdrawal) mediated the relationship between exercise and delay (in min) to ad libitum smoking. Experiment 1 (N=21) assessed the effects of exercise intensity (inactivity, low, moderate) on craving components up to 60 min post-exercise. Because moderate-intensity exercise most effectively reduced craving on the reward component, all participants exercised at a moderate intensity in Experiment 2. Using an ABAB within-subjects design, Experiment 2 (N=20) evaluated whether the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on reward and relief components of craving mediated the relationship between exercise and participants' delays (in min) to ad libitum smoking. Delays were significantly longer after exercise (M=21 min) versus inactivity (M=4 min), and the effects of exercise on delay were mediated through the reward component of craving. Future research should continue to explore the mechanisms through which exercise influences behavioral indices of smoking in the human laboratory. Additionally, given the benefits uniquely afforded by exercise-based cessation interventions (e.g., improving mood and other health outcomes), implementing these interventions in clinical settings may contribute substantially to improving public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, M C; Nonnemaker, J M; Chou, R; Hyland, A; Peterson, K K; Bauer, U E

    2005-08-01

    To assess the impact on hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke of New York's smoke-free law that prohibits smoking in all places of employment, including restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities. Pre-post longitudinal follow up design. Restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities in New York State. At baseline, 104 non-smoking workers in restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities were recruited with newspaper ads, flyers, and radio announcements. Of these, 68 completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen at baseline. At three, six, and 12 month follow up studies, 47, 38, and 32 workers from the baseline sample of 68 completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen. The smoke-free law went into effect 24 July 2003. Self reported sensory and respiratory symptoms and exposure to secondhand smoke; self administered saliva cotinine specimens. Analyses were limited to subjects in all four study periods who completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen. All analyses were limited to participants who completed both an interview and a saliva specimen for all waves of data collection (n = 30) and who had cotinine concentrations hospitality jobs decreased from 12.1 hours (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.0 to 16.3 hours) to 0.2 hours (95% CI -0.1 to 0.5 hours) (p law had its intended effect of protecting hospitality workers from exposure to secondhand smoke within three months of implementation. One year after implementation, the results suggest continued compliance with the law.

  11. Analisi sui pigmenti di ceramica neolitica tramite tecniche Raman e LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fabbri

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available I dati presentati in questo breve contributo provengono da uno studio condotto in collaborazione dal Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche dell’Università di Pisa e dall’Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici di Fisica molecolare del CNR di Pisa. Le metodologie applicate sono basate sull’analisi integrata delle tecniche spettroscopiche Raman e LIBS già ampiamente utilizzate nel campo dei Beni Culturali; i metodi sono infatti essenzialmente non distruttivi, non richiedono di un pre trattamento del campione e l’acquisizione delle misure è immediata.

  12. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Monitoring the Formation of Hydroxyapatite Porous Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Sola, Daniel; Paulés, Daniel; Grima, Lorena; Anzano, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to characterize the formation of porous hydroxyapatite layers on the surface of 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 biocompatible eutectic glass immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). Compositional and structural characterization analyses were also conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  13. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  14. Effect of Sample Preparation on the Discrimination of Bacterial Isolates Cultured in Liquid Nutrient Media Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Gary R; Park, Bosoon; Yoon, Seung-Chul; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used as the basis for discrimination between two genera of gram-negative bacteria and two genera of gram-positive bacteria representing pathogenic threats commonly found in poultry processing rinse waters. Because LIBS-based discrimination relies primarily upon the relative proportions of inorganic cell components including Na, K, Mg, and Ca, this study aims to determine the effects of trace mineral content and pH found in the water source used to isolate the bacteria upon the reliability of the resulting discriminant analysis. All four genera were cultured using tryptic soy agar (TSA) as the nutrient medium, and were grown under identical environmental conditions. The only variable introduced is the source water used to isolate the cultured bacteria. Cultures of each bacterium were produced using deionized (DI) water under two atmosphere conditions, reverse osmosis (RO) water, tap water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS) water, and TRIS buffered water. After 3 days of culture growth, the bacteria were centrifuged and washed three times in the same water source. Bacteria were then freeze dried, mixed with microcrystalline cellulose, and a pellet was made for LIBS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract related variations in LIBS spectral data among the four bacteria genera and six water types used to isolate the bacteria, and Mahalanobis discriminant analysis (MDA) was used for classification. Results indicate not only that the four genera can be discriminated from each other in each water type, but that each genus can be discriminated by water type used for isolation. It is concluded that in order for LIBS to be a reliable and repeatable method for discrimination of bacteria grown in liquid nutrient media, care must be taken to insure that the water source used in purification of the culture be precisely controlled regarding pH, ionic strength, and proportionate amounts of mineral cations

  15. Using Localized Survey Items to Augment Standardized Benchmarking Measures: A LibQUAL+[TM] Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2006-01-01

    The LibQUAL+[TM] protocol solicits open-ended comments from users with regard to library service quality, gathers data on 22 core items, and, at the option of individual libraries, also garners ratings on five items drawn from a pool of more than 100 choices selected by libraries. In this article, the relationship of scores on these locally…

  16. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  17. Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutouquet, C; Gallou, G; Le Bihan, O; Sirven, J B; Dermigny, A; Torralba, B; Frejafon, E

    2014-09-01

    Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment. Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. First measurements of LIBS in the Zr-Nb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previtali, E; Ararat, C; Corvalan, C; Iribarren, M

    2012-01-01

    The Zr-based alloys are used in the nuclear industry. Particularly these alloys are used for the nuclear fuel elements in PWR reactors and CANDU type reactors. For this last case, zirconium-niobium (Zr-Nb) alloys have a particular importance for its special features like: resistance to corrosion, appropriate mechanic features and a low capture effective cross section for thermal neutrons. In this work the first LIBS measurements on Zr-Nb samples are shown. The spectrums from the plasma emission for Zr-Nb alloys are studied and discussed. Particularly, the variation of intensities as a function of laser energy is presented. Finally, the ablation morphology and the depth of the crater ablation are studied

  19. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Can overeating induce conditioned taste avoidance in previously food restricted rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Amanda; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2010-03-30

    While feeding is rewarding, the feeling of satiation has been theorized to have a mixed affect. Using a food restriction model of overeating we examined whether bingeing was capable of supporting conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on either an ad lib (n=8) or restricted (50% of regular consumption; n=24) food access for 20 days. On Days 9, 14, and 19 all rats were given access to a novel saccharin solution in place of water, and two groups of food restricted rats were given access to either 100% of regular food consumption or ad lib food. Ad lib access in the restricted rats induced significant overeating on all three exposures. After all rats were returned to ad lib feeding, a 24h two-bottle saccharin/water choice test displayed significantly reduced saccharin consumption in the overeating rats, compared to those in the other 3 groups. To determine whether this avoidance was due to a learned association, a second experiment used a latent inhibition paradigm, familiarizing half the rats with the saccharin for 8 days prior to pairing it with overeating. Using the design of Experiment 1, with only the continuously ad lib and the restricted to ad lib feeding groups, it was found that the overeating-induced saccharin avoidance was attenuated by the pre-exposure. These results suggest that self-induced overeating is capable of supporting a learned avoidance of a novel solution suggestive of a conditioned satiety or taste avoidance. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Qualitative versus quantitative feed restriction in Pekin breeder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    titative (60% of a group fed ad lib) feed restriction during the rearing period with a ... restriction to reduce growth rate and delay sexual maturity. Since the amount of .... ing in the cost of feed when compared to the more expensive ad lib diet.

  2. Sensitivity, stability, and precision of quantitative Ns-LIBS-based fuel-air-ratio measurements for methane-air flames at 1-11 bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Paul S; Gragston, Mark; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Zhili; Patnaik, Anil K; Kiefer, Johannes; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R

    2016-10-01

    Nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ns-LIBS) is employed for quantitative local fuel-air (F/A) ratio (i.e., ratio of actual fuel-to-oxidizer mass over ratio of fuel-to-oxidizer mass at stoichiometry, measurements in well-characterized methane-air flames at pressures of 1-11 bar). We selected nitrogen and hydrogen atomic-emission lines at 568 nm and 656 nm, respectively, to establish a correlation between the line intensities and the F/A ratio. We have investigated the effects of laser-pulse energy, camera gate delay, and pressure on the sensitivity, stability, and precision of the quantitative ns-LIBS F/A ratio measurements. We determined the optimal laser energy and camera gate delay for each pressure condition and found that measurement stability and precision are degraded with an increase in pressure. We have identified primary limitations of the F/A ratio measurement employing ns-LIBS at elevated pressures as instabilities caused by the higher density laser-induced plasma and the presence of the higher level of soot. Potential improvements are suggested.

  3. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS for Monitoring the Formation of Hydroxyapatite Porous Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS is applied to characterize the formation of porous hydroxyapatite layers on the surface of 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO42 biocompatible eutectic glass immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF. Compositional and structural characterization analyses were also conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of ammonium nitrate in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Daniel; Hahn, David W.; Molina, Alejandro

    2009-05-01

    The extensive use of improvised explosive devices (IED) by irregular armed groups in Colombia has posed a threat, not only to the Colombian regular army but to the civilian population. It is expected that in future years, after an eventual cease fire, humanitarian missions for IED clearance will be fundamental to secure safe transit of people and goods, particularly in Colombian rural areas. The clandestine nature of IEDs preparation in Colombia yielded a rather diverse nature of these irregular weapons. Although, some have metal parts such as nails and shrapnel, others are metal-free devices in which detonation is obtained by chemical means. Despite this variability in IEDs design, one thing that is common in IEDs preparation is the use of significant amounts of ANFO (ammonium nitrate (AN), fuel oil (FO)) in their construction. The goal of this work was to identify AN and FO in soils using LIBS. Experiments showed the ability of LIBS to identify the presence of AN based on Hα (656.3 nm) and Hβ (486.1 nm) emission lines. It was not possible to identify FO mixed with soils in the spectral windows studied. FO caused a reduction on spark intensity on the samples. This would represent a challenge for identification of chemical compounds in wet soils. Potential interferences with fertilizers are discussed as well.

  6. Preliminary study on detection sediment contamination in soil affected by the Indian Ocean giant tsunami 2004 in Aceh, Indonesia using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Nasrullah, E-mail: nasrullah.idris@unsyiah.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Jl. Syech Abdurrauf No. 3 Darussalam, 23111 Banda Aceh, Aceh (Indonesia); Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Jl. Syech Abdurrauf No. 3 Darussalam, 23111 Banda Aceh, Aceh (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K. H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    This work is intended to asses the capability of LIBS for the detection of the tsunami sediment contamination in soil. LIBS apparatus used in this work consist of a laser system and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system. The soil sample was collected from in Banda Aceh City, Aceh, Indonesia, the most affected region by the giant Indian Ocean tsunami 2004. The laser beam was focused onto surface of the soil pellet using a focusing lens to produce luminous plasma. The experiment was conducted under air as surrounding gas at 1 atmosphere. The emission spectral lines from the plasma were detected by the OMA system. It was found that metal including heavy metals can surely be detected, thus implying the potent of LIBS technique as a fast screening tools of tsunami sediment contamination.

  7. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of dementia: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies with investigation of potential effect modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guochao Zhong

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed inconsistent results on the association of smoking with all-cause dementia and vascular dementia (VaD, and are limited by inclusion of a small number of studies and unexplained heterogeneity. Our review aimed to assess the risk of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD and VaD associated with smoking, and to identify potential effect modifiers.The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Psychinfo databases were searched to identify studies that provided risk estimates on smoking and incidence of dementia. A random-effects model was used to yield pooled results. Thirty-seven studies were included. Compared with never smokers, current smokers showed an increased risk of all-cause dementia (risk ratio (RR 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.18-1.45, AD (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.73 and VaD (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.15-1.66. For all-cause dementia, the risk increased by 34% for every 20 cigarettes per day (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.25-1.43. Former smokers did not show an increased risk of all-cause dementia (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.06, AD (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13 and VaD (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.83-1.13. Subgroup analyses indicated that (1 the significantly increased risk of AD from current smoking was seen only in apolipoprotein E ε4 noncarriers; (2 current smokers aged 65 to 75 years at baseline showed increased risk of all-cause dementia and AD compared to those aged over 75 or under 65 years; and (3 sex, race, study location and diagnostic criteria difference in risk of dementia was not found.Smokers show an increased risk of dementia, and smoking cessation decreases the risk to that of never smokers. The increased risk of AD from smoking is more pronounced in apolipoprotein E ε4 noncarriers. Survival bias and competing risk reduce the risk of dementia from smoking at extreme age.

  8. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, Rosan; van der Galiën, Onno P; Smeets, Hugo M; Hollinga, Anne P D; Bosmans, Judith E

    BACKGROUND: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. METHODS: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  9. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, R.; van der Galien, O.P.; Smeets, H.M.; Hollinga, A.P.D.; Bosmans, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. Methods: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  10. Libérer le double, la beauté sera convulsive…

    OpenAIRE

    Beauvoir-Dominique, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Rachel Beauvoir-Dominique, Libérer le double, la beauté sera convulsive... À propos d’une collection d’art vodou. — De 1980 à ce jour, grâce au dévouement de Madame Marianne Lehmann, une collection unique de trésors du répertoire plastique vodou et « Makaya » a été rassemblée. Dotée de plusieurs milliers d’objets de culte, cette impressionnante collection n’a pas encore été exposée publiquement de manière permanente ; elle a cependant déjà attiré l’attention de nombreuses institutions nationa...

  11. Smoking Topography in Korean American and White Men: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study of Korean Americans’ smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. population. Methods Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 hours. Results Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p < 0.001) and have lower Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.04). Koreans smoked fewer cigarettes with the device (p = 0.01) than Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p < 0.001) than Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking more frequently with greater puff flows than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day. PMID:24068611

  12. Minimizing core deposits radiation fields in PWRs by coordinated Li/B chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesmer, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of coolant chemistry on the buildup and composition of core deposits and on out-of-core radiation fields was investigated in the Beaver Valley and Trojan plants. Coordinated Li/B coolant chemistry led to an appreciable reduction of the surface concentration of core deposits, decreased greatly the formation of crud films on fresh fuel, and resulted in a reduction in the rate and level of radiation field buildup in the out-of-core regions of the primary circuits. (author)

  13. Smoke reduction from pool fires using ferrocene and derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.A.; Moir, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    A series of acyl and alkyl substituted ferrocene derivatives were tested as smoke control agents in laboratory-scale burn tests. In the tests, the soot produced by a given volume was collected on a filter and its weight measured to determine the relative smoke reducing effectiveness of the various derivatives. As the molecular weight of the derivative increases, the effectiveness decreases when added at a fixed weight concentration. The heavier derivatives were much less effective on a per-weight basis than ferrocene, while the multiply substituted compounds appeared to be more effective. In field tests conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ferrocene in reducing smoke during combustion of other hydrocarbon fuels, it was found that there was a very large soot yield from gasoline fuel, higher than for crude oil even when ferrocene was used. In meso-scale tests, a drastic reduction in smoke yield was obtained when using a new liquid smoke-control additive during combustion of dilbit (bitumen diluted by gas condensate) floating on water. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. How does exposure to cigarette advertising contribute to smoking in adolescents? The role of the developing self-concept and identification with advertising models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Fryer, Craig S

    2009-11-01

    Increased exposure to cigarette advertisements is associated with increases in adolescent smoking but the reasons for this association are not well established. This study evaluated whether self-concept development (operationalized as level of self-conflict) and identifying with the models used in cigarette print advertising contributed to smoking intentions among adolescents. Ninety-five adolescents (ages 11-17) participated in this two session study. In session 1, they rated the extent to which they identified with the models used in 10 current cigarette print ads (the models were isolated digitally from the cigarette advertisements) and their level of self-conflict was assessed. In session 2, participants viewed each of the 10 cigarette advertisements from which the models were drawn and rated their intentions to smoke following exposure to each ad. Model identification was associated with similar levels of post ad exposure smoking intentions for both younger and older adolescents when they also exhibited no self-conflict. A contrasting set of findings emerged for younger and older adolescents when they exhibited high levels of self-conflict: Young adolescents who strongly identified with the models used in cigarette advertisements had higher post ad exposure smoking intentions compared to younger adolescents who weakly identified with the models used in the advertisements; in contrast, older adolescents who weakly identified with the models used in cigarette advertisements had stronger post ad exposure smoking intentions compared to older adolescents who strongly identified with the models used in the advertisements. These results point to the importance of examining developmentally-relevant moderators for the effects of cigarette advertising exposure.

  15. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for the Measurement of Spatial Structures and Fuel Distribution in Flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzagianni, Maria; Kakkava, Eirini; Couris, Stelios

    2016-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for the mapping of local structures (i.e., reactants and products zones) and for the determination of fuel distribution by means of the local equivalence ratio ϕ in laminar, premixed air-hydrocarbon flames. The determination of laser threshold energy to induce breakdown in the different zones of flames is employed for the identification and demarcation of the local structures of a premixed laminar flame, while complementary results about fuel concentration were obtained from measurements of the cyanogen (CN) band Β(2)Σ(+)--Χ(2)Σ(+), (Δυ = 0) at 388.3 nm and the ratio of the atomic lines of hydrogen (Hα) and oxygen (O(I)), Hα/O. The combination of these LIBS-based methods provides a relatively simple to use, rapid, and accurate tool for online and in situ combustion diagnostics, providing valuable information about the fuel distribution and the spatial variations of the local structures of a flame. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Scintillation characteristics of LiB3O5 and β-BaB2O4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, B.P.; Pedash, V.Yu.; Shekhovtsov, A.N.; Tarasov, V.A.; Zelenskaya, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    LiB 3 O 5 and β-BaB 2 O 4 single crystals have been grown by the top seeded solution growth technique. The optical characteristics and scintillation parameters of the grown single crystals have been tested and discussed

  17. A kinetics study of acetic acid on cobalt leaching of spent LIBs: Shrinking Core Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs are secondary rechargeable power sources which increasing production also leads to large amount of waste. In order to environmentally friendly reduce the waste, this work aimed to use acetic acid as a substitute leaching agent to leach Co metals which constitutes about 72.39% wt of the battery cathode. The leaching process was done in a three-necked-flask where calcined LIB cathode powder was mixed with acetic acid solution. The variables of the leaching process under investigation were solution pH, concentration of H2O2 in the solution, S/L ratio, temperature and reaction time. Experimental results showed that only temperature significantly influenced the leaching rate of Co. Since the process was exothermic, the maximum recovery decreased as temperature increased. Conventional shrinking core model that considers diffusion and irreversible surface reaction resistances was found not sufficient to predict the kinetics of the Co leaching with acetic acid. A more representative kinetics model that considers a reversible reaction of Co complex formation needs to be further developed.

  18. La libéralisation comme source du dérèglement des transports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proposant un phasage chronologique relatif à son évolution, tout en mettant la lumière sur ses effets les plus manifestes à l'échelle nationale et surtout sur le plan urbain par rapport au périmètre de transport de la ville d'Annaba, ceci à travers ses différents volets organisationnels et fonctionnels. Mots clés: Libéralisation ...

  19. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  20. The impact of emotional tone, message, and broadcast parameters in youth anti-smoking advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Ji, Ming; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Albers, Alison B

    2004-01-01

    In the context of controversy regarding the optimal characteristics of anti-smoking advertisements for youth, this study examines the impact on recall and perceived effectiveness of variations in the message, emotional tone, reach and frequency of broadcast, remoteness of broadcast, and characteristics of the adolescent audience such as changes in smoking behavior, ownership of cigarette promotional items, and demographic variables. A two-wave longitudinal survey of a population-based sample of 618 Massachusetts youth 12 to 15 years old was carried out in 1993 and 1997. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) approach was used to model the recall and perceived effectiveness of eight advertisements as a function of viewer and ad characteristics. Advertisements featuring messages about serious health consequences which had been independently rated as high in negative emotion were more likely to be recalled and were perceived as more effective by youth survey respondents than ads featuring messages about normative behavior for teens or ads relying on humor. Advertising intensity, while contributing to recall, was negatively related to perceived effectiveness. This study supports mounting evidence that negative emotion in anti-smoking advertisements is effective with youth audiences.

  1. Relationship between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for in situ Absolute Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary sciences, in situ absolute geochronology is a scientific and engineering challenge. Currently, the age of the Martian surface can only be determined by crater density counting. However this method has significant uncertainties and needs to be calibrated with absolute ages. We are developing an instrument to acquire in situ absolute geochronology based on the K-Ar method. The protocol is based on the laser ablation of a rock by hundreds of laser pulses. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) gives the potassium content of the ablated material and a mass spectrometer (quadrupole or ion trap) measures the quantity of 40Ar released. In order to accurately measure the quantity of released 40Ar in cases where Ar is an atmospheric constituent (e.g., Mars), the sample is first put into a chamber under high vacuum. The 40Arquantity, the concentration of K and the estimation of the ablated mass are the parameters needed to give the age of the rocks. The main uncertainties with this method are directly linked to the measures of the mass (typically some µg) and of the concentration of K by LIBS (up to 10%). Because the ablated mass is small compared to the mass of the sample, and because material is redeposited onto the sample after ablation, it is not possible to directly measure the ablated mass. Our current protocol measures the ablated volume and estimates the sample density to calculate ablated mass. The precision and accuracy of this method may be improved by using knowledge of the sample's geologic properties to predict its response to laser ablation, i.e., understanding whether natural samples have a predictable relationship between laser energy deposited and resultant ablation volume. In contrast to most previous studies of laser ablation, theoretical equations are not highly applicable. The reasons are numerous, but the most important are: a) geologic rocks are complex, polymineralic materials; b) the conditions of ablation are unusual (for example

  2. A novel specimen-preparing method using epoxy resin as binding material for LIBS analysis of powder samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linli; Lin, Qingyu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-11-01

    In view of the inevitable preprocessing of powder samples for LIBS detection, epoxy resin glue was investigated for the first time as a binder of powder samples due to its superior property of improved performance in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique as a quantitative analytical tool. For comparative studies of the epoxy resin and traditional polyethylene (PE) pellets in soil, sample detection, the signal intensities of Fe (I) at 404.58 nm, Ca (I) at 443.57 nm, and Cr (I) at 453.52 nm, were studied and subsequently, the calibration curves for these elements were constructed using the standard samples with variable concentrations. The signal intensities of epoxy resin samples were, on average, about 2 times greater than those obtained with the traditional PE pellet samples. Meanwhile, the resin samples showed better R square values of 0.981, 0.985 and 0.979 for curves of Fe (I) 404.58 nm, Ca (I) 443.57 nm, and Cr (I) 453.52 nm, compared to the 0.974, 0.950 and 0.934, of the PE pellet samples. Furthermore, the former represented lower limits of detection (LOD) for Fe, Ca and Cr. These experimental results indicated that this proposed novel method based on epoxy resin can attach samples of properties of high homogeneity, cohesiveness, smoothness and hardness, which are conducive to system stability, testing accuracy and signal enhancement. This method can make LIBS more practical in powder sample analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trollope, Liberalism and Scripture Libéralisme et Écritures dans l’œuvre d’Anthony Trollope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Picton

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Si au début de sa carrière littéraire Trollope était un partisan de la théologie anglo-catholique et antilibérale des Tractariens, il devint au fil des années sensible aux arguments des théologiens libéraux de la Broad Church. En effet, tous ses prêtres modèles après 1867 appartiennent à cette « Église large » (par opposition aux héros tractariens de ses premiers romans et il écrivit au cours des années 1865-1866 une série d’articles pour des revues libérales (PMG, Fornightly Review dans lesquelles il devait notamment soutenir l’évêque Colenso et son interprétation critique du Pentateuque. Trollope dénonce à présent le littéralisme biblique et soutient par ailleurs que le doute, aussi douloureux soit-il, est salutaire. Comment expliquer un tel revirement ? (Newman et les libéraux étaient après tout les pires ennemis. Les facteurs explicatifs sont nombreux et relèvent tant de la biographie que de l’évolution générale du climat intellectuel, avec en particulier la publication de The Origin of Species en 1859 et des Essays and Reviews en 1860. Anglican convaincu, Trollope ne devait toutefois jamais perdre la foi, contrairement à certains de ses amis libres penseurs tels que George Eliot ou G. H. Lewes.

  4. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  5. Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-09-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/μg, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations.

  6. Improving Library Service Quality to Graduate Students: LibQual+[TM] Survey Results in a Practical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Maria Anna; Hertel, Karen; Young, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    The LibQUAL+[TM] survey was conducted to determine user satisfaction and expectations concerning library service quality. The results of the "22 items and a box" constituted a rich source of information for the University of Idaho (UI) Library's strategic planning process. Focusing on graduate students, this study used three…

  7. Restaurant employment before and after the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Cummings, K M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe trends in the number of restaurants and restaurant employees two years before and two years after the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act took effect in April, 1995. Between April 1993 and April 1997, New York City added 19,347 new restaurant jobs (18% increase) while the rest of the state outside the immediate metropolitan area added 7,423 new jobs (5% increase). The rate of growth in the number of restaurants was comparable among New York City, neighboring counties, and the rest of the state. The data suggest that the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act did not result in job losses for the city's restaurant industry.

  8. NextLib : un sistema de software basado en ontologías para la consulta automática de OPACs desde sedes web especializadas

    OpenAIRE

    Felip Vidal, Lledó; Orduña-Malea, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Las extensiones para navegadores web (Add-ons) están ampliando las funcionalidades de éstos. Entre ellas cabe destacar la reciente aparición de LibX, herramienta que permite la interacción entre el OPAC de una biblioteca y la Web. Se estudian las limitaciones de esta herramienta en cuanto a detección automática de datos y automatización de tareas para proponer un sistema (NextLib) que, mediante la combinación de diferentes aplicaciones, permita superarlas. Este sistema estaría for...

  9. [Study on expert system of infrared spectral characteristic of combustible smoke agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong-ming; Guan, Hua; Hou, Wei; Pan, Gong-pei

    2009-05-01

    The present paper studied the application of expert system in prediction of infrared spectral characteristic of combustible anti-infrared smoke agent. The construction of the expert system was founded, based on the theory of minimum free energy and infrared spectral addition. After the direction of smoke agent was input, the expert system could figure out the final combustion products. Then infrared spectrogram of smoke could also be simulated by adding the spectra of all of the combustion products. Meanwhile, the screening index of smoke was provided in the wave bands of 3-5 im and 8-14 microm. FTIR spectroscope was used to investigate the performance of one kind of HC smoke. The combustion products calculated by the expert system were coincident with the actual data, and the simulant infrared spectrum was also similar to the real one of the smoke. The screening index given by the system was consistent with the known facts. It was showed that a new approach was offered for the fast discrimination of varieties of directions of smoke agent.

  10. Mapping of the spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in root tissues of Vicia faba by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcarová, L; Novotný, K; Kummerová, M; Dubová, J; Gloser, V; Kaiser, J

    2017-10-01

    The manuscript presents a procedure for optimal sample preparation and the mapping of the spatial distribution of metal ions and nanoparticles in plant roots using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a double-pulse configuration (DP LIBS) in orthogonal reheating mode. Two Nd:YAG lasers were used; the first one was an ablation laser (UP-266 MACRO, New Wave, USA) with a wavelength of 266nm, and the second one (Brilliant, Quantel, France), with a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm, was used to reheat the microplasma. Seedlings of Vicia faba were cultivated for 7 days in CuSO 4 or AgNO 3 solutions with a concentration of 10µmoll -1 or in a solution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a concentration of 10µmoll -1 of total Ag, and in distilled water as a control. The total contents of the examined metals in the roots after sample mineralization as well as changes in the concentrations of the metals in the cultivation solutions were monitored by ICP-OES. Root samples embedded in the TissueTek medium and cut into 40µm thick cross sections using the Cryo-Cut Microtome proved to be best suited for an accurate LIBS analysis with a 50µm spatial resolution. 2D raster maps of elemental distribution were created for the emission lines of Cu(I) at 324.754nm and Ag(I) at 328.068nm. The limits of detection of DP LIBS for the root cross sections were estimated to be 4pg for Cu, 18pg for Ag, and 3pg for AgNPs. The results of Ag spatial distribution mapping indicated that unlike Ag + ions, AgNPs do not penetrate into the inner tissues of Vicia faba roots but stay in their outermost layers. The content of Ag in roots cultivated in the AgNP solution was one order of magnitude lower compared to roots cultivated in the metal ion solutions. The significantly smaller concentration of Ag in root tissues cultivated in the AgNP solution also supports the conclusion that the absorption and uptake of AgNPs by roots of Vicia faba is very slow. LIBS mapping of root sections

  11. Snakes or Ladders? Evaluating a LibGuides pilot at University College Dublin Library

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Michelle; Pan, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Online subject guides are commonly used by libraries to provide information support to students. LibGuides (a cloud-based commercial product launched in 2007) represent one of the latest incarnations of the traditional subject guide or portal, and are widely used across American academic libraries. In Ireland however, library subject guides of entirely local design and hosted on a local web server still dominate. This paper outlines the project management process involved in implementing a Li...

  12. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  13. A longitudinal study on determinants of the intention to start smoking among Non-smoking boys and girls of high and low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Mercken, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke

    2015-07-13

    This study identifies differences in socio-cognitive factors as they relate to the intention to smoke among boys and girls living in high socioeconomic status (HSES) and low socioeconomic status (LSES) neighborhoods. A total of 1,643 children (aged 10-12 years) completed a web-based questionnaire assessing their intention, attitude, social influences, and self-efficacy toward smoking at baseline and at one year follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relations between intention and predictor variables (i.e. attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy). Three-way interaction terms were added to the first analysis to examine potential interactions of gender, socioeconomic status and predictor variables. A 3-way interaction effect was present, and therefore subgroup analyses for HSES and LSES boys and girls were warranted. The results indicated that positive attitudes toward smoking were related to the intention to smoke among HSES boys, whereas HSES girls had higher intentions to smoke if they perceived fewer disadvantages of smoking (OR: 0.42; 95 % CI: 0.22-0.82). The intention to smoke among LSES boys was predicted by perceived social norms (OR: 0.49; 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93); in LSES girls, the smoking behavior of people in their environment was most strongly related to their smoking intention (OR: 5.55; 95 % CI: 2.81-10.93). To prevent youth smoking, HSES boys and girls may benefit from interventions that address attitudes. Boys from an LSES neighborhood may profit from smoking prevention interventions that target social norms, while LSES girls may benefit from strategies aimed at resisting the influence of smokers in their environment. The 'Fun without Smokes' study is approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Atrium-Orbis-Zuyd Hospital (NL32093.096.11/MEC 11-T-25) and registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR3116 ).

  14. Fetal Tobacco Smoke Exposure in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy Is Associated with Atopic Eczema/Dermatitis Syndrome in Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Shinohara, Miwa; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    The manifestation of atopic dermatitis (AD) is initially nonatopic eczema in early infancy; the manifestations subsequently change in age-specific stages. Since allergen-specific T-helper 2 cells appear in the fetus primarily after the third trimester of pregnancy and rapidly mature during the first 6 months of life, different timings of tobacco smoke exposure may have different effects on AD. In this study, we investigated whether the timing of fetal or/and infantile tobacco smoke exposure a...

  15. Characterizing the economic value of an epithermal Au-Ag ore with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalm, M.; Buxton, M.W.N.

    2016-01-01

    LIBS was applied to 19 Au-Ag ore samples to investigate if this technique can be used to distinguish between economic and sub-economic ore either by direct detection of these elements or by using other elements as indicators. However, the Au and Ag grades of the samples are below the detection limit

  16. Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Fortmann, Addie L; Zakarian, Joy M; Galaviz, Vanessa E; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F; Winston, Carl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined tobacco smoke pollution (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) in hotels with and without complete smoking bans and investigated whether non-smoking guests staying overnight in these hotels were exposed to tobacco smoke pollutants. A stratified random sample of hotels with (n=10) and without (n=30) complete smoking bans was examined. Surfaces and air were analysed for tobacco smoke pollutants (ie, nicotine and 3-ethynylpyridine, 3EP). Non-smoking confederates who stayed overnight in guestrooms provided urine and finger wipe samples to determine exposure to nicotine and the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone as measured by their metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), respectively. Compared with hotels with complete smoking bans, surface nicotine and air 3EP were elevated in non-smoking and smoking rooms of hotels that allowed smoking. Air nicotine levels in smoking rooms were significantly higher than those in non-smoking rooms of hotels with and without complete smoking bans. Hallway surfaces outside of smoking rooms also showed higher levels of nicotine than those outside of non-smoking rooms. Non-smoking confederates staying in hotels without complete smoking bans showed higher levels of finger nicotine and urine cotinine than those staying in hotels with complete smoking bans. Confederates showed significant elevations in urinary NNAL after staying in the 10 most polluted rooms. Partial smoking bans in hotels do not protect non-smoking guests from exposure to tobacco smoke and tobacco-specific carcinogens. Non-smokers are advised to stay in hotels with complete smoking bans. Existing policies exempting hotels from complete smoking bans are ineffective.

  17. Taguchi Ukichi, un libéral opiniâtre de l’ère Meiji

    OpenAIRE

    Hurth, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Journaliste, historien et homme politique, Taguchi Ukichi s’est fait le chantre du libéralisme à la fin du xixe siècle en défendant le libre-échange et en s’opposant aux propriétaires fonciers. Champion of Liberalism at the end of the 19th century, Taguchi Ukichi (journalist, historian and politician) was a staunch advocate of free trade, strongly opposed to landowners.

  18. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine Following Single and Ad Libitum Use of a Tobacco Heating System or Combustible Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picavet, Patrick; Haziza, Christelle; Lama, Nicola; Weitkunat, Rolf; Lüdicke, Frank

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of nicotine between the heat-not-burn Tobacco Heating System 2.1 (THS 2.1) and combustible cigarettes (CCs). We also examined whether the subjective urge to smoke was associated with the pharmacokinetics of nicotine. This open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study conducted in 28 healthy smokers assessed the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after single and ad libitum use of the THS 2.1 or CCs. During the 7-day confinement period, blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjective effects related to THS 2.1 or CC use were assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). The nicotine delivery rate was similar with the THS 2.1 and CCs after single and ad libitum use. The time to the maximum nicotine concentration was 8 minutes after single use of the THS 2.1 and CCs. The time to the peak concentration following ad libitum use was similar between the THS 2.1 and CCs. The maximum plasma nicotine concentration after single use of the THS 2.1 was 8.4 ng/mL, 70.3% of that obtained with CCs. A transient reduction from baseline in the urge to smoke of 40% was observed 15 minutes after the single use of both the THS 2.1 and CCs. The mean QSU-Brief total scores following single and ad libitum use were similar for the THS 2.1 and CCs. These results suggest that the THS 2.1 effectively delivers nicotine and achieves similar pharmacokinetic profiles to CCs. The THS 2.1 also reduced the urge to smoke similarly to CCs. Reducing exposure to toxicants and safer delivery of nicotine are among the strategies that may reduce the harm of smoking-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and their effects on the urge to smoke using the THS 2.1. It was developed to replicate the ritual of smoking as closely as possible by providing nicotine in a way that mimics CC smoking, but limits pyrolysis and combustion by heating tobacco at a much lower temperature

  19. Smoking in Malaysia: promotion and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon Kee Teoh

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the promotion and control of smoking in Malaysia covers: tobacco cultivation; cigarette manufacture, advertising, and smoking; action against smoking; smoking in public; price increases; and future targets. About 62,000 families (120,000 people) of Malaysia's 14 million population are involved in tobacco farming, and 360 independent curers employ about 25,000 workers. Tobacco output has increased from 1.82 million kilograms in 1970 to a peak of 9.4 million kilograms in 1982, worth $38 million. Tobacco manufacturers have direct interest in tobacco growing. 60% of the tobacco required for cigarette manufacturing is locally produced and is expected to increase to 65-70% by 1985. The industry, unable to deny the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, is now exploiting the economy of the tobacco farmers to justify their business and to influence the government from taking any action against smoking. The government still provides technical expertise, guarantees purchase of tobacco, and provides almost 75% of the fertilizers used. There are 7 cigarette manufacturing companies. Cigarette sales in 1982 totaled nearly $460 million. The government received over $210 million or 47% of the total sales in various forms of taxes, a factor which influenced government handling of the smoking issue. Cigarettes were the most advertised product in 1981 when $9 million was spent. In 1982, all cigarette ads were banned from television and radio and in all government publications. The government stated that the revenue could be replaced. The number of cigarette smokers increased from 5 to 7% over the last decade. Recent studies of secondary school children showed a smoking incidence of about 20%; about half were habitual smokers and about 1% had smoked for over 3 years. Except for elderly villagers, few women smoke. After 7 years of lobbying by the Malaysian Medical Association and the Ministry of Health, the Cabinet approved legislation in 1977 requiring all cigarette

  20. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in soils as determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), with special emphasis on chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, G.S.; Dell'Aglio, M.; Gaudiuso, R.; De Giacomo, A.; Zaccone, C.; De Pascale, O.; Miano, T.M.; Capitelli, M.

    2009-01-01

    Soil is unanimously considered as one of the most important sink of heavy metals released by human activities. Heavy metal analysis of natural and polluted soils is generally conducted by the use of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) on adequately obtained soil extracts. Although in recent years the emergent technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied widely and with increasing success for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of a number of heavy metals in soil matrices with relevant simplification of the conventional methodologies, the technique still requires further confirmation before it can be applied fully successfully in soil analyses. The main objective of this work was to demonstrate that new developments in LIBS technique are able to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative analytical evaluation of several heavy metals in soils, with special focus on the element chromium (Cr), and with reference to the concentrations measured by conventional ICP spectroscopy. The preliminary qualitative LIBS analysis of five soil samples and one sewage sludge sample has allowed the detection of a number of elements including Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Si, Ti, V and Zn. Of these, a quantitative analysis was also possible for the elements Cr, Cu, Pb, V and Zn based on the obtained linearity of the calibration curves constructed for each heavy metal, i.e., the proportionality between the intensity of the LIBS emission peaks and the concentration of each heavy metal in the sample measured by ICP. In particular, a triplet of emission lines for Cr could be used for its quantitative measurement. The consistency of experiments made on various samples was supported by the same characteristics of the laser-induced plasma (LIP), i.e., the typical linear distribution confirming the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition, and similar excitation

  2. Heavy metal concentrations in soils as determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), with special emphasis on chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, G S; Dell'Aglio, M; Gaudiuso, R; De Giacomo, A; Zaccone, C; De Pascale, O; Miano, T M; Capitelli, M

    2009-05-01

    Soil is unanimously considered as one of the most important sink of heavy metals released by human activities. Heavy metal analysis of natural and polluted soils is generally conducted by the use of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) on adequately obtained soil extracts. Although in recent years the emergent technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied widely and with increasing success for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of a number of heavy metals in soil matrices with relevant simplification of the conventional methodologies, the technique still requires further confirmation before it can be applied fully successfully in soil analyses. The main objective of this work was to demonstrate that new developments in LIBS technique are able to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative analytical evaluation of several heavy metals in soils, with special focus on the element chromium (Cr), and with reference to the concentrations measured by conventional ICP spectroscopy. The preliminary qualitative LIBS analysis of five soil samples and one sewage sludge sample has allowed the detection of a number of elements including Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Si, Ti, V and Zn. Of these, a quantitative analysis was also possible for the elements Cr, Cu, Pb, V and Zn based on the obtained linearity of the calibration curves constructed for each heavy metal, i.e., the proportionality between the intensity of the LIBS emission peaks and the concentration of each heavy metal in the sample measured by ICP. In particular, a triplet of emission lines for Cr could be used for its quantitative measurement. The consistency of experiments made on various samples was supported by the same characteristics of the laser-induced plasma (LIP), i.e., the typical linear distribution confirming the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition, and similar excitation

  3. Smoking Is So Ew!: College Smokers' Reactions to Health- Versus Social-Focused Antismoking Threat Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Norman C H; Nisbett, Gwendelyn S; Harvell, Lindsey A

    2017-04-01

    This study utilizes Terror Management Theory (TMT) to examine differences between eliciting social death and physical death anxiety related to smoking, smoking attitudes, and quitting intent among college students. Moreover, an important TMT variable-self-esteem-was used as a moderator. A 2 × 3 between-subjects factorial design crossed smoking-based self-esteem (low, high) with mortality salience manipulation (health-focused, social-focused, control). Results suggest while both making health-focused salient and making social-focused mortality salient were effective at getting smokers to quit, there was less effect for health-focused mortality salience on those whose self-esteem is strongly tied to smoking. Effect of social-focused mortality salience was more pronounced among participants who highly linked self-esteem with smoking. For smokers with low smoking-based self-esteem, both health-focused and social-focused mortality salience were effective at motivating attitude change toward smoking and quitting intentions. Implications for smoking cessation ad design and TMT are discussed.

  4. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  5. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  6. Creating a Current Awareness Service Using Yahoo! Pipes and LibGuides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kiscaden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration from print to electronic journals brought an end to traditional current awareness services, which primarily utilized print routing. The emergence of Real Simple Syndication, or RSS feeds, and email alerting systems provided users with alternative services. To assist users with adopting these technologies, a service utilizing aggregate feeds to the library’s electronic journal content was created and made available through LibGuides. Libraries can resurrect current awareness services using current technologies to increase awareness and usage of library-provided electronic journal content. The current awareness service presented is an example of how libraries can build simple current awareness services utilizing freely accessible technologies.

  7. Occurrence of pathotypes of Ascochyta pisi (Lib. in the Olsztyn district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaf and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Ascochyta pisi (Lib.. Investigated isolates of A. pisi differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophitic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium c1adosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia starilia were dominated. In the study of the identification and distribution of pathotypes of A. pisi five pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 2 were dominated. The identified the pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  8. Characterizations of milkfish (Chanos chanos) meatballs as effect of nanoencapsulation liquid smoke addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastawati, Fronthea; Ambaryanto; Cahyono, Bambang; Wijayanti, Ima; Chilmawati, Diana

    2018-02-01

    Milkfish meatballs are one of the value-added product that is potential to be developed because this product is favored by consumers. The aims of this study were mainly to evaluate the effect of nano encapsulation liquid smoke addition to the properties of milkfish meatballs. The different concentration (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%) of nano encapsulation liquid smoke was treated into milkfish meatballs with three replications. Test parameters used include texture (hardness, deformation and gel strength); proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrates content); sensory (organoleptic and hedonic). Parametric data were analysis using ANOVA and non-parametric parameters using Kruskal Wallis test. Analysis of variant shows that nanoencapsulation gave significant effect on the hardness, deformation, and gel strength; protein, lipid, ash and water content(P0.05). The best texture characteristic was obtained by milkfish meatball added with 1% of nanoencapsulation liquid smoke indicated by the moisture water; protein; fat; ash and carbohydrate content: 66,35%; 12,69%; 6,75%; 2,42% and 5,93% respectively. The best organoleptic and hedonic value of milkfish meatballs was achieved by a panelist at the sample with the addition of 1% liquid smoke, but this sample found gave no significance different to control in terms of sensory valle.

  9. Sensation seeking and smoking behaviors among adolescents in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heejin; Park, Sunhee

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between the four components of sensation seeking (i.e., disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, and boredom susceptibility) and three types of smoking behavior (i.e., non-smoking, experimental smoking, and current smoking) among high school students in the Republic of Korea. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed using two models. In Model 1, the four subscales of sensation seeking were used as covariates, and in Model 2, other control factors (i.e., characteristics related to demographics, individuals, family, school, and friends) were added to Model 1 in order to adjust for their effects. In Model 1, the impact of disinhibition on experimental smoking and current smoking was statistically significant. In Model 2, the influence of disinhibition on both of these smoking behaviors remained statistically significant after controlling for all the other covariates. Also, the effect of thrill and adventure seeking on experimental smoking was statistically significant. The two statistically significant subscales of sensation seeking were positively associated with the risk of smoking behaviors. According to extant literature and current research, sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition, is strongly associated with smoking among youth. Therefore, sensation seeking should be measured among adolescents to identify those who are at greater risk of smoking and to develop more effective intervention strategies in order to curb the smoking epidemic among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Secondary plasma formation after single pulse laser ablation underwater and its advantages for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, M R; Cvejić, M; Lazic, V; Jovićević, S

    2016-06-07

    In this work we present studies of spatial and temporal plasma evolution after single pulse ablation of an aluminium target in water. The laser ablation was performed using 20 ns long pulses emitted at 1064 nm. The plasma characterization was performed by fast photography, the Schlieren technique, shadowgraphy and optical emission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate the existence of two distinct plasma stages: the first stage has a duration of approximately 500 ns from the laser pulse, and is followed by a new plasma growth starting from the crater center. The secondary plasma slowly evolves inside the growing vapor bubble, and its optical emission lasts over several tens of microseconds. Later, the hot glowing particles, trapped inside the vapor cavity, were detected during the whole cycle of the bubble, where the first collapse occurs after 475 μs from the laser pulse. Differences in the plasma properties during the two evolution phases are discussed, with an accent on the optical emission since its detection is of primary importance for LIBS. Here we demonstrate that the LIBS signal quality in single pulse excitation underwater can be greatly enhanced by detecting only the secondary plasma emission, and also by applying long acquisition gates (in the order of 10-100 μs). The presented results are of great importance for LIBS measurements inside a liquid environment, since they prove that a good analytical signal can be obtained by using nanosecond pulses from a single commercial laser source and by employing cost effective, not gated detectors.

  11. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P C; Silver, R Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  12. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine imperative and declarative modelling approaches in computational neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eVella

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell,and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two APIs (Application Programming Interfaces written in Python (http://www.python.org, which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  13. A note on the effect of wheat versus maize on the backfat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass (85 or 120 kg) on the fatty acid composition of backfat was studied on 40 ad lib. fed Landrace x Large ... so€:)en lewende massa (85 of 120 kg) op die vetsuursamestelling van rugspek isop 40 ad lib. -gevoerde Landras x ... During the catastrophic drought of 1984, the local maize crop had to be supplemented by grain ...

  14. Portable LIBS system for determining the composition of multilayer structures on objects of cultural value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira Osorio, Lesther; Ponce Cabrera, Luis V; Arronte Garcia, Miguel A; Flores Reyes, Teresa; Ravelo, Ivette

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the use of a portable Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) prototype for determining the elemental composition of a metal jug. The system includes emission from a multiuse Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. By sampling at different points, the surface composition is determined. Furthermore, the presence of two layers of Pb and Cu and their thicknesses are determined through in-depth analysis.

  15. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  16. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-12-01

    Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others). We performed a comprehensive literature review. We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly. In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950. Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake. Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films, significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking. Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on adolescent smoking. Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R" should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

  17. STUDY OF SMOKING PREVALENCE AND RELATIVE FACTORS ON RESIDENT MEN IN ISFAHAN 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bashardoost

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Smoking is one of the sanitary problems in world today. Increasing smoking of cigarette and other tobacco products has concerned health managers and community responsible. In recent decades, smoking has increased specially in developing countries and the smokers are adding every year. The objective of this study is determination of smoking prevalence and its distribution by a few of cases characteristics. Method: This is cross-sectional study that has done on men with at least 15 years old in Isfahan. Data was collected by a questionnaire at homes on summer, 2002.The samples were 1600 and the variables included: age, marriage status, level of education, job, smoking status(king and quanta,age of beginning to smoke and precedence of smoking. Results: Results showed that 21.5% individuals were smoking cigarette 10.4%hooka and 1.5 pipe. The age of beginning to smoke cigarette was <20 years in 67.6% of cases. Smoking was more prevalent in adults. Workers with 32.7% were smoking more and students with 5% and scholars with 6.7% were smoking less than others. Smoking was relative to level of education and marriage men smoked 2.5 times more than singles Discussion: The results showed that in comparison with other areas in Iran, Isfahan men are smoking further especially for hooka and pipe. Also it has become a new problem that the younger smoke hooka and pipe more than past, because the people thinks that those are less harmful that cigarette. Keyword: Prevalence, Cigarette, Hooka, Pipe and Isfahan

  18. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Point process analyses of variations in smoking rate by setting, mood, gender, and dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Rathbun, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    The immediate emotional and situational antecedents of ad libitum smoking are still not well understood. We re-analyzed data from Ecological Momentary Assessment using novel point-process analyses, to assess how craving, mood, and social setting influence smoking rate, as well as assessing the moderating effects of gender and nicotine dependence. 304 smokers recorded craving, mood, and social setting using electronic diaries when smoking and at random nonsmoking times over 16 days of smoking. Point-process analysis, which makes use of the known random sampling scheme for momentary variables, examined main effects of setting and interactions with gender and dependence. Increased craving was associated with higher rates of smoking, particularly among women. Negative affect was not associated with smoking rate, even in interaction with arousal, but restlessness was associated with substantially higher smoking rates. Women's smoking tended to be less affected by negative affect. Nicotine dependence had little moderating effect on situational influences. Smoking rates were higher when smokers were alone or with others smoking, and smoking restrictions reduced smoking rates. However, the presence of others smoking undermined the effects of restrictions. The more sensitive point-process analyses confirmed earlier findings, including the surprising conclusion that negative affect by itself was not related to smoking rates. Contrary to hypothesis, men's and not women's smoking was influenced by negative affect. Both smoking restrictions and the presence of others who are not smoking suppress smoking, but others’ smoking undermines the effects of restrictions. Point-process analyses of EMA data can bring out even small influences on smoking rate. PMID:21480683

  20. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained.

  1. Contingency management for tobacco smoking during opioid addiction treatment: a randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscough, Tom Stephen; Brose, Leonie S; Strang, John; McNeill, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Smoking rates among individuals in treatment for opioid addiction are close to five times that of the general public. Moreover, drug-addicted smokers have a premature mortality rate four times greater than drug-addicted non-smokers. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether contingency management (CM) can be successfully added to evidence-based stop smoking treatment in individuals undergoing treatment for opioid addiction and assess preliminary evidence for its impact. Forty tobacco smokers currently undergoing treatment for opioid addiction. Escalating with reset CM as an adjunct to standard smoking cessation treatment. Financial incentives will be administered over a 5-week period for either biochemically verified abstinence from smoking or attendance at the clinic. Participants will be randomised to conditions stratified on current levels of smoking (high or low). To assess whether a CM intervention can be successfully added to standard stop smoking services treatment, in patients undergoing outpatient treatment for opioid addiction. This will be measured as the number of people completing the 5 weeks of the intervention. Ethics approval for the study was granted on the 16 June 2016 by the London-city and east (reference 16/LO/0990) ethics committee. The pilot study was retrospectively registered on clincaltrials.gov in January 2017 (ID: NCT03015597). A SPIRIT checklist and figure are available for this protocol. It is planned that the results of this study will be published in an academic journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Supersymmetric AdS3, AdS2 and bubble solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Waldram, Daniel; Kim, Nakwoo

    2007-01-01

    We present new supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity. The former are dual to conformal field theories in two dimensions with N = (0, 2) supersymmetry while the latter are dual to conformal quantum mechanics with two supercharges. Our construction also includes AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity that have non-compact internal spaces which are dual to three-dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories coupled to point-like defects. We also present some new bubble-type solutions, corresponding to BPS states in conformal theories, that preserve four supersymmetries

  3. Identification of Four Wood Species by an Electronic Nose and by LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R. Cordeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two complementary methods capable of identifying four wood species (Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea porosa, Hymenolobium petraeum, and Aspidosperma subincanum both by their volatile organic compounds and by the presence of 10 chemical elements: Al, B, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Na, and Si. The volatile compounds were detected by an electronic nose formed by an array of three different conductive polymer gas sensors. The elemental determination was made by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS. The emissions measured were treated by principal component analysis (PCA. Leave-one-out analysis showed a rate of hits of 100%.

  4. Arriba-lib: association of an evidence-based electronic library of decision aids with communication and decision-making in patients and primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Keller, Heidemarie; Krones, Tanja; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2012-03-01

    In shared decision-making, patients are empowered to actively ask questions and participate in decisions about their healthcare based on their preferences and values. Decision aids should help patients make informed choices among diagnostic or treatment options by delivering evidence-based information on options and outcomes; however, they have rarely been field tested, especially in the primary care context. We therefore evaluated associations between the use of an interactive, transactional and evidence-based library of decision aids (arriba-lib) and communication and decision-making in patients and physicians in the primary care context. Our electronic library of decision aids ('arriba-lib') includes evidence-based modules for cardiovascular prevention, diabetes, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and depression. Twenty-nine primary care physicians recruited 192 patients. We used questionnaires to ask patients and physicians about their experiences with and attitudes towards the programme. Patients were interviewed via telephone 2 months after the consultation. Data were analysed by general estimation equations, cross tab analyses and by using effect sizes. Only a minority (8.9%) of the consultations were felt to be too long because physicians said consultations were unacceptably extended by arriba-lib. We found a negative association between the detailedness of the discussion of the clinical problem's definition and the age of the patients. Physicians discuss therapeutic options in less detail with patients who have a formal education of less than 8 years. Patients who were counselled by a physician with no experience in using a decision aid more often reported that they do not remember being counselled with the help of a decision aid or do not wish to be counselled again with a decision aid. Arriba-lib has positive associations to the decision-making process in patients and physicians. It can also be used with older age groups and patients with less

  5. Changing smoking attitudes by strengthening weak antismoking beliefs - Taiwan as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chingching

    2006-12-01

    I first explored the strength of Taiwanese high school students' beliefs regarding five antismoking messages. Findings of a nationwide survey showed that the students held these beliefs in the following order of decreasing strength: second-hand smoke damages health, smoking has long-term health consequences, smoking has short-term health consequences, cigarette marketers are manipulative, and smokers are perceived negatively. Experiment one further showed that antismoking ads featuring weakly held beliefs are more effective than those featuring strongly held beliefs. Experiment two demonstrated that antismoking campaigns need to be framed carefully; in general, it is more effective to positively frame messages about strongly held antismoking beliefs but negatively frame messages about weakly held antismoking beliefs.

  6. Is the smoking decision an 'informed choice'? Effect of smoking risk factors on smoking beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, H; Glynn, K; Fleming, R

    1987-06-26

    The argument that people freely choose to smoke assumes that individuals at the point of initiation of smoking (often in adolescence) hold accurate beliefs about smoking. Smoking beliefs and the presence of known smoking risk factors were assessed in interviews with a sample of 895 urban young people. The respondents greatly overestimated the prevalence of adult and peer smoking, negative attitudes of their peers were greatly underestimated, a large proportion believed that they would be less likely than other people to contract a smoking-related illness if they became smokers, and there was a general lack of understanding of the adverse consequences experienced upon smoking cessation. These misperceptions were more common among youngsters who were smokers, who intended to smoke, or who had friends or family members who smoked. Because misinformation among young people is widespread and those at greatest risk for smoking are the most misinformed, the tobacco industry's argument that the decision to smoke reflects an "informed choice" is without merit.

  7. [Smoking in movies and established smoking in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, R; Blohmke, S; Sargent, J D

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether smoking in movies can predict established smoking in adolescence. A longitudinal study was conducted over a period of 13 months with 4112 German students. Adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies was assessed by asking each student to indicate which film he or she had seen from a unique list of 50 movies, which was randomly selected for each individual survey from a sample of 398 popular contemporary movies. We calculated exposure to movie smoking for each respondent by summing the number of smoking occurrences for each movie that the respondent reported seeing. At follow-up, a total of 272 young people had smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their lifetime. While 2.1% of the young people with the lowest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking, 13.4% of the group with the highest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking. The adjusted relative risk of initiation of established smoking was 2.05 times higher in the group with the highest movie smoking exposure compared to the group with the lowest exposure (95% confidence interval: 1.25-3.35). Our data indicate that smoking in movies can be regarded as an independent risk factor for the initiation of established smoking in adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri on Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, R; Martín-Cabrejas, I; Langa, S; El Aouad, N; Arqués, J L; Reyes, F; Medina, M

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P579 was used for the production and purification of reuterin. The purity of reuterin was assessed by high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. After purification, reuterin concentration obtained was 1.3 M. The inhibitory activity using Escherichia coli K12 as indicator strain was estimated to be 510 AU/ml. Survival curves in tryptic soy broth revealed that reuterin required to inhibit the growth of three Listeria monocytogenes strains was in the range of 2-4 AU/ml. Purified reuterin (10 AU/g) significantly reduced the growth of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon kept under moderate or strong temperature abuse conditions. After 15 d at 8 °C, cold-smoked salmon with added reuterin exhibited L. monocytogenes counts 2.0 log CFU/g lower than control smoked salmon with no reuterin added. At 30 °C, reuterin also controlled the growth of the pathogen, with counts 1.4 and 0.9 log CFU/g lower than those observed in control smoked salmon after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The addition of purified reuterin might be used as a hurdle technology to improve the safety and extend the shelf-life of lightly preserved seafood products such as cold-smoked salmon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  10. Stratification for smoking in case-cohort studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; López, Ana García; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2009-01-01

    and adjustment for smoking on the estimated effect of polymorphisms on lung cancer risk was explored in the case-cohort design. We used an empirical and a statistical simulation approach. The stratification strategies were: no smoking stratification, stratification for smoking status and stratification......The risk estimates obtained in studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer differ markedly between studies, which might be due to chance or differences in study design, in particular the stratification/match of comparison group. The effect of different strategies for stratification...... for smoking duration. The study base was a prospective follow-up study with 57,053 participants. In the simulation approach the glutathione S-transferase T1 null polymorphism, as a model of any polymorphism, was added to simulated data in two different ways, assuming either absence or presence of association...

  11. Movie Smoking, Movie Horror, and Urge to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARGENT, James D.; MARUSKA, Karin; MORGENSTERN, Matthis; ISENSEE, Barbara; HANEWINKEL, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horror films, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31–0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  12. Detection and quantification of a toxic salt substitute (LiCl) by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Banu; Velioglu, Hasan Murat; Bilge, Gonca; Berkkan, Aysel; Ozdinc, Nese; Tamer, Ugur; Boyaci, Ismail Hakkı

    2018-01-01

    The use of Li salts in foods has been prohibited due to their negative effects on central nervous system; however, they might still be used especially in meat products as Na substitutes. Lithium can be toxic and even lethal at higher concentrations and it is not approved in foods. The present study focuses on Li analysis in meatballs by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Meatball samples were analyzed using LIBS and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Calibration curves were obtained by utilizing Li emission lines at 610nm and 670nm for univariate calibration. The results showed that Li calibration curve at 670nm provided successful determination of Li with 0.965 of R 2 and 4.64ppm of limit of detection (LOD) value. While Li Calibration curve obtained using emission line at 610nm generated R 2 of 0.991 and LOD of 22.6ppm, calibration curve obtained at 670nm below 1300ppm generated R 2 of 0.965 and LOD of 4.64ppm. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A Simple Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) System for Use at Multiple Levels in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David W.; Hayes, Ryan T.; Wong, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    A LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) spectrometer constructed by the instructor is reported for use in undergraduate analytical chemistry experiments. The modular spectrometer described here is based on commonly available components including a commercial Nd:YAG laser and a compact UV-vis spectrometer. The modular approach provides a…

  14. Smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Adams, Marc A; Sánchez, José de Jesús; Guzmán-Cerda, Gabriela

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in the home and workplace among residents of Tijuana, one of Mexico's largest cities. This cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, during 2003 and 2004. A population-based sample of 400 Tijuana adult residents responded to a tobacco survey, and 397 of the surveys were analyzed. About 22.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.7%-27.1%) of Tijuana adults reported current smoking, and 53.9% (95% CI: 48.8%-58.9%) reported chronic exposure to secondhand smoke. Approximately 44.4% (95% CI: 37.9%-50.9%) of Tijuana adults had a nonsmoking policy in their workplace, while 65.8% (95% CI: 61.0%-70.6%) of Tijuana households were smoke-free. The results underline the need for increased tobacco control efforts, particularly stricter enforcement of existing passive smoking regulations, in order to expand protection from secondhand smoke from private settings to public ones and to curb the tobacco epidemic in Tijuana and elsewhere in Mexico.

  15. Double Pulse LIBS of Titanium-Based PVD-Coatings with Submicron Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ermalitskaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for double pulse LIBS in the process of a direct layer-by-layer analysis of the titanium-based PVD-coatings on polished flat blank samples of steel and silicon and also of the TiAlN/TiN-coating on a milling cutter is considered. A method is proposed to control thickness of the radiation evaporated layer by defocusing the laser beam with respect to the surface, making it possible to attain the depth resolution of 0.1 μm. The Ti and Ti-Zr-coatings produced using the ion-assisted condensation method and subjected to streams of the nitrogen plasma in a magnetic-plasma compressor are studied.

  16. Feasibility of atomic and molecular laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to in-situ determination of chlorine in concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been studied as a fast method of detecting chlorine in concrete samples. Both single pulse (SP) and double pulse (DP) experiments have been tested. Several combinations of lasers (Neodymium-Yttrium Alum...

  17. [Study on smoking-attributed mortality by using all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guohong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Xu, Zhongliang; Song, Guide; Zhang, Ying; Shen, Chengfeng; Zheng, Wenlong; Xue, Xiaodan; Shen, Wenda

    2016-03-01

    To understand the smoking-attributed mortality by inclusion of smoking information into all causes of death surveillance. Since 2010, the information about smoking status, smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily had been added in death surveillance system. The measures of training, supervision, check, sampling survey and telephone verifying were taken to increase death reporting rate and reduce data missing rate and underreporting rate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for smoking-attributed mortality. During the study period (2010-2014), the annual death reporting rates ranged from 6.5‰ to 7.0‰. The reporting rates of smoking status, smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily were 95.53%, 98.63% and 98.58%, respectively. Compared with the nonsmokers, the RR of males was 1.38 (1.33-1.43) for all causes of death and 3.07 (2.91-3.24) for lung cancer due to smoking, the RR of females was 1.46 (1.39-1.54) for all causes of death and 4.07 (3.81-4.35) for lung cancer due to smoking, respectively. The study of smoking attributed mortality can be developed with less investment by using the stable and effective all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin.

  18. Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Myakalwar, Ashwin; Spegazzini, Nicolas; Zhang, Chi; Kumar Anubham, Siva; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan; Kumar Gundawar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Despite its intrinsic advantages, translation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for material identification has been often impeded by the lack of robustness of developed classification models, often due to the presence of spurious correlations. While a number of classifiers exhibiting high discriminatory power have been reported, efforts in establishing the subset of relevant spectral features that enable a fundamental interpretation of the segmentation capability and avoid the ‘curse of dimensionality’ have been lacking. Using LIBS data acquired from a set of secondary explosives, we investigate judicious feature selection approaches and architect two different chemometrics classifiers –based on feature selection through prerequisite knowledge of the sample composition and genetic algorithm, respectively. While the full spectral input results in classification rate of ca.92%, selection of only carbon to hydrogen spectral window results in near identical performance. Importantly, the genetic algorithm-derived classifier shows a statistically significant improvement to ca. 94% accuracy for prospective classification, even though the number of features used is an order of magnitude smaller. Our findings demonstrate the impact of rigorous feature selection in LIBS and also hint at the feasibility of using a discrete filter based detector thereby enabling a cheaper and compact system more amenable to field operations. PMID:26286630

  19. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  20. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  1. How people think about the chemicals in cigarette smoke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer C; Byron, M Justin; Baig, Sabeeh A; Stepanov, Irina; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-08-01

    Laws and treaties compel countries to inform the public about harmful chemicals (constituents) in cigarette smoke. To encourage relevant research by behavioral scientists, we provide a primer on cigarette smoke toxicology and summarize research on how the public thinks about cigarette smoke chemicals. We systematically searched PubMed in July 2016 and reviewed citations from included articles. Four central findings emerged across 46 articles that met inclusion criteria. First, people were familiar with very few chemicals in cigarette smoke. Second, people knew little about cigarette additives, assumed harmful chemicals are added during manufacturing, and perceived cigarettes without additives to be less harmful. Third, people wanted more information about constituents. Finally, well-presented chemical information increased knowledge and awareness and may change behavior. This research area is in urgent need of behavioral science. Future research should investigate whether educating the public about these chemicals increases risk perceptions and quitting.

  2. Smoking habits and smoking cessation among North Carolina nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I E

    1989-01-01

    A 1987 questionnaire survey of a 1% random sample (n = 356) of registered nurses in North Carolina provided data on the smoking habits and smoking cessation. Fifty-six percent were never smokers; 19% were current smokers. Among the ever smokers, 31% had quit smoking for at least one year. Twenty-two percent of the former smokers had smoked less than 5 years and 39% less than 10 years before quitting. Anecdotal notes from never smokers suggested that their major deterrent to smoking was their own parents smoking. Concerns about the addictive smoking behavior and health effects of smoking observed in their parents as well as concerns about potential health risks to themselves deterred them from smoking. Concerns about the adverse consequences of smoking was the most influential factor influencing smoking cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking. Friends' and family's encouragement to stop smoking was the most influential external factor motivating nurses to quit or reduce cigarette consumption. Fifty-seven percent of the former smokers quit smoking after one or two attempts while 53 of the current smokers had tried to quit 3 or more times - 90% had tried at least once to quit smoking; however, only 18% of the current smokers had abstained for more than one year during any of their attempts to quit. Implications of the results include: (1) smoking cessation programs for nurses in the workplace may have considerable impact since the majority of nurses who smoke are tying to quit; (2) relapse prevention strategies need to be an integral part of such smoking cessation programs including involvement of family and friends to support the smokers in their cessation efforts.

  3. Adolescents' Attitudes on Smoking Are Related to Experimentation with Smoking, Daily Smoking and Best Friends' Smoking in Two Karelias in Finland and in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Annamari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Isoaho, Hannu; Lazutkina, Galina; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-12-01

    Becoming a smoker usually starts during adolescence and is a dynamic process involving experimentation before the establishment of daily smoking. It has been suggested that adolescents who smoke differ from those who do not in their attitudes to smoking. The purpose of this study was to find out whether attitudes related to smoking legislation and restrictions, social pressures in smoking and image of smokers are associated with smoking experimentation, daily smoking and best friends' smoking. The data were gathered with a self-administered questionnaire in North Karelia, Eastern Finland and in the Pitkyaranta district, Republic of Karelia, Russia. The respondents were 15-year-old 9th grade pupils in local schools. In Pitkyaranta, the data analyses covered pupils in all eight schools in the area (n = 179). In North Karelia, the data analyses comprised of selected eight schools (n = 601). Data were analysed with exploratory factor analysis. The models revealed that attitudes related to restrictions and social pressure were significantly associated with experimenting with smoking [OR (95 % CI) 7.923 (5.787-10.847)], daily smoking [OR (95 % CI) 9.575 (6.727-13.628)] and the likelihood of best friends' smoking [OR (95 % CI) 3.154 (2.579-3.858)]. The stronger the young peoples' attitudes and opinions, for example, towards restrictions and with more difficulties in refusing smoking, the higher the likelihood for smoking experimentations, daily smoking as well as the likelihood for their best friends' smoking. The country and factor interactions were not associated with smoking experimentations, daily smoking or best friends' smoking. Regardless of cultural background, adolescents who smoke have more positive attitudes to smoking, and perceive more social support for smoking, than do adolescents who do not smoke. The study stresses the similarity of the results in both Karelia's despite the enormous differences in culture, economy and public policy.

  4. Evolution of emphysema in relation to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Veronesi, Giulia; Harari, Sergio; Lanfranchi, Federica; Raimondi, Sara; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We have little knowledge about the evolution of emphysema, and relatively little is understood about its evolution in relation to smoking habits. This study aims to assess the evolution of emphysema in asymptomatic current and former smokers over 2 years and to investigate the association with subjects' characteristics. The study was approved by our Ethics Committee and all participants provided written informed consent. We measured emphysema by automatic low-dose computed tomography densitometry in 254 current and 282 former smokers enrolled in a lung-cancer screening. The measures were repeated after 2 years. The association between subjects' characteristics, smoking habits and emphysema were assessed by chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of emphysema worsening according to subjects' characteristics. We assessed the trend of increasing risk of emphysema progression by smoking habits using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. The median percentage increase in emphysema over a 2-year period was significantly higher in current than in former smokers (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0001). The risk of worsening emphysema (by 30% in 2 years) in current smokers increased with smoking duration (p for trend <0.02). As emphysema is a known risk factor for lung cancer, its evaluation could be used as a potential factor for identification of a high-risk population. The evaluation of emphysema progression can be added to low-dose CT screening programmes to inform and incite participants to stop smoking. (orig.)

  5. Evolution of emphysema in relation to smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellomi, Massimo [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan - IT, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Rampinelli, Cristiano [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Veronesi, Giulia [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Milan (Italy); Harari, Sergio [Fatebenefratelli-Milanocuore, Pneumology Operative Unit, San Giuseppe Hospital, Milan (Italy); Lanfranchi, Federica [University of Milan - IT, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Raimondi, Sara; Maisonneuve, Patrick [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    We have little knowledge about the evolution of emphysema, and relatively little is understood about its evolution in relation to smoking habits. This study aims to assess the evolution of emphysema in asymptomatic current and former smokers over 2 years and to investigate the association with subjects' characteristics. The study was approved by our Ethics Committee and all participants provided written informed consent. We measured emphysema by automatic low-dose computed tomography densitometry in 254 current and 282 former smokers enrolled in a lung-cancer screening. The measures were repeated after 2 years. The association between subjects' characteristics, smoking habits and emphysema were assessed by chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of emphysema worsening according to subjects' characteristics. We assessed the trend of increasing risk of emphysema progression by smoking habits using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. The median percentage increase in emphysema over a 2-year period was significantly higher in current than in former smokers (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0001). The risk of worsening emphysema (by 30% in 2 years) in current smokers increased with smoking duration (p for trend <0.02). As emphysema is a known risk factor for lung cancer, its evaluation could be used as a potential factor for identification of a high-risk population. The evaluation of emphysema progression can be added to low-dose CT screening programmes to inform and incite participants to stop smoking. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of anti-smoking television advertising on tobacco control among urban community population in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Chengbin; Xie, Yao Jie; Wang, Harry Hx; Zhu, Runzhi; Li, Wentao; An, Libin; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    China is the largest producer and consumer of tobacco in the world. Considering the constantly growing urban proportion, persuasive tobacco control measures are important in urban communities. Television, as one of the most pervasive mass media, can be used for this purpose. The anti-smoking advertisement was carried out in five different time slots per day from 15 May to 15 June in 2011 across 12 channels of Chongqing TV. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the main municipal areas of Chongqing. A questionnaire was administered in late June to 1,342 native residents aged 18-45, who were selected via street intercept survey. Respondents who recognized the advertisement (32.77 %) were more likely to know or believe that smoking cigarettes caused impotence than those who did not recognize the advertisement (26.11 %). According to 25.5 % of smokers, the anti-smoking TV advertising made them consider quitting smoking. However, females (51.7 %) were less likely to be affected by the advertisement to stop and think about quitting smoking compared to males (65.6 %) (OR = 0.517, 95 % CI [0.281-0.950]). In addition, respondents aged 26-35 years (67.4 %) were more likely to try to persuade others to quit smoking than those aged 18-25 years (36.3 %) (OR = 0.457, 95 % CI [0.215-0.974]). Furthermore, non-smokers (87.4 %) were more likely to find the advertisement relevant than smokers (74.8 %) (OR = 2.34, 95 % CI [1.19-4.61]). This study showed that this advertisement did not show significant differences on smoking-related knowledge and attitude between non-smokers who had seen the ad and those who had not. Thus, this form may not be the right tool to facilitate change in non-smokers. The ad should instead be focused on the smoking population. Gender, smoking status, and age influenced the effect of anti-smoking TV advertising on the general population in China.

  7. Attitudes to smoking and smoking cessation among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakumar, Sreejith; Adams, John

    2015-10-28

    This article presents a literature review on smoking rates among nurses and the nursing role in promoting smoking cessation worldwide. Findings included wide variations between countries in smoking rates among nurses, and the important influence of peers and family members on smoking behaviours. Several studies indicated that nurses would value more education on techniques to promote smoking cessation.

  8. Effect of doxazosin on stress reactivity and the ability to resist smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Terril L; Weinberger, Andrea H; Oberleitner, Lindsay M; Smith, Kathryn Mz; Pittman, Brian P; Shi, Julia M; Tetrault, Jeanette M; Lavery, Meaghan E; Picciotto, Marina R; McKee, Sherry A

    2017-07-01

    Preclinical findings support a role for α1-adrenergic antagonists in reducing nicotine-motivated behaviors, but these findings have yet to be translated to humans. The current study evaluated whether doxazosin would attenuate stress-precipitated smoking in the human laboratory. Using a well-validated laboratory analogue of smoking-lapse behavior, this pilot study evaluated whether doxazosin (4 and 8 mg/day) versus placebo attenuated the effect of stress (vs neutral imagery) on tobacco craving, the ability to resist smoking and subsequent ad-libitum smoking in nicotine-deprived smokers ( n=35). Cortisol, adrenocorticotropin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and physiologic reactivity were assessed. Doxazosin (4 and 8 mg/day vs placebo) decreased cigarettes per day during the 21-day titration period. Following titration, doxazosin (4 and 8 mg/day vs placebo) decreased tobacco craving. During the laboratory session, doxazosin (8 mg/day vs placebo) further decreased tobacco craving following stress versus neutral imagery. Doxazosin increased the latency to start smoking following stress, and reduced the number of cigarettes smoked. Dosage of 8 mg/day doxazosin increased or normalized cortisol levels following stress imagery and decreased cortisol levels following neutral imagery. These preliminary findings support a role for the noradrenergic system in stress-precipitated smoking behavior, and support further development of doxazosin as a novel pharmacotherapeutic treatment strategy for smoking cessation.

  9. Basic research on flue gas smoke treatment by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    Recently, accompanying the increase of the use of fossil fuel, the environment destruction due to the sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in combustion smoke has become a serious problem. The development of flue gas smoke treatment technology by using electron beam was started in Japan, and attention has been paid worldwide as the promising dry type simultaneous desulfurizing and denitrating process. In this process, by adding ammonia to smoke, and irradiating electron beam on it, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate are formed. As to the reaction mechanism of denitration and desulfurization, radical formation, radical reaction, denitration mechanism, desulfurization mechanism, the particle size distribution of the formed aerosol, the amounts of denitration and desulfurization by electron beam smoke treatment process, the improvement of the denitration efficiency by multi-stage irradiation method and the improvement of the desulfurization rate by low temperature irradiation, and the basic test toward the pilot test are explained. The basic research for putting this system to practical use was carried out jointly by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., and Ebara Seisakusho for standard coal burning smoke in Japan. The verifying test at the pilot plant in Shinnagoya Thermal Power Station was carried out, and it was verified that this process can be used practically for treating coal-burning smoke. (K.I.)

  10. Design and Construction of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser for LIBS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Villarreal, A.; Sobral, H.

    2015-01-01

    A multi-pulse Nd:YAG laser was designed and built, that can be used as an excitation source for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) experiments. A trigger and a power supply for the flash lamp has been successfully developed. A cooling system that uses a distilled water flow for the active medium was implemented. The laser has an output energy of 306 ± 7 mJ for 1 Hz repetition rate and its temporal profile is multi-pulse with 1 ps of average separation between them. To validate the system, the output was used as an ablation source of an aluminum target and the emission was investigated by spectroscopy analysis.

  11. Cost of tobacco-related diseases, including passive smoking, in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, S M; Ho, L M; Lapsley, H M; Chau, J; Cheung, W L; Ho, S Y; Pow, M; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J

    2006-04-01

    Costs of tobacco-related disease can be useful evidence to support tobacco control. In Hong Kong we now have locally derived data on the risks of smoking, including passive smoking. To estimate the health-related costs of tobacco from both active and passive smoking. Using local data, we estimated active and passive smoking-attributable mortality, hospital admissions, outpatient, emergency and general practitioner visits for adults and children, use of nursing homes and domestic help, time lost from work due to illness and premature mortality in the productive years. Morbidity risk data were used where possible but otherwise estimates based on mortality risks were used. Utilisation was valued at unit costs or from survey data. Work time lost was valued at the median wage and an additional costing included a value of USD 1.3 million for a life lost. In the Hong Kong population of 6.5 million in 1998, the annual value of direct medical costs, long term care and productivity loss was USD 532 million for active smoking and USD 156 million for passive smoking; passive smoking accounted for 23% of the total costs. Adding the value of attributable lives lost brought the annual cost to USD 9.4 billion. The health costs of tobacco use are high and represent a net loss to society. Passive smoking increases these costs by at least a quarter. This quantification of the costs of tobacco provides strong motivation for legislative action on smoke-free areas in the Asia Pacific Region and elsewhere.

  12. Parental smoking, rejection of parental smoking, and smoking susceptibility and behaviors in Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjiu; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2018-07-01

    We explored the role of rejection of parental smoking in the association between parental smoking and smoking in adolescents. In 2010-11 cross-sectional survey, 61,810 Hong Kong secondary school students (mean age 14.6 years, 50.5% boys) reported their smoking (never, not susceptible; never, susceptible; ever, not current; current), paternal and maternal smoking, and whether they accepted paternal and maternal smoking (acceptance/rejection). We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of students' smoking in relation to acceptance and rejection of parental smoking, compared with no parental smoking. The OR (95% CI) of "never, susceptible", "ever, not current", and "current", compared with "never, not susceptible", in relation to acceptance of paternal smoking was 1.81 (1.67-1.96), 2.46 (2.25-2.69), and 2.79 (2.51-3.10), respectively. The corresponding ORs for rejection were 0.70 (0.64-0.76), 1.23 (1.13-1.35), and 0.47 (0.40-0.56). The OR (95% CI) of "never, susceptible", "ever, not current", and "current", compared with "never, not susceptible", in relation to acceptance of maternal smoking was 2.05 (1.80-2.33), 2.57 (2.29-2.88), and 6.33 (5.39-7.44), respectively. The corresponding ORs for rejection were 0.85 (0.69-1.05), 1.59 (1.39-1.81), and 2.14 (1.71-2.68). No overlapping was observed between the 95% CIs for acceptance and rejection of paternal or maternal smoking. While adolescent smoking was associated with parental smoking, especially in those who accepted parental smoking, the association was attenuated or reversed in those who rejected parental smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. Purpose This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. Methods 100 cigarette smokers aged 18–25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Results Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR 6.73; 1.00–45.25 comparing the top to bottom percentiles of exposure) were more likely to smoke during the break. Level of nicotine dependence (OR 1.71; 1.27–2.32 per point on the FTND scale), “contemplation” (OR 9.07; 1.71–47.99) and “precontemplation” (OR 7.30; 1.39–38.36) stages of change, and impulsivity (OR 1.21; 1.03–1.43), were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. Conclusions There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. PMID:20307802

  14. Evaluation of elemental profiling methods, including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), for the differentiation of Cannabis plant material grown in different nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Robertson, James; Foster, Simon; Lennard, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging atomic emission based solid sampling technique that has many potential forensic applications. In this study, the analytical performance of LIBS, as well as that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), was evaluated for the ability to conduct elemental analyses on Cannabis plant material, with a specific investigation of the possible links between hydroponic nutrients and elemental profiles from associated plant material. No such study has been previously published in the literature. Good correlation among the four techniques was observed when the concentrations or peak areas of the elements of interest were monitored. For Cannabis samples collected at the same growth time, the elemental profiles could be related to the use of particular commercial nutrients. In addition, the study demonstrated that ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and LIBS are suitable techniques for the comparison of Cannabis samples from different sources, with high discriminating powers being achieved. On the other hand, μXRF method was not suitable for the discrimination of Cannabis samples originating from different growth nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Knowledge and attitudes toward smoke-free law among smoking and non-smoking medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Goniewicz, Maciej Ł; Koszowski, Bartosz; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Czogała, Jan; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Antosiewicz, Beata; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is common among various social groups. There is still high prevalence of smoking among health care professionals. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge about smoke-free law in public places in Poland among smoking and nonsmoking students of selected medical university. We surveyed 50 students of one medical university aged 23 +/- 2 years. Control group consisted with 61 students of other universities located in the same region aged 23 +/- 3 years. We developed a new survey to assess students knowledge about smoke-free regulations and their implementations in various public places. Smoking status was verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (COex). 57% off all surveyed students declared being familiar with smoke-free law. However, we detected a significant difference between the knowledge of medical vs. nonmedical students (76% vs. 41%, p < 0.05). The knowledge about smoke-free law in Poland among students is not sufficient, especially among nonmedical students.

  16. Exploration of Mars with the ChemCam LIBS Instrument and the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Horton E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landed on Mars in August 2012, and has been exploring the planet ever since. Dr. Horton E. Newsom will discuss the MSL's design and main goal, which is to characterize past environments that may have been conducive to the evolution and sustainability of life. He will also discuss Curiosity's science payload, and remote sensing, analytical capabilities, and direct discoveries of the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instrument, which is the first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to operate on another planetary surface and determine the chemistry of the rocks and soils.

  17. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents’ past 12-month smoking from perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends’ smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents’ smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends’ smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends’ smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths’ smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults. PMID:24241785

  18. [Analysis of Cr in soil by LIBS based on conical spatial confinement of plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Zeng; Yao, Ming-Yin; Chen, Tian-Bing; Li, Wen-Bing; Zheng, Mei-Lan; Xu, Xue-Hong; Tu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Mu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The present study is to improve the sensitivity of detection and reduce the limit of detection in detecting heavy metal of soil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The Cr element of national standard soil was regarded as the research object. In the experiment, a conical cavity with small diameter end of 20 mm and large diameter end of 45 mm respectively was installed below the focusing lens near the experiment sample to mainly confine the signal transmitted by plasma and to some extent to confine the plasma itself in the LIBS setup. In detecting Cr I 425.44 nm, the beast delay time gained from experiment is 1.3 micros, and the relative standard deviation is below 10%. Compared with the setup of non-spatial confinement, the spectral intensity of Cr in the soil sample was enhanced more than 7%. Calibration curve was established in the Cr concentration range from 60 to 400 microg x g(-1). Under the condition of spatial confinement, the liner regression coefficient and the limit of detection were 0.997 71 and 18.85 microg x g(-1) respectively, however, the regression coefficient and the limit of detection were 0.991 22 and 36.99 microg x g(-1) without spatial confinement. So, this shows that conical spatial confinement can/improve the sensitivity of detection and enhance the spectral intensity. And it is a good auxiliary function in detecting Cr in the soil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohamad; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Huey, Teh Chien; Ying, Chan Ying; Yen, Yeo Lay; Ching, Fiona Goh Swee; Yi, Khoo Yi; Lin, Chong Zhuo; Ibrahim, Normala; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents.

  20. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects

  1. Quantum mechanical design and structure of the Li@B10H14 basket with a remarkably enhanced electro-optical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Shabbir; Xu, Hongliang; Liao, Yi; Kan, Yuhe; Su, Zhongmin

    2009-08-26

    An innovative type of lithium decahydroborate (Li@B(10)H(14)) complex with a basketlike complexant of decaborane (B(10)H(14)) has been designed using quantum mechanical methods. As Li atom binds in a handle fashion to terminal electrophilic boron atoms of the decaborane basket, its NBO charge q (Li) is found to be 0.876, close to +1. This shows that the Li atom has been ionized to form a cation and an anion at the open end of B(10)H(14). The most fascinating feature of this Li doping is its loosely bound valence electron, which has been pulled into the cavity of the B(10)H(14) basket and become diffuse by the electron-deficient morphological features of the open end of the B(10)H(14) basket. Strikingly, the first hyperpolarizability (beta(0)) of Li@B(10)H(14) is about 340 times larger than that of B(10)H(14), computed to be 23,075 au (199 x 10(-30) esu) and 68 au, respectively. Besides this, the intercalation of the Li atom to the B(10)H(14) basket brings some distinctive changes in its Raman, (11)B NMR, and UV-vis spectra along with its other electronic properties that might be used by the experimentalists to identify this novel kind of Li@B(10)H(14) complex with a large electro-optical response. This study may evoke the possibility to explore a new thriving area, i.e., alkali metal-boranes for NLO application.

  2. Comparison of Four Recruiting Strategies in a Smoking Cessation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Meenan, Richard; Severson, Herb; Halperin, Abigail; Edwards, Erika; Magnusson, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare 4 on-line and off-line recruiting methods. Methods Young adult smokers (n=3353) were recruited to a trial comparing smoking cessation services with an on-line health risk assessment (HRA), on-line ads, off-line materials, and quit line screening. Results On-line ads (n=1426; $41.35) and off-line materials recruited the most smokers (n=1341; $56.23) for the lowest cost. Quit line screening was more expensive (n=189; $133.61), but enrollees used cessation services the most (34%-82%). On-line HRA was least successful and most costly (n=397; $630.85) but had the highest follow-up (45%-55%). Conclusions On-line ads and off-line materials were most effective and cost-effective methods. PMID:22584086

  3. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE POLÍMEROS MEDIANTE ESPECTROSCOPIA DE EMISIÓN DE PLASMAS PRODUCIDOS POR LÁSER (LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL DÍAZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se espera que en Colombia en los próximos años se realicen misiones humanitarias para la remoción de Artefactos Explosivos Improvisados (AEI para asegurar el tránsito de personas y bienes, particularmente en zonas rurales. Entre las tecnologías que apoyan las labores de desminado humanitario, la espectroscopia de emisión de plasmas producidos por láser (LIBS tiene la capacidad de identificar explosivos y las cubiertas utilizadas en la fabricación de AEIs. En este trabajo la técnica LIBS se usó para identificar y caracterizar a nivel de laboratorio cinco polímeros que pueden ser usados en la fabricación de AEIs: polivinil cloruro, polietileno de alta densidad, polietileno tereftalato, poliestireno y polipropileno. Se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación lineal para la identificación de los polímeros. Se lograron identificar satisfactoriamente todos los polímeros al compararlos con librerías de distintas sustancias utilizando el promedio de cinco espectros en la ventana de análisis centrada en 255 nm.

  4. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  5. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  6. [Smoking status among urban family and the measures of smoking control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ciyin; Ma, Grace; Zhai, Chengkai; Cao, Pei

    2009-01-01

    To find out the smoking status among the families and their members, in order to hold their knowledge, attitude, practice on smoking and its influence and to put forward the countermeasure of smoking Control. A questionnaire surveys were conducted among 419 people which came from 419 families. 409 qualified questionnaire were obtained. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, test and logistic analysis. The family current smoking rates were 68.2%, the smoking rates of past family were 90.2%, the current smoking rates of individual were 31.5%, the individual past smoking rates were 39.9%. Those who attempted smoking under the age of 18 years accounted for 46.6%. Those who smoked their first cigarette from friends accounted for 48.1%. The comparisons of knowledge, attitude between smoking-ever family members and non-smoking family members had significant difference (P attitude between smoking family members and non-smoking family members had significant difference (P < 0.05). Those who were married women, and had career had high score of KAP. The contents of education of the decreases of smoking rates were on the following: (1) Smoking damages health. (2) Smoking should not be used as means of communication. (3) Feel offensive when someone smoking around. (4) Most persons still don't smoke. The key place of smoking control could be family. Smoking control could depend on married female. The key crowd of tobacco control could be children and youngsters. Not offering smoke and not advise others to smoking could be the key measures of smoking control.

  7. Accurate quantitative CF-LIBS analysis of both major and minor elements in alloys via iterative correction of plasma temperature and spectral intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuxia, ZHAO; Lei, ZHANG; Jiajia, HOU; Yang, ZHAO; Wangbao, YIN; Weiguang, MA; Lei, DONG; Liantuan, XIAO; Suotang, JIA

    2018-03-01

    The chemical composition of alloys directly determines their mechanical behaviors and application fields. Accurate and rapid analysis of both major and minor elements in alloys plays a key role in metallurgy quality control and material classification processes. A quantitative calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) analysis method, which carries out combined correction of plasma temperature and spectral intensity by using a second-order iterative algorithm and two boundary standard samples, is proposed to realize accurate composition measurements. Experimental results show that, compared to conventional CF-LIBS analysis, the relative errors for major elements Cu and Zn and minor element Pb in the copper-lead alloys has been reduced from 12%, 26% and 32% to 1.8%, 2.7% and 13.4%, respectively. The measurement accuracy for all elements has been improved substantially.

  8. Parental behaviours, but not parental smoking, influence current smoking and smoking susceptibility among 14 and 15 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waa, Andrew; Edwards, Richard; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Zhang, Jane; Weerasekera, Deepa; Peace, Jo; McDuff, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    To explore whether parental behaviours related to smoking socialisation and parenting are associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking in 14-15 year old students. Data were sourced from the New Zealand 2006 Year 10 In-depth Survey, a school-based survey of 3,189 students. Outcome measures were susceptibility to smoking and current smoking. Potential determinants were second-hand smoke exposure in the home, parental smoking, parental anti-smoking expectations, anti-smoking rules, pocket money, monitoring of pocket money expenditure, general rule setting and monitoring, and concern about education. Analysis used logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding factors. Exposure to second-hand smoke and lack of parental anti-smoking expectations were independently associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Parental smoking was not independently associated with current smoking or susceptibility. Receiving pocket money and an absence of monitoring of expenditure were associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Lack of parental rule setting was associated with smoking susceptibility. Findings were similar whether or not one or more parents were smokers. Not allowing smoking in the home, communicating non-smoking expectations to children, monitoring pocket money, and setting rules to guide behaviour are strategies which are likely to reduce risk of smoking uptake. The study provides evidence to inform the development of parent-focused interventions to reduce the risk of smoking initiation by children. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Smoking of parents and best friend--independent and combined effects on adolescent smoking and intention to initiate and quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Day, Jeffrey R

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the independent and combined effects of smoking of parents and best friend on smoking and the intention to initiate or quit smoking in adolescents. In this school-based survey, 6,553 Hong Kong students aged 13-18 reported their demographic characteristics, smoking status of themselves, parents, and best friend; and intention to smoke (initiation among never-smokers and reinitiation among ex-smokers) or quit smoking among current smokers. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of student smoking (current/ever) and intention to smoke or quit smoking for parental (paternal/maternal/both parents vs. none) and best friend (yes vs. no) smoking. Parental smoking and having a smoking best friend were associated with adolescent current smoking, ever smoking, and intention to initiate smoking. Having a smoking best friend was also associated with reinitiating and quitting smoking. The AORs (95% CI) of current smoking for having a smoking best friend, in addition to smoking father, mother, or both were 19.14 (14.36-25.51), 20.38 (12.42-33.43), and 24.18 (15.89-36.77). The respective AORs of ever smoking were 8.30 (6.74-10.22), 8.92 (5.63-14.12), and 11.99 (8.05-17.87). Parental smoking and best friend smoking have independent effects on adolescent smoking behaviors. Their combined effects on current and ever smoking were particularly large. Smoking prevention programs should pay special attention to adolescents with both best friend and parents who smoke.

  10. The cigarette advertising broadcast ban and magazine coverage of smoking and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E; Goldenhar, L M

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the cigarette broadcast advertising ban, which took effect in 1971, cigarette manufacturers rapidly shifted advertising expenditures from the broadcast media to the print media. In the last year of broadcast advertising and the first year of the ban, cigarette ad expenditures in a sample of major national magazines increased by 49 and then 131 percent in constant dollars. From an 11-year period preceding the ban to an 11-year period following it, these magazines decreased their coverage of smoking and health by 65 percent, an amount that is statistically significantly greater than decreases found in magazines that did not carry cigarette ads and in two major newspapers. This finding adds to evidence that media dependent on cigarette advertising have restricted their coverage of smoking and health. This may have significant implications for public health, as well as raising obvious concerns about the integrity of the profession of journalism.

  11. The effects of message framing, involvement, and nicotine dependence on anti-smoking public service announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wan S; Villegas, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) typically emphasize the negative consequences of failing to quit smoking (negative frame), as opposed to emphasizing the benefits of quitting (positive frame). However, stressing the benefits of quitting sometimes produces better communication outcomes. Previous research on message framing has tried to identify factors affecting the impact of positive framing and negative framing. Data were collected on 188 undergraduates attending a southeastern university in the United States who were assigned randomly to view either positive or negative messages. Our study found that involvement and nicotine dependence moderated the impact of framed smoking-cessation messages on attitude toward the ad.

  12. Effects of anti-smoking advertising on youth smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Flay, Brian; Nichter, Mark; Giovino, Gary

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews empirical studies, encompassing community trials and field experiments, and evaluates government-funded anti-smoking campaigns, ecologic studies of population impact of anti-smoking advertising, and qualitative studies that have examined the effects of anti-smoking advertising on teenagers. We conclude that anti-smoking advertising appears to have more reliable positive effects on those in pre-adolescence or early adolescence by preventing commencement of smoking. It is unclear whether this is due to developmental differences, or is a reflection of smoking experience, or a combination of the two. In addition, it is evident that social group interactions, through family, peer and cultural contexts, can play an important role in reinforcing, denying, or neutralizing potential effects of anti-smoking advertising. Although there is some research to suggest that advertising genres that graphically depict the health effects of smoking, emphasize social norms against smoking, and portray the tobacco industry as manipulative can positively influence teenagers, these findings are far from consistent. Finally, the effects of anti-smoking advertising on youth smoking can be enhanced by the use of other tobacco control strategies, and may be dampened by tobacco advertising and marketing. Overall, the findings of this review indicate that there is no single "recipe" for anti-smoking advertising that leads to reductions in youth smoking. Anti-smoking advertising can influence youth smoking, but whether it does in the context of individual anti-smoking campaigns needs to be the subject of careful evaluation.

  13. Design of the Modelica Library VehProLib with Non-ideal Gas Models in Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Conny

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers the reconstruction and the redesign of the modeling library VehProLib,which is constructed in the modeling language Modelica with help of the modeling toolWolfram SystemModeler. The design choices are discussed and implemented. This thesisalso includes the implementation of a turbocharger package and an initial study of the justificationof the ideal gas law in vehicle modeling. The study is made with help of Van derWaals equation of states as a reference of non-ideal gas mo...

  14. [Smoke-free environment--nurse attitudes towards smoke-free regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Czarnecka, Karolina; Drygas, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the nurse attitudes towards smoke-free regulations in public places. The study population consisted of 299 nurses. Among the study population questionnaire was conducted including socio-demographic characteristic, smoking and ETS profile, knowledge about health effects of smoking and abilities for conduction of antismoking counseling. Detail information was collected about nurse opinion on smoke-free public places such as offices, other workplaces, health and educational buildings, restaurants and bars. About 18% of study participants declared current tobacco smoking and 25% were former smokers. Almost all participating in the study women (85%-98%) are in favor of smoking ban in offices, health and educational buildings. 75% supported smoking ban in workplaces but 15% of them were somewhat opposed. Most of the nurses were in favor of smoke-free restaurants (64%) but they were less likely to support smoke-free bars, pubs and clubs (45%). Unfortunately 63% of interview women do not accept smoking ban in private cars. The percentage of women who support total ban of smoking in the presence of pregnant women was 93% and in the presence of children 79%. It is important to conduct educational and informational activities to increase public awareness on health consequences of active and passive smoking and the ways of elimination of such exposures.

  15. Smoking and attitudes toward smoking policy at a University in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Carie L; Carrillo, Amy M

    2016-01-01

    To assess smoking behavior, knowledge of smoking harm, and attitudes toward campus smoking policy at an Egyptian university, an online survey of students, staff, and faculty was conducted (N = 992). The smoking prevalence of 38% among men was in line with Egypt's national average, but the smoking prevalence among women of 20% was much higher than the national average. Smoking status influenced beliefs about smoking harm and attitudes toward smoking policy, with nonsmokers having stronger beliefs about the harm of smoking and showing stronger support for smoking regulations than smokers. Smokers were more knowledgeable about smoking policy than were nonsmokers and differed slightly in their preferences for smoking policy enforcement strategies. These findings contribute to our understanding of how to tailor college smoking policy and programs to an Egyptian context.

  16. Smoke composition and predicting relationships for international commercial cigarettes smoked with three machine-smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, M E; Morton, M J; Laffoon, S W; Cox, R H; Lipowicz, P J

    2005-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine the effects of smoking machine puffing parameters on mainstream smoke composition and to express those effects as predicting relationships. Forty-eight commercial Philip Morris USA and Philip Morris International cigarettes from international markets and the 1R4F reference cigarette were machine-smoked using smoking conditions defined by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), and Health Canada (HC). Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and ammonia. Mainstream yields for tar and 44 individual smoke constituents and "smoke pH" were determined. Cigarette constituent yields typically increased in the order ISOrelationships were developed between ISO tar and ISO, MDPH, and HC constituent yields and between MDPH tar and HC tar and respective smoking condition yields. MDPH and HC constituent yields could be predicted with similar reliability using ISO tar or the corresponding smoking-condition tar. The reliability of the relationships varied from strong to weak, depending on particular constituents. Weak predicting relationships for nitrogen oxides and TSNA's, for example, were improved with inclusion of tobacco filler composition factors. "Smoke pH" was similar for all cigarettes at any one smoking condition, and overall marginally lower at HC conditions than at ISO or MDPH conditions.

  17. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Walter; Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-10-20

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke-associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption.

  18. Smoking in non-student Mexican adolescents with asthma: relation with family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Iribar-Ibabe, María C; Peinado-Herreros, José

    2012-02-01

    The association between some factors of the familial and social environment with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma has not been explored. The aim of the study was to determine the association between family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire applied to 4,778 non-student adolescents aged 13-18 years. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using a questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire. The smoking habit was determined by application of a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were determined for smoking using logistic regression. From the total sample, asthma prevalence was 6.6% and of active smoking, 34.2%. Age at initiation of asthma symptoms was 5.15±3.52 years, and that of active smoking was 13.65±2.07 years. Percentage of non-intact family (40.1 vs. 32.7%) was greater in the group of adolescents with asthma. Logistic regression models show that parental approval of smoking (adjusted OR=5.57; 95% confidence interval=2.48-12.51) and smoking friends (adjusted OR=2.92; 95% confidence interval=1.04-8.19) are associated with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In this study, parental approval of smoking and having friends who smoke appear to be associated with smoking among non-student adolescents with asthma. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Inclusion Detection in Aluminum Alloys Via Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Shaymus W.; Craparo, Joseph; De Saro, Robert; Apelian, Diran

    2018-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown promise as a technique to quickly determine molten metal chemistry in real time. Because of its characteristics, LIBS could also be used as a technique to sense for unwanted inclusions and impurities. Simulated Al2O3 inclusions were added to molten aluminum via a metal-matrix composite. LIBS was performed in situ to determine whether particles could be detected. Outlier analysis on oxygen signal was performed on LIBS data and compared to oxide volume fraction measured through metallography. It was determined that LIBS could differentiate between melts with different amounts of inclusions by monitoring the fluctuations in signal for elements of interest. LIBS shows promise as an enabling tool for monitoring metal cleanliness.

  20. Smoking outside: The effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The smoking ban increased the non-monetary cost of smoking by prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor workplaces. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. Using two waves of the nationally representative Slán survey, a difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employ...

  1. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  2. Smoking among young children in Hong Kong: influence of parental smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Wong, Yuen Ping Ivy

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study comparing children with smoking parents and those with non-smoking parents, in terms of knowledge and attitude towards smoking and the influence of parents and peers on smoking initiation. Adolescence is a developmental stage when smoking habits are likely to start. Adolescents are most influenced by the smoking habits of their parents and friends. A cross-section study was conducted with students aged 13-15 years in two schools in 2008, using a questionnaire that collected information on the smoking habits of their parents and peers, knowledge and attitude towards smoking, initiation and inclination towards smoking. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. A total of 257 of 575 (44·7%) students had smoking parent(s), and 25·4% reported having peers who smoked. Children with non-smoking parents were more likely than those with smoking parents to consider 'smoking as disgusting' (67·3% vs. 45·9%), and to know that 'smoking is addictive' (80·5% vs. 70·4%) and 'harmful to health' (81·8% vs. 67·7%). More of those with smoking parents had tried smoking than those with non-smoking parents (13·2% vs. 3·8%). Preventive programmes should involve smoking parents to increase their awareness of the impact their smoking has on their children. Interventions should include problem-solving skills for children to deal with daily stresses and thus eradicate the potential risk of smoking initiation. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Software support for SBGN maps: SBGN-ML and LibSBGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, Martijn P; Villéger, Alice C; Czauderna, Tobias; Boyd, Sarah E; Bergmann, Frank T; Luna, Augustin; Demir, Emek; Sorokin, Anatoly; Dogrusoz, Ugur; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Funahashi, Akira; Aladjem, Mirit I; Mi, Huaiyu; Moodie, Stuart L; Kitano, Hiroaki; Le Novère, Nicolas; Schreiber, Falk

    2012-08-01

    LibSBGN is a software library for reading, writing and manipulating Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN) maps stored using the recently developed SBGN-ML file format. The library (available in C++ and Java) makes it easy for developers to add SBGN support to their tools, whereas the file format facilitates the exchange of maps between compatible software applications. The library also supports validation of maps, which simplifies the task of ensuring compliance with the detailed SBGN specifications. With this effort we hope to increase the adoption of SBGN in bioinformatics tools, ultimately enabling more researchers to visualize biological knowledge in a precise and unambiguous manner. Milestone 2 was released in December 2011. Source code, example files and binaries are freely available under the terms of either the LGPL v2.1+ or Apache v2.0 open source licenses from http://libsbgn.sourceforge.net. sbgn-libsbgn@lists.sourceforge.net.

  4. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in cobalt (Co and lithium (Li from spent lithium ion battery. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs were heated over the range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA and furthermore image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that cobalt and lithium were mainly recovered to about 49 wt.% and 4 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  5. Psychosocial factors associated with non-smoking adolescents' intentions to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian N; Bean, Melanie K; Mitchell, Karen S; Speizer, Ilene S; Fries, Elizabeth A

    2007-04-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents' smoking intentions. Participants from three high schools (n = 785) were surveyed to assess smoking-related characteristics and behaviors as part of a statewide evaluation of tobacco prevention programming. Attitudes, subjective norms (and other normative factors) and perceived behavioral control were all associated with non-smokers' intentions to smoke. Having more favorable attitudes toward remaining tobacco free and perceiving that friends would not be supportive of smoking were both associated with decreased likelihood of intending to smoke. Normative influence and peer use were significant factors, such that having more friends who smoke was associated with increased odds of intent to smoke. Lastly, perceived difficulty to quit was related to smoking intentions, with higher confidence to quit significantly associated with intentions to smoke. Findings are consistent with the TPB--attitudes, normative factors and perceived behavioral control each helped account for non-smoking adolescents' intentions to smoke. Implications for theory and intervention building are discussed.

  6. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  7. Secondhand smoke exposure among never-smoking youth in 168 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Mamudu, Hadii M; Zheng, Shimin; John, Rijo M; Cao, Yan; Kioko, David; Anderson, James; Ouma, Ahmed E O

    2015-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among never-smoking adolescents and identify key factors associated with such exposure. Data were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 168 countries during 1999-2008. SHS exposure was ascertained in relation to the location-exposure inside home, outside home, and both inside and outside home, respectively. Independent variables included parental and/or peer smoking, knowledge about smoke harm, attitudes toward smoking ban, age, sex, and World Health Organization region. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Of 356,414 never-smoking adolescents included in the study, 30.4%, 44.2%, and 23.2% were exposed to SHS inside home, outside home, and both, respectively. Parental smoking, peer smoking, knowledge about smoke harm, and positive attitudes toward smoke ban were significantly associated with increased odds of SHS exposure. Approximately 14% of adolescents had both smoking parents and peers. Compared with never-smoking adolescents who did not have both smoking parents and peers, those who had both smoking parents and peers had 19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 19.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.86-21.41), eight (aOR, 7.71; 95% CI, 7.05-8.43), and 23 times (aOR, 23.16; 95% CI, 20.74-25.87) higher odds of exposure to SHS inside, outside, and both inside and outcome home, respectively. Approximately one third and two fifths of never-smoking adolescents were exposed to SHS inside or outside home, and smoking parents and/or peers are the key factors. Study findings highlight the need to develop and implement comprehensive smoke-free policies consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    OpenAIRE

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand sm...

  9. Do Dutch 11-12 years olds who never smoke, smoke experimentally or smoke regularly have different demographic backgrounds and perceptions of smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausems, Marlein; Mesters, Ilse; van Breukelen, Gerard; De Vries, Hein

    2003-06-01

    Most adolescent smokers start smoking before the age of twelve. Little is known about the behavioural smoking determinants of Dutch primary school children. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of students from the final year of 143 Dutch primary schools. A total of 3700 students (mean age = 11.6 years) completed a questionnaire based on the ASE model, measuring the attitude, social influences and self-efficacy expectations concerning smoking. Students were categorized as never smokers (64.3%), experimental smokers (28.0%), and regular smokers (7.8%). Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that never smokers were younger, and were more often female, religious and from two-parent families than experimental smokers. Never smokers perceived more disadvantages, long-term physical consequences, more negative social norms and less pressure regarding smoking, higher self-efficacy expectations towards non-smoking, and had fewer parents, siblings or best friends who smoked. Looking at differences between experimental and regular smokers showed that experimental smokers received less pocket money. They also perceived more disadvantages, fewer advantages, more negative social norms and less pressure towards smoking, higher self-efficacy expectations towards non-smoking, and were less likely to be surrounded by friends, peers, family or teachers who smoked. Generally, the low scores for physical consequences and risk perception regarding addiction were striking. Smoking prevention aimed at primary schoolchildren should consider the different smoking categories, with their specific motives and influences. For instance, the influences on smoking initiation of parents, siblings and best friends suggest more comprehensive programmes aimed at the entire family. Youngsters' ignorance of addiction needs more attention.

  10. When You Smoke, They Smoke: Children's Rights and Opinions about Vehicular Smoking Bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Morgan Anne

    International law guarantees every person the highest attainable standard of health, and this should include protection from the health risks of environmental tobacco smoke. As knowledge of these risks has increased, there has been an incremental expansion of smoking bans in public space. Since 2007, they have extended to the private space of the motor vehicle in an attempt to protect child passengers. This thesis aimed to understand the views and interests of children and youth on vehicular smoking bans, and the extent to which these have been sought after and considered in previous discussions of this policy initiative in Canada. A print media analysis found a lack of concern for children's perspectives. Rights, when considered, were generally those of adults. In focus groups, children discussed the unfairness of exposure to smoke in any space, but especially within the motor vehicle, and articulated a desire for increased participation in decision-making. Keywords: Smoking, smoking bans, rights, children's opinions, vehicles, Canada.

  11. Impact of Baseline Assessment Modality on Enrollment and Retention in a Facebook Smoking Cessation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Jacobs, Megan A; Zawistowski, Grace; Brookover, Jody; Stanton, Cassandra A; Graham, Amanda L

    2015-07-16

    Few studies have addressed enrollment and retention methods in online smoking cessation interventions. Fully automated Web-based trials can yield large numbers of participants rapidly but suffer from high rates of attrition. Personal contact with participants can increase recruitment of smokers into cessation trials and improve participant retention. To compare the impact of Web-based (WEB) and phone (PH) baseline assessments on enrollment and retention metrics in the context of a Facebook smoking cessation study. Participants were recruited via Facebook and Google ads which were randomly displayed to adult smokers in the United States over 27 days from August to September 2013. On each platform, two identical ads were randomly displayed to users who fit the advertising parameters. Clicking on one of the ads resulted in randomization to WEB, and clicking on the other ad resulted in randomization to PH. Following online eligibility screening and informed consent, participants in the WEB arm completed the baseline survey online whereas PH participants completed the baseline survey by phone with a research assistant. All participants were contacted at 30 days to complete a follow-up survey that assessed use of the cessation intervention and smoking outcomes. Participants were paid $15 for follow-up survey completion. A total of 4445 people clicked on the WEB ad and 4001 clicked on the PH ad: 12.04% (n=535) of WEB participants and 8.30% (n=332) of PH participants accepted the online study invitation (PFacebook app (66/114, 57.9% WEB vs 17/35, 49% PH) or that completed the 30-day follow-up survey (49/114, 43.0% WEB vs 16/35, 46% PH). A total of $6074 was spent on ads, generating 3,834,289 impressions and resulting in 8446 clicks (average cost $0.72 per click). Per participant enrollment costs for advertising alone were $27 WEB and $87 PH. A more intensive phone baseline assessment protocol yielded a lower rate of enrollment, equivalent follow-up rates, and higher

  12. In situ NIR reflectance and LIBS measurements in lava tubes in preparation for future Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveille, R.; Sobron, P.

    2017-12-01

    The ATiLT (Astrobiology Training in Lava Tubes) program addresses Mars astrobiology exploration objectives by performing field work and instrumental analyses in lava tubes as high fidelity analog environments to putative lava tubes on Mars. The main field location for ATiLT is the Lava Beds National Monument (LABE) in Northern California. LABE is situated on the lower north flank of the Medicine Lake Volcano of the Cascade arc. This location features hundreds of caves, most of which are relatively shallow, typically well above the water table, reaching 20-45m below land surface at their maximum depth. Some LABE caves feature `cold sinks' where cold air sinks and becomes trapped in deeper cave passages, thus allowing perennial ice to accumulate despite above freezing surface temperatures. Several lava tube caves in LABE also contain seasonal or perennial ice accumulations, which makes them excellent analogs to Mars lava tubes where the presence of ice has been predicted. While lava tubes are very attractive systems to test hypotheses related to habitability and the possibility for life on Mars, at present there are no comprehensive in-situ instrument-driven characterizations of the mineralogy and geochemistry of lava tubes. ATiLT fills this gap by providing detailed, in-situ investigations with scientific instruments relevant to Mars exploration. Our aim is to help constrain future exploration targets on Mars and define future mission operations and requirements. For this purpose, in May 2017 we carried out a field campaign in several lava tubes at LABE. We deployed two miniature spectroscopic sensors suitable for dark, humid, cave conditions: NIR reflectance (1-5 μm) and LIBS (300-900 nm). The advantages of combining NIR reflectance and LIBS are evident: LIBS can reveal the relative concentration of major (and often trace) elements present in a bulk sample, whereas NIR reflectance yields information on the individual mineral species and their chemical and

  13. Supergravity one-loop corrections on AdS7 and AdS3, higher spins and AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Beccaria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As was shown earlier, the one-loop correction in 10d supergravity on AdS5×S5 corresponds to the contributions to the vacuum energy and 4d boundary conformal anomaly which are minus the values for one N=4 Maxwell supermultiplet, thus reproducing the subleading term in the N2−1 coefficient in the dual SU(N SYM theory. We perform similar one-loop computations in 11d supergravity on AdS7×S4 and 10d supergravity on AdS3×S3×T4. In the AdS7 case we find that the corrections to the 6d conformal anomaly a-coefficient and the vacuum energy are again minus the ones for one (2,0 tensor multiplet, suggesting that the total a-anomaly coefficient for the dual (2,0 theory is 4N3−9/4N−7/4 and thus vanishes for N=1. In the AdS3 case the one-loop correction to the vacuum energy or 2d central charge turns out to be equal to that of one free (4,4 scalar multiplet, i.e. is c=+6. This reproduces the subleading term in the central charge c=6(Q1Q5+1 of the dual 2d CFT describing decoupling limit of D5–D1 system. We also present the expressions for the 6d a-anomaly coefficient and vacuum energy contributions of general-symmetry higher spin field in AdS7 and consider their application to tests of vectorial AdS/CFT with the boundary conformal 6d theory represented by free scalars, spinors or rank-2 antisymmetric tensors.

  14. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoking ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. Our search included a broad range of research designs including: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. One author extracted characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies and a second author checked the details. We extracted health and smoking behaviour outcomes. We did not attempt a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity in design and content of the studies included. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. There are 77 studies included in this updated review. We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. Evidence from 21 countries is

  15. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  16. Tobacco Smoke Exposure Impairs Brain Insulin/IGF Signaling: Potential Co-Factor Role in Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deochand, Chetram; Tong, Ming; Agarwal, Amit R; Cadenas, Enrique; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Human studies suggest tobacco smoking is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, experimental data linking tobacco smoke exposures to underlying mediators of neurodegeneration, including impairments in brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in AD are lacking. This study tests the hypothesis that cigarette smoke (CS) exposures can impair brain insulin/IGF signaling and alter expression of AD-associated proteins. Adult male A/J mice were exposed to air for 8 weeks (A8), CS for 4 or 8 weeks (CS4, CS8), or CS8 followed by 2 weeks recovery (CS8+R). Gene expression was measured by qRT-PCR analysis and proteins were measured by multiplex bead-based or direct binding duplex ELISAs. CS exposure effects on insulin/IGF and insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins and phosphorylated proteins were striking compared with the mRNA. The main consequences of CS4 or CS8 exposures were to significantly reduce insulin R, IGF-1R, IRS-1, and tyrosine phosphorylated insulin R and IGF-1R proteins. Paradoxically, these effects were even greater in the CS8+R group. In addition, relative levels of S312-IRS-1, which inhibits downstream signaling, were increased in the CS4, CS8, and CS8+R groups. Correspondingly, CS and CS8+R exposures inhibited expression of proteins and phosphoproteins required for signaling through Akt, PRAS40, and/or p70S6K, increased AβPP-Aβ, and reduced ASPH protein, which is a target of insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Secondhand CS exposures caused molecular and biochemical abnormalities in brain that overlap with the findings in AD, and many of these effects were sustained or worsened despite short-term CS withdrawal.

  17. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  18. Adolescent smoking and parenting : Associations between smoking related parental behaviors and adoslescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation is to address the link between parenting and adolescent smoking. We address this question since the role of parents has been traditionally neglected in smoking research as well as prevention programs. Recent research has shown that the prevention of adult smoking in

  19. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  20. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  1. Effects of undernutrition and litter size on material variables and pup development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, K C; Wehmer, F; Morofski, J

    1978-05-01

    Differential effects of maternal nutrition and litter size variation were examined in a 2 x 2 factorial design in which undernourished or lib fed mothers nursed litters of 4 or 12. Litter size accounted for a greater proportion of pup body weight a weaning than did maternal nutrition. When the mother was fed ad lib, birth weight of individual pups and later body weight were correlated regardless of litter size. When the mother was undernourished, these correlations were not found. Enlargement of littersize increased the pup weight coefficient of variability only when the mother was fed ad lib. Size of the litter did not influence the maternal variables under study: open field behavior, adrenal weight, and body weight.

  2. Respiratory effects in children from passive smoking of cigarettes and narghile: ISAAC Phase Three in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Y; Shaaban, R; Hassan, M; Yassine, F; Mohammad, S; Tessier, J F; Ellwood, P

    2014-11-01

    The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile. Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire. Among 2 734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic. We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.

  3. Exposure to smoking imagery in popular films and adolescent smoking in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Jackson, Christine; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sargent, James D

    2008-08-01

    Exposure to smoking imagery in films is consistently associated with smoking behavior and its psychological antecedents among adolescents in high-income countries, but its association with adolescent smoking in middle-income countries is unknown. In 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 3876 Mexican adolescents in secondary school was surveyed on smoking behavior, smoking risk factors, and exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking. Participants were classified into quartiles of exposure to smoking imagery across all films they reported having seen. Models were estimated to determine associations among quartiles of film-smoking exposure, smoking behavior, and the psychological antecedents of smoking, adjusting for age, gender, sensation seeking, self-esteem, parental smoking, sibling smoking, best-friend smoking, having a bedroom TV, and private versus public school attendance. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Adolescents were exposed to an average of 51.7 (SE=1.3) minutes of smoking in the films they viewed. Crude and adjusted ORs indicated positive associations between quartiles of film-smoking exposure and both current smoking (AOR4v1=3.13; pantecedents of smoking uptake. Crude and adjusted coefficients indicated significant, positive associations between exposure and susceptibility to smoking (AOR4v1=1.66; p<0.05); favorable attitudes toward smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.44; p<0.0001); and perceived peer prevalence of smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.26; p<0.0001). Exposure to smoking in films appears associated with smoking among Mexican adolescents. Policies could aim to decrease youth exposure to smoking in nationally and internationally distributed films.

  4. Tobacco advertising, environmental smoking bans, and smoking in Chinese urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R H; Li, Mu; Xu, Xiaochao; Gu, Yaming

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate whether cigarette smoking in Chinese urban areas was respectively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising and smoking bans in households, workplaces, and public places. Participants were 4735 urban residents aged 15 years and older, who were identified through multi-stage quota-sampling conducted in six Chinese cities. Data were collected on individual sociodemographics and smoking status, and regional tobacco control measures. The sample was characterized in terms of smoking prevalence, and multilevel logistic models were employed to analyze the association between smoking and tobacco advertising and environmental smoking restrictions, respectively. Smoking prevalence was 30%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that smoking was positively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising, and negatively associated with workplace and household smoking bans. The association of smoking with both tobacco advertising and environmental smoking bans further justifies implementation of comprehensive smoking interventions and tobacco control programs in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.

  6. Prospective association between added sugars and frailty in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laclaustra, Martin; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Banegas, Jose R; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Ordovas, Jose; Lopez-Garcia, Esther

    2018-04-09

    Sugar-sweetened beverages and added sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) in the diet are associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which are all risk factors for decline in physical function among older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the association between added sugars in the diet and incidence of frailty in older people. Data were taken from 1973 Spanish adults ≥60 y old from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. In 2008-2010 (baseline), consumption of added sugars (including those in fruit juices) was obtained using a validated diet history. Study participants were followed up until 2012-2013 to assess frailty based on Fried's criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, body mass index, energy intake, self-reported comorbidities, Mediterranean Diet Adherence Score (excluding sweetened drinks and pastries), TV watching time, and leisure-time physical activity. Compared with participants consuming added sugars (lowest tertile), those consuming ≥36 g/d (highest tertile) were more likely to develop frailty (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.34, 3.90; P-trend = 0.003). The frailty components "low physical activity" and "unintentional weight loss" increased dose dependently with added sugars. Association with frailty was strongest for sugars added during food production. Intake of sugars naturally appearing in foods was not associated with frailty. The consumption of added sugars in the diet of older people was associated with frailty, mainly when present in processed foods. The frailty components that were most closely associated with added sugars were low level of physical activity and unintentional weight loss. Future research should determine whether there is a causal relation between added sugars and frailty.

  7. The Effects of Filter Ventilation on Flavor Constituents in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The deliveries of 20 added flavor constituents, total particulate matter (TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in cigarette mainstream smoke were studied when filter ventilation was 0, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The flavor substance test was done by addition of standard samples. The flavor constituents in cigarette smoke condensate were separated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE and capillary gas chromatography (GC. The flavor constituents were identified and determined quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC. The flavors studied were methylpyrazine, furaldehyde, 5-methylfuraldehyde, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, trimethylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyridine, phenylacetaldehyde, acetophenone, linalool, b-phenylethyl alcohol, isophorone, oxoisophorone, benzyl acetate, menthol, ethyl octanoate, b-damascenone, b-damascone, geranylacetone and b-ionone. The deliveries of TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in mainstream smoke were determined according to International Standard methods. It was found that the flavor constituents and routine components in mainstream smoke decreased in different proportions as the filter ventilation increased. Carbon monoxide and ‘tar’ decreased more than nicotine. The flavor constituents with lower boiling points and lower molecular weights decreased more than those with higher boiling points and higher molecular weights. With the increase of filter ventilation, not only is the amount of smoke components reduced and the smoke taste weakened, but also the composition of smoke is modified and the quality of aroma changed slightly. These findings should be considered when developing low-‘tar’ cigarettes through the use of filter ventilation technology.

  8. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  9. Exposure to Smoking Imagery in Popular Films and Adolescent Smoking in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sargent, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking imagery in films is consistently associated with smoking behavior and its psychological antecedents among adolescents in high-income countries, but its association with adolescent smoking in middle-income countries is unknown. Methods In 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 3876 Mexican adolescents in secondary school was surveyed on smoking behavior, smoking risk factors, and exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking. Participants were classified into quartiles of exposure to smoking imagery across all films they reported having seen. Models were estimated to determine associations among quartiles of film-smoking exposure, smoking behavior, and the psychological antecedents of smoking, adjusting for age, gender, sensation seeking, self-esteem, parental smoking, sibling smoking, best-friend smoking, having a bedroom TV, and private versus public school attendance. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Adolescents were exposed to an average of 51.7 (SE=1.3) minutes of smoking in the films they viewed. Crude and adjusted ORs indicated positive associations between quartiles of film-smoking exposure and both current smoking (AOR4v1=3.13; pantecedents of smoking uptake. Crude and adjusted coefficients indicated significant, positive associations between exposure and susceptibility to smoking (AOR4v1=1.66; p<0.05); favorable attitudes toward smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.44; p<0.0001); and perceived peer prevalence of smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.26; p<0.0001). Conclusions Exposure to smoking in films appears associated with smoking among Mexican adolescents. Policies could aim to decrease youth exposure to smoking in nationally and internationally distributed films. PMID:18617078

  10. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  11. Peer Smoking and Smoking-related Beliefs Among College Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Ahmmad, Zobayer; Pye, Mu; Gull, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Smoking is a significant public health issue in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to examine peer smoking and smoking-related beliefs among college students in Bangladesh. College students at two universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh participated in a self-administered survey in May and June 2017. First, being a current or former smoker is associated with lower levels of beliefs among respondents that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, and lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke, while current smokers and former smokers have different smoking-related beliefs. Second, having smoker friends is associated with lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke. Third, higher levels of normative beliefs that it is important not to smoke are associated with higher levels of beliefs that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, higher levels of intentions that they would not smoke, and higher levels of avoidance of smoking. Smoking-related beliefs and perceived norms in individuals' social networks are important components in promoting tobacco cessation in Bangladesh. But it is challenging to prevent or intervene in smoking because of the high rates of smoking in this country and the high prevalence of smokers in individuals' social networks. Future studies should examine the most effective interventions to combat smoking in high-smoking social networks, such as using mobile apps or social media, and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions.

  12. Peer Smoking and Smoking-related Beliefs Among College Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kamimura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Smoking is a significant public health issue in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to examine peer smoking and smoking-related beliefs among college students in Bangladesh. Methods College students at two universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh participated in a self-administered survey in May and June 2017. Results First, being a current or former smoker is associated with lower levels of beliefs among respondents that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, and lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke, while current smokers and former smokers have different smoking-related beliefs. Second, having smoker friends is associated with lower levels of intentions that they would not smoke. Third, higher levels of normative beliefs that it is important not to smoke are associated with higher levels of beliefs that they would not smoke even with smoker friends or nervousness, higher levels of intentions that they would not smoke, and higher levels of avoidance of smoking. Conclusions Smoking-related beliefs and perceived norms in individuals’ social networks are important components in promoting tobacco cessation in Bangladesh. But it is challenging to prevent or intervene in smoking because of the high rates of smoking in this country and the high prevalence of smokers in individuals’ social networks. Future studies should examine the most effective interventions to combat smoking in high-smoking social networks, such as using mobile apps or social media, and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions.

  13. Socioeconomic correlates of smoking among an ethnically diverse sample of 8th grade adolescents in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Sun, Ping; Johnson, C Anderson

    2007-04-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with smoking among adolescents, but it is not known which attributes of SES are responsible for the added risk, or whether these associations are consistent in ethnically diverse samples. This study investigated the associations between SES variables and smoking behavior among an ethnically diverse sample of 1847 8th grade adolescents in Southern California in 2002. Several aspects of SES were examined: an objective composite measure of family and neighborhood SES, the adolescent's spending money, and the adolescent's perception of SES (family's ability to afford basic necessities, wealth relative to others, and wealth relative to last year). After controlling for demographic characteristics, smoking behavior of parents and friends, and parental monitoring, low scores on the objective SES index and large amounts of pocket money were associated with an increased risk of smoking. The subjective measures of perceived SES were not associated with smoking. Results indicate that increased smoking prevention efforts are needed in low-SES areas, and that limiting adolescents' pocket money may be an effective strategy for preventing smoking.

  14. Hairy AdS solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  15. Hairy AdS solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru.astefanesei@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-11-10

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  16. A translational investigation targeting stress-reactivity and prefrontal cognitive control with guanfacine for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Potenza, Marc N; Kober, Hedy; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Arnsten, Amy F T; Picciotto, Marina R; Weinberger, Andrea H; Ashare, Rebecca; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-03-01

    Stress and prefrontal cognitive dysfunction have key roles in driving smoking; however, there are no therapeutics for smoking cessation that attenuate the effects of stress on smoking and enhance cognition. Central noradrenergic pathways are involved in stress-induced reinstatement to nicotine and in the prefrontal executive control of adaptive behaviors. We used a novel translational approach employing a validated laboratory analogue of stress-precipitated smoking, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and a proof-of-concept treatment period to evaluate whether the noradrenergic α2a agonist guanfacine (3 mg/day) versus placebo (0 mg/day) reduced stress-precipitated smoking in the laboratory, altered cortico-striatal activation during the Stroop cognitive-control task, and reduced smoking following a quit attempt. In nicotine-deprived smokers (n=33), stress versus a neutral condition significantly decreased the latency to smoke, and increased tobacco craving, ad-libitum smoking, and systolic blood pressure in placebo-treated subjects, and these effects were absent or reduced in guanfacine-treated subjects. Following stress, placebo-treated subjects demonstrated decreased cortisol levels whereas guanfacine-treated subjects demonstrated increased levels. Guanfacine, compared with placebo, altered prefrontal activity during a cognitive-control task, and reduced cigarette use but did not increase complete abstinence during treatment. These preliminary laboratory, neuroimaging, and clinical outcome data were consistent and complementary and support further development of guanfacine for smoking cessation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. libLocation: acceso a dispositivos de localización para gvSIG Desktop y Mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Jordán Aldasorro, Juan G.; Planells Jiménez, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Inicialmente integrada en el piloto de gvSIG Mobile, la librería libLocation tiene como objetivo dotar a los proyectos gvSIG Desktop y gvSIG Mobile un acceso transparente a fuentes de localización. La librería se fundamenta en las especificaciones JSR-179 -API de localización para J2ME- y JSR-293 -API de localización para J2ME v2.0-, proporcionando una interfaz uniforme a diferentes fuentes de localización, mediante funciones de alto nivel. Asimismo, se extiende la funcionalida...

  18. AdS solutions through transgression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo

    2008-01-01

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or 'transgression' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS 3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial.

  19. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 mid...

  20. General parenting, anti-smoking socialization and smoking onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model was tested in which general parenting and parental smoking predicted anti-smoking socialization, which in turn predicted adolescent smoking onset. Participants were 4351 Dutch adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. In the model, strictness and psychological autonomy granting

  1. Changes in circulating leptin levels during the initial stage of cessation are associated with smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Allen, Sharon; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Leptin has been linked to tobacco craving and withdrawal-related symptoms. Very few studies have examined leptin prospectively in both male and female nonsmokers and smokers. We examine leptin concentrations prospectively in both male and female nonsmokers and smokers to assess the associations of leptin with psychological symptoms and smoking relapse during ad libitum smoking, the first 48 h post quit, and 4 weeks post-cessation. Self-report psychological, anthropomorphic, and biological measures (cotinine, carbon monoxide, and plasma leptin) were collected before and after 48 h of smoking abstinence. Smokers were stratified at 28 days post quit as abstinent or relapsed if they had smoked daily for seven consecutive days at any point in the 28 days. Leptin concentration (square root transformed ng/ml) increased over the 48-h abstinence, but only in female abstainers. In contrast, leptin was very stable across time for nonsmokers, relapsers, and males. Cox regression supported that increased leptin was associated with decreased risk of relapse. Leptin was correlated negatively with withdrawal symptoms for abstainers only. Females produce more leptin than males and this level increases from ad libitum smoking to 48-h post quit. The current analysis indicates that a leptin increase early in cessation predicts abstinence. The increase in women, but not men, in response to abstinence provides further evidence of important gender differences. The negative correlation between leptin and withdrawal symptoms indicates a possible protective effect of leptin. Further research is ongoing to elucidate the psychological and biological determinants of this effect.

  2. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazier Richard H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Results Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8 and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3. Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Conclusions Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  3. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-03-03

    Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8) and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3). Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  4. Smoking habits and health-related quality of life in a rural Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Koichi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Umeda, Takashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the association between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a rural Japanese population. A cross-sectional study of data from 823 subjects in Iwaki area of Hirosaki City, Japan. SF-36 scores between non-smokers and smokers were compared. To test the sensitivity of SF-36 scores in detecting health deterioration, effects of having diseases and having deviations from normal thresholds in health check-up were analyzed by adding them into covariates in ANCOVA. There was no significant difference in SF-36 scores between non-smokers and smokers. Presence of diseases significantly decreased the physical components of SF-36 scores while the results of health check-up had no significant influence on SF-36 scores. The results suggested the possibility that in Japan, where smoking prevalence is still relatively high, smokers may be less sensitive to sub-clinical deterioration in their own health status than smokers in Western countries that already have experienced the major decline in their smoking rate. The importance of having the smoker become more sensitive to the sub-clinical adverse effects of cigarette smoking should be stressed for the success of smoking control programs.

  5. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg