WorldWideScience

Sample records for ad hoc mobile

  1. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  2. Queueing models for mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de Roland

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents models for the performance analysis of a recent communication paradigm: mobile ad hoc networking. The objective of mobile ad hoc networking is to provide wireless connectivity between stations in a highly dynamic environment. These dynamics are driven by the mobility of stations

  3. Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Kamanashis; Ali, Md. Liakat

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of communication devices or nodes that wish to communicate without any fixed infrastructure and pre-determined organization of available links. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. A number of challenges like o...

  4. Intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jamalipour, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been extensive research activity in the emerging area of Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (ICMANs). By considering the nature of intermittent connectivity in most real word mobile environments without any restrictions placed on users' behavior, ICMANs are eventually formed without any assumption with regard to the existence of a end-to-end path between two nodes wishing to communicate. It is different from the conventional Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), which have been implicitly viewed as a connected graph with established complete paths betwe

  5. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aldabbas, Hamza; Janicke, Helge; Al-Bayatti, Ali; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4117

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis. These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours' data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters) and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nod...

  6. Research on Routing Protocol of Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Tuo Ming Fu; Che Min

    2016-01-01

    Routing protocol is an important content of mobile Ad Hoc. The typical mobile Ad Hoc network routing protocols is introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of these routing protocols are analyzed. A hybrid routing protocol is put forward based on this.

  7. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis.These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours’ data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nodes. We evaluate our framework using the Network Simulator (NS-2 to check whether the privacy and confidentiality of the originator are met. For this we implemented the Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs, as NS-2 agents that manage and enforce the policies attached to packets at every node in the MANET.

  8. Mobility Prediction Based Neighborhood Discovery for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xu; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2010-01-01

    Hello protocol is the basic technique for neighborhood discovery in wireless ad hoc networks. It requires nodes to claim their existence/aliveness by periodic `hello' messages. Central to any hello protocol is the determination of `hello' message transmission rate. No fixed optimal rate exists in the presence of node mobility. The rate should in fact adapt to it, high for high mobility and low for low mobility. In this paper, we propose a novel mobility prediction based hello protocol, named ...

  9. Mobility Prediction Based Neighborhood Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xu; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2011-01-01

    International audience Hello protocol is the basic technique for neighborhood discovery in wireless ad hoc networks. It requires nodes to claim their existence/ aliveness by periodic 'hello' messages. Central to a hello protocol is the determination of 'hello' message transmission rate. No fixed optimal rate exists in the presence of node mobility. The rate should in fact adapt to it, high for high mobility and low for low mobility. In this paper, we propose a novel mobility prediction bas...

  10. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  11. Geocasting and Multicasting Routing Operation in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    R.Kruthika

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers, the different multicasting routing protocols in wireless mobile Ad hoc network (MANET).An Ad hoc network is composed of mobile nodes without the presence of a wired support infrastructure .In this environment routing/multicasting protocols are faced with the challenge of producing multihop router under host mobility and band constraints. Various approaches and routing protocol have been proposed to address Ad hoc networking problems and multiple standardization effort wit...

  12. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  13. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes. PMID:25202715

  14. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  15. Fundamental Properties of Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekmat, R.

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mobile ad-hoc networks are formed by mobile devices that set up a possibly short-lived network for communication needs of the moment. Ad-hoc networks are decentralized, self-organizing networks capable of forming a communication network without relying on any fixed infrastructure. Each nod

  16. A NOVEL ROUTING ATTACK IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. N. SATYANARAYANA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks will often be deployed in environments where the nodes of the networks are unattended and have little or no physical protection against tampering. The nodes of mobile ad hoc networks are thus susceptible to compromise. The networks are particularly vulnerable to denial of service (DOS attacks launched through compromised nodes or intruders. In this paper, we present a new DOS attack and its defense in ad hoc networks. The new DOS attack, called Ad Hoc Flooding Attack (AHFA, can result in denial of service when used against on-demand routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, such as AODV, DSR. The intruder broadcasts mass Route Request packets to exhaust the communication bandwidth and node resource so that the valid communication cannot be kept. After analyzed Ad Hoc Flooding Attack, we develop Flooding Attack Prevention (FAP, a generic defense against the Ad Hoc Flooding Attack in mobile ad hoc networks. When the intruder broadcasts exceeding packets of Route Request, the immediate neighbors of the intruder record the rate of Route Request. Once the threshold is exceeded, nodes deny any future request packets from the intruder. The results of our implementation show FAP can prevent the Ad Hoc Flooding attack efficiently.

  17. MobileMAN: Mobile Metropolitan Ad hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The project aims to define and develop a metropolitan area, self-organizing and totally wireless network that we call Mobile Metropolitan Ad-hoc Network (MobileMAN). In a MobileMAN the users device are the network, no infrastructure is strictly required. A MobileMAN is finalized at providing, at a low cost and where and when is needed, the communication and interaction platform for people inside a man. It will support a kind of citizens network by which people could avoid the operators infras...

  18. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) implementation on android

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Mohammed Khalid Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The continual changing of self-organizing nodes located in an infrastructure-less mesh network is called ad hoc network. The recent years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in ad hoc networking. This research with the aid of Java Native Interface (JNI) and UNIX kernel tools for network, a method to build a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) has been implemented for Android devices to provide supplementary way of communication in certain situations where network infrastructure does not exist...

  19. Mobility Prediction in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks using Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaniche, Heni

    2010-01-01

    Mobility prediction allows estimating the stability of paths in a mobile wireless Ad Hoc networks. Identifying stable paths helps to improve routing by reducing the overhead and the number of connection interruptions. In this paper, we introduce a neural network based method for mobility prediction in Ad Hoc networks. This method consists of a multi-layer and recurrent neural network using back propagation through time algorithm for training.

  20. A Review of Anonymity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    KERNÁCS János; SZILÁGYI Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a self-organizingnetwork of wireless links connecting mobile nodes.The mobile nodes can communicate without aninfrastructure. They form an arbitrary topology, wherethe nodes play the role of routers and are free to moverandomly. Mobile ad hoc networks requireanonymous communications, in order to thwart newwireless passive attacks, and to protect new assets ofinformation such as nodes’ locations, motion patterns,network topology and traffic patterns in addition toconventio...

  1. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  2. Coping With Misbehavior in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Buchegger, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we address the question of how to enable a system to operate despite the presence of misbehavior. Specifically, in a mobile ad-hoc network, how can we keep the network functional for normal nodes when other nodes do not route and forward correctly? Node misbehavior due to selfish or malicious reasons or faulty nodes can significantly degrade the performance of mobile ad-hoc networks. Existing approaches such as economic incentives or secure routing by cryptographic means allevi...

  3. Energy Aware OLSR-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wardi

    2012-01-01

    OLSR is a well-known proactive routing protocol designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). OLSR adopts a concept of an MPR mechanism where only mobile nodes selected as MPR nodes can retransmit broadcast packets received from other mobile nodes. Although OLSR reduces the number of broadcast packets, MPR nodes consume more energy than other mobile nodes. Since mobile nodes in MANETs are powered by battery with limited energy, energy efficiency is a critical issue in designing a routing prot...

  4. Link Perdurability Based Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xuebin; Zhou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Ad Hoc networks are prone to link failures due to mobility. In this letter, a link perdurability based routing scheme is proposed to try dealing with this problem. This scheme uses signal strength measurements to estimate the route life time and hence chooses a stable route, and is implemented in two typical ad hoc routing protocols to evaluate its performance. The simulation results have shown that this scheme can improve these protocols' packet delivery ratio in cases where there are frequent link failures.

  5. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  6. Information Sharing Modalities for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    de Spindler, Alexandre; Grossniklaus, Michael; Lins, Christoph; Norrie, Moira C.

    2009-01-01

    Current mobile phone technologies have fostered the emergence of a new generation of mobile applications. Such applications allow users to interact and share information opportunistically when their mobile devices are in physical proximity or close to fixed installations. It has been shown how mobile applications such as collaborative filtering and location-based services can take advantage of ad-hoc connectivity to use physical proximity as a filter mechanism inherent to the application logi...

  7. Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Rakesh Kumar,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available hoc networks are self configuring network and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol can accommodate such an environment. Different protocols govern the mobile ad hoc networks and to improve the packet delivery ratio of Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks with high mobility, a message exchange scheme for its invalid route reconstruction is being used. Three protocols AODV, DSDV and I-DSDV were simulated using NS-2 package and were compared in terms of packet delivery ratio, end to end delay routing overhead in different environment; varying number of nodes, speed and pause time. Simulation results show that IDSDVcompared with DSDV, it reduces the number of dropped data packets with little increased overhead at higher rates of node mobility but still compete with AODV in higher node speed and number of node.

  8. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  9. A Reactive Location Service for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Käsemann, Michael; Füßler, Holger; Hartenstein, Hannes; Mauve, Martin

    2002-01-01

    We present and analyze a reactive location service RLS for mobile ad hoc networks. RLS provides a mobile node in a wireless ad-hoc network with the means to inquire the current geographical position of another node on-demand and can be used as a building block for location-based routing. We provide a comparison of RLS to an ideal omniscient location service as well as to the complex Grid Location Service (GLS). In addition, we compare the performance of greedy location-based routing in combin...

  10. Virtual reality mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ziyue; Gong Bo; He Xingui

    2008-01-01

    For wireless ad hoc networks simulation.node's mobility pattern and traffic pattern are two key elements.A new simulation model is presented based on the virtual reality collision detection algorithm in obstacle environment,and the model uses the path planning method to avoid obstacles and to compute the node's moving path.Obstacles also affect node's signal propagation.Considering these factors,this study implements the mobility model for wireless ad hoc networks.Simulation results show that the model has a significant impact on the performance of protocols.

  11. Evolutionary algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dorronsoro, Bernabé; Danoy, Grégoire; Pigné, Yoann; Bouvry, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive guide describes how evolutionary algorithms (EA) may be used to identify, model, and optimize day-to-day problems that arise for researchers in optimization and mobile networking. It provides efficient and accurate information on dissemination algorithms, topology management, and mobility models to address challenges in the field. It is an ideal book for researchers and students in the field of mobile networks.

  12. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  13. A WMPLS Based Multicast Mechanism in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mengyang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Merging MPLS into multicast routing protocol in Mobile Ad hoc network is an elegant method to enhance the network performance and an efficient solution for multicast scalability and control overhead problems. Based on the Wireless MPLS technology, the mechanism and evaluation of a new multicast protocol, the Label Switching Multicast Routing Protocol (LSMRP is presented in this paper.

  14. Security Challenges and Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH.V. Raghavendran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile nodes that form a temporary network without of any existing network infrastructure or central access point. The popularity of these networks created security challenges as an important issue. The traditional routing protocols perform well with dynamically changing topology but are not designed to defense against security challenges. In this paper we discuss about current challenges in an ad hoc environment which includes the different types of potential attacks that are possible in the Mobile Ad hoc Networks that can harm its working and operation. We have done literature study and gathered information relating to various types of attacks. In our study, we have found that there is no general algorithm that suits well against the most commonly known attacks. But the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET. To develop suitable security solutions for such environments, we must first understand how MANETs can be attacked. This paper provides a comprehensive study of attacks against mobile ad hoc networks. We present a detailed classification of the attacks against MANETs.

  15. A Study On OFDM In Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Nasereldin Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is the physical layer in emerging wireless local area networks that are also being targeted for ad hoc networking. OFDM can be also exploited in ad hoc networks to improve the energy performance of mobile devices. It is important in wireless networks because it can be used adaptively in a dynamically changing channel. This study gives a detailed view about OFDM and how it is useful to increase the bandwidth. This paper also gives an idea about how OFDM can be a promising technology for high capacity wireless communication.

  16. A Survey of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRADIP M. JAWANDHIYA,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc network (MANETs. Compared to wired networks, MANETs are more vulnerable to security attacks due to the lack of a trusted centralized authority and limited resources. Attacks on ad hoc networks can be classified as passive and active attacks, depending on whether the normal operation of the network is disrupted or not. In this paper, we are describing the all prominent attacks described in literature in a consistent manner to provide a concise comparison on attack types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies all the existing attacks on MANETs.

  17. Routing Security in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Jonny; Dooley, Laurence S.; Pulkkis, Goran

    2012-01-01

    The role of infrastructure-less mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in ubiquitous networks is outlined. In a MANET there are no dedicated routers and all network nodes must contribute to routing. Classification of routing protocols for MANET is based on how routing information is acquired and maintained by mobile nodes and/or on roles of network nodes in a routing. According to the first classification base, MANET routing protocols are proactive, reactive, or hybrid combinations of proactive and ...

  18. ANALYSIS OF ROUTING IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ad-hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any standalone infrastructure or centralized administration. Routing in Ad hoc networks is a challenging problem because nodes are mobile and links are continuously being created and broken.In this model we not only improves the reputation of the network but also provide a routing approach for reliable data transmission and also avoid the loop occurs in the communication. The mobile network is the dynamicnetwork that provides the solution for the inclusion and exclusion of dynamic nodes in the network. AODV and DSR are the two most popular routing protocols for ad-hoc network that we discussed here. In this paper we describe the way to find the node having packet loss and to perform the elimination of node from the network withoutperforming the rerouting and provide the reliable data transfer over the network. In this paper, we design and evaluate cooperative caching techniques to efficiently support data access in the ad-hoc network.

  19. Spaceborne Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada, Ignasi; Strauss, Adi

    2010-08-01

    Reliable global networking is essential for a rapidly growing mobile and interactive communication. Satellite communication plays already a significant role in this subject. However, the classical space-based data transmission requires an appropriate infrastructure, both on the ground and in orbit. This paper discusses the potential of a self-organising distributed satellite system in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) to achieve a seamless integration in already existing infrastructures. The communication approach is based on dynamic Inter Satellite Links (ISL) not controlled nor coordinated on an individual basis from the ground-based stations.

  20. BCR Routing for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAMESH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless and the Mobile Networks appear to provide a wide range of applications. Following these, the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET aid in wide development of many applications. The achievement of the real world applications are attained through effective routing. The Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad hoc Network (ICMANET is a sparse network where a full connectivity is never possible. ICMANET is a disconnected MANET and is also a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN that sustains for higher delays. The routing in a disseminated network is a difficult task. A new routing scheme called Bee Colony Routing (BCR is been proposed with a motto of achieving optimal result in delivering the data packet towards the destined node. BCR is proposed with the basis of Bee Colony Optimization technique (BCO. The routing in ICMNAET is done by means of Bee routing protocol. This paper enchants a novel routing methodology for data transmission in ICMANET.

  1. Simulator for Energy Efficient Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The research on various issues in Mobile ad hoc networks is getting popular because of its challenging nature and all time connectivity to communicate. Network simulators provide the platform to analyse and imitate the working of the nodes in the networks along with the traffic and other entities. The current work proposes the design of a simulator for the mobile ad hoc networks that provides a test bed for the energy efficient clustering in the dynamic network. Node parameters like degree of connectivity and average transmission power are considered for calculating the energy consumption of the mobile devices. Nodes that consume minimum energy among their 1-hop neighbours are selected as the cluster heads.

  2. Analyzing Reactive Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Kamaljit I. Lakhtaria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous mobile nodes forming network in an infrastructure less environment and has dynamic topology. MANET reactive protocols always not have low control overhead. The control overhead for reactive protocols is more sensitive to the traffic load, in terms of the number of traffic rows, and mobility, in terms of link connectivity change rates, than other protocols. Therefore, reactive protocols may only be suitable for MANETs with small number of traffic loads and small link connectivity change rates. It is already proved that, it is more feasible to maintain full network topology in a MANET with low control overhead. In this Research Paper through simulations that were carried out by using Network Simulator-2 (NS-2 we had analyze Reactive/ On-demand protocols such as Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR,

  3. Cost management based security framework in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Security issues are always difficult to deal with in mobile ad hoc networks. People seldom studied the costs of those security schemes respectively and for some security methods designed and adopted beforehand, their effects are often investigated one by one. In fact, when facing certain attacks, different methods would respond individually and result in waste of resources.Making use of the cost management idea, we analyze the costs of security measures in mobile ad hoc networks and introduce a security framework based on security mechanisms cost management. Under the framework, the network system's own tasks can be finished in time and the whole network's security costs can be decreased. We discuss the process of security costs computation at each mobile node and in certain nodes groups. To show how to use the proposed security framework in certain applications, we give examples of DoS attacks and costs computation of defense methods. The results showed that more secure environment can be achieved based on the security framework in mobile ad hoc networks.

  4. A Timed Calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengying Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop a timed calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks embodying the peculiarities of local broadcast, node mobility and communication interference. We present a Reduction Semantics and a Labelled Transition Semantics and prove the equivalence between them. We then apply our calculus to model and study some MAC-layer protocols with special emphasis on node mobility and communication interference. A main purpose of the semantics is to describe the various forms of interference while nodes change their locations in the network. Such interference only occurs when a node is simultaneously reached by more than one ongoing transmission over the same channel.

  5. Bandwidth Estimation For Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presents bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET, which uses some components of the two methods for the bandwidth estimation: 'Hello Bandwidth Estimation 'Listen Bandwidth Estimation. This paper also gives the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed method is based on the comparison of these two methods. Bandwidth estimation is an important issue in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because bandwidth estimation in MANET is difficult, because each host has imprecise knowledge of the network status and links change dynamically. Therefore, an effective bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET is highly desirable. Ad hoc networks present unique advanced challenges, including the design of protocols for mobility management, effective routing, data transport, security, power management, and quality-of-service (QoS provisioning. Once these problems are solved, the practical use of MANETs will be realizable.

  6. Power Control in Multi-cluster Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINYanliang; YANGYuhang

    2003-01-01

    Power control gives us many advantages including power saving, lower interference, and efficient channel utilization. We proposed two clustering algorithms with power control for multl-cluster mobile ad hoc networks in this paper. They improve the network throughput and the network stability as compared to other ad hoc networks in which all mobile nodes use the same transmission power. Furthermore, they help in reducing the system power consumption. We compared the performances of the two approaches. Simulation results show that the DCAP (Distributed clustering algorithm with power control) would achieve a better throughput performance and lower power consumption than the CCAP (Centralized clustering algorithm with power control), but it is complicated and liable to be affected by node velocity.

  7. Shuttle-run synchronization in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sheng-Fei; Bi, Hong-Jie; Zou, Yong; Liu, Zong-Hua; Guan, Shu-Guang

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we study the collective dynamics of phase oscillators in a mobile ad hoc network whose topology changes dynamically. As the network size or the communication radius of individual oscillators increases, the topology of the ad hoc network first undergoes percolation, forming a giant cluster, and then gradually achieves global connectivity. It is shown that oscillator mobility generally enhances the coherence in such networks. Interestingly, we find a new type of phase synchronization/clustering, in which the phases of the oscillators are distributed in a certain narrow range, while the instantaneous frequencies change signs frequently, leading to shuttle-run-like motion of the oscillators in phase space. We conduct a theoretical analysis to explain the mechanism of this synchronization and obtain the critical transition point.

  8. Power control algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraj L. Pradhan

    2011-07-01

    We will also focus on an adaptive distributed power management (DISPOW algorithm as an example of the multi-parameter optimization approach which manages the transmit power of nodes in a wireless ad hoc network to preserve network connectivity and cooperatively reduce interference. We will show that the algorithm in a distributed manner builds a unique stable network topology tailored to its surrounding node density and propagation environment over random topologies in a dynamic mobile wireless channel.

  9. A Robust Reputation System for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Buchegger, Sonja; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2003-01-01

    Reputation systems in mobile ad-hoc networks can be tricked by the spreading of false reputation ratings, be it false accusations or false praise. Simple solutions such as exclusively relying on one`s own direct observations have drawbacks, as they do not make use of all the information available. We propose a fully distributed reputation system that can cope with false disseminated information. In our approach, everyone maintains a reputation rating and a trust rating about everyone ...

  10. Auto-configuration protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814

  11. Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network to the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mao-ning

    2005-01-01

    A novel scheme is presented to integrate mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with the Internet and support mobility across wireless local area networks (WLANs) and MANETs. The mobile nodes, connected as a MANET, employ the optimize d link state routing (OLSR) protocol for routing within the MANET. Mobility management across WLANs and MANETs is achieved through the hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) protocol. The performance is evaluated on a HMIPv6 based test-bed composed of WLANs and MANETs. The efficiency gain obtained from using HMIPv6 in such a hybrid network is investigated. The investigation result shows that the use of HMIPv6 can achieve up to 27% gain on reducing the handoff latency when a mobile roams within a domain. Concerning the reduction of the signaling load on the Internet, the use of HMIPv6 can achieve at least a 54% gain and converges to 69%.

  12. Realistic Mobility Modeling for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Hilal; Tugcu, Tuna

    2009-08-01

    Simulations used for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) are mostly based on random mobility and fail to consider individual behaviors of the vehicles. Unrealistic assumptions about mobility produce misleading results about the behavior of routing protocols in real deployments. In this paper, a realistic mobility modeling tool, Mobility for Vehicles (MOVE), which considers the basic mobility behaviors of vehicles, is proposed for a more accurate evaluation. The proposed model is tested against the Random Waypoint (RWP) model using AODV and OLSR protocols. The results show that the mobility model significantly affects the number of nodes within the transmission range of a node, the volume of control traffic, and the number of collisions. It is shown that number of intersections, grid size, and node density are important parameters when dealing with VANET performance.

  13. Implementing Smart Antenna System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Kulkarni P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the necessity of exchanging and sharing data increases, users demand easy connectivity, and fast networks whether they are at work, at home, or on the move. Nowadays, users are interested in interconnecting all their personal electronic devices (PEDs in an ad hoc fashion on the move. This type of network is referred to as Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET. When in such network a smart antenna System (SAS is implemented then we can achieve maximum capacity and improve the quality and coverage. So we are intended to implement such a SAS in the MANET. In this paper we have shown significance of Throughput and Bit Error Rate by implementing SAS in MANET using MATLABR2010a.

  14. AHBP: An Efficient Broadcast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟; 卢锡城

    2001-01-01

    Broadcast is an important operation in many network protocols. It is utilized to discover routes to unknown nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and is the key factor in scaling on-demand routing protocols to large networks. This paper presents the Ad Hoc Broadcast Protocol (AHBP) and its performance is discussed. In the protocol, messages are only rebroadcast by broadcast relay gateways that constitute a connected dominating set of the network. AHBP can efficiently reduce the redundant messages which make flooding-like protocols perform badly in large dense networks. Simulations are conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the protocol. The simulation results have shown excellent reduction of broadcast redundancy with AHBP. It also contributes to a reduced level of broadcast collision and congestion.

  15. Energy Consumption Model in Ad Hoc Mobile Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher HENI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to model the nodes battery discharge in wireless ad hoc networks. Many work focus on the energy consumption in such networks. Even, the research in the highest layers of the ISO model, takes into account the energy consumption and efficiency. Indeed, thenodes that form such network are mobiles, so no instant recharge of battery. Also with special type of ad hoc networks are wireless sensors networks using non-rechargeable batteries. All nodes with an exhausted battery are considered death and left the network. To consider the energy consumption, in this work we model using a Markov chain, the discharge of the battery considering of instant activation and deactivation distribution function of these nodes.

  16. Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariza Kamboj

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many crucial applications of MANETs like the battlefield, conference and disaster recovery defines the needs for group communications either one-to-many or many-to-many form. Multicast plays an important role in bandwidth scarce multihop mobile ad hoc networks comprise of limited battery power mobile nodes. Multicast protocols in MANETs generate many controls overhead for maintenance of multicast routingstructures due to frequent changes of network topology. Bigger multicast tables for the maintenance of network structures resultsin inefficient consumption of bandwidth of wireless links andbattery power of anemic mobile nodes, which in turn, pose thescalability problems as the network size is scaled up. However,many MANET applications demands scalability from time to time. Multicasting for MANETs, therefore, needs to reduce the state maintenance. As a remedy to these shortcomings, this paper roposes an overlay multicast protocol on application layer. In the proposed protocol titled “Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM” the network nodes construct overlay hierarchical framework to reduce the protocols states and constrain their distribution within limited scope. Based on zone around each node, it constructs a virtual structure at application layer mapped with the physical topology at network layer, thus formed two levels of hierarchy. The concept of two level hierarchies reduces the protocol state maintenance and hence supports the vertical scalability. Protocol depends on the location information obtained using a distributed location service, which effectively reduces the overhead for route searching and updating the source based multicast tree.

  17. Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Ad hoc Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nawaz Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network resource restrictions on bandwidth, processing capabilities, battery life and memory of mobile devices lead tradeoff between security and resources consumption. Due to some unique properties of MANETs, proactive security mechanism like authentication, confidentiality, access control and non-repudiation are hard to put into practice. While some additional security requirements are also needed, like cooperation fairness, location confidentiality, data freshness and absence of traffic diversion. Traditional security mechanism i.e. authentication and encryption, provide a security beach to MANETs. But some reactive security mechanism is required who analyze the routing packets and also check the overall network behavior of MANETs. Here we propose a local-distributed intrusion detection system for ad hoc mobile networks. In the proposed distributed-ID, each mobile node works as a smart agent. Data collect by node locally and it analyze that data for malicious activity. If any abnormal activity discover, it informs the surrounding nodes as well as the base station. It works like a Client-Server model, each node works in collaboration with server, updating its database each time by server using Markov process. The proposed local distributed- IDS shows a balance between false positive and false negative rate. Re-active security mechanism is very useful in finding abnormal activities although proactive security mechanism present there. Distributed local-IDS useful for deep level inspection and is suited with the varying nature of the MANETs.

  18. Mobility Models for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaishali D. Khairnar; Pradhan, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    One of the emerging applications that belong to ambient systems is to transparently and directly interconnect vehicles on roads, making an ad hoc network that enables a variety of applications through distributed software without the need of any fixed and dedicated infrastructure. The network as well as the embedded computers and sensors in the vehicle will be invisible to the driver, who will get the required services during his journey. New type of ad hoc network is the Vehicular Ad hoc Net...

  19. Recovery from Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xiao-jun; TIAN Chang; ZHANG Yu-sen

    2006-01-01

    Wormhole attack is a serious threat against MANET (mobile ad hoc network) and its routing protocols.A new approach-tunnel key node identification (TKNI) was proposed. Based on tunnel-key-node identification and priority-based route discovery, TKNI can rapidly rebuild the communications that have been blocked by wormhole attack. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed approach aims at both static and dynamic topology environment, involves addressing visible and invisible wormhole attack modes, requires no extra hardware, has a low overhead, and can be easily applied to MANET.

  20. Collaboration Layer for Robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz; Broberg, Jacob Honor´e;

    2009-01-01

    In many applications multiple robots in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are required to collaborate in order to solve a task. This paper shows by proof of concept that a Collaboration Layer can be modelled and designed to handle the collaborative communication, which enables robots in small to medium size...... networks to solve tasks collaboratively. In this proposal the Collaboration Layer is modelled to handle service and position discovery, group management, and synchronisation among robots, but the layer is also designed to be extendable. Based on this model of the Collaboration Layer, generic services...

  1. A framework for reactive optimization in mobile ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClary, Dan; Syrotiuk, Violet; Kulahci, Murat

    2008-01-01

    We present a framework to optimize the performance of a mobile ad hoc network over a wide range of operating conditions. It includes screening experiments to quantify the parameters and interactions among parameters influential to throughput. Profile-driven regression is applied to obtain a model...... of the non-linear behaviour of throughput. The intermediate models obtained in this modelling effort are used to adapt the parameters as the network conditions change, in order to maximize throughput. The improvements in throughput range from 10-26 times the use of the default parameter settings...

  2. Power-Aware Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Sevil; Clark, John A.; Tapiador, Juan E.

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a highly promising new form of networking. However they are more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. In addition, conventional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are ineffective and inefficient for highly dynamic and resource-constrained environments. Achieving an effective operational MANET requires tradeoffs to be made between functional and non-functional criteria. In this paper we show how Genetic Programming (GP) together with a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) can be used to synthesise intrusion detection programs that make optimal tradeoffs between security criteria and the power they consume.

  3. SPM: Source Privacy for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Source privacy plays a key role in communication infrastructure protection. It is a critical security requirement for many mission critical communications. This is especially true for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs due to node mobility and lack of physical protection. Existing cryptosystem-based techniques and broadcasting-based techniques cannot be easily adapted to MANET because of their extensive cryptographic computation and/or large communication overhead. In this paper, we first propose a novel unconditionally secure source anonymous message authentication scheme (SAMAS. This scheme enables message sender to transmit messages without relying on any trusted third parties. While providing source privacy, the proposed scheme can also provide message content authenticity. We then propose a novel communication protocol for MANET that can ensure communication privacy for both message sender and message recipient. This protocol can also protect end-to-end routing privacy. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is secure against various attacks. The theoretical analysis and simulation show that the proposed scheme is efficient and can provide high message delivery ratio. The proposed protocol can be used for critical infrastructure protection and secure file sharing in mobile ad hoc networks where dynamic groups can be formed.

  4. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei

    , thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore...... issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection......Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving...

  5. A Distributed Mutual Exclusion Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Dagdeviren

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks. This algorithm requires a ring of cluster coordinators as the underlying topology. The topology is built by first providing clusters of mobile nodes in the first step and then forming a backbone consisting of the cluster heads in a ring as the second step. The modified version of the Ricart-Agrawala Algorithm on top of this topologyprovides analytically and experimentally an order of decrease in message complexity with respect to the original algorithm. We analyze the algorithm, provide performance results of the implementation, discuss the fault tolerance and the other algorithmic extensions, and show that this architecture can be used for other middleware functions in mobile networks.

  6. Cluster Based Topology Control in Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Parameswaran

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs, mobility of nodes, resource constraints and selfish behavior of nodes are important factors which may degrade the performance. Clustering is an effective scheme to improve the performance of MANETs features such as scalability, reliability, and stability. Each cluster member (CM is associated with only one cluster head (CH and can communicate with the CH by single hop communication. Mobility information is used by many existing clustering schemes such as weighted clustering algorithm (WCA Link expiration time prediction scheme and k-hop compound metric based clustering. In scheme 1 the CH election is based on a weighted sum of four different parameters such as node status, neighbor’s distribution, mobility, and remaining energy which brings flexibility but weight factor for each parameter if difficult. In scheme 2 lifetime of a wireless link between a node pair is predicted by GPS location information. In scheme 3 the predicted mobility parameter is combined with the connectivity to create a new compound metric for CH election. Despite various efforts in mobility clustering, not much work has been done specifically for high mobility nodes. Our proposed solution provides secure CH election and incentives to encourage nodes to honestly participating in election process. Mobility strategies are used to handle the various problems caused by node movements such as association losses to current CHs and CH role changes, for extending the connection lifetime and provide more stable clusters. The conducted simulation results shows that the proposed approach outperforms the existing clustering schemes.

  7. Flying Ad-Hoc Networks: Routing Protocols, Mobility Models, Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Bani Yassein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs is a group of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs which completed their work without human intervention. There are some problems in this kind of networks: the first one is the communication between (UAVs. Various routing protocols introduced classified into three categories, static, proactive, reactive routing protocols in order to solve this problem. The second problem is the network design, which depends on the network mobility, in which is the process of cooperation and collaboration between the UAV. Mobility model of FANET is introduced in order to solve this problem. In Mobility Model, the path and speed variations of the UAV and represents their position are defined. As of today, Random Way Point Model is utilized as manufactured one for Mobility in the greater part of recreation situations. The Arbitrary Way Point model is not relevant for the UAV in light of the fact that UAV do not alter their course and versatility, speed quickly at one time because of this reason, we consider more practical models, called Semi-Random Circular Movement (SRCM Mobility Model. Also, we consider different portability models, Mission Plan-Based (MPB Mobility Model, Pheromone-Based Model. Moreover, Paparazzi Mobility Model (PPRZM. This paper presented and discussed the main routing protocols and main mobility models used to solve the communication, cooperation, and collaboration in FANET networks.

  8. Distributed intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Jiang Xinghao; Wu Yue; Liu Ning

    2008-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking(MANET)has become an exciting and important technology in recent years,because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices.Mobile ad hoc networks is highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium,dynamically changing network topology,cooperative algorithms,and lack of centralized monitoring and management point.The traditional way of protecting networks with firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient and effective for those features.A distributed intrusion detection approach based on timed automata is given.A cluster-based detection scheme is presented,where periodically a node is elected as the monitor node for a cluster.These monitor nodes can not only make local intrusion detection decisions,but also cooperatively take part in global intrusion detection.And then the timed automata is constructed by the way of manually abstracting the correct behaviours of the node according to the routing protocol of dynamic source routing(DSR).The monitor nodes can verify the behaviour of every nodes by timed automata,and validly detect real-time attacks without signatures of intrusion or trained data.Compared with the architecture where each node is its own IDS agent,the approach is much more efficient while maintaining the same level of effectiveness.Finally,the intrusion detection method is evaluated through simulation experiments.

  9. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur Gulati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is an infrastructure less and decentralized network which need a robust dynamic routing protocol. Many routing protocols for such networks have been proposed so far to find optimized routes from source to the destination and prominent among them are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocols. The performance comparison of these protocols should be considered as the primary step towards the invention of a new routing protocol. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive routing protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on QoS metrics (packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, throughput, jitter, normalized routing overhead and normalized MAC overhead by using the NS-2 simulator. The performance comparison is conducted by varying mobility speed, number of nodes and data rate. The comparison results show that AODV performs optimally well not the best among all the studied protocols.

  10. Evaluating And Comparison Of Intrusion In Mobile AD HOC Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zougagh Hicham

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile ad hoc network (MANETs has been widespread in many applications.Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The absolute security in the mobile ad hoc network is very hard to achieve because of its fundamental characteristics, such as dynamic topology, open medium, absence of infrastructure, limited power and limited bandwidth. The Prevention methods like authentication and cryptography techniques alone are not able to provide the security to these types of networks. However, these techniques have a limitation on the effects of prevention techniques in general and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to prevent newer attacks that are designed for circumventing the existing security measures. For this reason, there is a need of second mechanism to “detect and response” these newer attacks. Therefore, efficient intrusion detection must be deployed to facilitate the identification and isolation of attacks. In this article we classify the architecture for IDS that have so far been introduced for MANETs, and then existing intrusion detection techniques in MANETs presented and compared. We then provide some directions for future researches.

  11. Simulation study for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using DMAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sejwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of deafness problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs using directional antennas. Directional antennas arebeneficial for wireless ad hoc networks consisting of a collection of wireless hosts. A suitable Medium Access Control (MAC protocol must be designed to best utilize directional antennas. Deafness is caused whentwo nodes are in ongoing transmission and a third node (Deaf Node wants to communicate with one of that node. But it get no response because transmission of two nodes are in process. Though directional antennas offer better spatial reuse, but this problem can have a serious impact on network performance. A New DMAC (Directional Medium Access Control protocol uses flags in DNAV (Directional Network Allocation Vector tables to maintain information regarding the transmissionbetween the nodes in the network and their neighbor’s location. Two performance matrices have been used to show the impact of New DMAC algorithm on Deafness problem using simulator. These are RTS Failure Ratio and RTS Retransmission due to timeout

  12. Identification of node behavior for Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyati Choure , Sanjay Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario, in ad-hoc network, the behavior of nodes are not very stable. They do not work properly and satisfactory. They are not cooperative and acting selfishly. They show their selfishness to share their resources like bandwidth to save life of battery, they are not hasitate to block thepackets sent by others for forwarding and transmit their own packets. Due to higher Mobility of the different nodes makes the situation even more complicated. Multiple routing protocols especially for these conditions have been developed during the last few years, to find optimized routes from a source to some destination.But it is still difficult to know the actual shortest path without attackers or bad nodes. Ad-hoc network suffer from the lot of issues i.e. congestion, Throughput, delay, security, network overhead. Packet delivery ratio is the issues of ongoing research. Cause of node failure may be either natural failure of node links or it may be due to act of an attacker or bad node which may degrade performance of network slowly or drastically, which also need to identify or determined. In this paper, we identify the good and bad nodes. A simulation has been performed to achieve better performance of modified AODV. Good result has been obtained in terms of Throughout, Packet Delivery Ratio.

  13. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2016-08-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  14. SEMAN: A Novel Secure Middleware for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the particularities of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs, such as dynamic topology and self-organization, the implementation of complex and flexible applications is a challenge. To enable the deployment of these applications, several middleware solutions were proposed. However, these solutions do not completely consider the security requirements of these networks. Based on the limitations of the existing solutions, this paper presents a new secure middleware, called Secure Middleware for Ad Hoc Networks (SEMAN, which provides a set of basic and secure services to MANETs aiming to facilitate the development of distributed, complex, and flexible applications. SEMAN considers the context of applications and organizes nodes into groups, also based on these contexts. The middleware includes three modules: service, processing, and security. Security module is the main part of the middleware. It has the following components: key management, trust management, and group management. All these components were developed and are described in this paper. They are supported by a cryptographic core and behave according to security rules and policies. The integration of these components provides security guarantees against attacks to the applications that usethe middleware services.

  15. A MOBILE AGENT BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Kumar Pattanayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs have become extensively popular over the years among the researchers. However, the dynamic nature of MANETs imposes a set of challenges to its efficient implementation in practice. One of such challenges represents intrusion detection and prevention procedures that are intended to provide secured performance of ad hoc applications. In this study, we introduce a mobile agent based intrusion detection and prevention architecture for a clustered MANET. Here, a mobile agent resides in each cluster of the ad hoc network and each cluster runs a specific application at any point of time. This application specific approach makes the network more robust to external intrusions directed at the nodes in an ad hoc network.

  16. Mobile Advertisement in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Advertisement is a location-aware dissemination solution built on top of a vehicular ad-hoc network. We envision a network of WiFi access points that dynamically disseminate data to clients running on the car's smart device. The approach can be considered an alternative to the static advertisement billboards and can be useful to business companies wanting to dynamically advertise their products and offers to people driving their car. The clients can subscribe to information based on specific topics. We present design solutions that use access points as emitters for transmitting messages to wireless-enabled devices equipped on vehicles. We also present implementation details for the evaluation of the proposed solution using a simulator designed for VANET application. The results show that the application can be used for transferring a significant amount of data even under difficult conditions, such as when cars are moving at increased speeds, or the congested Wi-Fi network causes significant packet loss...

  17. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清

    2004-01-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile. Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.

  18. Parallel routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Khaled; Arafeh, Bassel; Alzeidi, Nasser; 10.5121/ijcnc.2011.3506

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes and evaluates a new position-based Parallel Routing Protocol (PRP) for simultaneously routing multiple data packets over disjoint paths in a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) for higher reliability and reduced communication delays. PRP views the geographical region where the MANET is located as a virtual 2-dimensional grid of cells. Cell-disjoint (parallel) paths between grid cells are constructed and used for building pre-computed routing tables. A single gateway node in each grid cell handles routing through that grid cell reducing routing overheads. Each node maintains updated information about its own location in the virtual grid using GPS. Nodes also keep track of the location of other nodes using a new proposed cell-based broadcasting algorithm. Nodes exchange energy level information with neighbors allowing energy-aware selection of the gateway nodes. Performance evaluation results have been derived showing the attractiveness of the proposed parallel routing protocol from different resp...

  19. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清

    2004-01-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the Received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile.Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks.

  20. On service differentiation in mobile Ad Hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-liang; Ye, Cheng-qing

    2004-09-01

    A network model is proposed to support service differentiation for mobile Ad Hoc networks by combining a fully distributed admission control approach and the DIFS based differentiation mechanism of IEEE802.11. It can provide different kinds of QoS (Quality of Service) for various applications. Admission controllers determine a committed bandwidth based on the reserved bandwidth of flows and the source utilization of networks. Packets are marked when entering into networks by markers according to the committed rate. By the mark in the packet header, intermediate nodes handle the received packets in different manners to provide applications with the QoS corresponding to the pre-negotiated profile. Extensive simulation experiments showed that the proposed mechanism can provide QoS guarantee to assured service traffic and increase the channel utilization of networks. PMID:15323003

  1. Secure Routing and Data Transmission in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed S. Alnumay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an identity (ID based protocol that secures AODV and TCP so that it can be used in dynamic and attack prone environments of mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol protects AODV using Sequential Aggregate Signatures (SAS based on RSA. It also generates a session key for each pair of source-destination nodes of a MANET for securing the end-to-end transmitted data. Here each node has an ID which is evaluated from its public key and the messages that are sent are authenticated with a signature/ MAC. The proposed scheme does not allow a node to change its ID throughout the network lifetime. Thus it makes the network secure against attacks that target AODV and TCP in MANET. We present performance analysis to validate our claim.

  2. SECURITY CHALLENGES IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dorri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a kind of Ad Hoc network with mobile, wireless nodes. Because of its special characteristics like dynamic topology, hop-by-hop communications and easy and quick setup, MANET faced lots of challenges allegorically routing, security and clustering. The security challenges arise due to MANET’s selfconfiguration and self-maintenance capabilities. In this paper, we present an elaborate view of issues in MANET security. Based on MANET’s special characteristics, we define three security parameters for MANET. In addition we divided MANET security into two different aspects and discussed each one in details. A comprehensive analysis in security aspects of MANET and defeating approaches is presented. In addition, defeating approaches against attacks have been evaluated in some important metrics. After analyses and evaluations, future scopes of work have been presented.

  3. An Adaptive Replica Allocation Algorithm in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingZheng; JinshuSu; KanYang

    2004-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), nodes move freely and the distribution of access requests changes dynamically. Replica allocation in such a dynamic environment is a significant challenge. In this paoer, a dynamic adaptive replica allocation algorithm that can adapt to the nodes motion is proposed to minimize the communication cost of object access. When changes occur in the access requests of the object or the network topology, each replica node collects access requests from its neighbors and makes decisions locally to expand replica to neighbors or to relinquish the replica. The algorithm dynamically adapts the replica allocation scheme to a local optimal one. Simulation results show that our algorithms efficiently reduce the communication cost of object access in MANET environment.

  4. Connectivity-driven Attachment in Mobile Cellular Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Boite, Julien; Leguay, Jérémie

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cellular wireless technologies (e.g. LTE) can be used to build cellular ad hoc networks. In this new class of ad hoc networks, nodes are equipped with two radio interfaces: one being a terminal, the other one being an access point. In this context, attachment decisions based on traditional criteria (e.g. signal quality) may lead to network partitions or suboptimal path lengths, thus making access point selection critical to ensure efficient network connectivity. This...

  5. TCP Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Qiang Xu; Tie-Jun Wu

    2006-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a kind of very complex distributed communication systems with wireless mobile nodes that can be freely and dynamically self-organized into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. MANETs inherit several limitations of wireless networks, meanwhile make new challenges arising from the specificity of MANETs, such as route failures, hidden terminals and exposed terminals. When TCP is applied in a MANET environment, a number of tough problems have to be dealt with. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on this dynamic field is given. Specifically, for the first time all factors impairing TCP performance are identified based on network protocol hierarchy, I.e., lossy wireless channel at the physical layer; excessive contention and unfair access at the MAC layer; frail routing protocol at the network layer, the MAC layer and the network layer related mobile node; unfit congestion window size at the transport layer and the transport layer related asymmetric path. How these factors degrade TCP performance is clearly explained. Then, based on how to alleviate the impact of each of these factors listed above, the existing solutions are collected as comprehensively as possible and classified into a number of categories, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. Based on the limitations of these solutions, a set of open problems for designing more robust solutions is suggested.

  6. Securing Mobile Ad hoc Networks:Key Management and Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Kamal Kumar; 10.5121/ijans.2012.2207

    2012-01-01

    Secure communication between two nodes in a network depends on reliable key management systems that generate and distribute keys between communicating nodes and a secure routing protocol that establishes a route between them. But due to lack of central server and infrastructure in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), this is major problem to manage the keys in the network. Dynamically changes in network's topology causes weak trust relationship among the nodes in the network. In MANETs a mobile node operates as not only end terminal but also as an intermediate router. Therefore, a multi-hop scenario occurs for communication in MANETs; where there may be one or more malicious nodes in between source and destination. A routing protocol is said to be secure that detects the detrimental effects of malicious node(s in the path from source to destination). In this paper, we proposed a key management scheme and a secure routing protocol that secures on demand routing protocol such as DSR and AODV. We assume that MANETs ...

  7. ADAPTIVE SERVICE PROVISIONING FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Jayapal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing efficient and scalable service provisioning in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is a big research challenge. In adaptive service provisioning mechanism an adaptive election procedure is used to select a coordinator node. The role of a service coordinator is crucial in any distributed directory based service provisioning scheme. The existing coordinator election schemes use either the nodeID or a hash function to choose the coordinator. In these schemes, the leader changes are more frequent due to node mobility. We propose an adaptive scheme that makes use of an eligibility factor that is calculated based on the distance to the zone center, remaining battery power and average speed to elect a core node that change according to the network dynamics. We also retain the node with the second highest priority as a backup node. Our algorithm is compared with the existing solution by simulation and the result shows that the core node selected by us is more stable and hence reduces the number of handoffs. This in turn improves the service delivery performance by increasing the packet delivery ratio and decreasing the delay, the overhead and the forwarding cost.

  8. Scaling of critical connectivity of mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhu, Chen-Ping; Gu, Zhi-Ming

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, critical global connectivity of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is investigated. We model the two-dimensional plane on which nodes move randomly with a triangular lattice. Demanding the best communication of the network, we account the global connectivity eta as a function of occupancy sigma of sites in the lattice by mobile nodes. Critical phenomena of the connectivity for different transmission ranges r are revealed by numerical simulations, and these results fit well to the analysis based on the assumption of homogeneous mixing. Scaling behavior of the connectivity is found as eta approximately f(R;{beta}sigma) , where R=(r-r_{0})r_{0} , r_{0} is the length unit of the triangular lattice, and beta is the scaling index in the universal function f(x) . The model serves as a sort of geometric distance-dependent site percolation on dynamic complex networks. Moreover, near each critical sigma_{c}(r) corresponding to certain transmission range r , there exists a cutoff degree k_{c} below which the clustering coefficient of such self-organized networks keeps a constant while the averaged nearest-neighbor degree exhibits a unique linear variation with the degree k , which may be useful to the designation of real MANETs. PMID:19256905

  9. Random Time Identity Based Firewall In Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Patel, R. B.; Singh, Parvinder

    2010-11-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organizing network of mobile routers and associated hosts connected by wireless links. MANETs are highly flexible and adaptable but at the same time are highly prone to security risks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, and lack of centralized control. Firewall is an effective means of protecting a local network from network-based security threats and forms a key component in MANET security architecture. This paper presents a review of firewall implementation techniques in MANETs and their relative merits and demerits. A new approach is proposed to select MANET nodes at random for firewall implementation. This approach randomly select a new node as firewall after fixed time and based on critical value of certain parameters like power backup. This approach effectively balances power and resource utilization of entire MANET because responsibility of implementing firewall is equally shared among all the nodes. At the same time it ensures improved security for MANETs from outside attacks as intruder will not be able to find out the entry point in MANET due to the random selection of nodes for firewall implementation.

  10. The effect of mobility on local service discovery in the Ahoy ad-hoc network system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goering, Patrick; Heijenk, Geert; Haverkort, Boudewijn; Haarman, Robbert

    2007-01-01

    Ahoy, a protocol to perform local service discovery in ad-hoc networks is described in this paper. The protocol has been implemented in a discreteevent simulator to study its performance in case of a multihop mobile ad-hoc network. Especially the effect of mobility on the network load and the probab

  11. Design of the next generation cognitive mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Ali; Wang, Huiqiang; Chen, Xiaoming

    Cognition capability has been seen by researchers as the way forward for the design of next generation of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The reason why a cognitive paradigm would be more suited to a MANET is because MANETs are highly dynamic networks. The topology may change very frequently during the operation of a MANET. Traffic patterns in MANETs can vary from time to time depending on the need of the users. The size of a MANET and node density is also very dynamic and may change without any predictable pattern. In a MANET environment, most of these parameters may change very rapidly and keeping track of them manually would be very difficult. Previous studies have shown that the performance of a certain routing approach in MANETs is dependent on the size of the network and node density. The choice of whether to use a reactive or proactive routing approach comes down to the network size parameter. Static or offline approaches to fine tune a MANET to achieve certain performance goals is hence not very productive as a lot of these parameters keep changing during the course of operation of MANETs. Similarly, the performance of MANETs would improve greatly if the MAC layer entity could operate in a more flexible manner. In this paper we propose a cognitive MANET design that will ensure that all these dynamic parameters are automatically monitored and decisions are based on the current status of these parameters.

  12. Decentralized Network-level Synchronization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voulgaris, Spyros; Dobson, Matthew; Steen, van Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of communic

  13. Enhancing On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocols using Mobility Prediction in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Makhlouf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-organizing wireless communication network in which mobile devices are based on no infrastructure like base stations or access points. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like disaster recovery or military conflict. Since node mobility may cause links to be broken frequently, a very important issue for routing in MANETs is how to set reliable paths which can last as long as possible. To solve this problem, non-random behaviors for the mobility patterns that mobile users exhibit are exploited. This paper introduces a scheme to improve On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP performances by using mobility prediction. 

  14. Control Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking for survivable, dynamic, mobile Special Operation Force communications

    OpenAIRE

    Masacioglu, Mustafa.; McBride, Marlon

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited In the next generation of wireless communication systems, there will be a need for the rapid deployment of independent mobile users. Significant examples include establishing survivable, efficient, dynamic mobile communication for tactical Special Operation Force (SOF) networks, as well as SOF units that are ad hoc networking with first responders conducting emergency/rescue and disaster relief operations. Such network scenarios cannot re...

  15. A Novel Approach for Attacks Mitigation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Cellular Automatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Nath Saha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many security schemes for mobile ad-hoc network(MANET have been proposed so far but none of them has been successful in combating the different types of attacks that a mobile ad-hoc network often faces. This paper is providing one way of mitigating attacks in mobile ad-hoc networks by authenticating the node who tries to access this network .This scheme has been applied by using cellular automata (CA. Our simulation results show how cellular automata(CA is implemented for user authentication and secure transmission in MANET.

  16. Mobile ad hoc networking the cutting edge directions

    CERN Document Server

    Basagni, Stefano; Giordano, Silvia; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    ""An excellent book for those who are interested in learning the current status of research and development . . . [and] who want to get a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art.""-E-Streams This book provides up-to-date information on research and development in the rapidly growing area of networks based on the multihop ad hoc networking paradigm. It reviews all classes of networks that have successfully adopted this paradigm, pointing out how they penetrated the mass market and sparked breakthrough research. Covering both physical issues and applica

  17. Modeling of Ad-hoc and Infrastructure Dual Mode Mobile Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hung Chen; Hui-Nien Hung; Yi-Bing Lin; Nan-Fu Peng

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates a mobile telecommunications system that supports both ad hoc and infrastructure mode operations. Based on analytic and simulation models, our study investigates how base station (BS) and ad hoc channel capacity, and the mobility and locality of mobile stations affect the performance of a dual mode system. We show that a dual mode system can significantly outperform a single mode (infrastructure) system when the degree of locality is high. Furthermore, a dual mode system can support much faster mobile users with less BS channels in comparison to an infrastructure mode system. Our study quantitatively identifies the threshold value for the number of ad hoc channels such that beyond this threshold, increasing ad hoc channel capacity will not improve the performance of a dual mode system.

  18. Analysis of Fuzzy Logic Based Intrusion Detection Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advancement in wireless technologies, many of new paradigms have opened for communications. Among these technologies, mobile ad hoc networks play a prominent role for providing communication in many areas because of its independent nature of predefined infrastructure. But in terms of security, these networks are more vulnerable than the conventional networks because firewall and gateway based security mechanisms cannot be applied on it. That’s why intrusion detection systems are used as keystone in these networks. Many number of intrusion detection systems have been discovered to handle the uncertain activity in mobile ad hoc networks. This paper emphasized on proposed fuzzy based intrusion detection systems in mobile ad hoc networks and presented their effectiveness to identify the intrusions. This paper also examines the drawbacks of fuzzy based intrusion detection systems and discussed the future directions in the field of intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks.

  19. User-centred and context-aware identity management in mobile ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Arabo, Abdullahi

    2013-01-01

    The emergent notion of ubiquitous computing makes it possible for mobile devices to communicate and provide services via networks connected in an ad-hoc manner. These have resulted in the proliferation of wireless technologies such as Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANets), which offer attractive solutions for services that need flexible setup as well as dynamic and low cost wireless connectivity. However, the growing trend outlined above also raises serious concerns over Identity Management (IM) du...

  20. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Reshmi, B. M.; Manvi, S. S.; Bhagyavati

    2006-01-01

    Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and r...

  1. An Optimal Path Management Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Fuzzy and Rough Set Theory

    OpenAIRE

    P. Seethalakshmi; M. J.A. Jude; Rajendran, G

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically forms a network. Most of the existing ad-hoc routing algorithms select the shortest path using various resources. However the selected path may not consider all the network parameters and this would result in link instability in the network. The problems with existing methods are frequent route change with respect to change in topology, congestion as result of traffic and battery limitat...

  2. HEAD: A Hybrid Mechanism to Enforce Node Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUO Jianli; LIU Hongwei; DONG Jian; YANG Xiaozong

    2007-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks rely on the cooperation of nodes for routing and forwarding. However, it may not be advantageous for individual nodes to cooperate. In order to make the mobile ad hoc network more robust, we propose a scheme called HEAD (a hybrid mechanism to enforce node cooperation in mobile ad hoc networks) to make the misbehavior unattractive. HEAD is an improvement to OCEAN (observation-based cooperation enforcement in ad hoc networks). It employs only first hand information and works on the top of DSR (dynamic source routing) protocol. By interacting with the DSR, HEAD can detect the misbehavior nodes in the packet forwarding process and isolate them in the route discovery process. In order to detect the misbehavior nodes quickly, HEAD introduces the warning message. In this paper, we also classify the misbehavior nodes into three types: malicious nodes, misleading nodes, and selfish nodes. They all can be detected by HEAD, and isolated from the network.

  3. A novel technique for node authentication in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Aluvala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of nodes in mobility that communicate to one another forming a network through wireless links, in which each node acts a router and forward packets to destinations. The dynamic topology and self-organizing of the nodes make them more vulnerable to the network. In MANET, the major challenging task is to provide security during the routing of data packets. Various kinds of attacks have been studied in ad hoc networks, but no proper solution found for these attacks. So, preventing the malicious nodes from destroying the network plays vital role in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a novel technique has been proposed to provide node authentication while a new node joining into the network and before initiating route discovery process in mobile ad hoc networks. Also shown how the proposed technique mitigates the impact of attacks on nodes.

  4. An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Godder

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is set up with multiple wireless devices without any infrastructure. Its employment is favored in many environments. Quality of Service (QoS is one of the main issues for any network and due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS is extremely a challenging task. It is modeled as a multi-layer problem and is considered in both Medium Access Control (MAC and routing layers for ad hoc networks. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol is one of the most used and popular reactive routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. This paper proposed a new protocol QoS based AODV (QAODV which is a modified version of AODV.

  5. A Cluster Maintenance Algorithm Based on Relative Mobility for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENZhong; CHANGYilin; ZHANGXin

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks makes network management significantly more challenging than wireline networks. The traditional Client/Server (Manager/Agent) management paradigm could not work well in such a dynamic environment, while the hierarchical network management architecture based on clustering is more feasible. Although the movement of nodes makes the cluster structure changeable and introduces new challenges for network management, the mobility is a relative concept. A node with high relative mobility is more prone to unstable behavior than a node with less relative mobility, thus the relative mobility of a node can be used to predict future node behavior. This paper presents the cluster availability which provides a quantitative measurement of cluster stability. Furthermore, a cluster maintenance algorithm based on cluster availability is proposed. The simulation results show that, compared to the Minimum ID clustering algorithm, our algorithm successfully alleviates the influence caused by node mobility and make the network management more efficient.

  6. COMPARATIVE REVIEW FOR ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem S. A. Hamatta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks is one of the attractive research field that growing exponentially in the last decade. it surrounded by much challenges that should be solved the improve establishment of such networks. Failure of wireless link is considered as one of popular challenges faced by Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs. As this type of networks does not require any pre-exist hardware. As well as, every node have the ability of roaming where it can be connected to other nodes dynamically. Therefore, the network internal structure will be unpredictably changed frequently according to continuous activities between nodes that simultaneously update network topology in the basis of active ad-hoc nature. This model puts the functionality of routing operation in crucial angle in the area of research under mobile adhoc network field due to highly dynamic nature. Adapting such kernel makes MANET indigence new routing techniques to settle these challenges. Thereafter, tremendous amount of routing protocols proposed to argue with ad-hoc nature. Thus, it is quite difficult to specify which protocols operate efficiently under different mobile ad-hoc scenarios. This paper examines some of the prominent routing protocols that are designed for mobile ad-hoc networks by describing their structures, operations, features and then comparing their various characteristics.

  7. Review of Artificial Immune System to Enhance Security in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Dalal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Networks consist of wireless host that communicate with each other. The routes in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network may consist of many hops through other hosts between source and destination. The hosts are not fixed in a Mobile Adhoc Network; due to host mobility topology can change any time. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are much more vulnerable to security attacks. Current research works on securing Mobile Adhoc Networks mainly focus on confidentiality, integrity,authentication, availability, and fairness. Design of routingprotocols is very much crucial in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. There are various techniques for securing Mobile Ad-hoc Network i.e. cryptography. Cryptography provides efficient mechanism to provide security, but it creates very much overhead. So, an approach is used which is analogous to Biological Immune System, known as Artificial Immune System (AIS. There is a reason of AIS to be used for security purposes because the Human Immune System (HIS protects the body against damage from an extremely large number of harmfulbacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, termed pathogens. It doesthis largely without prior knowledge of the structure of thesepathogens. AIS provide security by determining non-trusted nodes and eliminate all non-trusted nodes from the network.

  8. A survey of message diffusion portocols in mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, A.M.; Ibrahim, M.; Simon, V.; Varga, E.; Carreras, I.

    2008-01-01

    For the last twenty years, mobile communications have experienced an explosive growth. In particular, one area of mobile communication, the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), has attracted significant attention due to its multiple applications and its challenging research problems. On the other hand,

  9. Malware-Propagative Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Asymptotic Behavior Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasileios Karyotis; Anastasios Kakalis; Symeon Papavassiliou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the spreading of malicious software over ad hoe networks, where legitimate nodes are prone to propagate the infections they receive from either an attacker or their already infected neighbors, is analyzed. Considering the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) node infection paradigm we propose a probabilistic model, on the basis of the theory of closed queuing networks, that aims at describing the aggregated behavior of the system when attacked by malicious nodes. Because of its nature, the model is also able to deal more effectively with the stochastic behavior of attackers and the inherent probabilistic nature of the wireless environment. The proposed model is able to describe accurately the asymptotic behavior of malware-propagative large scale ad hoc networking environments. Using the Norton equivalent of the closed queuing network, we obtain analytical results for its steady state behavior, which in turn is used for identifying the critical parameters affecting the operation of the network. Finally, through modeling and simulation, some additional numerical results are obtained with respect to the behavior of the system when multiple attackers are present, and regarding the time-dependent evolution and impact of an attack.

  10. The Realistic Mobility Evaluation of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network for Indian Automotive Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.Dhaka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, continuous progress in wireless communication has opened a new research field in computer networks. Now a day’s wireless ad-hoc networking is an emerging research technology that needs attention of the industry people and the academicians. A vehicular ad-hoc network uses vehicles as mobile nodes to create mobility in a network. It’s a challenge to generate realistic mobility for Indian networks as no TIGER or Shapefile map is available for Indian Automotive Networks. This paper simulates the realistic mobility of the Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs. The key feature of this work is the realistic mobility generation for the Indian Automotive Intelligent Transport System (ITS and also to analyze the throughput, packet delivery fraction (PDF and packet loss for realistic scenario. The experimental analysis helps in providing effective communication for safety to the driver and passengers.

  11. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  12. Directory-based incentive management services for ad-hoc mobile clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Yousafzai, Abdullah; Chang, Victor; Gani, Abdullah; Noor, Rafidah Md

    2016-01-01

    Mobile cloud computing is envisioned as a promising approach to augment the computational capabilities of mobile devices for emerging resource-intensive mobile applications. This augmentation is generally achieved through the capabilities of stationary resources in cloud data centers. However, these resources are mostly not free and sometimes not available. Mobile devices are becoming powerful day by day and can form a self-organizing mobile ad-hoc network of nearby devices and offer their re...

  13. Review Strategies and Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Network- Internet Integration Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The desire to be connected anytime and anywhere has led to the development of wireless networks, opening new vista of research in pervasive and ubiquitous computing. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs use portable devices such as mobile phones, laptops or personal digital assistants (PDAs for spontaneous establishment of communication. Most existing research in the area of mobile Ad Hoc Networks is limited to stand-alone isolated networks. But connectivity of a mobile Ad Hoc network to the Internet is also desirable as more and more applications and services in our society now depend on fixed infrastructure networks. It is therefore important that dynamically deployed wireless Ad Hoc networks should also gain access to these fixed networks and their services. The integration of MANETs into Internet increases the networking flexibility and coverage of existing infrastructure networks. Although researchers have proposed many solutions, but it is still unclear which one offer the best performance compared to the others. When an Ad Hoc network is connected to Internet, it is important for the mobile nodes to detect efficiently available Internet gateways providing access to the Internet. Internet gateway discovery time and handover delay have strong influence on packet delay and throughput. The key challenge in providing connectivity is to minimize the overhead of mobile IP and Ad Hoc routing protocol between Internet and Ad Hoc networks. There, this paper focuses on proposed technical solutions on Internet gateway discovery and also we briefly describe different ways to provide global Internet access for MANETs. Finally, some challenges are also mentioned which need in depth investigation.

  14. Decentralized Dynamic Load Balancing and Intersection Trust in Mobile Ad Hoc Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is an autonomous system connected through wireless links. It does not have any fixed infrastructure, and the mobile nodes in the network coordinate among themselves for communication. This network can be formed by heterogeneous mobile devices like laptops, PDAs, cell phones etc. Highly capable device provides some services to low capability device and this will bring in a grid environment into the mobile ad hoc networks. A balanced allocation of load is a critical issue in such grids, considering its limitations in terms of power and availability. A decentralized approach is favored for a dispersed functioning of the grid, without draining a single chosen node. It is also essential to augment the resource allocation with an effective authorization mechanism, as the ad hoc grids lack permanent trusted central authority. In this paper, dynamic virtual organizations are constructed within this grid based on the resource commonalities of devices.

  15. Classification and Evaluation of Mobility Metrics for Mobility Model Movement Patterns in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is collection of self configuring and adaption of wireless link between communicating devices (mobile devices to form an arbitrary topology and multihop wireless connectivity without the use of existing infrastructure. It requires efficient dynamic routing protocol to determine the routes subsequent to a set of rules that enables two or more devices to communicate with each others. This paper basically classifies and evaluates the mobility metrics into two categories- direct mobility metrics and derived mobility metrics. These two mobility metrics has been used to measure different mobility models, this paper considers some of mobility models i.e Random Waypoint Model, Reference Point Group Mobility Model, Random Direction Mobility Model, Random Walk Mobility Model, Probabilistic Random Walk, Gauss Markov, Column Mobility Model, Nomadic Community Mobility Model and Manhattan Grid Model.

  16. LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Murugan Tamilarasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network is one of the wireless network in which mobile nodes are communicate with each other and have no infrastructure because no access point. The MANET protocols can be classified as proactive and reactive routing protocol. The proactive routing protocols, all nodes which participated in network have routing table. This table updated periodically and is used to find the path between source and destination. The reactive routing protocol, nodes are initiate route discovery procedure when on-demand routes. In order to find the better route in MANET, many routing protocols are designed in the recent years. But those protocols are not concentrating about communication links and battery energy. Communication links between nodes and energy of nodes are very important factor for improving quality of routing protocols. This study presents innovative Link Stability with Energy Aware (LSEA multipath routing protocol. The key idea of the protocol is find the link quality, maximum remaining energy and lower delay. Reflections of these factors are increasing the qualities like packet delivery ratio, throughputs and reduce end-to-end delay. The LSEAMRP was simulated on NS-2 and evaluation results also shown.

  17. Modelling and Initial Validation of the DYMO Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espensen, Kristian Asbjørn Leth; Kjeldsen, Mads Keblov; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructureless network established by a set of mobile devices using wireless communication. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol is a routing protocol for multi-hop communication in MANETs currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task...

  18. Hybrid Packet-Pheromone-Based Probabilistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkouli Nejad, Keyvan; Shawish, Ahmed; Jiang, Xiaohong; Horiguchi, Susumu

    Ad-Hoc networks are collections of mobile nodes communicating using wireless media without any fixed infrastructure. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make Ad-Hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like natural disasters or military conflicts. The current Ad-Hoc networks can only support either high mobility or high transmission rate at a time because they employ static approaches in their routing schemes. However, due to the continuous expansion of the Ad-Hoc network size, node-mobility and transmission rate, the development of new adaptive and dynamic routing schemes has become crucial. In this paper we propose a new routing scheme to support high transmission rates and high node-mobility simultaneously in a big Ad-Hoc network, by combining a new proposed packet-pheromone-based approach with the Hint Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP) for congestion avoidance with dynamic path selection in packet forwarding process. Because of using the available feedback information, the proposed algorithm does not introduce any additional overhead. The extensive simulation-based analysis conducted in this paper indicates that the proposed algorithm offers small packet-latency and achieves a significantly higher delivery probability in comparison with the available Hint-Based Probabilistic Protocol (HBPP).

  19. Power and Mobility-Aware Adaptive Dynamic Source Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XULi; ZHENGBaoyu; YANGZhen

    2005-01-01

    MANET (Mobile ad hoc network) is characterized by a highly dynamic network topology. This makes routing discovery and maintenance challenging for routing protocol design. On the other hand, energy efficient routing may be another important design criterion for MANET since most of nodes are usually powered by battery with limited capacity. With optimization of DSR (Dynamic source routing) protocol, this paper proposes Power and mobility-aware adaptive dynamic source routing (PMADSR). The new routing protocol can be aware of the mobility and remaining battery capacity of nodes. Performance simulation results show that the proposed PMADSR protocol can dynamically balance the traffic load inside the whole network, so as to prolong the network lifetime, as well as achieve higher throughput.

  20. Analysis of Efficient Address Allocation Schemes In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Zahoor Ul Huq

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET can be implemented anywhere where there is little or no communication infrastructure, or the existing infrastructure is inconvenient to use. A number of mobile devices may connect together to form one network. Address auto-configuration is an important issue for ad hoc networks in order to provide autonomous networking and self-management. In this paper we take into account various parameters for designing an efficient address allocation scheme in MANETs and consider the best of them to build an efficient protocol for Address allocation in MANETs.

  1. A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Biradar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a variant of TCP (Tahoe, Vegas, TCP is most widely used transport protocol in both wired and wireless networks. In mobile ad hoc networks, the topology changes frequently due to mobile nodes, this leads to significant packet losses and network throughput degradation. This is due to the fact that TCP fails to distinguish the path failure and network congestion. In this paper, the performances of TCP over different routing (DSR, AODV and DSDV protocols in ad hoc networks wasstudied by simulation experiments and results are reported.

  2. Specification and Validation of an Edge Router Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jensen, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    We present an industrial project at Ericsson Telebit A/S where Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) have been used for the design and specification of an edge router discovery protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. The Edge Router Discovery Protocol (ERDP) supports an edge router in a stationary...... core network in assigning network address prefixes to gateways in mobile ad-hoc networks. This paper focuses on how CP-nets and the CPN computer tools have been applied in the development of ERDP. A CPN model has been constructed that constitutes a formal executable specification of ERDP. Simulation...

  3. Performance Analysis of TORA & DSR Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha, D; T SARIKA

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand) routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new ro...

  4. Auction-based Incentive Mechanisms for Dynamic Mobile Ad-Hoc Crowd Service

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Honggang; Liu, Benyuan; Susanto, Hengky; Xue, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a type of emerging user-assisted mobile applications or services, referred to as Dynamic Mobile Ad-hoc Crowd Service (DMACS), such as collaborative streaming via smartphones or location privacy protection through a crowd of smartphone users. Such services are provided and consumed by users carrying smart mobile devices (e.g., smartphones) who are in close proximity of each other (e.g., within Bluetooth range). Users in a DMACS system dynamically arrive and depart over time, and...

  5. Replica Dissemination and Update Strategies in Cluster-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Denko, Mieso K.; Hua Lu

    2006-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that forms a temporary network without the aid of a fixed communication infrastructure. Since every node can be mobile and network topology changes can occur frequently, node disconnection is a common mode of operation in MANETs. Providing reliable data access and message delivery is a challenge in this dynamic network environment. Caching and replica allocation within the network can improve data accessibility by storin...

  6. Highly Dynamic Nature of Mobile AD-HOC Networks (MANETs): Requirement of Stringent Security Measures

    OpenAIRE

    P. Balagangadhar Rao

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mobile AD-HOC networks (MANETs) can be established on demand and disappear when there is no need. Each mobile node in the network acts both as a terminal and also as a router. Thus, each mobile node is having a capability of forwarding packets of information to other peer nodes. The nodes are, basically, self-organized wireless interconnecting communication devices which can either extend or operate in concert with the wired networking infrastructure. Lot of research is going on, in ...

  7. Study of Impact of Mobile Ad hoc Networking and its Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashema Hasti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many people carry numerous portable devices, such as laptops, mobile phones, PDAs and mp3 players, for use in their professional and private lives. For the most part, these devices are used separately-that is, their applications do not interact. Imagine, however, if they could interact directly: participants at a meeting could share documents or presentations; all communication could automatically be routed through the wireless corporate campus network. These examples of spontaneous, ad hoc wireless communication between devices might be loosely defined as a scheme, often referred to as ad hoc networking, which allows devices to establish communication, anytime and anywhere without the aid of a central infrastructure. This paper describes the concept of mobile ad hoc networking (MANET and points out some of its applications that can be envisioned for future. Also, the paper presents two of the technical challenges MANET poses, which include Geocasting and QoS.

  8. A Survey of Congestion Control in Proactive Source Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S kayarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET congestion can take place between the two intermediate nodes, when the packet is transferred from the source to the destination. The congestion in MANET is mainly due to frequent change to topology and high mobility of nodes, which lead to high loss of packet. In ad hoc network the congestion control techniques with TCP becomes difficult to handle since in ad hoc network there is high density of nodes in the network and there is frequent change to topology in the network. In this paper to control the congestion in proactive source routing protocol an error message is generated by the receiver to reduce the packet sending rate. We are using a new control message i.e., Packet Error Announcing Message called (PEAM messages.

  9. A Distributed Authentication Algorithm Based on GQ Signature for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jun; ZENG Gui-hua

    2006-01-01

    Identity authentication plays an important role in ad hoc networks as a part of the secure mechanism. On the basis of GQ signature scheme, a new GQ threshold group signature scheme was presented, by which a novel distributed algorithm was proposed to achieve the multi-hop authentication for mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, a protocol verifying the identity with zero knowledge proofs was designed so that the reuse of certificates comes into truth. Moreover, the security of this algorithm was proved through the random oracle model. With the lower cost of computation and communication, this algorithm is efficient, secure and especially suitable for mobile ad hoc networks characterized by distributed computing, dynamic topology and multi-hop communications.

  10. A Secure and Pragmatic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile computers (or nodes), in which individual nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow nodes to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Because of node mobility and power limitations, the network topology changes frequently. Routing protocol plays an important role in the ad hoc network. A recent trend in ad hoc network routing is the reactive on-demand philosophy where routes are established only when required. As an optimization for the current Dynamic Source Routing Protocol, a secure and pragmatic routes selection scheme based on Reputation Systems was proposed. We design the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol and implement simulation models using GloMoSim. Simulation results show that the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol provides better experimental results on packet delivery ratio, power consumption and system throughput than Dynamic Source Routing Protocol.

  11. A reliable routing algorithm based on fuzzy Petri net in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhi-gang; MA Hao; WANG Guo-jun; LIAO Lin

    2005-01-01

    A novel reliable routing algorithm in mobile ad hoc networks using fuzzy Petri net with its reasoning mechanism was proposed to increase the reliability during the routing selection. The algorithm allows the structured representation of network topology, which has a fuzzy reasoning mechanism for finding the routing sprouting tree from the source node to the destination node in the mobile ad hoc environment. Finally, by comparing the degree of reliability in the routing sprouting tree, the most reliable route can be computed. The algorithm not only offers the local reliability between each neighboring node, but also provides global reliability for the whole selected route. The algorithm can be applied to most existing on-demand routing protocols, and the simulation results show that the routing reliability is increased by more than 80% when applying the proposed algorithm to the ad hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol.

  12. A Globally Accessible List (GAL Based Recovery Concept In Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Daniel,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is a mobile, multi-hop wireless network which is capable of autonomous operation whose primary role is to provide a reliable end to end communication between nodes in the network.However achieving reliable transmission in mobile wireless network is crucial due to change in the network topology caused by node mobility. Modern communication network is becoming increasing & diverse. This is the consequence of an increasing array of devices & services both wired & wireless. There are various protocols to facilitate communication in ad hoc network like DSR and TORA. However these approaches end up in the inefficient utilization of resources after link failure and congestion. This paper proposes an approach to get over this problem .We have added some static nodes which only keeps information related to the current working path and also helps in quick recovery in case of link failure .

  13. Sensor Sharing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Pramita

    2013-01-01

    Today's modern mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablets) present great potential for growth of many novel, powerful, but also highly demanding applications. However, most mobile devices/users operate in isolation from one another, i.e., they are not aware of the presence of other devices in their proximity. There are numerous situations…

  14. Enabling Adaptive Rate and Relay Selection for 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Neil; Wang, Wenye

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring wireless networks that lack permanent infrastructure and are formed among mobile nodes on demand. Rapid node mobility results in dramatic channel variation, or fading, that degrades MANET performance. Employing channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter can improve the throughput of routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Several routing algorithms in the literature explicitly incorporate the fading signal strength into the routing metric, thus selecting the routes with strong channel conditions. While these studies show that adaptation to the time-variant channel gain is beneficial in MANETs, they do not address the effect of the outdated fading CSI at the transmitter. For realistic mobile node speeds, the channel gain is rapidly varying, and becomes quickly outdated due the feedback delay. We analyze the link throughput of joint rate adaptation and adaptive relay selection in the presence of imperfect CSI. Mor...

  15. Similarity-Based Clustering Strategy for Mobile Ad Hoc Multimedia Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia data are becoming popular in wireless ad hoc environments. However, the traditional content-based retrieval techniques are inefficient in ad hoc networks due to the multiple limitations such as node mobility, computation capability, memory space, network bandwidth, and data heterogeneity. To provide an efficient platform for multimedia retrieval, we propose to cluster ad hoc multimedia databases based on their semantic contents, and construct a virtual hierarchical indexing infrastructure overlaid on the mobile databases. This content-aware clustering scheme uses a semantic-aware framework as the theoretical foundation for data organization. Several novel techniques are presented to facilitate the representation and manipulation of multimedia data in ad hoc networks: 1 using concise distribution expressions to represent the semantic similarity of multimedia data, 2 constructing clusters based on the semantic relationships between multimedia entities, 3 reducing the cost of content-based multimedia retrieval through the restriction of semantic distances, and 4 employing a self-adaptive mechanism that dynamically adjusts to the content and topology changes of the ad hoc networks. The proposed scheme is scalable, fault-tolerant, and efficient in performing content-based multimedia retrieval as demonstrated in our combination of theoretical analysis and extensive experimental studies.

  16. Cluster head Election for CGSR Routing Protocol Using Fuzzy Logic Controller for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkata Subbaiah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nodes in the mobile ad hoc networks act as router and host, the routing protocol is the primary issue and has to be supported before any applications can be deployed for mobile ad hoc networks. In recent many research protocols are proposed for finding an efficient route between the nodes. But most of the protocol’s that uses conventional techniques in routing; CBRP is a routing protocol that has a hierarchical-based design. This protocol divides the network area into several smaller areas called cluster. We propose a fuzzy logic based cluster head election using energy concept forcluster head routing protocol in MANET’S. Selecting an appropriate cluster head can save power for the whole mobile ad hoc network. Generally, Cluster Head election for mobile ad hoc network is based on the distance to the centroid of a cluster, and the closest one is elected as the cluster head'; or pick a node with the maximum battery capacity as the cluster head. In this paper, we present a cluster head election scheme using fuzzy logic system (FLS for mobile ad hoc networks. Three descriptors are used: distance of a node to the cluster centroid, its remaining battery capacity, and its degree of mobility. The linguistic knowledge of cluster head election based on these three descriptors is obtained from a group of network experts. 27 FLS rules are set up based on the linguistic knowledge. The output of the FLS provides a cluster head possibility, and node with the highest possibility is elected as the cluster head. The performance of fuzzy cluster head selection is evaluated using simulation, and is compared to LEACH protocol with out fuzzy cluster head election procedures and showed the proposed work is efficient than the previous one.

  17. A Multicast Routing Mechanism in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Through Label Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MengYang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Merging MPLS into multicast routing protocol in Mobile Ad hoc network is an elegant method to enhance the network performance and an efficient solution for multicast scalability and control overhead problems. Based on the Wireless MPLS technology, the mechanism and evaluation of a new multicast protocol, the Label Switching Multicast Routing Protocol (LSMRP is presented in this paper.

  18. BLESSED with opportunistic beacons: a lightweight data dissemination model for smart mobile ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces BLESSED, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the complementary utilization of the IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth Low Energy standards. As a ubiq

  19. Bridging Context Management Systems in the ad hoc and mobile environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawar, Pravin; Boros, Hanga; Liu, Fei; Heijenk, Geert; Beijnum, van Bert-Jan

    2009-01-01

    The pervasive computing world in which the context-aware applications are aimed at is constituted of multiple network environments, e.g. ad hoc, mobile and fixed. There exist specialized Context Management Systems (CMSs) addressing context management needs of every network environment and the existe

  20. Design of a Smart Antenna for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Di Filippo; Leonardo Lucci; Dania Marabissi; Stefano Selleri

    2015-01-01

    Among the mobile ad hoc networks appealing characteristics there are network reconfigurability and flexibility. In this context a smart antenna capable of self-configuring multiple high-directivity beams provides a major advantage in terms of power saving, increased range, and spatial reuse of channels. In this paper a smart antenna made of a cylindrical array of patches suitable for MANETs is presented.

  1. SPIZ: An Effective Service Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noh Donggeon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs require special care in the handling of service advertisement and discovery (Ad/D. In this paper, we propose a noble service Ad/D technique for MANETs. Our scheme avoids redundant flooding and reduces the system overhead by integrating Ad/D with routing layer. It also tracks changing conditions, such as traffic and service popularity levels. Based on a variable zone radius, we have combined push-based Ad/D with a pull-based Ad/D strategy.

  2. SPIZ: An Effective Service Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeon Noh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs require special care in the handling of service advertisement and discovery (Ad/D. In this paper, we propose a noble service Ad/D technique for MANETs. Our scheme avoids redundant flooding and reduces the system overhead by integrating Ad/D with routing layer. It also tracks changing conditions, such as traffic and service popularity levels. Based on a variable zone radius, we have combined push-based Ad/D with a pull-based Ad/D strategy.

  3. Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Santi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks: Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks provides the reader with an overview of mobility modelling, encompassing both theoretical and practical aspects related to the challenging mobility modelling task. It also: Provides up-to-date coverage of mobility models for next generation wireless networksOffers an in-depth discussion of the most representative mobility models for major next generation wireless network application scenarios, including WLAN/mesh networks, vehicular networks, wireless sensor networks, and

  4. Comparative study of Attacks on AODV-based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsa De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs has been widespread in many applications, The lack of infrastructures in MANETs makes the detection and control of security hazards allthe more difficult. The security issue is becoming a major concern and bottle neck in the application of MANET. In this paper, an attempt has been made to thoroughly study the blackhole attack which is one ofthe possible attacks in ad hoc networks in routing protocol AODV with possible solution to blackhole attack detection.

  5. Calculation and Analysis of Destination Buffer for Multimedia Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong; MAO Yu-ming; JIANG Zhi-qong

    2005-01-01

    Jitter is one of the most important issues for multimedia real time services in future mobile ad hoc networks(MANET). A thorough theoretical analysis of the destination buffer for smoothing the jitter of the real time service in MANET is given. The theoretical results are applied in moderate populated ad hoc networks in our simulation, the simulation results show that by predicting and adjusting destination buffer in our way, Jitter will be alleviated in large part and this will contribute much to the quality of service (QOS) in MANET.

  6. Deny-by-Default Distributed Security Policy Enforcement in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicherry, Mansoor; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stavrou, Angelos

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are increasingly employed in tactical military and civil rapid-deployment networks, including emergency rescue operations and ad hoc disaster-relief networks. However, this flexibility of MANETs comes at a price, when compared to wired and base station-based wireless networks: MANETs are susceptible to both insider and outsider attacks. This is mainly because of the lack of a well-defined defense perimeter preventing the effective use of wired defenses including firewalls and intrusion detection systems.

  7. Survey: Comparison Estimation of Various Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanshu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes attached by wireless links. It represents a complex and dynamic distributed systems that consist of mobile wireless nodes that can freely self organize into an ad-hoc network topology. The devices in the network may have limited transmission range therefore multiple hops may be needed by one node to transfer data to another node in network. This leads to the need for an effective routing protocol. In this paper we study various classifications of routing protocols and their types for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks like DSDV, GSR, AODV, DSR, ZRP, FSR, CGSR, LAR, and Geocast Protocols. In this paper we also compare different routing protocols on based on a given set of parameters Scalability, Latency, Bandwidth, Control-overhead, Mobility impact.

  8. Contention-based forwarding for mobile ad-hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Füßler, Holger; Käsemann, Michael; Mauve, Martin; Hartenstein, Hannes; Widmer, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Existing position-based unicast routing algorithms which forward packets in the geographic direction of the destination require that the forwarding node knows the positions of all neighbors in its transmission range. This information on direct neighbors is gained by observing beacon messages each node sends out periodically. Due to mobility, the information that a node receives about its neighbors becomes outdated, leading either to a significant decrease in the packet delivery rate or to a s...

  9. A quality of service routing protocol based on mobility prediction in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建新; 邓曙光; 陈松乔; 陈建二

    2003-01-01

    A QoS routing protocol based on mobility prediction is proposed. The protocol selects the steadiest path based on mobility prediction and QoS requirements on bandwidth, delay, and so forth. The main properties of the protocol as follows. (1) Each node just broadcasts its own information, so the packet is very small and can get to the destination in a very short time. (2)When another path is built for the same QoS requirements, the original path has higher priority.(3) The update messages are reduced by using mobility prediction. (4) Data packets carry the information of link change using piggyback, which is helpful for forecasting the link status more accurately. (5) When source node gets Resource-Reserve and reconnect packets at the same time, it selects reconnect packet over Resource-Reserve packet. The results of simulation show that the protocol has good network performance with low control overload, and efficiently supports transmitting multimedia with QoS requirements in mobile ad hoc networks.

  10. Maintains Secure Intrusion Detection System for Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    B.Reddy Sumanth; T.Venkataramana

    2014-01-01

    Now a day’s mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are very popular research area. MANET is one of the mainly essential and unique applications. The mobility and scalability brought by wireless network made it possible in many applications. MANET does not require a fixed network infrastructure; every single node works as both a transmitter and a receiver. When the nodes are both within the same communication range then they communicate directly each other. These are significant factors i...

  11. Sybil Attack on Lowest Id Clustering Algorithm in The Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Sood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is quite a challenging task to achieve security in a mobile ad hoc network because of its open nature,dynamically changing topology, lack of infrastructure and central management. A particular harmfulattack that takes the advantage of these characteristics is the Sybil attack, in which a malicious nodeillegitimately claims multiple identities. This attack can exceedingly disrupt various operations of themobile ad hoc networks such as data aggregation, voting, fair resource allocation scheme, misbehaviordetection and routing mechanisms etc. Two routing mechanisms known to be vulnerable to the Sybilattack in the mobile ad hoc networks are multi-path routing and geographic routing. In addition to theserouting protocols, we show in this paper that the Sybil attack can also disrupt the head selectionmechanism of the lowest ID cluster-based routing protocol. To the best of our knowledge, this is for thefirst time that a Sybil attack is shown to disrupt this cluster based routing protocol. To achieve this, weillustrate to have introduced a category of Sybil attack in which the malicious node varies itstransmission power to create a number of virtual illegitimate nodes called Sybil nodes, for the purpose ofcommunication with legitimate nodes of the Mobile Ad Hoc Network. The variation in the transmissionpower makes the Sybil attack more deadly and difficult to be detected.

  12. Preventive Aspect of Black Hole Attack in Mobile AD HOC Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Roshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network is infrastructure less type of network. In this paper we present the prevention mechanism for black hole in mobile ad hoc network. The routing algorithms are analyzed and discrete properties of routing protocols are defined. The discrete properties support in distributed routing efficiently. The protocol is distributed and not dependent upon the centralized controlling node. Important features of Ad hoc on demand vector routing (AODV are inherited and new mechanism is combined with it to get the multipath routing protocol for Mobile ad hoc network (MANET to prevent the black hole attack. When the routing path is discovered and entered into the routing table, the next step is taken by combined protocol to search the new path with certain time interval. The old entered path is refreshed into the routing table. The simulation is taken on 50 moving nodes in the area of 1000 x 1000 square meter and the maximum speed of nodes are 5m/sec. The result is calculated for throughput verses number of black hole nodes with pause time of 0 sec. to 40 sec., 120 sec. and 160 sec. when the threshold value is 1.0.

  13. Location Based Throughput Maximization Routing in Energy Constrained Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sumathy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless Ad-hoc network, power consumption becomes an important issue due to limited battery power. One of the reasons for energy expenditure in this network is irregularly distributed node pattern, which impose large interference range in certain area. To maximize the lifetime of ad-hoc mobile network, the power consumption rate of each node must be evenly distributed and the over all transmission range of each node must be minimized. Our protocol, Location based throughput maximization routing in energy constrained Ad-hoc network finds routing paths, which maximize the lifetime of individual nodes and minimize the total transmission energy consumption. The life of the entire network is increased and the network throughput is also increased. The reliability of the path is also increased. Location based energy constrained routing finds the distance between the nodes. Based on the distance the transmission power required is calculated and dynamically reduces the total transmission energy.

  14. A Decentralized VPN Service over Generalized Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Sho; Shima, Keiichi; Uo, Yojiro; Esaki, Hiroshi

    We present a decentralized VPN service that can be built over generalized mobile ad-hoc networks (Generalized MANETs), in which topologies can be represented as a time-varying directed multigraph. We address wireless ad-hoc networks and overlay ad-hoc networks as instances of Generalized MANETs. We first propose an architecture to operate on various kinds of networks through a single set of operations. Then, we design and implement a decentralized VPN service on the proposed architecture. Through the development and operation of a prototype system we implemented, we found that the proposed architecture makes the VPN service applicable to each instance of Generalized MANETs, and that the VPN service makes it possible for unmodified applications to operate on the networks.

  15. Fuzzy Multiple Metrics Link Assessment for Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Ai Luang; Tan, Chong Eng; Tay, Kai Meng

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we investigate on the use of Sugeno fuzzy inference system (FIS) in route selection for mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs). Sugeno FIS is introduced into Ad-Hoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol, which is derived from its predecessor, Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV). Instead of using the conventional way that considering only a single metric to choose the best route, our proposed fuzzy decision making model considers up to three metrics. In the model, the crisp inputs of the three parameters are fed into an FIS and being processed in stages, i.e., fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification. Finally, after experiencing all the stages, a single value score is generated from the combination metrics, which will be used to measure all the discovered routes credibility. Results obtained from simulations show a promising improvement as compared to AOMDV and AODV.

  16. Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Classification Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and evaluation of intrusion detection models for MANETs using supervised classification algorithms. Specifically, we evaluate the performance of the MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP), the Linear classifier, the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), the Naive Bayes classifier and the Support Vector Machine (SVM). The performance of the classification algorithms is evaluated under different traffic conditions and mobility patterns for the Black Hole, Forging, Packet Dropping, and Flooding attacks. The results indicate that Support Vector Machines exhibit high accuracy for almost all simulated attacks and that Packet Dropping is the hardest attack to detect.

  17. Clustering in mobile ad hoc network based on neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ai-bin; CAI Zi-xing; HU De-wen

    2006-01-01

    An on-demand distributed clustering algorithm based on neural network was proposed. The system parameters and the combined weight for each node were computed, and cluster-heads were chosen using the weighted clustering algorithm, then a training set was created and a neural network was trained. In this algorithm, several system parameters were taken into account, such as the ideal node-degree, the transmission power, the mobility and the battery power of the nodes. The algorithm can be used directly to test whether a node is a cluster-head or not. Moreover, the clusters recreation can be speeded up.

  18. Group Monitoring in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Albana; Voulgaris, Spyros; van Steen, Maarten

    Maintaining bonds of cohesion between members of small groups in densely populated venues (e.g., a family in an amusement park, or some friends in a stadium) is increasingly gaining interest, both as a safety measure against malicious activity and as a convenient tool to prevent group splitting. Note that the use of mobile phones is often ruled out in such scenarios, due to extreme network load. Current solutions are typically based on custom installations of antennas, centralized control, and user devices with high transmission power.

  19. Condensation-Based Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Palmieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of efficient broadcast containment schemes that can dynamically cope with frequent topology changes and limited shared channel bandwidth, is one of the most challenging research topics in MANETs, and is crucial to the basic operations of networks serving fully mobile devices within areas having no fixed communication infrastructure. This problem particularly impacts the design of dynamic routing protocol that can efficiently establish routes to deliver data packets among mobile nodes with minimum communication overhead, and at the same time, ensure high throughput and low end-to-end delay. Accordingly, this work exploits and analyzes an adaptive probabilistic broadcast containment technique based on a particular condensation phenomenon borrowed from Quantum Mechanics and transposed in self-organizing random networks, that has the potential to effectively drive the on-demand route discovery process. Simulation-based performance analysis has shown that the proposed technique can introduce significant benefits on the general performance of broadcast-based reactive routing protocols in MANETs.

  20. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wen Hu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  1. A Mobility-Aware Link Enhancement Mechanism for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chenn-Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the growth up of internet in mobile commerce, researchers have reproduced various mobile applications that vary from entertainment and commercial services to diagnostic and safety tools. Mobility management has widely been recognized as one of the most challenging problems for seamless access to wireless networks. In this paper, a novel link enhancement mechanism is proposed to deal with mobility management problem in vehicular ad hoc networks. Two machine learning techniques, namely, particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic systems, are incorporated into the proposed schemes to enhance the accuracy of prediction of link break and congestion occurrence. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed schemes.

  2. Impact of Rushing attack on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Palanisamy, V

    2009-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes that communicate with each other via wireless links with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration such as base station or access points. Nodes in a MANETs operate both as host as well as routers to forward packets for each other in a multihop fashion. For many applications in wireless networks, multicasting is an important and frequent communication service. By multicasting, since a single message can be delivered to multiple receivers simultaneously. It greatly reduces the transmission cost when sending the same packet to multiple recipients. The security issue of MANETs in group communications is even more challenging because of involvement of multiple senders and multiple receivers. At that time of multicasting, mobile ad hoc network are unprotected by the attacks of malicious nodes because of vulnerabilities of routing protocols. Some of the attacks are Rushing attack, Blackhole attack, Sybil attack, Neighbor attack ...

  3. PNNI routing support for ad hoc mobile networking: The multilevel case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Forum Contributions 97-0766 and 97-0933. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. A previous contribution (97-1073) covered the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all resided at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. This contribution covers the more general case wherein those top-most LGNs may reside at different PNNI hierarchy levels. Both of the SNL contributions consider flat ad hoc network architectures in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the pre-configured level of its top-most LGN.

  4. Secured 7 Layer Security Architecture (S7LSA For Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET constitutes a group of wireless mobile nodes that transmit information without any centralized control. MANETs are infrastructure-less and are dynamic in nature that is why; they require peremptorily new set of networking approach to put through to provide efficacious and successful end-to-end communication. The wireless and distributed nature of MANET poses a great challenge to system security designers. Although security problems in MANET have attracted much attention in the last few years, most research efforts have been focused on specific security areas, such as establishing trust infrastructure, securing routing protocols, or intrusion detection and response, none of the previous work proposes security solutions from a system architectural view. In this paper, we propose seven-layer security architecture for mobile ad hoc networks. A general description of functionalities in each layer is given.

  5. Multipath Routing Protocol for Effective Local Route Recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Srivatsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks, frequent mobility during the transmission of data causes route failure which results in route rediscovery. In this, we propose multipath routing protocol for effective local route recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. In this protocol, each source and destination pair establishes multiple paths in the single route discovery and they are cached in their route caches. Approach: The cached routes are sorted on the basis of their bandwidth availability. In case of route failure in the primary route, a recovery node which is an overhearing neighbor, detects it and establishes a local recovery path with maximum bandwidth from its route cache. Results: By simulation results, we show that the proposed approach improves network performance. Conclusion: The proposed route recovery management technique prevents the frequent collision and degradation in the network performance.

  6. Multicasting along Energy—Efficient Meshes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGHai; CHENGShixin; HEYongming

    2003-01-01

    In consideration that current mesh-based multicast routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks don't tend to form energy-efficient multicast infrastruc-ture, we propose a new Energy-efficient multicast rout-ing protocol (E2MRP) for mobile ad hoc networks. The two main characteristics of E2MRP are: (1) using in turn the criteria for minimum energy consumed per packet and minimum maximum node cost during the course of relaying group (RG) creation and maintenance; (2)forming a graph-based multicast infrastructure instead of a tree-based one. Compared to multicast incremen-tal power (MIP) and on-demand multicast routing pro-tocol (ODMRP), as the simulation results show, E2MRP tremendously reduces the energy consumption rate of nodes and hence prolongs the lifetime of nodes and net-works, especially when the size of multicast group is small and node mobility is low.

  7. Reliable and Efficient Broadcasting in Asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Minimized Forward Node List Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Murugesan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network wide broadcasting is a fundamental operation in ad hoc networks. In broadcasting, a source node sends a message to all the other nodes in the network. Unlike in a wired network, a packet transmitted by a node in ad hoc wireless network can reach all neighbors. Therefore, the total number of transmissions (Forwarding nodes used as the cost criterion for broadcasting. Approach: This study proposes a reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm using minimized forward node list algorithm which uses 2-hop neighborhood information more effectively to reduce redundant transmissions in asymmetric Mobile Ad hoc networks that guarantees full delivery. Among the 1-hop neighbors of the sender, only selected forwarding nodes retransmit the broadcast message. Forwarding nodes are selected such a way that to cover the uncovered 2-hop neighbors. Results: Simulation results show that the proposed broadcasting algorithm provides high delivery ratio, low broadcast forward ratio, low overhead and minimized delay. Conclusion: In this study, reliable and efficient broadcasting algorithm in asymmetric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using minimized forward node list algorithm has been proposed which provides low forward ratio, high delivery ratio while suppressing broadcast redundancy.

  8. Highway Mobility and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks in NS-3

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The study of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) requires efficient and accurate simulation tools. As the mobility of vehicles and driver behavior can be affected by network messages, these tools must include a vehicle mobility model integrated with a quality network simulator. We present the first implementation of a well-known vehicle mobility model to ns-3, the next generation of the popular ns-2 networking simulator. Vehicle mobility and network communication are integrated through events. User-created event handlers can send network messages or alter vehicle mobility each time a network message is received and each time vehicle mobility is updated by the model. To aid in creating simulations, we have implemented a straight highway model that manages vehicle mobility, while allowing for various user customizations. We show that the results of our implementation of the mobility model matches that of the model's author and provide an example of using our implementation in ns-3.

  9. DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zandieh Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic K-means algorithm to improve the routing process in Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs is presented. Mobile ad-hoc networks are a collocation of mobile wireless nodes that can operate without using focal access points, pre-existing infrastructures, or a centralized management point. In MANETs, the quick motion of nodes modifies the topology of network. This feature of MANETS is lead to various problems in the routing process such as increase of the overhead massages and inefficient routing between nodes of network. A large variety of clustering methods have been developed for establishing an efficient routing process in MANETs. Routing is one of the crucial topics which are having significant impact on MANETs performance. The K-means algorithm is one of the effective clustering methods aimed to reduce routing difficulties related to bandwidth, throughput and power consumption. This paper proposed a new K-means clustering algorithm to find out optimal path from source node to destinations node in MANETs. The main goal of proposed approach which is called the dynamic K-means clustering methods is to solve the limitation of basic K-means method like permanent cluster head and fixed cluster members. The experimental results demonstrate that using dynamic K-means scheme enhance the performance of routing process in Mobile ad-hoc networks.

  10. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Reshmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and response systems. This paper proposes an agent-based model to address the aspect of intrusion detection in cluster based mobile wireless ad hoc network environment. The model comprises of a set of static and mobile agents, which are used to detect intrusions, respond to intrusions, and distribute selected and aggregated intrusion information to all other nodes in the network in an intelligent manner. The model is simulated to test its operation effectiveness by considering the performance parameters such as, detection rate, false positives, agent overheads, and intrusion information distribution time. Agent based approach facilitates flexible and adaptable security services. Also, it supports component based software engineering components such as maintainability, reachability, reusability, adaptability, flexibility, and customization.

  11. An Effective Approach for Mobile ad hoc Network via I-Watchdog Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Lal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is now days become very famous due to their fixed infrastructure-less quality and dynamic nature. They contain a large number of nodes which are connected and communicated to each other in wireless nature. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless technology that contains high mobility of nodes and does not depend on the background administrator for central authority, because they do not contain any infrastructure. Nodes of the MANET use radio wave for communication and having limited resources and limited computational power. The Topology of this network is changing very frequently because they are distributed in nature and self-configurable. Due to its wireless nature and lack of any central authority in the background, Mobile ad hoc networks are always vulnerable to some security issues and performance issues. The security imposes a huge impact on the performance of any network. Some of the security issues are black hole attack, flooding, wormhole attack etc. In this paper, we will discuss issues regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol used in the MANET and proposed an improved Watchdog mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that overcomes the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives high performance in terms of throughput, delay.

  12. Guard against cooperative black hole attack in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Pratap Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous network that consists of nodes which communicate with each other with wireless channel. Due to its dynamic nature and mobility of nodes, mobile ad hoc networks are more vulnerable to security attack than conventional wired and wireless networks. One of the principal routing protocols AODV used in MANETs. The security of AODV protocol is influence by the particular type of attack called Black Hole attack. In a black hole attack, a malicious node injects a faked route reply claiming to havethe shortest and freshest route to the destination. However, when the data packets arrive, the malicious node discards them. To preventing black hole attack, this paper presents RBS (Reference Broadcast Synchronization & Relative velocity distance method for clock synchronization process in Mobile ad-hoc Network for removal of cooperative black hole node. This paper evaluates the performance in NS2 network simulator and our analysis indicates that this method is very suitable to remove black hole attack.

  13. Performance Comparison Study of Connected Dominating Set Algorithms for Mobile Ad hoc Networks under Different Mobility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high-level contribution of this paper is an exhaustive simulation-based comparison study of three categories (density, node id and stability-based of algorithms to determine connected dominating sets (CDS for mobile ad hoc networks and evaluate their performance under two categories (random node mobility and grid-based vehicular ad hoc network of mobility models. The CDS algorithms studied are the maximum density-based (MaxD-CDS, node ID-based (ID-CDS and the minimum velocity-based (MinV-CDS algorithms representing the density, node id and stability categories respectively. The node mobility models used are the Random Waypoint model (representing random node mobility and the City Section and Manhattan mobility models (representing the grid-based vehicular ad hoc networks. The three CDS algorithms under the three mobility models are evaluated with respect to two critical performance metrics: the effective CDS lifetime (calculated taking into consideration the CDS connectivity and absolute CDS lifetime and the CDS node size. Simulations are conducted under a diverse set of conditions representing low, moderate and high network density, coupled with low, moderate and high node mobility scenarios. For each CDS, the paper identifies the mobility model that can be employed to simultaneously maximize the lifetime and minimize the node size with minimal tradeoff. For the two VANET mobility models, the impact of the grid block length on the CDS lifetime and node size is also evaluated.

  14. Exploiting Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Knowledge Generation to Achieve Ambient Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lekova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI joins together the fields of ubiquitous computing and communications, context awareness, and intelligent user interfaces. Energy, fault-tolerance, and mobility are newly added dimensions of AmI. Within the context of AmI the concept of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs for “anytime and anywhere” is likely to play larger roles in the future in which people are surrounded and supported by small context-aware, cooperative, and nonobtrusive devices that will aid our everyday life. The connection between knowledge generation and communication ad hoc networking is symbiotic—knowledge generation utilizes ad hoc networking to perform their communication needs, and MANETs will utilize the knowledge generation to enhance their network services. The contribution of the present study is a distributed evolving fuzzy modeling framework (EFMF to observe and categorize relationships and activities in the user and application level and based on that social context to take intelligent decisions about MANETs service management. EFMF employs unsupervised online one-pass fuzzy clustering method to recognize nodes' mobility context from social scenario traces and ubiquitously learn “friends” and “strangers” indirectly and anonymously.

  15. 移动Ad Hoc网络技术的分析%Analysis of mobile Ad Hoc Networks technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧平; 王建望

    2014-01-01

    移动Ad Hoc网络,它是Mobile Ad Hoc Networks的简称,它不会受到空间与时间的制约,更加快捷和方便,不但能够在危险环境、远距离、战场、会议和救援等环境当中应用,而且还能够扩展末端网络,它的应用具有普遍性。为此,本文论述了移动Ad Hoc网络的基本概念和特点,接着分析了移动Ad Hoc网络设计面临的挑战,最后讨论了它的应用。%It would not be space and time constraints,more efficient and convenient,not only in hazardous environments,remote battlefield,conferences and rescue environment in which applications,but also to extend the end of the network,its application is universal.Therefore,this article discusses the basic concepts and features of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,and then analyzes the challenges faced by mobile Ad Hoc network design, it is best to discuss its applications.

  16. An Adaptive Scheme for Neighbor Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The neighbor knowledge in mobile ad hoc networks is important information. However, the accuracy of neighbor knowledge is paid in terms of energy consumption. In traditional schemes for neighbor discovery, a mobile node uses fixed period to send HELLO messages to notify its existence. An adaptive scheme was proposed.The objective is that when mobile nodes are distributed sparsely or move slowly, fewer HELLO messages are needed to achieve reasonable accuracy, while in a mutable network where nodes are dense or move quickly, they can adaptively send more HELLO messages to ensure the accuracy. Simulation results show that the adaptive scheme achieves the objective and performs effectively.

  17. SD-AODV: A Protocol for Secure and Dynamic Data Dissemination in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Rajender

    2011-01-01

    Security remains as a major concern in the mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a new protocol SD-AODV, which is an extension of the exiting protocol AODV. The proposed protocol is made secure and dynamic against three main types of routing attacks- wormhole attack, byzantine attack and blackhole attack. SD-AODV protocol was evaluated through simulation experiments done on Glomosim and performance of the network was measured in terms of packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay, global throughput and route errors of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes behave maliciously. Experimentally it was found that the performance of the network did not degrade in the presence of the above said attacks indicating that the proposed protocol was secure against these attacks.

  18. A Distributed Protocol for Detection of Packet Dropping Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip; Balamuralidhar, P; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish

    2011-01-01

    In multi-hop mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs),mobile nodes cooperate with each other without using any infrastructure such as access points or base stations. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Among the various attacks to which MANETs are vulnerable, malicious packet dropping attack is very common where a malicious node can partially degrade or completely disrupt communication in the network by consistently dropping packets. In this paper, a mechanism for detection of packet dropping attack is presented based on cooperative participation of the nodes in a MANET. The redundancy of routing information in an ad hoc network is utilized to make the scheme robust so that it works effectively even in presence of transient network partitioning and Byzantine failure of nodes. The proposed scheme is fully cooperative an...

  19. Global Consistency Management Methods Based on Escrow Approaches in Mobile ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Hara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a mobile ad hoc network, consistency management of data operations on replicas is a crucial issue for system performance. In our previous work, we classified several primitive consistency levels according to the requirements from applications and provided protocols to realize them. In this paper, we assume special types of applications in which the instances of each data item can be partitioned and propose two consistency management protocols which are combinations of an escrow method and our previously proposed protocols. We also report simulation results to investigate the characteristics of these protocols in a mobile ad hoc network. From the simulation results, we confirm that the protocols proposed in this paper drastically improve data availability and reduce the traffic for data operations while maintaining the global consistency in the entire network.

  20. Survey on Simulation for Mobile Ad-Hoc Communication for Disaster Scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erika Rosas; Nicolas Hidalgo; Veronica Gil-Costa; Carolina Bonacic; Mauricio Marin; Hermes Senger; Luciana Arantes; Cesar Marcondes; Olivier Marin

    2016-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc communication is a demonstrated solution to mitigate the impact of infrastructure failures during large-scale disasters. A very complex issue in this domain is the design validation of software applications that support decision-making and communication during natural disasters. Such disasters are irreproducible, highly unpredictable, and impossible to scale down, and thus extensive assessments cannot be led in situ. In this context, simulation constitutes the best approach towards the testing of software solutions for natural disaster responses. The present survey reviews mobility models, ad-hoc network architectures, routing protocols and network simulators. Our aim is to provide guidelines for software developers with regards to the performance evaluation of their applications by means of simulation.

  1. SD-AODV: A Protocol for Secure and Dynamic Data Dissemination in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajender Nath

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Security remains as a major concern in the mobile ad hoc networks. This paper presents a new protocol SD-AODV, which is an extension of the exiting protocol AODV. The proposed protocol is made secure and dynamic against three main types of routing attacks-wormhole attack, byzantine attack and blackhole attack. SD-AODV protocol was evaluated through simulation experiments done on Glomosim and performance of the network was measured in terms of packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay, global throughput and route errors of a mobile ad hoc network where a defined percentage of nodes behave maliciously. Experimentally it was found that the performance of the network did not degrade in the presence of the above said attacks indicating that the proposed protocol was secure against these attacks.

  2. Implement DUMBO as a Network Based on Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are a large variety of wireless access networks. One of these networksis Digital Ubiquitous Mobile Broadband OLSR (DUMBO which has been stronglymotivated by the fact that large scale natural disasters can wipe out terrestrialcommunication infrastructure. DUMBO routers can automatically form one or more selfconfiguring,self-healing networks called Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. VehicleAd hoc Network (VANETs is an advanced version of MANETs. VANETs is offered tobe used by network service providers for managing connection to get a high performanceat real time, high bandwidth and high availability in networks such as WLAN, UMTS,Wi-MAX and etc. In this paper surveying DUMBONET Routers with relevant algorithm,approaches and solutions from the literature, will be consider.

  3. An optimized node-disjoint multipath routing scheme in mobile ad hoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liang, Mangui; Liu, Zhiyu

    2016-02-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), link failures are caused frequently because of node’s mobility and use of unreliable wireless channels for data transmission. Multipath routing strategy can cope with the problem of the traffic overloads while balancing the network resource consumption. In the paper, an optimized node-disjoint multipath routing (ONMR) protocol based on ad hoc on-demand vector (AODV) is proposed to establish effective multipath to enhance the network reliability and robustness. The scheme combines the characteristics of reverse AODV (R-AODV) strategy and on-demand node-disjoint multipath routing protocol to determine available node-disjoint routes with minimum routing control overhead. Meanwhile, it adds the backup routing strategy to make the process of data salvation more efficient in case of link failure. The results obtained through various simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of route availability, control overhead and packet delivery ratio.

  4. Neighbor Attack And Detection Mechanism In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthiban

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs, security is one of the most important concerns because a MANETs system is much more vulnerable to attacks than a wired or infrastructure-based wireless network. Designing an effective security protocol for MANET is a very challenging task. This is mainlydue to the unique characteristics of MANETs, namely shared broadcast radio channel, insecure operatingenvironment, lack of central authority, lack of association among users, limited availability of resources, and physical vulnerability. In this paper we present simulation based study of the impact of neighbor attack on mesh-based Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET. And also we study the number of attackers and position affects the performance metrics such as packet delivery ratio and throughput. The study enables us to propose a secure neighbor detection mechanism (SNDM. A generic detection mechanism against neighbor attack for On Demand Routing Protocols is simulated on GlomoSim environment.

  5. An energy efficient adaptive HELLO algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    He, Danping; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ry, David

    2013-01-01

    International audience HELLO protocol or neighborhood discovery is essential in wireless ad hoc networks. It makes the rules for nodes to claim their existence/aliveness. In the presence of node mobility, no x optimal HELLO frequency and optimal transmission range exist to maintain accurate neighborhood tables while reducing the energy consumption and bandwidth occupation. Thus a Turnover based Frequency and transmission Power Adaptation algorithm (TFPA) is presented in this paper. The met...

  6. New horizons in mobile and wireless communications, v.4 ad hoc networks and pans

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    Based on cutting-edge research projects in the field, this book (part of a comprehensive 4-volume series) provides the latest details and covers the most impactful aspects of mobile, wireless, and broadband communications development. These books present key systems and enabling technologies in a clear and accessible manner, offering you a detailed roadmap the future evolution of next generation communications. Other volumes cover Networks, Services and Applications; Reconfigurability; and Ad Hoc Networks.

  7. URSA: Ubiquitous and Robust Access Control for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Haiyun; Kong, Jiejun; Zerfos, Petros; Lu, Songwu; Zhang, Lixia

    2004-01-01

    Restricting network access of routing and packet forwarding to well-behaving nodes and denying access from misbehaving nodes are critical for the proper functioning of a mobile ad-hoc network where cooperation among all networking nodes is usually assumed. However, the lack of a network infrastructure, the dynamics of the network topology and node membership, and the potential attacks from inside the network by malicious and/or noncooperative selfish nodes make the conventional network access...

  8. InstantSocial : social networking in mobile ad-hoc environments

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This report covers the research, design and prototype implementation of a social application for mobile ad-hoc networks, InstantSocial. The main goals of this project has been to look at this exciting field and examine how the European scientific collaborative project MUSIC can be used to develop such an application. The project has been conducted using a Design Science approach. First the field of interest, existing similar applications and technology was examined to get a good view of the ...

  9. Cluster Based Node Misbehaviour Detection, Isolation and Authentication Using Threshold Cryptography in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    R. Murugan; Shanmugam, A.

    2012-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, the misbehaving nodes can cause dysfunction in the network resultingin damage of other nodes. In order to establish secure communication with the group members ofa network, use of a shared group key for confidentiality and authentication is required. Distributingthe shares of secret group key to the group members securely is another challenging task inMANET. In this paper, we propose a Cluster Based Misbehavior Detection and Authenticationscheme using threshold cryp...

  10. Cluster Based Misbehaviour Detection and Authentication Using Threshold Cryptography in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    R. Murugan; Shanmugam, A.

    2012-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, the misbehaving nodes can cause dysfunction in the network resulting in damage of other nodes. In order to establish secure communication with the group members of a network, use of a shared group key for confidentiality and authentication is required. Distributing the shares of secret group key to the group members securely is another challenging task in MANET. In this paper, we propose a Cluster Based Misbehavior Detection and Authentication scheme using threshold...

  11. A Combined Solution for Routing and Medium Access Control Layer Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    R. Murugan; Shanmugam, A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), both the routing layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer are vulnerable to several attacks. There are very few techniques to detect and isolate the attacks of both these layers simultaneously. In this study, we developed a combined solution for routing and MAC layer attacks. Approach: Our approach, makes use of three techniques simultaneously which consists of a cumulative frequency based detection technique for&...

  12. A Review of routing protocols for mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakanmani, S.; Sumathi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. A cognitive radio is a radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. The basic idea of cognitive radio networks is that the unlicensed devices (cognitive radio users or secondary users) need to vacate the spectrum band once the licensed device (p...

  13. OVERVIEW AND LITERATURE SURVEY ON ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MOBILE COGNITIVE RADIO AD HOC NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakanmani, S.; Sumathi, Dr. M.

    2012-01-01

    Ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. A cognitive radio is a radio that can change its transmitter parameters based on interaction with the environment in which it operates. The basic idea of cognitive radio networks is that the unlicensed devices (cognitive radio users or secondary users) need to vacate the spectrum band once the lic...

  14. Topology Control and Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Cognitive Radios

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Quansheng; Yu, F. Richard; Jiang, Shengming

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) technology will have significant impacts on upper layer performance in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper, we study topology control and routing in CR-MANETs. We propose a distributed Prediction-based Cognitive Topology Control (PCTC) scheme to provision cognition capability to routing in CR-MANETs. PCTC is a midware-like cross-layer module residing between CR module and routing. The proposed PCTC scheme uses cognitive link availability prediction, which is aw...

  15. Secure and Usable Out-Of-Band Channels for Ad Hoc Mobile Device Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kainda, Ronald; Flechais, Ivan; Roscoe, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    Protocols for bootstrapping security in ad hoc mobile device interactions rely on users' ability to perform specific tasks such as transferring or comparing fingerprints of information between devices. The size of fingerprints depends on the level of technical security required by a given application but, at the same time, is limited by users' inability to deal with large amounts of data with high levels of accuracy. Large fingerprints provide high technical security but potentially reduce us...

  16. A Novel Multi-Level Trust Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Genjian; ZHENG Baoyu

    2006-01-01

    Firstly, a multilevel trust algorithm for MANET(mobile ad hoc networks) is presented in this paper and the trust level is defined as a three-tuple type in this multilevel trust algorithm. The paper introduces the multilevel trust into MANET, thereby controlling restricted classified information flows among nodes that have different trust levels. Secondly, the infrastructure of MANET that suit to our multi-level trust is presented. Some conclusions are given at lastly.

  17. RISM -- Reputation Based Intrusion Detection System for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Animesh Kr; Kapoor, Rishi; Arora, Rajan; Sanyal, Sudip; Sanyal, Sugata

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a combination of an Intrusion Detection System with a routing protocol to strengthen the defense of a Mobile Ad hoc Network. Our system is Socially Inspired, since we use the new paradigm of Reputation inherited from human behavior. The proposed IDS also has a unique characteristic of being Semi-distributed, since it neither distributes its Observation results globally nor keeps them entirely locally; however, managing to communicate this vital information without accretio...

  18. Analysis of Fuzzy Logic Based Intrusion Detection Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, A.; V. N. Tiwari; Kumar, A

    2014-01-01

    Due to the advancement in wireless technologies, many of new paradigms have opened for communications. Among these technologies, mobile ad hoc networks play a prominent role for providing communication in many areas because of its independent nature of predefined infrastructure. But in terms of security, these networks are more vulnerable than the conventional networks because firewall and gateway based security mechanisms cannot be applied on it. That’s why intrusion detection systems are us...

  19. A New Strategy to Improve Proactive Route Updates in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Abolhasan Mehran; Wysocki Tadeusz; Lipman Justin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents two new route update strategies for performing proactive route discovery in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The first strategy is referred to as minimum displacement update routing (MDUR). In this strategy, the rate at which route updates are sent into the network is controlled by how often a node changes its location by a required distance. The second strategy is called minimum topology change update (MTCU). In this strategy, the route updating rate is proportional to t...

  20. Design of a Smart Antenna for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the mobile ad hoc networks appealing characteristics there are network reconfigurability and flexibility. In this context a smart antenna capable of self-configuring multiple high-directivity beams provides a major advantage in terms of power saving, increased range, and spatial reuse of channels. In this paper a smart antenna made of a cylindrical array of patches suitable for MANETs is presented.

  1. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Hadj Gharib; Kamel Belloulata

    2014-01-01

    The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a...

  2. Predicted Link Expiration Time Based Connected Dominating Sets for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pervis Fly; Natarajan Meghanathan

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to determine stable connecteddominating sets (CDS), based on the predicted link expiration time(LET), for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The proposed LETbasedCDS algorithm is the first such algorithm that constructs a CDSbased on edge weights represented by predicted link expiration time,rather the traditional approach of using node weights like the wellknownmaximum density-based CDS (MaxD-CDS) algorithm. Theconstruction of the LET-CDS starts with the inclusion of th...

  3. Intrusion Detection System for Mobile Ad - Hoc Network Using Cluster-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Dang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today Mobile Ad-hoc Networks have wide spread use in normal as well as mission critical applications. Mobile ad hoc networks are more likely to be attacked due to lack of infrastructure and no central management. To secure Manets many traditional security solutions like encryption are used but not find to be promising. Intrusion detection system is one of the technologies that provide some goodsecurity solutions. IDS provide monitoring and auditing capabilities to detect any abnormality in security of the system. IDS can be used with clustering algorithms to protect entire cluster from malicious code. Existing clustering algorithms have a drawback of consuming more power and they are associated with routes. The routeestablishment and route renewal affects the clusters and asa consequence, the processing and traffic overhead increases due to instability of clusters. The ad hoc networks are battery and power constraint, and therefore IDS cannot be run on all the nodes. A trusted monitoring node can be deployed to detect and respond against intrusions in time. The proposed simplified clustering scheme has been used to detect intrusions, resulting in high detection rates and low processing and memory overhead irrespective of the routes, connections, traffic types and mobility of nodes inthe network.

  4. An artificial immune system approach with secondary response for misbehavior detection in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafijanović, Slavisa; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2005-09-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, nodes act both as terminals and information relays, and they participate in a common routing protocol, such as dynamic source routing (DSR). The network is vulnerable to routing misbehavior, due to faulty or malicious nodes. Misbehavior detection systems aim at removing this vulnerability. In this paper, we investigate the use of an artificial immune system (AIS) to detect node misbehavior in a mobile ad hoc network using DSR. The system is inspired by the natural immune system (IS) of vertebrates. Our goal is to build a system that, like its natural counterpart, automatically learns, and detects new misbehavior. We describe our solution for the classification task of the AIS; it employs negative selection and clonal selection, the algorithms for learning and adaptation used by the natural IS. We define how we map the natural IS concepts such as self, antigen, and antibody to a mobile ad hoc network and give the resulting algorithm for classifying nodes as misbehaving. We implemented the system in the network simulator Glomosim; we present detection results and discuss how the system parameters affect the performance of primary and secondary response. Further steps will extend the design by using an analogy to the innate system, danger signal, and memory cells. PMID:16252818

  5. Analysis of AODV and DSR in Presence of Wormhole Attack in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVEK SHARMA,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network. It operates without the use of existing infrastructure. As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe security attack in ad hocnetworks that is particularly challenging to defend against. The wormhole attack is possible even if the attacker has not compromised any hosts and even if all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality. In the wormhole attack, an attacker records packets (or bits at one location in the network, tunnels them (possiblyselectively to another location, and retransmits them there into the network. The wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless networks, especially against many ad hoc network routing protocols and locationbased wireless security systems. This paper analyses the performance of AODV and DSR routing protocols with and without wormhole attack. This would be a great help for the people conducting research on real world problems in MANET security.

  6. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Vara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2. In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1. In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM, according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead.

  7. Cross-Layer Service Discovery Mechanism for OLSRv2 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara, M Isabel; Campo, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Service discovery plays an important role in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The lack of central infrastructure, limited resources and high mobility make service discovery a challenging issue for this kind of network. This article proposes a new service discovery mechanism for discovering and advertising services integrated into the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRv2). In previous studies, we demonstrated the validity of a similar service discovery mechanism integrated into the previous version of OLSR (OLSRv1). In order to advertise services, we have added a new type-length-value structure (TLV) to the OLSRv2 protocol, called service discovery message (SDM), according to the Generalized MANET Packet/Message Format defined in Request For Comments (RFC) 5444. Each node in the ad hoc network only advertises its own services. The advertisement frequency is a user-configurable parameter, so that it can be modified depending on the user requirements. Each node maintains two service tables, one to store information about its own services and another one to store information about the services it discovers in the network. We present simulation results, that compare our service discovery integrated into OLSRv2 with the one defined for OLSRv1 and with the integration of service discovery in Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, in terms of service discovery ratio, service latency and network overhead. PMID:26205272

  8. A New Proposal for Route Finding in Mobile AdHoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Vignesh Ramamoorthy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts connected by wireless links – the union of which forms an arbitrary topology. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily, thus the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. There are various routing protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, AODV and DSDV. This paper examines two routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks– the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV and the Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV. Generally, the routing algorithms can be classified into Reactive and Proactive. A Hybrid algorithm combines the basic properties of reactive and proactive into one. The proposed approach is a novel routing pattern based on Ant Colony Optimization and Multi Agent System. This pattern integrates two different algorithms together and helps to get optimum routes for a particular radio range. The approaches used here are Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Multi Agent System (MAS. The proposed integrated approach has a relatively short route establishment time while using a small number of control messages which makes it a scalable routing approach. The overhead of this routing approach will be inexpensive and also will enable to have an alternate route during route failure. This proposed route finding scheme in order to provide high connectivity of nodes, will minimize the route discovery latency and the end-to-end delay.

  9. Link Stability and Node Energy Conscious Local Route-Repair Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha Banerjee; Paramartha Dutta

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A mobile ad hoc network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. As the nodes are free to move randomly, topology of the network may change rapidly and unpredictably. As a result, intermediate nodes in the communication routes tend to lose connection with each other during the communication process. In order to repair a broken link, an end-to-end (from source to destination) route discovery is typically performed to establish a new route fo...

  10. Mobile Agent as an Approach to Improve QoS in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a foremost problem in modern cities. Huge amount of time and resources are wasted while traveling due to traffic congestion. With the introduction of sophisticated traffic management systems, such as those incorporating dynamic traffic assignments, more stringent demands are being placed upon the available real time traffic data. In this paper we have proposed mobile agent as a mechanism to handle the traffic problem on road. Mobile software agents can be used to provide the better QoS (Quality of Service) in vehicular ad hoc network to improve the safety application and driver comfort.

  11. ECDSA - Performance improvements of intrusion detection in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available mobile nodes without an underlying infrastructure. In this network, the occurrences of misbehavior nodes are a main problem that degrades the network performance. In previous technique watchdog is used to detect nodes misbehaviors in the mobile ad-hoc network, but it contains some of potential issues. To avoid these issues we propose a novel algorithm named as Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA particularly designed for increases the security in network.

  12. Verification of Correspondence Assertions in a Calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kühnrich, Morten; Godskesen, Jens Christian

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel process calculus called DBSPI (distributed broadcast SPI-calculus) which models mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The calculus is a cryptographic broadcast calculus with locations and migration. Communication and migration are limited to neighborhoods. Neighborhood definitions...... and it is shown to be sound, i.e. protocols which are typeable are also safe. This result is lifted to open systems which involves Dolev-Yao attackers. Our Dolev-Yao attacker may use public keys for encryption and can attack any neighborhood it wishes. Our technique is applied to the Mobile IP registration...

  13. Improving VANETs Connectivity with a Totally Ad Hoc Living Mobile Backbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Alves Junior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicular ad hoc network (VANET for intelligent transportation systems is an emerging concept to improve transportation security, reliability, and management. The network behavior can be totally different in topological aspects because of the mobility of vehicular nodes. The topology can be fully connected when the flow of vehicles is high and may have low connectivity or be invalid when the flow of vehicles is low or unbalanced. In big cities, the metropolitan buses that travel on exclusive lanes may be used to set up a metropolitan vehicular data network (backbone, raising the connectivity among the vehicles. Therefore, this paper proposes the implementation of a living mobile backbone, totally ad hoc (MOB-NET, which will provide infrastructure and raise the network connectivity. In order to show the viability of MOB-NET, statistical analyses were made with real data of express buses that travel through exclusive lanes, besides evaluations through simulations and analytic models. The statistic, analytic, and simulation results prove that the buses that travel through exclusive lanes can be used to build a communication network totally ad hoc and provide connectivity in more than 99% of the time, besides raising the delivery rate up to 95%.

  14. An Optimized OSPF Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Du

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an Optimized OSPF(Open Shortest Path First)protocol for MANETs (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. MANETs are multi-hop ad-hoc wireless networks where nodes can move arbitrarily in the topology. The network has no given infrastructure and can be set up quickly in any environment. Traditional OSPF is not also well used in multi-hop wireless networks. The optimized OSPF we proposed in this paper is a routing protocol which is more efficient for such mobile ad hoc networks. This paper describes and designs an optimized routing protocol for MANET referring to certain extensions to OSPF for MANET and OLSR routing protocol. The path selection optimization scheme we propose is aiming at reducing the number of redundant retransmissions while diffusing a broadcast message in the network and reducing overall overhead of control traffic。In conclusion, the optimized OSPF protocol improves the performance when using in MANETs as the experiment results show.

  15. Using Apriori algorithm to prevent black hole attack in mobile Ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Mirabedini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is considered as an autonomous network, which consists of mobile nodes, which communicate with each other over wireless links. When there is no fixed infrastructure, nodes have to cooperate in order to incorporate the necessary network functionality. Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol is one of the primary principal routing protocols implemented in Ad hoc networks. The security of the AODV protocol is threaded by a specific kind of attack called ‘Black Hole’ attack. This paper presents a technique to prevent the Black hole attack by implementing negotiation with neighbors who claim to maintain a route to destination. Negotiation process is strengthen by apriori method to judge about suspicious node. Apriori algorithm is an effective association rule mining method with relatively low complexity, which is proper for MANETs. To achieve more improvement, fuzzy version of ADOV is used. The simulation results indicate that the proposed protocol provides more securable routing and also more efficiency in terms of packet delivery, overhead and detection rate than the conventional AODV and fuzzy AODV in the presence of Black hole attacks.

  16. Reducing Broadcast Overhead Using Clustering Based Broadcast Mechanism in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Karthikeyan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network wide broadcasting is an important function in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET, which attempts to deliver packets from a source node to all other nodes in the network. Broadcasting is often very useful for route discovery, naming, addressing and helping multicast operations in all kinds of networks. For designing broadcast protocols for ad hoc networks, one of the primary goal is to reduce the overhead (redundancy, contention and collision while reaching all the nodes in network. Approach: We had discussed many approaches in network wide broadcasting namely flooding, probability based, area based, network knowledge and cluster based broadcasting methods. The implementations and analysis will be made on Linux using the Network Simulator NS2. Results: In this study, cluster based flooding algorithm had been proposed and its metrics were namely routing load and packet delivery ratio was compared with two common flooding algorithms namely simple flooding and probability based flooding. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was concluded that simple flooding required each node to rebroadcast all packets. Probability based methods used some basic understanding of network topology, assigning a probability to node to rebroadcast. Cluster broadcasting algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks guaranteed to deliver messages from a source node to all nodes of network.

  17. Key Management and Authentication in Ad Hoc Network based on Mobile Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Key management and authentication is important to security of Mobile Ad Hoc network (MANET. Based on the (t, n threshold cryptography, this paper introduced mobile agents to exchange private key and network topological information with nodes in the network. This method avoids a centralized certification authority to distribute the public keys and the certificates, thus enhances security. Carrying private key and some state variables, mobile agents navigate in the network according to visitsbalance policy, namely, node with the least visits would be first visited by mobile agent. Any t nodes in the network can cooperate to perform an authentication upon a new node wanting to join the network. Experimental results show that the mobile agent performs very well for improving the success ratio of authentication and enhance security while reducing the communication overhead and resource consumption.

  18. Packet Transmission Analysis in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using Revival Mobility Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Prasanth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs have been recently attracting an increasing attention from both research and industry communities. VANETs are currently deployed on a large scale, research in this area is mostly simulation based. Mobility models or the movement patterns of nodes communicating wirelessly, play a vital role in determining the protocol performance in VANET. We still have a limited understanding of the required level of mobility details for modeling and simulating VANETs. Thus, it is essential to study and analyze various mobility models and their effect on VANET protocols. In this paper, we examine d different mobility models proposed in the recent research literature. We proposed Revival Mobility Model (RMM and evaluate its effect on packet delivery in VANETs by ns-2 simulations.

  19. Adaptive and Secure Routing Protocol for Emergency Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Panaousis, Emmanouil A; Millar, Grant P; Politis, Christos; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2205

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of an extreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs) in order to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such as forest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergency workers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication "islets" to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen, firemen, paramedics). In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed for the purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with other widely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to security considerations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.

  20. Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA Protocol to Mitigate Blackhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.

  1. A LOOP-BASED APPROACH IN CLUSTERING AND ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanping; Wang Xin; Xue Xiangyang; C.K. Toh

    2006-01-01

    Although clustering is a convenient framework to enable traffic control and service support in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs), it is seldom adopted in practice due to the additional traffic overhead it leads to for the resource limited ad hoc network. In order to address this problem, we proposed a loop-based approach to combine clustering and routing. By employing loop topologies, topology information is disseminated with a loop instead of a single node, which provides better robustness, and the nature of a loop that there are two paths between each pair of nodes within a loop suggests smart route recovery strategy. Our approach is composed of setup procedure, regular procedure and recovery procedure to achieve clustering, routing and emergent route recovering.

  2. Security Scheme for Distributed DoS in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sanyal, Sugata; Gogri, Rajat; Rathod, Punit; Dedhia, Zalak; Mody, Nirali

    2010-01-01

    In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET), various types of Denial of Service Attacks (DoS) are possible because of the inherent limitations of its routing protocols. Considering the Ad Hoc On Demand Vector (AODV) routing protocol as the base protocol it is possible to find a suitable solution to over-come the attack of initiating / forwarding fake Route Requests (RREQs) that lead to hogging of network resources and hence denial of service to genuine nodes. In this paper, a proactive scheme is proposed that could prevent a specific kind of DoS attack and identify the misbehaving node. Since the proposed scheme is distributed in nature it has the capability to prevent Distributed DoS (DDoS) as well. The performance of the proposed algorithm in a series of simulations reveal that the proposed scheme provides a better solution than existing approaches with no extra overhead.

  3. Adaptive and Secure Routing Protocol for Emergency Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil A. Panaousis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of anextreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs inorder to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such asforest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergencyworkers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication”islets” to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen,firemen, paramedics. In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed forthe purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with otherwidely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to securityconsiderations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.

  4. SURVEY ON MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK ATTACKS AND MITIGATION USING ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Manikandan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET due to its unpredictable topology and bandwidth limitations are vulnerable to attacks. Establishing security measures and finding secure routes are the major challenges faced by MANET. Security issues faced by ad hoc networks are node authentication, insider attack and intrusion detection. Implementing security measures is challenging due to the presence of limited resources in the hardware device and the network. Routing protocols attempt to mitigate the attacks by isolating the malicious nodes. In this study, a survey of various kinds of attacks against MANET is studied. It is also proposed to study modification of AODV and DSR routing protocol implementation with regard to mitigating attacks and intrusion detection. This study studied various approaches to predict and mitigate attacks in MANET."

  5. Formal reconstruction of attack scenarios in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekhis Slim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several techniques of theoretical digital investigation are presented in the literature but most of them are unsuitable to cope with attacks in wireless networks, especially in Mobile Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (MASNets. In this article, we propose a formal approach for digital investigation of security attacks in wireless networks. We provide a model for describing attack scenarios in a wireless environment, and system and network evidence generated consequently. The use of formal approaches is motivated by the need to avoid ad hoc generation of results that impedes the accuracy of analysis and integrity of investigation. We develop an inference system that integrates the two types of evidence, handles incompleteness and duplication of information in them, and allows possible and provable actions and attack scenarios to be generated. To illustrate the proposal, we consider a case study dealing with the investigation of a remote buffer overflow attack.

  6. Authentication Using Trust to Detect Misbehaving Nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Q-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivagurunathan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in Mobile Ad Hoc Network is crucial problem due to its open shared wireless medium, multi-hop and dynamic nature, constrained resources, lack of administration and cooperation. Traditionally routing protocols are designed to cope with routing operation but in practice they may be affected by misbehaving nodes so that they try to disturb the normal routing operations by launching different attacks with the intention to minimize or collapse the overall network performance. Therefore detecting a trusted node means ensuring authentication and securing routing can be expected. In this article we have proposed a Trust and Q-learning based Security (TQS model to detect the misbehaving nodes over Ad Hoc On Demand Distance-Vector (AODV routing protocol. Here we avoid the misbehaving nodes by calculating an aggregated reward, based on the Q-learning mechanism by using their historical forwarding and responding behaviour by the way misbehaving nodes can be isolated.

  7. 移动Ad Hoc网络原理及技术研究%Principle and Technology Research of Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书侨

    2014-01-01

    移动Ad Hoc网络移动通信领域具有十分广泛的应用,本文主要分析其通信原理及应用前景。%Mobile Ad Hoc network has the extremely widespread application in mobile communication ifeld. This paper mainly analyzes the communication principle and application prospect of mobile Ad Hoc Network.

  8. A NOVEL CHARGING AND ACCOUNTING SCHEME IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Kofman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the lack of infrastructure in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, their proper functioning must rely on co-operations among mobile nodes. However, mobile nodes tend to save their own resources and may be reluctant to forward packets for other nodes. One approach to encourage co-operations among nodes is to reward nodes that forward data for others. Such an incentive-based scheme requires a charging and accounting framework to control and manage rewards and fines (collected from users committing infractions. In this paper, we propose a novel charging and accounting scheme for MANETs. We present a detailed description of the proposed scheme and demonstrate its effectiveness via formal proofs and simulation results [15]. We develop a theoretical game model that offers advice to network administrators about the allocation of resources for monitoring mobile nodes. The solution provides the optimal monitoring probability, which discourages nodes from cheating because the gain would be compensated by the penalty.

  9. QoS Routing and Performance Evaluation for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using OLSR Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Amnai, Mohamed; Abouchabaka, Jaafar

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Ad-Hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes in communication without using infrastructure. As the real-time applications used in today's wireless network grow, we need some schemes to provide more suitable service for them. We know that most of actual schemes do not perform well on traffic which is not strictly CBR. Therefore, in this paper we have studied the impact, respectively, of mobility models and the density of nodes on the performances (End-to-End Delay, Throughput and Packet Delivery ratio) of routing protocol (Optimized Link State Routing) OLSR by using in the first a real-time VBR (MPEG-4) and secondly the Constant Bit Rate (CBR) traffic. Finally we compare the performance on both cases. Experimentally, we considered the three mobility models as follows Random Waypoint, Random Direction and Mobgen Steady State. The experimental results illustrate that the behavior of OLSR change according to the model and the used traffics.

  10. Optimal Power Control for Concurrent Transmissions of Location-aware Mobile Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2011-01-01

    In a cognitive radio (CR) network, CR users intend to operate over the same spectrum band licensed to legacy networks. A tradeoff exists between protecting the communications in legacy networks and maximizing the throughput of CR transmissions, especially when CR links are unstable due to the mobility of CR users. Because of the non-zero probability of false detection and implementation complexity of spectrum sensing, in this paper, we investigate a sensing-free spectrum sharing scenario for mobile CR ad hoc networks to improve the frequency reuse by incorporating the location awareness capability in CR networks. We propose an optimal power control algorithm for the CR transmitter to maximize the concurrent transmission region of CR users especially in mobile scenarios. Under the proposed power control algorithm, the mobile CR network achieves maximized throughput without causing harmful interference to primary users in the legacy network. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal power control algori...

  11. O-DSR: OPTIMIZED DSR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rjab Hajlaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. When designing mobile ad hoc networks, several interesting and difficult problems arise because of the shared nature of the wireless medium, limited transmission power (range of wireless devices, node mobility, and battery limitations. This paper aims at providing a new schema to improve Dynamic Source Routing (DSR Protocol. The aim behind the proposed enhancement is to find the best route in acceptable time limit without having broadcast storm. Moreover, O-DSR enables network not only to overcome congestion but also maximize the lifetime of mobile nodes. Some simulations results show that the Route Request (RREQ and the Control Packet Overhead decrease by 15% when O-DSR is used, consequently. Also the global energy consumption in O-DSR is lower until to 60 % , which leads to a long lifetime of the network.

  12. A robust cross-layer metric for routing protocol in mobile wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Chisci, Luigi; Fabbrini, Luca; Giovannetti, Giulio

    2012-12-01

    In a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) where Mobile Nodes (MNs) self-organize to ensure the communication over radio links, routing protocols clearly play a significant role. In future MANETs, protocols should provide routing under full mobility, power constraints, fast time-varying channels, and nodes subject to high loading. In this article, a novel robust routing protocol, named distributed X-layer fastest path (DXFP), is proposed. The protocol is based on a cross-layer metric which is robust against the time-variations of the network as far as topology (mobility), congestion of the nodes and channel quality (fading, power constraints) are concerned. All these features are integrated in a single physical cost, i.e., the network crossing time, which has to be minimized. Furthermore, several routes from source to destination are stored for a given data flow to efficiently face the disconnections which frequently occur in MANETs. It is shown that the DXFP protocol, though locally operating in a fully distributed way within the MNs, provides, for each data flow, the optimum routes according to the considered metric. The DXFP protocol has been compared with two of the most commonly used routing protocols for MANETs, i.e., dynamic source routing and ad hoc on-demand distance vector, showing significant improvements in performance and robustness.

  13. Power Control in Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher HENI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to change the routing strategy of AODV protocol (Ad hoc On Demand Vector inorder to improve the energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET. The purpose is tominimize the regular period of HELLO messages generated by the AODV protocol used for the research,development and maintenance of routes. This information is useful to have an idea about battery powerlevels of different network hosts. After storing this information, the node elect the shortest path followingthe classical model used this information to elect safest path (make a compromise in terms of energy.Transmitter node does not select another node as its battery will be exhausted soon.Any node of the network can have the same information’s about the neighborhoods as well as otherinformation about the energy level of the different terminal to avoid routing using a link that will be lostdue to an exhausted battery of a node in this link.Analytical study and simulations by Jist/SWANS have been conducted to note that no divergencerelatively to the classical AODV, a node can have this type of information that improves the energyefficiency in ad hoc networks.

  14. An Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Cognitive Radio Ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvakanmani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio, an upcoming technology gives the solution for the scarcity of spectrum where the transmitter acts as a sensible device which behaves as per the surrounding environment. A group of devices, which follows this technology, forms a temporary network called mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks. The widely known ad hoc networks are always in moving fashion and there is no need for central abstraction in collecting the data. In such networks, formation of route(s to the destination becomes a leading problem. In Cognitive Radio ad hoc Networks (CRAHNs a challenging problem is to design the routing metric and also to reduce the packet drop. This problem arrives due to the usage of traditional routing in CRAHNs. Opportunistic routing - a new routing paradigm has been used as an alternate for maximizing the packet delivery ratio. The paper discusses about the routing protocol called CRCN CORMEN discusses about packet delivery ratio, reduces delay in a cooperative way among the nodes, when compared to the traditional Cooperative communications. The proposed protocol is evaluated and compared through NS2 simulation. The result indicates a high performance due to opportunistic routing and the evaluation is shown through by using xgraph.

  15. A HYBRID APPROACH FOR NODE CO-OPERATION BASED CLUSTERING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sathiyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is termed as a set of wireless nodes which could be built with infrastructure less environment where network services are afforded by the nodes themselves. In such a situation, if a node refuses to co-operate with other nodes, then it will lead to a considerable diminution in throughput and the network operation decreases to low optimum value. Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs rely on the collaboration of nodes for packet routing ahead. Nevertheless, much of the existing work in MANETs imagines that mobile nodes (probably possessed by selfish users will pursue prearranged protocols without variation. Therefore, implementing the co-operation between the nodes turn out to be an significant issue. The previous work described a secured key model for ad hoc network with efficient node clustering based on reputation and ranking model. But the downside is that the co-operation with the nodes is less results in a communication error. To enhance the security in MANET, in this work, we present a hybrid approach, build a node co-operation among the nodes in MANET by evaluating the weightage of cooperativeness of each node in MANET. With the estimation of normal co-operative nodes, nodes are restructured on its own (self. Then clustering is made with the reorganized nodes to form a secured communication among the nodes in the MANET environment. The Simulation of the proposed Hybrid Approach for Node Cooperation based Clustering (HANCC work is done for varying topology, node size, attack type and intensity with different pause time settings and the performance evaluations are carried over in terms of node cooperativeness, clustering efficiency, communication overhead and compared with an existing secured key model. Compared to an existing secured key model, the proposed HANCC performance is 80-90% high.

  16. Multi-Level Secret Sharing Scheme for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Siva Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are concerned with security for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs using threshold cryptography. When we are applying cryptography to MANETs, key management schemes must provide the cryptographic keys in a secure manner and storing the secret information within the nodes, thwarting the activities of malicious nodes inside a network and is how to distribute the role of the trusted authority among the nodes. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary, ad-hoc network topologies. Secret Sharing Scheme is a method which distributes shares of a secret to a set of participants in such a way that only authorized subset of participants can uniquely reconstruct the secret and an unauthorized subset can get no information about the secret. In this paper we present a new multilevel secret sharing scheme by extending the Shamir’s to the case that the global threshold is strictly greater than the sum of the compartment thresholds and we indicate how to use the threshold secret sharing schemes based on polynomial interpolation. These schemes are based on one-way functions (Discrete Logarithm which are computationally perfect. In the first scheme the number of public shares grows exponentially with the number of participants. To overcome this disadvantage we proposed two efficient schemes in which the number of public shares ate linearly proportional to the number of participants. Both these schemes are similar except that in the third scheme the identities of the participants are also hidden. In this we also addressed the problem of malicious shareholders that aim to corrupt a secret sharing scheme. To prevent such a threat, legitimate shareholders must detect any modification of shares that has not been issued by a node responsible for the sharing of secret S.

  17. AN ENHANCEMENT SCHEME OF TCP PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS: MME-TCP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Caihong; Yu Nenghai; Chen Yuzhong

    2007-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) optimization in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) is a challenging issue because of some unique characteristics of MANETs. In this paper,a new end-to-end mechanism based on multiple metrics measurement is proposed to improve TCP performance in MANETs. Multi-metric Measurement based Enhancement of TCP (MME-TCP)designs the metrics and the identification algorithm according to the characteristics of MANETs and the experiment results. Furthermore, these metrics are measured at the sender node to reduce the overhead of control information over networks. Simulation results show that MME-TCP mechanism achieves a significant performance improvement over standard TCP in MANETs.

  18. AN MAC PROTOCOL SUPPORTING MULTIPLE TRAFFIC OVER MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hui; Li Yingyang; Hu Jiandong; Zhang Ping

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents the design and performance of a multi-channel MAC protocol that supports multiple traffics for IEEE 802.11 mobile ad-hoc networks. The dynamic channel selection scheme by receiver decision is implemented and the number of the data channel is independent of the network topology. The priority for real-time traffic is assured by the proposed adaptive back off algorithm and different IFS. The protocol is evaluated by simulation and the results have shown that it can support multiple traffics and the performance is better than the performance that IEEE 802.11 standard provides.

  19. QDSR: QoS-aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIMinghong; YAOYinxiong; BAIYingcai

    2004-01-01

    QoS routing in wireless ad hoc networks faces many technical challenges due to time varying link and random mobility of nodes in these dynamic networks.In this paper, we design a QoS-aware dynamic source routing protocol (QDSR), based on DSR . QDSR uses minimum cost as the constraint, modifies route discovery, route reply and route maintenance mechanisms in DSR, adds the capability of path testing and initial resource reservation.The results of robustness and stability and performances imulations demonstrate that it suits the fluctuation of dynamic environment very well.

  20. AN MAC PROTOCOL SUPPORTING MULTIPLE TRAFFIC OVER MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianHui; LiYingyang

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents the design and performance of a multi-channel MAC protocol that supports multiple traffics for IEEE 802.11 mobile ad-hoc networks.The dynamic channel selection scheme by receiver decision is implemented and the number of the data channel is independent of the network topology.The priority for real-time traffic is assured by the proposed adaptive back off algorithm and different IFS.The protocol is evaluated by simulation and the results have shown that it can support multiple traffics and the performance is better than the performance that IEEE 802.11 standard provides.

  1. Performance Analysis for Mobile Ad Hoc Network in Random Graph Models with Spatial Reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-xing Wang; Xi Hu; Qin Zhang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we present a random graph model with spatial reuse for a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) based on the dynamic source routing protocol.Many important performance parameters of the MANET are obtained,such as the average flooding distance (AFD),the probability generating function of the flooding distance,and the probability of a flooding route to be symmetric.Compared with the random graph model without spatial reuse,this model is much more effective because it has a smaller value of AFD and a larger probability for finding a symmetric valid route.

  2. Hardware in Loop Simulation for Emergency Communication Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jie; AN Jian-ping; LIU Heng

    2007-01-01

    For the research of mobile Ad hoc network (MANET), hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) is introduced to improve simulation fidelity. The architectures and frameworks of HILS system are discussed. Based on HILS and QualNet network simulator, two kinds of simulation frameworks for MANET multicast emergency communicati on network are proposed. By running simulation under this configuration and doing experiments with on-demand multicast routing protocol (ODMRP), unicast and multicast functions of this protocol are tested. Research results indicate that HILS method can effectively reduce the difficulty of system modeling and improve precision of simulation, and can further accelerate transition from design to system deployment.

  3. A QoS Aware Service Composition Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Song-qiao; ZHANG Shen-sheng; ZHANG Yong; CAO Jian

    2008-01-01

    A novel decentralized service composition protocol was presented based on quality of service (QoS) for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). A service composition in MANETs is considered as a service path discovery in a service network. Based on the concept of source routing, the protocol integrates route discovery, service discovery and service composition and utilizes a constrained flooding approach to discover the optimal service path. A service path maintenance mechanism was exploited to recover broken service paths. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the proposed protocol outperforms existing service composition protocols.

  4. A Review of Current Routing Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Hafeez Khokhar; Md. Asri Ngadi; Satria Mandala

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic wireless network that can be formed without any pre-existing infrastructure in which each node can act as a router. MANET has no clear line of defense, so, it is accessible to both legitimate network users and malicious attackers. In the presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challenges in MANET is to design the robust security solution that can protect MANET from various routing attacks. Different mechanisms have been proposed using various ...

  5. How to Minimize the Energy Consumption in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Idrissi,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we are interested in the problem of energy management in Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET. The solving and optimization of MANET allow assisting the users to efficiently use their devices in order to minimize the batteries power consumption. In this framework, we propose a modelling of the MANET in form of a Constraint Optimization Problem called COMANET. Then, in the objective to minimize the consumption of batteries power, we present an approach based on an adaptation of the Dijkstra’s algorithm to the MANET problem called MANED. Finally, we expose some experimental results showing utility of this approach.

  6. An Assessment of Worm Hole attack over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network as serious threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar Upadhyay

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Now these day Mobile Ad hoc networks vulnerable from number of security threats like black hole attack, DOS attack, Byzantine attack and wormhole attack. Wormhole attack is one of most important attack and having great attention in recent year. Wormhole attack, demonstrate a illusion over the network that show two far away node to be an neighbor node and attracted all traffic by presenting an greediness of shortest path over the network. This paper presents a bird eye over different existing wormhole deduction mechanism and their problem.

  7. A Novel Architecture for Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Patel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s wireless networks are vulnerable in many ways including illegal use, unauthorized access, denial of service attacks, eavesdropping so called war chalking. These problems are one of the main issues for wider uses of wireless network. On wired network intruder can access by wire but in wireless it has possibilities to access the computer anywhere in neighborhood. However, securing MANETs is highly challenging issue due to their inherent characteristics. Intrusion detection is an important security mechanism, but little effort has been directed towards efficient and effective architectures for Intrusion Detection System in the context of MANETs. We investigate existing Intrusion Detection Architecture design Issues, challenges and proposed a novel architecture based on a conceptual model for an IDS agent that lead to a secure collaboration environment integrating mobile ad hoc network and the wired backbone. In wireless/mobile ad hoc network, the limited power, weak computation capabilities of mobile nodes, and restricted bandwidth of the open media impede the establishment of a secure collaborative environment.

  8. A Novel Approach for Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Network with an Enhanced Trust Calculation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chauhan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Adhoc Network is a group of wireless mobile computers in which nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow them to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Due to wide-ranging characteristics of the Ad Hoc Networks like decentralization, dynamic topology and neighbor based routing, it is always at a risk to internal as well as external attacks. In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET where security is a crucial issue, trust plays an important factor that could improve the number of successful data transmission process. Many solutions have been proposed by the reaearchers and currently being improved in this area. Most of them are designed to operate in specific particular situations, which may fail to work successfully in other scenarios. The aim of this present work is to emphasize on the use of trust concept to enhance the security by calculating proportion based trust in a global manner. The present work offers an alternate to improve the trustworthiness of the neighbourhood and secure the routing procedure. It helps in computing the trust in neighbours and selecting the most secure route from the available ones for the data transfer. In the proposed model, trust is not calculated for any particular situation instead, it is computed based on a summary of behaviour of the node for a specific amount of period.

  9. Performance Analysis of TORA & DSR Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D GEETHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new routing philosophy that provides a scalable solution to relatively large network topologies. The design follows the idea that each node tries to reduce routing overhead by sending routing packets whenever a communication is requested. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent on demand reactive routing protocols for MANETs: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocols. This subjected the protocols to identical loads and environmental conditions and evaluates their relative performance with respect to quantitative metrics; throughput, average delay, packet delivery ratio and routing load. From the detailed simulation results and analysis of presented, we use NS-2 simulator for simulation of DSR and TORA protocol and variation occurs in mobility of packets, time interval between the packets sent and packet size of packets sent in throughout the protocols.

  10. On Protocols to Prevent Black Hole Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless or Mobile Networks emerged to replace the wired networks. The new generation of wireless network is relatively different than the comparisons of traditional wired network in many aspects like resource sharing, power usage, reliability, efficient, ease to handle, network infrastructure and routing protocols, etc. Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs are autonomous and decentralized wireless systems. MANETs consist of mobile nodes that are free in moving in and out in the network. There is an increasing threat of attacks on the MANET. Thus, in MANET black hole attack are mostly serious security attacks. In this paper, we have examined certain black hole attacks prevention routing protocols. Finally, we have compared some routing protocols using some important parameters and then addressed major issues related to this.

  11. Lowest-ID with Adaptive ID Reassignment: A Novel Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Clustering Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Gavalas, Damianos; Konstantopoulos, Charalampos; Mamalis, Basilis

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is a promising approach for building hierarchies and simplifying the routing process in mobile ad-hoc network environments. The main objective of clustering is to identify suitable node representatives, i.e. cluster heads (CHs), to store routing and topology information and maximize clusters stability. Traditional clustering algorithms suggest CH election exclusively based on node IDs or location information and involve frequent broadcasting of control packets, even when network topology remains unchanged. More recent works take into account additional metrics (such as energy and mobility) and optimize initial clustering. However, in many situations (e.g. in relatively static topologies) re-clustering procedure is hardly ever invoked; hence initially elected CHs soon reach battery exhaustion. Herein, we introduce an efficient distributed clustering algorithm that uses both mobility and energy metrics to provide stable cluster formations. CHs are initially elected based on the time and cost-efficien...

  12. Performance optimisation through EPT-WBC in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ratish; Gupta, Roopam; Motwani, Mahesh

    2016-03-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are self-organised, infrastructure-less networks in which each mobile host works as a router to provide connectivity within the network. Nodes out of reach to each other can communicate with the help of intermediate routers (nodes). Routing protocols are the rules which determine the way in which these routing activities are to be performed. In cluster-based architecture, some selected nodes (clusterheads) are identified to bear the extra burden of network activities like routing. Selection of clusterheads is a critical issue which significantly affects the performance of the network. This paper proposes an enhanced performance and trusted weight-based clustering approach in which a number of performance factors such as trust, load balancing, energy consumption, mobility and battery power are considered for the selection of clusterheads. Moreover, the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with other existing approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness of the work.

  13. Intrusion Detection In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using GA Based Feature Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Nallusamy, R; Duraiswamy, K

    2009-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) has become an exciting and important technology in recent years because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices. MANETs are highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology and lack of centralized monitoring point. It is important to search new architecture and mechanisms to protect the wireless networks and mobile computing application. IDS analyze the network activities by means of audit data and use patterns of well-known attacks or normal profile to detect potential attacks. There are two methods to analyze: misuse detection and anomaly detection. Misuse detection is not effective against unknown attacks and therefore, anomaly detection method is used. In this approach, the audit data is collected from each mobile node after simulating the attack and compared with the normal behavior of the system. If there is any deviation from normal behavior then the event is considered as an attack. Some of the features of collected audi...

  14. Fuzzy Logic QoS Dynamic Source Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu; CHENG Sheng; FENG Mei-yu; DING Wei

    2004-01-01

    Considering the characters of dynamic topology and the imprecise state information in mobile ad hoc network,we propose a Fuzzy Logic QoS Dynamic Source Routing (FLQDSR) algorithm based on Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)protocol while adopting fuzzy logic to select the appropriate QoS routing in multiple paths which are searched in parallel.This scheme considers not only the bandwidth and end-to-end delay of routing, but also the cost of the path. On the other hand the merit of using fuzzy logic is that it can be implemented by hardware. This makes the realization of the scheme easier and faster. However our algorithm is based on DSR, the maximal hop count should be less than 10, i.e., the scale of mobile ad hoc network should not be very large. Simulation results show that FLQDSR can tolerate a high degree of information imprecision by adding the fuzzy logic module which integrates the QoS requirements of application and the routing QoS parameters to determine the most qualified one in every node.

  15. Mobile Database Application in Ad Hoc Network%Ad Hoc网中的移动数据库应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范俊; 李晓宇

    2012-01-01

    As a result that the traditional mobile database model can not adapt to the actual situation of Ad Hoc network, this paper improves the traditional mobile database model with adding a local server as the agent to adapt to the situation of Ad Hoc network, forming the mobile database model which comprises mobile computer, local server and master server. Furthermore, two algorithms which are used to solve problems of transactions redoing and data synchronization between local server and master server are proposed, so that mobile computer can access database efficiently and correctly. Experimental results show that mobile database model can gain good stability.%传统的移动数据库模型应用到Ad Hoc网中,会带来通信代价增大等问题.为此,对传统的移动数据库模型进行改进,加入本地服务器作为中介,形成由移动主机、本地服务器和主服务器3类结点构成的移动数据库模型,并提出2个算法用来解决模型中本地服务器与主服务器上的数据同步和事务重做问题,从而使移动主机能够高效正确地访问数据库.实验结果证明,该移动数据库模型具有较好的稳定性.

  16. Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks%移动Ad Hoc网络中的安全问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓妍

    2004-01-01

    移动自组网(Mobile Ad HoC Network)是一种无基础设施的无线网络由于它具有开放的媒质、分布式的合作、动态的拓扑结构和受限的网络能力等特点,所以特别容易受到攻击.为此文章结合移动Ad Hoc网络的特点分析了移动Ad Hoc网络面临的安全威胁,并对移动Ad Hoc网络的安全路由和安全报文传送问题进行了详细讨论.

  17. Link Stability and Node Energy Conscious Local Route-Repair Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A mobile ad hoc network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. As the nodes are free to move randomly, topology of the network may change rapidly and unpredictably. As a result, intermediate nodes in the communication routes tend to lose connection with each other during the communication process. In order to repair a broken link, an end-to-end (from source to destination route discovery is typically performed to establish a new route for communication. The mechanism results in huge communication overhead and long delay in completion of the communication. So, it is rational to locally repair a link, as much as possible, than to discover a whole new route. Approach: In the present article, we proposed a Link Stability and Node Energy Conscious (LSNEC local route repair scheme for mobile ad hoc networks. In case of breakage of a link from node na to another node nb in between a communication session, LSNEC instructs na to broadcast a ROUTE-REPAIR message within its radio-range specifying nb or any successor of nb in the broken route, as a desirable destination. If any node residing within the radio-range of na has an already established single/multi-hop path to any one of those destinations mentioned in the ROUTE-REPAIR message, it sends a REPAIR-ACK message back to na. Attributes of REPAIR-ACK include the identification number (s of the destination (s as well as identification numbers, geographical positions (in terms of latitude and longitude, radio-ranges and residual energies of nodes present in the associated path to that destination along with the intuitively computed stability of links between the consecutive nodes. The stability is computed depending upon relative velocities of the involved nodes, distance between them and the history of survival of the link. The optimal path is chosen depending upon the residual energy of nodes, stability of links and number of hops in that path

  18. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Harold Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique.

  19. Improve Performance of TCP New Reno Over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Using ABRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Bisen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In a mobile ad hoc network, temporary link failures and route changes occur frequently. With theassumption that all packet losses are due to congestion, TCP performs poorly in such an environment.There are many versions of TCP which modified time to time as per need. In this paper modificationsintroduced on TCP New Reno over mobile ad-hoc networks using calculation of New RetransmissionTime out (RTO, to improve performance in term of congestion control. To calculate New RTO, adaptivebackoff response approach (ABRA in TCP New Reno was applied which suggest ABRA New Reno. Itutilizes an ABRA by which congestion window and slow start threshold values were decreased wheneveran acknowledgement is received and new backoff value calculate from smoothed round trip time.Evaluation based on comparative study of ABRA New Reno with other TCP Variants like New Reno andReno was done using realistic parameters like TCP Packet Received, Packet Drop, Packets Retransmitted,Throughput, and Packet Delivery Ratio calculated by varying attributes of Node Speed, Number of Nodesand Pause Time. Implementation and simulations were performed in QualNet 4.0 simulator.

  20. A Secure 3-Way Routing Protocols for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET. The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.

  1. An Optimal Path Management Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Fuzzy and Rough Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Seethalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically forms a network. Most of the existing ad-hoc routing algorithms select the shortest path using various resources. However the selected path may not consider all the network parameters and this would result in link instability in the network. The problems with existing methods are frequent route change with respect to change in topology, congestion as result of traffic and battery limitations since its an infrastructure less network. Approach: To overcome these problems an optimal path management approach called path vector calculation based on fuzzy and rough set theory were addressed. The ultimate intend of this study is to select the qualified path based on power consumption in the node, number of internodes and traffic load in the network. Simple rules were generated using fuzzy and rough set techniques for calculating path vector and to remove irrelevant attributes (resources for evaluating the best routing. The set of rules were evaluated with proactive and reactive protocols namely DSDV, AODV and DSR in the NS-2 simulation environment based on metrics such as total energy consumed, throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay. Results: The results have shown that in MANET, decision rules with fuzzy and rough set technique has provided qualified path based best routing. Conclusion: The network life time and performance of reactive and proactive protocols in MANET has improved with fuzzy and rough set based decision rules.

  2. Efficient Resource Conservation Design in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Reactive Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sujitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is a compilation of wireless mobile terminals that are in contact with each other in the absence of a permanent infrastructure network. This gives a irregular formation. Many resources like power, energy, reliable data delivery and end to end delay plays a significant role in the network. But due to the dynamic movement of nodes, power management and energy conservation stands as a critical area. This is also due to the limited battery power and the maximum utilization of power by the nodes in the network .The responsibility of saving power has increased and it is possible byminimizing the consumption during the routing process. It is done in order to expand the lifetime of the network. In view of such a vital position, we introduce a new algorithm using an MAODV( Modified AdHoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol protocol which exactly concentrates on power awareness at the time of route selection. Power status of each and every node is observed to avoid excess consumption. It also makes sure that there is a rise in the speed of route selection and discovery process. Route Patch-Up scheme used in this algorithm results in optimum utilization of power using an Modified AODV (MAODV protocol. Thus the idea proposed provides better performance through simulation over NS2.

  3. Improve performance of tcp new reno over mobile ad-hoc network using abra

    CERN Document Server

    Bisen, Dhananjay

    2011-01-01

    In a mobile ad hoc network, temporary link failures and route changes occur frequently. With the assumption that all packet losses are due to congestion, TCP performs poorly in such an environment. There are many versions of TCP which modified time to time as per need. In this paper modifications introduced on TCP New Reno over mobile ad-hoc networks using calculation of New Retransmission Time out (RTO), to improve performance in term of congestion control. To calculate New RTO, adaptive backoff response approach (ABRA) in TCP New Reno was applied which suggest ABRA New Reno. It utilizes an ABRA by which congestion window and slow start threshold values were decreased whenever an acknowledgement is received and new backoff value calculate from smoothed round trip time. Evaluation based on comparative study of ABRA New Reno with other TCP Variants like New Reno and Reno was done using realistic parameters like TCP Packet Received, Packet Drop, Packets Retransmitted, Throughput, and Packet Delivery Ratio calcu...

  4. An Overview of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for the Existing Protocols and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Omari, Saleh Ali K; 10.5121/jgraphhoc.2010.2107

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of two or more devices or nodes or terminals with wireless communications and networking capability that communicate with each other without the aid of any centralized administrator also the wireless nodes that can dynamically form a network to exchange information without using any existing fixed network infrastructure. And it's an autonomous system in which mobile hosts connected by wireless links are free to be dynamically and some time act as routers at the same time, and we discuss in this paper the distinct characteristics of traditional wired networks, including network configuration may change at any time, there is no direction or limit the movement and so on, and thus needed a new optional path Agreement (Routing Protocol) to identify nodes for these actions communicate with each other path, An ideal choice way the agreement should not only be able to find the right path, and the Ad Hoc Network must be able to adapt to changing network of this type at any...

  5. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Y Harold; Rajaram, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique. PMID:26819966

  6. A secure 3-way routing protocols for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, Ramesh; Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET. PMID:25136697

  7. Directed Dynamic Small-World Network Model for Worm Epidemics in Mobile ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chen-Ping; WANG Li; LIU Xiao-Ting; YAN Zhi-Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the worm spreading process in mobile ad hoc networks with a susceptible-infected-recovered model on a two-dimensional plane.A medium access control mechanism operates within it,inhibiting transmission and relaying a message by using other nodes inside the node's transmitting circle during speaking.We measure the rewiring probability p with the transmitting range r and the average relative velocity (v) of the moving nodes,and map the problem into a directed dynamic small-world network.A new scaling relation for the recovered portion of the nodes reveals the effect caused by geometric distance,which has been ignored by previous models.%We investigate the worm spreading process in mobile ad hoc networks with a susceptible-infected-recovered model on a two-dimensional plane. A medium access control mechanism operates within it, inhibiting transmission and relaying a message by using other nodes inside the node's transmitting circle during speaking. We measure the rewiring probability p with the transmitting range r and the average relative velocity (v) of the moving nodes, and map the problem into a directed dynamic small-world network. A new scaling relation for the recovered portion of the nodes reveals the effect caused by geometric distance, which has been ignored by previous models.

  8. Analyzing Video Streaming Quality by Using Various Error Correction Methods on Mobile Ad hoc Networks in NS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norrozila Sulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission video over ad hoc networks has become one of the most important and interesting subjects of study for researchers and programmers because of the strong relationship between video applications and frequent users of various mobile devices, such as laptops, PDAs, and mobile phones in all aspects of life. However, many challenges, such as packet loss, congestion (i.e., impairments at the network layer, multipath fading (i.e., impairments at the physical layer [1], and link failure, exist in transferring video over ad hoc networks; these challenges negatively affect the quality of the perceived video [2].This study has investigated video transfer over ad hoc networks. The main challenges of transferring video over ad hoc networks as well as types of errors that may occur during video transmission, various types of video mechanisms, error correction methods, and different Quality of Service (QoS parameters that affect the quality of the received video are also investigated.

  9. Comparative Analysis of AODV, OLSR, TORA, DSR and DSDV Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilpreet Kaur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs are autonomous and decentralized wireless systems. Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of mobile nodes in which the wireless links are frequently broken down due to mobility and dynamic infrastructure. Routing is a significant issue and challenge in ad hoc networks. Many Routing protocols have been proposed so far to improve the routing performance and reliability. This research paper describes the characteristics of ad hoc routing protocols Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Optimized link State Routing (OLSR, Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV based on the performance metrics like packet delivery fraction, Average delay, Normalized Routing load, Throughput and Jitter under low mobility and low traffic network as well as under high mobility and high traffic network. Results show that AODV has maximum throughput under low traffic and DSDV has maximum throughput under high traffic. As network becomes dense OLSR, DSR and DSDV perform well in terms of Throughput than AODV and TORA. TORA performs well in dense networks in terms of packet delivery fraction but at the same time Normalized Routing load of TORA is maximum among all the protocols in both the networks. DSDV has least Normalized Routing load in both low and high traffic. OLSR and DSDV give the least Jitter and Average Delay in both networks.

  10. Link reliability based hybrid routing for tactical mobile ad hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xiaochuan; Wei Gang; Wu Keping; Wang Gang; Jia Shilou

    2008-01-01

    Tactical mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network,without the aid of pre-established network infrastructure. The routing protocol has a crucial impact on the networkperformance in battlefields. Link reliability based hybrid routing (LRHR) is proposed, which is a novel hybrid routing protocol, for tactical MANET. Contrary to the traditional single path routing strategy, multiple paths are established between a pair of source-destination nodes. In the hybrid routing strategy, the rate of topological change provides a natural mechanism for switching dynamically between table-driven and on-demand routing. The simulation results indicate that the performances of the protocol in packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and average end-to-end delay are better than the conventional routing protocol.

  11. An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Srivastava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A MANET is a collection of mobile nodes communicating and cooperating with each other to route a packet from the source to their destinations. A MANET is used to support dynamic routing strategies in absence of wired infrastructure and centralized administration. In this paper, we propose a routing algorithm for the mobile ad hoc networks based on fuzzy logic to discover an optimal route for transmitting data packets to the destination. This protocol helps every node in MANET to choose next efficient successor node on the basis of channel parameters like environment noise and signal strength. The protocol improves the performance of a route by increasing network life time, reducing link failure and selecting best node for forwarding the data packet to next node

  12. An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Srivastava

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A MANET is a collection of mobile nodes communicating and cooperating with each other to route a packet from the source to their destinations. A MANET is used to support dynamic routing strategies in absence of wired infrastructure and centralized administration. In this paper, we propose a routing algorithm for the mobile ad hoc networks based on fuzzy logic to discover an optimal route for transmitting data packets to the destination. This protocol helps every node in MANET to choose next efficient successor node on the basis of channel parameters like environment noise and signal strength. The protocol improves the performance of a route by increasing network life time, reducing link failure and selecting best node for forwarding the data packet to next node.

  13. A Robust and Efficient Node Authentication Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Design of an efficient and reliable node authentication protocol for such networks is a particularly challenging task since the nodes are battery-driven and resource constrained. This paper presents a robust and efficient key exchange protocol for nodes authentication in a MANET based on multi-path communication. Simulation results demonstrate that the protocol is effective even in presence of large fraction of malicious nodes in the network. Moreover, it has a minimal computation and communication overhead that makes it ideally suitable for MANETs.

  14. A Leasing Model to Deal with Partial Failures in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Boix, Elisa; van Cutsem, Tom; Vallejos, Jorge; de Meuter, Wolfgang; D'Hondt, Theo

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) many partial failures are the result of temporary network partitions due to the intermittent connectivity of mobile devices. Some of these failures will be permanent and require application-level failure handling. However, it is impossible to distinguish a permanent from a transient failure. Leasing provides a solution to this problem based on the temporal restriction of resources. But to date no leasing model has been designed specifically for MANETs. In this paper, we identify three characteristics required for a leasing model to be usable in a MANET, discuss the issues with existing leasing models and then propose the leased object references model, which integrates leasing with remote object references. In addition, we describe an implementation of the model in the programming language AmbientTalk. Leased object references provide an extensible framework that allows programmers to express their own leasing patterns and enables both lease holders (clients) and lease grantors (services) to deal with permanent failures.

  15. A Survey of TCP Reno, New Reno and Sack Over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Md Nazmul Islam; Aziz, Md Tariq

    2012-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is often preferred to be implemented at the transport layer of a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) because of its wide range of applications, which enjoys the advantage of reliable data transmission in the Internet. However, because of some unique characteristics of MANET, TCP cannot offer reliable services while using e-mail, internet search and file transmission in such a network. The research investigates how well the different versions of TCP respond to various performance differentials when subjected to different network stresses and topology changes, aside from identifying the most efficient and robust TCP version(s) for different MANET scenarios. Among several TCP variants, three types are considered important for the analysis, namely TCP Reno, TCP New Reno and TCP Selective Acknowledgment (SACK). In most cases, the TCP performance is found in our study to decrease when the node size and mobility rate is increased in the network. There is, however, exception to this. As ...

  16. Implementation and performance evaluation of mobile ad hoc network for Emergency Telemedicine System in disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Kim, D Y; Jung, S M; Lee, M H; Kim, K S; Lee, C K; Nah, J Y; Lee, S H; Kim, J H; Choi, W J; Yoo, S K

    2009-01-01

    So far we have developed Emergency Telemedicine System (ETS) which is a robust system using heterogeneous networks. In disaster areas, however, ETS cannot be used if the primary network channel is disabled due to damages on the network infrastructures. Thus we designed network management software for disaster communication network by combination of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) and Wireless LAN (WLAN). This software maintains routes to a Backbone Gateway Node in dynamic network topologies. In this paper, we introduce the proposed disaster communication network with management software, and evaluate its performance using ETS between Medical Center and simulated disaster areas. We also present the results of network performance analysis which identifies the possibility of actual Telemedicine Service in disaster areas via MANET and mobile network (e.g. HSDPA, WiBro). PMID:19964544

  17. Effective route maintenance and restoration schemes in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung-Seok; Ko, In-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a location-based hybrid routing protocol to improve data packet delivery and to reduce control message overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. In mobile environments, where nodes move continuously at a high speed, it is generally difficult to maintain and restore route paths. Therefore, this study suggests a new flooding mechanism to control route paths. The essence of the proposed scheme is its effective tracking of the destination's location based on the beacon messages of the main route nodes. Through experiments based on an NS-2 simulator, the proposed scheme shows improvements in the data packet delivery ratio and reduces the amount of routing control message overhead compared with existing routing protocols such as AODV, LAR, ZRP and AODV-DFR. PMID:22315570

  18. Secure neighborhood discovery: A fundamental element for mobile ad hoc networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadimitratos, P.; Poturalski, M.; Schaller, P.;

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive computing systems will likely be deployed in the near future, with the proliferation of wireless devices and the emergence of ad hoc networking as key enablers. Coping with mobility and the volatility of wireless communications in such systems is critical. Neighborhood discovery (ND......) - the discovery of devices directly reachable for communication or in physical proximity - becomes a fundamental requirement and building block for various applications. However, the very nature of wireless mobile networks makes it easy to abuse ND and thereby compromise the overlying protocols and applications....... Thus, providing methods to mitigate this vulnerability and secure ND is crucial. In this article we focus on this problem and provide definitions of neighborhood types and ND protocol properties, as well as a broad classification of attacks. Our ND literature survey reveals that securing ND is indeed...

  19. A Survey of Routing Attacks and Security Measures in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Sudhir; Sharma, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a set of mobile nodes which are self-configuring and connected by wireless links automatically as per the defined routing protocol. The absence of a central management agency or a fixed infrastructure is a key feature of MANETs. These nodes communicate with each other by interchange of packets, which for those nodes not in wireless range goes hop by hop. Due to lack of a defined central authority, securitizing the routing process becomes a challenging task thereby leaving MANETs vulnerable to attacks, which results in deterioration in the performance characteristics as well as raises a serious question mark about the reliability of such networks. In this paper we have attempted to present an overview of the routing protocols, the known routing attacks and the proposed countermeasures to these attacks in various works.

  20. Performance Analysis Of Broadcasting In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Cluster Approch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Sivaganesan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasting is a fundamental service in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs. Cluster based approach are proposed in literature to reduce the network co llision, to reduce delay of packet transmission, to reduce the energy consumption and improves the thro ughput. In this paper, a cluster- based infrastructure is proposed for broadcasting in MANE Ts. The backbone of the network takes advantage of the cluster structure and only requires cluster- he ads and some selected gateways to forward the broadcast packet. Each cluster head selects some ga teways to forward the packet when it sends the packet to all the cluster heads in its coverage set . Cluster structures have been simulated using mobi le simulator Glomosim 2.03, which gives better perform ance to reduce the network collision, to reduce delay of packet transmission, to reduce the energy consumption and improves the throughput.

  1. A Survey on Attacks and Defense Metrics of Routing Mechanism in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.Manikandan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a dynamic wireless network that can be formed infrastructure less connections in which each node can act as a router. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. In the presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challenges in MANET is to design the robust security solution that can protect MANET from various routing attacks. Different mechanisms have been proposed using various cryptographic techniques to countermeasure the routing attacks against MANET. As a result, attacks with malicious intent have been and will be devised to exploit these vulnerabilities and to cripple the MANET operations. Attack prevention measures, such as authentication and encryption, can be used as the first line of defense for reducing the possibilities of attacks. However, these mechanisms are not suitable for MANET resource constraints, i.e., limited bandwidth and battery power, because they introduce heavy traffic load to exchange and verifying keys. In this paper, we identify the existent security threats an ad hoc network faces, the security services required to be achieved and the countermeasures for attacks in routing protocols. To accomplish our goal, we have done literature survey in gathering information related to various types of attacks and solutions. Finally, we have identified the challenges and proposed solutions to overcome them. In our survey, we focus on the findings and related works from which to provide secure protocols for MANETs. However, in short, we can say that the complete security solution requires the prevention, detection and reaction mechanisms applied in MANET.

  2. MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION CODE BASED SECURE GROUP KEY MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Peer Meera Labbai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is a group of nodes which are communicating with each other with the use of radio frequencies. When there is high movement of mobile nodes, the nodes find difficult to reach other nodes. If the data are exchanged between nodes when there is high mobility, the data may be lost in transit. Therefore the security of data is needed for the transmission of data. Since the high dense of mobile nodes we cannot give better security, the mobile nodes must be formed as groups. For providing security, there are pre-requirements like key establishment, key agreement and key management and so on. Then these keys are used in the encryption/decryption algorithms such as symmetric key algorithms and asymmetric key algorithms. For this study, we have taken VBOR as the base protocol. VBOR consists of two phases namely, Route discovery and Route maintenance with the use of variable bit rate. In this study, the message authentication code is generated during route discovery phase then these data are exchanged between the nodes. In this proposed work, the performance analysis is done using some performance parameters like energy consumption, packet delivery ratio, overhead and delay.

  3. A communication theoretical analysis of FRET-based mobile ad hoc molecular nanonetworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscu, Murat; Akan, Ozgur B

    2014-09-01

    Nanonetworks refer to a group of nanosized machines with very basic operational capabilities communicating to each other in order to accomplish more complex tasks such as in-body drug delivery, or chemical defense. Realizing reliable and high-rate communication between these nanomachines is a fundamental problem for the practicality of these nanonetworks. Recently, we have proposed a molecular communication method based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) which is a nonradiative excited state energy transfer phenomenon observed among fluorescent molecules, i.e., fluorophores. We have modeled the FRET-based communication channel considering the fluorophores as single-molecular immobile nanomachines, and shown its reliability at high rates, and practicality at the current stage of nanotechnology. In this study, for the first time in the literature, we investigate the network of mobile nanomachines communicating through FRET. We introduce two novel mobile molecular nanonetworks: FRET-based mobile molecular sensor/actor nanonetwork (FRET-MSAN) which is a distributed system of mobile fluorophores acting as sensor or actor node; and FRET-based mobile ad hoc molecular nanonetwork (FRET-MAMNET) which consists of fluorophore-based nanotransmitter, nanoreceivers and nanorelays. We model the single message propagation based on birth-death processes with continuous time Markov chains. We evaluate the performance of FRET-MSAN and FRET-MAMNET in terms of successful transmission probability and mean extinction time of the messages, system throughput, channel capacity and achievable communication rates. PMID:25014963

  4. ON THE PROBABILITY OF K-CONNECTIVITY IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS UNDER DIFFERENT MOBILITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare the probability of k-Connectivity of an ad hoc network under Random Way Point (RWP,City Section and Manhattan mobility models. A Network is said to be k-Connected if there exists at least kedge disjoint paths between any pair of nodes in that network at any given time and velocity. Initially, foreach of the three mobility models, the movement of the each node in the ad hoc network at a givenvelocity and time are captured and stored in the Node Movement Database (NMDB. Using themovements in the NMDB, the location of the node at a given time is computed and stored in the NodeLocation Database (NLDB. A weighted graph is created using the location of the nodes from NLDB,which is converted into a residual graph. The k-Connectivity of this residual graph is obtained by runningFord-Fulkerson’s algorithm on it. Ford Fulkerson’s algorithm computes the maximum flow of a networkby recording the flows assigned to different routes from each node to all the other nodes in the network.When run for a particular source-destination pair (s, d pair on a residual network graph with unit edgeweights as capacity, the maximum flow determined by Ford-Fulkerson’ algorithm is the number of edgedisjoint s-d paths on the network graph. Simulations show that the RWP model yields the highestprobability of k-Connectivity compared to City Section and Manhattan mobility models for a majority ofdifferent node densities and velocities considered. Simulation results also show that, for all the threemobility models, as the k value increases, the probability of k-Connectivity decreases for a given densityand velocity and as the density increases the probability of k-Connectivity increases.

  5. Power control in reactive routing protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Heni, Maher

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to change the routing strategy of AODV protocol (Ad hoc On Demand Vector) in order to improve the energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The purpose is to minimize the regular period of HELLO messages generated by the AODV protocol used for the research, development and maintenance of routes. This information is useful to have an idea about battery power levels of different network hosts. After storing this information, the node elect the shortest path following the classical model used this information to elect safest path (make a compromise) in terms of energy. Transmitter node does not select another node as its battery will be exhausted soon. Any node of the network can have the same information's about the neighborhoods as well as other information about the energy level of the different terminal to avoid routing using a link that will be lost due to an exhausted battery of a node in this link. Analytical study and simulations by Jist/SWANS have been conducted to no...

  6. A Mechanism for Detection of Cooperative Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip; Ukil, Arijit

    2011-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connections in a decentralized manner. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms,absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Most of the routing protocols for MANETs are thus vulnerable to various types of attacks. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) is a very popular routing algorithm. However, it is vulnerable to the well-known black hole attack, where a malicious node falsely advertises good paths to a destination node during the route discovery process. This attack becomes more sever when a group of malicious nodes cooperate each other. In this paper, a defense mechanism is presented against a coordinated attack by multiple black hole nodes in a MANET. The simulation carried out on the propose...

  7. Trusted Routing Based on Dynamic Trust Mechanism in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sancheng; Jia, Weijia; Wang, Guojun; Wu, Jie; Guo, Minyi

    Due to the distributed nature, mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are vulnerable to various attacks, resulting in distrusted communications. To achieve trusted communications, it is important to build trusted routes in routing algorithms in a self-organizing and decentralized fashion. This paper proposes a trusted routing to locate and to preserve trusted routes in MANETs. Instead of using a hard security mechanism, we employ a new dynamic trust mechanism based on multiple constraints and collaborative filtering. The dynamic trust mechanism can effectively evaluate the trust and obtain the precise trust value among nodes, and can also be integrated into existing routing protocols for MANETs, such as ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) and dynamic source routing (DSR). As an example, we present a trusted routing protocol, based on dynamic trust mechanism, by extending DSR, in which a node makes a routing decision based on the trust values on its neighboring nodes, and finally, establish a trusted route through the trust values of the nodes along the route in MANETs. The effectiveness of our approach is validated through extensive simulations.

  8. Distinguishing congestion from malicious behavior in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2004-08-01

    Packet dropping in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks could be a result of wireless link errors, congestion, or malicious packet drop attack. Current techniques for detecting malicious behavior either do not consider congestion in the network or are not able to detect in real time. Further more, they usually work at network layer. In this paper, we propose a TCP-Manet protocol, which reacts to congestion like TCP Reno protocol, and has additional capability to distinguish among congestion, wireless link error, and malicious packet drop attack. It is an end-to-end mechanism that does not require additional modifications to the nodes in the network. Since it is an extension of existing TCP protocol, it is compatible with existing protocols. It works in conjunction with the network layer and an unobtrusive monitor to assist the network in the detection and characterization of the nature of the behavior. Experimental results show that TCP-Manet has the same performance as that of TCP-Reno in wired network, and performs better in wireless ad-hoc networks in terms of throughput while having good detection effectiveness.

  9. SIMULATION STUDY OF BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN THE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEENU SHARMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad hoc network is a temporary network set up by wireless nodes usually moving randomly and communicating without a network infrastructure. Due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, however, wireless ad hoc networks may be unprotected against attacks by the malicious nodes. In this study we investigated the effects of Blackhole attacks on the network performance. We simulated Blackhole attacks in Qualnet Simulator and measured the packet loss in the network with and without a blackhole. The simulation is done on AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. The network performance in the presence of a blackhole is reduced up to 26%.

  10. QOS Routing and Performance Evaluation for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using OLSR Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amnai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc network is a collection of mobile nod es in communication without using infrastructure. As the real-time applications used in today’s wirel ess network grow, we need some schemes to provide more suitable service for them. We know that most o f actual schemes do not perform well on traffic whi ch is not strictly CBR. Therefore, in this paper we ha ve studied the impact, respectively, of mobility mo dels and the density of nodes on the performances (End-t o-End Delay, Throughput and Packet Delivery ratio of routing protocol (Optimized Link State Routing OLSR by using in the first a real-time VBR (MPEG-4 and secondly the Constant Bit Rate (CBR traffic. F inally we compare the performance on both cases. Experimentally, we considered the three mobility mo dels as follows Random Waypoint, Random Direction and Mobgen Steady State. The experimental results illustrate that the behavior of OLSR chang e according to the model and the used traffics.

  11. Distributed Hash Tables for Peer-to-Peer Mobile Ad-hoc Networks with Security Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Paul Millar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Serverless distributed computing, especially Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs have received significant attention from the research community. Peer-to-peer overlay networks have the potential to accommodate large-scale, decentralised applications that can be integrated into a MANET architecture to enable peer-to-peer communication among different mobile peers. These overlay architectures must be very resilient and their utilisation, reliability and availability must satisfy the needs of mobile computing. One must also heed the fact that the wireless nature of the medium introduces security vulnerabilities. The aim of the work described in this paper is twofold. First, we describe our peer-to-peer distributed hash table (DHT architecture entitled Reliable Overlay Based Utilisation of Services and Topology (ROBUST. This is designed to be efficiently applied to MANETs. We additionally propose security extensions to protect the ROBUST signalling messages against malicious activities. We evaluate the ROBUST performance as well as the security extensions under varying levels of mobility and network sizes by building a custom DHT module for the network simulator ns-2. The outcome of the results show negligible overhead introduced by the extensions giving credence to their application in security sensitive scenarios. 

  12. A Testbed Implementation for Securing OLSR in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Panaousis, Emmanouil A; Millar, Grant P; Ramrekha, Tipu A; Politis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary personal computing devices are increasingly required to be portable and mobile enabling user’s wireless access, to wired network infrastructures and services. This approach to mobile computing and communication is only appropriate in situations where a coherent infrastructure is available. There are many situations where these requirements are not fulfilled such as; developing nations, rural areas, natural disasters, and military conflicts to name but a few. A practical solution is to use mobile devices interconnected via a wireless medium to form a network, known as a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET), and provide the services normally found in wired networks. Security in MANETs is an issue of paramount importance due to the wireless nature of the communication links. Additionally due to the lack of central administration security issues are different from conventional networks. For the purposes of this article we have used the “WMN test-bed” to enable secure routing in MANETs. The us...

  13. Rollback recovery with low overhead for fault tolerance in mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeet Kaur Jaggi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs have significantly enhanced the wireless networks by eliminating the need for any fixed infrastructure. Hence, these are increasingly being used for expanding the computing capacity of existing networks or for implementation of autonomous mobile computing Grids. However, the fragile nature of MANETs makes the constituent nodes susceptible to failures and the computing potential of these networks can be utilized only if they are fault tolerant. The technique of checkpointing based rollback recovery has been used effectively for fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile systems; yet, the implementation of existing protocols for MANETs is not straightforward. The paper presents a novel rollback recovery protocol for handling the failures of mobile nodes in a MANET using checkpointing and sender based message logging. The proposed protocol utilizes the routing protocol existing in the network for implementing a low overhead recovery mechanism. The presented recovery procedure at a node is completely domino-free and asynchronous. The protocol is resilient to the dynamic characteristics of the MANET; allowing a distributed application to be executed independently without access to any wired Grid or cellular network access points. We also present an algorithm to record a consistent global snapshot of the MANET.

  14. A DNA-Inspired Encryption Methodology for Secure, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Users are pushing for greater physical mobility with their network and Internet access. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) can provide an efficient mobile network architecture, but security is a key concern. A figure summarizes differences in the state of network security for MANET and fixed networks. MANETs require the ability to distinguish trusted peers, and tolerate the ingress/egress of nodes on an unscheduled basis. Because the networks by their very nature are mobile and self-organizing, use of a Public Key Infra structure (PKI), X.509 certificates, RSA, and nonce ex changes becomes problematic if the ideal of MANET is to be achieved. Molecular biology models such as DNA evolution can provide a basis for a proprietary security architecture that achieves high degrees of diffusion and confusion, and resistance to cryptanalysis. A proprietary encryption mechanism was developed that uses the principles of DNA replication and steganography (hidden word cryptography) for confidentiality and authentication. The foundation of the approach includes organization of coded words and messages using base pairs organized into genes, an expandable genome consisting of DNA-based chromosome keys, and a DNA-based message encoding, replication, and evolution and fitness. In evolutionary computing, a fitness algorithm determines whether candidate solutions, in this case encrypted messages, are sufficiently encrypted to be transmitted. The technology provides a mechanism for confidential electronic traffic over a MANET without a PKI for authenticating users.

  15. Fuzzy Cost Enabled Cluster Based Multipath Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This article proposes the selection of best paths in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET based on multipath routing with fuzzy cost in respect of the Fuzzy Cost Enabled Cluster based Routing (FCECR. Approach: By implementing FCECR, we have made changes to reduce the cost and route discovery overhead for the selection of best path from multipath routing from source to destination node. Results: Results are found in NS2 simulator that cost factorinfluence the network traffic and bandwidth consumption. Besides, it exposes effective changes of network topology. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is shown that the proposed method is used to cluster hierarchal structure management to look for selection of effective path. Future work will be evaluated by implementing the algorithm related to other parallel architectures.

  16. A Mechanism for Detection of Gray Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish; Balamuralidhar, P

    2011-01-01

    Protecting the network layer from malicious attacks is an important and challenging security issue in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper, a security mechanism is proposed to defend against a cooperative gray hole attack on the well known AODV routing protocol in MANETs. A gray hole is a node that selectively drops and forwards data packets after it advertises itself as having the shortest path to the destination node in response to a route request message from a source node. The proposed mechanism does not apply any cryptographic primitives on the routing messages. Instead, it protects the network by detecting and reacting to malicious activities of any node. Simulation results show that the scheme has a significantly high detection rate with moderate network traffic overhead.

  17. Topology Control and Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Quansheng; Jiang, Shengming

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) technology will have significant impacts on upper layer performance in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper, we study topology control and routing in CR-MANETs. We propose a distributed Prediction-based Cognitive Topology Control (PCTC) scheme to provision cognition capability to routing in CR-MANETs. PCTC is a midware-like cross-layer module residing between CR module and routing. The proposed PCTC scheme uses cognitive link availability prediction, which is aware of the interference to primary users, to predict the available duration of links in CR-MANETs. Based on the link prediction, PCTC constructs an efficient and reliable topology, which is aimed at mitigating re-routing frequency and improving end-to-end network performance such as throughput and delay. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  18. Contention Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Multiple Copies

    CERN Document Server

    JebaJothi, E Jenefa; Kavitha, T

    2010-01-01

    Routing the packets efficiently in mobile ad hoc network does not have end to end paths. Multiple copies are forwarded from the source to the destination. To deal with such networks, researches introduced flooding based routing schemes which leads to high probability of delivery. But the flooding based routing schemes suffered with contention and large delays. Here the proposed protocol "Spray Select Focus", sprays a few message copies into the network, neighbors receives a copy and by that relay nodes we are choosing the shortest route and then route that copy towards the destination. Previous works assumption is that there is no contention and dead ends. But we argue that contention and dead ends must be considered for finding efficiency in routing. So we are including a network which has contention and dead ends and we applied the proposed protocol. We can say that this protocol works well for the contention based network.

  19. AN IMMUNITY-BASED SECURITY ARCHITECTURE FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on investigating immunological principles in designing a multi-agent security architecture for intrusion detection and response in mobile ad hoc networks. In this approach, the immunity-based agents monitor the situation in the network. These agents can take appropriate actions according to the underlying security policies. Specifically, their activities are coordinated in a hierarchical fashion while sensing,communicating, decision and generating responses. Such an agent can learn and adapt to its environment dynamically and can detect both known and unknown intrusions. The proposed intrusion detection architecture is designed to be flexible, extendible, and adaptable that can perform real-time monitoring. This paper provides the conceptual view and a general framework of the proposed system. In the end, the architecture is illustrated by an example to show it can prevent the attack efficiently.

  20. Distributed Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, F Richard; Huang, Minyi; Mason, Peter; Li, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    In cognitive radio mobile ad hoc networks (CR-MANETs), secondary users can cooperatively sense the spectrum to detect the presence of primary users. In this chapter, we propose a fully distributed and scalable cooperative spectrum sensing scheme based on recent advances in consensus algorithms. In the proposed scheme, the secondary users can maintain coordination based on only local information exchange without a centralized common receiver. We use the consensus of secondary users to make the final decision. The proposed scheme is essentially based on recent advances in consensus algorithms that have taken inspiration from complex natural phenomena including flocking of birds, schooling of fish, swarming of ants and honeybees. Unlike the existing cooperative spectrum sensing schemes, there is no need for a centralized receiver in the proposed schemes, which make them suitable in distributed CR-MANETs. Simulation results show that the proposed consensus schemes can have significant lower missing detection prob...

  1. Secured Message Transmission in Mobile AD HOC Networks through Identification and Removal of Byzantine Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Anitha, V

    2011-01-01

    The emerging need for mobile ad hoc networks and secured data transmission phase is of crucial importance depending upon the environments like military. In this paper, a new way to improve the reliability of message transmission is presented. In the open collaborative MANET environment, any node can maliciously or selfishly disrupt and deny communication of other nodes. Dynamic changing topology makes it hard to determine the adversary nodes that affect the communication in MANET. An SMT protocol provides a way to secure message transmission by dispersing the message among several paths with minimal redundancy. The multiple routes selected are known as APS -Active Path Set. This paper describes a technique for fault discovery process to identify Byzantine failures which include nodes that drop, modify, or mis-route packets in an attempt to disrupt the routing service. An adaptive probing technique detects a malicious link through binary search and according to the nodes behavior, these links are avoided in th...

  2. Cluster Based Misbehaviour Detection and Authentication Using Threshold Cryptography in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Murugan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, the misbehaving nodes can cause dysfunction in the network resulting in damage of other nodes. In order to establish secure communication with the group members of a network, use of a shared group key for confidentiality and authentication is required. Distributing the shares of secret group key to the group members securely is another challenging task in MANET. In this paper, we propose a Cluster Based Misbehavior Detection and Authentication scheme using threshold cryptography in MANET. For secure data transmission, when any node requests a certificate from a cluster head (CH, it utilizes a threshold cryptographic technique to issue the certificate to the requested node for authentication. The certificate of a node is renewed or rejected by CH, based on its trust counter value. An acknowledgement scheme is also included to detect and isolate the misbehaving nodes. By simulation results, we show that the proposed approach reduces the overhead.

  3. Cluster Based Node Misbehaviour Detection, Isolation and Authentication Using Threshold Cryptography in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Murugan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, the misbehaving nodes can cause dysfunction in the network resultingin damage of other nodes. In order to establish secure communication with the group members ofa network, use of a shared group key for confidentiality and authentication is required. Distributingthe shares of secret group key to the group members securely is another challenging task inMANET. In this paper, we propose a Cluster Based Misbehavior Detection and Authenticationscheme using threshold cryptography in MANET. For secure data transmission, when any noderequests a certificate from a cluster head (CH, it utilizes a threshold cryptographic technique toissue the certificate to the requested node for authentication. The certificate of a node is renewedor rejected by CH, based on its trust counter value. An acknowledgement scheme is alsoincluded to detect and isolate the misbehaving nodes. By simulation results, we show that theproposed approach reduces the overhead.

  4. Probabilistic Modelling of Information Propagation in Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of broadcasting wireless ad-hoc networks is studied through probabilistic modelling. A randomized transmission discipline is assumed in accordance with existing MAC definitions such as WLAN with Decentralized Coordination or IEEE-802.15.4. Message reception is assumed...... to be governed by node power-down policies and is equivalently assumed to be randomized. Altogether randomization facilitates a probabilistic model in the shape of an integro-differential equation governing the propagation of information, where brownian node mobility may be accounted for by including an extra...... diffusion term. The established model is analyzed for transient behaviour and a travelling wave solution facilitates expressions for propagation speed as well as parametrized analysis of network reliability and node power consumption. Applications of the developed models for node localization and network...

  5. A Protocol for Content-Based Communication in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Haillot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In content-based communication, information flows towards interested hosts rather than towards specifically set destinations. This new style of communication perfectly fits the needs of applications dedicated to information sharing, news distribution, service advertisement and discovery, etc. In this paper we address the problem of supporting content-based communication in partially or intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The protocol we designed leverages on the concepts of opportunistic networking and delay-tolerant networking in order to account for the absence of end-to-end connectivity in disconnected MANETs. The paper provides an overview of the protocol, as well as simulation results that show how this protocol can perform in realistic conditions.

  6. Enhancing congestion control to address link failure loss over mobile ad-hoc network

    CERN Document Server

    Fard, Mohammad Amin Kheirandish; Aflaki, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Standard congestion control cannot detect link failure losses which occur due to mobility and power scarcity in multi-hop Ad-Hoc network (MANET). Moreover, successive executions of Back-off algorithm deficiently grow Retransmission Timeout (RTO) exponentially for new route. The importance of detecting and responding link failure losses is to prevent sender from remaining idle unnecessarily and manage number of packet retransmission overhead. In contrast to Cross-layer approaches which require feedback information from lower layers, this paper operates purely in Transport layer. This paper explores an end-to-end threshold-based algorithm which enhances congestion control to address link failure loss in MANET. It consists of two phases. First, threshold-based loss classification algorithm distinguishes losses due to link failure by estimating queue usage based on Relative One-way Trip Time (ROTT). Second phase adjusts RTO for new route by comparing capabilities of new route to the broken route using available i...

  7. Identification of Closest and Phantom Nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Satyachellayi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several services that build on the availability of closest node location information like geographic routing in spontaneous networks, data gathering in sensor networks, movement coordination among autonomous robotic nodes, location specific services for hand held devices and danger warning or traffic monitoring in vehicular networks. Ad hoc networking protocols and location-aware services require that mobile nodes identify the location of their closest nodes. Such a process can be easily misuses or stop by opposed nodes. In absence of a priori trusted nodes, the spotting and identifying of closest node position presents challenges that have been scarcely investigated in the literature. Node can also send message from one to many nodes in a broadcasting manner here.

  8. POWER-AWARE ROUTING BASED ON DSR FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jingbo; Hong Peilin; Li Jinsheng

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption is a crucial design concern in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs)since nodes are powered by batteries with limited energy, whereas Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)protocol does not take the energy limitation of MANET nodes into account. This paper proposes an energy-saving routing algorithm based on DSR: Power Aware Routing protocol based on DSR (PAR-DSR). The design objective of PAR-DSR is to select energy-efficient paths. The main features of PAR-DSR are: (1) Nodes use the Signal Attenuation Rate (SAR) to conduct power control operations;(2) Minimum path cost as metric to balance the traffic and energy consumption of wireless nodes. The simulation results show that PAR-DSR can greatly reduce the energy consumption of MANET nodes.The average node lifetime of PAR-DSR is 50%-77% longer than that of DSR.

  9. EPCM - an efficient power controlled MAC protocol for mobile ad hoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, D. D.; Patnaik, S.; Pal, S.

    2014-10-01

    To reduce interference and to save a significant amount of energy, a control of transmission power is employed in Mobile Ad hoc Network. Many researchers have reported numerous transmission power control schemes to achieve the objective. Some of those techniques use higher transmission power for control packets (Request To Send/Clear To Send) and lesser power for Data and ACK packets. These schemes, though save some amount of energy, achieve least aggregate throughput due to poor spatial reuse and hidden terminal interference. In this paper, an efficient Power Controlled Medium Access Control (EPCM) scheme is evinced, which uses uniform interference aware and minimum transmission power for both Control and Data packet. The performance of EPCM is evaluated and compared with three reported Medium Access Control protocols which are based on transmission power control schemes and is observed that the proposed protocol achieves better throughput and minimal energy consumption while avoiding the hidden terminal problem.

  10. Reputation-Based Attack-Resistant Cooperation Stimulation (RACS) For Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Anuradha; 10.5121/ijaia.2010.1306

    2010-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), nodes usually belong to different authorities and pursue different goals. In order to maximize their own performance, nodes in such networks tend to be selfish and are not willing to forward packets for benefit of others. Meanwhile, some nodes may behave maliciously and try to disrupt the network through wasting other nodes resources in a very large scale. In this article, we present a reputation-based attack resistant cooperation stimulation (RACS) system which ensures that damage caused by malicious nodes can be bounded and cooperation among the selfish nodes can be enforced. Mathematical analyses of the system as well as the simulation results have confirmed effectiveness of our proposed system. RACS is completely self-organizing and distributed. It does not require any tamper-proof hardware or central management policy.

  11. A Multi-Path Certification Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2012-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connections in a decentralized manner. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. Most of the routing protocols for MANETs are thus vulnerable to various types of attacks. For security, these protocols are highly dependent on cryptographic key exchange operations. This paper presents a multi-path certification protocol for efficient and reliable key exchange among the nodes in a MANET. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness and efficiency of the protocol.

  12. A Review of Current Routing Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Hafeez Khokhar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a dynamic wireless network that can be formed without any pre-existing infrastructure in which each node can act as a router. MANET has no clear line of defense, so, it is accessible to both legitimate network users and malicious attackers. In the presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challenges in MANET is to design the robust security solution that can protect MANET from various routing attacks. Different mechanisms have been proposed using various cryptographic techniques to countermeasure the routing attacks against MANET. However, these mechanisms are not suitable for MANET resource constraints, i.e., limited bandwidth and battery power, because they introduce heavy traffic load to exchange and verifying keys. In this paper, the current security issues in MANET are investigated. Particularly, we have examined different routing attacks, such as flooding, blackhole, link spoofing, wormhole, and colluding misrelay attacks, as well as existing solutions to protect MANET protocols.

  13. Ants-Based On-Demand Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An ants-based on-demand routing algorithm (AORA) specialized for mobile ad hoc networks is proposed. AORA measures the network's traffic information including delivery time,route energy etc. by the continuous delivery of data packets,then calculates the compositive parameter for each route which can be seen as the stigmity and uses it to choose the comparatively optimal route in real time.To adjust the weight of each traffic information,the algorithm can meet the different demand of the network's user. Multipath source self repair routing (MSSRR) algorithm and dynamic source routing (DSR) can be seen as the special samples of AORA. The routing overhead is not increased in this algorithm. By using simulation, it can be seen that the performance of AORA is better than that of DSR in all scenarios obviously,especially the delivery fraction is increased by more than 100%.

  14. AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE USING THRESHOLD CRYPTOGRAPHY IN KERBEROS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Gharib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless technologies is gradually increasing and risks related to the use of these technologies are considerable. Due to their dynamically changing topology and open environment without a centralized policy control of a traditional network, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and attacks. The ideal solution to overcome a myriad of security concerns in MANET’s is the use of reliable authentication architecture. In this paper we propose a new key management scheme based on threshold cryptography in kerberos for MANET’s, the proposed scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography method that consumes fewer resources well adapted to the wireless environment. Our approach shows a strength and effectiveness against attacks.

  15. A High Certificate Authority Scheme for Authentication in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rajaram

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, it is easy to launch wormhole, man-in-the-middle and denial of service (DoS attacks, or to impersonate another node. Trust based cross layer approach established a network consisting confidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers., in this paper, we propose to develop an enhanced distributed certificate authority scheme to provide data integrity, thus making the network more secure from both inside and outside attacks. The proposed scheme makes use of Shamir's secret sharing scheme along with a redundancy technique to support certificate renewal and revocation. The malicious nodes are detected by the trusting mechanism by monitoring the behavior hop by hop. By simulation results, we show that the proposed scheme achieves more packet delivery ratio while attaining less delay and overhead, compared with the trust based cross layer approach.

  16. Trust Based Scheme for QoS Assurance in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a peer-to-peer wireless network where nodes can communicate with each other without the use of infrastructure such as access points or base stations. These networks are self-configuring, capable of self-directed operation and hastily deployable. Nodes cooperate to provide connectivity, operates without centralized administration. Nodes are itinerant, topology can be very dynamic and nodes must be able to relay traffic since communicating nodes might be out of range. The dynamic nature of MANET makes network open to attacks and unreliability. Routing is always the most significant part for any networks. Each node should not only work for itself, but should be cooperative with other nodes. Node misbehaviour due to selfish or malicious intention could significantly degrade the performance of MANET. The Qos parameters like PDR, throughput and delay are affected directly due to such misbehaving nodes. We focus on trust management framework, which is intended to cope with misbehav...

  17. COLLABORATIVE ANOMALY-BASED INTRUSION DETECTION IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL K. PARYANI,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Prevention is first line of defense against attacks in MANET. Intrusion Detection and response presents a second line of defense. New vulnerabilities will continue to invent new attack methods so new technology such as MANET, we focus on developing effective detection approaches In this paper, we present an intrusion detection system for detection of malicious node in mobile ad hoc network. The technique is designed for detection of malicious nodes in a neighborhood in which each pair of nodes are within radio range of each other. Such a neighborhood of nodes is known as a clique. [1] This technique is aimed to reduce the computation and communication costs to select a monitor node and reduces the message passing between the nodes to detect a malicious node from the cluster hence there very less traffic and less chances of a collision.

  18. An Algorithm to Determine Stable Connected Dominating Sets for Mobile Ad hoc Networks using Strong Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm to determine stable connected dominating sets (CDS for mobile ad hoc networks using the notion of strong neighborhood (SN. The SN-CDS algorithm takes an input parameter called the Threshold Neighborhood Distance Ratio (TNDR; for an edge to be part of a strong neighborhood-based topology, the ratio of the physical Euclidean distance between the end nodes of the edge to that of the transmission range per node has to be less than or equal to the TNDR. The algorithm prefers to include nodes (into the SN-CDS in the decreasing order of the number of uncovered strong neighbors until all nodes in the network are covered. We observe the SN-CDS (TNDR < 1 to have a significantly longer lifetime than a maximum density-based CDS (MaxD-CDS with TNDR = 1.0; the tradeoff being a slightly larger CDS Node Size and hop count per path.

  19. PCBA: A Priority-Based Competitive Broadcasting Algorithm in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU BoSheng(周伯生); WU JieYi(吴介一); FEI Xiang(费翔); ZHAO Jian(赵键)

    2003-01-01

    Broadcasting operations are of great importance in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks(MANETs) since they are frequently executed. A straightforward broadcasting by flooding willproduce serious redundancy, contention and collision, and furthermore it will result in the perfor-mance degradation of the networks. PCBA, a Priority-based Competitive Broadcasting Algorithm,is proposed in this paper to solve the above problem. In this algorithm, hosts with larger PriorityIndex (PI) have higher probability to rebroadcast relevant messages while some other hosts will beprevented from rebroadcasting according to the competing policy. PCBA is a distributed algorithmand will not increase communication overhead. Through the analyses and extensive simulations,the authors demonstrate that PCBA has advantages in availability and scalability. It can signif-icantly reduce the rebroadcast redundancy. In addition, PCBA can also be further used in otherapplications such as routing discovery schemes, enhancing the performance.

  20. Energy-Aware Performance Metric for AODV and DSDV Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vijayalakshmi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs, mobile devices are equipped with power (energy. In order to utilize this energy equipped devices efficiently for transmission of data packets, many energy aware routing strategies are followed. As a key note to these routing strategies, the energy aware performance metrics are analyzed on two routing protocols like Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector Protocol (AODV and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Protocol (DSDV. The comparison results prove that AODV protocol can be adopted for any routing strategy, in order to increase the performance of the network lifetime in comparison with DSDV.

  1. An Update based Energy-Efficient Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Kumar Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost energy-efficient (power based routing protocols of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs increase the lifetime of static networks by using received signal strength (RSS and battery power status (PS. They require GPS service to find the exact location of mobile nodes. The GPS devices themselves consume power because they need excessive updates to find the stationary nodes for efficient routing. To overcome this, RSS is being used as a metric, followed by, residual battery power. The recent protocols, based on these concepts, provide energy efficient routes during the route discovery phase only. Topological changes make these routes weak in due course of time. To update routes, HELLO process can be used, which however creates unnecessary overhead, delay and consumes power. Hence, these protocols do not update the routes. We propose an energy-efficient reactive routing protocol that uses the RSS and PS of mobile nodes. Proposed Link Failure Prediction (LFP algorithm uses the link-layer feedback system to update active routes. We use ns2 for simulation of the proposed algorithm. Comparing the results of proposed scheme and existing scheme, in terms of energy consumption, link failure probability, and retransmission of packets, we observe that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing one.

  2. A Distributed Trust and Reputation Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2010-01-01

    In a multi-hop mobile ad hoc network (MANET), mobile nodes cooperate to form a network without using any infrastructure such as access points or base stations. The mobility of the nodes and the fundamentally limited capacity of the wireless medium, together with wireless transmission effects such as attenuation, multi-path propagation, and interference combine to create sig-nificant challenges for security in MANETs. Traditional cryptographic mecha-nisms such as authentication and encryption are not capable of handling some kinds of attacks such as packet dropping by malicious nodes in MANETs. This paper presents a mechanism for detecting malicious packet dropping attacks in MANETs. The mechanism is depends on a trust module on each node, which is based on the reputation value computed for that node by its neighbors. The reputation value of a node is computed based on its packet forwarding behavior in the network. The reputation information is gathered, stored and exchanged between the nodes, and computed und...

  3. Replica Dissemination and Update Strategies in Cluster-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieso K. Denko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that forms a temporary network without the aid of a fixed communication infrastructure. Since every node can be mobile and network topology changes can occur frequently, node disconnection is a common mode of operation in MANETs. Providing reliable data access and message delivery is a challenge in this dynamic network environment. Caching and replica allocation within the network can improve data accessibility by storing the data and accessing them locally. However, maintaining data consistency among replicas becomes a challenging problem. Hence, balancing data accessibility and consistency is an important step toward data management in MANETs. In this paper, we propose a replica-based data-storage mechanism and undelivered-message queue schemes to provide reliable data storage and dissemination. We also propose replica update strategies to maintain data consistency while improving data accessibility. These solutions are based on a clustered MANET where nodes in the network are divided into small groups that are suitable for localized data management. The goal is to reduce communication overhead, support localized computation, and enhance scalability. A simulation environment was built using an NS-2 network simulator to evaluate the performance of the proposed schemes. The results show that our schemes distribute replicas effectively, provide high data accessibility rates and maintain consistency.

  4. A Survey Of Tcp Reno, New Reno And Sack Over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazmul Islam Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is often preferred to be implemented at the transport layer of a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because of its wide range of applications, which enjoys the advantage of reliable data transmission in the Internet. However, because of some unique characteristics of MANET, TCP cannot offer reliable services while using e-mail, internet search and file transmission insuch a network. The research investigates how well the different versions of TCP respond to various performance differentials when subjected to different network stresses and topology changes, aside from identifying the most efficient and robust TCP version(s for different MANET scenarios. Among several TCP variants, three types are considered important for the analysis, namely TCP Reno, TCP New Reno and TCP Selective Acknowledgment (SACK. In most cases, the TCP performance is found in our study to decrease when the node size and mobility rate is increased in the network. There is, however, exception to this. As our simulation results demonstrate, the increases in the node velocity sometimes help the TCP to attain a better performance. The study also reveals that out of the three variants, TCP SACK can adaptrelatively well to the changing network sizes while TCP Reno performs most robustly in the presence ofdifferent mobility rates within MANET.

  5. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs. PMID:25946001

  6. Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Danger Theory-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs. PMID:25946001

  7. Implementation of EnhancedSecurity AlgorithmsinMobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takialddin A. Al Smadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks are wireless infrastructure less networks can beeasily formed or deployed due to its simple infrastructure. Security has become a primary concern in order to provide protected communication between mobile nodes in a hostile environment. The main objective of this work is to enhance the performance of the network by securing the data and to minimize the malicious nodes which disturb the stream of the network. Securing data is a critical task which can be achieved by cryptographic algorithms and disturbance detection plays as a crucial ingredient in any comprehensive security solution to address the threats.Hence a Novel Cryptographic Algorithm with a new Disturbance Detection System (DDS has been proposed for Mobile Adhoc Networks. This method prevents the outside attacks to obtain any information from any data exchange in network and also use promiscuous mode of working along with rating and collaborative decision making based on multiple threshold values.The proposed algorithm was implemented and simulated in the Glomosim and the result analysis proved that the performance of the network is increased.

  8. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Abdelhaq

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.

  9. 移动Ad Hoc网络路由协议综述%A Survey of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清; 李方敏

    2003-01-01

    A review of current research about routing protocols for mobile Ad Hoc networks is made. Based on classifying of them, the characteristic, the strength and the weakness of these protocols are evaluated respectively. Then some crucial strategies to improve the existing routing protocols are proposed. Besides, a frame of new routing protocol for Ad Hoc networks is put forward. Finally, open issues that still need investigation are listed.

  10. Misbehaving Node Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Multi Hop Acknowledgement Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Sakthivel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For any node in a Mobile Ad hoc Network conservation of battery power and bandwidth are the priority. Hence, they try to reduce the overload they would otherwise incur when they forward packets. This selfish behavior of a node affects the throughput of the network. The nodes may also choose a back off value of shorter duration. These problems are handled effectively by the methodology proposed in this study. A conscious effort has been made keeping the constraints of the MANETs in mind. Approach: Misbehavior is best identified at the lower levels as the upper levels of the OSI standard primarily deals with the data the packets carry and less about how, so the network and the MAC layers is where the primary focus lies. Thus, keeping these points in mind, we propose algorithms that work along with the 802.11 MAC protocol to monitor the behavior of neighboring nodes by listening to the channel, specifically monitoring parameters like back off values sent by the nodes. A counter is maintained which is incremented every time node misconduct is detected, subsequently after a particular value is cross the node is labeled as misbehaving and the information is broadcast over the network. Results: Performance parameters like throughput, packet delivery ratio were monitored with traffic of the magnitude 10 to 60 nodes. Also the performance of the network based on the percentage of selfish nodes present in the network was monitored and a graph was generated based on the statistics. Conclusion: An algorithmic approach for misbehaving node detection and isolation in ad hoc networks by modifying the protocol being used in the lower layers which consequently improves performance of the network had been proposed. Simulation results show considerable performance increase upon implementing the proposed algorithm. Further research can confirm the practicality of the proposed idea.

  11. Energy Aware Routing Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Variable Range Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Nayak

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of mobile n odes that dynamically forms networks temporarily without the need for any pre-existing infrastructur e. Today, one of the main issues in MANETs is the development of energy efficient protocols due to li mited bandwidth and battery life. The nodes in MANETs operate by a battery source which has limite d energy reservoir. Power failure of a node affects the node’s ability to forward packets on behalf of others, thus reducing the network lifetime. The conventional MANET routing protocols s. a. DSR and AODV use common transmission range for transfer of data and does not consider energy statu s of nodes. This paper discusses a new energy aware routing (EAR scheme which uses variable transmissi on range. The protocol has been incorporated along with the route discovery procedure of AODV as a cas e study. Both the protocols are simulated using Network Simulator-2 and comparisons are made to ana lyze their performance based on energy consumption, network lifetime and number of alive n odes metrics for different network scenarios. The results show that EAR makes effective node energy u tilization.

  12. Dynamic Agent Classification and Tracking Using an Ad Hoc Mobile Acoustic Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, David; Griffin, Christopher; Jacobson, Noah; Phoha, Shashi; Brooks, Richard R.

    2003-12-01

    Autonomous networks of sensor platforms can be designed to interact in dynamic and noisy environments to determine the occurrence of specified transient events that define the dynamic process of interest. For example, a sensor network may be used for battlefield surveillance with the purpose of detecting, identifying, and tracking enemy activity. When the number of nodes is large, human oversight and control of low-level operations is not feasible. Coordination and self-organization of multiple autonomous nodes is necessary to maintain connectivity and sensor coverage and to combine information for better understanding the dynamics of the environment. Resource conservation requires adaptive clustering in the vicinity of the event. This paper presents methods for dynamic distributed signal processing using an ad hoc mobile network of microsensors to detect, identify, and track targets in noisy environments. They seamlessly integrate data from fixed and mobile platforms and dynamically organize platforms into clusters to process local data along the trajectory of the targets. Local analysis of sensor data is used to determine a set of target attribute values and classify the target. Sensor data from a field test in the Marine base at Twentynine Palms, Calif, was analyzed using the techniques described in this paper. The results were compared to "ground truth" data obtained from GPS receivers on the vehicles.

  13. Analysis of reactive routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks in Markov models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-xing; HU Xi; FANG Jian-chao; JIA Wei-jia

    2007-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have become a hot issue in the area of wireless networks for their non-infrastructure and mobile features. In this paper, a MANET is modeled so that the length of each link in the network is considered as a birthdeath process and the space is reused for n times in the flooding process, which is named as an n-spatial reuse birth-death model (n-SRBDM). We analyze the performance of the network under the dynamic source routing protocol (DSR) which is a famous reactive routing protocol. Some performance parameters of the route discovery are studied such as the probability distribution and the expectation of the flooding distance, the probability that a route is discovered by a query packet with a hop limit, the probability that a request packet finds a τ-time-valid route or a symmetric-valid route, and the average time needed to discover a valid route. For the route maintenance, some parameters are introduced and studied such as the average frequency of route recovery and the average time of a route to be valid. We compare the two models with spatial reuse and without spatial reuse by evaluating these parameters. It is shown that the spatial reuse model is much more effective in routing.

  14. Survivability Evaluation in Large-Scale Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-Cheng Peng; Wei-Jia Jia; Guo-Jun Wang

    2009-01-01

    Survivability refers to the ability of a network system to fulfill critical services in a timely manner to end users in the presence of failures and/or attacks. In order to establish a highly survivable system, it is necessary to measure its survivability to evaluate the performance of the system's services under adverse conditions. According to survivability requirements of large-scale mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), we propose a novel model for quantitative evaluation on survivability. The proposed model considers various types of faults and connection states of mobile hosts, and uses the continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) to describe the survivability of MANETs in a precise manner. We introduce the reliability theory to perform quantitative analysis and survivability evaluation of segment-by-segment routing (SSR), multipath-based segment-by-segment routing (MP-SSR), and segment-by-segment-based multipath routing (SS-MPR) in large-scale MANETs. The proposed model can be used to analyze the network performance much more easily than a simulation-based approach. Numerical validation shows that the proposed model can be used to obtain a better evaluation result on the survivability of large-scale MANETs.

  15. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colagrosso Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  16. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Colagrosso

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  17. An Efficient and Secure Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iyengar, N Ch Sriman Narayana; Nagar, Piyush; Sharma, Siddharth; Atrey, Akshay; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2303

    2010-01-01

    Efficiency and simplicity of random algorithms have made them a lucrative alternative for solving complex problems in the domain of communication networks. This paper presents a random algorithm for handling the routing problem in Mobile Ad hoc Networks [MANETS].The performance of most existing routing protocols for MANETS degrades in terms of packet delay and congestion caused as the number of mobile nodes increases beyond a certain level or their speed passes a certain level. As the network becomes more and more dynamic, congestion in network increases due to control packets generated by the routing protocols in the process of route discovery and route maintenance. Most of this congestion is due to flooding mechanism used in protocols like AODV and DSDV for the purpose of route discovery and route maintenance or for route discovery as in the case of DSR protocol. This paper introduces the concept of random routing algorithm that neither maintains a routing table nor floods the entire network as done by vari...

  18. Dynamic Agent Classification and Tracking Using an Ad Hoc Mobile Acoustic Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedlander David

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous networks of sensor platforms can be designed to interact in dynamic and noisy environments to determine the occurrence of specified transient events that define the dynamic process of interest. For example, a sensor network may be used for battlefield surveillance with the purpose of detecting, identifying, and tracking enemy activity. When the number of nodes is large, human oversight and control of low-level operations is not feasible. Coordination and self-organization of multiple autonomous nodes is necessary to maintain connectivity and sensor coverage and to combine information for better understanding the dynamics of the environment. Resource conservation requires adaptive clustering in the vicinity of the event. This paper presents methods for dynamic distributed signal processing using an ad hoc mobile network of microsensors to detect, identify, and track targets in noisy environments. They seamlessly integrate data from fixed and mobile platforms and dynamically organize platforms into clusters to process local data along the trajectory of the targets. Local analysis of sensor data is used to determine a set of target attribute values and classify the target. Sensor data from a field test in the Marine base at Twentynine Palms, Calif, was analyzed using the techniques described in this paper. The results were compared to "ground truth" data obtained from GPS receivers on the vehicles.

  19. Cooperative Caching in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on Data Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narottam Chand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative caching, which allows sharing and coordination of cached data among clients, is a potential technique to improve the data access performance and availability in mobile ad hoc networks. However, variable data sizes, frequent data updates, limited client resources, insufficient wireless bandwidth and client's mobility make cache management a challenge. In this paper, we propose a utility based cache replacement policy, least utility value (LUV, to improve the data availability and reduce the local cache miss ratio. LUV considers several factors that affect cache performance, namely access probability, distance between the requester and data source/cache, coherency and data size. A cooperative cache management strategy, Zone Cooperative (ZC, is developed that employs LUV as replacement policy. In ZC one-hop neighbors of a client form a cooperation zone since the cost for communication with them is low both in terms of energy consumption and message exchange. Simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of LUV based ZC caching strategy. The simulation results show that, LUV replacement policy substantially outperforms the LRU policy.

  20. Quality-of-Service Routing Using Path and Power Aware Techniques in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asokan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile hosts dynamically forming a temporary network without the aid of any existing established infrastructure. Quality of service (QoS is a set of service requirements that needs to be met by the network while transporting a packet stream from a source to its destination. QoS support MANETs is a challenging task due to the dynamic topology and limited resources. The main objective of this paper is to enhance the QoS routing for MANET using temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA with self-healing and optimized routing techniques (SHORT. SHORT improves routing optimality by monitoring routing paths continuously and redirecting the path whenever a shortcut path is available. In this paper, the performance comparison of TORA and TORA with SHORT has been analyzed using network simulator for various parameters. TORA with SHORT enhances performance of TORA in terms of throughput, packet loss, end-to-end delay, and energy.

  1. Impact of Vehicle Mobility on Performance of Vehicular Ad Hoc Network IEEE 1609.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET is a new communications system for moving vehicles at high speed, which are equipped with wireless communication devices, together with additional wireless roadside units, enabling communications among nearby vehicles (vehicle-to-vehicle communication as well as between vehicles and nearby fixed equipment (vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. Inter-vehicular communications aim to improve road traffic safety and provide multimedia services. VANET has become an important communication infrastructure for the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In this work we have studied the impact of vehicle mobility on the quality of service in VANET based on IEEE 1609.4. The performance of this network is evaluated through exhaustive simulations using the VanetMobiSim and Network Simulator-NS2 under different parameters like delay, packet delivery ratio, packet loss and throughput. The simulation results are obtained when vehicles are moving according to a freeway mobility model is significantly different from results based on Manhattan model. When the Manhattan model is used, there is an increase in the average end-to-end delay and packet loss.

  2. Secure and fair cluster head selection protocol for enhancing security in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP. PMID:25143986

  3. Secure and Fair Cluster Head Selection Protocol for Enhancing Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, B.; Kaliappan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP. PMID:25143986

  4. INTRUSION DETECTION IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK USING SECURE ROUTING FOR ATTACKER IDENTIFICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In past few decades, the migration of communication takes place from wired networks to wireless networks because of its mobility and scalability and Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a unique and significant application in recent years which does not necessitates any pre-existing network infrastructure. Each node can act as both transmitters as well as receivers that are communicating with each other when they are in same communication/transmission range. Otherwise, these nodes depend on neighbor nodes to transmit their packets and they possess self-configuring ability which makes MANETs popular in various critical mission applications such as military and other emergency applications. In general, MANETs are open medium network and their nodes are widely distributed which makes the network more vulnerable to various attackers. Some times, the transmitted packets are viewed or modified or corrupted by the attackers through the way to reach destination and the destination could not find such type of packets. So, the receiver can deliver modified packets with wrong information. Thus, it is essential to present an efficient secure routing protocol to preserve MANET from several attacks. In this study, we are going to propose and implement a novel routing protocol named Secure Routing for Attacker Identification (SRAI protocol that executes at receiver/destination side to discover the modified packets in delivered nodes and generate misbehaviour report to the source. Compared to modern approaches, SRAI protocol establishes higher attacker identification rates in certain considerations.

  5. QoS Support in TDMA-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imad Jawhar; Jie Wu

    2005-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are gaining a lot of attention in research lately due to their importance in enabling mobile wireless nodes to communicate without any existing wired or predetermined infrastructures. Furthermore,in order to support the growing need for multimedia and realtime applications, quality of service (QoS) support by the networking protocol is required. Several important QoS parameters that are needed by such applications can be identified.They include bandwidth, end-to-end delay, delay jitter, and bit error rate. A good amount of research has been developed in this area covering different issues and challenges such as developing routing protocols that support bandwidth reservation and delay management. In this paper, the current state of research for QoS support in TDMA-based MANETs at different layers of the networking model is presented and categorized. In addition, the current issues and future challenges involved in this exciting area of research are also included.

  6. A Rough Penalty Genetic Algorithm for Multicast Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicast routing is an effective way to transmit messages to multiple hosts in a network. However, it is vulnerable to intermittent connectivity property in mobile ad hoc network (MANET especially for multimedia applications, which have some quality of service (QoS requirements. The goal of QoS provisioning is to well organize network resources to satisfy the QoS requirement and achieve good network delivery services. However, there remains a challenge to provide QoS solutions and maintain end-to-end QoS with user mobility. In this paper, a novel penalty adjustment method based on the rough set theory is proposed to deal with path-delay constraints for multicast routing problems in MANETs. We formulate the problem as a constrained optimization problem, where the objective function is to minimize the total cost of the multicast tree subject to QoS constraints. The RPGA is evaluated on three multicast scenarios and compared with two state-of-the-art methods in terms of cost, success rate, and time complexity. The performance analyses show that this approach is a self-adaptive method for penalty adjustment. Remarkably, the method can address a variety of constrained multicast routing problems even though the initial routes do not satisfy all QoS requirements.

  7. A new Hierarchical Group Key Management based on Clustering Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL-SAYED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The migration from wired network to wireless network has been a global trend in the past few decades because they provide anytime-anywhere networking services. The wireless networks are rapidly deployed in the future, secure wireless environment will be mandatory. As well, The mobility and scalability brought by wireless network made it possible in many applications. Among all the contemporary wireless networks,Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET is one of the most important and unique applications. MANET is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. Due to the nature of unreliable wireless medium data transfer is a major problem in MANET and it lacks security and reliability of data. The most suitable solution to provide the expected level of security to these services is the provision of a key management protocol. A Key management is vital part of security. This issue is even bigger in wireless network compared to wired network. The distribution of keys in an authenticated manner is a difficult task in MANET. When a member leaves or joins the group, it needs to generate a new key to maintain forward and backward secrecy. In this paper, we propose a new group key management schemes namely a Hierarchical, Simple, Efficient and Scalable Group Key (HSESGK based on clustering management scheme for MANETs and different other schemes are classified. Group members deduce the group key in a distributed manner.

  8. Mitigate DoS and DDoS attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalas, Antonis; Komninos, Nikos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique to defeat Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in Ad Hoc Networks. The technique is divided into two main parts and with game theory and cryptographic puzzles. Introduced first is a new client puzzle to prevent DoS attacks...... in such networks. The second part presents a multiplayer game that takes place between the nodes of an ad hoc network and based on fundamental principles of game theory. By combining computational problems with puzzles, improvement occurs in the efficiency and latency of the communicating nodes and resistance...... in DoS and DDoS attacks. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the approach for devices with limited resources and for environments like ad hoc networks where nodes must exchange information quickly....

  9. FRCA: A Fuzzy Relevance-Based Cluster Head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taegwon Jeong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP, the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA, and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM. The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  10. FRCA: a fuzzy relevance-based cluster head selection algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  11. FRCA: a fuzzy relevance-based cluster head selection algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms. PMID:22163905

  12. A Distributed Trust Management Framework for Detecting Malicious Packet Dropping Nodes in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jaydip Sen

    2010-01-01

    In a multi-hop mobile ad hoc network (MANET) mobile nodes communicate with each other forming a cooperative radio network. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of any clear lines of defense. Most of the currently existing security algorithms designed for these networks are insecure, in efficient, and have low detection a...

  13. Analysis of DDoS Attack Effect and Protection Scheme in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramratan Ahirwal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink is network without infrastructure. Detecting malicious nodes in an open ad-hoc network in whichparticipating nodes have no previous security associations presents a number of challenges not faced by traditional wired networks. Traffic monitoring in wired networks is usually performed at switches,routers and gateways, but an ad-hoc network does not have these types of network elements where the Intrusion Detection System (IDS can collect and analyse audit data for the entire network. A number ofneighbour-monitoring, trust-building, and cluster-based voting schemes have been proposed in the research to enable the detection and reporting of malicious activity in ad-hoc networks. The resourcesconsumed by ad-hoc network member nodes to monitor, detect, report, and diagnose malicious activity, however, may be greater than simply rerouting packets through a different available path. In this paperwe are trying to protect our network from distributed denial of service attack (DDOS, In this paper we present method for determining intrusion or misbehave in MANET using intrusion detection system and protect the network from distributed denial of service (DDOS and analysis the result on the bases of actual TCP flow monitoring, routing load ,packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay in normal , DDOS attack and IDS time .

  14. Adaptive Control Parameters for Dispersal of Multi-Agent Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) Swarms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2013-11-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of independent nodes that communicate wirelessly with one another. This paper investigates nodes that are swarm robots with communications and sensing capabilities. Each robot in the swarm may operate in a distributed and decentralized manner to achieve some goal. This paper presents a novel approach to dynamically adapting control parameters to achieve mesh configuration stability. The presented approach to robot interaction is based on spring force laws (attraction and repulsion laws) to create near-optimal mesh like configurations. In prior work, we presented the extended virtual spring mesh (EVSM) algorithm for the dispersion of robot swarms. This paper extends the EVSM framework by providing the first known study on the effects of adaptive versus static control parameters on robot swarm stability. The EVSM algorithm provides the following novelties: 1) improved performance with adaptive control parameters and 2) accelerated convergence with high formation effectiveness. Simulation results show that 120 robots reach convergence using adaptive control parameters more than twice as fast as with static control parameters in a multiple obstacle environment.

  15. A Combined Solution for Routing and Medium Access Control Layer Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Murugan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET, both the routing layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC layer are vulnerable to several attacks. There are very few techniques to detect and isolate the attacks of both these layers simultaneously. In this study, we developed a combined solution for routing and MAC layer attacks. Approach: Our approach, makes use of three techniques simultaneously which consists of a cumulative frequency based detection technique for detecting MAC layers attacks, data forwarding behavior based detection technique for detecting packet drops and message authentication code based technique for packet modification. Results: Our combined solution presents a reputation value for detecting the malicious nodes and isolates them from further network participation till its revocation. Our approach periodically checks all nodes, including the isolated nodes, at regular time period λ. A node which recovers from its misbehaving condition is revoked to its normal condition after the time period λ. Conclusion/Recommendations: By simulation results, we show that our combined solution provides more security by increased packet delivery ratio and reduced packet drops. We also shown that our approach has less overhead compared to the existing technique.

  16. A Threshold-Adaptive Reputation System on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiao-Chien; Lo, Nai-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Chen

    In recent years huge potential benefits from novel applications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) have been discussed extensively. However, without robust security mechanisms and systems to provide safety shell through the MANET infrastructure, MANET applications can be vulnerable and hammered by malicious attackers easily. In order to detect misbehaved message routing and identify malicious attackers in MANET, schemes based on reputation concept have shown their advantages in this area in terms of good scalability and simple threshold-based detection strategy. We observed that previous reputation schemes generally use predefined thresholds which do not take into account the effect of behavior dynamics between nodes in a period of time. In this paper, we propose a Threshold-Adaptive Reputation System (TARS) to overcome the shortcomings of static threshold strategy and improve the overall MANET performance under misbehaved routing attack. A fuzzy-based inference engine is introduced to evaluate the trustiness of a node's one-hop neighbors. Malicious nodes whose trust values are lower than the adaptive threshold, will be detected and filtered out by their honest neighbors during trustiness evaluation process. The results of network simulation show that the TARS outperforms other compared schemes under security attacks in most cases and at the same time reduces the decrease of total packet delivery ratio by 67% in comparison with MANET without reputation system.

  17. A Novel Multiple Access Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network with Smart Antennas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJun; LIJiandong; ZHOUXiaodong

    2004-01-01

    The approach to employ smart antennas in Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) nodes is presented. An adaptive beamforming-Carrier-Sense multiple access/collison avoidance) (ABF-CSMA/CA) protocol is proposed. In the ABF-CSMA/CA, Request-to-Send/Clear-to-Send (RTS/CTS) dialogue is used to distribute channel reservation information. Training sequences are transmitted just before RTS and CTS packets, so the Temporal reference beamforming (TRB) can be performed by the source node and the destination node.An improved virtual carrier-sense mechanism is also proposed to enhance Collision avoidance (CA) and obtain efficient Space division multiple access (SDMA). In this scheme, every node has two kinds of Network allocation vector (NAV): an oNAV maintains the interval of ongoing transmission of neighbors whose smart antennas operate in omnidirectional mode, and multiple bNAVs maintain those intervals of neighbors whose smart antennas operate in beamforming mode. Theoretical analysis of channel utilization of the proposed protocol is presented. Results show that ABF-CSMA/CA protocol combining with smart antennas can provide higher channel utilization.

  18. A Study on Contributory Group Key Agreements for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. V. Raghavendran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks, in particular Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs have revolutionized the field of networking with increasing number of their commercial and military applications. Security on the other hand, is now an essential requirement for these applications. However, the limitations of the dynamic, infrastructure-less nature of MANETs impose major difficulties in establishing a secure framework suitable for such services. Security for MANETs is a dynamic area of research. Most of the traditional routing protocols proposed for MANETs are focused on routing only not on the security aspects. As in traditional wired networks, wireless networks also require security. Unlike the wired networks, where dedicated routers, servers control the network, in MANETs nodes act both as terminals and also as routers for other nodes. A popular mechanism to satisfy the security requirements is the Group Key Management in which the group key is to be shared by each group communication participant. But to establish and manage the group key efficiently imposes new challenges – especially in infrastructure less MANETs. The basic needs of such networks require that the group key schemes must demonstrate not only high performance but also fault-tolerance.

  19. On-Line and Off-Line Security Measurement Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo M. Savola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose an integrated security measurement architecture and framework for a dynamic self-organizing monitoring system based on mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, structured according to currently known security challenges. The aim is to predict, as well as to monitor, the security performance, concentrating on the principal effects contributing to it. We introduce an on-thefly security level estimation mechanism for MANETs. The mechanism can be used to support node-level, network segment-level and network-level decision making. At the node level, it is possible to constantly estimate the security level when choosing applications and communication mechanisms. At the network level, democratic voting among independent estimates originating from different nodes is used to increase the level of security. Furthermore, we introduce a generic security evaluation framework based on definition and decomposition of security requirements, behaviour modelling, evidence collection, and decision making. The goal of the decision making process is to make an assessment of and form conclusions about the information security level or performance of the system under investigation.

  20. Alternative Node Based Energy Depletion and Expected Residual Lifetime Balancing Method for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Banerjee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructure less network, where nodes are free to move independently in any direction. The nodes have limited battery power; hence we require efficient balancing techniques (energy depletion or expected residual lifetime, whichever is applicable under specific circumstances to reduce overload on the nodes, wherever possible, to enhance their lifetime and network performance. This kind of balance among network nodes increase the average lifetime of nodes and reduce the phenomenon of network partitioning due to excessive exhaustion of nodes. In this paper, we propose an alternative-node based balancing method (ANB that channels the forwarding load of a node to some other less exhausted alternative node provided that alternative node is capable of handling the extra load. This greatly reduces the number of link breakages and also the number of route-requests flooded in the network to repair the broken links. This, in turn, improves the data packet delivery ratio of the underlying routing protocol as well as average node lifetime.

  1. Intelligent Routing Techniques for Mobile Ad hoc Networks using Swarm Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suresh Varma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of autonomous self-organized nodes. They use wireless medium for communication, thus two nodes can communicate directly if and only if they are within each other’s transmission radius in a multi-hop fashion. Many conventional routing algorithms have been proposed for MANETs. An emerging area that has recently captured much attention in network routing researches is Swarm Intelligence (SI. Besides conventional approaches, many new researches have proposed the adoption of Swarm Intelligence for MANET routing. Swarm Intelligence (SI refers to complex behaviors that arise from very simple individual behaviors and interactions, which is often observed in nature, especially among social insects such as ants, bees, fishes etc. Although each individual has little intelligence and simply follows basic rules using local information obtained from the environment. Ants routing resembles basic mechanisms from distributed Swarm Intelligence (SI in biological systems and turns out to become an interesting solution where routing is a problem. Ants based routing is gaining more popularity because of its adaptive and dynamic nature. A number of Swarm Intelligence (SI based algorithms were proposed by researchers. In this paper, we study bio-inspired routing protocols for MANETs.

  2. An Optimal Spectrum Handoff Scheme for Cognitive Radio Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUAN, J.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum handoff procedures occur when the primary users appear in the licensed band temporary occupied by the cognitive radio (CR users and aim to help the CR users to vacate the spectrum rapidly and find available channel to resume the transmission. However, a spectrum handoff scheme that comprehensively considers channel selection, handoff decision as well as space domain handoff is yet undeveloped. In this paper we present a complete optimal spectrum handoff scheme for cognitive radio mobile ad hoc networks. First, we design a spectrum selection mechanism to allow CR users optimally choose the appropriate channel. The spectrum idleness prediction algorithm is utilized based on developing a cooperative spectrum searching approach. Through combining the estimated transmission time, the PU appearance probability and the mean spectrum availability time are integrated to develop the optimal spectrum handoff scheme. Moreover, as one part of the proposed scheme, a geo-location approach is utilized to deal with the space domain handoff. The complete scheme is evaluated through a comprehensive simulation study, and results reveal significant improvements in handoff times and transmission efficiency over conventional approaches.

  3. A Novel Multipath Approach to Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)

    CERN Document Server

    Vasudevan, Rangarajan A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel encryption-less algorithm to enhance security in transmission of data packets across mobile ad hoc networks. The paper hinges on the paradigm of multipath routing and exploits the properties of polynomials. The first step in the algorithm is to transform the data such that it is impossible to obtain any information without possessing the entire transformed data. The algorithm then uses an intuitively simple idea of a jigsaw puzzle to break the transformed data into multiple packets where these packets form the pieces of the puzzle. Then these packets are sent along disjoint paths to reach the receiver. A secure and efficient mechanism is provided to convey the information that is necessary for obtaining the original data at the receiver-end from its fragments in the packets, that is, for solving the jigsaw puzzle. The algorithm is designed to be secure so that no intermediate or unintended node can obtain the entire data. An authentication code is also used to ensure authenti...

  4. A MODEL FOR CONGESTION CONTROL OF TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL IN MOBILE WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib M. Monzer Habbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a fundamental protocol in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite.TCP was well designed and optimized to work over wired networks where most packet loss occurs due to network congestion. In theory, TCP should not care whether it is running over wired networks, WLANs, or Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs. In practice, it does matter because most TCP deployments have been carefully designed based on the assumption that congestion is the main factor of network instability. However, MANETs have other dominating factors that cause network instability. Forgetting the impact of these factors violates some design principles of TCP congestion control and open questions for future research to address. This study aims to introduce a model that shows the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. To achieve this aim, Design Research Methodology (DRM proposed by BLESSING was used as a guide to present this model. The proposed model describes the existing situation of TCP congestion control. Furthermore, it points to the factors that are most suitable to be addressed by researchers in order to improve TCP performance. This research proposes a novel model to present the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. The model is expected to serve as a benchmark for any intended improvement and enhancement of TCP congestion control over MANET.

  5. Opportunistic Information Dissemination in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: adaptiveness vs. obliviousness and randomization vs. determinism

    CERN Document Server

    Farach-Colton, Martin; Milani, Alessia; Mosteiro, Miguel A; Zaks, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the problem of information dissemination in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) is studied. The problem is to disseminate a piece of information, initially held by a distinguished source node, to all nodes in a set defined by some predicate. We use a model of MANETs that is well suited for dynamic networks and opportunistic communication. In this model nodes are placed in a plane, in which they can move with bounded speed, and communication between nodes occurs over a collision-prone single channel. In this setup informed and uninformed nodes can be disconnected for some time (bounded by a parameter alpha), but eventually some uninformed node must become neighbor of an informed node and remain so for some time (bounded by a parameter beta). In addition, nodes can start at different times, and they can crash and recover. Under the above framework, we show negative and positive results for different types of randomized protocols, and we put those results in perspective with respect to previous determin...

  6. Delay-dependent asymptotic stability of mobile ad-hoc networks: A descriptor system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Yang, Dan; Huang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Luo, Jian-Lu

    2014-07-01

    In order to analyze the capacity stability of the time-varying-propagation and delay-dependent of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), in this paper, a novel approach is proposed to explore the capacity asymptotic stability for the delay-dependent of MANETs based on non-cooperative game theory, where the delay-dependent conditions are explicitly taken into consideration. This approach is based on the Lyapunov—Krasovskii stability theory for functional differential equations and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. A corresponding Lyapunov—Krasovskii functional is introduced for the stability analysis of this system with use of the descriptor and “neutral-type” model transformation without producing any additional dynamics. The delay-dependent stability criteria are derived for this system. Conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and for the first time referred to neutral systems with the time-varying propagation and delay-dependent stability for capacity analysis of MANETs. The proposed criteria are less conservative since they are based on an equivalent model transformation. Furthermore, we also provide an effective and efficient iterative algorithm to solve the constrained stability control model. Simulation experiments have verified the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm.

  7. Data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information in a mobile ad hoc network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takuma; Taenaka, Yuzo; Okuda, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a data delivery method based on neighbor nodes' information to achieve reliable communication in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In a MANET, it is difficult to deliver data reliably due to instabilities in network topology and wireless network condition which result from node movement. To overcome such unstable communication, opportunistic routing and network coding schemes have lately attracted considerable attention. Although an existing method that employs such schemes, MAC-independent opportunistic routing and encoding (MORE), Chachulski et al. (2007), improves the efficiency of data delivery in an unstable wireless mesh network, it does not address node movement. To efficiently deliver data in a MANET, the method proposed in this paper thus first employs the same opportunistic routing and network coding used in MORE and also uses the location information and transmission probabilities of neighbor nodes to adapt to changeable network topology and wireless network condition. The simulation experiments showed that the proposed method can achieve efficient data delivery with low network load when the movement speed is relatively slow. PMID:24672371

  8. A Bioinspired Adaptive Congestion-Avoidance Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mobile Ad Hoc network routing protocols are mainly based on the Shortest Path, which possibly results in many congestion nodes that incur routing instability and rerouting. To mitigate the side-efforts, this paper proposed a new bioinspired adaptive routing protocol (ATAR based on a mathematics biology model ARAS. This paper improved the ARAS by reducing the randomness and by introducing a new routing-decision metric “the next-hop fitness” which was denoted as the congestion level of node and the length of routing path. In the route maintenance, the nodes decide to forward the data to next node according to a threshold value of the fitness. In the recovery phase, the node will adopt random manner to select the neighbor as the next hop by calculation of the improved ARAS. With this route mechanism, the ATAR could adaptively circumvent the congestion nodes and the rerouting action is taken in advance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results show that the ATAR protocol outperforms AODV and MARAS in terms of delivery ratio, ETE delay, and the complexity. In particular, ATAR can efficiently mitigate the congestion.

  9. A System of Umpires for Security of Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyaswamy Kathirvel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-created self-organized and self-administering set of nodes connectedvia wireless links without the aid of any fixed infrastructure or centralized administrator. Protecting the network layer frommalicious attacks is an important and challenging issue in both wired and wireless networks and the issue becomes even morechallenging in the case of MANET. In this paper we propose a solution of umpiring system (US that provides security forrouting and data forwarding operations. Umpiring system consist of three models, are single umpiring system (SUS, doubleumpiring system (DUS, and triple umpiring system (TUS. In our system each node in the path from source to destination hasdual roles to perform: packet forwarding and umpiring.US does not apply any cryptographic techniques on the routing andpacket forwarding message. In the umpiring role, each node in the path closely monitors the behavior of its succeeding nodeand if any misbehavior is noticed immediately flags off the guilty node. For demonstration, we have implemented the umpiringsystem by modifying the popular AODV protocol.

  10. Mean field game theoretic approach for security in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwei; Tang, Helen; Yu, F. Richard; Huang, Minyi

    2013-05-01

    Game theory can provide a useful tool to study the security problem in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Most existing work on applying game theories to security only considers two players in the security game model: an attacker and a defender. While this assumption is valid for a network with centralized administration, it may not be realistic in MANETs, where centralized administration is not available. Consequently, each individual node in a MANET should be treated separately in the security game model. In this paper, using recent advances in mean field game theory, we propose a novel game theoretic approach for security in MANETs. Mean field game theory provides a powerful mathematical tool for problems with a large number of players. Since security defence mechanisms consume precious system resources (e.g., energy), the proposed scheme considers not only the security requirement of MANETs but also the system resources. In addition, each node only needs to know its own state information and the aggregate effect of the other nodes in the MANET. Therefore, the proposed scheme is a fully distributed scheme. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  11. Securing Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Against Jamming Attacks Through Unified Security Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Sari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The varieties of studies in the literature have been addressed by the researchers to solve security dilemmas of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET. Due to the wireless nature of the channel and specific characteristics of MANETs, the radio interference attacks cannot be defeated through conventional security mechanisms. An adversary can easily override its medium access control protocol (MAC and continually transfer packages on the network channel. The authorized nodes keep sending Request-toSend (RTS frames to the access point node in order to access to shared medium and start data transfer. However, due to jamming attacks on the network, the access point node cannot assign authorization access to shared medium. These attacks cause a significant decrease on overall network throughput, packet transmission rates and delay on the MAC layer since other nodes back-off from the communication. The proposed method applied for preventing and mitigating jamming attacks is implemented at the MAC layer that consist of a combination of different coordination mechanisms. These are a combination of Point Controller Functions (PCF that are used to coordinate entire network activities at the MAC layer and RTS/CTS (Clear-To-Send mechanisms which is a handshaking process that minimizes the occurrence of collisions on the wireless network. The entire network performance and mechanism is simulated through OPNET simulation application.

  12. A Policy Based Scheme for Combined Data Security in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Srivatsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET routing protocols, we require a network-level or link layer security. Since without appropriate security provisions, the MANETs is subjected to attacks like network traffic, replay transmissions, manipulate packet headers and redirect routing messages. In order to address these needs, a policy based network management system that provides the capability to express network requirements is required. Approach: In this study, we propose a policy based scheme for combined data security which focuses mainly on three policies: Integrity, authentication and Confidentiality. For providing security not only to data, but also for routing information, we calculate the trust indexes of the nodes and the route is selected according to the trust value which improves integrity. Then in order to provide authentication, we propose a Distributed Certificate Authority (DCA technique in which multiple DCA is required to construct a certificate. Next we propose an RSA based novel encryption mechanism in order to provide Confidentiality among the nodes. Thus, the desired level of security is provided by the system based on the policy of the user by executing the corresponding security modules. Results: By simulation results, we show that this scheme provides a combined data security in MANETs and can be used efficiently. Conclusion: Our proposed combined data security policy provides complete protection for the data in MANET communications.

  13. A New Dynamic Route Discovery Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Nishat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nodes in a mobile ad hoc network have limited battery power for their operation. Energy efficient routing protocol such as Min-Max Battery Cost Routing (MMBCR selects a path with nodes having maximum battery capacity for transmission of data packets from source to destination. Though MMBCR considers individual node battery power during route discovery process, the route selected does not change unless any node in that route is exhausted completely resulting in link failure. This paper proposes a new dynamic route discovery mechanism which adapts a new route periodically resulting in decreasing the probability of link failure and increasing the lifetime of the network. The proposed routing protocol is named Dynamic Route Discovery (DRD protocol. In this DRD protocol, the energy and cost function of each node is computed periodically by initializing route discovery process at regular intervals. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm not only increases the lifetime of the network but also gives better throughput, packet delivery ratio and delay performance at the cost of increased routing overhead and normalized routing load compared to the existing MMBCR protocol.

  14. Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Based Relaying Data System for Oceanic Flight Routes in Aeronautical Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Dac Tu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a reliable system to overcome the weakness of current the HF radio communicationsystem for oceanic aeronautical flight routes. This system uses only one aeronautical VHF channel with air-toairradio relay system based on local mobile Ad-hoc networks. For access to/from all aircrafts in the system, aTDMA (Time Division Multiple Access scheme is proposed to be used where each aircraft is assigned onetime slot during its presence in the system in order to transmit its own packet by itself or relay them usingneighbouring aircrafts. These packets contain aircraft position, ID, relative direction which are used to build arouting table at each aircraft. In addition, several algorithms for relaying packets; schemes to reduce thepacket-loss-ratio as well as to reduce the interference caused by surrounding aircrafts have been proposed.The simulations have shown the improvement of such proposals when examining system performance underreal air-traffic scenarios. This system strengthens the reliability of oceanic aeronautical communication andincreases situational awareness of all oceanic flights as an effective solution to operate more flights on theocean but in higher safety.

  15. Investigating on Mobile Ad-Hoc Network to Transfer FTP Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ako Muhammad Abdullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is the collection of mobile nodes without requiring of any infrastructure. Mobile nodes in MANET are operating as a router and MANET network topology can change quickly. Due to nodes in the network are mobile and thus can move randomly and organize arbitrarily regardless of the directions that generate great complexity in routing traffic from source to destination. To communicate with other nodes MANET nodes contain multiple applications and it needs the different level of data traffic. While data communicate different routing protocols require whereas every node must act as a router. Nowadays, different routing protocols have available for MANET. MANET protocols designed and implemented at the network layer have vital roles that affect the application running at the application layer. In this paper, the performance of On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Geographic Routing Protocol (GRP will be evaluated. The main purpose of this research is to analyze the performance of MANET routing protocols to identify “Which routing protocol has ability to provide the best performance to transfer FTP Application in high mobility case under low, medium and high density scenario?”. The performance analyze with respect to Average End-to-End Delay, Media Access Delay, Network Load, Retransmission Attempt and Throughput. All simulations have been done using OPNET. On the basis of results show that the GRP gives better performance in End-to-End Delay, Media Access Delay, and Retransmission Attempt when varying network size and provide the best Throughput in small and medium network size. Simulation results verify that AODV gives better Throughput in a large network and lower Network Load in small and medium network size compared to GRP. DSR produces low Average Network load as compared to other protocols. The overall study of the FTP application shows that the performance of theses routing protocols

  16. A Test-Bed Implementation for Securing OLSR In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil A. Panaousis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary personal computing devices are increasingly required to be portable and mobileenabling user’s wireless access, to wired network infrastructures and services. This approach tomobile computing and communication is only appropriate in situations where a coherentinfrastructure is available. There are many situations where these requirements are not fulfilledsuch as; developing nations, rural areas, natural disasters, and military conflicts to name but a few.A practical solution is to use mobile devices interconnected via a wireless medium to form anetwork, known as a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET, and provide the services normally found inwired networks. Security in MANETs is an issue of paramount importance due to the wireless natureof the communication links. Additionally due to the lack of central administration security issues aredifferent from conventional networks. For the purposes of this article we have used the “WMN testbed”to enable secure routing in MANETs. The use of cryptography is an efficient proven way ofsecuring data in communications, but some cryptographic algorithms are not as efficient as othersand require more processing power, which is detrimental to MANETs. In this article we haveassessed different cryptographic approaches to securing the OLSR (Optimised Link State Routingprotocol to provide a basis for research. We conclude the paper with a series of performanceevaluation results regarding different cryptographic and hashing schemes. Our findings clearlyshow that the most efficient combination of algorithms used for authentication and encryption areSHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm-1 and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard respectively. Usingthis combination over their counterparts will lead to a considerable reduction in processing timeand delay on the network, creating an efficient transaction moving towards satisfying resourceconstraints and security requirements.

  17. An artificial immune system for securing mobile ad hoc networks against intrusion attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2003-08-01

    To mitigate the problem of intrusion attacks by malicious nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), security attributes and quantifiable trust levels, unique to the MANET's transient, self-organizing topology, augment or replace traditional protocol metrics of throughput, packet delay and hop-count in the ad hoc route discovery procedures. The new features are unique to the candidate security protocol, which views security as a quality metric to improve the relevance of the routes discovered by established reactive ad hoc routing protocols. Attributes of a secure route are identified in order to define the appropriate metrics to quantify the "level of security" associated with the protocol messaging and the detection of malicious activities by some intrusive nodes. A state vector of features and metrics based on the published Secure Routing Protocol (SRP) for MANETs is constructed to encode network security characteristics. This route discovery protocol mitigates the detrimental effects of various malicious behaviors to provide trustworthy connectivity information. The protocol ensures that fabricated, compromised, or replayed route replies would either be rejected or never reach the querying source node. In this paper, the pattern of values, taken by the state vector of the SRP features in the route request, discovery and reply operations, are analyzed to detect evidence of intrusion attacks by malicious nodes that could lead to denial of service and network shutdown. The pattern analysis applies a technique based on negative selection found in natural immune systems that can detect extraneous patterns in the (nonself) space that is the complement of vector values associated with correct route discovery and route maintenance. The immune system is well-suited to the distributed nature of the MANET. It does not rely on a central controller, but instead uses a distributed detection and response mechanism in order to respond to foreign invaders, mirroring the

  18. The Design and Implementation of a Novel Skew Scenario Model in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vetrivelan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this research, it had been presented a novel Skew Scenario Model that has been developed and implemented for mobile ad hoc networks. There exist several mobility patterns that try to capture the behavior of the mobile devices under different circumstances, whereas in our work, the direction movement of the nodes is significantly specified horizontally, vertically and diagonally in the simulation area. Approach: Our novel Skew Scenario Model and the impact of mobility on MANET protocols had been compared and analyzed. The performance of DSDV and DSR under SSM in terms of packet delivery fraction, routing load and latency for varying source and destination traffic from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 under 100 nodes environment had been analyzed. Apart from this, our SSM with the existing waypoint model in 100 nodes environment had been compared. A suitable algorithm for SSM has also been developed. Results: Our simulation result showed that the functioning of our SSM had greatly influenced the performance of routing protocols in MANET environment. Simulation experiments confirm that for DSR under SSM, the PDF is highest between 93.56-99.43%, routing load is lowest between 1.005-1.068 and Latency is very less between 0.0163-0.049 sec, in the case of DSDV under SSM, the PDF is 63.22-79.104%, routing load is 1.20-1.58 and latency is 0.018-0.050 sec. The result revealed the fact that the reactive routing protocol DSR outperforms much more than the Proactive routing protocol DSDV. Our Novel Model has performed well when we compared it with existing waypoint mobility model while setting many source-destination connections. In DSR under SSM and waypoint model, PDF is between 93.56-99.43% in SSM and in waypoint 94.20-98.88%. Routing load in SSM is 1.0056-1.068, waypoint 1.01-1.06 seconds. Latency is between 0.026-0.063 in SSM and in waypoint 0.026-0.1235 sec. Conclusion: This study revealed the fact that the DSR discovers new routes faster

  19. Trust Based Scheme for QoS Assurance in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Subramanian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a peer-to-peer wireless network where nodes can communicate with each other without the use of infrastructure such as access points or base stations. These networks are self-configuring, capable of self-directed operation and hastily deployable. Nodes cooperate to provide connectivity, operates without centralized administration. Nodes are itinerant, topology can be very dynamic and nodes must be able to relay traffic since communicating nodes might be out of range. The dynamic nature of MANET makes network open to attacks and unreliability. Routing is always the most significant part for any networks. Each node should not only work for itself, but should be cooperative with other nodes. Node misbehaviour due to selfish or malicious intention could significantly degrade the performance of MANET. The Qos parameters like PDR, throughput and delay are affected directly due to such misbehaving nodes. We focus on trust management framework, which is intended to cope with misbehaviour problem of node and increase the performance of MANETs. A trust-based system can be used to track this misbehaving of nodes, spot them and isolate them from routing and provide reliability. In this paper a Trust Based Reliable AODV [TBRAODV] protocol is presented which implements a trust value for each node. For every node trust value is calculated and based trust valuenodes are allowed to participate in routing or else identified to become a misbehaving node. This enhances reliability in AODV routing and results in increase of PDR, decrease in delay and throughput is maintained. This work is implemented and simulated on NS-2. Based on simulation results, the proposed protocol provides more consistent and reliable data transfer compared with general AODV, if there are misbehaving nodes in the MANET.

  20. IDMA: improving the defense against malicious attack for mobile ad hoc networks based on ARIP protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2008-04-01

    Malicious nodes are mounting increasingly sophisticated attacking operations on the Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). This is mainly because the IP-based MANETs are vulnerable to attacks by various malicious nodes. However, the defense against malicious attack can be improved when a new layer of network architecture can be developed to separate true IP address from disclosing to the malicious nodes. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to improve the defense against malicious attack (IDMA) that is based on a recently developed Assignment Router Identify Protocol (ARIP) for the clustering-based MANET management. In the ARIP protocol, we design the ARIP architecture based on the new Identity instead of the vulnerable IP addresses to provide the required security that is embedded seamlessly into the overall network architecture. We make full use of ARIP's special property to monitor gateway forward packets by Reply Request Route Packets (RREP) without additional intrusion detection layer. We name this new algorithm IDMA because of its inherent capability to improve the defense against malicious attacks. Through IDMA, a watching algorithm can be established so as to counterattack the malicious node in the routing path when it unusually drops up packets. We provide analysis examples for IDMA for the defense against a malicious node that disrupts the route discovery by impersonating the destination, or by responding with state of corrupted routing information, or by disseminating forged control traffic. The IDMA algorithm is able to counterattack the malicious node in the cases when the node lunch DoS attack by broadcast a large number of route requests, or make Target traffic congestion by delivering huge mount of data; or spoof the IP addresses and send forge packets with a fake ID to the same Target causing traffic congestion at that destination. We have implemented IDMA algorism using the GloMoSim simulator and have demonstrated its performance under a variety of

  1. A Reliability-based Framework for Multi-path Routing Analysis in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Unlike traditional routing procedures that, at the best, single out a unique route, multi-path routing protocols discover proactively several alternative routes. It has been recognized that multi-path routing can be more efficient than traditional one mainly for mobile ad hoc networks, where route failure events are frequent. Most studies in the area of multi-path routing focus on heuristic methods, and the performances of these strategies are commonly evaluated by numerical simulations. The need of a theoretical analysis motivates such a paper, which proposes to resort to the terminal-pair routing reliability as performance metric. This metric allows one to assess the performance gain due to the availability of route diversity. By resorting to graph theory, we propose an analytical framework to evaluate the tolerance of multi-path route discovery processes against route failures for mobile ad hoc networks. Moreover, we derive a useful bound to easily estimate the performance improvements achieved by multi-pa...

  2. A Distributed Trust Management Framework for Detecting Malicious Packet Dropping Nodes in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2010-01-01

    In a multi-hop mobile ad hoc network (MANET) mobile nodes communicate with each other forming a cooperative radio network. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of any clear lines of defense. Most of the currently existing security algorithms designed for these networks are insecure, in efficient, and have low detection accuracy for nodes' misbehaviour. In this paper, a new approach has been proposed to bring out the complementary relationship between key distribution and misbehaviour detection for developing an integrated security solution for MANETs. The redundancy of routing information in ad hoc networks is utilized to develop a highly reliable protocol that works even in presence of transient network partitioning and Byzantine failure of nodes. The proposed mechanism is fully co-operative, and thus it is more robust as the vulnerabil...

  3. A New Cluster-based Wormhole Intrusion detection algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Debdutta Barman Roy; Rituparna Chaki; Nabendu Chaki

    2010-01-01

    In multi-hop wireless systems, the need for cooperation among nodes to relay each other's packets exposes them to a wide range of security attacks. A particularly devastating attack is the wormhole attack, where a malicious node records control traffic at one location and tunnels it to another compromised node, possibly far away, which replays it locally. Routing security in ad hoc networks is often equated with strong and feasible node authentication and lightweight cryptography. Unfortunate...

  4. Mobility Based Key Management Technique for Multicast Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Madhusudhanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In MANET multicasting, forward and backward secrecy result in increased packet drop rate owing to mobility. Frequent rekeying causes large message overhead which increases energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Particularly, the prevailing group key management techniques cause frequent mobility and disconnections. So there is a need to design a multicast key management technique to overcome these problems. In this paper, we propose the mobility based key management technique for multicast security in MANET. Initially, the nodes are categorized according to their stability index which is estimated based on the link availability and mobility. A multicast tree is constructed such that for every weak node, there is a strong parent node. A session key-based encryption technique is utilized to transmit a multicast data. The rekeying process is performed periodically by the initiator node. The rekeying interval is fixed depending on the node category so that this technique greatly minimizes the rekeying overhead. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach reduces the packet drop rate and improves the data confidentiality.

  5. Mobility Based Key Management Technique for Multicast Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhanan, B.; Chitra, S.; Rajan, C.

    2015-01-01

    In MANET multicasting, forward and backward secrecy result in increased packet drop rate owing to mobility. Frequent rekeying causes large message overhead which increases energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Particularly, the prevailing group key management techniques cause frequent mobility and disconnections. So there is a need to design a multicast key management technique to overcome these problems. In this paper, we propose the mobility based key management technique for multicast security in MANET. Initially, the nodes are categorized according to their stability index which is estimated based on the link availability and mobility. A multicast tree is constructed such that for every weak node, there is a strong parent node. A session key-based encryption technique is utilized to transmit a multicast data. The rekeying process is performed periodically by the initiator node. The rekeying interval is fixed depending on the node category so that this technique greatly minimizes the rekeying overhead. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach reduces the packet drop rate and improves the data confidentiality. PMID:25834838

  6. Energy Aware Reliable Routing Protocol (EARRP) for Mobile AdHoc Networks Using Bee Foraging Behavior and Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    K. G. Santhiya; Arumugam, N.

    2012-01-01

    Energy aware reliable routing in mobile ad hoc networks is an astonishing task and in this paper we propose to design, develop such protocol which will be a good solution. For developing such protocol EARRP, two swarm intelligence techniques are involved namely ant colony optimization and bee colony foraging behavior. For optimization, we proposed adaptive solutions in order to estimate MAC overhead, link eminence and residual energy. After estimating the above said metrics, the fitness funct...

  7. Performance Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Based Communications for Future Mobile Tele-Emergency System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswacheda, D. V.; Barukang, L.; Hamid, M. Y.; Arifianto, M. S.

    Sparked by awareness of the limitations to provide medical services in remote areas, researchers have perceived that developing telemedicine systems is inevitable. In most cases very remote areas and disaster struck areas lack telecommunication infrastructure. Telemedicine system operating in such areas must have advanced wireless technology supporting it in devastating situation, hence it is called as tele-emergency system. Our approach is on MANET combined with Mobile IP and MIPV6, is the basis of infrastructure for the mobile tele-emergency system. The tele-emergency system requires data, voice and video transmission in its network. In this investigation, evaluation is based on simulation of the various ITU-T standard CODECs of VoIP and video transmission over MANET using discrete event simulator NS-2. The results of simulation showed that ITU-T G723.1 worked well in the MANET environment than the other CODECs for VoIP in fixed and mobility tele-emergency environments. From the simulation of video CODEC performance evaluation, it was observed that H.263 performed to a great extent in random small scale environment and also in multiple video flow of 57.6kbps speed video transmission.

  8. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  9. Multilevel security model for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Changda; Ju Shiguang

    2008-01-01

    Modern battlefield doctrine is based on mobility, flexibility, and rapid response to changing situations.As is well known, mobile ad hoc network systems are among the best utilities for battlefield activity. Although much research has been done on secure routing, security issues have largely been ignored in applying mobile ad hoc network theory to computer technology. An ad hoc network is usually assumed to be homogeneous, which is an irrational assumption for armies. It is clear that soldiers, commanders, and commanders-in-chief should have different security levels and computation powers as they have access to asymmetric resources. Imitating basic military rank levels in battlefield situations, how multilevel security can be introduced into ad hoc networks is indicated, thereby controlling restricted classified information flows among nodes that have different security levels.

  10. Optimization of the Route Repair in Mobile Ad-hoc Network%移动Ad-hoc网络的路由修复的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承; 汪为农

    2004-01-01

    A main shortcoming of mobile Ad-hoc network's reactive routing protocols is the large volume of far-reaching control traffic required to support the route discovery (RD) and route repair (RR) mechanism. Using a random mobility model, this paper derives the probability equation of the relative distance (RDIS) between any two mobile hosts in an ad-hoc network. Consequently, combining with average equivalent hop distance (AEHD), a host can estimate the routing hops between itself and any destination host each timethe RD/RR procedure is triggered, and reduce the flooding area of RD/RR messages. Simulation results show that this optimized route repair (ORR) algorithm can significantly decrease the communication overhead of RR process by about 35%.

  11. Design and Implementation of Key Techniques for Mobile Ad hoc Network Adaptive QoS Provisioning Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOYinxiong; LIUJianxun; TANGXinhuai

    2004-01-01

    MAQF is a newly proposed adaptive QoS provisioning framework for Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) by the authors. Through modifying the architecture of INSIGNIA and adding some components, MAQF overcomes many disadvantages appearing in related works and supports QoS guarantees for MANET. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of some key techniques in MAQF, including QoS routing, signaling in band, adaptive control mechanism, dynamic resource adaptation algorithm and, etc. Simulation results are presented and have verified the validity of MAQF.

  12. GLOBAL APPROACH OF CHANNEL MODELING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS INCLUDING SECOND ORDER STATISTICS AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile L. AGBA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET are very difficult to design in terms of scenarios specification and propagation modeling. All these aspects must be taken into account when designing MANET. For cost-effective designing, powerful and accurate simulation tools are needed. Our first contribution in this paper is to provide a global approach process (GAP in channel modeling combining scenarios and propagation in order to have a better analysis of the physical layer, and finally to improve performances of the whole network. The GAP is implemented in an integrated simulation tool, Ad-SMPro. Moreover, channel statistics, throughput and delay are some key points to be considered when studying a mobile wireless networks. A carefully analysis of mobility effects over second order channel statistics and system performances is made based on our optimized simulation tool, Ad-SMProl. The channel is modeled by large scale fading and small scale fading including Doppler spectrum due to the double mobility of the nodes. Level Cross Rate and Average Duration of Fade are simulated as function of double mobility degree, a defined to be the ratio of the nodes' speeds. These results are compared to the theoretical predictions. We demonstrate that, in mobile ad hoc networks, flat fading channels and frequency-selective fading channels are differently affected. In addition, Bit Error rate is analysed as function of the ratio of the average bit energy to thermal noise density. Other performances (such as throughput, delay and routing traffic are analysed and conclusions related to the proposed simulation model and the mobility effects are drawn.

  13. Performance Analysis on Mobile Agent Based Congestion Control Using AODV Routing Protocol Technique with Hop by Hop Algorithm for Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Kumar Sharma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs congestion occurs due to the packet loss and it can be successfully reduced by involving congestion control scheme which includes routing algorithm and a flow control at the network layer. In this paper, we propose to agent based congestion control technique for MANETs. In our technique, the information about network congestion is collected and distributed by mobile agents (MA A mobile agent based congestion control AODV routing protocol is proposed to avoid congestion in ad hoc network. Some mobile agents are added in ad hoc network, which carry routing information and nodes congestion status.When mobile agent travels through the network, it can select a less-loaded neighbor node as its next hop and update the routing table according to the node’s congestion status. With the aid of mobile agents, the nodes can get the dynamic network topology in time. By simulation results, we show that our proposed technique attains high delivery ratio and throughput with reduced delay when compared with the existing technique.

  14. Transmission of Successful Route Error Message(RERR) in Routing Aware Multiple Description Video Coding over Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Kinjal; Sharma, Dharmendar; Mishra, Priyanka; Rakesh, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Video transmission over mobile ad-hoc networks is becoming important as these networks become more widely used in the wireless networks. We propose a routing-aware multiple description video coding approach to support video transmission over mobile ad-hoc networks with single and multiple path transport. We build a model to estimate the packet loss probability of each packet transmitted over the network based on the standard ad-hoc routing messages and network parameters without losing the RERR message. We then calculate the frame loss probability in order to eliminate error without any loss of data.

  15. Service placement in ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wittenburg, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Service provisioning in ad hoc networks is challenging given the difficulties of communicating over a wireless channel and the potential heterogeneity and mobility of the devices that form the network. Service placement is the process of selecting an optimal set of nodes to host the implementation of a service in light of a given service demand and network topology. The key advantage of active service placement in ad hoc networks is that it allows for the service configuration to be adapted continuously at run time. ""Service Placement in Ad Hoc Networks"" proposes the SPi service placement fr

  16. A Secure Routing Protocol to Eliminate Integrity, Authentication and Sleep Deprivation Based Threats in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna E. Nallathambi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network security in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a major issue. Some of the attacks such as modification, impersonation, Time To Live (TTL and sleep deprivation are due to misbehaviour of malicious nodes, which disrupts the transmission. Some of the existing security protocols such as ARAN, SAODV and SEAD are basically used to detect and eliminate one or two types of attacks. The major requirement of a secure protocol is to prevent and eliminate many attacks simultaneously which will make the MANETs more secured. Approach: We propose the algorithm that can prevent and also eliminate multiple attacks simultaneously, called MIST algorithm (Modification, Impersonation, Sleep deprivation and TTL attacks. This algorithm is written on Node Transition Probability (NTP based protocol which provides maximum utilization of bandwidth during heavy traffic with less overhead. Thus this has been named MIST NTP. Results: The proposed MIST NTP has been compared with NTP without the MIST algorithm, Authenticated Routing for Ad hoc Networks (ARAN and Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV. Extensive packet level simulations show that MIST NTP produces around 10% less end to end delay than ARAN, it even drops 30% fewer packets compared to malicious NTP on an average and around 50-60% fewer packets compared to AODV during multiple attacks. Conclusion: The results ensure that MIST NTP can break the greatest security challenge prevailing in MANETs by securing the MANET against several attacks at once.

  17. Cooperative Reputation Index Based Selfish Node Detection and Prevention System for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan Paracha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Ad hoc networks every node plays an important part in the transmission of packets from sender to receiver. Most of the time packet delivery ratio of these networks depends on the behavior of intermediate nodes. Sometimes these intermediate nodes cooperate and forward the packets of their neighbor and some time they simply drop their packets and cheat their neighbors. We present a solution that not only detect these selfish nodes but also punish these nodes so that they avoid such misbehavior in future. To this account, we use an agent “Neighbor Monitor”, running on every node, to monitor the traffic of neighbors and assign a value called “Reputation Index”, associated with each node, based on its behavior.

  18. RTOS BASED SECURE SHORTEST PATH ROUTING ALGORITHM IN MOBILE AD- HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Increase of number of the nodes in the wireless computing environment leads to different issues like power, data rate, QoS, simulators and security. Among these the security is the peak issue faced by most of the wireless networks. Especially networks without having a centralized system (MANETS is facing severe security issues. One of the major security issues is the wormhole attack while finding the shortest path. The aim of this paper is to propose an algorithm to find a secure shortest path against wormhole attack. Existing algorithms are mainly concentrated on detecting the malicious node but they are hardware specific like directional antennas and synchronized clocks. But the proposed algorithm is both software and hardware specific. RTOS is included to make the ad hoc network a real time application.

  19. RTOS Based Secure Shortest Path Routing Algorithm In Mobile Ad- Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Increase of number of the nodes in the wireless computing environment leads to different issues like power, data rate, QoS, simulators and security. Among these the security is the peak issue faced by most of the wireless networks. Especially networks without having a centralized system (MANETS is facing severe security issues. One of the major security issues is the wormhole attack while finding the shortest path. The aim of this paper is to propose an algorithm to find a secure shortest path against wormhole attack. Existing algorithms are mainly concentrated on detecting the malicious node but they are hardware specific like directional antennas and synchronized clocks. But the proposed algorithm is both software and hardware specific. RTOS is included to make the ad hoc network a real time application.

  20. Comparative Performance Analysis of AODV and AODV-MIMC Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Periyasamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth Scarcity is a major drawback in multi-hop ad hoc networks. When a single-interface single-channel (SISC approach is used for both incoming and outgoing traffic the bandwidth contention between nodes along the path has occurred as well as throughput is degraded. This drawback is overwhelmed by using MIMC approach as well as some of the Quality of Service (QoS requirements has been enhanced. In this paper we applied multi-interface muti-channel approach to AODV routing protocol, called AODV-MIMC routing protocol and its performance is compared with AODV routing protocol. The simulation results show the Network Life Time, Throughput, and Packet Delivery Ratio of AODV-MIMC routing protocol has been tremendously improved than the AODV routing protocol.

  1. Topology Control in Large-Scale High Dynamic Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Habbal, Mohamed; Rückert, Ulrich; Witkowski, Ulf

    We present our contribution in projects related to ad-hoc networking using different routing protocols and hardware platforms, showing our results and new solutions regarding topology control and routing protocols. We mainly focus on our work in the GUARDIANS EU-project, where as a main disaster scenario a large industrial warehouse on fire is assumed. The paper presents the simulation results for the routing protocols ACR, DSR and EDSR, as well as the implementation of down-scaled demos for supporting the autonomous team of robots as well as the human squad team with robust communication coverage. Various hardware platforms were used in the demos for distance measurement, based on laser range finder and radio communication with time of flight analysis.

  2. A Combinational Perspective in Stimulating Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahshid Rahnamay-Naeini; Masoud Sabaei

    2011-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks cooperation among nodes cannot always be assumed since nodes with limited resources and different owners are capable of making independent decisions. Cooperation problems in topology control and packet forwarding tasks have been mostly studied separately but these two tasks are not independent. Considering a joint cooperation problem by taking into account dependencies between tasks will result in more reliable and efficient networks. In this paper topology control definition is extended to cover cooperation problem in both packet forwarding and topology control in a single problem. In this definition nodes have to adjust their transmission power and decide on their relay role. This paper models the interactions of nodes as a potential game with two-dimensional utility function. The presented model, named TCFORCE (Topology Control packet FORwarding Cooperation Enforcement), preserves the network connectivity and reduces the energy consumption by providing cooperative paths between all pairs of nodes in the network.

  3. Hierarchical Location Service with Prediction in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Amar, Ebtisam; Renault, Éric; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2204

    2010-01-01

    Position-based routing protocols take advantage of location information to perform a stateless and efficient routing. To enable position-based routing, a node must be able to discover the location of the messages' destination node. This task is typically accomplished by a location service. Recently, several location service protocols have been developed for ad hoc networks. In this paper we propose a novel location service called PHLS: Predictive Hierarchical Location Service. In PHLS, the entire network is partitioned into a hierarchy of smaller and smaller regions. For each node, one node in each-level region of the hierarchy is chosen as its local location server. When the network initializes or when a node attaches the network, nodes contact their local location server with their current location information (ie. position and velocity). Then, they only need to update their location server when they move away from their current region. Finally, nodes query their location servers and get the exact or predic...

  4. A New Cluster-based Wormhole Intrusion detection algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Debdutta Barman; Chaki, Nabendu

    2010-01-01

    In multi-hop wireless systems, the need for cooperation among nodes to relay each other's packets exposes them to a wide range of security attacks. A particularly devastating attack is the wormhole attack, where a malicious node records control traffic at one location and tunnels it to another compromised node, possibly far away, which replays it locally. Routing security in ad hoc networks is often equated with strong and feasible node authentication and lightweight cryptography. Unfortunately, the wormhole attack can hardly be defeated by crypto graphical measures, as wormhole attackers do not create separate packets. They simply replay packets already existing on the network, which pass the cryptographic checks. Existing works on wormhole detection have often focused on detection using specialized hardware, such as directional antennas, etc. In this paper, we present a cluster based counter-measure for the wormhole attack, that alleviates these drawbacks and efficiently mitigates the wormhole attack in MAN...

  5. A Simulation Study of a Location Service for Position-Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Käsemann, Michael; Hartenstein, Hannes; Füßler, Holger; Mauve, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Position-based routing in a mobile ad hoc network requires geographic addresses. Thus, a node that wants to send a packet to some target node has to know the target's (approximate) current position. In order to provide each node's position to the other network nodes, a distributed location service has to be used. J. Li et al. recently put forward a promising approach called the Grid Location Service' (GLS). In this paper we provide some analyses and evaluations of GLS by means of simulation w...

  6. Monitoring and classifying animal behavior using ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks and artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria;

    2012-01-01

    perceptron (MLP)-based artificial neural network (ANN). The best performance of the ANN in terms of the mean squared error (MSE) and the convergence speed was achieved when it was initialized and trained using the Nguyen–Widrow and Levenberg–Marquardt back-propagation algorithms, respectively. The success...... into their corresponding behavioral modes. However, network unreliability and high-energy consumption have limited the applicability of those systems. In this study, a 2.4-GHz ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor network (MANET) that is able to overcome those problems is presented. The designed MANET showed high...

  7. Context discovery in ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are more and more present in our daily life. Such networks are often composed of mobile and battery-supplied devices, like laptops and PDAs. With no requirement for infrastructure support, MANETs can be used as temporary networks, such as for conference and office env

  8. Dynamic Route Shortening and Route Repairing Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc Networks are wireless networks without any fixed infrastructure. The network topology changes frequently and unpredictably due to the random movement of the nodes. The ad hoc on Demand Distant Vector Routing (AODV protocol works in a dynamic fashion, by establishing a route on demand and continues that route until it breaks. Due to the changing network topology of ad hoc networks, if other routes with less hop count become available, the network topology is not able to adapt until the route break occurs. Hence in the route shortening scheme is some redundant nodes in the active route is replaced with a node that is not on the active route. When there is any link failure between any two nodes, the alternative route with optimum route to be constructed and not sending RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. Approach: This study proposes a new routing protocol called, Dynamic Route Shortening and Repairing mechanism (DRSR. The route shortening is incorporated with route repairing mechanism, to improve the performance of the AODV. The route shortening scheme works by replacing some redundant nodes in the active route, with a node that is not on the active route. If there is a link failure between the two nodes, the route repairing mechanism repairs the route, by using the nodes that are close enough to the route to overhear the message. Whenever the links go down, the DRSR replaces the failed links with the optimum route that is adjacent to the main route and not sending and RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. The alternative route construction process could be initiated at any time, not just when a route has failed. The dynamically constructed alternative route’s information is passed on to the upstream nodes, which then determine by themselves when to direct their packets to the Normal 0 false false false EN-US X

  9. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  10. Ad Hoc Access Gateway Selection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Liu

    With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. For mobile nodes in Ad Hoc network to internet, internet communications in the peer nodes must be achieved through the gateway. Therefore, the key Ad Hoc Access Networks will focus on the discovery gateway, as well as gateway selection in the case of multi-gateway and handover problems between different gateways. This paper considers the mobile node and the gateway, based on the average number of hops from an average access time and the stability of routes, improved gateway selection algorithm were proposed. An improved gateway selection algorithm, which mainly considers the algorithm can improve the access time of Ad Hoc nodes and the continuity of communication between the gateways, were proposed. This can improve the quality of communication across the network.

  11. A Distributed Trust Management Framework for Detecting Malicious Packet Dropping Nodes in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Sen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In a multi-hop mobile ad hoc network (MANET mobile nodes communicate with each other forming acooperative radio network. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to their features ofopen medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence ofcentralized monitoring points, and lack of any clear lines of defense. Most of the currently existingsecurity algorithms designed for these networks are insecure, in efficient, and have low detectionaccuracy for nodes’ misbehaviour. In this paper, a new approach has been proposed to bring out thecomplementary relationship between key distribution and misbehaviour detection for developing anintegrated security solution for MANETs. The redundancy of routing information in ad hoc networks isutilized to develop a highly reliable protocol that works even in presence of transient networkpartitioning and Byzantine failure of nodes. The proposed mechanism is fully co-operative, and thus it ismore robust as the vulnerabilities of the election algorithms used for choosing the subset of nodes forcooperation are absent. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed protocol.

  12. A novel clustering algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks based on determination of virtual links' weight to increase network stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Abbas; Afsharfarnia, Abbas; Zarafshan, Faraneh; Al-Haddad, S A R

    2014-01-01

    The stability of clusters is a serious issue in mobile ad hoc networks. Low stability of clusters may lead to rapid failure of clusters, high energy consumption for reclustering, and decrease in the overall network stability in mobile ad hoc network. In order to improve the stability of clusters, weight-based clustering algorithms are utilized. However, these algorithms only use limited features of the nodes. Thus, they decrease the weight accuracy in determining node's competency and lead to incorrect selection of cluster heads. A new weight-based algorithm presented in this paper not only determines node's weight using its own features, but also considers the direct effect of feature of adjacent nodes. It determines the weight of virtual links between nodes and the effect of the weights on determining node's final weight. By using this strategy, the highest weight is assigned to the best choices for being the cluster heads and the accuracy of nodes selection increases. The performance of new algorithm is analyzed by using computer simulation. The results show that produced clusters have longer lifetime and higher stability. Mathematical simulation shows that this algorithm has high availability in case of failure. PMID:25114965

  13. A NEW CLUSTER-BASED WORMHOLE INTRUSION DETECTION ALGORITHM FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debdutta Barman Roy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In multi-hop wireless systems, the need for cooperation among nodes to relay each other's packets exposes them to a wide range of security attacks. A particularly devastating attack is the wormhole attack, where a malicious node records control traffic at one location and tunnels it to another compromised node, possibly far away, which replays it locally. Routing security in ad hoc networks is often equated with strong and feasible node authentication and lightweight cryptography. Unfortunately, the wormhole attack can hardly be defeated by crypto graphical measures, as wormhole attackers do not create separate packets. They simply replay packets already existing on the network, which pass the cryptographic checks. Existing works on wormhole detection have often focused on detection using specialized hardware, such as directional antennas, etc. In this paper, we present a cluster based counter-measure for the wormhole attack, that alleviates these drawbacks and efficiently mitigates the wormhole attack in MANET. Simulation results on MATLab exhibit the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in detecting wormhole attacks.

  14. A Survey of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa Altayeb; Imad Mahgoub

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the aspect of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is becoming an interesting research area; VANET is a mobile ad hoc network considered as a special case of mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Similar to MANET, VANET is characterized as autonomous and self-configured wireless network. However, VANET has very dynamic topology, large and variable network size, and constrained mobility; these characteristics led to the need for efficient routing and resource saving VANET protocols, to f...

  15. Potentials, Limitations and Applications of long-term and mobile ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Lapteva, Yulia; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2014-05-01

    To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. The possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term and mobile environmental monitoring are presented. A concepts and realization example are given in the field of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes .This long term monitoring is part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Furthermore a mobile ad-hoc sensor network is presented for the monitoring of water induced mass wasting processes.

  16. Implementing voice over Internet protocol in mobile ad hoc network – analysing its features regarding efficiency, reliability and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmed Sheikh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing secure and efficient real-time voice communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET environment is a challenging problem. Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP has originally been developed over the past two decades for infrastructure-based networks. There are strict timing constraints for acceptable quality VoIP services, in addition to registration and discovery issues in VoIP end-points. In MANETs, ad hoc nature of networks and multi-hop wireless environment with significant packet loss and delays present formidable challenges to the implementation. Providing a secure real-time VoIP service on MANET is the main design objective of this paper. The authors have successfully developed a prototype system that establishes reliable and efficient VoIP communication and provides an extremely flexible method for voice communication in MANETs. The authors’ cooperative mesh-based MANET implementation can be used for rapidly deployable VoIP communication with survivable and efficient dynamic networking using open source software.

  17. Power Adjusting Algorithm: A New Cross-Layer Power Saving Mechanism for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Tao Meng; Jian-Rui Yuan; Sheng-Zhong Feng; Lian-Sheng Tan

    2013-01-01

    Power saving is one of the key issues in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs).It can be realized in Medium Access Control (MAC) layer and network layer.However,previous attentions were mainly paid to MAC layer or network layer with the aim of improving the channel utilization by adopting variable-range transmission power control.In this paper we focus on the power saving in both MAC layer and network layer,and propose a Power Adjusting Algorithm (PAA).In the presence of host's mobility,PAA is designed to conserve energy by adjusting the transmission power to maintain the route's connectivity and restarting the route discovery periodically to find a new route with better energy efficiency dynamically.After analyzing the operations of PAA,we find that the length of route discovery restarting period is a critical argument which will affect power saving,and an energy consumption model is abstracted to find the optimal value of the restarting period by analyzing the energy consumption of this algorithm.PAA can handle the mobility of MANET by adjusting the transmission power and in the meantime save energy by restarting route discovery periodically to balance the energy consumption on route discovery and packet delivering.Simulation results show that,PAA saves nearly 40% energy compared with Dynamic Source Routing protocol when the maximum speed of mobile hosts is larger than 8 m/s.

  18. Energy Aware Reliable Routing Protocol (EARRP for Mobile AdHoc Networks Using Bee Foraging Behavior and Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G.Santhiya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy aware reliable routing in mobile ad hoc networks is an astonishing task and in this paper we propose to design, develop such protocol which will be a good solution. For developing such protocol EARRP, two swarm intelligence techniques are involved namely ant colony optimization and bee colony foraging behavior. For optimization, we proposed adaptive solutions in order to estimate MAC overhead, link eminence and residual energy. After estimating the above said metrics, the fitness function is derived out. The performance metrics taken are overhead, delay, packet delivery ratio and total energy consumed by nodes. By simulation results the proposed EARRP outperforms AODV by reducing energy consumption, overhead and delay. Also EARRP gains better packet delivery ratio than that of AODV.

  19. Self-Organized Public-Key Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on a Bidirectional Trust Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In traditional networks ,the authentication is performed by certificate authoritys(CA),which can't be built in distributed mobile Ad Hoc Networks however. In this paper, we propose a fully self-organized public key management based on bidirectional trust model without any centralized authority that allows users to generate their public-private key pairs, to issue certificates, and the trust relation spreads rationally according to the truly human relations. In contrast with the traditional self-organized public-key management, the average certificates paths get more short,the authentication passing rate gets more high and the most important is that the bidirectional trust based model satisfys the trust requirement of hosts better.

  20. BEHAVIOUR OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS INVESTIGATED FOR EMERGENCY AND RESCUE SITUATION IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivagurunathan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks are open, shared, dynamic and self-organized networks. These distinct nature lead to efficient use in emergency and recue scenarios where the sharing of information is necessary. In order to share information within the network, a proper routing protocol is required to establish routes between nodes. This article discusses which of the routing protocols such as reactive or proactive has better performance in such scenario. In order to implement the test bed, we choose a real area in Uttarakhand state, India where the disaster occurred recently hence so many civilizations had vanished due to lack of communication and failure in recovery. Our aim is to choose an optimum routing protocol that is correct and used for efficient route establishment between nodes so that message could be delivered on time without loss and it will be implemented and used in future based on the model that we propose.

  1. Cost Effective Routing Protocols Based on Two Hop Neighborhood Information (2NI in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Anuradha Banerjee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are collections of mobile nodes communicating with each other using wireless media without any fixed infrastructure. During both route discovery and traversal of route-reply packets from destination to source, broadcast of packets is required which incurs huge message cost. The present article deals with the message cost reduction during transmission of route-reply from destination to source. Also the redundancy that is visible within the 2-hop neighborhood of a node is minimized during broadcasting of route-reply. This improves the average lifetime of network nodes by decreasing the possibility of network partition. The scheme of 2NI can be used with any reactive routing protocol in MANETs.

  2. QoS Issues Reserch Based on Mobile Ad Hoc Network%基于Ad Hoc网络QoS信令机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈敏洁; 顾海军

    2006-01-01

    针对移动Ad Hoc网络中移动节点的自由移动和拓扑结构的动态变化所造成的已经建立的QoS(Quality of Service)路径断开致使通信中断、时延、抖动等问题,对可支持Ad Hoc网络的QoS信令机制进行深入的探讨,结合Ad Hoc网络拓扑结构动态改变、传输带宽有限以及能量受限等问题,讨论了现存计算机网络综合服务和区分服务应用于Ad Hoc网络的优劣,提出了Ad Hoc网络QoS信令设计需要考虑的问题.研究表明:MRSVP(Mobile Resource ReSerVation Protocol)和DRSVP(Dynami Resource ReSerVation Protocol)较RSVP(Resource ReSerVation Protocol)在协议功能上有很大的增强;而FQMM(Flexible Quality of Service Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks)则结合了IntServ和DifServ的优点;三者对提高Ad Hoc网络的QoS,均起到很大的作用.

  3. A maintenance scheme of communication link in mobile robot ad hoc networks based on potential field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Jin, WenPing; Yang, GyoYing; Li, LeiMin

    2007-12-01

    Maintaining communication link in mobile robot networks between task robots and a control center is very important in some urgent application occasions such as remote danger detections. To offer a reliable multi-hop communication link, a link maintaining scheme based on artificial potential field is presented. The scheme is achieved by a task robot and communication relay ones. The task robot performs predefined tasks, and relay ones are simple robots which form a communication relay chain. When robots move towards destination in formation, a kind of attractive force created by communication quality is added to traditional potential field, and relay robots follow the task robot and automatically stop at adequate locations to form a relay chain from the control station to the task robot. In order to increase relay usage efficiency, when some relays are replaced by other short cut relays, the redundant relays can be reused by initiating another moving toward specified location. Simulation results show that the scheme can provide a reliable multi-hop communication link, and that the communication connection can be obtained through minimal number of relays.

  4. Research and optimization of AODV routing protocols in mobile Ad Hoc network%移动 Ad Hoc 网络 AODV 路由协议的研究与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建武; 马晓亮; 徐龙龙

    2015-01-01

    Wireless mobile Ad Hoc network composed by a group of mobile nodes is an emerging network with features of distributed control ,self-organizing and multi-hop.Because of its excellent properties such as high survivability and easy laying,wireless mobile Ad Hoc network gets a lot of attention from researchers in recent years.The original routing protocols cannot meet the requirements of unpredictable existing networks and frequent change of topological,so on basis of previous study,a lot of new AODV routing protocol researches on Ad Hoc network are conducted and this paper gives a proposal of an improved AODV routing protocol based on the adaptive scheme which is called CAODV(cognitive-based AODV).NS2 experimental simulation shows that the CAODV has more excellent properties than AODV, such as less reboot frequency of routing and less controlled load of protocols and higher success rate of repair of broken links,which prove the better adaptive property of CAODV for the dynamically changing wireless Ad Hoc network.%无线移动自组网是仅由移动节点所组成的网络,具有分布式控制、自组织、多跳等特点,由于该网络具有抗毁性能高、易铺设等性质,越来越受到业界的广泛关注。原始的路由协议已经满足不了现有网络不可预测、频繁变化的拓扑结构的需要,因此,在之前研究的基础上,对现有Ad Hoc 网络 AODV 路由协议进行了研究,并设计出一种基于 AODV 协议的改进路由协议———基于认知的 AODV 协议(Cognitive-based AODV,CAODV)。通过 NS2进行试验仿真,结果表明, CAODV 协议具有比 AODV 协议更加优良的性质,可以有效降低重启路由发现频率,增加断裂链路的修复成功率,降低协议的控制负载,对现有网络的动态变化具有很强的适应能力。

  5. Implementation and Experimental Evaluation of Wireless Ad hoc Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A wireless ad hoc network consists of a number of mobile nodes that temporarily form a dynamic infrastructure-less network. New routing protocols that can adapt to the frequent topology changes induced by node mobility and varying link qualities are needed. During the last decade dozens of different ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed, optimized and partially compared, mainly through simulation studies. This thesis takes an experimental approach to the evaluation of ad hoc routing pro...

  6. Experimental Analysis of OLSR and DSDV Protocols on NS-2.35 in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelja Sharma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc networks are autonomous networks of intelligent mobile nodes. Designing an efficient routing protocol with goal efficient route establishment is still a burning research issue. Routing protocols are broadly classified into proactive and reactive protocols on the basis of their nature of working. In this paper, we present comparative simulation analysis of two proactive protocols namely, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV. Simulations have been carried out multiple times using Network Simulator-2.35 (NS-2.35, on random scenario patterns and compared in two environments (OLSR and DSDV by varying the network size and mobility of nodes. We have patched and installed OLSR protocol on NS-2.35 as it's not available as a part of NS-2.35 installation. The simulation results indicate that, OLSR perform better than DSDV protocol for application oriented metrices such as packet delivery fraction, packet loss and end-to-end delay. But, Routing Overheads is significantly consistently higher for OLSR protocol in all the cases considered, which is proven experimentally. Furthermore, based upon the simulation results, work can be done in the direction of improving the performance of the OLSR protocol to make it a choice of proactive protocol for large and denser network.

  7. Routing Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Mohammad O.; Cardei, Mihaela; Wu, Jie

    Wireless networks provide rapid, untethered access to information and computing, eliminating the barriers of distance, time, and location for many applications ranging from collaborative, distributed mobile computing to disaster recovery (such as fire, flood, earthquake), law enforcement (crowd control, search, and rescue), and military communications (command, control, surveillance, and reconnaissance). An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration [11

  8. Energy Behavior in Ad Hoc Network Minimizing the Number of Hops and Maintaining Connectivity of Mobile Terminals Which Move from One to the Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai, Lipur Sugiyanta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad-hoc network is a special kind of network, where all of the nodesmove in time. The topology of the network changes as the nodes are in theproximity of each other. Ad-hoc networks are generally self-configuring no stableinfrastructure takes a place. In this network, each node should help relayingpackets of neighboring nodes using multi-hop routing mechanism. Thismechanism is needed to reach far destination nodes to solve problem of deadcommunication. This multiple traffic hops within a wireless ad-hoc networkcaused dilemma. Wireless ad-hoc network that contain multiple hops becomeincreasingly vulnerable to problems such as energy degradation and rapidincreasing of overhead packets. This paper provides a generic routing frameworkthat balances energy efficient broadcast schemes in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networkand maintaining connectivity of nodes (mobile terminals. Typically, each node’sactivities will consume energy, either for sending packets, receiving orpreparing/processing packets. Number of hops, distance of nodes, and size ofpacket will determine the consumption of energy. The framework is based on theprinciple that additional relay nodes with appropriate energy and routing metricbetween source and final destination significantly reduces the energyconsumption necessary to deliver packets in Wireless Ad-Hoc Network whilekeep the connectivity of dynamic nodes. Using the framework, the averagenetwork connectivity is kept 18% higher and the lifetime of network lasting morethan 2.38% compared with network with Link State Routing mechanism. Thesimulation notes that the end-to-end delay may increase rapidly if relay nodesare more than five.

  9. 移动Ad Hoc网络的入侵响应研究%Intrusion detection and response in mobile Ad Hoc network.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵跃华; 张崇

    2012-01-01

    传统网络中的入侵阻止和检测等防护方法在网络结构脆弱、节点移动的移动自组网络中无法达到预期效果.将移动代理引入无线自组网络中,设计分布式入侵检测响应系统,通过多种功能的移动代理实现入侵检测功能,并在入侵检测的基础上利用移动代理跟踪、隔离入侵节点,对入侵节点做出及时响应.实验结果表明此方法节省网络节点资源、避免网络的崩溃且达到主动响应隔离入侵节点的效果,有效地检测并阻止了入侵行为.%Many traditional security technologies such as intrusion prevention and intrusion detection are subject to restrictions in the network environment of mobile ad hoc networks can not achieve the desired results. This paper introduces mobile agents in wireless ad hoc network security model, designs a distributed intrusion detection and respond system. Through a variety of functions of mobile agent the system implements the functions of intrusion detection intrusion, and uses mobile agents to track, isolate invasion node to make a timely response. Experimental results show that this method can save the resources of node and avoid the collapse of the network, effective in detecting and preventing intrusions.

  10. A Review of Malicious Attack in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Based On Power Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Yadav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimization of power in wireless sensor network is big issue. If the process of energy constraints is optimized increase the reliability and security of mobile ADHOC network. The management of ADHOC network is great challenge due to dynamic infrastructure and mobility of node. Due to mobility of node routing path of network and security of communication suffered. In the process of node mobility and path discovery of routing protocol take huge amount of power and decrease the life of network. For the improvement of power and secured communication various protocol are designed but all are limitation in terms of group communication in ADHOC network. A security constraint in mobile ADHOC network is very critical task. Some critical security issue such as black hole attack, wormhole attack, sinkhole attack, prevention and detection of attack is major challenge. For the detection of wormhole attack various authors used various technique such as clock synchronization, threshold based technique, nearest neighbor node selection method.

  11. Building Real-World Ad-Hoc Networks to Support Mobile Collaborative Applications: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer Pallarès, Roc; Ochoa, Sergio; Pino, José; Medina Medina, Esunly; Navarro Moldes, Leandro; Royo Vallés, María Dolores; Neyem, Andres

    2009-01-01

    Mobile collaboration is required in several work scenarios, i.e. education, healthcare, business and disaster relief. The features and capabilities of the communication infrastructure used by mobile collaborative applications will influence the type of coordination and collaboration that can be supported in real work scenarios. Developers of these applications are typically unaware of the constraints the communication infrastructure imposes on the collaborative system. There...

  12. Enabling Co-located Learning over Mobile Ad Hoc P2P with LightPeers

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Guldbjerg Christensen; Mads Darø Kristensen; Frank Allan Hansen; Niels Olof Bouvin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents LightPeers – a new mobile P2P framework specifically tailored for use in a nomadic learning environment. A set of key requirements for the framework is identified based on nomadic learning, and these requirements are used as outset for designing and implementing the architecture and protocols. The main contributions of the LightPeers framework are: a mobile P2P framework including a specialized robust messaging protocol resilient to changes in the network topology, an deve...

  13. Extended Virtual Spring Mesh (EVSM): The Distributed Self-Organizing Mobile Ad Hoc Network for Area Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr

    2011-12-01

    Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) are distributed self-organizing networks that can change locations and configure themselves on the fly. This paper focuses on an algorithmic approach for the deployment of a MANET within an enclosed area, such as a building in a disaster scenario, which can provide a robust communication infrastructure for search and rescue operations. While a virtual spring mesh (VSM) algorithm provides scalable, self-organizing, and fault-tolerant capabilities required by aMANET, the VSM lacks the MANET's capabilities of deployment mechanisms for blanket coverage of an area and does not provide an obstacle avoidance mechanism. This paper presents a new technique, an extended VSM (EVSM) algorithm that provides the following novelties: (1) new control laws for exploration and expansion to provide blanket coverage, (2) virtual adaptive springs enabling the mesh to expand as necessary, (3) adapts to communications disturbances by varying the density and movement of mobile nodes, and (4) new metrics to assess the performance of the EVSM algorithm. Simulation results show that EVSM provides up to 16% more coverage and is 3.5 times faster than VSM in environments with eight obstacles.

  14. Enhanced Intrusion Detection System for Malicious Node Detection in Mobile Ad hoc Networks using Data Transmission Quality of Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mamatha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs are the new generation of networks that offer unrestricted mobility without any underlying infrastructure. It relies on the cooperation of all the participating nodes. Due to their open nature and lack of infrastructure, security for MANETS has become an intricate problem than the security in other networks. The conventional security mechanisms of protecting a wired network are not sufficient for these networks. Hence a second level of defense to detect and respond to the security problem called an Intrusion detection system is required. Generally the malicious nodes demonstrate a different behavioral pattern of all the other normal nodes. So an Intrusion Detection System based on anomaly based intrusion detection that works by checking the behavior of the nodes was proposed. Here, in this paper to determine the behavior of the nodes as malicious or legitimate a Data Transmission Quality (DTQ function is used. The DTQ function is defined in such a way that it will be close to a constant or keep changing smoothly for genuine nodes and will keep on diminishing for malicious nodes.. The final decision of confirming nodes as malicious is determined by a group consensus method. The evaluation results show that the proposed method increases the detection rate as well as decreases the false positive rate.

  15. An Efficient Scheme to Prevent DDoS Flooding Attacks in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Chhabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand the flaws of existing solutions to combat the DDoS attack and a novel scheme is being provided with its validation to reduce the effect of DDoS attack in MANET Environment. As Internet users are increasing day by day, it is becoming more prone to attacks and new hacking techniques. People are accessing information and communicating with each other on the move. Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is responsible for this rapid change in the lives of people. With the emergence of technology, where people communicate or share important documentations on the go with the help of laptops, PDAs, notebooks, smart phones etc., the loopholes in the Internet security have also increased and they are becoming more difficult to handle due to the characteristics of MANET such as dynamic topologies, low battery life, multicast routing, frequency of updates or network overhead, scalability, mobile agent based routing and power aware routing, etc. The network is becoming more prone to attacks like DDoS, byzantine, resource consumption, blackhole, grayhole, etc. Therefore, there is an urgent need to look into the security issues to allow authorized users to access the information available on Internet without any risk. In this study, a novel scheme is proposed which deals with suppressing the influence of the attack. The effectiveness of the approach is validated with simulation in GloMoSim, integrated with parsec compiler, on a windows platform.

  16. Enabling Co-located Learning over Mobile Ad Hoc P2P with LightPeers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Guldbjerg Christensen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents LightPeers – a new mobile P2P framework specifically tailored for use in a nomadic learning environment. A set of key requirements for the framework is identified based on nomadic learning, and these requirements are used as outset for designing and implementing the architecture and protocols. The main contributions of the LightPeers framework are: a mobile P2P framework including a specialized robust messaging protocol resilient to changes in the network topology, an developers API, and a suite of LightPeers applications supporting nomadic learning prototyping key features of LightPeers.

  17. Enabling Co-located Learning over Mobile Ad Hoc P2P with LightPeers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Kristensen, Mads Darø; Hansen, Frank Allan;

    2008-01-01

    and protocols. The main contributions of the LightPeers framework are: a mobile P2P framework including a specialized robust messaging protocol resilient to changes in the network topology, an developers API, and a suite of LightPeers applications supporting nomadic learning prototyping key features of LightPeers.......This paper presents LightPeers – a new mobile P2P framework specifically tailored for use in a nomadic learning environment. A set of key requirements for the framework is identified based on nomadic learning, and these requirements are used as outset for designing and implementing the architecture...

  18. A Fast Handover Scheme for Multicasting in IPv6 based Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parveen Sultana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Problem statement: In the previous researches, steps were taken to resolve the problems of multicasting, after several discussions. Actually these issues were raised, while multicasting packets from Internet Protocol (IP to Mobile Nodes (MN. On the other hand, there is very little concern about the problem of packet loss reduction. Sometimes the occurrence of multicast service chaos is ignored during handovers. Therefore in this study it has been tried to explain the optimal multicast technique for Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6 to diminish the required amendment to the existing fast handover. Approach: An alternate method is suggested in Fast handover for MIPv6 (FMIPv6 to lessen the packet losses during handovers, before tunneling. Based on the qualities of the multicast subscription techniques for the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6, multicast upholds method for FMIPv6. MIPv6 in general comprise two types of multicasting techniques, which are related to Home Agent (HA and Foreign Agent (FA. These techniques help the MN to obtain the packets in roaming location referred as Foreign Network (FN, which is being forwarded by the Core Network (CN. But due to the handover latency problem MN have to experience packet loss while switching between any two Access Routers (AR. A protocol has been designed to conquer the issue of packet loss in MIPv6. Results and Conclusion: This protocol can be used during joining process in MIPv6 before tunneling to eliminate the IP connectivity time. This implementation allows a mobile node to be connected more quickly at a fresh point of connection, when that mobile node moves with less packet losses.

  19. Probabilistic monitoring in intrusion detection module for energy efficiency in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rango, Floriano; Lupia, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    MANETs allow mobile nodes communicating to each other using the wireless medium. A key aspect of these kind of networks is the security, because their setup is done without an infrastructure, so external nodes could interfere in the communication. Mobile nodes could be compromised, misbehaving during the multi-hop transmission of data, or they could have a selfish behavior to save energy, which is another important constraint in MANETs. The detection of these behaviors need a framework that takes into account the latest interactions among nodes, so malicious or selfish nodes could be detected also if their behavior is changed over time. The monitoring activity increases the energy consumption, so our proposal takes into account this issue reducing the energy required by the monitoring system, keeping the effectiveness of the intrusion detection system. The results show an improvement in the saved energy, improving the detection performance too.

  20. Probabilistic monitoring in intrusion detection module for energy efficiency in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rango, Floriano; Lupia, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    MANETs allow mobile nodes communicating to each other using the wireless medium. A key aspect of these kind of networks is the security, because their setup is done without an infrastructure, so external nodes could interfere in the communication. Mobile nodes could be compromised, misbehaving during the multi-hop transmission of data, or they could have a selfish behavior to save energy, which is another important constraint in MANETs. The detection of these behaviors need a framework that takes into account the latest interactions among nodes, so malicious or selfish nodes could be detected also if their behavior is changed over time. The monitoring activity increases the energy consumption, so our proposal takes into account this issue reducing the energy required by the monitoring system, keeping the effectiveness of the intrusion detection system. The results show an improvement in the saved energy, improving the detection performance too.

  1. A Turnover based Adaptive HELLO Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ingelrest, François; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2007-01-01

    International audience We present a turnover based adaptive HELLO protocol (TAP), which enables nodes in mobile networks to dynamically adjust their HELLO messages frequency depending on the current speed of nodes. To the best of our knowledge, all existing solutions are based on specific assumptions (\\eg{} slotted networks) and/or require specific hardware (\\eg{} GPS) for speed evaluation. One of the key aspects of our solution is that no additional hardware is required since it does not ...

  2. Beaconless Position-Based Routing for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Füßler, Holger; Widmer, Jörg; Käsemann, Michael; Mauve, Martin; Hartenstein, Hannes

    2003-01-01

    Existing position-based unicast routing algorithms, where packets are forwarded in the geographic direction of the destination, require that the forwarding node knows the positions of all neighbors in its transmission range. This information on direct neighbors is gained by observing beacon messages each node sends out periodically. The transmission of beacons and the storage of neighbor information consumes resources. Due to mobility, collected neighbor information can quickly get outdated w...

  3. Improved Adaptive Position Update for Geographic Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.C.Nallusamy*1; Dr.A.Sabari2; Suresh, N.

    2014-01-01

    In geographic routing, the nodes ought to maintain up-to-date positions of their immediate neighbors. Periodic broadcasting of beacon packets that contain the geographic location coordinates of the nodes may be a new technique utilized by most geographic routing protocols to keep up neighbor positions. The traditional routing schemes demonstrate that periodic beaconing regardless of the node mobility and traffic patterns in the network are not attractive from both update cost ...

  4. A Review Paper on Cooperative Blackhole and Grayhole Attacks in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Jain

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on a major category of coordinated attacks i.e. cooperative blackhole / grayhole attack which are a serious threat to ad ho c network security. In cooperative blackhole attack multiple nodes collude to hide the malicious activi ty of other nodes; hence such attacks are more diff icult to detect. In this paper a survey of various security mechanisms that have been proposed in the literatur e for diction of such attacks is presented.

  5. Range Detection Multicast Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duraiswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many efforts have been implemented towards the Group membership management on multicast routing in MANETs, but the difficulties associated with Group membership management are still existed. Approach: Maintaining endurance of Group Leader (GL in multicasting routing has been a great challenge to all the protocol having been invented so far. Results: This study provides the RDMP algorithm for persistency of Group Leader within the group. Nodes perform very active in exchanging the Data and Control packet when they mobile within the transmission range. Range Detection Multicast Protocol (RDMP focuses on dynamic topology of nodes and uses detection mechanism based on transmission range within the group. Instead of having a separate external node to monitor on Group leadership, a node within the transmission range acts as a Leadership Track Node (LTN, Group Leader manages the group member with the aid provided by LTN and thus control over head shared among them. LTN keeps track of mobility of Group Leader and send alert message when Group Leader moves out of Transmission range and also holds the list of address of all other Group Leader which are adjacent to it. Routing control packet and data packet are regulated with minimum control over head. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our simulation results under increasing group size demonstrate endurance of Group leader for longer period of time, joining delay for multicast group is very low, normalized control over head and minimizing number of hops in maintain average path length.

  6. An Adaptive Fuzzy System in Large Scale Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G.Obulla Reddy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Multicast protocols in MANETs must consider control overhead for maintenance, energy efficiency of nodes and routing trees managements to frequent changes of network topology. Now-adaysMulticast protocols extended with Cluster based approach. Cluster based multicast tree formation is still research issues. The tree reconstruction of cluster-based multicast routing protocol will take place if any link of the trees has malfunction or the nodes move out of the link, therefore, its robust performance is unsatisfactory. The mobility of nodes will always increase the communication delay because of re-clustering and cluster head selections. For this issue we proposed the new scheme Adaptive Fuzzy System (AFS, its fuzzy based clustering and predicting the next cluster head (CH based their location updates with clustered group. A new location management scheme is proposed to handle the mobility of cluster members, based on a hybrid strategy that includes location updating and location prediction. In a clustered zone predicts movement of members and CH based on Kalman filtering of previously received updates and based on location updates CH will selected. Here location managements will leads to reduce cluster head selections. We used ns2 for our AFS.We present simulation results that demonstrate a significant reduce the communication delay over the traditional cluster based MANETs deployments.

  7. 移动Ad Hoc网络技术分析%The Analysis Of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王申涛; 谭小容

    2006-01-01

    介绍了Ad Hoc网络的发展、特点和应用领域.对Ad Hoc网络的体系结构进行了研究.深入分析了Ad Hoc网络面临的特殊问题,并讨论了这些问题的影响及引发的研究方向.

  8. Flexible Authentication in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Gil, P; Molina-Gil, J; Hernández-Goya, C

    2010-01-01

    A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is a form of Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed roadside equipment. The key operation in VANETs is the broadcast of messages. Consequently, the vehicles need to make sure that the information has been sent by an authentic node in the network. VANETs present unique challenges such as high node mobility, real-time constraints, scalability, gradual deployment and privacy. No existent technique addresses all these requirements. In particular, both inter-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside wireless communications present different characteristics that should be taken into account when defining node authentication services. That is exactly what is done in this paper, where the features of inter-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communications are analyzed to propose differentiated services for node authentication, according to privacy and efficiency needs.

  9. TRUST BASED CLUSTERING AND SECURE ROUTING SCHEME FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpita Chatterjee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a distributed self-organizing trust based clustering framework for securing adhoc networks. The mobile nodes are vulnerable to security attacks, so ensuring the security of thenetwork is essential. To enhance security, it is important to evaluate the trustworthiness of nodes withoutdepending on central authorities. In our proposal the evidence of trustworthiness is captured in anefficient manner and from broader perspectives including direct interactions with neighbors, observinginteractions of neighbors and through recommendations. Our prediction scheme uses a trust evaluationalgorithm at each node to calculate the direct trust rating normalized as a fuzzy value between zero andone. The evidence theory of Dempster-Shafer [7], [8] used in order to combine the evidences collectedby a clusterhead itself and the recommendations from other neighbor nodes. Moreover, in our scheme wedo not restrict to a single gateway node for inter cluster routing.

  10. Research on black hole problem in mobile ad hoc networks%移动Ad hoc网络中黑洞问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈明玉; 刘俊龙

    2011-01-01

    移动Ad hoc网络在民用设施和国防事业方面得到广泛应用,动态变化的拓扑结构是Ad hoc网络的一大特征,也正是这种动态性使得Ad hoc网络特别容易受到安全方面的攻击.文章剖析了AODV路由协议的工作过程,针对协议中存在的黑洞问题,提出了一种新的解决方案,该方案不仅有效地解决了黑洞问题而且可以消除一些现有解决方案所存在的缺陷.%Mobile ad hoc networks are extensively used in military and civilian application, one typical characteristic of which is the dynamic topological structure. This dynamic nature of topology makes the network vulnerable to security attacks. This paper analyzes the operating process and potential insecurity factors of AODV routing protocol, and proposes a new solution for the black hole problem.The solution can not only solve the black hole problem efficiently, but it can also make up the deficiencies of some solutions in existence.

  11. An Adaptive Gateway Discovery Algorithm to support QoS When Providing Internet Access to Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Domingo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available When a node in an ad hoc network wants Internet access, it needs to obtain information about the available gateways and it should select the most appropriate of them. In this work we propose a new gateway discovery scheme suitable for real-time applications that adjusts the frequency of gateway advertisements dynamically. This adjustment is related to the percentage of real-time sources that have quality of service problems because of excessive end-to-end delays. The optimal values for the configuration parameters (time interval and threshold of the proposed adaptive gateway discovery mechanism for the selected network conditions have been studied with the aid of simulations. The scalability of the proposed scheme with respect to mobility as well as the impact of best-effort traffic load have been analyzed. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme significantly improves the average end-to-end delay, jitter and packet delivery ratio of real-time flows; the routing overhead is also reduced and there is no starvation of best-effort traffic.

  12. A Cross-Layer Delay-Aware Node Disjoint Multipath Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadev A. Gawas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETS require reliable routing and Quality of Service(QoS mechanism to support diverse applications with varying and stringent requirements for delay, jitter, bandwidth, packets loss. Routing protocols such as AODV, AOMDV, DSR and OLSR use shortest path with minimum hop count as the main metric for path selection, hence are not suitable for delay sensitive real time applications. To support such applications delay constrained routing protocols are employed. These Protocols makes path selection between source and destination based on the delay over the discovered links during routing discovery and routing table calculations. We propose a variation of a node-disjoint Multipath QoS Routing protocol called Cross Layer Delay aware Node Disjoint Multipath AODV (CLDMAODV based on delay constraint. It employs cross-layer communications between MAC and routing layers to achieve link and channel-awareness. It regularly updates the path status in terms of lowest delay incurred at each intermediate node. Performance of the proposed protocol is compared with single path AODV and NDMR protocols. Proposed CLDM-AODV is superior in terms of better packet delivery and reduced overhead between intermediate nodes.

  13. Distributed Position Localization and Tracking (DPLT) of Malicious Nodes in Cluster Based Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET)

    CERN Document Server

    Niraj, Shakhakarmi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a robust distributed malicious node detection and precise localization and tracking method is proposed for Cluster based Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Certificate Authority (CA) node is selected as the most stable node among trusted nodes, surrounded by Registration Authority nodes (RAs) in each cluster to generate the Dynamic Demilitarized Zone (DDMZ) to defend CA from probable attackers and mitigate the authentication overhead. The RAs also co-operate with member nodes to detect a target node and determine whether it is malicious or not, by providing the public key certificate and trust value. In addition, Internet Protocol (IP) based Triangulation and multi-lateration method are deployed based on using the average time difference of Time of Arrival (ToA) and Time of Departure (ToD) of the management packets. Triangulation uses three reference nodes which are elected within each cluster based on Best Criterion Function (BCF) to localize each member node inside the cluster in 2D. Multi-latera...

  14. MUSIC algorithm DoA estimation for cooperative node location in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warty, Chirag; Yu, Richard Wai; ElMahgoub, Khaled; Spinsante, Susanna

    In recent years the technological development has encouraged several applications based on distributed communications network without any fixed infrastructure. The problem of providing a collaborative early warning system for multiple mobile nodes against a fast moving object. The solution is provided subject to system level constraints: motion of nodes, antenna sensitivity and Doppler effect at 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz. This approach consists of three stages. The first phase consists of detecting the incoming object using a highly directive two element antenna at 5.0 GHz band. The second phase consists of broadcasting the warning message using a low directivity broad antenna beam using 2× 2 antenna array which then in third phase will be detected by receiving nodes by using direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique. The DOA estimation technique is used to estimate the range and bearing of the incoming nodes. The position of fast arriving object can be estimated using the MUSIC algorithm for warning beam DOA estimation. This paper is mainly intended to demonstrate the feasibility of early detection and warning system using a collaborative node to node communication links. The simulation is performed to show the behavior of detecting and broadcasting antennas as well as performance of the detection algorithm. The idea can be further expanded to implement commercial grade detection and warning system

  15. Ensuring Multi Messages Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Network using Network Coding Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V.M.G. Bavithiraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile adhoc network, broadcasting is a common operation for route establishment and for sending control and emergency messages. Most of the existing broadcasting algorithms consider broadcasting from single source node and consider only single message broadcasting. Initiating multiple messages broadcasting from multiple sources is a challenging task which requires minimum number of retransmission made by the forwarding nodes. Approach: Network coding-based broadcasting was proposed which focuses on reducing the number of transmissions each forwarding node performs in the multiple source/multiple message broadcast application, where each forwarding node combines some of the received messages for transmission. We exploit the usage of directional antennas to network coding-based broadcasting to further reduce energy consumption. A node equipped with directional antennas could divided the omni directional transmission range into several sectors and turns some of them on for transmission. In the proposed scheme using a directional antenna, forwarding nodes selected locally only need to transmit broadcast messages, original or coded, to restricted sectors. Results: Simulation results show that the proposed method maximizes packet delivery ratio and throughput with reduced packet drop. Conclusion: The proposed network coding based broadcasting method reduces the total number of retransmissions made by the forwarding nodes compared to broadcasting using the same forwarding nodes without coding. Directional antennas are used to select the forwarding node set to maximize the throughput with minimal packet drop.

  16. 基于UWB技术的Ad Hoc移动网络%The Mobile Ad Hoc Network Based on UWB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继志; 王英龙; 王美琴

    2005-01-01

    随着Ad Hoc移动网络的发展和UWB技术的逐步成熟,研究采用UWB技术对Ad Hoc移动网络协议带来的影响,就变得非常迫切而且很有意义.本文简单介绍了UWB技术,探讨了采用UWB技术的Ad Hoc移动网络在网络协议方面需要做的改动和目前的研究成果,并描述了其应用前景.

  17. Research on the Secrity of Mobile Ad Hoc Network%Ad Hoc网络的安全研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁涛

    2008-01-01

    Ad Hoc网络是一种特殊的多跳移动无线网络,它不需要任何预先设置的固定设施就可组网.由于其组网方式的灵活,使得其存在着较大的安全隐患.根据Ad Hoc网络的特点,分析其面临的各种安全漏洞,并提出了几种Ad Hoc网络的安全策略.

  18. Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks%Ad hoc网络中的路由技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟刚

    2002-01-01

    Ad hoc网络是由一些移动节点组成的一个多跳的临时性无线自治系统,这种新型的通信网络具有动态变化的拓扑结构和分布控制的网络机制。文中针对Ad hoc网络作了简单的介绍并重点介绍了针对Ad hoc网络特性而提出的路由协议。

  19. A Time-Slotted On-Demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope Forsmann; Robert Hiromoto; John Svoboda

    2007-04-01

    The popularity of UAVs has increased dramatically because of their successful deployment in military operations, their ability to preserve human life, and the continual improvements in wireless communication that serves to increase their capabilities. We believe the usefulness of UAVs would be dramatically increased if formation flight were added to the list of capabilities. Currently, sustained formation flight with a cluster of UAVs has only been achieved with two nodes by the Multi-UAV Testbed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Park, 2004) Formation flight is a complex operation requiring the ability to adjust the flight patterns on the fly and correct for wind gusts, terrain, and differences in node equipment. All of which increases the amount of inner node communication. Since one of the problems with MANET communication is network congestion, we believe a first step towards formation flight can be made through improved inner node communication. We have investigated current communication routing protocols and developed an altered hybrid routing protocol in order to provide communication with less network congestion.

  20. Special attacks in mobile Ad hoc network%移动Ad hoc网络中的特殊攻击

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳楠; 韩芳溪; 张维勇; 程玉松

    2005-01-01

    目前关于移动Ad hoc网络的研究大多集中在路由协议的提出和改进方面,但随着移动Ad hoc网络的广泛应用,其固有的特性和安全漏洞带来了极大的安全隐患,各种类型的攻击越来越威胁正常的网络运行,安全问题日益成为这一领域的研究热点.针对移动Ad hoc网络的弱点,介绍了4种特殊攻击及相应的处理方法.

  1. Decentralized position verification in geographic ad hoc routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinmüller, Tim; Schoch, Elmar; Kargl, Frank; Maihöfer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Inter-vehicle communication is regarded as one of the major applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Compared to MANETs or wireless sensor networks (WSNs), these so-called vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have unique requirements on network protocols. The requirements result mainly from no

  2. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  3. IP ADDRESS AUTOCONFIGURATION FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿姆贾德

    2002-01-01

    A novel mechanism was specified by which a node in ad hoc network may autoconfigure an IP address which is unique throughout the mobile ad hoc network. This new algorithm imposes less and constant overhead and delay in obtaining an IP address, and fully utilizes the available addresses space of an ad hoc network, and independent of the existing routing protocol, and less prone to security threats. Moreover, a new Join/Leave mechanism was proposed as an enhancement to the new IP address autoconfiguration algorithm, to support the overall operation of the existing routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks.

  4. 移动 Ad Hoc 网络安全分配地址算法%Algorithm of Security Assigning Addresses for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岳

    2013-01-01

    通过分析现有自动地址分配算法中存在的安全隐患,采用目前通用的加密算法,提出一种安全的网络地址自动分配算法。无论是移动网络还是传统网络,采用该算法进行自动分配地址,被攻击的概率是非常低的。%Through analysis of the security risks existing in automatic address allocation algorithm , using common encryption algo-rithms currently , this paper presents a secure network address auto allocation algorithm .Both the mobile network and traditional networks , using the algorithm for automatic address allocation , the probabilities of being attacked are very low .

  5. Flooding attack and defence in Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Hou Yafei; Zhong Yiping; Zhang Shiyong; Dai Zhoulin

    2006-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are particularly vulnerable to denial of service (DOS) attacks launched through compromised nodes or intruders. In this paper, we present a new DOS attack and its defense in ad hoc networks. The new DOS attack, called Ad hoc Flooding Attack(AHFA), is that intruder broadcasts mass Route Request packets to exhaust the communication bandwidth and node resource so that the valid communication can not be kept. After analyzed Ad hoc Flooding Attack, we develop Flooding Attack Prevention (FAP), a generic defense against the Ad hoc Flooding Attack. When the intruder broadcasts exceeding packets of Route Request, the immediate neighbors of the intruder record the rate of Route Request. Once the threshold is exceeded, nodes deny any future request packets from the intruder. The results of our implementation show FAP can prevent the Ad hoc Flooding attack efficiently.

  6. Formal modeling and analysis in a logic for mobile Ad Hoc networks%用逻辑方法验证移动Ad Hoc网络协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭显; 冯涛; 袁占亭; 马建峰

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the features of mobility and wireless broadcast communication of node, in order to model and analyze secure systems for mobile Ad Hoc networks, two constructors, i.e. mobility and broadcast, are introduced in LS2 ( logic of secure systems). So LS2 is extended to be ELS2. In ELS2, the network is modeled as the combination of threads with different physical locations. A thread is a sequentially executing program. The threads execute programs of secure systems. The attacker is also modeled as a thread which runs concurrently with the threads of system participants.The concept of network trace is proposed in this paper. This concept describes the process of the network evolution caused by system behaviors, such as internal computation, external interaction and mobility of nodes. On the network trace, semantic of predicates and modal formulas are defined,and properties of a system can be analyzed. New axioms are designed in ELS2. Intuitive properties of system behaviors can be captured by these axioms. Finally, in ELS2, mobile IP registration protocol is described and its correctness property is analyzed.%针对移动Ad Hoc网络节点移动和无线广播通信特征,引入移动算子和广播算子,扩展形式逻辑LS2,提出了建模和分析移动Ad Hoc网络安全系统的逻辑ELS2.ELS2把网络模型化为不同位置上执行程序的线程复合,把攻击者模型化为与协议参与方并发运行的线程.ELS2中提出网络迹概念,描述网络节点内部计算和外部交互,以及节点移动导致的网络进化过程,并在网络迹上定义谓词公式和模态公式的语义,分析网络协议属性.ELS2证明系统中,设计了捕获程序行为直观属性的新公理.最后,在ELS2逻辑中建模并分析了移动IP注册协议正确性属性.

  7. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohamad Mezher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc. could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic. Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs.

  8. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J.; Segarra, Esteve Pallarès; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Forné, Jordi; Gargallo, Emilio Sanvicente

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc.) could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers) rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic.Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs. PMID:25897496

  9. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J; Pallarès Segarra, Esteve; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Forné, Jordi; Sanvicente Gargallo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc.) could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers) rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic. Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs. PMID:25897496

  10. DoS Attack Effect Assessment Method in Mobile Ad Hoc Network%移动Ad Hoc网络DoS攻击效果评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 马涛

    2012-01-01

    为了有效评估移动Ad Hoc网络中的DoS攻击效果,文章结合网络安全属性和攻击属性两方面建立了评估指标体系,在此基础上,提出了基于变权灰色模糊的攻击效果评估模型,并给出了量化评估的方法和步骤.最后利用该方法对DoS攻击进行了仿真评估分析,量化评估结果能够较好地反映不同攻击方式的效果.%In order to assess DoS attack effect on Mobile Ad Hoc Network, an attack effect assessment index system was set up considering two aspects of security attribute and attack attribute of network. Based on the system, the changing-weight, grey-fuzzy security assessment model was built up. Then the method and procedure of quantitative assessment was given. Finally,DoS attack was simulated and analyzed ,the result showed the effects of different attack ways.

  11. An Efficient Proactive RSA Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui-shan; CHEN Ke-fei

    2007-01-01

    A proactive threshold signature scheme is very important to tolerate mobile attack in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient proactive threshold RSA signature scheme for ad hoc networks. The scheme consists of three protocols: the initial secret share distribution protocol, the signature generation protocol and the secret share refreshing protocol. Our scheme has three advantages. First, the signature generation protocol is efficient. Second, the signature generation protocol is resilient. Third, the share refreshing protocol is efficient.

  12. MQARR-AODV: A NOVEL MULTIPATH QOS AWARE RELIABLE REVERSE ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Santhiya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network is an infra structure less wireless ad-hoc network that does not require any basic central control. The topology of the network changes drastically due to very fast mobility of nodes. So an adaptive routing protocol is needed for routing in MANET. AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing is the effective and prominent on-demand Ad-hoc routing protocols. During route establishment phase in traditional AODV, only one route reply message will be sent in the reverse path to establish routing path. The high mobility of nodes may affect the reply messages which lead to the retransmission of route request message by the sender which in turn leads to higher communication delay, power consumption and the reduction in the ratio of packets delivered. Sending multiple route reply messages and establishing multiple paths in a single path discovery will reduce the routing overhead involved in maintaining the connection between source and destination nodes. Multipath routing can render high scalability, end-to-end throughput and provide load balancing in MANET. The new proposed novel Multipath QoS aware reliable routing protocol establishes two routes of maximum node disjoint paths and the data transfer is carried out in the two paths simultaneously. To select best paths, the new proposed protocol uses three parameters Link Eminence, MAC overhead and node residual energy. The experimental values prove that the MQARR-AODV protocol achieves high reliability, stability, low latency and outperforms AODV by the less energy consumption, overhead and delay.

  13. Routing in Highly Dynamic Ad Hoc Networks: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G Menon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to analyze the various issues and challenges involved in routing of data packets in highly mobile ad hoc networks. Routing in ad hoc networks has always been a challenging and tough task due to the dynamic topology and error prone wireless channel. There are a number of issues like lack of centralized control, constantly moving nodes etc that has to be considered while routing a data packet from the source to the destination in the ad hoc network. Routing of data packets becomes much more difficult with increased mobility of nodes. This paper analyses the various issues in routing of data packets from the source to the destination node and also lists down the parameters that has to be considered while designing and selecting a routing protocol for highly mobile ad hoc networks.

  14. 一种节能的Ad hoc网络路由协议%Energy-retrenchment protocol for mobile Ad hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大伟; 金伟; 王晓洁

    2011-01-01

    针对Ad hoc网络中移动节点能量有限的问题,综合考虑节点剩余能量和节点能量消耗速率两方因素,提出一种基于节点生存时间的路由算法MRL(Maximum Routing Life).通过估算节点使用寿命,选择生存时间最长的路由,均衡移动网络中各节点的能量.引入NS能量模型,与Ad hoc网络中典型路由协议进行比较;仿真结果表明,与传统路由协议相比,新的路由协议有效地提高了Ad hoc网络性能.%Considering the limitation of node in Ad hoc network, this paper considers both the remaining node energy and the energy cost velocity of nodes,proposes a new Ad hoc routing protocol based on livability of nodes,the life of nodes is calculated out, one routing with maximum life of nodes can be choosedln this way,the routing protocol accounts for the balance of the power of nodes in Ad hoc network.Comparing typical routing protocol in Ad hoc network by energy model in Network Simulation(NS).The simulation results that the new protocol provides better feasibility and effectivity.

  15. DOS Attack and Defense in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks%移动ad hoc网络中DOS攻击及其防御机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易平; 钟亦平; 张世永

    2005-01-01

    移动ad hoc网络由于其动态拓扑、无线信道以及各种资源有限的特点,特别容易遭受拒绝服务(DOS)攻击.提出了移动ad hoc网络中一种新的DOS攻击模型--ad hoc flooding攻击及其防御策略.该攻击主要针对移动ad hoc网络中的按需路由协议,如AODV,DSR等.ad hoc flooding攻击是通过在网络中泛洪发送超量路由查询报文及数据报文,大量地占用网络通信及节点资源,以至于阻塞节点正常的通信.分析ad hoc flooding攻击之后,提出了两种防御策略:其一是邻居阻止,即当入侵者发送大量路由查询报文时,邻居节点降低对其报文的处理优先级,直至不再接收其报文.其二是路径删除,即目标节点将入侵者发送攻击报文的路径删除,以阻止其继续发送攻击报文.模拟实验证实,通过这两种方法的结合,能够有效地阻止网络中的ad hoc flooding攻击行为.

  16. A State-of-the-art Survey on IDS for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks and Wireless Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Novarun; Chaki, Nabendu

    2011-01-01

    An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) detects malicious and selfish nodes in a network. Ad hoc networks are often secured by using either intrusion detection or by secure routing. Designing efficient IDS for wireless ad-hoc networks that would not affect the performance of the network significantly is indeed a challenging task. Arguably, the most common thing in a review paper in the domain of wireless networks is to compare the performances of different solutions using simulation results. However, variance in multiple configuration aspects including that due to different underlying routing protocols, makes the task of simulation based comparative evaluation of IDS solutions somewhat unrealistic. In stead, the authors have followed an analytic approach to identify the gaps in the existing IDS solutions for MANETs and wireless mesh networks. The paper aims to ease the job of a new researcher by exposing him to the state of the art research issues on IDS. Nearly 80% of the works cited in this paper are published ...

  17. A Simulation Study: The Impact of Random and Realistic Mobility Models on the Performance of Bypass-AODV in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baroudi Uthman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To bring VANET into reality, it is crucial to devise routing protocols that can exploit the inherited characteristics of VANET environment to enhance the performance of the running applications. Previous studies have shown that a certain routing protocol behaves differently under different presumed mobility patterns. Bypass-AODV is a new optimization of the AODV routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. It is proposed as a local recovery mechanism to enhance the performance of the AODV routing protocol. It shows outstanding performance under the Random Waypoint mobility model compared with AODV. However, Random Waypoint is a simple model that may be applicable to some scenarios but it is not sufficient to capture some important mobility characteristics of scenarios where VANETs are deployed. In this paper, we will investigate the performance of Bypass-AODV under a wide range of mobility models including other random mobility models, group mobility models, and vehicular mobility models. Simulation results show an interesting feature that is the insensitivity of Bypass-AODV to the selected random mobility model, and it has a clear performance improvement compared to AODV. For group mobility model, both protocols show a comparable performance, but for vehicular mobility models, Bypass-AODV suffers from performance degradation in high-speed conditions.

  18. Using Wikipedia categories for ad hoc search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of category information for ad hoc retrieval in Wikipedia. We show that techniques for entity ranking exploiting this category information can also be applied to ad hoc topics and lead to significant improvements. Automatically assigned target categories are good sur

  19. Performance Evaluation of 802.11p-Based Ad Hoc Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications for Usual Applications Under Realistic Urban Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sondi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In vehicular ad hoc networks, participating vehicles organize themselves in order to support lots of emerging applications. While network infrastructure can be dimensioned correctly in order to provide quality of service support to both vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, there are still many issues to achieve the same performance using only ad hoc vehicle-to-vehicle communications. This paper investigates the performance of such communications for complete applications including their specific packet size, packet acknowledgement mechanisms and quality of service requirements. The simulation experiments are performed using Riverbed (OPNET Modeler on a network topology made of 50 nodes equipped with IEEE 802.11p technology and following realistic trajectories in the streets of Paris at authorized speeds. The results show that almost all application types are well supported, provided that the source and the destination have a direct link. Particularly, it is pointed out that introducing supplementary hops in a communication has more effects on end-to-end delay and loss rate rather than mobility of the nodes. The study also shows that ad hoc reactive routing protocols degrade performance by increasing the delays while proactive ones introduce the same counter performance by increasing the network load with routing traffic. Whatever the routing protocol adopted, the best performance is obtained only while small groups of nodes communicate using at most two-hop routes.

  20. Scalable Revocation in Hybrid Ad Hoc Networks: The SHARL Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Holsve Ofigsbø

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a simple, scalable and robust scheme for the distribution of revocation information in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The scheme is intended for ad hoc networks with a planned origin, and where a common point of trust exists. Mobile ad hoc networks have limited available bandwidth. The revocation lists must therefore be specific to the network. They are established with the aid of trusted gateways reporting the identity of the nodes to a central trusted entity. To minimize overhead, the revocation lists are distributed along with the routing messages. In the articles we discuss how the scheme can be implemented in conjunction with the predominant routing protocols in ad hoc networks. The article also provides a detailed security analysis of the proposed protocols, partly based on the use of formal methods.

  1. Reliable adaptive multicast protocol in wireless Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc network environments, every link is wireless and every node is mobile. Those features make data lost easily as well as multicasting inefficient and unreliable. Moreover, Efficient and reliable multicast in wireless ad hoc network is a difficult issue. It is a major challenge to transmission delays and packet losses due to link changes of a multicast tree at the provision of high delivery ratio for each packet transmission in wireless ad hoc network environment.In this paper, we propose and evaluate Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol (RAMP) based on a relay node concept. Relay nodes are placed along the multicast tree. Data recovery is done between relay nodes. RAMP supports a reliable multicasting suitable for mobile ad hoc network by reducing the number of packet retransmissions. We compare RAMP with SRM (Scalable Reliable Multicast). Simulation results show that the RAMP has high delivery ratio and low end-to-end delay for packet transmission.

  2. Security Defects and Corresponding Solutions of Mobile Ad hoc Networks%移动Ad hoc网络的安全漏洞及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻晓园; 酆勇

    2003-01-01

    移动自组(Ad hoc)网络是现有网络的一种补充和扩展,它主要应用于缺乏网络基础设施的环境或者现有网络不能满足移动性、机动性等要求的情况.移动Ad hoc网络的特性使得它面临着比现有网络更大的安全挑战.首先介绍了移动Ad hoc网络的概念、特性及应用,接着探讨了移动Ad hoc网络中的安全漏洞以及相应的对策,最后讨论了今后移动Ad hoc网络安全问题的研究方向.

  3. Secure and reliable wireless and ad hoc communications

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Son Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless and ad hoc communication systems create additional challenges for the implementation of security and reliability services when compared to fxed networks. On the one hand, the inherent characteristics of wireless environment contribute serious system vulnerabilities if the security requirements are not met. On the other hand, the mobility pattern as well as resource constraints of ad hoc devices make security design more di cult. The principal objective of SWACOM pro...

  4. IDHOCNET: A Novel ID Centric Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrukh Khalid; Athar Mahboob; Choudhry Fahad Azim; Aqeel Ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Ad hoc networks lack support of infrastructure and operate in a shared bandwidth wireless environment. Presently, such networks have been realized by various adaptations in Internet Protocol (IP) architecture which was developed for infrastructure oriented hierarchical networks. The IP architecture has its known problem and issues even in infrastructure settings, like IP address overloading, mobility, multihoming, and so forth. Therefore, when such architecture is implemented in ad hoc scenar...

  5. An Intrusion Detection System Framework for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Singh; Surbhi Chauhan; Kamal Kant; Reshma Doknaia

    2012-01-01

    Secure and efficient communication among a set of mobile nodes is one of the most important aspects in ad-hoc wireless networks. Wireless networks are particularly vulnerable to intrusion, as they operate in open medium, and use cooperative strategies for network communications. By efficiently merging audit data from multiple network sensors, we analyze the entire ad hoc wireless network for intrusions and try to inhibit intrusion attempts. This paper presents an intrusion detection system fo...

  6. Analisis Unjuk Kerja Aplikasi VoIP Call Android di Jaringan MANET [Performance Analysis of VoIP Call Application Android in MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network)

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Ari Setyawan

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja aplikasi  VoIP call android di jaringan MANET (mobile ad hoc network).  Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa aplikasi VoIP call android dapat digunakan di jaringan MANET. Delay yang dihasilkan paling besar di pengujian indoor dengan jarak 11-15 meter yakni sebesar 0,014624811 seconds. Packet loss yang dihasilkan pada range 1%-2% sedangkan standar packet loss yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO untuk layanan aplikasi VoIP adalah < 5%. Jitter yang dihasilkan ...

  7. Fast adaptive backup routing for mobile Ad Hoc network%移动Ad Hoc网快速自适应后备路由协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏

    2012-01-01

    移动Ad Hoc网拓扑结构经常变化.自适应后备路由局部修复AODV协议AODV-ABL通过监听RREP包和数据包来产生后备路由,并存于后备路由表中.仅当链路错误时,AODV-ABL才试图利用后备路由表进行局部修复.为提高对网络拓扑变化的自适应性,在AODV-ABL基础上,提出了一种快速自适应后备AODV路由协议AODV-FABL.AODV-FABL合并主路由表和后备路由表,在监听包时同步更新路由,路由能尽快地得到优化.实验结果表明,AODV-FABL取得了比AODV-LR、AODV-ABL更好的包投递率、端对端时延、控制开销和对流量负载变化的适应性.%The network topology changes frequently in mobile Ad Hoc networks. In AODV-Adaptive Backup with Local repair routing (AODV-ABL) protocol, the backup route can be created by overhearing RREP packets and data packets and can be stored in alternate route table. Only when the link error occurs, AODV-ABL tries to start a local repair process by using alternate route table. In order to improve the adaptability to the network topology changing, a Fast AODV-ABL routing (AODV-FABL) protocol, which based on AODV-ABL, is proposed. AODV-FABL merges the primary route table with the alternate route table, and updates routes when overhearing packets, thus the routes can be optimized as soon as possible. Experimental results show that AODV-FABL has better packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, control overhead and adaptability to the variational traffic load than AODV-LR and AODV-ABL.

  8. A Novel Approach Towards Cost Effective Region-Based Group Key Agreement Protocol for Peer - to - Peer Information Sharing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, K; Sumathy, V

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-peer systems have gained a lot of attention as information sharing systems for the widespread exchange of resources and voluminous information that is easily accessible among thousands of users. However, current peer-to-peer information sharing systems work mostly on wired networks. With the growing number of communication-equipped mobile devices that can self-organize into infrastructure-less communication platform, namely mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), peer-to-peer information sharing over MANETs becomes a promising research area. In this paper, we propose a Region-Based structure that enables efficient and secure peer-to-peer information sharing over MANETs. The implementation shows that the proposed scheme is Secure, scalable, efficient, and adaptive to node mobility and provides Reliable information sharing.

  9. On the Connectivity, Lifetime and Hop Count of Routes Determined Using the City Section and Manhattan Mobility Models for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghanathan, Natarajan

    The high-level contribution of this paper is a simulation based analysis of the network connectivity, hop count and lifetime of the routes determined for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) using the City Section and Manhattan mobility models. The Random Waypoint mobility model is used as a benchmark in the simulation studies. Two kinds of paths are determined on the sequence of static graphs representing the topology over the duration of the network session: paths with the minimum hop count (using the Dijkstra algorithm) and stable paths with the longest lifetime (using our recently proposed OptPathTrans algorithm). Simulation results indicate that the City Section model provided higher network connectivity compared to the Manhattan model for all the network scenarios. Minimum hop paths and stable paths determined under the Manhattan model have a smaller lifetime and larger hop count compared to those determined using the City Section and Random Waypoint mobility models.

  10. Analisis Unjuk Kerja Aplikasi VoIP Call Android di Jaringan MANET [Performance Analysis of VoIP Call Application Android in MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Ari Setyawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja aplikasi  VoIP call android di jaringan MANET (mobile ad hoc network.  Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa aplikasi VoIP call android dapat digunakan di jaringan MANET. Delay yang dihasilkan paling besar di pengujian indoor dengan jarak 11-15 meter yakni sebesar 0,014624811 seconds. Packet loss yang dihasilkan pada range 1%-2% sedangkan standar packet loss yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO untuk layanan aplikasi VoIP adalah < 5%. Jitter yang dihasilkan yakni antara 0,01-0,06 seconds sedangkan standar yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO adalah ≤ 30 ms atau 0,03 seconds. Throughput yang dihasilkan pada proses pengujian yakni antar 161 kbps-481 kbps. *****This study aims to analyze the performance of VOIP call android application in the MANET (mobile ad hoc network. The results showed that VoIP applications could be implemented in MANET network. The highest  delay is produced in indoor testing  with distance of 11-15 meters,  which is equal to 0.014624811 seconds. Packet loss is generated in the range of 1% -2%, while packet loss standards set by Cisco for VoIP application services are <5%. The jitter is between 0.01 to 0.06 seconds, while the standard set by CISCO is ≤ 30 ms or 0.03 seconds. Throughput generated in the testing process is between 161 kbps-481 kbps.

  11. The Extended Clustering AD HOC Routing Protocol (ECRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buthayna Al-Sharaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are acollection of mobile nodes communicating via wireless channels without any fixedinfrastructure. Because of their ease and low cost of building, ad hoc networks have a lot of attractiveapplications in different fields. The topology of ad hoc networks changes dynamically, and each node in thenetwork can act as a host or router.With the increase in the number of wirelessdevices andlarge amountof traffic to be exchanged, the demand for scalable routing protocols has increased. This paper presents ascalable routing protocol, based on AODV protocol, called the Extended Clustering Ad Hoc RoutingProtocol (ECRP. This is a hybrid protocol, which combines reactive and proactive approaches in routing.The protocol uses theGlobal PositioningSystem todetermine the position of certain nodesin the network.The evaluation methodology and simulation results obtained showthat the protocol is efficient and scaleswell in large networks

  12. An Approach to Provide Security in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Using Counter Mode of Encryption on Mac Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Gulshan; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3413

    2011-01-01

    Security in any of the networks became an important issue in this paper we have implemented a security mechanism on Medium Access Control layer by Assured Neighbor based Security Protocol to provide authentication and confidentiality of packets along with High speed transmission for Ad hoc networks. Here we have divided the protocol into two different parts. The first part deals with Routing layer information; in this part we have tried to implement a possible strategy for detecting and isolating the malicious nodes. A trust counter for each node is determined which can be actively increased and decreased depending upon the trust value for the purpose of forwarding the packets from source node to destination node with the help of intermediate nodes. A threshold level is also predetermined to detect the malicious nodes. If the value of the node in trust counter is less than the threshold value then the node is denoted 'malicious'. The second part of our protocol deals with the security in the link layer. For t...

  13. An Improved Location aided Cluster Based Routing Protocol with Intrusion Detection System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mangai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Routing and security are the main challenges for ad hoc networks due to dynamic topology as well as resource constraints. A designed protocol must provide scalable routing with better security. Lack of any central coordination and shared wireless medium makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. And also resource constraints such as limited energy and size also play an important role in the protocols designed for security. Approach: In this study, Improved Location aided Cluster based Routing Protocol (ILCRP for GPS enabled MANETs was analysed in MANETs with malicious nodes and an Intrusion Detection System was used to increase the packet delivery ratio. ILCRP makes use of location aided routing in the presence of cluster based routing Protocol. Results: Use of location information with security against attacks results in high packet delivery ratio for the cluster based routing protocol. Simulations are performed using NS2 by varying the number of nodes. Conclusion: The results illustrate ILCRP provides higher delivery ratio with IDS.

  14. AD HOC P2P on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Sathya; Byun, YoungJoon; Cebrowski Institute; CSUMB, C.S.I.T. Program

    2011-01-01

    In conjunction with the NPS C.S. Department MWC Group, this research looks at establishing an Ad Hoc Peer-to-Peer network on cell phones, specifically using the Android OS. Work comprised of Android Device, Library, and Application Design. The Library used was AODV (Ad Hoc on demand Distance Vector) and hardware devices must be controlled directly in addition to application enhancements. A prototype has been created and communication was achieved. Future work to include enhancements to contro...

  15. A Survey of Multicast Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Waqar Farooq; Khan, Muazzam A.; Saad Rehman; Nazar Abbas Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are autonomous and self-configurable wireless ad hoc networks and considered as a subset of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). MANET is composed of self-organizing mobile nodes which communicate through a wireless link without any network infrastructure. A VANET uses vehicles as mobile nodes for creating a network within a range of 100 to 1000 meters. VANET is developed for improving road safety and for providing the latest services of intelligent transport sy...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Routing Attacks in Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Syam Purkayastha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the mobile ad hoc networks the major role is played by the routing protocols in order to route the data from one mobile node to another mobile node. But in such mobile networks, routing protocols are vulnerable to various kinds of security attacks such as blackhole node attacks. The routing protocols of MANET are unprotected and hence resulted into the network with the malicious mobile nodes in the network. These malicious nodes in the network are basically acts as attacks in the network. In this paper, we modify the existing DSR protocol with the functionality of attacks detection without affecting overall performance of the network. Also, we are considering the various attacks on mobile ad hoc network called blackhole attack, flooding attack and show the comparative analysis of these attacks using network simulator ns-2.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Important Ad Hoc Network Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad hoc network is a collection of specific infrastructureless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without any centralized administration. A user can move anytime in an ad hoc scenario and, as a result, such a network needs to have routing protocols which can adopt dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, a number of ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed and implemented, which include dynamic source routing (DSR, ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing, and temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA. Although considerable amount of simulation work has been done to measure the performance of these routing protocols, due to the constant changing nature of these protocols, a new performance evaluation is essential. Accordingly, in this paper, we analyze the performance differentials to compare the above-mentioned commonly used ad hoc network routing protocols. We also analyzed the performance over varying loads for each of these protocols using OPNET Modeler 10.5. Our findings show that for specific differentials, TORA shows better performance over the two on-demand protocols, that is, DSR and AODV. Our findings are expected to lead to further performance improvements of various ad hoc networks in the future.

  18. Ad Hoc网络%Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2005-01-01

    首先介绍了Ad Hoc网络的基本概念、技术特点以及关键技术等,然后较为全面地归纳了Ad Hoc网络的典型应用,最后讨论了Ad Hoc网络的发展趋势和有待解决的问题.

  19. Connectivity in finite ad-hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HanXing; LU GuiLin; JIA WeiJia; ZHAO Wei

    2008-01-01

    Research on ad-hoc network connectivity has mainly focused on asymptotic results In the number of nodes in the network. For a one-dimensional ad-hoc network G1, assuming all the nodes are Independently uniform distributed in a closed Interval [O, Z](z ∈ R+), we derive a generic formula for the probability that the network is connected. The finite connected ad-hoc networks is analyzed. And we separately suggest necessary conditions to make the ad-hoc network to be connected in one and two dimensional cases, facing possible failed nodes (f-nodes). Based on the necessary condition and unit-disk assumption for the node transmission, we prove that the nodes of the connected two-dimensional ad-hoc networks (G2) can be di-vided into at most five different groups. For an f-node n0 in either of the five groups, we derive a close formula for the probability that there is at least one route between a pair of nodes in G2 - {no}.

  20. The "Hot Potato" Case: Challenges in Multiplayer Pervasive Games Based on Ad hoc Mobile Sensor Networks and the Experimental Evaluation of a Prototype Game

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis; Akribopoulos, Orestis; Logaras, Marios; Kokkinos, Panagiotis; Spirakis, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we discuss multiplayer pervasive games that rely on the use of ad hoc mobile sensor networks. The unique feature in such games is that players interact with each other and their surrounding environment by using movement and presence as a means of performing game-related actions, utilizing sensor devices. We discuss the fundamental issues and challenges related to these type of games and the scenarios associated with them. We also present and evaluate an example of such a game, called the "Hot Potato", developed using the Sun SPOT hardware platform. We provide a set of experimental results, so as to both evaluate our implementation and also to identify issues that arise in pervasive games which utilize sensor network nodes, which show that there is great potential in this type of games.