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Sample records for acyclic diols triols

  1. Regioselective Acylation of Diols and Triols: The Cyanide Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Linseis, Michael; Winter, Rainer F; Schmidt, Richard R

    2016-05-11

    Central topics of carbohydrate chemistry embrace structural modifications of carbohydrates and oligosaccharide synthesis. Both require regioselectively protected building blocks that are mainly available via indirect multistep procedures. Hence, direct protection methods targeting a specific hydroxy group are demanded. Dual hydrogen bonding will eventually differentiate between differently positioned hydroxy groups. As cyanide is capable of various kinds of hydrogen bonding and as it is a quite strong sterically nondemanding base, regioselective O-acylations should be possible at low temperatures even at sterically congested positions, thus permitting formation and also isolation of the kinetic product. Indeed, 1,2-cis-diols, having an equatorial and an axial hydroxy group, benzoyl cyanide or acetyl cyanide as an acylating agent, and DMAP as a catalyst yield at -78 °C the thermodynamically unfavorable axial O-acylation product; acyl migration is not observed under these conditions. This phenomenon was substantiated with 3,4-O-unproteced galacto- and fucopyranosides and 2,3-O-unprotected mannopyranosides. Even for 3,4,6-O-unprotected galactopyranosides as triols, axial 4-O-acylation is appreciably faster than O-acylation of the primary 6-hydroxy group. The importance of hydrogen bonding for this unusual regioselectivity could be confirmed by NMR studies and DFT calculations, which indicate favorable hydrogen bonding of cyanide to the most acidic axial hydroxy group supported by hydrogen bonding of the equatorial hydroxy group to the axial oxygen. Thus, the "cyanide effect" is due to dual hydrogen bonding of the axial hydroxy group which enhances the nucleophilicity of the respective oxygen atom, permitting an even faster reaction for diols than for mono-ols. In contrast, fluoride as a counterion favors dual hydrogen bonding to both hydroxy groups leading to equatorial O-acylation. PMID:27104625

  2. Counting acyclic hypergraphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Acyclic hypergraphs are analogues of forests in graphs. They arevery useful in the design of databases. The number of distinct acyclic uniform hypergraphs with n labeled vertices is studied. With the aid of the principle of inclusion-exclusion, two formulas are presented. One is the explicit formula for strict (d)-connected acyclic hypergraphs, the other is the recurrence formula for linear acyclic hypergraphs.

  3. Subquivers of mutation-acyclic quivers are mutation-acyclic

    CERN Document Server

    Warkentin, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Quiver mutation plays a crucial role in the definition of cluster algebras by Fomin and Zelevinsky. It induces an equivalence relation on the set of all quivers without loops and two-cycles. A quiver is called mutation-acyclic if it is mutation-equivalent to an acyclic quiver. The aim of this note is to show that full subquivers of mutation-acyclic quivers are mutation-acyclic.

  4. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol inhibits MRCKα kinase and demonstrates promising anti prostate cancer activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe Henry I C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high occurrence of prostate cancer worldwide and one of the major sources of the discovery of new lead molecules being medicinal plants, this research undertook to investigate the possible anti-cancer activity of two natural cycloartanes; cycloartane-3,24,25-diol (extracted in our lab from Tillandsia recurvata and cycloartane-3,24,25-triol (purchased. The inhibition of MRCKα kinase has emerged as a potential solution to restoring the tight regulation of normal cellular growth, the loss of which leads to cancer cell formation. Methods Kinase inhibition was investigated using competition binding (to the ATP sites assays which have been previously established and authenticated and cell proliferation was measured using the WST-1 assay. Results Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol demonstrated strong selectivity towards the MRCKα kinase with a Kd50 of 0.26 μM from a total of 451 kinases investigated. Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol reduced the viability of PC-3 and DU145 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.226 ± 0.28 μM and 1.67 ± 0.18 μM respectively. Conclusions These results will prove useful in drug discovery as Cycloartane-3,24,25-triol has shown potential for development as an anti-cancer agent against prostate cancer.

  5. Enumeration of Maximum Acyclic Hypergraphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-fang Wang; Hai-zhu Li

    2002-01-01

    Acyclic hypergraphs are analogues of forests in graphs. They are very useful in the design of databases. In this article, the maximum size of an acyclic hypergraph is determined and the number of maximum r-uniform acyclic hypergraphs of order n is shown to be ( n t-1 )(n(r-1)-r2 +2r)n-r-1.

  6. ON ACYCLIC AND CYCLIC HYPERGRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haizhu; WANG Jianfang

    2002-01-01

    So far, the acyclic hypergraph has two different definitions. One is based onthe cyclomatic number of the hypergraph, whereas the other arises from the acyclic schemaof the relational database in the computer science. In this paper, it is first proved thatthese two definitions coincide with each other completely. Then we prove that a hypergraphH is not acyclic, or cyclic, if and only if it contains a special partial hypergraph namedhypercircuit. In addition, we show that H has l(H) different hypercircuits, where l(H) isa parameter used to decide whether H is acyclic or cyclic.

  7. One step synthesis of 6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Maud; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc, E-mail: marc.poirot@inserm.fr

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Cholesterol-5,6-epoxides are metabolized into cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) in cancer cells. • 6-Oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol (OCDO) is a putative metabolite of CT. • The one step syntheses of CT and OCDO from cholesterol are reported. • The one step syntheses of labelled CT and OCDO are reported. - Abstract: Cholesterol metabolism has been recently linked to cancer, highlighting the importance of the characterization of new metabolic pathways in the sterol series. One of these pathways is centered on cholesterol-5,6-epoxides (5,6-ECs). 5,6-ECs can either generate dendrogenin A, a tumor suppressor present in healthy mammalian tissues, or the carcinogenic cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) and its putative metabolite 6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol (OCDO) in tumor cells. We are currently investigating the identification of the enzyme involved in OCDO biosynthesis, which would be highly facilitated by the use of commercially unavailable [{sup 14}C]-cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and [{sup 14}C]-6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol. In the present study we report the one-step synthesis of [{sup 14}C]-cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and [{sup 14}C]-6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol by oxidation of [{sup 14}C]-cholesterol with iodide metaperiodate (HIO{sub 4})

  8. Backdoors to Acyclic SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspers, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Backdoor sets, a notion introduced by Williams et al. in 2003, are certain sets of "key" variables of a CNF formula F that make it easy to solve the formula; by assigning truth values to the variables in a backdoor set, the formula gets reduced to one or several polynomial-time solvable formulas. More specifically, a weak backdoor set of F is a set X of variables such that there exits a truth assignment t to X that reduces F to a satisfiable formula F[t] that belongs to a polynomial-time decidable base class C. A strong backdoor set is a set X of variables such that for all assignments t to X, the reduced formula F[t] belongs to C. We study the problem of finding backdoor sets of size at most k with respect to the base class of CNF formulas with acyclic incidence graphs, taking k as the parameter. We show that 1. the detection of weak backdoor sets is W[2]-hard in general but fixed-parameter tractable for r-CNF formulas, for any fixed r>=3, and 2. the detection of strong backdoor sets is fixed-parameter appro...

  9. Some inequalities for orderings of acyclic digraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bier, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    For any acyclic ordering $g$ of a finite acyclic digraph $D$ we obtain a lower bound inequality for the inner product of its $e-$vector and $g.$ Here the $e-$vector is defined to be the difference of the indegree and the outdegree of the underlying acyclic digraph. This gives a lower bound on the functional $ T_e(f) = ,$ defined on the set of all acyclic orderings of $D.$ The class of acyclic digraphs which admit an acyclic ordering attaining the lower bound is determined as the class of posets of order dimension two.

  10. A Scalable Acyclic Graph Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Acyclic graphs, much like scale-free graphs, appear in many areas of computation and engineering. These include, but are not limited to, knowledge representation, binary decision diagrams, dependency graphs, semantic web, and, binaries of computer programs. In the field of life-sciences and bio-informatics, in particular, such structures are used to create ontologies that represent the compendium of factual information and are central towards organizing and cataloging scientific data. I show why most naive generators might produce degenerate (bipartite graphs) and propose a generator that can produce a stochastic acyclic graph satisfying constraints on the in-degree, the out-degree, the depth, and the path-length (distribution of random walks from source to sink) attributes of the resulting dag. I provide suit of distribution functions that yield non-degenerate real-world acyclic graphs.

  11. On Acyclicity of Games with Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Daniel; Gurvich, Vladimir; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm

    2009-01-01

    We study restricted improvement cycles (ri-cycles) in finite positional n-person games with perfect information modeled by directed graphs (digraphs) that may contain cycles. We obtain criteria of restricted improvement acyclicity (ri-acyclicity) in two cases: for n = 2 and for acyclic digraphs. We...

  12. Convex sets in acyclic digraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Balister, P; Gutin, G

    2007-01-01

    A non-empty set $X$ of vertices of an acyclic digraph is called connected if the underlying undirected graph induced by $X$ is connected and it is called convex if no two vertices of $X$ are connected by a directed path in which some vertices are not in $X$. The set of convex sets (connected convex sets) of an acyclic digraph $D$ is denoted by $\\sco(D)$ ($\\scc(D)$) and its size by $\\co(D)$ ($\\cc(D)$). Gutin, Johnstone, Reddington, Scott, Soleimanfallah, and Yeo (Proc. ACiD'07) conjectured that the sum of the sizes of all (connected) convex sets in $D$ equals $\\Theta(n \\cdot \\co(D))$ ($\\Theta(n \\cdot \\cc(D))$) where $n$ is the order of $D$. In this paper we exhibit a family of connected acyclic digraphs with $\\sum_{C\\in \\sco(D)}|C| = o(n\\cdot \\co(D))$ and $\\sum_{C\\in \\scc(D)}|C| = o(n\\cdot \\cc(D))$. We also show that the number of connected convex sets of order $k$ in any connected acyclic digraph of order $n$ is at least $n-k+1$. This is a strengthening of a theorem by Gutin and Yeo.

  13. QSPR models based on molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. 1. Construction of Boltzmann averaged descriptors for alkanes, alcohols, diols, ethers and cyclic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyekjær, Jane Dannow; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2002-01-01

    Values for nine descriptors for QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationships) modeling of physical properties of 96 alkanes, alcohols, ethers, diols, triols and cyclic alkanes and alcohols in conjunction with the program Codessa are presented. The descriptors are Boltzmann-averaged by sele...... der Waals energies and the molecular polarizabilities, which correlate very well with boiling points. Five more simple descriptors that only depend on the molecular constitutional formula are also discussed briefly....

  14. Higher-dimensional normalisation strategies for acyclicity

    CERN Document Server

    Guiraud, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We introduce acyclic track polygraphs, a notion of complete categorical cellular models for small categories: they are polygraphs containing generators, with additional invertible cells for relations and higher-dimensional globular syzygies. We give a rewriting method to realise such a model by proving that a convergent presentation canonically extends to an acyclic track polygraph. For that, we introduce normalising strategies, defined as homotopically coherent ways to relate each cell of a track polygraph to its normal form, and we prove that acyclicity is equivalent to the existence of a normalisation strategy.

  15. Algorithms for Junctions in Directed Acyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Given a pair of distinct vertices u, v in a graph G, we say that s is a junction of u, v if there are in G internally vertex disjoint directed paths from s to u and from s to v. We show how to characterize junctions in directed acyclic graphs. We also consider the two problems in the following and derive efficient algorithms to solve them. Given a directed acyclic graph G and a vertex s in G, how can we find all pairs of vertices of G such that s is a junction of them? And given a directed acyclic graph G and k pairs of vertices of G, how can we preprocess G such that all junctions of k given pairs of vertices could be listed quickly? All junctions of k pairs problem arises in an application in Anthropology and we apply our algorithm to find such junctions on kinship networks of some brazilian indian ethnic groups.

  16. The Algebra of Directed Acyclic Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, Marcelo; Campos, Marco Devesas

    2013-01-01

    We give an algebraic presentation of directed acyclic graph structure, introducing a symmetric monoidal equational theory whose free PROP we characterise as that of finite abstract dags with input/output interfaces. Our development provides an initial-algebra semantics for dag structure.

  17. Molecular orbital studies on the Wagner-Meerwein migration in some acyclic pinacol-pinacolone rearrangements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zodinpuia Pachuau; R H Duncan Lyngdoh

    2004-03-01

    The semi-empirical PM3 SCF-MO method is used to investigate the Wagner-Meerwein migration of various groups during the pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement of some acyclic systems. Pinacol first protonates and dehydrates to form a carbocation that undergoes a 1,2-migration to form a protonated ketone, which then deprotonates to yield the pinacolone product. We study the Wagner-Meerwein migration of hydride, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, t-butyl, phenyl and heterocylic 2-, 3- and 4-pyridyl groups in various acyclic 1,2-diol (pinacol) systems as they rearrange to pinacolones. This 1,2-migration involves a three-centred moiety in the cationic transition state. The migratory aptitude predicted here follows the order: hydride -butyl > isopropyl > ethyl > methyl > phenyl, which accords well with available experimental data and/or chemical intuition, reflecting also on the ability of the group involved to carry positive charge in the transition state. The structure of the migrating group (whether aliphatic or aromatic) within the transition state also supports the stabilising role of delocalisation of positive charge for reaction feasibility. Geometrical and thermodynamic considerations coincide in assigning the following order to relative ``earliness” of the transition state along the reaction pathway: -butyl > isopropyl > phenyl > methyl > 2-pyridyl > 4-pyridyl.

  18. Acyclic 6-choosability of planar graphs without adjacent short cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG WeiFan; ZHANG Ge; CHEN Min

    2014-01-01

    A proper vertex coloring of a graph G is acyclic if G contains no bicolored cycles.Given a list assignment L={L(v)|v∈V}of G,we say that G is acyclically L-colorable if there exists a proper acyclic coloringπof G such thatπ(v)∈L(v)for all v∈V.If G is acyclically L-colorable for any list assignment L with|L(v)|k for all v∈V(G),then G is acyclically k-choosable.In this paper,we prove that every planar graph G is acyclically 6-choosable if G does not contain 4-cycles adjacent to i-cycles for each i∈{3,4,5,6}.This improves the result by Wang and Chen(2009).

  19. Acyclic Edge Coloring of Planar Graphs without Adjacent Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dezheng XIE; Yanqing WU

    2012-01-01

    An acyclic edge coloring of a graph G is a proper edge coloring such that there are no bichromatic cycles.The acyclic edge chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum number k such that there exists an acyclic edge coloring using k colors and is denoted by x'a(G).In this paper we prove that x'a(G)≤ Δ(G)+ 5 for planar graphs G without adjacent triangles.

  20. Cholestane-3β, 5α, 6β-triol suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are oxidation products of cholesterol. Cholestane-3β, 5α, 6β-triol (abbreviated as triol is one of the most abundant and active oxysterols. Here, we report that triol exhibits anti-cancer activity against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment of cells with triol dose-dependently suppressed proliferation of LNCaP CDXR-3, DU-145, and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells and reduced colony formation in soft agar. Oral administration of triol at 20 mg/kg daily for three weeks significantly retarded the growth of PC-3 xenografts in nude mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that triol treatment at 10-40 µM caused G1 cell cycle arrest while the TUNEL assay indicated that triol treatment at 20-40 µM induced apoptosis in all three cell lines. Micro-Western Arrays and traditional Western blotting methods indicated that triol treatment resulted in reduced expression of Akt1, phospho-Akt Ser473, phospho-Akt Thr308, PDK1, c-Myc, and Skp2 protein levels as well as accumulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip. Triol treatment also resulted in reduced Akt1 protein expression in PC-3 xenografts. Overexpression of Skp2 in PC-3 cells partially rescued the growth inhibition caused by triol. Triol treatment suppressed migration and invasion of DU-145, PC-3, and CDXR-3 cells. The expression levels of proteins associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition as well as focal adhesion kinase were affected by triol treatment in these cells. Triol treatment caused increased expression of E-cadherin protein levels but decreased expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, Slug, FAK, phospho-FAK Ser722, and phospho-FAK Tyr861 protein levels. Confocal laser microscopy revealed redistribution of β-actin and α-tubulin at the periphery of the CDXR-3 and DU-145 cells. Our observations suggest that triol may represent a promising therapeutic agent for advanced metastatic prostate cancer.

  1. Bayesian Discovery of Linear Acyclic Causal Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Patrik O

    2012-01-01

    Methods for automated discovery of causal relationships from non-interventional data have received much attention recently. A widely used and well understood model family is given by linear acyclic causal models (recursive structural equation models). For Gaussian data both constraint-based methods (Spirtes et al., 1993; Pearl, 2000) (which output a single equivalence class) and Bayesian score-based methods (Geiger and Heckerman, 1994) (which assign relative scores to the equivalence classes) are available. On the contrary, all current methods able to utilize non-Gaussianity in the data (Shimizu et al., 2006; Hoyer et al., 2008) always return only a single graph or a single equivalence class, and so are fundamentally unable to express the degree of certainty attached to that output. In this paper we develop a Bayesian score-based approach able to take advantage of non-Gaussianity when estimating linear acyclic causal models, and we empirically demonstrate that, at least on very modest size networks, its accur...

  2. On network coding for acyclic networks with delays

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, K

    2011-01-01

    Problems related to network coding for acyclic, instantaneous networks (where the edges of the acyclic graph representing the network are assumed to have zero-delay) have been extensively dealt with in the recent past. The most prominent of these problems include (a) the existence of network codes that achieve maximum rate of transmission, (b) efficient network code constructions, and (c) field size issues. In practice, however, networks have transmission delays. In network coding theory, such networks with transmission delays are generally abstracted by assuming that their edges have integer delays. Note that using enough memory at the nodes of an acyclic network with integer delays can effectively simulate instantaneous behavior, which is probably why only acyclic instantaneous networks have been primarily focused on thus far. In this work, we elaborate on issues ((a), (b) and (c) above) related to network coding for acyclic networks with integer delays, which have till now been overlooked. We show that the...

  3. Acyclic Preference Systems in P2P Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gai, Anh-Tuan; Mathieu, Fabien; De Montgolfier, Fabien; Reynier, Julien; Viennot, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    In this work we study preference systems natural for the Peer-to-Peer paradigm. Most of them fall in three categories: global, symmetric and complementary. All these systems share an acyclicity property. As a consequence, they admit a stable (or Pareto efficient) configuration, where no participant can collaborate with better partners than their current ones. We analyze the representation of the such preference systems and show that any acyclic system can be represented with a symmetric mark matrix. This gives a method to merge acyclic preference systems and retain the acyclicity. We also consider such properties of the corresponding collaboration graph, as clustering coefficient and diameter. In particular, studying the example of preferences based on real latency measurements, we observe that its stable configuration is a small-world graph.

  4. Exploring the randomness of Directed Acyclic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Goñi, Joaquín; Solé, Ricard V; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The feed-forward relationship naturally observed in time-dependent processes and in a diverse number of real systems -such as some food-webs and electronic and neural wiring- can be described in terms of so-called directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). An important ingredient of the analysis of such networks is a proper comparison of their observed architecture against an ensemble of randomized graphs, thereby quantifying the {\\em randomness} of the real systems with respect to suitable null models. This approximation is particularly relevant when the finite size and/or large connectivity of real systems make inadequate a comparison with the predictions obtained from the so-called {\\em configuration model}. In this paper we analyze four methods of DAG randomization as defined by the desired combination of topological invariants (directed and undirected degree sequence and component distributions) aimed to be preserved. A highly ordered DAG, called \\textit{snake}-graph and a Erd\\:os-R\\'enyi DAG were used to validate ...

  5. Estudo da biocompatibilidade da blenda de poli(L-ácido láctico/policaprolactona-triol Biocompatibility study of poly(L-acid-lactic/polycaprolactone triol blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio K. Minata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polímeros biorreabsorvíveis têm sido estudados para aplicações médicas especialmente nas áreas de ortopedia e traumatologia. Dentre os mais promissores destaca-se o poli(L- ácido láctico, devido a sua elevada resistência e boa biocompatibilidade. Apesar dessas características os dispositivos obtidos a partir do PLLA têm baixa elongação e um caráter hidrofóbico, fatores que dificultam seu emprego em aplicações onde a interação tecido/implante seja um fator importante. O objetivo do trabalho foi obter membranas de PLLA e melhorar suas propriedades pela adição de 10% de poli(e-caprolactone (PCL-triol, um polímero semicristalino. Para isso membranas foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo de ratos Wistar, e análises histológicas dos segmentos das áreas implantadas foram realizadas nos tempos de 2, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 180 dias a fim de se avaliarem as interações polímero/tecido. Não foram observadas respostas inflamatórias exacerbadas em nenhum tempo estudado. Verificou-se a formação de cápsula fibrosa envolvendo a área implantada com presença de fibroblastos, fibrócitos e células gigantes multinucleadas. Concluímos que as membranas de PLLA contendo PCL-triol apresentaram resistência ao processo de degradação, podendo ainda ser observadas após 180 dias de estudo.Bioabsorbable polymers have been studied for medical applications, especially for orthopedics and traumatology area. Among these promising polymers there is great emphasis on Poly (l-lactic acid, PLLA, due to its high strength and good biocompatibility. In spite of these characteristics, the devices obtained from the PLLA have low elongation and a hydrophobic character, which hamper its use in applications in which the tissue/implant interaction is an important factor. The aim of this work is to obtain PLLA membranes and to improve its properties adding 10% of poly (e-caprolactone (PCL-triol, a semicrystalline polymer. For this proposal membranes were

  6. Biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene and geraniol to α-terpineol and p-menthane-3,8-diol by the white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Park, Se-Yeong; Choi, In-Gyu

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the monoterpenes, α-pinene and geraniol, were biotransformed to synthesize monoterpene alcohol compounds. Polyporus brumalis which is classified as a white rot fungus was used as a biocatalyst. Consequently α-terpineol was synthesized from α-pinene by P. brumalis mycelium, after three days. Moreover, another substrate, the acyclic monoterpenoids geraniol was transformed into the cyclic compound, p-menthane-3, 8-diol (PMD). The main metabolites, i.e., α-terpineol and PMD, are known to be bioactive monoterpene alcohol compounds. This study highlights the potential of fungal biocatalysts for monoterpene transformation. PMID:26115995

  7. Molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration of vicinal diols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel; Oh, Byung Chang;

    2014-01-01

    The commercially available (NH4)6Mo7O24 and other molybdenum compounds are shown to be viable substitutes for the typically employed rhenium compounds in the catalytic deoxydehydration of aliphatic diols into the corresponding alkenes. The transformation, which represents a model system for the v......The commercially available (NH4)6Mo7O24 and other molybdenum compounds are shown to be viable substitutes for the typically employed rhenium compounds in the catalytic deoxydehydration of aliphatic diols into the corresponding alkenes. The transformation, which represents a model system...

  8. Acyclic edge colorings of planar graphs and series parallel graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU JianFeng; WU JianLiang; LIU GuiZhen; LIU Bin

    2009-01-01

    A proper edge coloring of a graph G is called acyclic if there is no 2-colored cycle in G.The acyclic edge chromatic number of G,denoted by a'(G),is the least number of colors in an acyclic edge coloring of G.Alon et al.conjectured that a'(G) ≤△(G) +2 for any graphs.For planar graphs G with girth g(G),we prove that a'(G) ≤ max{2△(G)-2,△(G) +22} if g(G) ≥3,a'(G)≤△(G)+2if g(G) ≥ 5,a'(G) ≤△(G)+1 if g(G) ≥ 7,and a'(G)=△(G) if g(G) ≥ 16 and △(G) ≥ 3.For series-parallel graphs G,we have a'(G) ≤ △(G) +1.

  9. Synthesis of some novel hydrazono acyclic nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. Soltani Rad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The syntheses of novel hydrazono acyclic nucleosides similar to miconazole scaffolds are described. In this series of acyclic nucleosides, pyrimidine as well as purine and other azole derivatives replaced the imidazole function in miconazole and the ether group was replaced with a hydrazone moiety using phenylhydrazine. To interpret the dominant formation of (E-hydrazone derivatives rather than (Z-isomers, PM3 semiempirical quantum mechanic calculations were carried out which indicated that the (E-isomers had the lower heats of formation.

  10. Inverse Eigenvalue Problems for Two Special Acyclic Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study two inverse eigenvalue problems (IEPs of constructing two special acyclic matrices. The first problem involves the reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a path, from given information on one eigenvector of the required matrix and one eigenvalue of each of its leading principal submatrices. The second problem involves reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a broom, the eigen data being the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of each of the leading principal submatrices of the required matrix. In order to solve the problems, we use the recurrence relations among leading principal minors and the property of simplicity of the extremal eigenvalues of acyclic matrices.

  11. The androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and its metabolite 5alpha-androstan-3beta, 17beta-diol inhibit the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response to stress by acting through estrogen receptor beta-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Trent D; Hinds, Laura R; Handa, Robert J

    2006-02-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and androgen receptor (AR) are found in high levels within populations of neurons in the hypothalamus. To determine whether AR or ERbeta plays a role in regulating hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function by direct action on these neurons, we examined the effects of central implants of 17beta-estradiol (E2), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the DHT metabolite 5alpha-androstan-3beta, 17beta-diol (3beta-diol), and several ER subtype-selective agonists on the corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) response to immobilization stress. In addition, activation of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was monitored by examining c-fos mRNA expression. Pellets containing these compounds were stereotaxically implanted near the PVN of gonadectomized male rats. Seven days later, animals were killed directly from their home cage (nonstressed) or were restrained for 30 min (stressed) before they were killed. Compared with controls, E2 and the ERalpha-selective agonists moxestrol and propyl-pyrazole-triol significantly increased the stress induced release of corticosterone and ACTH. In contrast, central administration of DHT, 3beta-diol, and the ERbeta-selective compound diarylpropionitrile significantly decreased the corticosterone and ACTH response to immobilization. Cotreatment with the ER antagonist tamoxifen completely blocked the effects of 3beta-diol and partially blocked the effect of DHT, whereas the AR antagonist flutamide had no effect. Moreover, DHT, 3beta-diol, and diarylpropionitrile treatment significantly decreased restraint-induced c-fos mRNA expression in the PVN. Together, these studies indicate that the inhibitory effects of DHT on HPA axis activity may be in part mediated via its conversion to 3beta-diol and subsequent binding to ERbeta. PMID:16452668

  12. New acyclic diterpenic acids from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, María I; Coll Aráoz, María V; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A N

    2010-11-01

    Two new acyclic diterpenoids, smaditerpenic acid E (1a) and F (2a), along with nineteen melampolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, six of them not previously reported in yacon, were isolated from the methylene chloride leaf rinse extract. Their structures were elucidated from 1D and 2D NMR experiments and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. PMID:21213966

  13. Understanding Model Counting for beta-acyclic CNF-formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Brault-Baron, Johann; Capelli, Florent; Mengel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We show that SAT on beta-acyclic CNF-formulas can be solved in polynomial time. In contrast to previous algorithms for other structurally restricted classes of formulas, our algorithm does not proceed by dynamic programming. Instead, it works along an elimination order, solving a weighted version of constraint satisfaction. We give evidence that this deviation from more standard algorithms is no coincidence by showing that it is outside of the framework recently proposed by Saether et al. (SA...

  14. Acyclic Preference Systems in P2P Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gai, Anh-Tuan; Lebedev, Dmitry; Mathieu, Fabien; de Montgolfier, Fabien; Reynier, Julien; Viennot, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com International audience In this work we study preference systems suitable for the Peer-to-Peer paradigm. Most of them fall in one of the three following categories: global, symmetric and complementary. All these systems share an acyclicity property. As a consequence, they admit a stable (or Pareto efficient) configuration, where no participant can collaborate with better partners than their current ones. We analyze the represe...

  15. Synthesis and complexation characteristics of phenanthroline and bipyridine diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, B.; Boer, J.W. de; Meetsma, A.; Kellogg, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Neocuproine (2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) 1 was converted to achiral and chiral tetradentate phenanthroline diols 3a-c by addition to benzophenone, adamantanone and camphor, respectively. Analogously 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine 2 was converted to diol 7a on base-induced addition to benzopheno

  16. Intervertebral disk-like biphasic scaffold—demineralized bone matrix cylinder and poly(polycaprolactone triol malate)—for interbody spine fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jin; Yuqing Wan; Shimer, Adam L.; Shen, Francis H.; Li, Xudong J

    2012-01-01

    Interbody fusion is an established procedure to preserve disk height and anterior fusion, but fusion with autografts, allografts, and metallic cages has its endogenous shortcomings. The objective of this study is to investigate whether a biphasic scaffold model, the native demineralized bone matrix cylinder in conjunction with degradable biomaterial poly(polycaprolactone triol malate), can be employed as a biological graft for interbody fusion. The poly(polycaprolactone triol malate) was synt...

  17. Cell transfection with a β-cyclodextrin-PEI-propane-1,2,3-triol nanopolymer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Fu Lai

    Full Text Available Successful gene therapy necessitates safe and efficient gene transfer. This article describes the use of a cationic polymer, which was synthesized by cross-linking low molecular weight branched poly(ethylenimine (PEI with both β-cyclodextrin and propane-1,2,3-triol, for efficient and safe non-viral gene delivery. Experimentation demonstrated that the polymer had a pH buffering capacity and DNA condensing ability comparable to those of PEI 25 kDa. In B16-F0 cells, the polymer increased the transfection efficiency of naked DNA by 700-fold and yielded better transfection efficiencies than Fugene HD (threefold higher and PEI 25 kDa (fivefold higher. The high transfection efficiency of the polymer was not affected by the presence of serum during transfection. In addition to B16-F0 cells, the polymer enabled efficient transfection of HepG2 and U87 cells with low cytotoxicity. Our results indicated that our polymer is a safe and efficient transfection reagent that warrants further development for in vitro, in vivo and clinical applications.

  18. A sequential growth dynamics for a directed acyclic dyadic graph

    CERN Document Server

    Krugly, Alexey L

    2011-01-01

    A model of discrete spacetime on a microscopic level is considered. It is a directed acyclic dyadic graph. This is the particular case of a causal set. The goal of this model is to describe particles as some repetitive symmetrical self-organized structures of the graph without any reference to continuous spacetime. The dynamics of the model is considered. This dynamics is stochastic sequential additions of new vertexes. Growth of the graph is a Markovian process. This dynamics is a consequence of a causality principle.

  19. A General and Efficient CuBr2-Catalyzed N-Arylation of Secondary Acyclic Amides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王满刚; 于华; 尤心稳; 吴军; 商志才

    2012-01-01

    A general and efficient Cu(II)-catalyzed cross-coupling method is reported for the preparation of acyclic tertiary amides. Generally moderate to excellent yields and functional group tolerance were obtained with secondary acyclic amides and aryl halides as substrates in toluene.

  20. A Distributed Algorithm for Determining Minimal Covers of Acyclic Database Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新铭

    1994-01-01

    Acyclic databases possess several desirable properties for their design and use.A distributed algorithm is proposed for determining a minimal cover of an alpha-,beta-,gamma-,or Berge-acyclic database scheme over a set of attributes in a distributed environment.

  1. Towards Optimal Event Detection and Localization in Acyclic Flow Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Agumbe Suresh, Mahima

    2012-01-03

    Acyclic flow networks, present in many infrastructures of national importance (e.g., oil & gas and water distribution systems), have been attracting immense research interest. Existing solutions for detecting and locating attacks against these infrastructures, have been proven costly and imprecise, especially when dealing with large scale distribution systems. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, we investigate how mobile sensor networks can be used for optimal event detection and localization in acyclic flow networks. Sensor nodes move along the edges of the network and detect events (i.e., attacks) and proximity to beacon nodes with known placement in the network. We formulate the problem of minimizing the cost of monitoring infrastructure (i.e., minimizing the number of sensor and beacon nodes deployed), while ensuring a degree of sensing coverage in a zone of interest and a required accuracy in locating events. We propose algorithms for solving these problems and demonstrate their effectiveness with results obtained from a high fidelity simulator.

  2. On Event Detection and Localization in Acyclic Flow Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, Mahima Agumbe

    2013-05-01

    Acyclic flow networks, present in many infrastructures of national importance (e.g., oil and gas and water distribution systems), have been attracting immense research interest. Existing solutions for detecting and locating attacks against these infrastructures have been proven costly and imprecise, particularly when dealing with large-scale distribution systems. In this article, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we investigate how mobile sensor networks can be used for optimal event detection and localization in acyclic flow networks. We propose the idea of using sensors that move along the edges of the network and detect events (i.e., attacks). To localize the events, sensors detect proximity to beacons, which are devices with known placement in the network. We formulate the problem of minimizing the cost of monitoring infrastructure (i.e., minimizing the number of sensors and beacons deployed) in a predetermined zone of interest, while ensuring a degree of coverage by sensors and a required accuracy in locating events using beacons. We propose algorithms for solving the aforementioned problem and demonstrate their effectiveness with results obtained from a realistic flow network simulator.

  3. Worst-case Behaviour of History Based Pivot Rules on Acyclic Unique Sink Orientations of Hypercubes

    CERN Document Server

    Aoshima, Yoshikazu; Deering, Theresa; Matsumoto, Yoshitake; Moriyama, Sonoko

    2011-01-01

    An acyclic USO on a hypercube is formed by directing its edges in such as way that the digraph is acyclic and each face of the hypercube has a unique sink and a unique source. A path to the global sink of an acyclic USO can be modeled as pivoting in a unit hypercube of the same dimension with an abstract objective function, and vice versa. In such a way, Zadeh's 'least entered rule' and other history based pivot rules can be applied to the problem of finding the global sink of an acyclic USO. In this paper we present some theoretical and empirical results on the worst case behaviour of various history based pivot rules for this problem. In particular, we investigate whether or not they can follow a Hamiltonian path on an acyclic USO.

  4. $\\ell_0$-penalized maximum likelihood for sparse directed acyclic graphs

    CERN Document Server

    van de Geer, Sara

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of regularized maximum likelihood estimation for the structure and parameters of a high-dimensional, sparse directed acyclic graphical (DAG) model with Gaussian distribution, or equivalently, of a Gaussian structural equation model. We show that the $\\ell_0$-penalized maximum likelihood estimator of a DAG has about the same number of edges as the minimal-edge I-MAP (a DAG with minimal number of edges representing the distribution), and that it converges in Frobenius norm. We allow the number of nodes $p$ to be much larger than sample size $n$ but assume a sparsity condition and that any representation of the true DAG has at least a fixed proportion of its non-zero edge weights above the noise level. Our results do not rely on the restrictive strong faithfulness condition which is required for methods based on conditional independence testing such as the PC-algorithm.

  5. The Existence Condition of γ-Acyclic Database Schemes with MVDs Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝忠孝; 姚春龙

    2002-01-01

    It is very important to use database technology for a large-scale system such as ERP and MIS. A good database design may improve the performance of the system. Some researches show that a γ-acyclic database scheme has many good properties, e.g., each connected join expression is monotonous, which helps to improve query performance of the database system. Thus what conditions are needed to generate a γ-acyclic database scheme for a given relational scheme? In this paper, the sufficient and necessary condition of the existence of γ-acyclic, join-lossless and dependencies-preserved database schemes meeting 4NF is given.

  6. Two new acyclic diterpene-y-lactones from the leaves of Salix matsudana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new acyclic diterpene-(-lactones named hanliuine III (1) and hanliuine IV (2) were isolated from leaves of Salix matsudana (Chinese name "hanliu"). Their structures were deduced from spectral data.

  7. DFT Study of the Molybdenum-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration of Vicinal Diols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupp, Daniel; Christensen, Niels Johan; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter;

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of vicinal diols has been investigated using density functional theory. The proposed catalytic cycle involves condensation of the diol with an MoVI oxo complex, oxidative cleavage of the diol resulting in an MoIV complex, and extru...

  8. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates. Acyclic Carbonates and Esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afroz, Taliman [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Seo, D. M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Han, Sang D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Boyle, Paul D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Henderson, Wesley A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-06

    Solvate crystal structures serve as useful models for the molecular-level interactions within the diverse solvates present in liquid electrolytes. Although acyclic carbonate solvents are widely used for Li-ion battery electrolytes, only three solvate crystal structures with lithium salts are known for these and related solvents. The present work, therefore, reports six lithium salt solvate structures with dimethyl and diethyl carbonate: (DMC)2:LiPF6, (DMC)1:LiCF3SO3, (DMC)1/4:LiBF4, (DEC)2:LiClO4, (DEC)1:LiClO4 and (DEC)1:LiCF3SO3 and four with the structurally related methyl and ethyl acetate: (MA)2:LiClO4, (MA)1:LiBF4, (EA)1:LiClO4 and (EA)1:LiBF4.

  9. Synthesis of new diverse macrocycles from diol precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Hansen, Martin; Thrane, Marie V.;

    2010-01-01

    The formation of a library of diverse macrocycles with different ring sizes from two easily accessible building blocks is presented. Reacting diol precursors with electrophilic reagents lead to 17-membered sulfites and 19-membered malonates in 34–79% yield. Double-reductive amination of dialdehyd...

  10. Acyclic edge colorings of planar graphs and series-parallel graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A proper edge coloring of a graph G is called acyclic if there is no 2-colored cycle in G. The acyclic edge chromatic number of G, denoted by a (G), is the least number of colors in an acyclic edge coloring of G. Alon et al. conjectured that a (G) Δ(G) + 2 for any graphs. For planar graphs G with girth g(G), we prove that a (G) max{2Δ(G) + 2, Δ(G) + 22} if g(G) 3, a (G) Δ(G) + 2 if g(G) 5, a (G) Δ(G) + 1 if g(G) 7, and a (G) = Δ(G) if g(G) 16 and Δ(G) 3. For series-parallel graphs G, we have a (G) Δ(G) + 1.

  11. An Upper Bound for the Adjacent Vertex Distinguishing Acyclic Edge Chromatic Number of a Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-sheng Liu; Ming-qiang An; Yang Gao

    2009-01-01

    A proper k-edge coloring of a graph G is called adjacent vertex distinguishing acyclic edge coloring if there is no 2-colored cycle in G and the color set of edges incident to u is not equal to the color set of edges incident to v,where uv ∈ E(G).The adjacent vertex distinguishing acyclic edge chromatic number of G,denoted by χαα(G),is the minimal number of colors in an adjacent vertex distinguishing acyclic edge coloring of G.In this paper we prove that if G(V,E)is a graph with no isolated edges,then χαα(G)≤32△.

  12. Acyclic cucurbit[n]uril molecular containers enhance the solubility and bioactivity of poorly soluble pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Da; Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Nguyen, Duc; Zhang, Ben; Wittenberg, James B.; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Briken, Volker; Isaacs, Lyle

    2012-06-01

    The solubility characteristics of 40-70% of new drug candidates are so poor that they cannot be formulated on their own, so new methods for increasing drug solubility are highly prized. Here, we describe a new class of general-purpose solubilizing agents—acyclic cucurbituril-type containers—which increase the solubility of ten insoluble drugs by a factor of between 23 and 2,750 by forming container-drug complexes. The containers exhibit low in vitro toxicity in human liver, kidney and monocyte cell lines, and outbred Swiss Webster mice tolerate high doses of the container without sickness or weight loss. Paclitaxel solubilized by the acyclic cucurbituril-type containers kills cervical and ovarian cancer cells more efficiently than paclitaxel alone. The acyclic cucurbituril-type containers preferentially bind cationic and aromatic drugs, but also solubilize neutral drugs such as paclitaxel, and represent an attractive extension of cyclodextrin-based technology for drug solubilization and delivery.

  13. Rhenium-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration of Diols and Polyols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Fristrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The substitution of platform chemicals of fossil origin by biomass-derived analogues requires the development of chemicaltransformations capable of reducing the very high oxygen contentof biomass. One such reaction, which has received increasingattention within the past five years, is the heniumc......The substitution of platform chemicals of fossil origin by biomass-derived analogues requires the development of chemicaltransformations capable of reducing the very high oxygen contentof biomass. One such reaction, which has received increasingattention within the past five years......, is the heniumcatalyzeddeoxydehydration (DODH) of a vicinal diol into analkene; this is a model system for abundant polyols like glyceroland sugar alcohols. The present contribution includesa review of early investigations of stoichiometric reactions involvingrhenium, diols, and alkenes followed by a discussion ofthe various catalytic...

  14. A xanthanolide diol and a dimeric xanthanolide from Xanthium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A A; Mahmoud, A A; El-Gamal, A A

    1999-06-01

    Extracts of the aerial parts of Xanthium strumarium and fruit of X. pungens afforded a new Xanthanolide diol derivative, 11alpha,13-dihydroxyxanthatin and a new dimeric xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactone, pungiolide C, in addition to some known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods particularly high resolution (1)H-, (13)C-NMR and 2D (1)H- (1)H and (1)H- (13)C COSY NMR analysis. PMID:17260271

  15. Selective discrimination of cyclodextrin diols using cyclic sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrillo, Marta; Marinescu, Lavinia; Rousseau, Cyril;

    2009-01-01

    A method for selective monofunctionalition of readily available cyclodextrin diols (2(A-F),3(A-F),6(B,C,E,F)-hexadeca-O-benzyl-alpha-cyclodextrin and 2(A-G),3(A-G),6(B,C,E-G)-nonadeca-O-benzyl-beta-cyclodextrin) by regioselective nucleophilic opening of their cyclic sulfates is presented. Although...... the A and D products are nonequivalent in beta-cyclodextrin, only the A product is formed....

  16. Bioassay guided isolation of a new C18-polyacetylene, (+)-9(Z),17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol, from Cassonia barteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papajewski, S; Guse, J H; Klaiber, I; Roos, G; Süssmuth, R; Vogler, B; Walter, C U; Kraus, W

    1998-06-01

    A novel C18-polyacetylene, (+)-9( Z),17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol, has been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Cassonia barteri (Araliaceae) leaves collected in Cameroon. The structure determination was achieved by NMR, mass, IR, and UV spectroscopy. The new polyenyne shows antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, moiluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata at low concentrations, and in addition it possesses haemolytic activity. PMID:17253268

  17. Mechanical Properties of Membranes of Poly(L-co-DL-lactic acid) with Poly(caprolactone triol) and Study In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Adriana Tomaz Duarte; Adriana Cristina Motta; Eliana Aparecida Rezende Duek

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in aliphatic polyesters from lactones and lactides because of their biodegradability and biocompatibility. Among these compounds, poly(lactide), and poly(glycolide), poly(ε-caprolactone) and their copolymers are especially interesting because of their potential applications as biomedical materials. The aim of this study was to examine the properties of membranes of poly(L-co-D,L lactic acid) (PLDLA) with poly(caprolactone triol) (PCL-T) obtained by solvent evapora...

  18. The ERβ ligand 5α-androstane, 3β,17β-diol (3β-diol) regulates hypothalamic oxytocin (Oxt) gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharmendra; Handa, Robert J; Uht, Rosalie M

    2012-05-01

    The endocrine component of the stress response is regulated by glucocorticoids and sex steroids. Testosterone down-regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity; however, the mechanisms by which it does so are poorly understood. A candidate testosterone target is the oxytocin gene (Oxt), given that it too inhibits HPA activity. Within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, oxytocinergic neurons involved in regulating the stress response do not express androgen receptors but do express estrogen receptor-β (ERβ), which binds the dihydrotestosterone metabolite 3β,17β-diol (3β-diol). Testosterone regulation of the HPA axis thus appears to involve the conversion to the ERβ-selective ligand 5α-androstane, 3β-diol. To study mechanisms by which 3β-diol could regulate Oxt expression, we used a hypothalamic neuronal cell line derived from embryonic mice that expresses Oxt constitutively and compared 3β-diol with estradiol (E2) effects. E2 and 3β-diol elicited a phasic response in Oxt mRNA levels. In the presence of either ligand, Oxt mRNA levels were increased for at least 60 min and returned to baseline by 2 h. ERβ occupancy preceded an increase in Oxt mRNA levels in the presence of 3β-diol but not E2. In tandem with ERβ occupancy, 3β-diol increased occupancy of the Oxt promoter by cAMP response element-binding protein and steroid receptor coactivator-1 at 30 min. At the same time, 3β-diol led to the increased acetylation of histone H4 but not H3. Taken together, the data suggest that in the presence of 3β-diol, ERβ associates with cAMP response element-binding protein and steroid receptor coactivator-1 to form a functional complex that drives Oxt gene expression. PMID:22434086

  19. Evaluation of plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol in inherited disorders related to cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenzi, Sara; Deodato, Federica; Taurisano, Roberta; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Rizzo, Cristiano; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Oxysterols are intermediates of cholesterol metabolism and are generated from cholesterol via either enzymatic or nonenzymatic pathways under oxidative stress conditions. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (C-triol) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) have been proposed as new biomarkers for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease, representing an alternative tool to the invasive and time-consuming method of fibroblast filipin test. To test the efficacy of plasma oxysterol determination for the diagnosis of NP-C, we systematically screened oxysterol levels in patients affected by different inherited disorders related with cholesterol metabolism, which included Niemann-Pick type B (NP-B) disease, lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), congenital familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and sitosterolemia (SITO). As expected, NP-C patients showed significant increase of both C-triol and 7-KC. Strong increase of both oxysterols was observed in NP-B and less pronounced in LAL deficiency. In SLOS, only 7-KC was markedly increased, whereas in both FH and in SITO, oxysterol concentrations were normal. Interestingly, in NP-C alone, we observed that plasma oxysterols correlate negatively with patient's age and positively with serum total bilirubin, suggesting the potential relationship between oxysterol levels and hepatic disease status. Our results indicate that oxysterols are reliable and sensitive biomarkers of NP-C. PMID:26733147

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some diols by benzyltrimethylammonium tribromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Garima Goswami; Seema Kothari; Kalyan K Banerji

    2001-02-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of five vicinal and four non-vicinal diols, and two of their monoethers by benzyltrimethylammonium tribromide (BTMAB) have been studied in 3:7 (/) acetic acid-water mixture. The vicinal diols yield the carbonyl compounds arising out of the glycol bond fission while the other diols give the hydroxycarbonyl compounds. The reaction is first-order with respect to BTMAB. Michaelis-Menten type kinetics is observed with respect to diol. Addition of benzyltrimethylammonium chloride does not affect the rate. Tribromide ion is postulated to be the reactive oxidizing species. Oxidation of [1,1,2,2-2H4] ethanediol shows the absence of a kinetic isotope effect. The reaction exhibits substantial solvent isotope effect. A mechanism involving a glycol-bond fission has been proposed for the oxidation of the vicinal diols. The other diols are oxidized by a hydride ion transfer to the oxidant, as are the monohydric alcohols.

  1. Sources and proxy potential of long chain alkyl diols in lacustrine environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rampen, Sebastiaan W.; Datema, Mariska; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Schouten, Stefan; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Long chain 1,13- and 1,15-alkyl diols form the base of a number of recently proposed proxies used for climate reconstruction. However, the sources of these lipids and environmental controls on their distribution are still poorly constrained. We have analyzed the long chain alkyl diol (LCD) compositi

  2. Sources and proxy potential of long chain alkyl diols in lacustrine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rampen, S.; Datema, M.; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Schouten, S.; Reichart, G.-J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Long chain 1,13- and 1,15-alkyl diols form the base of a number of recently proposed proxies used for climate reconstruction. However, the sources of these lipids and environmental controls on their distribution are still poorly constrained. We have analyzed the long chain alkyl diol (LCD) compositi

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON GEOMETRY ON THE HYDROLYSIS OF DIOL EPOXIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative studies of the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geometry on the hydrolysis of diol epoxides The interaction of the diol epoxides (DEs) of both planar and non-planar PAHs with water have been examined using quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics. Th...

  4. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 2. alternating polyesteramides based on a single, linear diol (4NTm)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Thuss, E.H.L.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Strictly alternating polyesteramides consisting of 1,4-butylene terephthalamide and aliphatic diols have been synthesized in the melt in the presence of a titanium catalyst. The influence of diol length on the thermal and mechanical properties was studied. Depending on its structure, the diol took p

  5. Regulation of the survival and differentiation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells by acyclic retinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    During embryonic liver development, hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HpSCs) have a high proliferative ability and bipotency to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Retinoic acid is a derivative of vitamin A and is involved in the proliferation and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells in several tissues. However, whether retinoic acid regulates the characteristics of HpSCs in the normal liver is still unknown. A recent study has shown that acyclic retinoid regulates the survival and proliferation of HpSCs derived from mouse foetal liver. Acyclic retinoid suppressed the expansion of CD29(+)CD49f(+) HpSCs through the induction of hepatocytic differentiation and progression of apoptosis. PMID:26021438

  6. [Synthesis of acyclic 1,3-polyols and its application to structural study of natural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Y

    1993-06-01

    A 1,3-polyhydroxylated chain is often found on the backbone of biologically important natural products. The acyclic nature and the regular array of many hydroxyl groups are main obstacles to structural and synthetic studies, and many efforts have been made to this end. We have developed a new general synthetic method of 1,3-polyols based on the coupling of a chiral dithiane, a four-carbon unit, and an epoxide, followed by 1,3-diastereoselective reduction. We applied the method to the synthesis of polymethoxy-1-alkenes isolated from blue-green algae to establish their absolute stereochemistry. Moreover, a general procedure for assigning the absolute stereochemistry of acyclic 1,3-polyols by the difference circular dichroism (CD) method have been established. Combination of the method and a reiterative degradation enables one to determine the absolute configuration of 1,3-polyols, even if the relative stereochemistry is unknown. PMID:8355146

  7. Regulation of the survival and differentiation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells by acyclic retinoid

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    During embryonic liver development, hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HpSCs) have a high proliferative ability and bipotency to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Retinoic acid is a derivative of vitamin A and is involved in the proliferation and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells in several tissues. However, whether retinoic acid regulates the characteristics of HpSCs in the normal liver is still unknown. A recent study has shown that acyclic retinoid regulates the surviva...

  8. 1-(3-Phenylisoxazol-5-ylcyclohexane-1,2-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Astudillo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17NO3, there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit wherein the isoxazole rings make dihedral angles of 16.16 (15 and 16.79 (13° with the benzene rings, and the cyclohexane rings adopt chair conformations. In both molecules, the hydroxyl groups of the diol fragments are cis oriented, the O—C—C—O torsion angles being 60.76 (12 and −55.86 (11°. The two molecules are linked by a strong O—H...N hydrogen bond and the crystal packing is stabilized by one O—H...N and two O—H...O hydrogen bonds. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is observed in one of the molecules.

  9. Synthesis, stability constants and electronic spectral studies of ternary complexes of Pr(III) with histidine and diols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mixed ligand complexes of the type MAB, MA2B and MaB2 where M = Pr(III), A = histidine and B = ethanediol, prop-1,2-diol, 2-butene-1, 4-diol, but-2,3-diol, pent-1,5-diol and hex-1,6-diol have been investigated by alkalimetric titrations. The overall stability constants have been evaluated at 30+1degC (μ = 0.2MKNO3). The absorption spectra of some praseodymium(III) ternary complexes in solution have been used to calculate energy interaction and intensity parameters. The low intensity of the pseudohypersensitive transition suggests higher coordination number. (author)

  10. Evaluation of follicular oxidant-antioxidant balance and oxidative damage during reproductive acyclicity in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M H Jan; G Singh; M Sarkar; G K Das; F A Khan; J Singh; S T Bashir; S Khan; J K Prasad; S Mehrotra; M C Pathak

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate changes in follicular fluid concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidant capacity(TAC) and degree of oxidative damage to follicular cells, using protein carbonyl(PC) as marker of oxidative stress, were investigated during reproductive acyclicity in buffalo.Methods:Follicular fluid was aspirated from follicles grouped into three classes depending upon their diameter [small(5.0-7.0 mm), medium(7.1-10.0 mm), and large (>10.0 mm)].Progesterone and estradiol were estimated to determine functional status(P:E ratio) of the follicles.Results:Acyclic buffaloes had greater concentrations ofROS(P<0.001) andPC (P=0.0412) and lower concentrations ofTAC(P=0.0280) than cyclic buffaloes.An interesting novel finding was the complete absence of lowP:E functionally active follicles in acyclic buffaloes. Results indicated a pronounced follicular fluid oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and oxidative damage to follicular cells during acyclicity in buffalo.Conclusion:In conclusion, this study provided evidence about role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of reproductive acyclicity.

  11. 平面图的无圈边染色%Acyclic Edge Colouring of Pianar Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段娟娟; 丁伟

    2011-01-01

    Let G=(V,E) be any finite graph.A mapping C:E→[k]is called an acyclic edge colouring of G,if any two adjacent edges have different colours and there are no bichromatic cycles in G.In other words,the subgraph induced by the union of any two colour classes is a forest.The minimum number k of colours,such that G has an acyclic edge k-colouring is called the acyclic chromatic index of G,denoted by X′a(G).Alon et al.conjectured that for any graph G it holds that X′a(G)≤Δ(G)+2;here Δ(G) stands for the maximum degree of G.In this paper weprove the planar graphs with girth at least 4,then X′a≤Δ(G)+4.%利用差值转移的方法证明了,如果g(G)≥4则有X′a≤Δ(G)+4.图G=(V,E)是简单图,映射C:E→[k],被称作是图G的一个无圈k边染色.如果任意相邻的两个边染有不同的颜色,以及图G中不含有2-色圈,换句话说即图G中任何染两种颜色的边的导出子图是一棵森林.

  12. A Practical Approach for Scalable Conjunctive Query Answering on Acyclic {EL}^+ Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jing; Liu, Shengping; Xie, Guotong; Kalyanpur, Aditya; Fokoue, Achille; Ni, Yuan; Li, Hanyu; Pan, Yue

    Conjunctive query answering for {EL}^{++} ontologies has recently drawn much attention, as the Description Logic {EL}^{++} captures the expressivity of many large ontologies in the biomedical domain and is the foundation for the OWL 2 EL profile. In this paper, we propose a practical approach for conjunctive query answering in a fragment of {EL}^{++}, namely acyclic {EL}^+, that supports role inclusions. This approach can be implemented with low cost by leveraging any existing relational database management system to do the ABox data completion and query answering. We conducted a preliminary experiment to evaluate our approach using a large clinical data set and show our approach is practical.

  13. 5-Androstene-3β,7β,17β-triol (β-AET slows thermal injury induced osteopenia in mice: relation to aging and osteoporosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Malik

    Full Text Available 5-Androstene-3β,7β,17β-triol (β-AET, an active metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, reversed glucocorticoid (GC-induced suppression of IL-6, IL-8 and osteoprotegerin production by human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells and promoted osteoblast differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In a murine thermal injury model that includes glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia, β-AET significantly (p<0.05 preserved bone mineral content, restored whole body bone mineral content and endochondral growth, suggesting reversal of GC-mediated decreases in chondrocyte proliferation, maturation and osteogenesis in the growth plate. In men and women, levels of β-AET decline with age, consistent with a role for β-AET relevant to diseases associated with aging. β-AET, related compounds or synthetic derivatives may be part of effective therapeutic strategies to accelerate tissue regeneration and prevent or treat diseases associated with aging such as osteoporosis.

  14. (24S)-ergostane-3β,5α,6β-triol from Hedyotis chrysotricha with inhibitory activity on migration of SK-HEP-1 human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miao; Su, Jing-Jing; Liu, Shu-Ting; Cao, Lei; Xiong, Juan; Zhao, Yun; Fan, Hui; Yang, Guo-Xun; Xia, Gang; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The methanol extract of the whole plant of Hedyotis chrysotricha demonstrated cytotoxicity against SK-HEP-1 human hepatocarcinoma cells in a primary screening for novel antitumour agents. Bioassay-guided fractionation and purification led to an active principle (24S)-ergostane-3β,5α,6β-triol (1) along with four inactive compounds (2-5). The in vitro transwell migration assay showed that compound 1 remarkably reduced the migration of SK-HEP-1 cells by 78.9% at a dose of 30 µM, without any apoptotic effect on this cell line. Moreover, all the isolated compounds were further evaluated for their cytotoxicities against another four human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, NUGC3, SH-SY5Y and PC-3). PMID:22889249

  15. Self-microemulsifying drug-delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of 20(S-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol: preparation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shuang Cai,1,* Cai-Hong Shi,2,* Xiangrong Zhang,2 Xiaojiao Tang,2 Hao Suo,2 Li Yang,2 Yuqing Zhao2 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 2Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS to enhance the oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble compound 20(S-25-methoxydammarane-3β;12β;20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD. Optimized SMEDDS formulations for 25-OCH3-PPD contained Cremophor® EL (50% as the surfactant, glycerin (20% as the cosurfactant, and Labrafil® M1944 (30% as the oil. The SMEDDS were characterized by morphological observation and mean droplet size. The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of the 25-OCH3-PPD suspension and SMEDDS were evaluated and compared in rats. The plasma concentrations of 25-OCH3-PPD and its main metabolite, 25-OH-PPD, were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The relative bioavailability of SMEDDS was dramatically enhanced by an average of 9.8-fold compared with the suspension. Improved solubility and lymphatic transport may contribute to this enhanced bioavailability. Our studies highlight the promise of SMEDDS for the delivery of 25-OCH3-PPD via the oral route. Keywords: 25-methoxydammarane-3β;12β;20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD, 25-OH-PPD, self-microemulsifying drug delivery system, bioavailability, pharmacokinetics

  16. Synthesis of an Antitumoral Diarylheptanoid Containing 1,3-Diol Functionality%Synthesis of an Antitumoral Diarylheptanoid Containing 1,3-Diol Functionality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少敏; 伍贻康

    2011-01-01

    A bioactive derivative of a natural diarylheptanoid containing a 1,3-anti diol motif was synthesized with the oxygen-carrying stereogenic centers taken from an enantiopure epoxy chiral building block derived from inexpensive and readily available D-glucolactone.

  17. A role for the androgen metabolite, 5alpha androstane 3beta, 17beta diol (3β-diol) in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J; Sharma, Dharmendra; Uht, Rosalie

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a basic reaction of animals to environmental perturbations that threaten homeostasis. These responses are ultimately regulated by neurons residing within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Within the PVN, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin (AVP), and oxytocin (OT) expressing neurons are critical as they can regulate both neuroendocrine and autonomic responses. Estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) are well known reproductive hormones; however, they have also been shown to modulate stress reactivity. In rodent models, evidence shows that under some conditions E2 enhances stress activated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion. In contrast, T decreases the gain of the HPA axis. The modulatory role of testosterone was originally thought to be via 5 alpha reduction to the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and its subsequent binding to the androgen receptor, whereas E2 effects were thought to be mediated by estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). However, DHT has been shown to be metabolized to the ERbeta agonist, 5α- androstane 3β, 17β Diol (3β-Diol). The actions of 3β-Diol on the HPA axis are mediated by ERbeta which inhibits the PVN response to stressors. In gonadectomized rats, ERbeta agonists reduce CORT and ACTH responses to restraint stress, an effect that is also present in wild-type but not ERbeta-knockout mice. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the ability of ERbeta to alter HPA reactivity are not currently known. CRH, AVP, and OT have all been shown to be regulated by estradiol and recent studies indicate an important role of ERbeta in these regulatory processes. Moreover, activation of the CRH and AVP promoters has been shown to occur by 3β-Diol binding to ERbeta and this is thought to occur through alternate pathways of gene regulation. Based on available data, a novel and important role of 3β-Diol in

  18. A Role for the Androgen Metabolite, 5alpha androstane, 3beta, 17beta Diol (3b-DIol in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert James Handa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a basic reaction of animals to environmental perturbations that threaten homeostasis. These responses are ultimately regulated by neurons residing within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN. Within the PVN, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OT expressing neurons are critical as they can regulate both neuroendocrine and autonomic responses. Estradiol (E2 and testosterone (T are well known reproductive hormones, however, they have also been shown to modulate stress reactivity. In rodent models, evidence shows that under some conditions E2 enhances stress activated ACTH and corticosterone secretion. In contrast, T decreases the gain of the HPA axis. The modulatory role of testosterone was originally thought to be via 5 alpha reduction to the potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, whereas E2 effects were thought to be mediated by both estrogen receptors alpha (ERα and beta (ERβ. However, DHT has been shown to be metabolized to the ERβ agonist, 5alpha- androstane 3beta,17beta diol (3b-Diol. The actions of 3β-Diol on the HPA axis are mediated by ERbeta which inhibits the PVN response to stressors. In gonadectomized rats, ERbeta agonists reduce CORT and ACTH responses to restraint stress, an effect that is also present in wild-type but not ERbeta knockout mice. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the actions of ERbeta to alter HPA reactivity are not currently known. CRH, AVP and OT have all been shown to be regulated by estradiol and recent studies indicate an important role of ERbeta in these regulatory processes. Moreover, activation of the CRH and AVP promoters have been shown by 3β-Diol binding to ERbeta and this is thought to be through alternate pathways of gene regulation. Based on available data, a novel and important role for 3beta Diol in the regulation of the HPA axis is suggested.

  19. A Role for the Androgen Metabolite, 5alpha Androstane 3beta, 17beta Diol (3β-Diol) in the Regulation of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary–Adrenal Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J.; Sharma, Dharmendra; Uht, Rosalie

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is a basic reaction of animals to environmental perturbations that threaten homeostasis. These responses are ultimately regulated by neurons residing within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Within the PVN, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin (AVP), and oxytocin (OT) expressing neurons are critical as they can regulate both neuroendocrine and autonomic responses. Estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) are well known reproductive hormones; however, they have also been shown to modulate stress reactivity. In rodent models, evidence shows that under some conditions E2 enhances stress activated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion. In contrast, T decreases the gain of the HPA axis. The modulatory role of testosterone was originally thought to be via 5 alpha reduction to the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and its subsequent binding to the androgen receptor, whereas E2 effects were thought to be mediated by estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). However, DHT has been shown to be metabolized to the ERbeta agonist, 5α- androstane 3β, 17β Diol (3β-Diol). The actions of 3β-Diol on the HPA axis are mediated by ERbeta which inhibits the PVN response to stressors. In gonadectomized rats, ERbeta agonists reduce CORT and ACTH responses to restraint stress, an effect that is also present in wild-type but not ERbeta-knockout mice. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the ability of ERbeta to alter HPA reactivity are not currently known. CRH, AVP, and OT have all been shown to be regulated by estradiol and recent studies indicate an important role of ERbeta in these regulatory processes. Moreover, activation of the CRH and AVP promoters has been shown to occur by 3β-Diol binding to ERbeta and this is thought to occur through alternate pathways of gene regulation. Based on available data, a novel and important role of 3β-Diol

  20. Experimental and DFT study of cyclodehydration and acetylation of ferrocenyl diols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapić, Jasmina; Višnjevac, Aleksandar; Cetina, Mario; Djaković, Senka; Vrček, Valerije; Rapić, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Racemic ferrocenyl diols, i.e. ferrocenyl(2-hydroxymethylphenyl)methanol (2), ferrocenyl-2-(2-hydroxymethylphenyl)ethanol (7), and ferrocenyl(2-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenyl)methanol (9) have been prepared by reduction of corresponding ketoesters using NaBH4 in a mixture EtOH and Et2O. In the course of these reactions new cyclic ethers 1-ferrocenyl-2-oxaindane (3), 3-ferrocenylisochromane (8), and 1-ferrocenylisochromane (10) have been isolated as side-products. Intramolecular cyclizations of ferrocenyl diols occur in both acidic and neutral medium. Density functional theory (BP86) calculations were used to explain the mechanism of these cyclodehydrations. Acid catalyzed reaction follows the classical SN1 mechanism, whereas the cyclodehydration in neutral medium is described as an SN2 reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis of new cyclic ether products has been performed. Monoacetates 11, 13 and 15 have been obtained in the reaction of ferrocenyl diols 2, 7, and 9, respectively, and acetic anhydride. Stereoselective acylation of racemic diols by vinyl acetate have been catalyzed by various lipases, and the best stereoselectivity has been observed for the diol 2 in the presence of Penicillium camembertii lipase.

  1. Energy and chemicals from the selective electrooxidation of renewable diols by organometallic fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Filippi, Jonathan; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Marchionni, Andrea; Miller, Hamish A; Oberhauser, Werner; Vizza, Francesco; Annen, Samuel P; Grützmacher, H

    2014-09-01

    Organometallic fuel cells catalyze the selective electrooxidation of renewable diols, simultaneously providing high power densities and chemicals of industrial importance. It is shown that the unique organometallic complex [Rh(OTf)(trop2NH)(PPh3)] employed as molecular active site in an anode of an OMFC selectively oxidizes a number of renewable diols, such as ethylene glycol , 1,2-propanediol (1,2-P), 1,3-propanediol (1,3-P), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-B) to their corresponding mono-carboxylates. The electrochemical performance of this molecular catalyst is discussed, with the aim to achieve cogeneration of electricity and valuable chemicals in a highly selective electrooxidation from diol precursors.

  2. An ab initio study of three (ethane-1,2 diol/water) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivet, Philippe; Masella, Michel

    1998-05-01

    Three (ethane-1,2 diol/water) complexes have been studied using ab initio calculations at the MP2 level. In two complexes, the ethane-1,2 diol structure is close to its gas phase experimental structure (presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond HB and the O-C-C-O dihedral angle is gauche) while the intramolecular HB is disrupted by the presence of a water molecule in the third ( tGg'a). Computations have shown that most of the experimental observations regarding the solvation of ethane-1,2 diol in water may be reproduced only by considering the tGg'a complex (absence of intramolecular HB, O-C-C-O dihedral angle of 72-74°), which is also more stable than the other two by 2 kcal mol -1.

  3. Enantiopurity analysis of new types of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates by capillary electrophoresis with cyclodextrins as chiral selectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solínová, Veronika; Kaiser, Martin Maxmilián; Lukáč, Miloš; Janeba, Zlatko; Kašička, Václav

    2014-02-01

    CE methods have been developed for the chiral analysis of new types of six acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, nucleotide analogs bearing [(3-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]phosphonic acid, 2-[(diisopropoxyphosphonyl)methoxy]propanoic acid, or 2-(phosphonomethoxy)propanoic acid moieties attached to adenine, guanine, 2,6-diaminopurine, uracil, and 5-bromouracil nucleobases, using neutral and cationic cyclodextrins as chiral selectors. With the exception of the 5-bromouracil-derived acyclic nucleoside phosphonate with a 2-(phosphonomethoxy)propanoic acid side chain, the R and S enantiomers of the other five acyclic nucleoside phosphonates were successfully separated with sufficient resolutions, 1.51-2.94, within a reasonable time, 13-28 min, by CE in alkaline BGEs (50 mM sodium tetraborate adjusted with NaOH to pH 9.60, 9.85, and 10.30, respectively) containing 20 mg/mL β-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector. A baseline separation of the R and S enantiomers of the 5-bromouracil-derived acyclic nucleoside phosphonate with 2-(phosphonomethoxy)propanoic acid side chain was achieved within a short time of 7 min by CE in an acidic BGE (20:40 mM Tris/phosphate, pH 2.20) using 60 mg/mL quaternary ammonium β-cyclodextrin chiral selector. The developed methods were applied for the assessment of the enantiomeric purity of the above acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. The preparations of all these compounds were found to be synthesized in pure enantiomeric forms. Using UV absorption detection at 206 nm, their concentration detection limits were in the low micromolar range.

  4. Substituent effects and pH profiles for stability constants of arylboronic acid diol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguirre, Mayte A; Villamil-Ramos, Raul; Guerrero-Alvarez, Jorge A; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K

    2013-05-17

    Stability constants of boronic acid diol esters in aqueous solution have been determined potentiometrically for a series of meta-, para-substituted phenylboronic acids and diols of variable acidity. The constants β(11-1) for reactions between neutral forms of reactants producing the anionic ester plus proton follow the Hammett equation with ρ depending on pKa of diol and varying from 2.0 for glucose to 1.29 for 4-nitrocatechol. Observed stability constants (K(obs)) measured by UV-vis and fluorometric titrations at variable pH for esters of 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonate (Tiron) generally agree with those expected on the basis of β(11-1) values, but the direct fitting of K(obs) vs pH profiles gives shifted pKa values both for boronic acids and diol as a result of significant interdependence of fitting parameters. The subsituent effects on absorption and fluorescence spectra of Tiron arylboronate esters are characterized. The K(obs) for Tiron determined by (11)B NMR titrations are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those determined by UV-vis titrations under identical conditions. A general equation, which makes possible an estimate of β(11-1) for any pair of boronic acid and diol from their pKa values, is proposed on the basis of established Brönsted-type correlation of Hammett parameters for β(11-1) with acidity of diols. The equation allows one to calculate stability constants expected only on basis of acid-base properties of the components, thus permitting more strict evaluation of contributions of additional factors such as steric or charge effects to the ester stability.

  5. Thermoresponsive Polymers and Inverse Opal Hydrogels for the Detection of Diols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jean-Philippe; Wischerhoff, Erik; Bernin, Robert; Hettrich, Cornelia; Koetz, Joachim; Sütterlin, Martin; Tiersch, Brigitte; Laschewsky, André

    2016-05-01

    Responsive inverse opal hydrogels functionalized by boroxole moieties were synthesized and explored as sensor platforms for various low molar mass as well as polymeric diols and polyols, including saccharides, glycopolymers and catechols, by exploiting the diol induced modulation of their structural color. The underlying thermoresponsive water-soluble copolymers and hydrogels exhibit a coil-to-globule or volume phase transition, respectively, of the LCST-type. They were prepared from oligoethylene oxide methacrylate (macro)monomers and functionalized via copolymerization to bear benzoboroxole moieties. The resulting copolymers represent weak polyacids, which can bind specifically to diols within an appropriate pH window. Due to the resulting modulation of the overall hydrophilicity of the systems and the consequent shift of their phase transition temperature, the usefulness of such systems for indicating the presence of catechols, saccharides, and glycopolymers was studied, exploiting the diol/polyol induced shifts of the soluble polymers' cloud point, or the induced changes of the hydrogels' swelling. In particular, the increased acidity of benzoboroxoles compared to standard phenylboronic acids allowed performing the studies in PBS buffer (phosphate buffered saline) at the physiologically relevant pH of 7.4. The inverse opals constructed of these thermo- and analyte-responsive hydrogels enabled following the binding of specific diols by the induced shift of the optical stop band. Their highly porous structure enabled the facile and specific optical detection of not only low molar mass but also of high molar mass diol/polyol analytes such as glycopolymers. Accordingly, such thermoresponsive inverse opal systems functionalized with recognition units represent attractive and promising platforms for the facile sensing of even rather big analytes by simple optical means, or even by the bare eye.

  6. Thermoresponsive Polymers and Inverse Opal Hydrogels for the Detection of Diols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jean-Philippe; Wischerhoff, Erik; Bernin, Robert; Hettrich, Cornelia; Koetz, Joachim; Sütterlin, Martin; Tiersch, Brigitte; Laschewsky, André

    2016-05-01

    Responsive inverse opal hydrogels functionalized by boroxole moieties were synthesized and explored as sensor platforms for various low molar mass as well as polymeric diols and polyols, including saccharides, glycopolymers and catechols, by exploiting the diol induced modulation of their structural color. The underlying thermoresponsive water-soluble copolymers and hydrogels exhibit a coil-to-globule or volume phase transition, respectively, of the LCST-type. They were prepared from oligoethylene oxide methacrylate (macro)monomers and functionalized via copolymerization to bear benzoboroxole moieties. The resulting copolymers represent weak polyacids, which can bind specifically to diols within an appropriate pH window. Due to the resulting modulation of the overall hydrophilicity of the systems and the consequent shift of their phase transition temperature, the usefulness of such systems for indicating the presence of catechols, saccharides, and glycopolymers was studied, exploiting the diol/polyol induced shifts of the soluble polymers' cloud point, or the induced changes of the hydrogels' swelling. In particular, the increased acidity of benzoboroxoles compared to standard phenylboronic acids allowed performing the studies in PBS buffer (phosphate buffered saline) at the physiologically relevant pH of 7.4. The inverse opals constructed of these thermo- and analyte-responsive hydrogels enabled following the binding of specific diols by the induced shift of the optical stop band. Their highly porous structure enabled the facile and specific optical detection of not only low molar mass but also of high molar mass diol/polyol analytes such as glycopolymers. Accordingly, such thermoresponsive inverse opal systems functionalized with recognition units represent attractive and promising platforms for the facile sensing of even rather big analytes by simple optical means, or even by the bare eye. PMID:27108735

  7. GroupLiNGAM: Linear non-Gaussian acyclic models for sets of variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kawahara, Yoshinobu; Shimizu, Shohei; Washio, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Finding the structure of a graphical model has been received much attention in many fields. Recently, it is reported that the non-Gaussianity of data enables us to identify the structure of a directed acyclic graph without any prior knowledge on the structure. In this paper, we propose a novel non-Gaussianity based algorithm for more general type of models; chain graphs. The algorithm finds an ordering of the disjoint subsets of variables by iteratively evaluating the independence between the variable subset and the residuals when the remaining variables are regressed on those. However, its computational cost grows exponentially according to the number of variables. Therefore, we further discuss an efficient approximate approach for applying the algorithm to large sized graphs. We illustrate the algorithm with artificial and real-world datasets.

  8. Consensus pursuit of heterogeneous multi-agent systems under a directed acyclic graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jing; Guan Xin-Ping; Luo Xiao-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the cooperative target pursuit problem by multiple agents based on directed acyclic graph. The target appears at a random location and moves only when sensed by the agents, and agents will pursue the target once they detect its existence. Since the ability of each agent may be different, we consider the heterogeneous multi-agent systems.According to the topology of the multi-agent systems, a novel consensus-based control law is proposed, where the target and agents are modeled as a leader and followers, respectively. Based on Mason's rule and signal flow graph analysis, the convergence conditions are provided to show that the agents can catch the target in a finite time. Finally, simulation studies are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. A Directed Acyclic Graph-Large Margin Distribution Machine Model for Music Symbol Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cuihong; Zhang, Jing; Rebelo, Ana; Cheng, Fanyong

    2016-01-01

    Optical Music Recognition (OMR) has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a classifier based on a new method named Directed Acyclic Graph-Large margin Distribution Machine (DAG-LDM). The DAG-LDM is an improvement of the Large margin Distribution Machine (LDM), which is a binary classifier that optimizes the margin distribution by maximizing the margin mean and minimizing the margin variance simultaneously. We modify the LDM to the DAG-LDM to solve the multi-class music symbol classification problem. Tests are conducted on more than 10000 music symbol images, obtained from handwritten and printed images of music scores. The proposed method provides superior classification capability and achieves much higher classification accuracy than the state-of-the-art algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Neural Networks (NNs).

  10. Molecular Motion of the Junction Points in Model Networks Prepared by Acyclic Triene Metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lucas Caire; Bowers, Clifford R; Graf, Robert; Wagener, Kenneth B

    2016-03-01

    The junction dynamics in a selectively deuterated model polymer network containing junctions on every 21st chain carbon is studied by solid state (2) H echo NMR. Polymer networks are prepared via acyclic triene metathesis of deuteron-labeled symmetric trienes with deuteron probes precisely placed at the alpha carbon relative to the junction point. The effect of decreasing the cross-link density on the junction dynamics is studied by introduction of polybutadiene chains in-between junctions. The networks are characterized by swelling, gel content, and solid state (1) H MAS NMR. Line shape analysis of the (2) H quadrupolar echo spectra reveals that the degree of motion anisotropy and the distribution of motion correlation times depend on the cross-link density and structural heterogeneity of the polymer networks. A detailed model of the junction dynamics at different temperatures is proposed and explained in terms of the intermolecular cooperativity in densely-packed systems. PMID:26787457

  11. Acyclic Immucillin Phosphonates. Second-Generation Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine- Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelton, Keith Z. [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Ho, Meng-Chaio [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cassera, Maria B. [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Clinch, Keith [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Crump, Douglas R. [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Rosario Jr., Irving [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Merino, Emilio F. [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Almo, Steve C. [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Tyler, Peter C. [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Schramm, Vern L. [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2012-06-22

    We found that Plasmodium falciparum is the primary cause of deaths from malaria. It is a purine auxotroph and relies on hypoxanthine salvage from the host purine pool. Purine starvation as an antimalarial target has been validated by inhibition of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Hypoxanthine depletion kills Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture and in Aotus monkey infections. Hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) from P. falciparum is required for hypoxanthine salvage by forming inosine 5'-monophosphate, a branchpoint for all purine nucleotide synthesis in the parasite. We present a class of HGXPRT inhibitors, the acyclic immucillin phosphonates (AIPs), and cell permeable AIP prodrugs. The AIPs are simple, potent, selective, and biologically stable inhibitors. The AIP prodrugs block proliferation of cultured parasites by inhibiting the incorporation of hypoxanthine into the parasite nucleotide pool and validates HGXPRT as a target in malaria.

  12. Metabolism of acyclic and cyclic N-nitrosamines in cultured human bronchi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    ,N'-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPy), and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPd)] labeled with 14C were each then added at 100 mumoles for 24 hours. Measurable CO2 was formed by bronchial explants from: 1) DMN, DEN, and NPy in all 4 patients; 2) DNP in 3 of 4 patients; and 3) NPd in only 1 of 4 patients. In all...... bronchial specimens, these N-nitrosamines and/or their metabolites bound to bronchial mucosal DNA and protein. Binding levels were higher to protein than to DNA. Binding levels of DNP were as high as those with the two acyclic N-nitrosamines DMN and DEN, but binding levels of NPy and NPd were lower. Human...

  13. A Directed Acyclic Graph-Large Margin Distribution Machine Model for Music Symbol Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cuihong; Zhang, Jing; Rebelo, Ana; Cheng, Fanyong

    2016-01-01

    Optical Music Recognition (OMR) has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a classifier based on a new method named Directed Acyclic Graph-Large margin Distribution Machine (DAG-LDM). The DAG-LDM is an improvement of the Large margin Distribution Machine (LDM), which is a binary classifier that optimizes the margin distribution by maximizing the margin mean and minimizing the margin variance simultaneously. We modify the LDM to the DAG-LDM to solve the multi-class music symbol classification problem. Tests are conducted on more than 10000 music symbol images, obtained from handwritten and printed images of music scores. The proposed method provides superior classification capability and achieves much higher classification accuracy than the state-of-the-art algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Neural Networks (NNs). PMID:26985826

  14. Bioefficacy of acyclic monoterpenes and their saturated derivatives against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Vidali, Veroniki P; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Pitsinos, Emmanuel N; Koliopoulos, George; Couladouros, Elias A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Kimbaris, Athanasios C

    2014-02-01

    Twenty acyclic monoterpenes with different functional groups (acetoxy, hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl) bearing a variable number of carbon double bonds were assayed as repellent and larvicidal agents against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens. Seven of them were derivatives that were synthesized through either hydrogenation or oxidation procedures. All repellent compounds were tested at the dose of 1mgcm(-2) and only neral and geranial were also tested at a 4-fold lower dose (0.25mgcm(-2)). Repellency results revealed that geranial, neral, nerol, citronellol, geranyl acetate and three more derivatives dihydrolinalool (3), dihydrocitronellol (5) and dihydrocitronellyl acetate (6) resulted in no landings. Based on the LC50 values the derivative dihydrocitronellyl acetate (6) was the most active of all, resulting in an LC50 value of 17.9mgL(-1). Linalyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, neryl acetate, geranyl acetate, dihydrocitronellol (5), dihydrocitronellal (7), citronellol, dihydrolinalyl acetate (2), citronellic acid and tetrahydrolinalyl acetate (1) were also toxic with LC50 values ranging from 23 to 45mgL(-1). Factors modulating toxicity have been identified, thus providing information on structural requirements for the selected acyclic monoterpenes. The acetoxy group enhanced toxicity, without being significantly affected by the unsaturation degree. Within esters, reduction of the vinyl group appears to decrease potency. Presence of a hydroxyl or carbonyl group resulted in increased activity but only in correlation to saturation degree. Branched alcohols proved ineffective compared to the corresponding linear isomers. Finally, as it concerns acids, data do not allow generalizations or correlations to be made.

  15. Regioselective Benzoylation of Diols and Carbohydrates by Catalytic Amounts of Organobase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel metal-free organobase-catalyzed regioselective benzoylation of diols and carbohydrates has been developed. Treatment of diol and carbohydrate substrates with 1.1 equiv. of 1-benzoylimidazole and 0.2 equiv. of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU in MeCN under mild conditions resulted in highly regioselective benzoylation for the primary hydroxyl group. Importantly, compared to most commonly used protecting bulky groups for primary hydroxyl groups, the benzoyl protective group offers a new protection strategy.

  16. Tandem Olefin Metathesis/Oxidative Cyclization: Synthesis of Tetrahydrofuran Diols from Simple Olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Peter K; Lee, Daniel; Grubbs, Robert H

    2016-05-25

    A tandem olefin metathesis/oxidative cyclization has been developed to synthesize 2,5-disubstituted tetrahydrofuran (THF) diols in a stereocontrolled fashion from simple olefin precursors. The ruthenium metathesis catalyst is converted into an oxidation catalyst in the second step and is thus responsible for both catalytic steps. The stereochemistry of the 1,5-diene intermediate can be controlled through the choice of catalyst and the type of metathesis conducted. This olefin stereochemistry then controls the THF diol stereochemistry through a highly stereospecific oxidative cyclization. PMID:27133576

  17. Tandem Olefin Metathesis/Oxidative Cyclization: Synthesis of Tetrahydrofuran Diols from Simple Olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Peter K; Lee, Daniel; Grubbs, Robert H

    2016-05-25

    A tandem olefin metathesis/oxidative cyclization has been developed to synthesize 2,5-disubstituted tetrahydrofuran (THF) diols in a stereocontrolled fashion from simple olefin precursors. The ruthenium metathesis catalyst is converted into an oxidation catalyst in the second step and is thus responsible for both catalytic steps. The stereochemistry of the 1,5-diene intermediate can be controlled through the choice of catalyst and the type of metathesis conducted. This olefin stereochemistry then controls the THF diol stereochemistry through a highly stereospecific oxidative cyclization.

  18. Binary phase diagram of monolayers of simple 1,2-diol derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, C. De; Bringezu, F.; Brezesinski, G.;

    1998-01-01

    The miscibility properties of monolayers of two 1,2-diol derivatives, 1-palmitoylglycerol (1) and 1-hexadecylglycerol (2), have been studied at the air-water interface using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). While, at all pressures investigated, compound (I) exhibits only a NN-tilted re......The miscibility properties of monolayers of two 1,2-diol derivatives, 1-palmitoylglycerol (1) and 1-hexadecylglycerol (2), have been studied at the air-water interface using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). While, at all pressures investigated, compound (I) exhibits only a NN...

  19. Kinetics of phosphotungstic acid catalyzed oxidation of propan-1,3-diol and butan-1,4-diol by N-chlorosaccharin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic studies of N-chlorosaccharin (NCSA oxidation of propan-1,3-diol and butan-1,4-diol have been reported in presence of phophotungstic acid and in aqueous acetic acid medium. The reactions follow first-order in NCSA and one to zero order with respect to substrate and phosphotungstic acid. Increase in the concentration of added perchloric acid increases the rate of oxidation. A negative effect on the oxidation rate is observed for solvent whereas the ionic strength does not influence the rate of reaction. Addition of the reaction product, saccharin, exhibited retarding effect. Various activation parameters have been evaluated. The products of the reactions were identified as the corresponding aldehydes. A suitable scheme of mechanism consistent with the experimental results has been proposed.

  20. Heterologous production of two unusual acyclic carotenoids, 1,1'-dihydroxy-3,4-didehydrolycopene and 1-hydroxy-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene by combination of the crtC and crtD genes from Rhodobacter and Rubrivivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Sabine; Takaichi, Shinichi; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-07-17

    Acyclic hydroxy carotenoids were produced from lycopene and 3,4-didehydrolycopene in Escherichia coli by combining different carotenogenic genes including the carotene hydratase gene crtC and the carotene 3,4-desaturase gene crtD. The genes originated either from Rhodobacter species or Rubrivivax gelatinosus. It was shown that the product of crtD from Rubrivivax unlike the one from Rhodobacter is able to convert 1-HO-3,4-didehydrolycopene to 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene (=3,4,3',4'-tetradehydro-1,2-dihydro-psi,psi-caroten-1-ol). Thus, only when the desaturase from Rubrivivax is expressed can this novel carotenoid be obtained. In the presence of crtC from Rubrivivax, another carotenoid 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene (=3,4-didehydrolycopene-1,2,1',2'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-caroten-1,1'-diol) not found in a non-transgenic organism before is formed in E. coli. Its accumulation under these conditions and its absence when crtC from Rubrivivax is replaced by the corresponding gene from Rhodobacter is discussed. The function of the different crtC and crtD genes in the pathway leading to the individual carotenoids is outlined. Since 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene could not be produced in substantial amounts and 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene has not been described before, their structural characteristics were determined for the definite assignment of their identity. This included spectral properties, determination of relative molecular mass as well as the number of hydroxy groups by mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy for 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene.

  1. Synthesis of Poly(4-((phenylimino)methyl)benzene-1,2,3-triol) and Its Application for Improving the Heterostructure Device Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Haci Okkes; Ozkaya, Suat

    2016-09-01

    A trihydroxy substituted poly(4-((phenylimino)methyl)benzene-1,2,3-triol) abbreviated as poly(2,3,4-PIMB), poly(phenoxy-imine)-type polymer, has been successfully synthesized by oxidative coupling polymerization in an aqueous alkaline medium using sodium hypochlorite. Detailed structural characterization of the phenoxy-imine type monomer and its polymer were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), and gel permeation chromatography spectroscopy techniques. According to these analyses, the synthesized polymer has its backbone made of oxyphenylene linkages only. The solubility, thermal stability, electrochemical, and optic features of the polymer and its monomer were also evaluated. Furthermore, seven Ni/poly(2,3,4-PIMB)/p-Si/Al heterostructure devices were fabricated, and they showed good rectifying behavior such that the ideality factor and the barrier height values ranged from 1.54 eV to 1.78 eV and from 0.62 eV to 0.67 eV, respectively. The capacitance-voltage measurements of one Ni/poly(2,3,4-PIMB)/p-Si/Al heterostructure device were also analyzed.

  2. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol: high levels in Niemann-Pick type C, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, and lysosomal acid lipase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Sonia; Arias, Angela; García-Villoria, Judit; Macías-Vidal, Judit; Ros, Emilio; de las Heras, Javier; Girós, Marisa; Coll, Maria J; Ribes, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by lysosomal/endosomal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids. Recent studies have shown that plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) could be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of NPC patients. We aimed to know the sensitivity and specificity of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of NPC compared with other diseases that can potentially lead to oxysterol alterations. We studied 107 controls and 122 patients including 16 with NPC, 3 with lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, 8 with other lysosomal diseases, 5 with galactosemia, 11 with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), 3 with Smith-Lemli-Opitz, 14 with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders, 19 with unspecific hepatic diseases, 13 with familial hypercholesterolemia, and 30 with neurological involvement and no evidence of an inherited metabolic disease. CT and 7-KC were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS as mono-dimethylglycine derivatives. Levels of 7-KC were high in most of the studied diseases, whereas those of CT were only high in NPC, LAL, and CTX patients. Consequently, although CT is a sensitive biomarker of NPC disease, including those cases with doubtful filipin staining, it is not specific. 7-KC is a very unspecific biomarker. PMID:26239048

  3. In vitro and in vivo antiherpetic effects of (1R,2R)-1-(5'-methylful-3'-yl)propane-1,2,3-triol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kohei; Hayashi, Kyoko; Matsuya, Yuji; Sugimoto, Kenji; Lee, Jung-Bum; Kurosaki, Fumiya; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo antiherpetic activities of a stable furan derivative, (1R,2R)-1-(5'-methylful-3'-yl)propane-1,2,3-triol (MFPT), which had originally been isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain FV60. In the present study, we synthesized MFPT from (5-methylfuran-3-yl)methanol in 6 steps for use in the experiments. MFPT showed potent in vitro antiviral activities against two acyclovir (ACV)-sensitive (KOS and HF) strains and an ACV-resistant (A4-3) strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and an ACV-sensitive HSV type 2 (HSV-2) UW 268 strain, their selectivity indices ranging from 310 to 530. By intravaginal application of MFPT to mice, the virus yields decreased dose-dependently against the three strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2. When MFPT was applied at a dose of 1.0 mg/day, the lesion scores, as clinical signs manifested by viral infection, were extensively suppressed in HSV-1-infected mice, whereas the lesion scores in HSV-2-infected mice were not markedly decreased. Interestingly, MFPT exerted an inhibitory effect against ACV-resistant HSV-1 in mice to a similar degree as in ACV-sensitive HSV-1-infected mice. Therefore, the compound might have potential for developing a topical antiviral agent that could be also applied to the infections caused by ACV-resistant viruses.

  4. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of oligoesters of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid with aliphatic diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Broek, van den Lambertus A.M.; Serra, Juan L.; Llama, María J.; Boeriu, Carmen G.

    2015-01-01

    2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid is a platform chemical for the production of biobased polymers and materials. This study reports the synthesis of furan oligoesters via polytransesterification of dimethyl furan-2,5-dicarboxylate and linear α, ω-aliphatic diols with chain length ranging from C2 to C12,

  5. Potential biological sources of long chain alkyl diols in a lacustrine system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villanueva, Laura; Besseling, Marc; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Rampen, Sebastiaan W.; Verschuren, Dirk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Long chain alkyl diols (LCDs) have been detected in a range of marine and lacustrine environments, as well as in several algal cultures. However, the identity of the producers, their preferred ecological niche and seasonality are uncertain. We applied a gene-based approach to determine the identity

  6. Iridium‐Catalyzed Condensation of Amines and Vicinal Diols to Substituted Piperazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk; Madsen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A straightforward procedure is described for the synthesis of piperazines from amines and 1,2‐diols. The heterocyclization is catalyzed by [Cp*IrCl2]2 and sodium hydrogen carbonate and can be achieved with either toluene or water as solvent. The transformation does not require any stoichiometric ...

  7. BENZO(A)PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDE I BINDS TO DNA AT REPLICATION FORKS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution in replication forks of DNA lesions caused by the treatment of S phase calls with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-1 (BPDE-1) was studied in synchronized C3H10T1/2 cells. Sites of carcinogen modification of DNA were identified by polyclonal rabbit antibodies that were...

  8. Microbial Stereoselective One-Step Conversion of Diols to Chiral Lactones in Yeast Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Boratyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that whole cells of different strains of yeast catalyze stereoselective oxidation of meso diols to the corresponding chiral lactones. Among screening-scale experiments, Candida pelliculosa ZP22 was selected as the most effective biocatalyst for the oxidation of monocyclic diols 3a–b with respect to the ratio of high conversion to stereoselectivity. This strain was used in the preparative oxidation, affording enantiomerically-enriched isomers of lactones: (+-(3aR,7aS-cis-hexahydro-1(3H -isobenzofuranone (2a and (+-(3aS,4,7,7aR-cis-tetrahydro-1(3H-isobenzofuranone (2b. Scaling up the culture growth, as well as biotransformation conditions has been successfully accomplished. Among more bulky substrates, bicyclic diol 3d was totally converted into enantiomerically-pure exo-bridged (+-(3aR,4S,7R,7aS-cis-tetrahydro-4,7-methanoisobenzofuran -1(3H-one (2d by Yarrovia lipolytica AR71. Microbial oxidation of diol 3f by Candida sake AM908 and Rhodotorula rubra AM4 afforded optically-pure cis-3-butylhexahydro-1(3H -isobenzofuranone (2f, however with low conversion.

  9. An efficient hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation of 7 phospholipid classes based on a diol column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, C.; Dane, A.; Spijksma, G.; Wang, M.; Greef, J. van der; Luo, G.; Hankemeier, T.; Vreeken, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) - ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for separation of a wide range of phospholipids. A diol column which is often used with normal phase chromatography was adapted to separate different phospholipid classes in HILIC mode using a m

  10. Chemical consequences of long-range orbital interaction in perhydronaphtalene-1,4 diol monosulfonate esters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orru, R.V.A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis the base-induced reactions of perhydronaphthalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate esters are described. These compounds undergo smoothly, typical carbocationic processes upon treatment with sodium tert -amylate in refluxing benzene. The product outcome, product ratio, and (relative) rate of th

  11. 西红花苷对氧化甾醇诱导血管内皮细胞凋亡的影响%Effects of crocin on apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells induced by triol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 钱之玉

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate effects of Crocin on apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells injured by triol. METHODS: Apoptosis model induced by triol(cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol)was adopted. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was measured by colorimetric assay. The morphology and ultrastructure were detected by light microscope and electron microscope. DNA ladder was analyzed by DNA electrophoresis. The apoptosis rate was assessed with the flow cytometer assay. Bax mRNA expression of endothelial cells was measured by RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: In Triol group, MDA content was dye deeply, mitochondria swelling and cavitations, mitochondrial cristae fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies, the DNA ladder in agarose gel and hypodiploid cusp was observed. Apoptosis rate was 30.62%. Bax mRNA expression increased. In the Crocin +Triol group, MDA content decreased, majority of cells grown in spreading out like that in control and group were 24.4%, 6.3%, respectively. Bax mRNA expression of endothelial Crocin cells in the crocin (10-6 mol·L-1) +Triol group decreased. CONCLUSION: maybe abnormally decrease apoptosis by anti-lipid peroxidation and adjust Bax mRNA expression.%目的:研究西红花苷对培养的牛血管内皮细胞凋亡的影响.方法:采用3β、5α、6β-三羟胆固(烷)醇(Triol)诱导内皮细胞凋亡的模型,用比色法测定丙二醛含量, 光学显微镜、电子显微镜检测形态和超微结构的变化, DNA电泳检测DNA ladder及流式细胞仪分析法检测凋亡率,采用逆转录聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)法检测Bax mRNA表达的变化.结果: Triol处理后, 培养液中MDA含量增加,为 1.761 nmol·L-1 (P<0.01), 细胞收缩,核浓缩, 深染, 线粒体肿胀空化,出现凋亡小体,出现凋亡典型的"DNA ladder",和亚二倍体峰,凋亡率为 30.62%, Bax mRNA表达量增加;西红花苷(10-7, 10-6 mol·L-1)+Triol组,MDA含量减少,内皮细胞形态结构的完整,凋亡率分别为 24.4%, 6.3%, Bax m

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some vicinal and non-vicinal diols by tetrabutylammonium tribromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaya Gosain; Pradeep K Sharma

    2003-04-01

    Kinetics of oxidation of five vicinal and four non-vicinal diols, and two of their monoethers, by tetrabutylammonium tribromide (TBATB) has been studied. The vicinal diols yield products arising out of glycol-bond fission, while the non-vicinal diols produce the hydroxycarbonyl compounds. The reaction is first-order with respect to TBATB. Michaelis-Menten type kinetics is observed with respect to diols. The reaction fails to induce the polymerization of acrylonitrile. There is no effect of tetrabutylammonium chloride on the reaction rate. The proposed reactive oxidizing species is the tribromide ion. The effect of solvent composition indicates that the rate increases with increase in the polarity of the solvent. The oxidation of [1,1,2,2-2H4] ethanediol shows the absence of any primary kinetic isotope effect. Values of solvent isotope effect, (H2O)/(D2O), at 288 K for the oxidation of ethanediol, propane-1,3-diol and 3-methoxybutan-1-ol are 3.41, 0.98 and 1.02 respectively. A mechanism involving a glycol-bond fission has been proposed for the oxidation of vicinal diols. Non-vicinal diols are oxidised by a hydride-transfer mechanism, as they are monohydric alcohols.

  13. Uptake of Hydrocarbons in Aqueous Solution by Encapsulation in Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyong; Isaacs, Lyle

    2016-07-01

    The ability of two water-soluble acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) type containers, whose hydrophobic cavity is defined by a glycoluril tetramer backbone and terminal aromatic (benzene, naphthalene) sidewalls, to act as solubilizing agents for hydrocarbons in water is described. (1) H NMR spectroscopy studies and phase-solubility diagrams establish that the naphthalene-walled container performs as well as, or better than, CB[7] and CB[8] in promoting the uptake of poorly soluble hydrocarbons into aqueous solution through formation of host-hydrocarbon complexes. The naphthalene-walled acyclic CB[n] container is able to extract large hydrocarbons from crude oil into aqueous solution. PMID:27169688

  14. Energies for cyclic and acyclic aggregations of adamantane and diamantane units sharing vertices, edges, or six-membered rings

    CERN Document Server

    Balaban, Alexandru T; Klein, Douglas J; Ortiz, Yenni P

    2015-01-01

    Diamondoids are hydrocarbons having a carbon scaffold comprised from polymer-like composites of adamantane cages. The present paper describes computed total energies and "SWB-tension" energies (often referred to as "strain" energies) for species having $n$ adamantane or diamantane units sharing pairwise: one carbon atom (spiro-[n]adamantane or spiro-[$n$]diamantane); one C-C bond (one-bond-sharing-[$n$]adamantane or one-bond-sharing-[$n$]diamantane); or one chair-shaped hexagon of carbon atoms (1234-helical-cata-[$n$]diamantanes). Each of the five investigated polymer-like types is considered either as an acyclic or a cyclic chain of adamantane- or diamantane-unit cages. With increasing $n$ values, SWB-tension energies for acyclic aggregates are found to increase linearly, while the net SWB-tension energies of cyclic aggregates often go thru a minimum at a suitable value of $n$. In all five cases, a limiting common energy per unit ($E/n$ ) is found to be approached by both cyclic and acyclic chains as $n\\to \\...

  15. Pulse radiolysis study of the spectral and kinetic properties of the solvated electron in liquid hexane-1,2,6-triol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical absorption spectrum of the solvated electron (es-) in liquid hexane-1,2,6-triol has been measured by nanosecond pulse radiolysis at different temperatures (10-40 deg C) to investigate the influence of high solvent viscosity values on the spectral and kinetic properties of es-. The wavelength at the absorption maximum, λmax, is equal to 560 nm, and its variation with temperature is less than the experimental error. At 20 deg C and 150 ns, the value of the product Gε of the yield of es-and the molar extinction coefficient at λmax is 2.55 x 104 molecule/(M cm 100 eV). In the context of this work, we have compared results obtained with both a linear accelerator and a Febetron, a comparison that has allowed to evaluate the influence of variations of the dose per pulse, and to extend measurements to short times. In the case of experiments performed with the linear accelerator, es- is is found to decay at all wavelengths by a first-order (or pseudo first-order) reaction with an activation energy of ∼45 kJ mol-1. By contrast, kinetic curves obtained with the Febetron seem to show a competition in which a second-order law is followed at short times. The fact that the shape of the spectra seems to vary with dose per pulse indicates the possible intervention of another, short lived, species. The kinetics of electron solvation does not seem to be controlled by solvent viscosity under the conditions studied. (author). 20 refs., 5 figs

  16. Synthesis of modified cyclic and acyclic dextrins and comparison of their complexation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Tuza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the complex forming ability of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD with their open ring analogs. In addition to the native cyclodextrins also modified cyclodextrins and the corresponding maltooligomers, functionalized with neutral 2-hydroxypropyl moieties, were synthesized. A new synthetic route was worked out via bromination, benzylation, deacetylation and debenzylation to obtain the 2-hydroxypropyl maltooligomer counterparts. The complexation properties of non-modified and modified cyclic and acyclic dextrins were studied and compared by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS and capillary electrophoresis (CE using model guest compounds. In some cases cyclodextrins and their open-ring analogs (acyclodextrins show similar complexation abilities, while with other guests considerably different behavior was observed depending on the molecular dimensions and chemical characteristics of the guests. This was explained by the enhanced flexibility of the non-closed rings. Even the signs of enantiorecognition were observed for the chloropheniramine/hydroxypropyl maltohexaose system. Further studies are planned to help the deeper understanding of the interactions.

  17. Computing the SKT Reliability of Acyclic Directed Networks Using Factoring Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fanjia; WANG Guangxing

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a factoringalgorithm for computing source-to-K terminal (SKT) reliability, the probability that a source s can send message to a specified set of terminals K, in acyclic directed networks (AD-networks) in which bothnodes and edges can fail. Based on Pivotal decomposition theorem, a newformula is derived for computing the SKT reliability of AD-networks. By establishing a topological property of AD-networks, it is shown that the SKT reliability of AD-networks can be computed by recursively applying this formula. Two new Reliability-Preserving Reductions are alsointroduced. The recursion tree generated by the presented algorithm hasat most 2(|V| - |K|- |C|) leaf nodes, where |V| and |K| are the numbers of nodes and terminals, respectively, while |C| is the number of the nodes satisfying some specified conditions. The computation complexity of the new algorithm is O (|E||V|2(|V| -|K| -|C|)) in the worst case, where |E| is the number of edges. Forsource-to-all-terminal (SAT) reliability, its computation complexity is O (|E|). Comparison of the new algorithm with the existing ones indicates that the new algorithm is more efficient for computing the SKT reliability of AD-networks.

  18. Executive Summary of Ares V: Lunar Capabilities Concept Review Through Phase A-Cycle 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, J. B.; Baggett, K. E.; Feldman, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) was generated as an overall Ares V summary from the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) through Phase A-Cycle 3 (PA-C3) with the intent that it may be coupled with separately published appendices for a more detailed, integrated narrative. The Ares V has evolved from the initial point of departure (POD) 51.00.48 LCCR configuration to the current candidate POD, PA-C3D, and the family of vehicles concept that contains vehicles PA-C3A through H. The logical progression from concept to POD vehicles is summarized in this TM and captures the trade space and performance of each. The family-of-vehicles concept was assessed during PA-C3 and offered flexibility in the path forward with the ability to add options deemed appropriate. A description of each trade space is given in addition to a summary of each Ares V element. The Ares V contributions to a Mars campaign are also highlighted with the goal of introducing Ares V capabilities within the trade space. The assessment of the Ares V vehicle as it pertains to Mars missions remained locked to the architecture presented in Mars Design Reference Authorization 5.0 using the PA-C3D vehicle configuration to assess Mars transfer vehicle options, in-space EDS capabilities, docking adaptor and propellant transfer assessments, and lunar and Mars synergistic potential.

  19. The mixed diol-dithiol 2,2-bis(sulfanylmethyl)propane-1,3-diol: characterization of key intermediates on a new synthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Trevor R; Pickett, Christopher J; Wright, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    A new synthetic route to 2,2-bis(sulfanylmethyl)propane-1,3-diol, (II), is described starting from the commercially available 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol. The structures of two intermediates on this route are described. 5,5-Dimethenyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane bis(thiocyanate) (systematic name: {[5-(cyanosulfanyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]sulfanyl}formonitrile), C(10)H(14)N(2)O(2)S(2), (X), crystallizes in the space group P2(1)/c with no symmetry relationship between the two thiocyanate groups. There is a short intramolecular N...S contact for one thiocyanate group, while the second group is positioned such that this type of interaction is not possible. 1,3-(Hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diyl bis(thiocyanate), C(7)H(10)N(2)O(2)S(2), (XI), also features a single short N···S contact in the solid state. Hydrogen bonding between two molecules of compound (XI) results in the formation of dimers in the crystal, which are then linked together by a second hydrogen-bond interaction between the dimers. In addition, the structures of two intermediates from an unsuccessful alternative synthesis of (II) are reported. 2,2-Bis(chloromethyl)propane-1,3-diol, C(5)H(10)Cl(2)O(2), (VI), crystallized as an inversion twin with a minor twin fraction of 0.43 (6). It forms a zigzag structure as a result of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The structure of 9,9-dimethyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3λ(4)-thiaspiro[5.5]undecan-3-one, C(8)H(14)O(5)S, (VII), shows evidence for a weak S···O contact with a distance of 3.2529 (11) Å. PMID:21206075

  20. Percutaneous absorption of an insect repellent p-menthane-3,8-DIOL: a model for human dermal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenrath, William G; Olson, James J; Vedula, Usha; Osimitz, Thomas G

    2009-01-01

    p-Menthane-3,8-diol(38DIOL) was recently introduced as a natural topical insect repellent in the commercial product "OFF! Botanicals" lotion. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the potential for 38DIOL systemic absorption in humans. Carbon-14-labeled 38DIOL formulated in the lotion and in an ethanol solution was applied to excised pig skin in an in vitro flow-through test system predictive of skin absorption in humans. Twenty-four hours after application, radiolabel recovered from the dermis and receptor fluid was summed to determine percent absorption. At a dose of approximately 80 microg/cm(2) of 38DIOL in the lotion, a value of 3.5 +/- 0.8% of applied dose was obtained with pig skin. The corresponding value for 38DIOL in ethanol (90 microg/cm(2)) was not significantly different (3.0 +/- 1.2%). Most of the applied dose of 38DIOL was found to evaporate from pig skin (77 +/- 8% for the lotion and 87 +/- 1% for ethanol solution), thus limiting percutaneous absorption values. For reference purposes, the pig skin absorptions of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) at 100 microg/cm(2) in isopropanol, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) at 500 microg/cm(2) in ethanol, and neat isododecane at 650 microg/cm(2) (in order of increasing volatility) were 15 +/- 6%, 23 +/- 3%, and 0.09 +/- 0.05% of applied dose respectively. Isododecane was lost almost exclusively from the skin surface by evaporation. For additional reference, absorptions of PBO, DEET, and 38DIOL were found to be higher with excised rat skin. PMID:19557607

  1. Polyols Prepared from Ring-Opening Epoxidized Soybean Oil by a Castor Oil-Based Fatty Diol

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Ji Jun Tang; Jiao Xia Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Several biorenewable vegetable oil-based polyols with different molecular weights and various hydroxyl functionalities were successfully prepared by ring-opening epoxidized soybean oil with a castor oil-based fatty diol. It was found that several factors, including reaction time, reaction temperature, and molar ratios between epoxidized soybean oil and castor oil diol, affect structures and rheology behaviors of the final polyols. Proton NMR, FT-IR, GPC, and rheometry results revealed that th...

  2. Asymmetric reduction of α-hydroxy aromatic ketones to chiral aryl vicinal diols using carrot enzymes system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Liu; Yi Wang; Hai Yan Gao; Jian He Xu

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric reduction of α-hydroxy aromatic ketones was carried out by using carrot enzymes system,yielding corresponding chiral vicinal diols with special functional groups.The optimum reaction conditions were obtained after investigation of various influencing factors.Chiral aryl vicinal diols were produced with good yields and excellent enantiomeric excesses under appropriate conditions,Meanwhile,the steric factors and electronic effects of the substituents on the aromatic ring were shown to have an interesting influence on both yield and enantioselectivity.

  3. Preparation for Supramolecular Complexes of Chiral Diols BDPDD, DMBDPD and BINOL with Some Prochiral Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between chiral diols BDPDD, DMBDPD and BINOL with prochiral compounds was examined and some new supramolecular complexes were prepared. It was found that these chiral hosts could include prochiral guests,α,β-unsaturated compounds or piper- azinedione derivatives to give inclusion crystals in different molar ratio. Formations of these supramolecular complexes were characterized by the data of IR and 1H NMR spectra.

  4. NMR solution structures of adducts derived from the binding of polycyclic aromatic diol epoxides to DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosman, M.; Patel, D.J. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics Program; Hingerty, B.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health and Safety Research Div.; Amin, S. [American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (United States); Broyde, S.; Geacintov, N.E. [New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Site-specifically modified oligonucleotides were derived from the reactions of stereoisomeric polycyclic aromatic diol epoxide metabolite model compounds with oligonucleotides of defined base composition and sequence. The NMR solution structures of ten different adducts studied so far are briefly described, and it is shown that stereochemical factors and the nature of the oligonucleotide context of the complementary strands, exert a powerful influence on the conformational features of these adducts.

  5. Antibacterial action of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (bronopol).

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, J A; Waigh, R D; Gilbert, P

    1988-01-01

    Patterns of growth inhibition of Escherichia coli in the presence of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (bronopol) indicate a period of biocide-induced bacteriostasis followed by growth at an inhibited rate. The length of the bacteriostatic period, but not the subsequent growth inhibition, was reduced by the addition of excess cysteine. Patterns of growth inhibition were unaffected by catalase or superoxide dismutase. The bactericidal concentrations (100 to 500 micrograms/ml) were considerably i...

  6. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M J; Light, B A; Weston, A; Tollurud, D; Clark, J L; Mann, D L; Blackmon, J P; Harris, C C

    1988-01-01

    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactio...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable materials: PDLLA-(MAh-Diol)n-PDLLA copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Chen; Yuan Liang Wang; Mei Na Huang

    2007-01-01

    The novel biodegradable copolymer PDLLA-(MAH-Diol)n-PDLLA with unsaturated bond was synthesized by copolymerizing lactide and prepolymer, which was prepared by the polycondensation of maleic anhydride and poly(ethylene glycol), using ptoluene sulphonic acid as catalyst. The new copolymer has improved hydrophilicity and flexibility. The structure and properties of the novel polymers were studied by FTIR, NMR, GPC-MALLS and DSC.

  8. Functional thermoplastics from linear diols and diisocyanates produced entirely from renewable lipid sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojabri, Leila; Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2010-04-12

    An unsaturated terminal diol, 1,18-octadec-9-endiol (ODEDO), and a saturated terminal diol, 1,9-nonanediol (NDO), were synthesized from oleic acid. The feasibility of utilizing these new diols for the production of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) was demonstrated by reacting them with a fatty acid-derived diisocyanate, 1,7-heptamethylene diisocyanate (HPMDI), and a commercially available petroleum-derived diisocyanate, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). One type of phase structure was obtained for both TPUs in this study, owing to the similarity between the ODEDO and NDO molecular structure. In addition, double yielding behavior (observed for the first time in polyurethanes) was observed in the stress-strain curves for both TPU systems. Compared to the TPUs prepared from HDI, the totally biobased TPUs (ODEDO-NDO-HPDMI) demonstrated comparable properties within acceptable tolerances, considering the impacts on physical properties due to the odd-even effect introduced by the HPDMI. This work is the first that establishes the production of linear thermoplastic polyurethanes entirely from lipid feedstock.

  9. Alteration in substrate specificity of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by an acyclic nicotinamide analog of NAD(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malver, Olaf; Sebastian, Mina J; Oppenheimer, Norman J

    2014-11-01

    A new, acyclic NAD-analog, acycloNAD(+) has been synthesized where the nicotinamide ribosyl moiety has been replaced by the nicotinamide (2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl moiety. The chemical properties of this analog are comparable to those of β-NAD(+) with a redox potential of -324mV and a 341nm λmax for the reduced form. Both yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) catalyze the reduction of acycloNAD(+) by primary alcohols. With HLADH 1-butanol has the highest Vmax at 49% that of β-NAD(+). The primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect is greater than 3 indicating a significant contribution to the rate limiting step from cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bond. The stereochemistry of the hydride transfer in the oxidation of stereospecifically deuterium labeled n-butanol is identical to that for the reaction with β-NAD(+). In contrast to the activity toward primary alcohols there is no detectable reduction of acycloNAD(+) by secondary alcohols with HLADH although these alcohols serve as competitive inhibitors. The net effect is that acycloNAD(+) has converted horse liver ADH from a broad spectrum alcohol dehydrogenase, capable of utilizing either primary or secondary alcohols, into an exclusively primary alcohol dehydrogenase. This is the first example of an NAD analog that alters the substrate specificity of a dehydrogenase and, like site-directed mutagenesis of proteins, establishes that modifications of the coenzyme distance from the active site can be used to alter enzyme function and substrate specificity. These and other results, including the activity with α-NADH, clearly demonstrate the promiscuity of the binding interactions between dehydrogenases and the riboside phosphate of the nicotinamide moiety, thus greatly expanding the possibilities for the design of analogs and inhibitors of specific dehydrogenases.

  10. Carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a conidiation-inducing sesquiterpene diol produced by Trichoderma virens PS1-7 upon exposure to chemical stress from highly active iron chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengcen; Hashimoto, Makoto; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2013-03-01

    To screen biocontrol agents against Burkholderia plantarii, the causative agent of rice seedling blight, we employed catechol, an analog of the virulence factor tropolone, to obtain chemical stress-resistant microorganisms. The fungal isolate PS1-7, identified as a strain of Trichoderma virens, showed the highest resistance to catechol (20 mM) and exhibited efficacy as a biocontrol agent for rice seedling blight. During investigation of metabolic traits of T. virens PS1-7 exposed to catechol, we found a secondary metabolite that was released extracellularly and uniquely accumulated in the culture. The compound induced by chemical stress due to catechol was subsequently isolated and identified as a sesquiterpene diol, carot-4-en-9,10-diol, based on spectroscopic analyses. T. virens PS1-7 produced carot-4-en-9,10-diol as a metabolic response to tropolone at concentrations from 0.05 to 0.2 mM, and the response was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, similar to its response to catechol at concentrations from 0.1 to 1 mM. Some iron chelators, such as pyrogallol, gallic acid, salicylic acid, and citric acid, at 0.5 mM also showed activation of T. virens PS1-7 production of carot-4-en-9,10-diol. This sesquiterpene diol, formed in response to chemical stress, promoted conidiation of T. virens PS1-7, suggesting that it is involved in an autoregulatory signaling system. In a bioassay of the metabolic and morphological responses of T. virens PS1-7, conidiation in hyphae grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates was either promoted or induced by carot-4-en-9,10-diol. Carot-4-en-9,10-diol can thus be regarded as an autoregulatory signal in T. virens, and our findings demonstrate that intrinsic intracellular signaling regulates conidiation of T. virens. PMID:23315728

  11. Cationic lipids bearing succinic-based, acyclic and macrocyclic hydrophobic domains: synthetic studies and in vitro gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jubeli, Emile; Maginty, A. B.; Khalique, N. A.;

    2016-01-01

    a dimethylamine or trimethylamine headgroup, and a macrocyclic or an acyclic hydrophobic domain composed of, or derived from two 16-atom, succinic-based acyl chains. The synthesized lipids and a co-lipid of neutral charge, either cholesterol or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), were formulated...... within the hydrophobic domain of the cationic lipids was found to improve lipid hydration. The transfection assays revealed a general trend in which mismatched formulations that employed a rigid lipid combined with a non-rigid (or flexible) lipid, outperformed the matched formulations. The results from...

  12. Synthesis and structures of acyclic monoanionic tetradentate aza beta-diketiminate complexes of magnesium, zinc, and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Joseph M; Thoreson, Kristen A; McNeill, Kristopher

    2006-10-28

    An acyclic monoanionic tetradentate nitrogen ligand was prepared through the condensation of 2-(4-tolyl)-malondialdehyde and 8-aminoquinoline to give (BDI(QQ))H where (BDI(QQ))H = (8-quinolyl)-NCHC(4-tolyl)CHNH-(8-quinolyl). Metal complexes, (BDI(QQ))MX, were prepared where MX = MgBr 2, ZnCl 3, and CdOAc 4. The spectroscopic and crystallographic properties of compounds 2, 3, and 4 were explored. Structures of complexes 2, 3, 4, and the tridentate ligand, (BDI(Q))OH, 5, are reported. PMID:17033706

  13. Applying the Directed Acyclic Graph to Examine the Factors Related to the Adoption of E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Linh Huynh; Thuy Lan Le Thi

    2014-01-01

    This research explores the causal relationships among the attitude toward using e-learning, the perception on the usefulness of e-learning and the adoption of e-learning as well as the mediating role of the attitude toward using e-learning and the moderating role of the perceived usefulness of e-learning. We use an advanced method known as the directed acyclic graph to investigate the causal associations. Then we use Sobel’s technique and hierarchical regressions to examine the mediating and ...

  14. The effect of acyclic retinoid on the metabolomic profiles of hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Yang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acyclic retinoid (ACR is a promising chemopreventive agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC that selectively inhibits the growth of HCC cells (JHH7 but not normal hepatic cells (Hc. To better understand the molecular basis of the selective anti-cancer effect of ACR, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based and capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS-based metabolome analyses in JHH7 and Hc cells after treatment with ACR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NMR-based metabolomics revealed a distinct metabolomic profile of JHH7 cells at 18 h after ACR treatment but not at 4 h after ACR treatment. CE-TOFMS analysis identified 88 principal metabolites in JHH7 and Hc cells after 24 h of treatment with ethanol (EtOH or ACR. The abundance of 71 of these metabolites was significantly different between EtOH-treated control JHH7 and Hc cells, and 49 of these metabolites were significantly down-regulated in the ACR-treated JHH7 cells compared to the EtOH-treated JHH7 cells. Of particular interest, the increase in adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP, the main cellular energy source, that was observed in the EtOH-treated control JHH7 cells was almost completely suppressed in the ACR-treated JHH7 cells; treatment with ACR restored ATP to the basal levels observed in both EtOH-control and ACR-treated Hc cells (0.72-fold compared to the EtOH control-treated JHH7 cells. Moreover, real-time PCR analyses revealed that ACR significantly increased the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases 4 (PDK4, a key regulator of ATP production, in JHH7 cells but not in Hc cells (3.06-fold and 1.20-fold compared to the EtOH control, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest that ACR may suppress the enhanced energy metabolism of JHH7 cells but not Hc cells; this occurs at least in part via the cancer-selective enhancement of PDK4 expression. The cancer-selective metabolic pathways

  15. Biosynthesis of unnatural bacteriochlorophyll c derivatives esterified with α,ω-diols in the green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Risato; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Kashimura, Shigenori; Saga, Yoshitaka

    2011-09-13

    Unnatural bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c derivatives possessing a hydroxy group at the terminus of a hydrocarbon chain at the 17-propionate were biosynthesized in the green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. Addition of exogenous 1,8-octanediol, 1,12-dodecanediol, and 1,16-hexadecanediol in acetone to liquid cultures resulted in accumulation of BChl c monoesterified with the corresponding diols. The relative ratios of the novel BChl c derivatives esterified with 1,8-, 1,12-, and 1,16-diols to totally producing BChl c were 8.2, 50.2, and 57.6% in the cells grown with additive α,ω-diols at concentrations of 1.5, 0.06, and 0.06 mM, respectively, at the final concentration. The homologue composition of BChl c derivatives esterified with these α,ω-diols was similar to that of original, coexisting BChl c esterified with farnesol (BChl c(F)), suggesting that esterification of α,ω-diols occurred at the last step of the BChl c biosynthetic pathway by BChl c synthase, BchK, in the same manner as in BChl c(F). Chlorosomes, which were isolated from cells grown in the presence of exogenous α,ω-diols, contained a ratio and a composition of BChl c derivatives esterified with the diols similar to those in the whole cells, indicating that these BChl c derivatives were actually present in chlorosomes. Q(y) absorption bands of C. tepidum cells containing the novel BChl c derivatives were shifted to a shorter wavelength, although their bandwidths were analogous to those of cells obtained by normal cultivation. Circular dichroism spectra of cells that had BChl c derivatives esterified with α,ω-diols exhibited S-shaped signals in the Q(y) region, whose polarities were the reverse of those of cells grown in the normal medium and by supplementation with neat acetone as a control experiment. These spectral features of C. tepidum possessing BChl c derivatives esterified with α,ω-diols imply that the novel BChl c derivatives possessing a hydroxy group at the

  16. Solubility and thermodynamic behavior of vanillin in propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Siddiqui, Nasir A; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2015-12-01

    The solubilities of bioactive compound vanillin were measured in various propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures at T=(298-318)K and p=0.1 MPa. The experimental solubility of crystalline vanillin was determined and correlated with calculated solubility. The results showed good correlation of experimental solubilities of crystalline vanillin with calculated ones. The mole fraction solubility of crystalline vanillin was recorded highest in pure propane-1,2-diol (7.06×10(-2) at 298 K) and lowest in pure water (1.25×10(-3) at 298 K) over the entire temperature range investigated. Thermodynamic behavior of vanillin in various propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures was evaluated by Van't Hoff and Krug analysis. The results showed an endothermic, spontaneous and an entropy-driven dissolution of crystalline vanillin in all propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures. Based on solubility data of this work, vanillin has been considered as soluble in water and freely soluble in propane-1,2-diol.

  17. Analyses of effects of α-cembratrien-diol on cell morphology and transcriptome of Valsa mali var. mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Du, Yongmei; Liu, Xinmin; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Yanhua; Shi, John; Xue, Sophia Jun; Zhang, Zhongfeng

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the underlying mechanisms of growth inhibition of Valsa mali var. mali, the causative pathogen of apple tree canker disease, by α-cembratrien-diol. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of α-cembratrien-diol against V. mali var. mali is 18.0mg/L. Treatment of V. mali var. mali with α-cembratrien-diol resulted in various mycelial and cellular abnormalities, and the up- and down-regulation of 94 and 170 differentially expressed genes, respectively. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that α-cembratrien-diol substantially altered the expression of genes involved in the redox process, tetrapyrrole binding, coenzyme binding, heme binding, and iron binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis also showed significant enrichment of specific metabolic pathways involving the set of differentially expressed genes. The present study will assist in the development of alternative α-cembratrien-diol-based biological control agents and ultimately facilitate organic apple production. PMID:27507455

  18. Impact of large aggregated uricases and PEG diol on accelerated blood clearance of PEGylated canine uricase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uricase has proven therapeutic value in treating hyperuricemia but sufficient reduction of its immunogenicity may be the largest obstacle to its chronic use. In this study, canine uricase was modified with 5 kDa mPEG-SPA and the impact of large aggregated uricases and cross-linked conjugates induced by difunctional PEG diol on immunogenicity was investigated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Recombinant canine uricase was first expressed and purified to homogeneity. Source 15Q anion-exchange chromatography was used to separate tetrameric and aggregated uricase prior to pegylation, while DEAE anion-exchange chromatography was used to remove Di-acid PEG (precursor of PEG diol from unfractionated 5 kDa mPEG-propionic acid. Tetrameric and aggregated uricases were separately modified with the purified mPEG-SPA. In addition, tetrameric uricases was modified with unfractionated mPEG-SPA, resulting in three types of 5 kDa mPEG-SPA modified uricase. The conjugate size was evaluated by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. The influence of differently PEGylated uricases on pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity were evaluated in vivo. The accelerated blood clearance (ABC phenomenon previously identified for PEGylated liposomes occurred in rats injected with PEGylated uricase aggregates. Anti-PEG IgM antibodies, rather than neutralizing antibodies, were found to mediate the ABC. CONCLUSIONS: The size of conjugates is important for triggering such phenomena and we speculate that 40-60 nm is the lower size limit that can trigger ABC. Removal of the uricase aggregates and the PEG diol contaminant and modifying with small PEG reagents enabled ABC to be successfully avoided and sufficient reduction in the immunogenicity of 5 kDa mPEG-modified tetrameric canine uricase.

  19. Kinetics of complexation and oxidation of ethanolamine and diols by silver(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation of ethanolamine (EtA), ethylene glycol, and several other diols by Ag(II) has been studied at pH approx. 8.5. In the basic pH range, complexation of the substrate by Ag(II) has been found to take place in two steps by successive ligand uptake. Complexation rates are higher by 1 order of magnitude in the basic pH range as compared to the acidic pH range. Oxidation then takes place through intramolecular electron transfer from substrate to Ag(II) within the complex. Oxidation rates for cis- and trans-1,2-cyclohexanediols are quite similar

  20. Synthesis and characterization of segmented polyurethanes based on amphiphilic polyether diols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, P N; Corneillie, S; Schacht, E; Davies, M; Shard, A

    1996-12-01

    Segmented polyurethanes (SPUs) based on polyethylene glycol (PEG), polypropylene glycol (PPG) and a series of Pluronics with different ethylene oxide/propylene oxide ratios (EO/PO) and molecular weights were prepared. Different diisocyanates were used for making SPUs: 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), 4,4-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate (MDCI), hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). 1,4-Butane diol (BD) and ethylene diamine (ED) were used as chain extenders. The polymers obtained were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The microphase morphology (phase separation and phase mixing) is discussed in more detail. PMID:8968523

  1. A Facile and Efficient Synthesis of (15R)-Latanoprost from Chiral Precursor Corey Lactone Diol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Vijendhar; B Srinivas; Sathyanarayana Boodida

    2015-11-01

    An efficient asymmetric synthetic route for the synthesis of anti-glaucoma agent, (15R)-latanoprost using Corey lactone diol as chiral substrate under Swern oxidation, allylic reduction and Wittig reaction conditions has been developed. In this method, reduction of keto and alkene functional groups has been achieved in a single step using low cost catalyst NiCl2/NaBH4 in methanol. This new synthetic protocol is a good alternative for the synthesis of latanoprost with high stereo selectivity and improved yield.

  2. An asymmetric route to 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives using ring closing metathesis (RCM)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumitra Maity; Subrata Ghosh

    2010-11-01

    An asymmetric route for the synthesis of highly functionalized 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives present in some polyketide natural products has been developed. The key step involves RCM of an appropriately constructed 1,7-dienol derived from D-mannitol to cyclohexane-1,4-diol followed by its stereoselective epoxidation.

  3. 6-Methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine butane-1,4-diol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni M. Bhardwaj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title co-crystal, C4H7N5·C4H10O2, crystallizes with one molecule of 6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (DMT and one molecule of butane-1,4-diol in the asymmetric unit. The DMT molecules form ribbons involving centrosymmetric R22(8 dimer motifs between DMT molecules along the c-axis direction. These ribbons are further hydrogen bonded to each other through butane-1,4-diol, forming sheets parallel to (121.

  4. Iridium- and ruthenium-catalysed synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indoles from anilines and vicinal diols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tursky, Matyas; Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh; Olsen, L. B.;

    2010-01-01

    does not require any stoichiometric additives and only produces water and dihydrogen as byproducts. Anilines containing methyl, methoxy, chloro and fluoro substituents can participate in the cyclocondensation. Meta-substituted anilines give good regioselectivity for 6-substituted indoles, while...... unsymmetrical diols afford excellent regioselectivity for the indole isomer with an aryl or large alkyl group in the 2-position. The mechanism for the cyclocondensation presumably involves initial formation of the alpha-hydroxyketone from the diol. The ketone subsequently reacts with aniline to generate the...

  5. Synthesis of Hydroxylated Sterols(Ⅱ)--Synthesis of 24-Methylenecholest-4-en-3β,6α-diol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ In our study on the soft coral,Alcyonium patagonicum,a new hydroxylated sterol,24-methylenecholest-4-en-3β,6α-diol(1) exhibiting a potent activity to murine leukemia cells(IC50=1 μg/mL) has been isolated[1] and synthesized[2,3].As a part of our studies on the relationship between the chemical structure and the biological activity of the hydroxylated sterols,the synthesis of 24-methylenecholest-4-en-3β,6α-diol(2) is reported here.

  6. Fluorinated Boronic Acid-Appended Bipyridinium Salts for Diol Recognition and Discrimination via (19)F NMR Barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axthelm, Jörg; Görls, Helmar; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schiller, Alexander

    2015-12-16

    Fluorinated boronic acid-appended benzyl bipyridinium salts, derived from 4,4'-, 3,4'-, and 3,3'-bipyridines, were synthesized and used to detect and differentiate diol-containing analytes at physiological conditions via (19)F NMR spectroscopy. An array of three water-soluble boronic acid receptors in combination with (19)F NMR spectroscopy discriminates nine diol-containing bioanalytes--catechol, dopamine, fructose, glucose, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, galactose, lactose, and sucrose--at low mM concentrations. Characteristic (19)F NMR fingerprints are interpreted as two-dimensional barcodes without the need of multivariate analysis techniques.

  7. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M.J.; Light, B.A.; Weston, A.; Tollurud, D.; Clark, J.L.; Mann, D.L.; Blackmon, J.P.; Harris, C.C.

    1988-07-01

    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactions between the benzo(a)pyrene and the chrysene diol-epoxide adducts were present. Similar cross-reactivity between the benz(a)anthracene and the chrysene adducts was observed. Sera containing antibodies that were apparently specific for each of the three PAH-DNA adducts were also identified. The presence of antibodies to PAH-DNA adducts indicates both past exposure to these carcinogenic PAH and their metabolic activation to the DNA damaging metabolites. These antibodies may prove to be useful in both retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies of various diseases associated with PAH exposure.

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation of Plasma 7-Ketocholesterol and Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-Triol in an Italian Cohort of Patients Affected by Niemann-Pick Disease due to NPC1 and SMPD1 Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, Milena; Zampieri, Stefania; Bortolotti, Nadia; Deroma, Laura; Sechi, Annalisa; Fiumara, Agata; Parini, Rossella; Borroni, Barbara; Brancati, Francesco; Bruni, Amalia; Russo, Cinzia V; Bordugo, Andrea; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NPCD) is a rare autosomal recessive neurovisceral disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol have been proposed as biomarkers for the screening of NPCD. In this work, we assessed oxysterols levels in a cohort of Italian patients affected by NPCD and analyzed the obtained results in the context of the clinical, biochemical and molecular data. In addition, a group of patients affected by Niemann-Pick B disease (NPBD) were also analyzed. NPC patients presented levels of both oxysterols way above the cut off value, except for 5 siblings presenting the variant biochemical phenotype who displayed levels of 3β,5α,6β-triol below or just above the cut-off value; 2 of them presented also normal levels of 7-KC. Both oxysterols were extremely high in a patient presenting the neonatal systemic lethal phenotype. All NPB patients showed increased oxysterols levels. In conclusion, the reported LC-MS/MS assay provides a robust non-invasive screening tool for NPCD. However, false negative results can be obtained in patients expressing the variant biochemical phenotype. These data strengthen the concept that the results should always be interpreted in the context of the patients' clinical picture and filipin staining and/or genetic studies might still be undertaken in patients with normal levels of oxysterols if symptoms are highly suggestive of NPCD. Both oxysterols are significantly elevated in NPB patients; thus a differential diagnosis should always be performed in patients presenting isolated hepatosplenomegaly, a common clinical sign of both NPCD and NPBD. PMID:26790753

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation of Plasma 7-Ketocholesterol and Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-Triol in an Italian Cohort of Patients Affected by Niemann-Pick Disease due to NPC1 and SMPD1 Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, Milena; Zampieri, Stefania; Bortolotti, Nadia; Deroma, Laura; Sechi, Annalisa; Fiumara, Agata; Parini, Rossella; Borroni, Barbara; Brancati, Francesco; Bruni, Amalia; Russo, Cinzia V; Bordugo, Andrea; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NPCD) is a rare autosomal recessive neurovisceral disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol have been proposed as biomarkers for the screening of NPCD. In this work, we assessed oxysterols levels in a cohort of Italian patients affected by NPCD and analyzed the obtained results in the context of the clinical, biochemical and molecular data. In addition, a group of patients affected by Niemann-Pick B disease (NPBD) were also analyzed. NPC patients presented levels of both oxysterols way above the cut off value, except for 5 siblings presenting the variant biochemical phenotype who displayed levels of 3β,5α,6β-triol below or just above the cut-off value; 2 of them presented also normal levels of 7-KC. Both oxysterols were extremely high in a patient presenting the neonatal systemic lethal phenotype. All NPB patients showed increased oxysterols levels. In conclusion, the reported LC-MS/MS assay provides a robust non-invasive screening tool for NPCD. However, false negative results can be obtained in patients expressing the variant biochemical phenotype. These data strengthen the concept that the results should always be interpreted in the context of the patients' clinical picture and filipin staining and/or genetic studies might still be undertaken in patients with normal levels of oxysterols if symptoms are highly suggestive of NPCD. Both oxysterols are significantly elevated in NPB patients; thus a differential diagnosis should always be performed in patients presenting isolated hepatosplenomegaly, a common clinical sign of both NPCD and NPBD.

  10. Highly stable triple helix formation by homopyrimidine (l)-acyclic threoninol nucleic acids with single stranded DNA and RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vipin; Kesavan, Venkitasamy; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic (l)-threoninol nucleic acid (aTNA) containing thymine, cytosine and adenine nucleobases were synthesized and shown to form surprisingly stable triplexes with complementary single stranded homopurine DNA or RNA targets. The triplex structures consist of two (l)-aTNA strands and one DNA or...... RNA, and these triplexes are significantly stronger than the corresponding DNA or RNA duplexes as shown in competition experiments. As a unique property the (l)-aTNAs exclusively form triplex structures with DNA and RNA and no duplex structures are observed by gel electrophoresis. The results were...... compared to the known enantiomer (d)-aTNA, which forms much weaker triplexes depending upon temperature and time. It was demonstrated that (l)-aTNA triplexes are able to stop primer extension on a DNA template, showing the potential of (l)-aTNA for antisense applications....

  11. Acyclic Diene Metathesis (ADMET Polymerization for Precise Synthesis of Defect-Free Conjugated Polymers with Well-Defined Chain Ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmina Haque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This accounts introduces unique characteristics by adopting the acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET polymerization for synthesis of conjugated polymers, poly(arylene vinylenes, known as promising molecular electronics. The method is more suitable than the other methods in terms of atom efficiency affording defect-free, stereo-regular (exclusive trans polymers with well-defined chain ends; the resultant polymers possess better property than those prepared by the conventional methods. The chain ends (vinyl group in the resultant polymer prepared by ruthenium-carbene catalyst(s can be modified by treating with molybdenum-alkylidene complex (olefin metathesis followed by addition of various aldehyde (Wittig type cleavage, affording the end-functionalized polymers exclusively. An introduction of initiating fragment, the other conjugated segment, and one-pot synthesis of end-functionalized block copolymers, star shape polymers can be achieved by adopting this methodology.

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and crystal structure of novel NNNN-donor μ-bis(bidentate) tetraaza acyclic Schiff base ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaee, Elahe; Nichol, Gary S.

    2012-12-01

    Novel NNNN-donor μ-bis(bidentate) tetraaza acyclic Schiff base ligands with different substituents (CF3, N(CH3)2 or OH groups) were synthesized by the condensation reaction of triethylenetetramine with 4-substituted benzaldehydes. Triethylenetetramine tris(4-trifluoromethylbenzylidene) (TTFMB), triethylenetetramine tris(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) (TTDMB) and triethylenetetramine tris(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene) (TTDHB) were formed as N4 donor ligands. The formation of a five-membered imidazolidine ring from the ethylenediamine backbone as a spacer-cumbridging unit gives rise to a new type of imidazolidine ligand. The structure of the TTFMB and TTDMB were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The synthesized ligands have been characterized on the basis of the results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and spectroscopic studies viz. FT-IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectroscopy (MS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis).

  13. Heterologous expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of the acyclic carotenoid 1,2-hydratase from Rubrivivax gelatinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Sabine; Mazet, Andreas; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2003-06-01

    The carotenoid 1,2-hydratase CrtC from Rubrivivax gelatinosus has been expressed in Escherichia coli in an active form and purified by affinity chromatography. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of various acyclic carotenes including 1-hydroxy derivatives. This broad substrate specificity reflects the participation of CrtC in 1'-HO-spheroidene and in spirilloxanthin biosynthesis. Enzyme kinetic studies including the determination of substrate specificity constants indicate that among the alternative biosynthetic routes to 1'-HO-spheroidene the one via spheroidene is the dominating pathway. In contrast to CrtC from Rvi. gelatinosus, the equivalent enzyme from Rhodobacter capsulatus, a closely related bacterium which lacks the biosynthetic branch to spirilloxanthin and accumulates spheroidene instead of substantial amounts of 1'-HO-spheroidene, is extremely poor in converting 1-HO-carotenoids. The individual catalytic properties of both carotenoid 1,2-hydratases reflect the in situ carotenogenic pathways in both purple photosynthetic bacteria.

  14. Enantioselective Synthesis of Vicinal (R,R)-Diols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Butanediol Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calam, Eduard; González-Roca, Eva; Fernández, M Rosario; Dequin, Sylvie; Parés, Xavier; Virgili, Albert; Biosca, Josep A

    2016-03-01

    Butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the superfamily of the medium-chain dehydrogenases and reductases and converts reversibly R-acetoin and S-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol, respectively. It is specific for NAD(H) as a coenzyme, and it is the main enzyme involved in the last metabolic step leading to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol in yeast. In this study, we have used the activity of Bdh1p in different forms-purified enzyme, yeast extracts, permeabilized yeast cells, and as a fusion protein (with yeast formate dehydrogenase, Fdh1p)-to transform several vicinal diketones to the corresponding diols. We have also developed a new variant of the delitto perfetto methodology to place BDH1 under the control of the GAL1 promoter, resulting in a yeast strain that overexpresses butanediol dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase activities in the presence of galactose and regenerates NADH in the presence of formate. While the use of purified Bdh1p allows the synthesis of enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-pentanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol, and (3R,4R)-3,4-hexanediol, the use of the engineered strain (as an extract or as permeabilized cells) yields mixtures of the diols. The production of pure diol stereoisomers has also been achieved by means of a chimeric fusion protein combining Fdh1p and Bdh1p. Finally, we have determined the selectivity of Bdh1p toward the oxidation/reduction of the hydroxyl/ketone groups from (2R,3R)-2,3-pentanediol/2,3-pentanedione and (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol/2,3-hexanedione. In conclusion, Bdh1p is an enzyme with biotechnological interest that can be used to synthesize chiral building blocks. A scheme of the favored pathway with the corresponding intermediates is proposed for the Bdh1p reaction.

  15. Molybdenum-catalyzed conversion of diols and biomass-derived polyols to alkenes using isopropyl alcohol as reductant and solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel; Gorfo, Ayele Teshome;

    2015-01-01

    , but the reaction requires a homogeneous catalyst, a reductant, and a solvent, which are typically expensive, unsustainable, or inefficient. Herein, we present the use of molybdenum(VI)-based compounds, in particular the cheap and commercially available (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O, as catalysts for the DODH of vicinal diols...

  16. Ruthenium-catalysed synthesis of 2- and 3-substituted quinolines from anilines and 1,3-diols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard; Madsen, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward synthesis of substituted quinolines is described by cyclocondensation of anilines with 1,3-diols. The reaction proceeds in mesitylene solution with catalytic amounts of RuCl3·xH 2O, PBu3 and MgBr2·OEt2. The transformation does not require any stoichiometric additives and only...

  17. THE PHASE BEHAVIOR OF FLUORINATED DIOLS, DIVINYL ADIPATE, AND A FLUORINATED POLYESTER IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE. (R828131)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction medium for polyester synthesis is hindered by the low solubility of diols in CO2. However, it has been previously demonstrated that fluorinated compounds can exhibit greater miscibility with carbon dioxide than t...

  18. Boronate Affinity Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Inhibition Assay of cis-Diol Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangshou; Ye, Jin; Li, Xinglin; Liu, Zhen

    2016-05-17

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been essential for many applications, in which an appropriate donor-acceptor pair is the key. Traditional dye-to-dye combinations remain the working horses but are rather nonspecifically susceptive to environmental factors (such as ionic strength, pH, oxygen, etc.). Besides, to obtain desired selectivity, functionalization of the donor or acceptor is essential but usually tedious. Herein, we present fluorescent poly(m-aminophenylboronic acid) nanoparticles (poly(mAPBA) NPs) synthesized via a simple procedure and demonstrate a FRET scheme with suppressed environmental effects for the selective sensing of cis-diol biomolecules. The NPs exhibited stable fluorescence properties, resistance to environmental factors, and a Förster distance comparable size, making them ideal donor for FRET applications. By using poly(mAPBA) NPs and adenosine 5'-monophosphate modified graphene oxide (AMP-GO) as a donor and an acceptor, respectively, an environmental effects-suppressed boronate affinity-mediated FRET system was established. The fluorescence of poly(mAPBA) NPs was quenched by AMP-GO while it was restored when a competing cis-diol compounds was present. The FRET system exhibited excellent selectivity and improved sensitivity toward cis-diol compounds. Quantitative inhibition assay of glucose in human serum was demonstrated. As many cis-diol compounds such as sugars and glycoproteins are biologically and clinically significant, the FRET scheme presented herein could find more promising applications. PMID:27089186

  19. Electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols and diols in a biphasic medium using CeIV methanesulfonate as mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some alcohols and diols were oxidized electro-catalytically in a biphasic system using cerium methanesulphonate as mediator. A mixture of methanesulphonic acid solution and benzene was used and aldehydes, ketones and diacids were some of the principal products obtained with yield varying from 27 to 98%. In several cases selectivity was obtained. (author)

  20. BENZO[a]PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDE PERTURBATION OF CELL CYCLE KINETICS OF SYNCHRONIZED MOUSE LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlman, A.L.; Navsky, B.N.; Bartholomew, J.C

    1980-07-01

    A cell cycle synchronization system is described for the analysis of the perturbation of cell cycle kinetics and the cycle-phase specificity of chemicals and other agents. We used the system to study the effects of ({+-})r-7, t-8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BaP diol epoxide) upon the cell cycle of mouse liver epithelial cells(NMuLi). BaP diol epoxide(0.6 uM) was added to replated cultures of NMuLi cells that had been synchronized in various stages of the cell cycle by centrifugal elutriation. DNA histograms were obtained by flow cytometry as a function of time after replating. The data were analyzed by a computer modeling routine and reduced to a few graphs illustrating the 'net effects' of the BaP diol epoxide relative to controls. BaP diol epoxide slowed S-phase traversal in all samples relative to their respective control. Traversal through G{sub 2}M was also slowed by at least 50%. BaP diol epoxide had no apparent effect upon G{sub 1} traversal by cycling cells, but delayed the recruitment of quiescent G{sub 0} cells by about 2 hrs. The methods described constitute a powerful new approach for probing the cell cycle effects of a wide variety of agents. The present system appears to be extremely sensitive and capable of characterizing the action of agents on each phase of the cell cycle. The methods are automatable and would allow for the assay and possible differential characterization of mutagens and carcinogens.

  1. Novel five- to ten-membered organoselenium heterocycles from the selenation of aromatic diols

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Guoxiong; Fuller, Amy; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Woollins, J. Derek

    2010-01-01

    This work is funded by the EPSRC UK Reaction of Woollins' reagent ― WR , 2,4-bis(phenyl)-1,3-diselenadiphosphetane 2,4-diselenide [{PhP(Se)(μ-Se)}2] ― with aromatic diols in refluxing toluene afforded a series of novel five- to ten-membered phosphorus-selenium heterocycles 1 – 10 with an O–P(Se)–O or O–P(Se)–Se–P(Se)–O or O–P(Se)–O–P(Se)–O linkage in 12–74 % isolated yields. It was found that the diphosphorus species O–P(Se)–Se–P(Se)–O rings could be readily reduced into the monophosphorus...

  2. Isolation and Crystal Structure of 1′,4′-Trans-diol of Abscisic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian-Shan; ZHOU Jin-Yan; TAN Hong

    2006-01-01

    1 ′,4′-Trans-diol of abscisic acid was isolated from botrytis cinerea as a colorless crystal. The molecular and crystal structures have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in orthorhombic system, space group P212121 with a = 6.724(3), b = 17.559(6), c =12.265(2) (A), a = β = y = 90°, V = 1448.1(8) (A)3, Z = 4, Dx = 1.222 g/cm3, F(000) = 576 and μ(MoKa) = 0.087 mm-1. The final R = 0.0628 and wR = 0.1604 for 2501 independent reflections with Rint = 0.0160 and 1679 observed reflections with I >2σ(Ⅰ). There are three intermolecular hydrogen bonds in a unit cell.

  3. ARA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol in apple fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-04-01

    We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and ABA-t-diol from postharvest apple fruits, cv. Granny Smith and confirmed their structure by GC-MS. These putative ABA biosynthetic precursors incorporate {sup 18}O to a similar degree as ABA during 48 hours under {sup 18}O{sub 2} atmospheres. The presence of significant amounts of ABA-aldehyde can explain the unique {sup 18}O labeling pattern of ABA in this tissue, where a majority of ABA molecules containing {sup 18}O is labeled in the 1{prime}-hydroxyl group and not in the side chain carboxyl group, the primary site of incorporation for stressed leaves. Exchange of the carbonyl oxygen of ABA-aldehyde with water would decrease {sup 18}O enrichment in the side chain. Results of {sup 18}O{sub 2} experiments and feeding studies using hexadeutero-ABA-aldehyde will be presented and the biosynthetic relationship of these compounds discussed.

  4. Bifunctional Nb/Ti-MCM-41 catalyst in oxidative acidic reaction of cyclohexene to diol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifunctional oxidative and acidic catalyst was prepared by incorporating titanium ion (Ti4+) and niobic acid in meso porous molecular sieves MCM-41 structure. The catalyst is active both in oxidation, and acid-catalyzed reaction of olefin to diol. Nb/ Ti-MCM-41 catalyst was prepared by first synthesizing Ti-MCM-41 by hydrothermal method, followed by subsequent impregnation of niobic acid (Nb) into Ti-MCM-41 at various % wt Nb loading. The framework structure of Ti-MCM-41 collapsed after incorporation of Nb but the tetrahedral form of Ti4+ still maintained with octahedral Nb species. Both Bronsted and Lewis acid sites are present in all Nb/ Ti-MCM-41 samples. The formation of cyclohexanediol in the epoxidation of cyclohexene proved the bifunctional oxidative and acidic catalyst through the formation of cyclohexane oxide. The yield increased with the increase amount of the Bronsted acid sites provided by niobium species. (author)

  5. A NEW POLYMER-BOUND 1,2-DIOL AS A PROTECTING AGENT FOR SYMMETRICAL DIALDEHYDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Qisheng; HUANG Wenqiang; ZHAO Fengzhi; Ho Binglin

    1989-01-01

    A novel polymer- bound 1,2 - diol, 3 - polystyrylsulfonyl- 1,2 - propanediol (6) had ben prepared by the reaction of sodium polystyrylsulfinate with allyl bromide, followed by oxidation and. hydrolysis or directly with 3 - chloro - 1,2 - propanediol in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst ,n - tetrabutylammonium iodide. The capacity of resin 6 for terephthaldehyde reached 1.43 mmol/g. The aldehydic groups attached to polymer 6 reacted with hydroxylamine hydrochloride or reduced by sodium borohydride giving p-formylbenzaldoxime (yield:89%)and p-formyl -benzalcohol (yield:73 A % ), respectively. The high yields of these polymer-supported reactions showed that the polymer 6 possessed the effective isolation of its reactive sites.

  6. Studies on reactions of cerium(4) reduction with alcohols. Part 3. Reactions of cerium(4) reduction with butane-2,3-diol, butane-1,3-diol and cis-butene-2-diol-1,4 in aqueous solutions of perchloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic study of the red-ox reaction kinetics of cerium ions -diols-water systems in presence of the perchloric acid is given. Dependence of the various agents and its concentrations on equilibrium constants the complex formation reactions and complex stability are discussed and compared. (B.Cz.)

  7. The waterborne polyurethane dispersions based on polycarbonate diol: Effect of ionic content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakić, Suzana M., E-mail: suzana.cakic@yahoo.com [University of Niš, Faculty of Technology, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Špírková, Milena [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., Heyrovskeho Nam. 2, 16206 Prague (Czech Republic); Ristić, Ivan S.; B-Simendić, Jaroslava K. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); M-Cincović, Milena [University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Science, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Poręba, Rafał [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., Heyrovskeho Nam. 2, 16206 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-02-15

    Three water-based polyurethane dispersions (PUD) were synthesized by modified dispersing procedure using polycarbonate diol (PCD), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA), triethylamine (TEA) and ethylenediamine (EDA). The ionic group content in the polyurethane-ionomer structure was varied by changing the amount of the internal emulsifier, DMPA (4.5, 7.5 and 10 wt.% to the prepolymer weight). The expected structures of obtained materials were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The effect of the DMPA content on the thermal properties of polyurethane films was measured by TGA, DTA, DSC and DMTA methods. Increased DMPA amounts result in the higher hard segment contents and in the increase of the weight loss corresponding to the degradation of the hard segments. The reduction of hard segment content led to the elevated temperature of decomposition and to the decrease of the glass transition temperature and thermoplasticity. The atomic force microscopy (AFM), results indicated that phase separation between hard and soft segment of PUD with higher DMPA content is more significant than of PUD with lower DMPA content. The physico-mechanical properties, such as hardness, adhesion test and gloss of the dried films were also determined considering the effect of DMPA content on coating properties. Highlights: ► Polyurethane dispersions (PUD) were synthesized from polycarbonate diol. ► The effect of the DMPA content on the thermal properties of PUD films was measured. ► The thermal stability of PUD was increased by decreasing the DMPA content. ► T{sub g} values of PUD were increased by increasing ionic content. ► The PUD with the highest content of DMPA showed more significant phase separation confirmed by AFM results.

  8. The waterborne polyurethane dispersions based on polycarbonate diol: Effect of ionic content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three water-based polyurethane dispersions (PUD) were synthesized by modified dispersing procedure using polycarbonate diol (PCD), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA), triethylamine (TEA) and ethylenediamine (EDA). The ionic group content in the polyurethane-ionomer structure was varied by changing the amount of the internal emulsifier, DMPA (4.5, 7.5 and 10 wt.% to the prepolymer weight). The expected structures of obtained materials were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The effect of the DMPA content on the thermal properties of polyurethane films was measured by TGA, DTA, DSC and DMTA methods. Increased DMPA amounts result in the higher hard segment contents and in the increase of the weight loss corresponding to the degradation of the hard segments. The reduction of hard segment content led to the elevated temperature of decomposition and to the decrease of the glass transition temperature and thermoplasticity. The atomic force microscopy (AFM), results indicated that phase separation between hard and soft segment of PUD with higher DMPA content is more significant than of PUD with lower DMPA content. The physico-mechanical properties, such as hardness, adhesion test and gloss of the dried films were also determined considering the effect of DMPA content on coating properties. Highlights: ► Polyurethane dispersions (PUD) were synthesized from polycarbonate diol. ► The effect of the DMPA content on the thermal properties of PUD films was measured. ► The thermal stability of PUD was increased by decreasing the DMPA content. ► Tg values of PUD were increased by increasing ionic content. ► The PUD with the highest content of DMPA showed more significant phase separation confirmed by AFM results

  9. Synthesis of a precursor for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, the synthesis of a strategic precursor, C-9 (11) unsaturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide (9a), for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide has been achieved. The authors optimized the reaction conditions for catalytic reduction employing hydrogen and subsequent base hydrolysis followed by purification on Amberlite XAD-2 resin to obtain the saturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

  10. Biotransformation of citronellal by Solanum aviculare suspension cultures: preparation of p-menthane-3,8-diols and determination of their absolute configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Tomás; Novotný, Michal; Podlipná, Radka; Saman, David; Valterová, Irena

    2003-09-01

    Citronellal was transformed by Solanum aviculare suspension cultures to menthane-3,8-diols. cis-Menthane-3,8-diol dominated over the trans-isomer (39% and 15%, respectively). Absolute configurations of menthane-3,8-diols were assigned by critical analysis of 1H and 19F NMR spectra of prepared esters with 2-methoxy-2-phenyl-3,3,3-trifluoropropanoic acid. Citronellol and isopulegol were other products of the transformation (23% and 17%, respectively). The reaction course was identical for both citronellal enantiomers. PMID:14510606

  11. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterization of all acyclic C5-C7 alkenes from fluid catalytic cracked gasoline using polydimethylsiloxane and squalane stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soják, Ladislav; Addová, Gabriela; Kubinec, Róbert; Kraus, Angelika; Hu, Gengyuan

    2002-02-15

    Published retention indices of acyclic alkenes C5-C7 on squalane and polydimethylsiloxane as stationary phases were investigated, and reliable retention indices of alkenes from various sources were converted to separation systems used in a laboratory. Retention indices measured on available authentic commercial alkenes and on alkenic fraction of gasoline, published retention indices as well as means of GC-MS were used for verification of calculated retention indices. Retention of some gas chromatographic unseparated isomer pairs was obtained by mass spectrometric deconvolution using a specific single-ion monitoring. On the basis of these retention data, C5-C7 alkenes were identified and analyzed in the gasoline from fluid catalytic cracking. In the gasoline all 59 acyclic C5-C7 isomeric alkenes were determined at significantly different concentration levels.

  12. Anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody armed with {sup 177}Lu: in vivo comparison of macrocyclic and acyclic ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hens, Marc; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zhao Xiaoguang [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Bigner, Darell D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R., E-mail: zalut001@mc.duke.ed [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Introduction: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) L8A4 binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) that is present on gliomas but not on normal tissues, and is internalized rapidly after receptor binding. Because of the short range of its {beta}-emissions, labeling this mAb with {sup 177}Lu would be an attractive approach for the treatment of residual tumor margins remaining after surgical debulking of brain tumors. Materials and Methods: L8A4 mAb was labeled with {sup 177}Lu using the acyclic ligands [(R)-2-amino-3-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1, 2-diamine-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A''-DTPA) and 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-6-methyldiethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA), and the macrocyclic ligands S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (C-DOTA) and {alpha}-(5-isothiocyanato-2-methoxyphenyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid (MeO-DOTA). Paired-label tissue distribution experiments were performed in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous EGFRvIII-expressing U87.{Delta}EGFR glioma xenografts over a period of 1 to 8 days to directly compare {sup 177}Lu-labeled L8A4 to L8A4 labeled with {sup 125}I using N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl-3-[{sup 125}I]iodobenzoate ([{sup 125}I]SGMIB). Results: Except with C-DOTA, tumor uptake for the {sup 177}Lu-labeled mAb was significantly higher than the co-administered radioiodinated preparation; however, this was also the case for spleen, liver, bone and kidneys. Tumor/normal tissue ratios for {sup 177}Lu-1B4M-DTPA-L8A4 and, to an even greater extent, {sup 177}Lu-MeO-DOTA-L8A4 were higher than those for [{sup 125}I]SGMIB-L8A4 in most other tissues. Conclusions: Tumor and normal tissue distribution patterns for this anti-EGFRvIII mAb were dependent on the nature of the bifunctional chelate used for {sup 177}Lu labeling. Optimal results were obtained with 1B4M-DTPA and MeO-DOTA, suggesting no clear advantage

  13. Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase-Catalyzed Deamination of an Acyclic Amino Acid: Enzyme Mechanistic Studies Aided by a Novel Microreactor Filled with Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Diána; Bencze, László Csaba; Bánóczi, Gergely; Ender, Ferenc; Kiss, Róbert; Kókai, Eszter; Szilágyi, András; Vértessy, Beáta G; Farkas, Ödön; Paizs, Csaba; Poppe, László

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), found in many organisms, catalyzes the deamination of l-phenylalanine (Phe) to (E)-cinnamate by the aid of its MIO prosthetic group. By using PAL immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and fixed in a microfluidic reactor with an in-line UV detector, we demonstrated that PAL can catalyze ammonia elimination from the acyclic propargylglycine (PG) to yield (E)-pent-2-ene-4-ynoate. This highlights new opportunities to extend MIO enzymes towards acyclic substrates. As PG is acyclic, its deamination cannot involve a Friedel-Crafts-type attack at an aromatic ring. The reversibility of the PAL reaction, demonstrated by the ammonia addition to (E)-pent-2-ene-4-ynoate yielding enantiopure l-PG, contradicts the proposed highly exothermic single-step mechanism. Computations with the QM/MM models of the N-MIO intermediates from L-PG and L-Phe in PAL show similar arrangements within the active site, thus supporting a mechanism via the N-MIO intermediate.

  14. Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase-Catalyzed Deamination of an Acyclic Amino Acid: Enzyme Mechanistic Studies Aided by a Novel Microreactor Filled with Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Diána; Bencze, László Csaba; Bánóczi, Gergely; Ender, Ferenc; Kiss, Róbert; Kókai, Eszter; Szilágyi, András; Vértessy, Beáta G; Farkas, Ödön; Paizs, Csaba; Poppe, László

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), found in many organisms, catalyzes the deamination of l-phenylalanine (Phe) to (E)-cinnamate by the aid of its MIO prosthetic group. By using PAL immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and fixed in a microfluidic reactor with an in-line UV detector, we demonstrated that PAL can catalyze ammonia elimination from the acyclic propargylglycine (PG) to yield (E)-pent-2-ene-4-ynoate. This highlights new opportunities to extend MIO enzymes towards acyclic substrates. As PG is acyclic, its deamination cannot involve a Friedel-Crafts-type attack at an aromatic ring. The reversibility of the PAL reaction, demonstrated by the ammonia addition to (E)-pent-2-ene-4-ynoate yielding enantiopure l-PG, contradicts the proposed highly exothermic single-step mechanism. Computations with the QM/MM models of the N-MIO intermediates from L-PG and L-Phe in PAL show similar arrangements within the active site, thus supporting a mechanism via the N-MIO intermediate. PMID:26345352

  15. The separation and synthesis of lipidic 1,2- and 1,3-diols from natural phenolic lipids for the complexation and recovery of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyman, John H P; Mehet, Satinderjit K

    2003-12-01

    A study has been made of the semi-synthesis of 1,3-diols (anacardic alcohols) from natural phenolic lipid resources from Anacardium occidentale and Anacardium giganteum which have given C15 and C11 derivatives, respectively. An isomeric 1,3-diol (isoanacardic alcohol) has been obtained from cardanol separated from technical cashew nut-shell liquid. Homologous 1,3-diols have been synthesised from a range of synthetic 2-alkyl-, 3-alkyl- and 4-alkylphenols and from 6-alkylsalicylic acids. The natural 1,2-diol, urushiol, from Rhus vernicifera has been purified. All these lipidic compounds have been studied for their complexation and the potential recovery of boron as boric acid. PMID:14623453

  16. Long chain diol index (LDI) as an organic-based sea surface temperature proxy in the Korean East Sea (NW Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Jong-Ku; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kang, Su-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hun; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Long chain diol index (LDI) was introduced as an organic-based sea surface temperature (SST) proxy. LDI is expressed as the C30 1,15-diol abundance relative to those of C28 1,13-, C30 1,13- and C30 1,15-diols. There were a few studies which accessed the potential of LDI based on the culture, core top sediments, suspended particulate organic matters, and down-core sediments. However it is still unknown about the source of the diols and robustness as the SST proxy in the various marine environments. In the current study, we examined the applicability of the LDI in the East Sea of Korea where productivity and thus sedimentation rates are high. We will compare the LDI data with those of alkenone-based UK'37 by analyzing two multicores covering the last 100 year.

  17. Acyclic retinoid in chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: Targeting phosphorylated retinoid X receptor-α for prevention of liver carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Shimizu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the high rate of intrahepatic recurrence that correlates with poor prognosis. Therefore, in order to improve the clinical outcome for patients with HCC, development of a chemopreventive agent that can decrease or delay the incidence of recurrence is a critical issue for urgent investigation. Acyclic retinoid (ACR, a synthetic retinoid, successfully improves HCC patient survival by preventing recurrence and the formation of secondary tumors. A malfunction of the retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα due to phosphorylation by the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway plays a critical role in liver carcinogenesis, and ACR exerts chemopreventive effects on HCC development by inhibiting RXRα phosphorylation. Here, we review the relationship between retinoid signaling abnormalities and liver disease, the mechanisms of how RXRα phosphorylation contributes to liver carcinogenesis, and the detailed effects of ACR on preventing HCC development, especially based on the results of our basic and clinical research. We also outline the concept of "clonal deletion and inhibition" therapy, which is defined as the removal and inhibition of latent malignant clones from the liver before they expand into clinically detectable HCC, because ACR prevents the development of HCC by implementing this concept. Looking toward the future, we discuss "combination chemoprevention" using ACR as a key drug since it can generate a synergistic effect, and may thus be an effective new strategy for the prevention of HCC.

  18. Intramolecular OH⋅⋅⋅Fluorine Hydrogen Bonding in Saturated, Acyclic Fluorohydrins: The γ-Fluoropropanol Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linclau, Bruno; Peron, Florent; Bogdan, Elena; Wells, Neil; Wang, Zhong; Compain, Guillaume; Fontenelle, Clement Q; Galland, Nicolas; LeQuestel, Jean-Yves; Graton, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Fluorination is commonly exercised in compound property optimization. However, the influence of fluorination on hydrogen-bond (HB) properties of adjacent functional groups, as well as the HB-accepting capacity of fluorine itself, is still not completely understood. Although the formation of OH⋅⋅⋅F intramolecular HBs (IMHBs) has been established for conformationally restricted fluorohydrins, such interaction in flexible compounds remained questionable. Herein is demonstrated for the first time—and in contrast to earlier reports—the occurrence of OH⋅⋅⋅F IMHBs in acyclic saturated γ-fluorohydrins, even for the parent 3-fluoropropan-1-ol. The relative stereochemistry is shown to have a crucial influence on the corresponding h1JOH⋅⋅⋅F values, as illustrated by syn- and anti-4-fluoropentan-2-ol (6.6 and 1.9Hz). The magnitude of OH⋅⋅⋅F IMHBs and their strong dependence on the overall molecular conformational profile, fluorination motif, and alkyl substitution level, is rationalized by quantum chemical calculations. For a given alkyl chain, the “rule of shielding” applies to OH⋅⋅⋅F IMHB energies. Surprisingly, the predicted OH⋅⋅⋅F IMHB energies are only moderately weaker than these of the corresponding OH⋅⋅⋅OMe. These results provide new insights of the impact of fluorination of aliphatic alcohols, with attractive perspectives for rational drug design. PMID:26494542

  19. Cs2CO3-promoted polycondensation of CO2with diols and dihalides for the synthesis of miscellaneous polycarbonates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zuliang

    2016-07-12

    A one-pot protocol for the direct synthesis of polycarbonates through polycondensation of diols, dihalides and CO2 in the presence of Cs2CO3 is described. The conditions were optimized by studying the polycondensation of CO2 with 1,4-phenylenedimethanol and 1,4-dibromobutane as model monomers. Then, diols and dihalides with different spacers between the reactive groups including aliphatic, aromatic and poly(ethylene glycol) were tested under optimal conditions. Miscellaneous polycarbonates exhibiting molar masses in the range of 43 000 g mol-1 (GPC) and conversion higher than 96% could be obtained. The proposed mechanism rules out the possibility of ether linkage formation during polycondensation and accounts for the creation of carbonate linkages in two different ways. The thermal properties of the synthesized polycarbonates were unveiled by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Sustainable Pathways to Pyrroles through Iron-Catalyzed N-Heterocyclization from Unsaturated Diols and Primary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Barta, Katalin

    2016-09-01

    Pyrroles are prominent scaffolds in pharmaceutically active compounds and play an important role in medicinal chemistry. Therefore, the development of new, atom-economic, and sustainable catalytic strategies to obtain these moieties is highly desired. Direct catalytic pathways that utilize readily available alcohol substrates have been recently established; however, these approaches rely on the use of noble metals such as ruthenium or iridium. Here, we report on the direct synthesis of pyrroles using a catalyst based on the earth-abundant and inexpensive iron. The method uses 2-butyne-1,4-diol or 2-butene-1,4-diol that can be directly coupled with anilines, benzyl amines, and aliphatic amines to obtain a variety of N-substituted pyrroles in moderate-to-excellent isolated yields.

  1. Fluorinated porphyrin tweezer: a powerful reporter of absolute configuration for erythro and threo diols, amino alcohols, and diamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyong; Tanasova, Marina; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak

    2008-02-13

    A general and sensitive nonempirical protocol to determine the absolute configurations of erythro and threo diols, amino alcohols, and diamines is reported. Binding of diols to the porphyrin tweezer system is greatly enhanced by increasing the Lewis acidity of the metalloporphyrin. Supramolecular complexes formed between the porphyrin tweezer host and chiral substrates exhibited exciton-coupled bisignate CD spectra with predictable signs based on the substituents on the chiral center. The working model suggests that the observed helicity of the porphyrin tweezer is dictated via steric differentiation experienced by the porphyrin ring bound to each chiral center. A variety of erythro and threo substrates were investigated to verify this chiroptical method. Their absolute configurations were unequivocally determined, and thus a general mnemonic is provided for the assignment of chirality.

  2. Sustainable Pathways to Pyrroles through Iron-Catalyzed N-Heterocyclization from Unsaturated Diols and Primary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Barta, Katalin

    2016-09-01

    Pyrroles are prominent scaffolds in pharmaceutically active compounds and play an important role in medicinal chemistry. Therefore, the development of new, atom-economic, and sustainable catalytic strategies to obtain these moieties is highly desired. Direct catalytic pathways that utilize readily available alcohol substrates have been recently established; however, these approaches rely on the use of noble metals such as ruthenium or iridium. Here, we report on the direct synthesis of pyrroles using a catalyst based on the earth-abundant and inexpensive iron. The method uses 2-butyne-1,4-diol or 2-butene-1,4-diol that can be directly coupled with anilines, benzyl amines, and aliphatic amines to obtain a variety of N-substituted pyrroles in moderate-to-excellent isolated yields. PMID:27493031

  3. [Diol column as stationary phase for high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of carbohydrates in drinks with evaporative light scattering detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Guo, L; Ding, M Y

    2001-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with a diol column and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was established for the direct analysis of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and raffinose in mixture. A separation column (Lichrospher 100 Diol, 250 mm x 4.0 mm i.d., 5 microns, Hewlett-Packard, USA) and a guard column (Zorbax Rx-SIL, 12.5 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microns) were used. The mobile phase was a mixture of dichloromethane-methanol (3.2:1, volume ratio). Regression equations revealed linear relationship (correlation coefficients: 0.995-0.999) between the mass of carbohydrates injected and the peak area of carbohydrates detected by ELSD. The detection limits of ELSD (S/N = 3) were about 0.20 microgram for all carbohydrates. This system could be used for the routine analysis of simple carbohydrates in some common drinks on market. PMID:12545463

  4. Cycloartan-24-ene-1α,2α,3β-triol, a cycloartane-type triterpenoid from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha, induces apoptosis in human prostatic cancer PC-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenyan; Su, Xiaojie; Dong, Xiaoyan; Chen, Yingli; Zhou, Chunlan; Xin, Ping; Yu, Chunhao; Wei, Taiming

    2015-03-01

    Plant-derived antitumor drugs are currently used in chemotherapy. Cycloartane triterpenoids have shown a cytotoxic effect on human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to isolate a cycloartane triterpenoid from Commiphora myrrha and evaluate its anticancer potential. Cycloartan-24-ene-1α,2α,3β-triol (MY-1) was isolated from Commiphora myrrha, and its structure was determined through 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of MY-1 on human prostatic cancer PC-3 cells were estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining assay, and the expression of apoptotic-related proteins were evaluated by western blotting. MY-1 showed cytotoxic activity on PC-3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 9.6 µM at 24 h. MY-1 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that MY-1 regulated the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), p53 and caspase-3 in the PC-3 cells. These findings indicate that MY-1 exerts significantly pro-apoptotic activity against human hormone-independent prostatic cancer and support MY-1 as a potential anticancer drug.

  5. Antioxidants Inhibit Formation of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol Esters in Model Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang; Jia, Hanbing; Shen, Mingyue; Wang, Yuting; Nie, Shaoping; Chen, Yi; Zhou, Yongqiang; Wang, Yuanxing; Xie, Mingyong

    2015-11-11

    The capacities of six antioxidants to inhibit the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2 diol (3-MCPD) esters were examined in this study. Inhibitory capacities of the antioxidants were investigated both in chemical models containing the precursors (tripalmitoyl glycerol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and sodium chloride) of 3-MCPD esters and in oil models (rapeseed oil and sodium chloride). Six antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), propyl gallate (PG), L-ascorbyl palmitate (AP), and α-tocopherol (VE), were found to exhibit inhibiting capacities on 3-MCPD ester formation both in chemical models and in oil models. TBHQ provided the highest inhibitory capacity both in chemical models and in oil models; 44% of 3-MCPD ester formation was inhibited in the presence of TBHQ (66 mg/kg of oil) after heating of rapeseed oil at 230 °C for 30 min, followed by PG and AP. BHT, BHA, and VE appeared to have weaker inhibitory abilities in both models. VE exhibited the lowest inhibition rate; 22% of 3-MCPD esters were inhibited in the presence of VE (172 mg/kg of oil) after heating of rapeseed oil at 230 °C for 30 min. In addition, the inhibition rates of PG and VE decreased dramatically with an increase in temperature or heating time. The results suggested that some antioxidants, such as TBHQ, PG, and AP, could be the potential inhibitors of 3-MCPD esters in practice. PMID:26478126

  6. New acyclic bis phenylpropanoid and neolignans, from Myristica fragrans Houtt., exhibiting PARP-1 and NF-κB inhibitory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Acuña, Ulyana; Carcache, Peter J Blanco; Matthew, Susan; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J

    2016-07-01

    The bioassay-guided fractionation of the aril of Myristica fragrans (mace spice) yielded five phenolic compounds, one new acyclic bis phenylpropanoid (1) and four previously known phenolic compounds: compounds (1) (S) 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-(3-methoxy-5-(prop-1-yl) phenyl)-propan-1-ol, (2) benzenemethanol; α-[1-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propen-1-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]-3,4-dimethoxy-1-acetate, (3) odoratisol A, phenol, 4-[(2S,3S)-2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1E)-1-propenyl-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dimethoxy, (4) 1,3-benzodioxate-5-methanol,α-[1-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenoxy]ethyl]-acetate, (5) licarin C; benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-3-methyl-5-(1E)-1-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl). An NMR tube Mosher ester reaction was used in an approach to characterize and determine the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new isolated chiral alcohol (1). The PARP-1 inhibitory activity was evaluated for compound (1) (IC50=3.04μM), compound (2) (IC50=0.001μM), compound (4) (IC50=22.07μM) and compound (5) (IC50=3.11μM). Furthermore, the isolated secondary metabolites were tested for NF-κB and K-Ras inhibitory activities. When tested in the p65 assay, compounds (2) and (4) displayed potent NF-κB inhibition (IC50=1.5 nM and 3.4nM, respectively). PMID:26920294

  7. Acyclic identification of aptamers for human alpha-thrombin using over-represented libraries and deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian V Kupakuwana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aptamers are oligonucleotides that bind proteins and other targets with high affinity and selectivity. Twenty years ago elements of natural selection were adapted to in vitro selection in order to distinguish aptamers among randomized sequence libraries. The primary bottleneck in traditional aptamer discovery is multiple cycles of in vitro evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that over-representation of sequences in aptamer libraries and deep sequencing enables acyclic identification of aptamers. We demonstrated this by isolating a known family of aptamers for human α-thrombin. Aptamers were found within a library containing an average of 56,000 copies of each possible randomized 15mer segment. The high affinity sequences were counted many times above the background in 2-6 million reads. Clustering analysis of sequences with more than 10 counts distinguished two sequence motifs with candidates at high abundance. Motif I contained the previously observed consensus 15mer, Thb1 (46,000 counts, and related variants with mostly G/T substitutions; secondary analysis showed that affinity for thrombin correlated with abundance (K(d = 12 nM for Thb1. The signal-to-noise ratio for this experiment was roughly 10,000∶1 for Thb1. Motif II was unrelated to Thb1 with the leading candidate (29,000 counts being a novel aptamer against hexose sugars in the storage and elution buffers for Concanavilin A (K(d = 0.5 µM for α-methyl-mannoside; ConA was used to immobilize α-thrombin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Over-representation together with deep sequencing can dramatically shorten the discovery process, distinguish aptamers having a wide range of affinity for the target, allow an exhaustive search of the sequence space within a simplified library, reduce the quantity of the target required, eliminate cycling artifacts, and should allow multiplexing of sequencing experiments and targets.

  8. Peretinoin, an acyclic retinoid, improves the hepatic gene signature of chronic hepatitis C following curative therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acyclic retinoid, peretinoin, has been shown to be effective for suppressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after definitive treatment in a small-scale randomized clinical trial. However, little has been documented about the mechanism by which peretinoin exerts its inhibitory effects against recurrent HCC in humans in vivo. Twelve hepatitis C virus-positive patients whose HCC had been eradicated through curative resection or ablation underwent liver biopsy at baseline and week 8 of treatment with either a daily dose of 300 or 600 mg peretinoin. RNA isolated from biopsy samples was subjected to gene expression profile analysis. Peretinoin treatment elevated the expression levels of IGFBP6, RBP1, PRB4, CEBPA, G0S2, TGM2, GPRC5A, CYP26B1, and many other retinoid target genes. Elevated expression was also observed for interferon-, Wnt-, and tumor suppressor-related genes. By contrast, decreased expression levels were found for mTOR- and tumor progression-related genes. Interestingly, gene expression profiles for week 8 of peretinoin treatment could be classified into two groups of recurrence and non-recurrence with a prediction accuracy rate of 79.6% (P<0.05). In the liver of patients with non-recurrence, expression of PDGFC and other angiogenesis genes, cancer stem cell marker genes, and genes related to tumor progression was down-regulated, while expression of genes related to hepatocyte differentiation, tumor suppression genes, and other genes related to apoptosis induction was up-regulated. Gene expression profiling at week 8 of peretinoin treatment could successfully predict HCC recurrence within 2 years. This study is the first to show the effect of peretinoin in suppressing HCC recurrence in vivo based on gene expression profiles and provides a molecular basis for understanding the efficacy of peretinoin

  9. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Containers: Influence of Linker Length on Their Function as Solubilizing Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigwalt, David; Moncelet, Damien; Falcinelli, Shane; Mandadapu, Vijaybabu; Zavalij, Peter Y; Day, Anthony; Briken, Volker; Isaacs, Lyle

    2016-05-01

    Two acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n])-type molecular containers that differ in the length of the (CH2 )n linker (M2C2: n=2, M2C4: n=4) between their aromatic sidewalls and sulfonate solubilizing groups were prepared and studied. The inherent solubilities of M2C2 (68 mm) and M2C4 (196 mm) are higher than the analogue with a (CH2 )3 linker (M2, 14 mm) studied previously. (1) H NMR dilution experiments show that M2C2 and M2C4 do not self-associate in water, which enables their use as solubilizing excipients. We used phase solubility diagrams (PSDs) to compare the solubilizing capacities of M2, M2C2, M2C4, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), and sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) toward 15 insoluble drugs. We found that M2C2 and M2C4-as gauged by the slope of their PSDs-are less potent solubilizing agents than M2. However, the higher inherent solubility of M2C2 allows higher concentrations of drug to be formulated using M2C2 than with M2 in several cases. The solubilizing ability of M2C2 and SBE-β-CD were similar in many cases, with Krel values averaging 23 and 12, respectively, relative to HP-β-CD. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo maximum tolerated dose studies document the biocompatibility of M2C2. PMID:26990780

  10. Selective electrochemical discrimination between dopamine and phenethylamine-derived psychotropic drugs using electrodes modified with an acyclic receptor containing two terminal 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazole rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, Antonio; Navarro, Pilar; Arán, Vicente J; Muro, Beatriz; Montoya, Noemí; García-España, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Electrochemical discrimination between dopamine and psychotropic drugs which have in common a skeletal structure of phenethylamine, can be obtained using acyclic receptors L(1) and L(2), containing two terminal 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazole rings. Upon attachment to graphite electrodes, L(1) and L(2) exhibit a well-defined, essentially reversible solid state electrochemistry in contact with aqueous media, based on electrolyte-assisted reduction processes involving successive cation and anion insertion/binding. As a result, a distinctive, essentially Nernstian electrochemical response is obtained for phenethylammonium ions of methamphetamine (METH), p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), amphetamine (AMPH), mescaline (MES), homoveratrylamine (HOM), phenethylamine (PEA) and dopamine (DA) in aqueous media.

  11. Fingerprinting of traditional Chinese medicines on the C18-Diol mixed-mode column in online or offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Tong, Ling; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Li

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, a mixed-mode stationary phase, C18-Diol, was applied for fingerprint analysis of traditional Chinese medicines. Hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions were demonstrated to contribute the retention separately or jointly, which endowed the C18-Diol stationary phase with distinct selectivity compared to the bare C18 one. The separation of total alkaloids extracted from Fritillaria hupehensis was compared on the C18-Diol and conventional C18 column with the greater resolving power and better symmetry responses on the former one. Besides, a novel two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column (2D-LC-1C) was realized on C18-Diol with the offline mode for the alcohol extract of Fritillaria hupehensis and online mode for Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. The early co-eluted extracted components with great polarity on the first dimension were reinjected on the same column and well separated on the second dimension. The results exhibited that the two complementary RPLC and HILIC modes on C18-Diol stationary phase enhanced the separation capacity and revealed more abundant chemical information of the sample, which was a powerful tool in analyzing complex herbal medicines.

  12. (Enantio)selective Hydrogen Autotransfer: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Oxazolidin-2-ones from Urea and Diols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-López, Miguel; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2016-06-27

    A novel strategy for the synthesis of oxazolidin-2-ones from vicinal diols and urea is described. In this heterocycle synthesis, two different C-O and C-N bonds are sequentially formed in a domino process consisting of nucleophilic substitution and alcohol amination. The use of readily available starting materials and the good atom economy render this process environmentally benign. While this transformation is already highly chemo- and regioselective, we also developed the first asymmetric version of this method using (R)-(+)-MeO-BIPHEP as the chiral ligand. PMID:27072612

  13. Repellent activities of stereoisomers of p-menthane-3,8-diols against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Stephen S; Ndiege, Isaiah O; Lwande, Wilber; Hassanali, Ahmed

    2002-09-01

    Four stereoisomers of p-menthane-3,8-diol, which make up the natural product obtained from Eucalyptus citriodora, were synthesized through stereoselective procedures. Repellency assays showed that all the four were equally active against Anopheles gambiae s.s. Racemic blends and the diastereoisomeric mixture of all the four isomers were also equally repellent. 1-alpha-terpeneol, with a single hydroxyl function at C-8 and unsaturation at C-8, and menthol, with a single hydroxyl function at C-3, were not repellent. The practical implication of these results is discussed. PMID:12349856

  14. Structure of DNA polymerase β with a benzo[c]phenanthrene diol epoxide-adducted template exhibits mutagenic features

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, Vinod K.; Shock, David D.; Prasad, Rajendra; BEARD, WILLIAM A.; Hou, Esther W.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Sayer, Jane M.; Yagi, Haruhiko; Kumar, Subodh; Jerina, Donald M.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2006-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of the human base excision repair enzyme DNA polymerase β (Pol β) in complex with a 1-nt gapped DNA substrate containing a template N2-guanine adduct of the tumorigenic (−)-benzo[c]phenanthrene 4R,3S-diol 2S,1R-epoxide in the gap. Nucleotide insertion opposite this adduct favors incorrect purine nucleotides over the correct dCMP and hence can be mutagenic. The structure reveals that the phenanthrene ring system is stacked with the base pair immediately...

  15. New thermally stable polyesters based on 2,5-pyridinedicarbonyl dichloride and aromatic diols: Synthesis and characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Nasr Isfahani; Khalil Faghihi

    2009-01-01

    Six new thermally stable polyesters (4a-f) were synthesized through the solution polycondensation reaction of 2,5-pyridine dicarbonyldichloride (2) with six aromatic diols in N,N'-dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) solution and in the presence of pyridine as a base. The polycondensation reactions produce a series of new polyesters (4a-f) in high yields, and inherent viscosity between 0.30 and 0.55 dL/g. The resulting polyesters were characterized by elemental analysis, viscosity measurements, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and DTG), solubility test, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC).

  16. Flexible Acyclic Polyol-Chloride Anion Complexes and Their Characterization by Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Variable Temperature Binding Constant Determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Yanping; O'Doherty, George A; Kass, Steven R

    2016-03-17

    Flexible acyclic alcohols with one to five hydroxyl groups were bound to a chloride anion and these complexes were interrogated by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and companion density functional theory computations. The resulting vertical detachment energies are reproduced on average to 0.10 eV by M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ predictions and range from 4.45-5.96 eV. These values are 0.84-2.35 eV larger than the adiabatic detachment energy of Cl(-) as a result of the larger hydrogen bond networks in the bigger polyols. Adiabatic detachment energies of the alcohol-Cl(-) clusters are more difficult to determine both experimentally and computationally. This is due to the large geometry changes that occur upon photodetachment and the large bond dissociation energy of H-Cl which enables the resulting chlorine atom to abstract a hydrogen from any of the methylene (CH2) or methine (CH) positions. Both ionic and nonionic hydrogen bonds (i.e., OH···Cl(-) and OH···OH···Cl(-)) form in the larger polyols complexes and are found to be energetically comparable. Subtle structural differences, consequently can lead to the formation of different types of hydrogen bonds, and maximizing the ionic ones is not always preferred. Solution equilibrium binding constants between the alcohols and tetrabutylammonium chloride (TBACl) in acetonitrile at -24.2, +22.0, and +53.6 °C were also determined. The free energies of association are nearly identical for all of the substrates (i.e., ΔG° = -2.8 ± 0.7 kcal mol(-1)). Compensating enthalpy and entropy values reveal, contrary to expectation and the intrinsic gas-phase preferences, that the bigger systems with more hydroxyl groups are entropically favored and enthalpically disfavored relative to the smaller species. This suggests that more solvent molecules are released upon binding TBACl to alcohols with more hydroxyl groups and is consistent with the measured negative heat capacities. These quantities increase with molecular

  17. Flexible Acyclic Polyol-Chloride Anion Complexes and Their Characterization by Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Variable Temperature Binding Constant Determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Xue B.; Wang, Yangping; O' Doherty, George A.; Kass, Steven R.

    2016-03-17

    Flexible acyclic alcohols with 1–5 hydroxyl groups were bound to chloride anion and these complexes were interrogated by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and companion density functional theory computations. The resulting vertical detachment energies are reproduced on average to 0.10 eV by M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ predictions and range from 4.45 – 5.96 eV. These values are 0.84 – 2.35 eV larger than the adiabatic detachment energy of Cl– as a result of the larger hydrogen bond networks in the bigger polyols. Adiabatic detachment energies of the alcohol–Cl– clusters are more difficult to determine both experimentally and computationally. This is due to the large geometry changes that occur upon photodetachment and the large bond dissociation energy of H–Cl which enables the resulting chlorine atom to abstract a hydrogen from any of the methylene (CH2) or methine (CH) positions. Both ionic and non-ionic hydrogen bonds (i.e., OH•••Cl– and OH•••OH•••Cl–) form in the larger polyols complexes, and are found to be energetically comparable. Subtle structural differences, consequently can lead to the formation of different types of hydrogen bonds and maximizing the ionic ones is not always preferred. Solution equilibrium binding constants between the alcohols and tetrrabuylammonium chloride (TBACl) in acetonitrile at -24.2, 22.0, and 53.6 °C were also determined. The free energies of association are nearly identical for all of the substrates (i.e., ΔG° = -2.8 ± 0.7 kcal mol–1). Compensating enthalpy and entropy values reveal, contrary to expectation and the intrinsic gas-phase preferences, that the bigger systems with more hydroxyl groups are entropically favored and enthalpically disfavored relative to the smaller species. This suggests that more solvent molecules are released upon binding TBACl to alcohols with more hydroxyl groups and is consistent with the measured negative heat capacities. These quantities increase with

  18. Conglomerate formative precursor of chiral drug timolol: 3-(4-Morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yloxy)-propane-1,2-diol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredikhin, Alexander A.; Zakharychev, Dmitry V.; Fayzullin, Robert R.; Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.

    2015-05-01

    Solid state properties of 3-(4-N-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yloxy)-propane-1,2-diol 3, the synthetic precursor of popular drug timolol, have been investigated. The original solubility test, the data of X-ray diffraction and DSC methods indicate that the compound is prone to spontaneous resolution. Diol 3 crystallizing from both enantiopure or racemic feed material forms "guaifenesin-like" crystal packing in which the classic H-bonded bilayers, framed in both sides by hydrophobic molecular fragments, act as the basic supramolecular motif. The main chain conformation of the molecules in the crystals of diol 3 differs from that in the guaifenesin crystals, and this fact changes the absolute configuration of spiral columns formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonds in crystals of 3 as compared with guaifenesin crystals.

  19. Conformational analysis of an acyclic tetrapeptide: ab-initio structure determination from X-ray powder diffraction, Hirshfeld surface analysis and electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Uday; Naskar, Jishu; Mukherjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-12-01

    A terminally protected acyclic tetrapeptide has been synthesized, and the crystal structure of its hydrated form, Boc-Tyr-Aib-Tyr-Ile-OMe·2H2O (1), has been determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data. The backbone conformation of tetrapeptide (1) exhibiting two consecutive β-turns is stabilized by two 4 → 1 intramolecular N-H · · · O hydrogen bonds. In the crystalline state, the tetrapeptide molecules are assembled through water-mediated O-H · · · O hydrogen bonds to form two-dimensional molecular sheets, which are further linked by intermolecular C-H · · · O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional supramolecular framework. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface of (1) has been used to supplement the crystallographic observations. The nature of intermolecular interactions in (1) has been analyzed quantitatively through the Hirshfeld surface and two-dimensional fingerprint plot. The DFT optimized molecular geometry of (1) agrees closely with that obtained from the X-ray structure analysis. The present structure analysis of Boc-Tyr-Aib-Tyr-Ile-OMe·2H2 O (1) represents a case where ab-initio crystal structure of an acyclic tetrapeptide with considerable molecular flexibility has been accomplished from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data.

  20. Counting acyclic hypergraphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jianfang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Harker, P. T., Pang, J. S., Finite-dimensional variational inequality and nonlinear complementarity problems: A survey of theory, algorithm, and applications, Mathematical Programming, 1990, 48(2): 161.[2]Eaves, B. C., The linear complementarity problem, Management Science, 1971, 17(3): 612.[3]Eaves, B. C., On the basic theorem of complementarity problem, Math. Programming, 1971, 1(1): 68.[4]Karamardian, S., Generalized complementarity problem, J. Optim. Theory Appl., 1971, 8(1): 161.[5]Kojima, M., A unification of the existence theorems of the nonlinear complementarity problem, Math. Programming, 1975, 9(2): 257.[6]Moré, J. J., Classes of functions and feasibility conditions in nonlinear complementarity problems, Math. Programming, 1974, 6(2): 327.[7]Moré, J. J., Coercivity conditions in nonlinear complementarity problems, SIAM Rev., 1974, 16(1): 1.[8]Smith, T. E., A solution condition for complementarity problems, with an application to spatial price equilibrium, Appl. Math. Computation, 1984, 15(1): 61.[9]Isac, G., Bulavaski, V., Kalashnikov, V., Exceptional families, topological degree and complementarity problems, J. Global Optim., 1997, 10(2): 207.[10]Zhao, Y. B., Han, J. Y., Qi, H. D., Exceptional families and existence theorems for variational inequality problems, J. Optim. Theory Appl., 1999, 101(2): 475.[11]Zhao, Y. B., Han, J. Y., Exceptional family of elements for a variational inequality problem and its applications, Journal of Global Optimization, 1999, 14(2): 313.[12]Zhao, Y. B., Exceptional families and finite dimensional variational inequalities over polyhedral convex sets, Appl. Math. Computation, 1997, 87(1): 111.[13]Lloyd, N. Q., Degree Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978, 6—54.[14]Ortega, J. M., Rheinholdt, W. C., Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables, New York: Academic Press, 1970, 30—45.[15]Isac, G., Obuchowska, W. T., Functions without exceptional family of elements and complementarity problems, J. Optim. Theory Appl., 1998, 99(1): 147.[16]Hartman, P., Stampacchia, G., On some nonlinear elliptic differentiable functional equation, Acta Math., 1966, 115(2): 271.

  1. The mixed-ligand ternary complexes of neodymium(III) with L-histidine and L-cysteine with various diols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability constants of the ternary complexes of the type MAB, MA2B, MAB2 where M = Neodymium(III), A = amino acids and B = diols, have been investigated by pH-metric technique (μ = 0.2, KNO3 at 30 +- 1degC) with both amino acids used as primary ligand. Stability constant data indicates that MA2B species were more stable than MAB and MAB2. The diols are responsible for the change in stability. The stability constants were correlated with basicities of different ligands present in the complexes. (author)

  2. Metabolism of ( sup 14 C)cholesterol to C-20 isomeric ( sup 14 C)pregn-5-ene-3,20-diols in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, R.; Thompson, M.J.; Svoboda, J.A.; Lusby, W.R.; Wilzer, K.R. Jr. (Insect and Nematode Hormone Laboratory, Beltsville, MD (USA))

    1989-03-01

    After injection into male and female fifth-instar larvae of Manduca sexta, ({sup 14}C)cholesterol was converted to C21 steroids, ({sup 14}C)pregn-5-ene-3 beta,20-diols. These metabolites were isolated from 8-day-old pupae and were identified by TLC, HPLC, and GC-MS as the C-20 isomers of pregnene-3 beta,20-diol. They also were isolated from male and female meconium fluid (of 16-day-old pupae) following injection of ({sup 14}C)cholesterol into 14-day-old pupae.

  3. Organocatalyzed direct aldol condensation using L-proline and BINAM-prolinamides: regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective controlled synthesis of 1,2-diols

    OpenAIRE

    Guillena Townley, Gabriela; Hita López, María del Carmen; Nájera Domingo, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Recoverable BINAM-prolinamide derivatives, as well as L-proline, give results complementary to antibodies when used as organocatalysts for aldol eactions between aldehydes and α-alkoxyacetones driving regioselectively to anti/syn-1,2-diols. The formation of the iso-regioisomer is suppressed using α-hydroxyacetone in DMSO at rt, achieving the corresponding anti-1,2-diol with ee’s up to 85%. For α-alkoxyacetones (methoxy, benzyloxy, and tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy), the highest regio- and dia...

  4. Preparation and surface active properties of oxypropylated diol monoesters of fatty acids with an amide oxime terminal group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A. M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Locally produced non-edible oil, namely, rice bran oil (R.B.O. was utilized as starting materials for preparing new nonionic surfactant. Oxypropylated diol monoesters of linoleic and rice bran oil fatty acids were prepared. Also amide oxime derivatives were obtained. Surface active properties of these compounds were measured. Under neutral condition amide eximes served as nonionic surfactants and their properties were similar to other oxypropylated monoesters.

    Se ha utilizado un aceite no comestible de producción local, denominado, aceite de salvado de arroz (R.B.O. como materia prima para la preparación de nuevos tensioactivos no iónicos. Se prepararon diol monoésteres oxipropilados de ácido linoleico y ácidos grasos de aceite de salvado de arroz. También se obtuvieron los derivados de amido oxima. Se midieron las propiedades de tensión superficial de estos compuestos. Bajo condiciones neutras las amido eximas sirvieron como tensioactivos no iónicos y sus propiedades fueron similares a los de otros monoésteres oxipropilados.

  5. Studies on Poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol Thermoset Composites towards the Development of Biodegradable Bone Fixation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayabalan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reinforcement in the cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol thermoset composites based on Kevlar fibres and hydroxyapatite was studied. Cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol was also studied without any reinforcement for comparison. The reinforcing fibre acts as a barrier for the curing reaction leading to longer setting time and lesser cross-link density. The fibre and HA reinforced composites have almost the same compressive strength. Nonreinforced material undergoes greater degree of swelling. Among the reinforced materials, the hydroxyapatite reinforced composite has a much higher swelling percentage than the fibre reinforced one. The studies on in vitro degradation of the cured materials reveal hydrolytic degradation in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging. All the three materials are found to swell initially in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging and then undergo gradual degradation. Compression properties of these cross-linked composites increase with aging; HA reinforced composite has the highest compressive strength and compressive modulus, whereas the aged fibre-reinforced composite has the least compressive strength and modulus.

  6. Cross-Linked Dependency of Boronic Acid-Conjugated Chitosan Nanoparticles by Diols for Sustained Insulin Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil A. Siddiqui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Boronic acids have been widely investigated for their potential use as glucose sensors in glucose responsive polymeric insulin delivery systems. Interactions between cyclic diols and boronic acids, anchored to polymeric delivery systems, may result in swelling of the delivery system, releasing the drug. In this study, 4-formylphenylboronic acid conjugated chitosan was formulated into insulin containing nanoparticles via polyelectrolyte complexation. The nanoparticles had an average diameter of 140 ± 12.8 nm, polydispersity index of 0.17 ± 0.1, zeta potential of +19.1 ± 0.69 mV, encapsulation efficiency of 81% ± 1.2%, and an insulin loading capacity of 46% ± 1.8% w/w. Changes in size of the nanoparticles and release of insulin were type of sugar- and concentration-dependent. High concentration of diols resulted in a sustained release of insulin due to crosslink formation with boronic acid moieties within the nanoparticles. The formulation has potential to be developed into a self-regulated insulin delivery system for the treatment of diabetes.

  7. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds—trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)—were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC50: 1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. - Highlights: • Two natural products inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. • They inhibited

  8. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiajia [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Yuan, Yun [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China); Lu, Danfeng; Du, Baowen [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Xiong, Liang; Shi, Jiangong [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yang, Lijuan [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Liu, Wanli [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yuan, Xiaohong [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China); Zhang, Guolin, E-mail: zhanggl@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu (China); Wang, Fei, E-mail: wangfei@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu (China)

    2014-08-15

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds—trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)—were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC{sub 50}: 1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. - Highlights: • Two natural products inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. • They

  9. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 3. Alternating polyesteramides based on mixtures of linear diols (4NTm,p)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Werff, van der B.A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Strictly alternating polyesteramides consisting of 1,4-butylene terephthalamide diester and mixtures of aliphatic diols have been synthesised in the melt in the presence of a titanium catalyst. To increase the molecular weight a solid state post condensation was applied. The composition was determin

  10. Total synthesis of cis-hydroazulene sesquiterpenes. Base-induced and -directed elimination and rearrangement reactions of perhydronaphthalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate esters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenniskens, L.H.D.

    1992-01-01

    The total synthesis of a number of cis-fused hydroazulene sesquiterpenes is described in this thesis. In this synthetic study, ample attention is paid to the mechanistic aspects of the base- induced and -directed rearrangement and elimination reactions of perhydronaphthalene-1,4-diol monosulfonate e

  11. (E-2-((4R,5R-5-((Benzyloxymethyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylbut-2-ene-1,4-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Carreras

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of (E-2-((4R,5R-5-((benzyloxymethyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylbut-2-ene-1,4-diol by a one-step reduction of the appropriate 2-substituted butenolide is reported. Product characterization was carried out by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, elemental analysis and optical rotation.

  12. Effects of 3-beta-diol, an androgen metabolite with intrinsic estrogen-like effects, in modulating the aquaporin-9 expression in the rat efferent ductules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Rex A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluid homeostasis is critical for normal function of the male reproductive tract and aquaporins (AQP play an important role in maintenance of this water and ion balance. Several AQPs have been identified in the male, but their regulation is not fully comprehended. Hormonal regulation of AQPs appears to be dependent on the steroid in the reproductive tract region. AQP9 displays unique hormonal regulation in the efferent ductules and epididymis, as it is regulated by both estrogen and dihydrotestosterone (DHT in the efferent ductules, but only by DHT in the initial segment epididymis. Recent data have shown that a metabolite of DHT, 5-alpha-androstane-3-beta-17-beta-diol (3-beta-diol, once considered inactive, is also present in high concentrations in the male and indeed has biological activity. 3-beta-diol does not bind to the androgen receptor, but rather to estrogen receptors ER-alpha and ER-beta, with higher affinity for ER-beta. The existence of this estrogenic DHT metabolite has raised the possibility that estradiol may not be the only estrogen to play a major role in the male reproductive system. Considering that both ER-alpha and ER-beta are highly expressed in efferent ductules, we hypothesized that the DHT regulation of AQP9 could be due to the 3-beta-diol metabolite. Methods To test this hypothesis, adult male rats were submitted to surgical castration followed by estradiol, DHT or 3-beta-diol replacement. Changes in AQP9 expression in the efferent ductules were investigated by using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting assay. Results Data show that, after castration, AQP9 expression was significantly reduced in the efferent ductules. 3-beta-diol injections restored AQP9 expression, similar to DHT and estradiol. The results were confirmed by Western blotting assay. Conclusion This is the first evidence that 3-beta-diol has biological activity in the male reproductive tract and that this androgen metabolite has

  13. Three-dimensional topographic index applied to the prediction of acyclic C5-C8 alkenes Kováts retention indices on polydimethylsiloxane and squalane columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yueying; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun; Liu, Mancang

    2007-06-29

    A novel approach is described for the prediction of gas chromatographic Kováts retention indices of 150 acyclic C5-C8 alkenes on two stationary phases (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS, and squalane, SQ). The heuristic method was used to build multiple linear regression models using descriptors calculated by MODLESLAB software and CODESSA program. The resulting quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models were well-correlated, with predictive R2 values of 0.970 and 0.958 for retention indices on PDMS and SQ columns, respectively. 1Omegap, a three-dimensional (3D) topographic index, was found to play the most important role in the description of the chromatographic retention behavior of the alkenes in these two stationary phases. Moreover, this index could completely distinguish different isomers of alkene. Therefore, it can also be extended to distinguish different isomers of other compounds so that can well describe their quantitative structure-retention relationships.

  14. Synthesis and olfactory characterization of silicon-containing derivatives of the acyclic lily-of-the-valley odorant 5,7,7-trimethyl-4-methylideneoctanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörrich, Steffen; Mahler, Christoph; Tacke, Reinhold; Kraft, Philip

    2014-11-01

    5-Methyl-4-methylidene-6-(trimethylsilyl)hexanal (1b), a sila analog of the acyclic lily-of-the-valley odorant 5,7,7-trimethyl-4-methylideneoctanal (1a), and the Si-containing derivatives 2-6 were prepared in multistep syntheses, starting from Cl3 SiH and Cl2 SiMe2 , respectively. Compounds 1b, 2-6, and their new precursors were characterized by elemental analyses (C, H, N) and NMR spectroscopic studies ((1) H, (13) C, (15) N, and (29) Si). To gain more information about the structureodor correlation in the family of lily-of-the-valley or 'muguet' odorants, C/Si analogs 1a/1b and derivatives 2-6 were evaluated for their olfactory properties.

  15. Highly sensitive determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and related byproducts using a diol functionalized column for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Gumuscu

    Full Text Available In this work, a new detection method for complete separation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT; 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT; 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT; 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT molecules in high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC with UV sensor has been developed using diol column. This approach improves on cost, time, and sensitivity over the existing methods, providing a simple and effective alternative. Total analysis time was less than 13 minutes including column re-equilibration between runs, in which water and acetonitrile were used as gradient elution solvents. Under optimized conditions, the minimum resolution between 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT peaks was 2.06. The recovery rates for spiked environmental samples were between 95-98%. The detection limits for diol column ranged from 0.78 to 1.17 µg/L for TNT and its byproducts. While the solvent consumption was 26.4 mL/min for two-phase EPA and 30 mL/min for EPA 8330 methods, it was only 8.8 mL/min for diol column. The resolution was improved up to 49% respect to two-phase EPA and EPA 8330 methods. When compared to C-18 and phenyl-3 columns, solvent usage was reduced up to 64% using diol column and resolution was enhanced approximately two-fold. The sensitivity of diol column was afforded by the hydroxyl groups on polyol layer, joining the formation of charge-transfer complexes with nitroaromatic compounds according to acceptor-donor interactions. Having compliance with current requirements, the proposed method demonstrates sensitive and robust separation.

  16. Monolayer behaviour of chiral compounds at the air-water interface: 4-hexadecyloxy-butane-1,2-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietz, R.; Rettig, W.; Brezesinski, G.;

    1996-01-01

    Monolayers of the pure S-enantiomer (x(S) = 1) and of two mixtures x(S) = 0.75 and x(S) = 0.5 (racemate) of 4-hexadecyloxy-butane-1,2-diol (C16H33-O-CH2-CH2-CHOH-CH2OH) (HOBD) have been studied at the air-water interface by thermodynamic measurements, fluorescence microscopy and X-ray diffraction...... clockwise and counterclockwise. The number of the left- and right-handed arms depends on the mixing ratio. At lower lateral pressures S-HOBD and the mixture with x(S) = 0.75 exhibit a chiral structure. At pressures above 25 mN m(-1) a centered rectangular structure with a tilt of the molecules towards...

  17. Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Diols and Dicarboxylic Acids: From Polyesters to Poly(ester amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Díaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(alkylene dicarboxylates constitute a family of biodegradable polymers with increasing interest for both commodity and speciality applications. Most of these polymers can be prepared from biobased diols and dicarboxylic acids such as 1,4-butanediol, succinic acid and carbohydrates. This review provides a current status report concerning synthesis, biodegradation and applications of a series of polymers that cover a wide range of properties, namely, materials from elastomeric to rigid characteristics that are suitable for applications such as hydrogels, soft tissue engineering, drug delivery systems and liquid crystals. Finally, the incorporation of aromatic units and α-amino acids is considered since stiffness of molecular chains and intermolecular interactions can be drastically changed. In fact, poly(ester amides derived from naturally occurring amino acids offer great possibilities as biodegradable materials for biomedical applications which are also extensively discussed.

  18. Myeloperoxidase - 463A variant reduces benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide DNA adducts in skin of coal tar treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, M.; Godschalk, R.; Alexandrov, K.; Cascorbi, I.; Kriek, E.; Ostertag, J.; Van Schooten, F.J.; Bartsch, H. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Toxicology & Cancer Risk Factors

    2001-07-01

    The skin of atopic dermatitis patients provides an excellent model to study the role of inflammation in benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation, since these individuals are often topically treated with ointments containing high concentrations of BaP. The authors determined, by HPLC with fluorescence detection, the BaP diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels in human skin after topical treatment with coal tar and their modulation by the -453G into A myeloperoxidase (MPO) polymorphism, which reduces MPO mRNA expression. The data show for the first time: (i) the in vivo formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human skin treated with coal tar; (ii) that the MPO-463AA/AG genotype reduced BPDE-DNA adduct levels in human skin.

  19. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across

  20. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwamoto, R., E-mail: reiko.kiwamoto@wur.nl; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.

  1. 碳酸乙二酯与二醇反应制备聚碳酸酯二元醇%Synthesis of Polycarbonate Diol Through the Reaction of Ethylene Carbonate with Diol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金丽; 周宏勇; 李云庆; 王家喜

    2012-01-01

    A series of linear aliphatic polycarbonate diols (APC) with defined structure were synthesized by using ethylene carbonate (EC), 1,4-butanediol, and 1,6-hexanediol as the raw materials promoted by zinc acetate or zinc nitrate. The effect of reaction temperature, time and the amount of catalyst on the structure and number average molecular weight of polycarbonate was investigated. The structures and number average molecular weight were characterized and calculated by means of NMR spectroscopy. The number average molecular weight (Mn) of polycarbonate with l]-hydroxylethyl and/or c0-hydroxylalkyl as end groups is in range of 300 to 560 for reaction of 1, 4-butanediol and 700 to 980 for reaction of 1,6-hexanediol. The ether unit from the reaction of 1,4-butandiol can be less than 3%(mol). While the ether unit from the reaction of 1,6-hexandiol can be less up to 0.24% (tool). The reaction mechanism of ethylene carbonate with diol is proposed.%以碳酸乙二酯、1,4-丁二醇和1,6-己二醇为原料,醋酸锌、硝酸锌为催化剂,考察了反应温度、反应时间等条件对碳酸乙二酯与二元醇反应的影响,制备出结构规整的以β-羟乙基、ω-羟烷氧基为端基的聚碳酸酯二元醇。产物经核磁共振波谱表征,1,4-丁二醇反应的聚碳酸酯二元醇的数均分子量为300-560,产物中由脱羰基反应形成的醚键链段含量可小于3%,1,6-己二醇反应的聚碳酸酯二元醇的数均分子量为700-980,产物中醚键链段含量可降低至0.24%。最后探讨了碳酸乙二酯与二元醇的反应机理。

  2. Phase behavior and crystal structure of 3-(1-naphthyloxy)- and 3-(4-indolyloxy)-propane-1,2-diol, synthetic precursors of chiral drugs propranolol and pindolol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredikhin, Alexander A.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Fayzullin, Robert R.; Samigullina, Aida I.; Zakharychev, Dmitry V.

    2013-08-01

    Valuable precursors of popular chiral drugs propranolol and pindolol, 3-(1-naphthyloxy)-propane-1,2-diol 3 and 3-(4-indolyloxy)-propane-1,2-diol 4 were investigated by IR spectroscopy, DSC, and X-ray diffraction methods. Both compounds, crystallizing from enantiopure feed material, form "guaifenesin-like" crystal packing in which the classic H-bonded bilayers, framed in both sides by hydrophobic fragments of the molecules, acts as the basic crystal-forming motif. Diol 4 prone to spontaneous resolution and conserves its packing pattern crystallizing from racemate. Under the same conditions, diol 3 forms weakly stable solid racemic compound. Some reasons for such a behavior are identified and discussed.

  3. Supramolecular Arrangement in Styphnic Acid and Naphthalene-1,4-diol (1 : 1 through a Novel Synthetic Rote for Styphnic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moamen S. Refat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical preparation and crystal structure of styphnic acid and naphthalene-1,4-diol (1 : 1 (I have been reported. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system in space group Pnma and cell parameters a=6.6712(2, b=16.8267(7, c=13.6450(5 Å and V=1531.71(10 Å3, and Z=4. Crystal structure has been determined and refined to R=0.0576. The crystal structure of I, the asymmetric unit, contains C6H2N3O7, C10H7O, and it is a half portion of both styphnic acid and naphthalene-1,4-diol. The O1–H1⋯O2 intramolecular hydrogen bond was found between the O–H and a nitro group in the styphnic acid unit.

  4. Microwave-Assisted Kinetic Resolution of Homochiral (Z-Cyclooct-5-ene-1,2-diol and (Z-2-Acetoxycyclooct-4-enyl Acetate Using Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Rouillard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the use of biocatalysts has become an attractive alternative to conventional chemical methods, especially for organic synthesis, due to their unusual properties. Among these enzymes, lipases are the most widely used, because they are cheap, easily available, cofactor-free, and have broad substrate specificity. Combined to microwave heating in non-aqueous medium, recent results suggest that irradiation may influence the enzyme activity. This Communication reports the benefits of lipases and the microwave irradiation on the kinetic resolution of racemic homochiral (Z-cyclooct-5-ene-1,2-diol and (Z-2-acetoxycyclooct-4-enyl acetate. In order to best achieve the kinetic resolution, different parameters were studied including the type of lipase, the temperature, the impact of microwave power compared to conventional heating. Optimization of the reaction parameters lead to the obtainment of highly enriched or enantiopure diols and diesters in a clean, efficient and safe way.

  5. Characterization of the SgcF epoxide hydrolase supporting an (R)-vicinal diol intermediate for enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027 biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuangjun; Horsman, Geoffrey P; Chen, Yihua; Li, Wenli; Shen, Ben

    2009-11-18

    C-1027 is a chromoprotein antitumor antibiotic consisting of an apoprotein and the C-1027 chromophore. The C-1027 chromophore possesses four distinct structural moieties-an enediyne core, a deoxy aminosugar, a benzoxazolinate, and an (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-beta-tyrosine-the latter two of which are proposed to be appended to the enediyne core via a convergent biosynthetic strategy. Here we report the in vitro characterization of SgcF, an epoxide hydrolase from the C-1027 biosynthetic gene cluster that catalyzes regio- and stereospecific hydrolysis of styrene oxide, serving as an enediyne core epoxide intermediate mimic, to form a vicinal diol. Abolishment of C-1027 production in the DeltasgcF mutant strain Streptomyces globisporus SB1010 unambiguously establishes that sgcF plays an indispensable role in C-1027 biosynthesis. SgcF efficiently hydrolyzes (S)-styrene oxide, displaying an apparent K(m) of 0.6 +/- 0.1 mM and k(cat) of 48 +/- 1 min(-1), via attack at the alpha-position to exclusively generate the (R)-phenyl vicinal diol, consistent with the stereochemistry of the C-1027 chromophore. These findings support the role of SgcF in the proposed convergent pathway for C-1027 biosynthesis, unveiling an (R)-vicinal diol as a key intermediate. Interestingly, SgcF can also hydrolyze (R)-styrene oxide to afford preferentially the (R)-phenyl vicinal diol via attack at the beta-position, albeit with significantly reduced efficiency (apparent K(m) of 2.0 +/- 0.4 mM and k(cat) = 4.3 +/- 0.3 min(-1)). Although the latter activity unlikely contributes to C-1027 biosynthesis in vivo, such enantioconvergence arising from complementary regioselective hydrolysis of a racemic substrate could be exploited to engineer epoxide hydrolases with improved regio- and/or enantiospecificity. PMID:19856960

  6. Carbonate phosphonium salts as catalysts for the transesterification of dialkyl carbonates with diols. The competition between cyclic carbonates and linear dicarbonate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Maurizio; Caretto, Alessio; Noè, Marco; Perosa, Alvise

    2014-06-28

    At 90-120 °C, in the presence of methylcarbonate and bicarbonate methyltrioctylphosphonium salts as catalysts ([P8881][A]; [A] = MeOCO2 and HOCO2), the transesterification of non-toxic dimethyl- and diethyl-carbonate (DMC and DEC, respectively) with 1,X-diols (2 ≤ X ≤ 6) proceeds towards the formation of cyclic and linear products. In particular, 1,2-propanediol and ethylene glycol afford propylene- and ethylene-carbonate with selectivity and yields up to 95 and 90%, respectively; while, the reaction of DMC with higher diols such 1,3-butanediol, 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 2,2-dimethyl, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol produce linear C8-C10 dicarbonates of general formula MeOC(O)O∼∼∼OC(O)OMe as the almost exclusive products. Of note, these dicarbonate derivatives are not otherwise accessible in good yields by other conventional base catalyzed methods. Among 1,3-diols, the only exception was 2-methyl 2,4-pentandiol that yields the corresponding cyclic carbonate, i.e. 4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3-dioxan-2-one. In no one case, polycarbonates are observed. Such remarkable differences of product distributions are ascribed to the structure (branching and relative position of OH groups) of diols and to the role of cooperative (nucleophilic and electrophilic) catalysis which has been proved for onium salts. The investigated carbonate salts are not only effective in amounts as low as 0.5 mol%, but they are highly stable and recyclable. PMID:24825024

  7. 2-aminopyrimidine-4,6-diol as an efficient ligand for solvent-free copper-catalyzed N-arylations of imidazoles with aryl and heteroaryl halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ye-Xiang; Pi, Shao-Feng; Wang, Jian; Yin, Du-Lin; Li, Jin-Heng

    2006-10-13

    Efficient and solvent-free copper-catalyzed N-arylations of imidazoles with aryl and heteroaryl halides have been demonstrated. In the presence of CuBr, 2-aminopyrimidine-4,6-diol, and TBAF (n-Bu4NF), a variety of imidazoles underwent the N-arylation reaction with aryl and heteroaryl halides smoothly in moderate to excellent yields. Noteworthy is that the reaction is conducted under solvent-free conditions. PMID:17025338

  8. Facile Functionalization of Electrospun Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol Nanofibers via the Benzoxaborole-Diol Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Kotsuchibashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A facile functionalization method of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH nanofiber meshes was demonstrated by utilizing the benzoxaborole-diol interaction between EVOH and benzoxaborole-based copolymers (BOP. EVOH and BOP were firstly mixed to prepare the quasi-gel-state solution with enough viscosity for electro-spinning. The fiber morphology was controlled via changing the mixing ratio of EVOH and BOP. The prepared EVOH/BOP nanofiber mesh showed good stability in aqueous solution. Over 97% of the nanofibers remained after the immersion test for 24 h in acid or alkali aqueous solutions without changing their morphology. Temperature and pH-responsive moieties were copolymerized with BOP, and cationic dye was easily immobilized into the nanofiber mesh via an electrostatic interaction. Therefore, the proposed functionalization technique is possible to perform on multi-functionalized molecule-incorporated nanofibers that enable the fibers to show the environmental stimuli-responsive property for the further applications of the EVOH materials.

  9. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H Y; Chung, Stephen W C; Chan, B T P; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    A total of 290 individual food samples were collected in Hong Kong, China, for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) fatty acid esters analysis. Most samples were processed food and in ready-to-eat form. The results show that the levels of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters were high in biscuits, fats and oils, snacks and Chinese pastry with mean bound 3-MCPD levels of 440, 390, 270 and 270 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. The dietary exposures to bound 3-MCPD of average and high adult consumers were estimated to be 0.20 and 0.53 μg kg bw⁻¹ day⁻¹, respectively. The primary toxicological concern of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters is its potential to release 3-MCPD in vivo during digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. 3-MCPD would affect the kidney, the central nervous system and the male reproductive system of rats. Assuming that 100% of the 3-MCPD was released from 3-MCPD fatty acid esters by hydrolysis in the digestive system, the dietary exposures to 3-MCPD for average and high adult consumers were only 10% and 26% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 3-MCPD established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (2 μg kg bw⁻¹ day⁻¹), respectively. The results suggest that both average and high adult consumers are unlikely to experience major toxicological effects of 3-MCPD.

  10. Phenylboronate chromatography selectively separates glycoproteins through the manipulation of electrostatic, charge transfer, and cis-diol interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rimenys J; Woo, James; Aires-Barros, M Raquel; Cramer, Steven M; Azevedo, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    Phenylboronate chromatography (PBC) has been applied for several years, however details regarding the mechanisms of interactions between the ligand and biomolecules are still scarce. The goal of this work is to investigate the various chemical interactions between proteins and their ligands, using a protein library containing both glycosylated and nonglycosylated proteins. Differences in the adsorption of these proteins over a pH range from 4 to 9 were related to two main properties: charge and presence of glycans. Acidic or neutral proteins were strongly adsorbed below pH 8 although the uncharged trigonal form of phenylboronate (PB) is less susceptible to forming electrostatic and cis-diol interactions with proteins. The glycosylated proteins were only adsorbed above pH 8 when the electrostatic repulsion between the boronate anion and the protein surface was mitigated (at 200 mM NaCl). All basic proteins were highly adsorbed above pH 8 with PB also acting as a cation-exchanger with binding occurring through electrostatic interactions. Batch adsorption performed at acidic conditions in the presence of Lewis base showed that charge-transfer interactions are critical for protein retention. This study demonstrates the multimodal interaction of PBC, which can be a selective tool for separation of different classes of proteins. PMID:25130283

  11. Enzymatic conversion of dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-diols using flower extracts of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, K; Eidenberger, T; Wurst, F; Forkmann, G

    1992-04-01

    Flavonoid analysis and supplementation experiments with dihydroflavonols and leucocyanidin on two cyanic, two acyanic and one white/red-variegated flowering strain of Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) showed that in the acyanic strains recessive alleles (aa) of the gene A interrupt the anthocyanin pathway between dihydroflavonols and leucoanthocyanidins. The instability in the variegated strain involves the same step and is obviously caused by the multiple allele a (var) . In confirmation of these results, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase activity could be demonstrated in enzyme extracts from cyanic flowers and cyanic parts of variegated flowers but not in preparations from acyanic flowers or acyanic parts. The enzyme catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of (+)dihydrokaempferol to (+)-3,4-leucopelargonidin with NADPH as cofactor. A pH optimum around 7.0 and a temperature optimum at 30° C was determined, but the reduction reaction also proceeded at low temperatures. (+)Dihydroquercetin and (+)dihydromyricetin were also reduced to the respective flavan-3,4-cis-diols by the enzyme preparations from carnation flowers, and were even better substrates than dihydrokaempferol.

  12. Synthetic incorporation of Nile Blue into DNA using 2′-deoxyriboside substitutes: Representative comparison of (R- and (S-aminopropanediol as an acyclic linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lachmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nile Blue chromophore was incorporated into oligonucleotides using “click” chemistry for the postsynthetic modification of oligonucleotides. These were synthesized using DNA building block 3 bearing an alkyne group and reacted with the azide 4. (R-3-amino-1,2-propanediol was applied as the linker between the phosphodiester bridges. Two sets of DNA duplexes were prepared. One set carried the chromophore in an A-T environment, the second set in a G-C environment. Both were characterized by optical spectroscopy. Sequence-dependent fluorescence quenching was applied as a sensitive tool to compare the stacking interactions with respect to the chirality of the acyclic linker attachment. The results were compared to recent results from duplexes that carried the Nile Blue label in a sequentially and structurally identical context, except for the opposite chirality of the linker ((S-3-amino-1,2-propandiol. Only minor, negligible differences were observed. Melting temperatures, UV–vis absorption spectra together with fluorescence quenching data indicate that Nile Blue stacks perfectly between the adjacent base pairs regardless of whether it has been attached via an S- or R-configured linker. This result was supported by geometrically optimized DNA models.

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and inhibitory activity against bactria and fungi of acyclic and macrocyclic transition metal complexes containing a triamine coumarine Schiff base ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hussein, A. A.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Two series of new mono and binuclear complexes with a Schiff base ligand derived from the condensation of 3-acetylcoumarine and diethylenetriamine, in the molar ratio 2:1 have been prepared. The ligand was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, 1H-NMR and mass spectra. The reaction of the Schiff base ligand with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and oxovanadium(IV) lead to mono or binuclear species of cyclic or macrocyclic complexes, depending on the mole ratio of metal to ligand and as well as on the method of preparation. The Schiff base ligand behaves as a cyclic bidentate, tetradendate or pentaentadentae ligand. The formation of macrocyclic complexes depends significantly on the dimension of the internal cavity, the rigidity of the macrocycles, the nature of its donor atoms and on the complexing properties of the anion involved in the coordination. Electronic spectra and magnetic moments of the complexes indicate that the geometries of the metal centers are either square pyramidal or octahedral for acyclic or macro-cyclic complexes. The structures are consistent with the IR, UV-visible, ESR, 1H-NMR, mass spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic moment measurements. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi. Most of the complexes exhibit mild antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  14. Two-step biocatalytic route to biobased functional polyesters from omega-carboxy fatty acids and diols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yixin; Lu, Wenhua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Wenchun; Cai, Minmin; Gross, Richard A

    2010-01-11

    Biobased omega-carboxy fatty acid monomers 1,18-cis-9-octadecenedioic, 1,22-cis-9-docosenedioic, and 1,18-cis-9,10-epoxy-octadecanedioic acids were synthesized in high conversion yields from oleic, erucic and epoxy stearic acids by whole-cell biotransformations catalyzed by C. tropicalis ATCC20962. Maximum volumetric yields in shake-flasks were 17.3, 14.2, and 19.1 g/L after 48 h conversion for oleic acid and 72 h conversions for erucic and epoxy stearic acids, respectively. Studies in fermentor with better control of pH and glucose feeding revealed that conversion of oleic acid to 1,18-cis-9-octadecenedioic acid by C. tropicalis ATCC20962 occurred with productivities up to 0.5 g/L/h. The conversion of omega-carboxy fatty acid monomers to polyesters was then studied using immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B (N435) as catalyst. Polycondensations with diols were performed in bulk as well as in diphenyl ether. The retension of functionality from fatty acid, to omega-carboxy fatty acid monomer and to corresponding polyesters resulted in polymers with with unsaturated and epoxidized repeat units and M(w) values ranging from 25000 to 57000 g/mol. These functional groups along chains disrupted crystallization giving materials that are low melting (23-40 degrees C). In contrast, saturated polyesters prepared from 1,18-octadecanedioic acid and 1,8-octanediol have correspondingly higher melting transitions (88 degrees C). TGA results indicated that all synthesized polyesters showed high thermal stabilities. Thus, the preparation of functional monomers from C. tropicalis omega-oxidation of fatty acids provides a wide range of new monomer building blocks to construct functional polymers. PMID:20000460

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND FUNCTIONAL STUDY OF A PUTATIVE JUVENILE HORMONE DIOL KINASE IN THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Lü, Feng-Gong; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) is an enzyme involved in JH degradation. In the present article, a putative JHDK cDNA (LdJHDK) was cloned from the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The cDNA consists of 814 bp, containing a 555 bp open reading frame encoding a 184 amino acid protein. LdJHDK reveals a high degree of identity to the previously reported insect JHDKs. It possesses three conserved purine nucleotide-binding elements, and contains three EF-hand motifs (helix-loop-helix structural domains). LdJHDK mRNA was mainly detected in hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Besides, a trace amount of LdJHDK mRNA was also found in thoracic muscles, brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex, foregut, midgut, ventral ganglia, fat body, epidermis, and hemocytes. Moreover, LdJHDK was expressed throughout all developmental stages. Within the first, second, and third larval instar, the expression levels of LdJHDK were higher just before and right after the molt, and were lower in the intermediate instar. In the fourth larval instar, the highest peak of LdJHDK occurred 56 h after ecdysis. Ingestion of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against LdJHDK successfully knocked down the target gene, increased JH titer, and significantly upregulated LdKr-h1 mRNA level. Knockdown of LdJHDK significantly impaired adult emergence. Thus, we provide a line of experimental evidence in L. decemlineata to support that LdJHDK encodes function protein involved in JH degradation. PMID:26280246

  16. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs.

  17. In Vitro selectivity of an acyclic cucurbit[n]uril molecular container towards neuromuscular blocking agents relative to commonly used drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Shweta; Zavalij, Peter Y; Eikermann, Matthias; Isaacs, Lyle

    2016-01-28

    An acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) based molecular container (2, a.k.a. Calabadion 2) binds to both amino-steroidal and benzylisoquinolinium type neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in vitro, and reverses the effect of these drugs in vivo displaying faster recovery times than placebo and the γ-cyclodextrin (CD) based and clinically used reversal agent Sugammadex. In this study we have assessed the potential for other drugs commonly used during and after surgery (e.g. antibiotics, antihistamines, and antiarrhythmics) to interfere with the ability of 2 to bind NMBAs rocuronium and cisatracurium in vitro. We measured the binding affinities (Ka, M(-1)) of twenty seven commonly used drugs towards 2 and simulated the equilibrium between 2, NMBA, and drug based on their standard clinical dosages to calculate the equilibrium concentration of 2·NMBA in the presence of the various drugs. We found that none of the 27 drugs studied possess the combination of a high enough binding affinity with 2 and a high enough standard dosage to be able to promote the competitive dissociation (a.k.a. displacement interactions) of the 2·NMBA complex with the formation of the 2·drug complex. Finally, we used the simulations to explore how the potential for displacement interactions is affected by a number of factors including the Ka of the 2·NMBA complex, the Ka of the AChR·NMBA complex, the Ka of the 2·drug complex, and the dosage of the drug.

  18. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-01

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs. PMID:26756920

  19. In Vitro selectivity of an acyclic cucurbit[n]uril molecular container towards neuromuscular blocking agents relative to commonly used drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Shweta; Zavalij, Peter Y; Eikermann, Matthias; Isaacs, Lyle

    2016-01-28

    An acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) based molecular container (2, a.k.a. Calabadion 2) binds to both amino-steroidal and benzylisoquinolinium type neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in vitro, and reverses the effect of these drugs in vivo displaying faster recovery times than placebo and the γ-cyclodextrin (CD) based and clinically used reversal agent Sugammadex. In this study we have assessed the potential for other drugs commonly used during and after surgery (e.g. antibiotics, antihistamines, and antiarrhythmics) to interfere with the ability of 2 to bind NMBAs rocuronium and cisatracurium in vitro. We measured the binding affinities (Ka, M(-1)) of twenty seven commonly used drugs towards 2 and simulated the equilibrium between 2, NMBA, and drug based on their standard clinical dosages to calculate the equilibrium concentration of 2·NMBA in the presence of the various drugs. We found that none of the 27 drugs studied possess the combination of a high enough binding affinity with 2 and a high enough standard dosage to be able to promote the competitive dissociation (a.k.a. displacement interactions) of the 2·NMBA complex with the formation of the 2·drug complex. Finally, we used the simulations to explore how the potential for displacement interactions is affected by a number of factors including the Ka of the 2·NMBA complex, the Ka of the AChR·NMBA complex, the Ka of the 2·drug complex, and the dosage of the drug. PMID:26648135

  20. Small angle neutron scattering study on the aggregation behaviour of PEO–PPO–PEO copolymers in the presence of a hydrophobic diol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Bharatiya; V K Aswal; P Bahadur

    2008-11-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on aqueous solutions of four polyethylene oxide–polypropylene oxide–polyethylene oxide block copolymers (commercially known as Pluronic®)F88, P85, F127 and P123 in the presence of hydrophobic C14Diol (also known as Surfynol® 104) reveal information on micellization, micellar size and micellar transitions. While most hydrophilic F88 (with least PPO/PEO ratio) remained unimers in water at 30◦ C, other copolymers formed micellar solutions. Surfynol® 104 is sparingly soluble in water to only about ∼ 0.1 wt%, but on addition to pluronic solution, it gets incorporated in the micellar region of block copolymer which leads to increase in aggregation number and transformation of spherical to ellipsoidal micelles. The added diol-induced micellization in F88, though hydrophilic copolymers F88 and F127 did not show any appreciable micellar growth or shape changes as observed for P85 and P123 (which are comparatively more hydrophobic). The SANS results on copolymer pairs with same molecular weight PPO but different % PEO (viz. F88 and P85, F127 and P123) and with same molecular weight PEO but different PPO (F88 and F127) reveal that the copolymer with large PPO/PEO ratio facilitate micellar transition in the presence of diol. An increase in temperature and presence of added electrolyte (sodium chloride) in the solution further enhances these effects. The micellar parameters for these systems were found out using available software and are reported.

  1. 5-Cholesten-3β,25-Diol 3-Sulfate Decreases Lipid Accumulation in Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Leyuan; Kim, Jin Koung; Bai, Qianming; Zhang, Xin; Kakiyama, Genta; Min, Hae-Ki; Arun J Sanyal; Pandak, William M.; Ren, Shunlin

    2013-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) increases lipogenesis at the transcriptional level, and its expression is upregulated by liver X receptor α (LXRα). The LXRα/SREBP-1c signaling may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously reported that a cholesterol metabolite, 5-cholesten-3β,25-diol 3-sulfate (25HC3S), inhibits the LXRα signaling and reduces lipogenesis by decreasing SREBP-1c expression in primary hepatocytes. T...

  2. Synthesis of Diphosphites from trans, trans-Spiro[4,4]nonane-1,6-diol and Their Application in Rh-catalyzed Asymmetric Hydroformylation of Styrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛松; 蒋耀忠

    2004-01-01

    Chiral diphosphite ligands were prepared by the reaction of (1R,5S,6R)-(trans, trans)-spiro[4.4]nonane-1,6-diol with chlorophosphites. The rhodium(I) complexes containing these ligands were tested in the asymmetric hydroformylation of styrene and moderate enantioselectivity (up to 49% ee) was obtained. A pair of diastereomers 5a and 5b gave the opposite configuration of the product, which implies that the sense of enantioface selection is mainly dictated by the configuration of the terminal group on the ligand.

  3. Steviamine, a new class of indolizidine alkaloid [(1R,2S,3R,5R,8aR-3-hydroxymethyl-5-methyloctahydroindolizine-1,2-diol hydrobromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L. Thompson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available X-ray crystallographic analysis of the title hydrobromide salt, C10H20N+·Br−, of (1R,2S,3R,5R,8aR-3-hydroxymethyl-5-methyloctahydroindolizine-1,2-diol defines the absolute and relative stereochemistry at the five chiral centres in steviamine, a new class of polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloid isolated from Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae leaves. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by intermolecular O—H...Br and N—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming double chains around the twofold screw axes along the b-axis direction. Intramolecular O—H...O interactions occur.

  4. Acaricidal effects of Corymbia citriodora oil containing para-menthane-3,8-diol against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elmhalli, Fawzeia; Pålsson, Katinka; Örberg, Jan; Jaenson, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity of para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), the main arthropod-repellent compound in the oil of the lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora, was evaluated against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus using five methods (A-E) of a contact toxicity bioassay. Mortality rates were estimated by recording numbers of dead nymphs at 30 min intervals during the first 5 h after the start of exposure and at longer intervals thereafter. The mortality rate increased with increasing concentration of PMD and duration o...

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethane-1,2-diol C2H6O2 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (VMSD1212, LB4988_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethane-1,2-diol C2H6O2 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (VMSD1212, LB4988_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethane-1,2-diol C2H6O2 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (VMSD1111, LB4980_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Ethane-1,2-diol C2H6O2 + C6H10O Cyclohexanone (VMSD1111, LB4980_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  7. Synthesis and characterization of new polyesters based on 2,5-bis[(4-chloro carboxyanilino)carbonyl]pyridine and aromatic diols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalil; Faghihi

    2010-01-01

    Six new polyesters 7a-f were synthesized through the solution polycondensation reaction of diacid chloride 5 with six aromatic diols 6a-f in N,N-dimethyl acetamide(DMAc) as solvent in the presence of pyridine as base.The polycondensation reaction produced a series of novel polyester containing pyridyl moiety in the main chain in high yields with inherent viscosities between 0.35 and 0.54 dL/g.The resulted polymers were fully characterized by means of FT-IR spectroscopy,elemental analyses,inherent viscosi...

  8. Development of analytical methods for the gas chromatographic determination of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene, 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, 3-butene-1,2-diol, 3,4-epoxybutane-1,2-diol and crotonaldehyde from perfusate samples of 1,3-butadiene exposed isolated mouse and rat livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, S.; Schuster, A.; Filser, J.G.

    2003-07-01

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene (BD) highly probably results from epoxide metabolites as 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (EB), 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) and 3,4-epoxybutane-1,2-diol (EBD). A further metabolite crotonaldehyde (CA) has also been discussed to be relevant. So far, in BD exposed rodents only EB and DEB concentrations had been quantified. However, the methods used were either not very sensitive or instrumentally expensive. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to establish simple analytical methods selective and sensitive enough to determine all of these compounds and a further secondary BD intermediate, 3-butene-1,2-diol (B-diol), in BD exposed rodent livers. The once-through perfused liver system was chosen for testing the applicability of the methods to be developed, since it enables BD exposures of this quantitatively most relevant metabolising organ near to the in-vivo situation. All the metabolites were extracted from the aqueous perfusion medium and analysed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector (GC/MS) in the PCI mode. (orig.)

  9. Inhibition Behaviour of 2-butine1, 4diol and Tartrate Salt, and Their Synergistic Effects on Corrosion of AA3003 Aluminium Alloy in 0.5% NaCl Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taghi Shahrabi; Alireza Yazdzad; Mirghasem Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    This work intends to investigate the inhibition behaviour of 2-butine 1, 4diol and potassium sodium tartrate and their synergistic effects on 3003 aluminium alloy corrosion in 0.5% NaCl solution. Experiments were carried out by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization method in a three-electrode cell. It was concluded that the inhibition efficiencies increased with an increase in the concentrations of inhibitors. For 2-butinel, 4diol and tartrate salt, the optimum in the inhibition efficiency, at room temperature and neutral pH, was observed for concentrations close to 10-3 mol/L and 1.5×10-3mol/L, respectively. The electrochemical results illustrated that 2-butine1, 4diol and tartrate salt, have significant synergistic inhibition effects on corrosion of 3003 aluminium alloy in 0.5% NaCl solution. The optimum ratio of concentrations for tartrate to alcohol was 2:1.

  10. 几种非环单萜衍生物的制备及表征%Preparation and characterization of several acyclic monoterpene derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 高文运

    2012-01-01

    分别以香叶醇、橙花醇及芳樟醇为原料,经SeO2和t-BuOOH氧化、NaBH4还原得到8-羟基香叶醇、8-羟基橙花醇及8-羟基芳樟醇;利用乙酰化反应和苯甲酰化反应分别制备了这三个二醇化合物的乙酰化和苯甲酰化衍生物;并利用气相色谱-电子电离质谱仪(GC-EIMS)和液相色谱-电喷雾质谱仪(LC-ESIMS)分析了合成产物的光谱性质.结果显示,以GC-EIMS表征合成产物时,除苯甲酰化衍生物呈现较弱的分子离子峰外,其他几个产物均无分子离子峰信号.%Geraniol, nerol and linalool were respectively oxidized with SeO2A-butyl hydroper-oxide and then reduced with NaBH4 to yield 8-hydroxygeraniol, 8-hydroxynerol and 8-hydroxy-linalool. The acetylated and benzoylated derivatives of the three diols were prepared by acetyla-tion and benzoylation, respectively. As-synthesized products were characterized by means of gas chromatography-electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC-EIMS) and liquid chromatogra-phy-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESIMS). Results indicate that only benzoylated derivatives show weak molecular ion peak signals in GC-EIMS analysis, and the other products do not exhibit molecular ion peak signals therein. However, all as-synthesized products show obvious signals of molecular ions in LC-SIMS analysis.

  11. A Multidisciplinary Approach Toward the Rapid and Preparative-Scale Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Amino Alcohols: A Concise Transketolase-/omega-Transaminase-Mediated Synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-Aminopentane-1,3-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, M.E.B; Chen, B.H.; Hibbert, E.G;

    2010-01-01

    establishment of biocatalytic routes to chiral aminodiols taking the original synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-aminopentane-1,3-diol as a specific example. An engineered variant of Escherichi coli transketolase (D469T) was used for the initial asymmetric ynthesis of (3S)-1,3-dihydroxypentan-2-one from the achiral...... substrates propanal and hydroxypyruvate. A bioinformatics led strategy was then used to identify and clone an ω-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum (DSM30191) capable of converting the product of the transketolase-catalysed step to the required (2S,3S)-2-aminopentane-1,3-diol using isopropylamine...

  12. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity cycloart-23-ene-3β,25-diol(B2) isolated fromPongamia pinnata(L. Pierre)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin L Badole; Anand A Zanwar; Abhijeet N Khopade; Subhash L Bodhankar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of cycloart-23-ene-3β,25-diol (called asB2) isolated from stem bark ofPongamia pinnata.Methods:In vitro antioxidant activity ofB2 was determined by methods for determination ofDPPHradical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating and nitric oxide radical scavenging at the doses of20, 40, 60, 80 and100 μg/mL, respectively. β-tocopherol with same concentration was used as a standard antioxidant.In vitro antimicrobial activity of B2was determined by cup plate method in different concentration range of10-100 μg/mL.Results: The results indicated that dose dependent % reduction againstDPPH radical, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, metal chelating, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and nitric oxide radical scavenging byB2 and β-tocopherol.Conclusions:It is concluded that cycloart23-ene-3β, 25 diol (B2) showed dose dependent antioxidant activity.B2 showed more DPPHradical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, metal chelating scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity than β-tocopherol and in case of antimicrobial activityB2 exhibited broad-spectrum activity against bacteria and strong activity against yeast type of fungi.

  13. Selective Enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Small Molecule Compounds with Vicinal Diols by Boric Acid-Functionalized Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ni, Yanli

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a 4-vinylphenylboronic acid-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) material was prepared via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and applied for the first time as a novel matrix for the selective enrichment and analysis of small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols, which have been the focus of intense research in the field of life science, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in positive-ion mode. There are two main factors playing a decisive role in assisting laser D/I process comparing to some traditional matrices: (1) GO provides π-conjugated system by itself for laser absorption and energy transfer; (2) the modified 4-vinylphenylboronic acid can selectively capture small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols. The results demonstrate that the novel material has distinct advantages over previously reported matrices in enriching and assisting the highly efficient ionization of target molecules for mass spectrometry analysis. This work indicates a new application branch for graphene-based matrices and provides an alternative solution for small-molecules analysis.

  14. Enhancement effect of p-menthane-3,8-diol on in vitro permeation of antipyrine and indomethacin through Yucatan micropig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Makiko; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Minako; Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2004-07-01

    The enhancing effect of p-Menthane-3,8-diol (MDO) on skin permeation of antipyrine (ANP) and indomethacin (IM) through Yucatan micropig skin in vitro was compared with 1-menthol. p-Menthane-3,8-diol is a metabolite of 1-menthol and has little odor. It is easy to combine the vehicle because of lower lipophilicity than 1-menthol. All formulations contained 40% (v/v) ethanol. The permeation of ANP increased with MDO about three times that without enhancer by increasing ANP concentration in the skin. However, the MDO effect was about a quarter that of 1-menthol. The permeation of IM with MDO was about 15 times that with no enhancer and it was almost the same as that with 1-menthol. The lag time of permeation was not significantly changed by MDO, which was not so in the case of 1-menthol. Skin concentration of IM increased about 11 times and six times with MDO and 1-menthol, respectively. MDO and 1-menthol partitioned to the skin relatively high concentrations, 5.9 and 2.5 mg/ cm3, respectively. The solubility of IM in the skin was improved by MDO, and consequently, the permeation of IM was enhanced. PMID:15285341

  15. Diacyltransferase Activity and Chain Length Specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PapA5 in the Synthesis of Alkyl β-Diol Lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touchette, Megan H.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Delle Bovi, Richard J.; Gadbery, John; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Martin, Dwight W.; Sampson, Nicole S.; Miller, W. T.; Tonge, Peter J.; Seeliger, Jessica C.

    2015-09-08

    Although classified as Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterineae possess an asymmetric outer membrane that imparts structural and thereby physiological similarity to more distantly related Gram-negative bacteria. Like lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria, lipids in the outer membrane of Corynebacterineae have been associated with the virulence of pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For example, Mtb strains that lack long, branched-chain alkyl esters known as dimycocerosates (DIMs) are significantly attenuated in model infections. The resultant interest in the biosynthetic pathway of these unusual virulence factors has led to the elucidation of many of the steps leading to the final esterification of the alkyl beta-diol, phthiocerol, with branched-chain fatty acids know as mycocerosates. PapA5 is an acyltransferase implicated in these final reactions. We here show that PapA5 is indeed the terminal enzyme in DIM biosynthesis by demonstrating its dual esterification activity and chain-length preference using synthetic alkyl beta-diol substrate analogues. Applying these analogues to a series of PapA5 mutants, we also revise a model for the substrate binding within PapA5. Finally, we demonstrate that the Mtb Ser/Thr kinase PknB modifies PapA5 on three Thr residues, including two (T196, T198) located on an unresolved loop. These results clarify the DIM biosynthetic pathway and suggest possible mechanisms by which DIM biosynthesis may be regulated by the post-translational modification of PapA5.

  16. Combining directed acyclic graphs and the change-in-estimate procedure as a novel approach to adjustment-variable selection in epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs are an effective means of presenting expert-knowledge assumptions when selecting adjustment variables in epidemiology, whereas the change-in-estimate procedure is a common statistics-based approach. As DAGs imply specific empirical relationships which can be explored by the change-in-estimate procedure, it should be possible to combine the two approaches. This paper proposes such an approach which aims to produce well-adjusted estimates for a given research question, based on plausible DAGs consistent with the data at hand, combining prior knowledge and standard regression methods. Methods Based on the relationships laid out in a DAG, researchers can predict how a collapsible estimator (e.g. risk ratio or risk difference for an effect of interest should change when adjusted on different variable sets. Implied and observed patterns can then be compared to detect inconsistencies and so guide adjustment-variable selection. Results The proposed approach involves i. drawing up a set of plausible background-knowledge DAGs; ii. starting with one of these DAGs as a working DAG, identifying a minimal variable set, S, sufficient to control for bias on the effect of interest; iii. estimating a collapsible estimator adjusted on S, then adjusted on S plus each variable not in S in turn (“add-one pattern” and then adjusted on the variables in S minus each of these variables in turn (“minus-one pattern”; iv. checking the observed add-one and minus-one patterns against the pattern implied by the working DAG and the other prior DAGs; v. reviewing the DAGs, if needed; and vi. presenting the initial and all final DAGs with estimates. Conclusion This approach to adjustment-variable selection combines background-knowledge and statistics-based approaches using methods already common in epidemiology and communicates assumptions and uncertainties in a standardized graphical format. It is probably best suited to

  17. Design and Synthesis of Novel Antimicrobial Acyclic and Heterocyclic Dyes and Their Precursors for Dyeing and/or Textile Finishing Based on 2-N-Acylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thiophene Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Milad Mohareb

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel polyfunctionalized acyclic and heterocyclic dye precursors and their respective azo (hydrazone counterpart dyes and dye precursors based on conjugate enaminones and/or enaminonitrile moieties were synthesized. The dyes and their precursors are based on 2-cyano-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide, 2-ethoxycarbonyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide or 2-phenylcarbamoyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetamide systems as precursors. The latter compounds were used to synthesize polyfunctional thiophene-, thiazole-, pyrazole, pyridine-, pyrimidine-, oxazine-, as well as acyclic moieties. The dyes and dye precursors were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral methods. All dyes and their precursors were screened in vitro and evaluated for both their antibacterial and antifungal activities. MIC data of the novel dye systems and their respective precursors showed significant antimicrobial activity against most tested organisms. Some compounds exhibited comparable or even higher efficiency than selected standards. Dyes were applied at 5% depth for disperse dyeing of nylon, acetate and polyester fabrics. Their spectral characteristics and fastness properties were measured and evaluated.

  18. Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobial acyclic and heterocyclic dyes and their precursors for dyeing and/or textile finishing based on 2-N-acylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thiophene systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Hoda Zaki; Mohareb, Rafat Milad; Helal, Maher Helmy; Mahmoud, Amira El-Sayed

    2011-07-26

    A series of novel polyfunctionalized acyclic and heterocyclic dye precursors and their respective azo (hydrazone) counterpart dyes and dye precursors based on conjugate enaminones and/or enaminonitrile moieties were synthesized. The dyes and their precursors are based on 2-cyano-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-acetamide, 2-ethoxycarbonyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-acetamide or 2-phenylcarbamoyl-N-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-acetamide systems as precursors. The latter compounds were used to synthesize polyfunctional thiophene-, thiazole-, pyrazole, pyridine-, pyrimidine-, oxazine-, as well as acyclic moieties. The dyes and dye precursors were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral methods. All dyes and their precursors were screened in vitro and evaluated for both their antibacterial and antifungal activities. MIC data of the novel dye systems and their respective precursors showed significant antimicrobial activity against most tested organisms. Some compounds exhibited comparable or even higher efficiency than selected standards. Dyes were applied at 5% depth for disperse dyeing of nylon, acetate and polyester fabrics. Their spectral characteristics and fastness properties were measured and evaluated.

  19. BENZO[A]PYRENE AND ITS K-REGION DIOL INDUCE DNA DAMAGE IN C3H10T1/2C18 CELLS AS MEASURED BY THE ALKALINE SINGLE CELL GEL (COMET) ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    160. Benzo[a]pyrene and its K-region diol induce DNA damage in C3HlOTl/2Cl8 cells as measured by the alkaline single cell gel (Comet) assay In a continuing series of studies on the genotoxicity ofK-region dihydrodiols of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we have repo...

  20. Anti-inflammatory and Immune Regulatory Properties of 5-Androsten-3{beta}, 17{beta}-Diol (HE2100), and Synthetic Analogue HE3204: Implications for Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auci, D.; Nicoletti, F.; Mangano, K.; Pieters, R.; Nierkens, S.; Morgan, L.; Offner, H.; Frincke, J.; Reading, C.

    2005-01-01

    5-Androsten-3beta, 17beta-diol (HE2100), and a synthetic analogue HE3204 are regarded as immune-regulating hormones, because both induce changes in the reporter antigen-popliteal lymph node assay (RA-PLNA). Mice were injected in the footpad with either HE2100 or HE3204 (0.01-3 mg), and a nonsensitiz

  1. Repression of tropolone production and induction of a Burkholderia plantarii pseudo-biofilm by carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a cell-to-cell signaling disrupter produced by Trichoderma virens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengcen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tropolone-tolerant Trichoderma virens PS1-7 is a biocontrol agent against Burkholderia plantarii, causative of rice seedling blight. When exposed to catechol, this fungus dose-dependently produced carot-4-en-9,10-diol, a sesquiterpene-type autoregulatory signal molecule that promotes self-conidiation of T. virens PS1-7 mycelia. It was, however, uncertain why T. virens PS1-7 attenuates the symptom development of the rice seedlings infested with B. plantarii. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To reveal the antagonism by T. virens PS1-7 against B. plantarii leading to repression of tropolone production in a coculture system, bioassay-guided screening for active compounds from a 3-d culture of T. virens PS1-7 was conducted. As a result, carot-4-en-9,10-diol was identified and found to repress tropolone production of B. plantarii from 10 to 200 µM in a dose-dependent manner as well as attenuate virulence of B. plantarii on rice seedlings. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcriptional suppression of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone synthase plaI in B. plantarii was the main mode of action by which carot-4-en-9,10-diol mediated the quorum quenching responsible for repression of tropolone production. In addition, the unique response of B. plantarii to carot-4-en-9,10-diol in the biofilm formed in the static culture system was also found. Although the initial stage of B. plantarii biofilm formation was induced by both tropolone and carot-4-en-9,10-diol, it was induced in different states. Moreover, the B. plantarii biofilm that was induced by carot-4-en-9,10-diol at the late stage showed defects not only in matrix structure but also cell viability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that carot-4-en-9,10-diol released by T. virens PS1-7 acts as an interkingdom cell-to-cell signaling molecule against B. plantarii to repress tropolone production and induces pseudo-biofilm to the cells. This observation also led to

  2. Hydroformylation of olefins and reductive carbonylation of aryl halides with syngas formed ex situ from dehydrogenative decarbonylation of hexane-1,6-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stig Holden; Olsen, Esben Paul Krogh; Rosenbaum, Jascha;

    2014-01-01

    A variety of primary alcohols have been investigated as convenient substrates for the ex situ delivery of carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen in a two-chamber reactor. The gaseous mixture is liberated in one chamber by an iridium-catalysed dehydrogenative decarbonylation of the alcohol...... and then consumed in the other chamber in either a rhodium-catalysed hydroformylation of olefins or a palladium-catalysed reductive carbonylation of aryl halides. Hexane-1,6-diol was found to be the optimum alcohol for both reactions where moderate to excellent yields were obtained of the product aldehydes....... A relatively low pressure of 1.5-2.4 bar was measured in the closed system during the two transformations....

  3. 17a-Ethynyl-5a-androstane-3a, 17 β-diol Treatment of MNU-Induced Mammary Cancer in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) induces estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in female Lewis rats. We explored the antineoplastic activity of a synthetic androstane derivative, 17 a-ethynyl-5a-androstane-3a, 17β-diol (HE3235), as a single agent or in combination with docetaxel compared to tamoxifen, anastrazole, and docetaxel mono therapies against MNU-induced mammary tumors in female Lewis rats. Treatment with HE3235 alone rapidly reduced tumor burden, similar in effect to tamoxifen and anastrozole. The combination of HE3235 with docetaxel was more effective than any single agent, although without apparent toxicity. Only HE3235 or HE3235 plus docetaxel continued to suppress tumor growth after cessation of treatment. HE3235 treatment increased immunohistochemical markers of apoptosis and expression of pro apoptotic genes and estrogen receptor beta and decreased expression of anti apoptotic genes, androgen receptor, and estrogen receptor alpha. These data warrant clinical investigation of HE3235 for breast cancer treatment.

  4. Theoretical studies and spectroscopic characterization of novel 4-methyl-5-((5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio)benzene-1,2-diol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani Amiri, Somayeh; Makarem, Somayeh; Ahmar, Hamid; Ashenagar, Samaneh

    2016-09-01

    The structural, electronic, and spectroscopic properties of 4-methyl-5-((5-phenyl-1,3,4 oxadiazol-2-yl)thio)benzene-1,2-diol (MPOTB) have been carried out at ab initio and DFT levels. A detailed study of geometrical parameters, Infrared spectrum, chemical shifts (13C NMR, 1H NMR), and electronic properties of the title compound is presented. The correlation between the theoretical and the experimental 13C, and 1H chemical shifts of MPOTB were about 1.02-1.03 and 0.98-1.00, respectively. The electronic properties, such as molecular electrostatic potential, NBO atomic charges, HOMO and LUMO energies were performed at above levels. Rather high hardness of MPOTB introduces it as a stable molecule. As a result, the calculated findings were compared with the observed values and generally found to be in good agreement.

  5. Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, FT-Raman and UV), potential energy surface scan, normal coordinate analysis and NBO analysis of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-3,4,5-triol by DFT methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isac Paulraj, E; Muthu, S

    2013-05-01

    This work presents the characterization of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine-3,4,5-triol (abbreviated as HEHMPT) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman spectrum (4000-100 cm(-1)) in solid phase was recorded for HEHMPT. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the HEHMPT that dissolved in water was recorded in the range of 100-400 nm. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained from B3LYP and M06-2X with 6-31G(d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA), experimental results and potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. The stable geometry of the compound has been determined from the potential energy surface scan. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by NBO analysis. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total (TDOS), partial (PDOS), and overlap population (OPDOS) density of states. The electronic properties like UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO energies were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions taking place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. PMID:23454843

  6. Transformações químicas do (+-10b,14-diol-allo-aromadendrano, isolado de duguetia glabriuscula r. e. fries (r. e. fries (annonaceae e avaliações biológicas de alguns derivados obtidos Chemical modifications of (+-allo-aromadendrane-10b,14-diol isolated from duguetia glabriuscula r. e. fries (r. e. fries (annonaceae and biological evaluation of some obtained derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênis Pires de Lima

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The sesquiterpene (+-allo-aromadendrane-10b-14-diol 1 was the lead compound to the preparation of several derivatives in order to test their biological activity against A. salina, C. sphaerospermum, E. coli and S. aureus. In this way the monoalcohols (+-viridiflorol 4, 9 and 11 were synthesized from 1 together with the acetal 6, the ketal 7, and the ketone 8. The oxirane 3 and nitrile 5 were also prepared using as an intermediate the tosylate derivative 2.

  7. DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide)/PMD (para-menthane-3,8-diol) repellent-treated mesh increases Culicoides catches in light traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, A K; Clawson, S; Rea, I; Forsythe, I W N; Gordon, A W; Jess, S

    2016-09-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides spp.) are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. Treatment of mesh barriers is a common method for preventing insect-vectored diseases and has been proposed as a means of limiting Culicoides ingression into buildings or livestock transporters. Assessments using animals are costly, logistically difficult and subject to ethical approval. Therefore, initial screening of test repellents/insecticides was made by applying treatments to mesh (2 mm) cages surrounding Onderstepoort light traps. Five commercial treatments were applied to cages as per manufacturers' application rates: control (water), bendiocarb, DEET/p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) repellent, Flygo (a terpenoid based repellent) and lambda-cyhalothrin. The experimental design was a 5 × 5 Latin square, replicated in time and repeated twice. Incongruously, the traps surrounded by DEET/PMD repellent-treated mesh caught three to four times more Obsoletus group Culicoides (the commonest midge group) than the other treatments. A proposed hypothesis is that Obsoletus group Culicoides are showing a dose response to DEET/PMD, being attracted at low concentrations and repelled at higher concentrations but that the strong light attraction from the Onderstepoort trap was sufficient to overcome close-range repellence. This study does not imply that DEET/PMD is an ineffective repellent for Culicoides midges in the presence of an animal but rather that caution should be applied to the interpretation of light trap bioassays. PMID:27179956

  8. Serum Level of Antibody against Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts in People Dermally Exposed to PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Borska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific antibodies indicate the presence of antigenic structures on DNA (DNA adducts that can play an important role in the process of mutagenesis and/or carcinogenesis. They indicate the presence of increased genotoxic potential (hazard prior to the formation of disease (primary prevention. The present study was focused on the serum level of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts antibodies (anti-BPDE-DNA in psoriatic patients (n=55 dermally exposed to different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The general goal of the study was to contribute to better understanding of the value of the assumed biomarker (anti-BPDE-DNA for evaluation of the organism's answer to genotoxic exposure to PAHs. Elevated level of exposure to PAHs resulted in the increased level of anti-BPDE-DNA. However, almost all levels of anti-BPDE-DNA ranged within the field of low values. Both variants of GT (CCT-3% and CCT-5% induced higher expression of anti-BPDE-DNA in the group of nonsmokers. Significant relations between the level of anti-BPDE-DNA and PASI score, total duration of the therapy, or time of UVR exposure were not found. Further studies are needed to reduce interpretation uncertainty of this promising bioindicator.

  9. Thermo-Responsive Polyurethane Hydrogels Based on Poly(ε-caprolactone Diol and Amphiphilic Polylactide-Poly(Ethylene Glycol Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-hui Hsu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne polyurethane (PU based on poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL diol and an amphiphilic polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol (PLA-PEG diblock copolymer was synthesized. The molar ratio of PCL/PLA-PEG was 9:1 with different PLA chain lengths. The PU nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and rheological analysis. The water contact angle measurement, infrared spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS, thermal and mechanical analyses were conducted on PU films. Significant changes in physio-chemical properties were observed for PUs containing 10 mol % of amphiphilic blocks. The water contact angle was reduced to 12°–13°, and the degree of crystallinity was 5%–10%. The PU dispersions underwent sol-gel transition upon the temperature rise to 37 °C. The gelation time increased as the PLA chain length increased. In addition, the fractal dimension of each gel was close to that of a percolation cluster. Moreover, PU4 with a solid content of 26% could support the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs. Therefore, thermo-responsive hydrogels with tunable properties are promising injectable materials for cell or drug delivery.

  10. A Nonempirical Approach for Direct Determination of the Absolute Configuration of 1,2-Diols and Amino Alcohols Using Mg(II)bisporphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikbal, Sk Asif; Dhamija, Avinash; Brahma, Sanfaori; Rath, Sankar Prasad

    2016-07-01

    We report here a simple, facile, and direct nonempirical protocol for determining the absolute stereochemistry of a variety of chiral 1,2-diols and amino alcohols at room temperature with no chemical derivatization using Mg(II)bisporphyrin as a host. Addition of excess substrates resulted in the formation of a 1:2 host-guest complex in which two substrates bind in an unusual endo-endo fashion because of interligand H-bonding within the bisporphyrin cavity leading to the formation of a unidirectional screw in the bisporphyrin moiety that allowed us an accurate absolute stereochemical determination of the chiral substrate via exciton-coupled circular dichroism (ECCD). The sign of the CD couplet has also been found to be inverted when the stereogenic center is moved by one C atom simply from the bound to an unbound functionality and thus able to discriminate between them successfully. Strong complexation of the alcoholic oxygen with Mg(II)bisporphyrin rigidifies the host-guest complex, which eventually enhances its ability to stereochemically differentiate the asymmetric center. The ECCD sign of a large number of substrates has followed consistent and predictable trends; thus, the system is widely applicable. Moreover, computational calculations clearly support the experimental observations along with the absolute stereochemistry of the chiral substrate. PMID:27231970

  11. Optically active helical polyurethane-attapulgite composites: Effect of optical purity of S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol on infrared emissivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiqiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhou Yuming, E-mail: ymzhou@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Sun Yanqing; Mei Zhenyu; Miao Yuee [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (HPU-ATT) composites were prepared after the surface modification of the rod-like attapulgite (ATT). HPU-ATT composites based on S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol (S-BINOL) with different optical purity (O.P.) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. The rod-like nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Infrared emissivity values of HPU-ATT composites have been investigated, and the results indicate that the optical purity of monomer plays a very important role in the infrared emissivity for HPU-ATT owing to the effect of helical conformation and interchain hydrogen bonds. Along with the increased optical purity of S-BINOL, the infrared emissivity of HPU-ATT is reduced evidently. Infrared emissivity value of HPU-ATT based on S-BINOL with 100% optical purity is the lowest one (0.431).

  12. Optically active helical polyurethane-attapulgite composites: Effect of optical purity of S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol on infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (HPU-ATT) composites were prepared after the surface modification of the rod-like attapulgite (ATT). HPU-ATT composites based on S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diol (S-BINOL) with different optical purity (O.P.) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. The rod-like nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Infrared emissivity values of HPU-ATT composites have been investigated, and the results indicate that the optical purity of monomer plays a very important role in the infrared emissivity for HPU-ATT owing to the effect of helical conformation and interchain hydrogen bonds. Along with the increased optical purity of S-BINOL, the infrared emissivity of HPU-ATT is reduced evidently. Infrared emissivity value of HPU-ATT based on S-BINOL with 100% optical purity is the lowest one (0.431).

  13. Acaricidal effects of Corymbia citriodora oil containing para-menthane-3,8-diol against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmhalli, Fawzeia H; Pålsson, Katinka; Orberg, Jan; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2009-07-01

    The toxicity of para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), the main arthropod-repellent compound in the oil of the lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora, was evaluated against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus using five methods (A-E) of a contact toxicity bioassay. Mortality rates were estimated by recording numbers of dead nymphs at 30 min intervals during the first 5 h after the start of exposure and at longer intervals thereafter. The mortality rate increased with increasing concentration of PMD and duration of exposure with a distinct effect after 3.5 h. From the results obtained by methods A, C and E, the LC(50) range was 0.035-0.037 mg PMD/cm(2) and the LC(95) range was 0.095-0.097 mg PMD/cm(2) at 4 h of exposure; the LT(50) range was 2.1-2.8 h and the LT(95) range was 3.9-4.2 h at 0.1 mg PMD/cm(2). To determine the duration of toxic activity of PMD, different concentrations (0.002, 0.01, 0.1 mg PMD/cm(2)) were tested and mortality was recorded at each concentration after 1 h; thereafter new ticks were tested. This test revealed that the lethal activity of PMD remained for 24 h but appeared absent after 48 h. The overall results show that PMD is toxic to nymphs of I. ricinus and may be useful for tick control. PMID:19169833

  14. In silico stereo-electronic analysis of PMD (p-Menthane-3-8-Diol) and its derivatives for pharmacophore development may aid discovery of novel insect repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Apurba K

    2013-09-01

    PMD (p-menthane-3-8-diol) is an insect repellent that can be synthesized chemically or derived from a steam distillate residue of the leaves of lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora. It is one of the few natural product endorsed by the Center for Disease Control (USA) for topical application to protect against mosquitoes though it is not as effective as the common repellent DEET (N,N -diethyl-1,3-toluamide). However, DEET has several undesirable side effects and toxicity too. Thus, although PMDs are comparatively safer than DEET, no quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and pharmacophore modeling studies have been reported in literature to improve efficacy and aid further development of more effective PMD analogues. In this study, we report results of quantum chemical analysis of stereoelectronic properties and pharmacophore modeling of PMD and eight of its synthetic derivatives to aid discovery and design of more effective PMD analogues. Stereo-electronic analysis indicates that lower aqueous stabilization (favorable lipophilicity) and larger separation of electrostatic potential energy together with a large localized negative electrostatic potential region by the oxygen atom play important roles for repellent activity. Consistent to these properties, the generated pharmacophore model of the PMDs showed two aliphatic hydrophobic and a hydrogen-bond donor features for potent activity. These results aided us to design more effective PMD repellents which are currently under further investigations. PMID:24010930

  15. MALDI-TOF MS Imaging evidences spatial differences in the degradation of solid polycaprolactone diol in water under aerobic and denitrifying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Daniel; Ginebreda, Antoni; Pérez, Sandra; Quero, Carmen; Barceló, Damià

    2016-10-01

    Degradation of solid polymers in the aquatic environment encompasses a variety of biotic and abiotic processes giving rise to heterogeneous patterns across the surface of the material, which cannot be investigated using conventional Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) that only renders an "average" picture of the sample. In that context, MALDI-TOF MS Imaging (MALDI MSI) provides a rapid and efficient tool to study 2D spatial changes occurred in the chemical composition of the polymer surface. Commercial polycaprolactone diol (average molecular weight of 1250Da) was selected as test material because it had been previously known to be amenable to biological degradation. The test oligomer probe was incubated under aerobic and denitrifying conditions using synthetic water and denitrifying mixed liquor obtained from a wastewater treatment plant respectively. After ca. seven days of exposure the mass spectra obtained by MALDI MSI showed the occurrence of chemical modifications in the sample surface. Observed heterogeneity across the probe's surface indicated significant degradation and suggested the contribution of biotic processes. The results were investigated using different image processing tools. Major changes on the oligomer surface were observed when exposed to denitrifying conditions. PMID:27213667

  16. Theoretical calculation of the OH vibrational overtone spectra of 1-n alkane diols (n = 2-4): origin of disappearing hydrogen-bonded OH peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Lung; Chen, Hui-Yi; Takahashi, Kaito

    2011-06-01

    In this theoretical study, we simulated the vibrational overtone spectrum of ethylene glycol (EG), 1-3 propanediol (PD), and 1-4 butanediol (BD). Using the local mode model along with the potential energy curve and dipole moment function calculated by B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and QCISD/6-311++G(3df,3pd), we obtained the theoretical peak position and integrated absorption coefficient. Furthermore, the vibrational spectra was simulated using a Voigt function using homogeneous and inhomogenous width obtained from quantum chemical calculation methods. Previously, Howard and Kjaergaard recorded the second and third overtone photoacoustic spectra of the three aforementioned alkane diols in the gas phase and observed that the intramolecular hydrogen bonded OH peak becomes difficult to observe as the intramolecular hydrogen bonding strength increased, that is, as the chain length was increased. In this paper we show that the disappearance of the hydrogen-bonded OH peak for the OH stretching overtone excitation for BD is partly due to the increase in homogeneous width due to the increase in the hydrogen bond strength and partly due to the decrease in the relative population of the intramolecular hydrogen-bonded conformers as the chain length is increased. This latter feature is a consequence of the unfavorable strained geometry needed to form the intramolecular hydrogen bond in longer alkane chains. PMID:21568300

  17. DNA polymerase eta participates in the mutagenic bypass of adducts induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alden C Klarer

    Full Text Available Y-family DNA-polymerases have larger active sites that can accommodate bulky DNA adducts allowing them to bypass these lesions during replication. One member, polymerase eta (pol eta, is specialized for the bypass of UV-induced thymidine-thymidine dimers, correctly inserting two adenines. Loss of pol eta function is the molecular basis for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP variant where the accumulation of mutations results in a dramatic increase in UV-induced skin cancers. Less is known about the role of pol eta in the bypass of other DNA adducts. A commonly encountered DNA adduct is that caused by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the environmental chemical benzo[a]pyrene. Here, treatment of pol eta-deficient fibroblasts from humans and mice with BPDE resulted in a significant decrease in Hprt gene mutations. These studies in mammalian cells support a number of in vitro reports that purified pol eta has error-prone activity on plasmids with site-directed BPDE adducts. Sequencing the Hprt gene from this work shows that the majority of mutations are G>T transversions. These data suggest that pol eta has error-prone activity when bypassing BPDE-adducts. Understanding the basis of environmental carcinogen-derived mutations may enable prevention strategies to reduce such mutations with the intent to reduce the number of environmentally relevant cancers.

  18. INFLUENCE OF 2-BUTYNE-1, 4-DIOL ON THE STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE OF THE Co-Ni ALLOY PLATED BY ELECTRODEPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.L. Wang; L.L. Hong; W.W. Yu

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (BD) on the deposition behavior of the Co-Ni alloy was investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. The results showed that BD could prevent the deposition of the Co-Ni alloy. The elect of BD concentration in the sulfate plating bath, on the structure of the Co-Ni deposit was studied by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. As a result, BD could smoothen the deposit surface and decrease the diameter of the grain, but too much of BD was not good for the size of the grain. In general, a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase of the Co-Ni alloy, with a preferentially oriented (110) plane, was prepared by electrodeposition in the presence of BD. The Co-Ni alloy as a catalyst for the electro-oxidation of ethanol in alkaline medium was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The deposit plated from the bath containing BD possessed better electro-oxidation of ethanol performance compared with that of the deposit plated from only the sulfate plating bath, but too much of BD was not beneficial for catalytic activity. The Co-Ni film was suitable as a magnetic recording material.

  19. 5-Androstene-3{beta},17{beta}-diol Promotes Recovery of Immature Hematopoietic Cells Following Myelosuppressive Radiation and Synergizes With Thrombopoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts-Kaya, Fatima S.F.; Visser, Trudi P.; Arshad, Shazia [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Frincke, James; Stickney, Dwight R.; Reading, Chris L. [Harbor Therapeutics, Inc, San Diego, California (United States); Wagemaker, Gerard, E-mail: g.wagemaker@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: 5-Androstene-3{beta},17{beta}-diol (5-AED) stimulates recovery of hematopoiesis after exposure to radiation. To elucidate its cellular targets, the effects of 5-AED alone and in combination with (pegylated) granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and thrombopoietin (TPO) on immature hematopoietic progenitor cells were evaluated following total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were exposed to radiation delivered as a single or as a fractionated dose, and recovery of bone marrow progenitors and peripheral blood parameters was assessed. Results: BALB/c mice treated with 5-AED displayed accelerated multilineage blood cell recovery and elevated bone marrow (BM) cellularity and numbers of progenitor cells. The spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) assay, representing the life-saving short-term repopulating cells in BM of irradiated donor mice revealed that combined treatment with 5-AED plus TPO resulted in a 20.1-fold increase in CFU-S relative to that of placebo controls, and a 3.7 and 3.1-fold increase in comparison to 5-AED and TPO, whereas no effect was seen of Peg-G-CSF with or without 5-AED. Contrary to TPO, 5-AED also stimulated reconstitution of the more immature marrow repopulating (MRA) cells. Conclusions: 5-AED potently counteracts the hematopoietic effects of radiation-induced myelosuppression and promotes multilineage reconstitution by stimulating immature bone marrow cells in a pattern distinct from, but synergistic with TPO.

  20. Enhanced binding capacity of boronate affinity adsorbent via surface modification of silica by combination of atom transfer radical polymerization and chain-end functionalization for high-efficiency enrichment of cis-diol molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; He, Maofang; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao, E-mail: ymwei@nwu.edu.cn

    2015-07-30

    Boronate affinity materials have been widely used for specific separation and preconcentration of cis-diol molecules, but most do not have sufficient capacity due to limited binding sites on the material surface. In this work, we prepared a phenylboronic acid-functionalized adsorbent with a high binding capacity via the combination of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and chain-end functionalization. With this method, the terminal chlorides of the polymer chains were used fully, and the proposed adsorbent contains dense boronic acid polymers chain with boronic acid on the chain end. Consequently, the proposed adsorbent possesses excellent selectivity and a high binding capacity of 513.6 μmol g{sup −1} for catechol and 736.8 μmol g{sup −1} for fructose, which are much higher than those of other reported adsorbents. The dispersed solid-phase extraction (dSPE) based on the prepared adsorbent was used for extraction of three cis-diol drugs (i.e., epinephrine, isoprenaline and caffeic acid isopropyl ester) from plasma; the eluates were analyzed by HPLC-UV. The reduced amount of adsorbent (i.e., 2.0 mg) could still eliminate interferences efficiently and yielded a recovery range of 85.6–101.1% with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.5 to 9.7% (n = 5). The results indicated that the proposed strategy could serve as a promising alternative to increase the density of surface functional groups on the adsorbent; thus, the prepared adsorbent has the potential to effectively enrich cis-diol substances in real samples. - Highlights: • Boronate adsorbent is prepared via ATRP and chain-end functionalization. • The adsorbent has quite high binding capacity for cis-diols. • Binding capacity is easily manipulated by ATRP condition. • Chain-end functionalization can improve binding capacity significantly. • Reduced adsorbent is consumed in dispersed solid-phase extraction of cis-diols.

  1. A review on small molecular diols production by catalytic hydrogenolysis of biomass derived polyols%生物质多元醇选择性催化氢解制小分子二元醇研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪英; 廖玉河; 石宁; 王铁军; 马隆龙; 张琦

    2013-01-01

    Selectively catalytic hydrogenolysis of biomass derived polyols (sorbitol,xylitol and glycerol) to small molecular diols (glycol and 1,2-/1,3-propanediols) has attracted more and more attention due to the wide application of these small molecular diols in fine and organic chemical, biology and pharmaceutical industries. Compared to the multi-stepped transformation of fossil based ethylene and propylene feedstocks,selective hydrogenolysis of biomass derived polyols to small molecular diols shows higher efficiency,simpler processing and more friendly to environment. This review is focused on the catalyst and reaction mechanism of selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-/1,3-propanediols and selective hydrogenolysis of sorbitol and xylitol to small molecular diols. The perspective of efficient catalyst and process for producing small molecular diols by hydrogenolysis of biomass derived polyols is discussed.%  乙二醇、1,2-/1,3-丙二醇等小分子二元醇在精细和有机化工、生物医药等领域应用广泛。与石化路径相比,以可再生的生物质多元醇(丙三醇、山梨醇/木糖醇)为原料选择性催化氢解制取上述小分子二元醇具有过程简单、绿色高效等显著优势,已成为生物质催化转化的研究热点。本文综述了典型生物质多元醇山梨醇/木糖醇和丙三醇选择性催化氢解为乙二醇、1,2-/1,3-丙二醇等小分子二元醇,重点阐述了丙三醇选择性氢解制1,2-丙二醇、1,3-丙二醇和山梨醇/木糖醇选择性氢解制小分子二元醇的催化剂体系和反应机理,并对该领域的发展前景作了展望,提出开发高效稳定的催化剂体系和工艺是未来的研究重点。

  2. Triol Based Polyurethane Gel Electrolytes for Electrochemical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A. R.

    2006-06-01

    Polyurethane gel electrolytes with various solvents such as propylene carbonate (PC), propylene carbonate - ethylene carbonate (PC-EC) and γ-butyrolactone - ethylene carbonate (GBL-EC) were synthesized and studied by different characterization tools. Impedance spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides the insight on ionic mobility in the gel electrolyte. The syneresis effect was studied by observing the weight loss as a function of time. Morphology of the gel electrolyte was investigated by ESEM. Among the various compositions, the maximum conductivity was observed for 35%PU-60%EC/GBL-5%LiClO4. The maximum conductivity of gel electrolytes was found to be 3.98 × 10-3 S/cm at the room temperature, which is higher than that reported in the domain of published literature for the thermoplastic polyurethane family. Moreover, merely 3.5% weight loss was observed for the period of 30 days. The 3.5% wt solvent loss has negligible effect on the conductivity of the gel electrolyte. Test cell was fabricated using polyurethane gel electrolyte and discharge characteristic was studied.

  3. Protection of rats against 3-butene-1,2-diol-induced hepatotoxicity and hypoglycemia by N-acetyl-L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-Butene-1,2-diol (BDD), an allylic alcohol and major metabolite of 1,3-butadiene, has previously been shown to cause hepatotoxicity and hypoglycemia in male Sprague-Dawley rats, but the mechanisms of toxicity were unclear. In this study, rats were administered BDD (250 mg/kg) or saline, ip, and serum insulin levels, hepatic lactate levels, and hepatic cellular and mitochondrial GSH, GSSG, ATP, and ADP levels were measured 1 or 4 h after treatment. The results show that serum insulin levels were not causing the hypoglycemia and that the hypoglycemia was not caused by an enhancement of the metabolism of pyruvate to lactate because hepatic lactate levels were either similar (1 h) or lower (4 h) than controls. However, both hepatic cellular and mitochondrial GSH and GSSG levels were severely depleted 1 and 4 h after treatment and the mitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio was also lowered 4 h after treatment relative to controls. Because these results suggested a role for hepatic cellular and mitochondrial GSH in BDD toxicity, additional rats were administered N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 200 mg/kg) 15 min after BDD administration. NAC treatment partially prevented depletion of hepatic cellular and mitochondrial GSH and preserved the mitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio. NAC also prevented the severe depletion of serum glucose concentration and the elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase activity after BDD treatment without affecting the plasma concentration of BDD. Thus, depletion of hepatic cellular and mitochondrial GSH followed by the decrease in the mitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio was likely contributing to the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity and hypoglycemia in the rat

  4. Noncovalent interactions of a benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with DNA base pairs: insight into the formation of adducts of (+)-BaP DE-2 with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargis, Jacqueline C; Schaefer, Henry F; Houk, K N; Wheeler, Steven E

    2010-02-01

    Noncovalent complexes of a tumorigenic benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with the guanine-cytosine (GC) and adenine-thymine (AT) base pairs have been examined computationally. (+)-BaP DE-2 forms covalent adducts with DNA via nucleophilic attack on the (+)-BaP DE-2 epoxide. Computational results predict five thermodynamically accessible complexes of AT with (+)-BaP DE-2 that are compatible with intact DNA. Among these, two are expected to lead to adenine adducts. In the lowest energy AT...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, which has a gas-phase interaction energy of -20.9 kcal mol(-1), the exocyclic NH(2) of adenine is positioned for backside epoxide attack and formation of a trans adduct. The most energetically favorable complex leading to formation of a cis ring-opened adduct lies only 0.6 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy. For GC...(+)-BaP DE-2, there are only two thermodynamically accessible complexes. The higher-lying complex, bound in the gas phase by 24.4 kcal mol(-1) relative to separated GC and (+)-BaP DE-2, would lead to a trans ring-opened N(2)-guanine adduct. In the global minimum energy GC...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, bound by 27.3 kcal mol(-1), the exocyclic NH(2) group of cytosine is positioned for cis epoxide addition. However, adducts of (+)-BaP DE-2 with cytosine are rarely observed experimentally. The paucity of cytosine adducts, despite the predicted thermodynamic stability of this GC...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, is attributed to the electrostatic destabilization of the benzylic cation intermediate thought to precede cis addition.

  5. A role for the androgen metabolite, 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol, in modulating oestrogen receptor beta-mediated regulation of hormonal stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, R J; Weiser, M J; Zuloaga, D G

    2009-03-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a basic response of animals to environmental perturbations that threaten homeostasis. These responses are regulated by neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) that synthesise and secrete corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). Other PVN neuropeptides, such as arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, can also modulate activity of CRH neurones in the PVN and enhance CRH secretagogue activity of the anterior pituitary gland. In rodents, sex differences in HPA reactivity are well established; females exhibit a more robust activation of the HPA axis after stress than do males. These sex differences primarily result from opposing actions of sex steroids, testosterone and oestrogen, on HPA function. Ostreogen enhances stress activated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) secretion, whereas testosterone decreases the gain of the HPA axis and inhibits ACTH and CORT responses to stress. Data show that androgens can act directly on PVN neurones in the male rat through a novel pathway involving oestrogen receptor (ER)beta, whereas oestrogen acts predominantly through ERalpha. Thus, we examined the hypothesis that, in males, testosterone suppresses HPA function via an androgen metabolite that binds ERbeta. Clues to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying such a novel action can be gleaned from studies showing extensive colocalisation of ERbeta in oxytocin-containing cells of the PVN. Hence, in this review, we address the possibility that testosterone inhibits HPA reactivity by metabolising to 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol, a compound that binds ERbeta and regulates oxytocin containing neurones of the PVN. These findings suggest a re-evaluation of studies examining pathways for androgen receptor signalling. PMID:19207807

  6. A Role for the Androgen Metabolite, 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-Diol, in Modulating Oestrogen Receptor β-Mediated Regulation of Hormonal Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, R. J.; Weiser, M. J.; Zuloaga, D. G.

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a basic response of animals to environmental perturbations that threaten homeostasis. These responses are regulated by neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) that synthesise and secrete corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). Other PVN neuropeptides, such as arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, can also modulate activity of CRH neurones in the PVN and enhance CRH secretagogue activity of the anterior pituitary gland. In rodents, sex differences in HPA reactivity are well established; females exhibit a more robust activation of the HPA axis after stress than do males. These sex differences primarily result from opposing actions of sex steroids, testosterone and oestrogen, on HPA function. Ostreogen enhances stress activated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) secretion, whereas testosterone decreases the gain of the HPA axis and inhibits ACTH and CORT responses to stress. Data show that androgens can act directly on PVN neurones in the male rat through a novel pathway involving oestrogen receptor (ER)β, whereas oestrogen acts predominantly through ERα. Thus, we examined the hypothesis that, in males, testosterone suppresses HPA function via an androgen metabolite that binds ERβ. Clues to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying such a novel action can be gleaned from studies showing extensive colocalisation of ERβ in oxytocin-containing cells of the PVN. Hence, in this review, we address the possibility that testosterone inhibits HPA reactivity by metabolising to 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol, a compound that binds ERβ and regulates oxytocin containing neurones of the PVN. These findings suggest a re-evaluation of studies examining pathways for androgen receptor signalling. PMID:19207807

  7. Effect of 2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl) ethyl] propane-1,3-diol hydrochloride (FTY 720) on immune liver injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Hua He; Hui-Na Zhang; Zhi-Bin Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect against two immune liver injury models in mice by 2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl] propane-1,3-diol hydrochloride and its possible mechanisms in Con A-induced liver damage.METHODS: Liver tissue or hepatocyte injury was monitored biochemically by measuring alanine aminotransferase (sALT)and aspartate aminotransferase (sAST) activity. Hematoxylin & eosin (HE) staining was used for histopathological examination. To evaluate the role of IFN-γ and IL-4 in the iver injury, serum levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were determined using commercially available ELISA kit at 12 h after Con A challenge. We also determined FTY 720-induced spleen cell apoptosis by flow cytometry analysis or spleen cell proliferation test.RESULTS: Different doses of FTY 720 treatment dramatically reduced circulating markers of hepatocyte injury in two kinds of immunological liver injury models. FTY 720 dramatically reduced the elevated serum IFN-γ and IL-4 levels after Con A injection. Effect of spleen cell supernatants treated with Con A or FTY 720 on hepatocytes showed that ALT activities in cultured hepatocyte supernatants in Con A treatment group increased markedly and FTY 720 could reduce this elevated ALT activities in FTY 720 treatment group. FTY 720 dose-dependently increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in T cells and inhibited splenocyte proliferation induced by Con A.CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with FTY 720 was shown to produce protective effect on the immune liver injury in mice. The possible mechanism of FTY 720 on Con A-induced liver damage is that it could inhibit lymphocyte proliferation and induce lymphocyte apoptosis, resulting in the reduction of IL-4 or IFN-γ release, and subsequently protecting liver from being damaged by Con A.

  8. (Eco)toxicological effects of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and permanent fish cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Krisztina; Gehring, Martin; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) is a high-production volume chemical used in paper, ink, pesticide, and adhesive industries as a wetting and anti-foaming agent. The physicochemical properties and slow biodegradation rate of TMDD indicate a low bioaccumulation potential but a high prevalence in the environment. As a consequence, TMDD has been detected in several European rivers in the nanogram per liter and lower microgram per liter range; however, its environmental risk to aquatic organisms is considered low. Recent studies almost exclusively focused on acute effects by TMDD, little is known about cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, reproduction and developmental toxicity, endocrine disruption, and any kind of long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity so far. The present study aims to provide more specific baseline information on the ecotoxicological effects of TMDD in fish. For this end, cyto- and genotoxicity assays were carried out in vitro with the permanent fish cell line RTL-W1; in addition, in vivo studies were conducted with the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in order to fill the data gaps in developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption. TMDD showed a cytotoxic and slight genotoxic potential in fish cell lines; moreover, various sublethal and lethal effects could be detected in developing zebrafish embryos. There was no evidence of endocrine-disrupting effects by TMDD; however, mortality following prolonged exposure to TMDD during fish sexual development test was clearly higher than mortality in the fish embryo test after 96-h exposure. Our results thus confirmed previous findings of laboratory screening tests, suggesting short-term toxic effects of TMDD in the intermediate, and long-term effects in the lower milligram per liter range. PMID:24687796

  9. Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide suppresses retinoic acid receptor-β2 expression by recruiting DNA (cytosine-5--methyltransferase 3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiao-Chun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tobacco smoke is an important risk factor for various human cancers, including esophageal cancer. How benzo [a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, a carcinogen present in tobacco smoke as well as in environmental pollution, induces esophageal carcinogenesis has yet to be defined. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for BPDE-suppressed expression of retinoic acid receptor-beta2 (RAR-β2 in esophageal cancer cells. We treated esophageal cancer cells with BPDE before performing methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP to find that BPDE induced methylation of the RAR-β2 gene promoter. We then performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays to find that BPDE recruited genes of the methylation machinery into the RAR-β2 gene promoter. We found that BPDE recruited DNA (cytosine-5--methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A, but not beta (DNMT3B, in a time-dependent manner to methylate the RAR-β2 gene promoter, which we confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of the reduced RAR-β2 expression in these BPDE-treated esophageal cancer cell lines. However, BPDE did not significantly change DNMT3A expression, but it slightly reduced DNMT3B expression. DNA methylase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza and DNMT3A small hairpin RNA (shRNA vector antagonized the effects of BPDE on RAR-β2 expressions. Transient transfection of the DNMT3A shRNA vector also antagonized BPDE's effects on expression of RAR-β2, c-Jun, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect. The results of this study form the link between the esophageal cancer risk factor BPDE and the reduced RAR-β2 expression.

  10. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway. PMID:16397275

  11. Dose-Response on the Chemopreventive Effects of Sarcophine-Diol on UVB-Induced Skin Tumor Development in SKH-1 Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandradhar Dwivedi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophine-diol (SD is a lactone ring-opened analogue of sarcophine. It has shown chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin tumor development in female CD-1 mice, as well as in a UVB-induced skin tumor development model in hairless SKH-1 mice at a dose of 30 μg SD applied topically and 180 mJ/cm2 UVB. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response on the chemopreventive effects of SD on SKH-1 hairless mice when exposed to a UVB radiation dose of 30 mJ/cm2. This UVB dose better represents chronic human skin exposure to sunlight leading to skin cancer than previous studies applying much higher UVB doses. Carcinogenesis was initiated and promoted by UVB radiation. Female hairless SKH-1 mice were divided into five groups. The control group was topically treated with 200 μL of acetone (vehicle, and the SD treatment groups were topically treated with SD (30 μg, 45 μg, and 60 μg dissolved in 200 μL of acetone 1 h before UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm2. The last group of animals received 60 μg SD/200 μL acetone without UVB exposure. These treatments were continued for 27 weeks. Tumor multiplicity and tumor volumes were recorded on a weekly basis for 27 weeks. Weight gain and any signs of toxicity were also closely monitored. Histological characteristics and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were evaluated in the mice skin collected at the end of the experiment. The dose-response study proved a modest increase in chemopreventive effects with the increase in SD dose. SD reduced the number of cells positively stained with PCNA proliferation marker in mice skin. The study also showed that SD application without UVB exposure has no effect on the structure of skin. The results from this study suggest that broader range doses of SD are necessary to improve the chemopreventive effects.

  12. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway.

  13. Poly[diaquabis(μ-4,4′-bipyridine-κ2N:N′bis(ethane-1,2-diol-κObis(μ-sulfato-κ2O:O′dicobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Zhong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Co2(SO42(C10H8N22(C2H6O22(H2O2]n, there are two crystallographically independent CoII ions, each of which lies on a twofold rotation axis and has a slightly distorted octahedral environment. One CoII ion is coordinated by two N atoms from two bridging 4,4′-bipyridine (4,4′-bipy ligands, two O atoms from two sulfate ions and two O atoms from aqua ligands. The second CoII ion is similar but with ethane-1,2-diol ligands in place of water molecules. The sulfate anions act as bridging ligands to link two adjacent CoII ions together, leading to the formation of linear ...Co1Co2Co1Co2...chains along the a axis. Adjacent chains are further bridged by 4,4′-bipy ligands, which are also located on the twofold rotation axis, resulting in a two-dimensional layered polymer extending parallel to (001. In the crystal, the layers are linked by extensive O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the O atoms of the water molecules and ethane-1,2-diol molecules, resulting in a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  14. Microbial transformation of diosgenin by Syncephalastrum racemosum(Cohn) Schroeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Microbial transformation of diosgenin(1) by Syncephalastrum racemosum yielded five new polar metabolites,which wereidentified as(25R)-spirost-5-en-3β,7α,9α-triol-12-one(2),(25R)-spirost-5-en-3β,9α,12α-triol-7-one(3),(25R)-spirost-5-en-3β,9α-diol-7,12-dione(4),(25R)-spirost-4-en-9α,12β,14α-triol-3-one(5),and(25S)-spirost-4-en-9α,14α,25β-triol-3-one(6).Compounds 1-6 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against K562 cells and among them compounds 2,3,and 6 were more potentthan the parent compound 1.

  15. Synthesis and Anion Recognition of Acyclic Ferrocene-Based Imidazole Receptors%双核开链茂铁咪唑受体的合成与阴离子识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓继斌; 晏希泉; 王小雪; 谢莉莉; 袁耀锋

    2015-01-01

    The design and synthesis of artificial receptors capable of binding and sensing anions have been widely explored in the field of host-guest chemistry. Herein, a series of acyclic ferrocene-based imidazolium receptors3a~3e were designed and synthesized. All the receptors were prepared by reactions of 1-(ferrocenylmethylene)imidazole1 with corresponding dibro-mides in solvent under refluxing, followed by anion exchanges with NH4PF6. The structures of all the products were deter-mined by IR,1H NMR,13C NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The crystal structure3e was confirmed by X-ray crystallog-raphy, and it was clear that molecules were linked by C—H…F hydrogen bonds interactions. The interaction between these receptors and various anions was studied by electrochemicalmeasurements and1H NMR spectroscopy. The receptors3a~3e were proven to be highly selective and sensitive to F-.1H NMR titrations demonstrated that the receptors and anions form 1∶1 complex, and the receptors displayed a strong (C—H)+…X- in anion recognition. Receptor3c was the most effective re-ceptor to bind with fluoride ion compared to the others.%通过二茂铁甲基咪唑1与不同的二溴代烷反应合成了一系列双核开链的茂铁咪唑受体3a~3e,化合物3e的晶体结构表明分子间有着强的C—H…F氢键作用。利用电化学和核磁共振氢谱考察了受体3a~3e对不同常见阴离子的识别能力。电化学滴定实验表明受体3a~3e在乙腈溶液中均能很好地识别F-。核磁滴定证实了受体与不同阴离子之间氢键作用及参与类型。 Job曲线表明受体分子与阴离子间形成1∶1型的配合物,通过络合常数(Ka)的对比表明受体3c对氟离子的选择性识别能力最好。

  16. On acyclicity of games with cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Gurvich, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We study restricted improvement cycles (ri-cycles) in finite positional n-person games with perfect information modeled by directed graphs (di-graphs) that may contain directed cycles (di-cycles). We assume that all these di-cycles form one outcome c, for example, a draw. We obtain criteria of re...

  17. Equity valuation in cyclical and acyclical industries

    OpenAIRE

    Shuqair, Rand

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides an overview of various valuation approaches, mainly the multiples-based approach, the Dividend Discount Model, Discounted Cash Flow Model, Residual Income Valuation Model and the Abnormal Earnings Growth Model. In addition, it highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each, and follows with a discussion of the models and evidence of empirical research. It then takes the angle of assessing the performance of selected valuation models (Price to Ear...

  18. 食用植物油中3-氯丙醇酯的研究进展%Research progress on 3- monochloropropane- 1,2- diol esters in edible oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娇; 金青哲

    2011-01-01

    介绍了3-氯丙醇酯的定义、分类、潜在毒性及其在食用植物油加工过程中可能形成的途径,以及其在食用植物油中的含量,旨在促进对食用植物油加工污染物危害的认识和控制.%The definition, classification, potential toxicity of 3 - monochloropropane - 1,2- diol esters (3 - MCPD esters,3 - MCPDE) and the form approaches of the 3 - MCPDE during the processing of the edible vegetable oils, as well as the content of 3 - MCPDE in current edible vegetable oils were introduced so as to promote the understanding and control for the hazards of contaminants forming in the processing of edible oils.

  19. Monoterpenoids from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new acyclic monoterpenoids named (2E-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O-a-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1®6-b-D-glucopyranoside (1, (3Z,6E-3,7-dimethyl-3,6-octadiene-1,2,8-triol (2 and (6E-7-methyl-3-methylene-6-octene-1,2,8-triol (3 were isolated from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits, along with three known monoterpenoid compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS and chemical methods.

  20. Quasi-Classical Description Logics and Paraconsistent Tableau Calculus for Reasoning with Acyclic TBox%非周期TBox框架下的推理——拟经典描述逻辑与超协调表演算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴尽昭; 侯晖; 李绍荣

    2009-01-01

    The forthcoming semantic Web evolving from the current World Wide Web is designed to define the semantics of information and services on the web, thereby endowing the web with intelligence to automatically reason about the web contents. Description logics (DLs) play a substantial role in the semantic Web, since they underlie the W3C-recommended Web ontology language (OWL), which is derived from ontology research in artificial intelligence (AI) in order to achieve the goal of the semantic Web. However, the knowledge and data in the Semantic Web are large-scale, dispersive, multi-authored, and therefore usually inconsistent. It is reasonable and imperative to develop practical reasoning techniques for inconsistent ontologies. This paper proposes a new type of paraconsistent description logics based on Hunter's quasi-classical logic (QCL), which are termed as quasi-classical description logics (QCDLs). QCDLs avoid logical explosion. A semantic tableau calculus is constructed in QCDLs for the reasoning on the knowledge bases with acyclic TBox. Furthermore, a sound, complete and decidable consequence relation based on the calculus is defined. These enable a complete framework for paraconsistent reasoning in the Semantic Web. A comparison with other key paraconsistent description logics is also given. It is shown that QCDLs possess more expressive semantics and stronger reasoning capability, and that its connectives behave classically at the object level.%源自当今互联网的语义网研究的目的是定义信息语义和网络服务,因此需要赋予网络智能以便能够自动对网络内容进行推理.各种描述逻辑(DLs)在语义网的研究中扮演着重要角色,构成了W3C推荐的网络本体语言(OWL)的基础,而OWL源于为达到语义网目标的人工智能(AI)本体论研究.语义网的知识和数据量巨大、分散、来源众多且因此通常不具有协调性.因此,必须开发针对非协调本体的实用的推理技术.该文基

  1. 北京市场液体调味品中3-氯-1,2-丙二醇污染状况研究%Survey of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol in soysauce and similar products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金庆中; 张正; 罗仁才; 李洁; 周珊

    2001-01-01

    1999年英国等欧洲国家在中国及中国香港产的调味品中检测出较高含量的3-氯-1,2-丙二醇[3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol(简称3-MCPD)],根据英国FoodAdvisoryCommittee(FAC)的建议,已停止这些产品在英国的销售。本研究提供了在中国市场销售的部分液体调味品中的3-MCPD的污染状况,30种酱油、蚝油及类似产品于2000年3~4月购自北京6家超级市场,采用毛细管气相色谱-质谱法,方法的检出限为0.01mg/kg。在30种检测样品中15种未检测出3-MCPD;2种在比较低的水平(0.01~0.02mg/kg),5种在比较高的水平(>1mg/kg)。%A survey of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in soy sauceand other similar products available in China has been completed. Thirty samples of soy, oyster sauce and other sauces were purchased from six supermarkets in Beijing during March and April 2000 and analysed using a validated method of analysis by capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The UK Food Advisory Committee (FAC) has advised a level of 0.01mg/kg for 3-MCPD. Following reports that high levels had been detected in some brands of soy sauce in China. 3-MCPD was undetectable with a detection limit of 0.01 mg/kg in 15 of the 30 samples analyzed in the survey, with a further 4 samples (13.3%) containing very low levels of between 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg. However, 5 samples (16.7%) contained 3-MCPD levels above 1mg/kg.

  2. 功能化离子液体在室温下催化醛(酮)与二元醇的缩合反应%Acetalization of aldehydes (ketones) with diols catalyzed by functional ionic liquids under room-temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢毅; 方东

    2009-01-01

    采用功能化离子液体1-甲基-3-丙磺酸基咪唑盐作为溶剂/催化剂双功能体系,通过探针反应,固定原料环己酮与离子液体催化剂的摩尔比为50∶1进行工艺参数的优化,得到优化工艺条件为:n(环己酮)∶n(1,2-丙二醇)=1∶1.5,在20℃条件下反应0.1 h可以得到缩合产物,转化率大于97%.研究了该催化剂对其他醛(酮)与二元醇的缩合反应的催化性能,结果表明,该工艺无需有机溶剂及脱水剂,反应结束产物与催化体系分层,通过倾析便可得到产物,简化了分离过程且离子液体可以循环使用.%Some functional ionic liquids (FILs) composed of 1-methyl-3-propane sulfo-imidazolium salts were synthesized and used as solvent-catalyst dual system for acetalization of aldehydes (ketones) with diols. The model reaction was carried out based upon molar ratio of raw material cyclohexanone and the FILs catalyst as 50: 1. The optimized conditions of the condensation reaction were identified as : 1 : 1.5 molar ratio of cyclohexanone and 1,2 - propanediol, under reaction temperature 20℃ for 0.1 h. The conversion achieves 97% and the reaction process is free of any organic solvent and water stripping agent. The condensation reactions of the other aldehydes (ketones) with other diols were also explored. After completion of the reaction, the product can be separated from the catalyst simply by decantation, and the catalyst can be recycled and reused for several times without noticeable decreasing of activity.

  3. Study on the Inhibition Mechanism of 4-(4-Hydroxyphenethyl) Benzene-1, 2-Diol on Urease%4-(4-羟基苯基)乙基儿茶酚作为尿素酶抑制剂的机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭知云; 王旭东; 冯玉婷; 何娟; 肖竹平

    2012-01-01

    4-(4-Hydroxyphenethyl) benzene-l, 2-diol is a new inhibitor against Helicobacter Pylori ure- ase. The inhibition mechanism was herein investigated through enzyme kinetics methods,and the results revealed that 4-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)benzene-1,2-diol was competitive inhibitor of urease with a Ki val- ue of 1.48 t~mol/L. The chemical stabilitiy and the competitive mechanism of 4-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)- benzene-1,2-diol strongly suggested that it could be used as a lead compound for rational drug design to find active compound and as a potential urease inhibitor for treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer.%4-(4-羟基苯基)乙基儿茶酚是一种新型幽门螺旋杆菌尿素酶抑制剂,运用酶动力学研究方法,对它的抑制机理、抑制类型进行探讨.实验结果表明,4-(4-羟基苯基)乙基儿茶酚是尿素酶的竞争性抑制剂,抑制常数K:为1.48/μmol/L,为其在抗胃炎、胃溃疡方面的应用以及进一步的结构优化奠定了理论基础.

  4. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of(3S,4R,Z)-3,6-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbut-2-enylidene)-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran-3,4-diol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lei; FANG Hu-Biao; HUANG Nian-Yu; WANG Jun-Zhi; ZOU Kun

    2011-01-01

    The title compound of(3S,4R,Z)-3,6-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbut-2-enylidene)-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran-3,4-diol,C15H22O3,as a potential gastric cytoprotective agent has been synthesized by the reduction of bisabolangelone in methanol with sodium borohydride.The title compound was characterized by IR and NMR spectra.Meanwhile,the crystal was obtained and determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction.Crystal data:monoclinic system,space group P21 with a = 6.0692(12),b = 8.9954(18),c = 13.182(3) ,β = 92.59(3)°,V = 718.9(2) 3,Z = 2,F(000) = 272,Dc = 1.156 g/cm3,μ = 0.633 mm-1,R = 0.0362 and wR = 0.1051 for 9490 independent reflections(Rint = 0.0172) and 2461 observed reflections(I 2σ(I)).Intermolecular O-H…O interactions link the molecules into one-dimensional infinite chains running along the b axis,which contributes to the stability of the crystal structure.

  5. Determination of boron in waters and in water extracts from wastes by molecular and atomic absorption spectrometry following preliminary boron separation by extraction of its complex with 2-ethylhexane-1,3-diol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for boron determination were developed and tested. The analysis is based on boron separation and preconcentration by extraction from an acid aqueous solution into a chloroform solution of 2-ethylhexane-1,3-diol followed by reextraction into aqueous sodium hydroxide, and subsequent molecular absorption spectroscopic determination with curcumine at 543 nm or atomic absorption spectroscopic determination at 249.8 nm in a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The limits of determination (3s criterion) for the two methods are 0.002 and 0.1 mg/l, respectively. The methods were compared with the conventional procedure based on the use of azomethine-H. While the sensitivities of the methods are comparable (the limit of determination for the azomethine-H method is 0.02 mg/l), the proposed methods exhibit a better reliability and are widely applicable to the determination of total boron in all types of water and water extracts. (author) 3 tabs., 37 refs

  6. A study of dinitro-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1,1'-diol and derivatives: design of high-performance insensitive energetic materials by the introduction of N-oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, Alexander A; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2013-07-01

    In this contribution we report on the synthesis and full structural as well as spectroscopic characterization of 3,3'-dinitro-5,5'-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1,1'-diol and nitrogen-rich salts thereof. The first synthesis and characterization of an energetic 1-hydroxy-bistriazole in excellent yields and high purity is presented. This simple and straightforward method of N-oxide introduction in triazole compounds using commercially available oxone improves the energetic properties and reveals a straightforward synthetic pathway toward novel energetic 1,2,4-triazole derivatives. X-ray crystallographic measurements were performed and deliver insight into structural characteristics and strong intermolecular interactions. The standard enthalpies of formation were calculated for all compounds at the CBS-4 M level of theory, revealing highly positive heats of formation for all compounds. The energetic properties of all compounds (detonation velocity, pressure, etc.) were calculated using the EXPLO5.05 program, and the ionic derivatives show superior performance in comparison to the corresponding compounds bearing no N-oxide. All substances were characterized in terms of sensitivities (impact, friction, electrostatic) and thermal stabilities, and the ionic derivatives were found to be high thermally stable, insensitive compounds that are exceedingly powerful but safe to handle and prepare.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of (Na0.sK0.5)NbO3 (NKN) Thin Films Formed by a Diol-based Sol-gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SeSastian Wiegandt; Stefan Flege; Olaf Baake; Wolfgang Ensinger

    2012-01-01

    Lead-free (Na0.sK0.5)Nb03 (NKN) thin films were fabricated by spin coating on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a diol-based sol-gel process. Na-acetate, K-acetate, Nb-pentaethoxide and 1,3 propanediol were used to prepare the NKN precursor solution. Thermal analysis showed two characteristic temperatures of 360 and 600℃. Based on these temperatures, a heat treatment program with pyrolysis at 360℃ and calcination at 600℃ after every layer was used. To avoid inhomogeneities and secondary phases, an excess of sodium and potassium was necessary. To evaluate the proper excess amount of sodium and potassium secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) lateral element maps and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were recorded. An excess amount of 20% led to homogeneous distribution of the elements and to single phase perovskite NKN films with random crystal orientation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEMI images showed a pore free surface with 100 nm grains. The leakage current measurements showed a current of lx10-3 A/cm2 at 150 kV/cm.

  8. Oxidative Damage to Nucleic Acids and Benzo(apyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts and Chromosomal Aberration in Children with Psoriasis Repeatedly Exposed to Crude Coal Tar Ointment and UV Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Borska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a prospective cohort study. Observed group was formed of children with plaque psoriasis (n=19 treated by Goeckerman therapy (GT. The study describes adverse (side effects associated with application of GT (combined exposure of 3% crude coal tar ointment and UV radiation. After GT we found significantly increased markers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and 8-hydroxyguanine, significantly increased levels of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE DNA adducts (BPDE-DNA, and significantly increased levels of total number of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. We found significant relationship between (1 time of UV exposure and total number of aberrated cells and (2 daily topical application of 3% crude coal tar ointment (% of body surface and level of BPDE-DNA adducts. The findings indicated increased hazard of oxidative stress and genotoxic effects related to the treatment. However, it must be noted that the oxidized guanine species and BPDE-DNA adducts also reflect individual variations in metabolic enzyme activity (different extent of bioactivation of benzo[a]pyrene to BPDE and overall efficiency of DNA/RNA repair system. The study confirmed good effectiveness of the GT (significantly decreased PASI score.

  9. TETRAHYDROFURAN POLYMERIZATION INITIATED WITH HETEROPOLYACID Ⅷ. 1,1,1-TRIHYDROXYMETHYLENEPROPANE AS MOLECULAR WEIGHT CONTROLLER%杂多酸引发四氢呋喃开环聚合反应 Ⅷ. 以1,1,1-三羟甲基丙烷为分子量调节剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 张广利; 张鸿志

    2001-01-01

    Polyether triol with molecular weight distribution index being 1.3~1.5 was prepared in yield around 50% by tetrahydrofuran polymerization using heteropolyacid-H-3PW12O40 and ethylene oxide as initiator system and 1,1,1-trihydroxymethylenepropane(TMP) as molecular weight controller.The average hydroxyl functionality was estimated by end-group analysis and VPO to be close or equal to 3. The 1H-NMR spectra showed that about 1/3 hydroxyl of TMP did not react with the propagating chains in the THF polymerization.Each of the unreacted hydroxyl groups of TMP attached to the middle or to the end of a diol chain as a pendent primary hydroxyl group forming the obtained polyether triol. All the hydroxyls of polyether triol were verified to be active enough towards 4,4′-methylene bis(phenyl isocynate) in the preparation of polyurethanes.

  10. Transetherification on polyols by intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic substitutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muraoka

    Full Text Available Transetherification on polyols involving intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic substitutions is reported. Di- or trialkoxide formation of propane-1,3-diol or 2-(hydroxymethylpropane-1,3-diol derivatives by NaH triggers the reaction via oxetanes formation, where the order to add NaH and a polyol significantly influences the yields of products. It was demonstrated that the protective group on the pentaerythritol skeleton is apparently transferred to the hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain molecules bearing a leaving group in one-step, and a protective group conversion from tosyl to benzyl was successful using a benzyl-appending triol to afford a desired product in 67% yield.

  11. Efficient synthesis of 1,3,5-oxygenated synthons from dimethyl 3-oxoglutarate: first use of borane-dimethyl sulfide complex as a regioselective reducing agent of 3-oxygenated glutarate derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective reduction of dimethyl 3-oxoglutarate was accomplished in different levels. A high yielding sodium borohydride reduction of the keto group is fully described leading to dimethyl 3-hydroxyglutarate. When borane-dimethyl sulfide (BMS) complex was used, a diol or a triol compound can be obtained by selective or total reduction of 3-hydroxy- or 3-oxoglutarate, respectively, allowing an efficient and practical route to 1,3,5-oxygenated compounds. (author)

  12. Efficient synthesis of 1,3,5-oxygenated synthons from dimethyl 3-oxoglutarate: first use of borane-dimethyl sulfide complex as a regioselective reducing agent of 3-oxygenated glutarate derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riatto, Valeria B.; Carneiro, Maria N.M.; Victor, Mauricio M., E-mail: mmvictor@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Carvalho, Venilia B. [Centro Universitario FIB, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias da Saude

    2011-07-01

    The selective reduction of dimethyl 3-oxoglutarate was accomplished in different levels. A high yielding sodium borohydride reduction of the keto group is fully described leading to dimethyl 3-hydroxyglutarate. When borane-dimethyl sulfide (BMS) complex was used, a diol or a triol compound can be obtained by selective or total reduction of 3-hydroxy- or 3-oxoglutarate, respectively, allowing an efficient and practical route to 1,3,5-oxygenated compounds. (author)

  13. 催化剂对二元醇伯仲羟基氨酯化反应的影响%Effect of the Catalyst on the Urethane Reaction Selectivity of Different Hydroxyl in Diol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺平; 杨鹏飞; 赵超; 李俊英; 李天铎

    2012-01-01

    The urethane reaction of 1,2-propylene glycol or 1,3-butylene glycol with phenyl isocyanate was investigated with toluene,butyl acetate or N,N-dimethylformamide as solvents and trimethylamine(TEA) or 1,4-Diazabicyclooctane(DABCO) as catalyst,respectively.A comparative research between the primary and secondary hydroxyl groups in diol was done.It showed that the reactivity difference between the two hydroxyl groups was affected by amine catalyst.The reactivity difference of hydroxyl groups in 1,2-propylene glycol was nearly 11 when TEA was used as catalyst and toluene was used as solvent.When reacting with phenyl isocyanate at the same condition,1,3-butylene glycol showed similar rate constants compared with 1,2-propylene glycol,the reactivity difference of primary and secondary hydroxyl group in 1,3-butylene glycol was also very similar to 1,2-propylene glycol.%分别以甲苯、乙酸丁酯和N,N-二甲基甲酰胺作溶剂,以三乙胺(TEA)、1,4-二氮杂二环[2.2.2]辛烷(DABCO)作催化剂,进行1,2-丙二醇、1,3-丁二醇与苯基异氰酸酯的反应。用在线红外光谱监测反应过程,研究了二元醇中不同类型羟基的反应活性。结果表明,催化剂能够扩大伯羟基与仲羟基的反应活性差异。以甲苯作溶剂、TEA作催化剂时,1,2-丙二醇中伯羟基与仲羟基的活性差异最大,可达11倍左右。在相同条件下与苯基异氰酸酯反应时,1,2-丙二醇、1,3-丁二醇的反应速率相近,两者伯羟基与仲羟基的活性差异也相近。

  14. MicroRNA Expression Profiles and MiR-10a Target in Anti-benzo[a] pyrene-7, 8-diol-9, 10-epoxide-transformed Human 16HBE Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE-LAN SHEN; YI-Guo JIANG; ANNE R. GREENLEE; LAN-LAN ZHOU; LIN-HUA LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To screen miRNA profiles of malignantly transformed human bronchial epithelial cells, 16HBE-T, induced by anti-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (anti-BPDE), and to analyze putative miR-10a targets in 16HBE-T. Methods A novel microarray platform was employed to screen miRNA profiles of 16HBE-T cells transformed by anti-BPDE. Microarray data for miR-10a and miR-320 were validated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). The expression of a putative target for miR-10a, HOXA1, was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and QRT-PCR. Results In comparison with the vehicle-treated cells (16HBE-N), 16HBE-T exhibited differential expression of 54 miRNAs, in which, 45 were over-expressed and 9 were down-regulated. The five most highly expressed miRNAs were miR-494, miR-320, miR-498, miR-129, and miR-106a. The lowest expressed miRNAs were miR-10a, miR-493-Sp, and miR-363*. Three members of miR-17-92 cluster, miR-17-Sp, miR-20a, and miR-92, showed significantly higher abundance in 16BHE-T as miR-21, miR-141, miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-16 and miRNAs of the let-7 family. The putative target for miR-10a, HOXA1 mRNA was up-regulated 3-9-fold in 16HBE-T, as compared with 16HBE-N. Conclusion The findings of the study provide information on differentially expressed miRNA in malignant 16HBE-T, and also suggest a potential role of these miRNAs in cell transformation induced by anti-BPDE. HOXA1 is similarly up-regulated, suggesting that miR-10a is associated with the process of HOXA 1-mediated transformation.

  15. 对(艹孟)烷-3,8-二醇的合成与应用研究进展%Research Progress on Synthesis and Application of p-Menthane-3,8-diol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽芝; 赵振东; 毕良武; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    对(艹孟)烷-3,8-二醇是一种具有生物活性的化合物,主要来源于柠檬桉精油,可直接用于香水、杀虫剂和药品等.通常采用化学和生物化学的方法合成对(艹孟)烷-3,8-二醇,以替代从柠檬桉叶油分离得到的天然产品.以香茅醛为原料通过Prins环缩合和水解,或者通过Solanum aviculare悬浮培养方式进行生物转化得到对(艹孟)烷-3,8-二醇;通过薄荷醇的氧化,或者以2-丁烯醛为原料与甲基锂、NaClO2等试剂经过较长步骤也可合成对(艹孟)烷-3,8-二醇.对(艹孟)烷-3,8-二醇可应用于制造驱虫剂、凉味剂、药物或者化妆品的添加剂以及海水防护涂料添加剂等.%p-Menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) is a bioactive compound, which is first found in essential oil of leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora and often used as an active composition for perfume, insecticide, and medicine. It is usually synthesized by chemical or biological approaches instead of the direct isolation from the E. citriodora oil. PMD can be synthesized from citronellal through a prins reaction and a hydration,or be transformed from citronellal through a Solarium avwulare suspension culture. It can also be produced from menthol with an oxidation,or synthesized from 2-butenal by a long step reactions with reagents such as MeIi,NaClO2,etc.PMD can be used as repellent,coolant,pharmaceutical,cosmetics,and coatings.

  16. 注射用磷霉素钠中磷霉素钠二醇物含量测定方法的研究%Study on the determination of fosfomycin sodium diol substance in fosfomycin sodium for injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹宇; 刘珂; 姜雯; 张亚杰; 刘亚威

    2012-01-01

    Objectives;To establish LC - MS/MS and HPLC - RID methods to determine fosfomycin sodium diol substance in fosfomycin sodium for injection, and compare with the method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia to improve the quality control of fosfomycin sodium. Methods: LC - MS/MS method was achieved on Promosil CN column (2S0 mm x4. 6 mm,5 p,m)with mobile phase consisting of 5 mmol · L"1 ammonium acetate solution - methanol (82:18). The analytes were detected in the negative ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring using the precursor to product ion combinations of m/z 154. 9 ->80. 9 and m/z 120. 9 ->77. 1 was performed to quantify fosfomycin diol substance and the internal standard benzoic acid, respectively. HPLC - RID method was achieved on Agilent Zorbax NH2 column(250 mm x4. 6 mm,5 (xm) utilizing a mobile phase of 10. 89 g · L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL · min"1. The column temperature was 36℃and the temperature of RID detector was set at 35℃. Results;The LC - MS/MS method;The standard curve was linear in the concentration range of 22. 46 - 359. 4 ng · mL-1. The lower limit of quantification was 4. 492 ng · mL-1,each sample was chromatographed within 5 min. The HPLC - RID method;The standard curve was linear in the concentration range of 0. 104 - 5. 205 mg · mL-1 , the method precision was 0. 7% . Conclusions; The two methods are specific, simple and reliable, and can be applied to quality research and control of fosfomycin sodium for injection.%目的:建立液相色谱串联质谱法和高效液相色谱-示差折光法测定注射用磷霉素钠中的磷霉素钠二醇物含量,并与现行中国药典方法比较,提高对药品的质量控制.方法:液相色谱串联质谱法采用Promosil CN(250 mm×4.6mm,5μm)色谱柱,流动相为5 mmol·L-1醋酸铵-甲醇(82:18),采用(-)ESI电离源,多反应监测(MRM)扫描方式,用于定量分析的离子分别为m/z 154.9→80.9(磷霉素二醇物)和m/z 120.9 →77.1(内标

  17. A Study of the Benchmark Interest Rate Options in China's Financial Markets under the Dual-Track System: Based on an Analysis of the Directed Acyclic Graph%利率双轨制下我国金融市场基准利率的选择研究——基于有向无环图的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方意; 赵胜民

    2012-01-01

    基准利率的选择是我国利率市场化改革的重点。基于四种利率并结合“有向无环图”技术方法对我国金融市场基准利率选择进行的实证研究表明,在当前利率双轨制背景下,市场化利率还不能起到基准利率的作用,而以存款基准利率为代表的管制利率是我国金融市场的基准利率。对于市场化利率来说,Shibor比回购利率的基准利率属性更强。%The choice of the benchmark interest rate is the focus of China's market-oriented in- terest rate reform. Based on the four kinds of interest rates and combined with the technical method of the directed acyclic graph, this paper conducts an empirical study of the benchmark interest rate option in China's financial markets, The result indicates that in the present context of the dual-track interest rate system the market-oriented interest rates can not play the role of the benchmark interest rate yet, while the controlled interest rates represented by the benchmark rate of deposits is served as the benchmark interest rate in China's financial markets. As for the market-oriented interest rates, Shibor has a stronger property as the benchmark interest rate than the repo rate

  18. Correlation between Phenylphenalenone Phytoalexins and Phytopathological Properties in Musa and the Role of a Dihydrophenylphenalene Triol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schneider

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation has been established between production of specific phenylphenalenones and resistance of various banana and plantain varieties towards certain pathogens. In addition a dihydrotrihydroxyphenylphenalene was isolated from the resistant 'Pelipita' plantain variety in relatively high concentrations and its structure and relative configuration were assigned on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and NOE information. This compound is considered a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of phenylphenalenone phytoalexins.

  19. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. PMID:25172515

  20. Modelling discrete longitudinal data using acyclic probabilistic finite automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantharama Ankinakatte, Smitha; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    to minimize a penalized likelihood criterion such as AIC or BIC is described. This algorithm is compared to one implemented in Beagle, a widely used program for processing genomic data, both in terms of rate of convergence to the true model as the sample size increases, and a goodness-of-fit measure assessed...

  1. Schur complements of matrices with acyclic bipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Olesky, D.D.; van den Driessche, P.

    2005-01-01

    Bipartite graphs are used to describe the generalized Schur complements of real matrices having nos quare submatrix with two or more nonzero diagonals. For any matrix A with this property, including any nearly reducible matrix, the sign pattern of each generalized Schur complement is shown to be ...

  2. Enumeration of Golomb Rulers and Acyclic Orientations of Mixed Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Matthias; Pham, Tu

    2011-01-01

    A \\emph{Golomb ruler} is a sequence of distinct integers (the \\emph{markings} of the ruler) whose pairwise differences are distinct. Golomb rulers can be traced back to additive number theory in the 1930s and have attracted recent research activities on existence problems, such as the search for \\emph{optimal} Golomb rulers (those of minimal length given a fixed number of markings). Our goal is to enumerate Golomb rulers in a systematic way: we study [g_m(t) := # {\\x \\in \\Z^{m+1} : \\, 0 = x_0 < x_1 < ... < x_{m-1} < x_m = t, \\text{all} x_j - x_k \\text{distinct}},] the number of Golomb rulers with $m+1$ markings and length $t$. Our main result is that $g_m(t)$ is a quasipolynomial in $t$ which satisfies a combinatorial reciprocity theorem: $(-1)^{m-1} g_m(-t)$ equals the number of rulers $\\x$ of length $t$ with $m+1$ markings, each counted with its \\emph{Golomb multiplicity}, which measures how many combinatorially different Golomb rulers are in a small neighborhood of $\\x$. Our reciprocity theorem...

  3. Pillar switchings and acyclic embedding in mapping class group

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Chan-Seok

    2012-01-01

    The braid group $B_g$ is embedded in the ribbon braid group that is defined to be the mapping class group $\\Gamma_{0,(g),1}$. By gluing two copies of surface $S_{0,g+2}$ along $g+1$ holes, we get surface $S_{g,1}$. A pillar switching is a self-homeomorphism of $S_{g,1}$ which switches two pillars of surfaces by $180{}^\\circ$ horizontal rotation. We analyze the actions of pillar switchings on $\\pi_1 S_{g,1}$ and then give concrete expressions of pillar switchings in terms of standard Dehn twists. The map $\\psi: B_g \\rightarrow \\Gamma_{g,1}$ sending the generators of $B_g$ to pillar switchings on $S_{g,1}$ is defined by extending the embedding $B_g \\hookrightarrow \\Gamma_{0,(g+1),1}$. We show that this map is injective by analyzing the actions of pillar switchings on $\\pi_1 S_{g,1}$. The second part of this paper is to prove that this map induces a trivial homology homomorphism in the stable range. For the proof we use the categorical delooping. We construct a suitable monoidal 2-functor from tile category to s...

  4. Hyperprolactinemia-induced ovarian acyclicity is reversed by kisspeptin administration

    OpenAIRE

    Sonigo, Charlotte; Bouilly, Justine; Carré, Nadège; Tolle, Virginie; Caraty, Alain; Tello, Javier; Simony-Conesa, Fabian-Jesus; Millar, Robert; Young, Jacques; Binart, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is the most common cause of hypogonadotropic anovulation and is one of the leading causes of infertility in women aged 25-34. Hyperprolactinemia has been proposed to block ovulation through inhibition of GnRH release. Kisspeptin neurons, which express prolactin receptors, were recently identified as major regulators of GnRH neurons. To mimic the human pathology of anovulation, we continuously infused female mice with prolactin. Our studies demonstrated that hyperprolactinem...

  5. Hyperprolactinemia-induced ovarian acyclicity is reversed by kisspeptin administration

    OpenAIRE

    Sonigo, Charlotte; Bouilly, Justine; Carré, Nadège; Tolle, Virginie; Caraty, Alain; Tello, Javier; Simony-Conesa, Fabian-Jesus; Millar, Robert; Young, Jacques; Binart, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is the most common cause of hypogonadotropic anovulation and is one of the leading causes of infertility in women aged 25–34. Hyperprolactinemia has been proposed to block ovulation through inhibition of GnRH release. Kisspeptin neurons, which express prolactin receptors, were recently identified as major regulators of GnRH neurons. To mimic the human pathology of anovulation, we continuously infused female mice with prolactin. Our studies demonstrated that hyperprolactinem...

  6. Two New Furostanol Glycosides from Asparagus cochinchinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new furostanol oligoglycosides named as aspacochioside A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.. Their structures were elucidated to be 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}{β-D-glucopyranosyl}]-26-O-[β-D-glucopy- ranosyl]-(25S)-5β-furostane-3β,22α,26-triol 1 and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}{(-D-glu- copyranosyl}]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-22α-methoxy-(25S)-5β-furostane-3β,26-diol 2 on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods.

  7. Microbial transformations of isocupressic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S J; Rosazza, J P

    1998-07-01

    Microbial transformations of the labdane-diterpene isocupressic acid (1) with different microorganisms yielded several oxygenated metabolites that were isolated and characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Nocardia aurantia (ATCC 12674) catalyzed the cleavage of the 13,14-double bond to yield a new nor-labdane metabolite, 2. Cunninghamella elegans (-) (NRRL 1393) gave 7beta-hydroxyisocupressic acid (3) and labda-7,13(E)-diene-6beta,15, 17-triol-19-oic acid (4), and Mucor mucedo (ATCC 20094) gave 2alpha-hydroxyisocupressic acid (5) and labda-8(17),14-diene-2alpha, 13-diol-19-oic acid (6).

  8. Two new mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins, annomuricin E and muricapentocin, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G S; Zeng, L; Alali, F; Rogers, L L; Wu, F E; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1998-04-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) has resulted in the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricine (1) and muricapentocin (2). Compounds 1 and 2 are monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins bearing two flanking hydroxyl groups; however, each has three additional hydroxyl groups. Compound 1 has an erythro 1,2-diol, and 2 has a 1,5,9-triol moiety. Both 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxicities against six types of human tumors, with selectivities to the pancreatic carcinoma (PACA-2) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cell lines.

  9. Two New Sterols from Amoora yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two new sterols, 3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5,22-diene 1, 3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5-ene 2, were isolated together with two known ergosterols, ergosta-5,24(28)-diene-3β,7α-diol, ergosta-5,24(28)-diene-3β,7α,16β-triol from the bark of Amoora yunnanensis (H. L. Li) C. Y. Wu. Their structures were deduced on the basis of spectral data.

  10. Sterols from the Fungus Catathelasma imperiale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG, Sheng-Ping; XU, Jun; YUE, Jian-Min

    2003-01-01

    Eight ergostane-type sterols and three their derivatives (one mono-linoleate and two mono-glucosides) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the fungus Catathelasma imperiale. Two of them are novel compounds, namely 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β, 5α-diol-6β-linoleate (1) and 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5β,6α-triol (5) with an uncommon cisfused A/B ring. Structures of these compounds were demonstrated on the basis of their chemical evidences and spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques.

  11. Determination of 3-Monochloropropane-l,2-diol in Soy Sauce and Oyster Sauce by Solid Phase Extraction Combined with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%固相萃取与气相色谱-质谱联用分析调味料中3-氯-1,2-丙二醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊珺; 龚亮; 赖毅东

    2011-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method for determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in sauce samples by solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described. In this work, elution solvent type and amount and sample loading amount were investigated to optimize SPE conditions. The optimal sample preparation procedure for treating 5.0 g of samples involved homogenization with 5 mol/L sodium chloride solution, clean-up on SPE column and derivitization prior to GC-MS analysis. The limit of detection of the method for 3-MCPD was 0.15 μg/kg, and the linear range 0.51 -- 6144μ g/kg, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 and a relative standard deviation of 8.8% (RSD, n = 5). The method was applied to determine soy sauce and oyster sauce samples and spiked recoveries of 87.2%- 109.4% with RSDs (n = 3) of 5.6% - 10.2% were obtained.%建立固相萃取与气相色谱一质谱联用(solid phase extraction with gas chromatography—mass spectrometry,SPE.GC—MS)测定调味料中3-氯-1,2-丙二醇的新方法。对影响分析物SPE萃取效率的诸因素如洗脱溶剂、洗脱溶剂的体积和上样体积等进行详细考察和优化。最佳萃取条件为5.0g样品与5mol/L氯化钠溶液混匀,经SPE萃取净化、衍生后,以GC—MS进行测定,该方法对3-氯-1,2-丙二醇的检出限为0.15μg/kg,线性范围为0.51-614

  12. The antigluconeogenic activity of cucurbitacins from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Chao; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Liu, Jie-Qing; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Ming-Jin; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Five new cucurbitacins, kuguacins II-VI (1-5), along with five known analogues (6-10), were obtained from the fruit of Momordica charantia. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 5β,19-epoxycucurbit-23-en-7-on-3β,25-diol (1), 5β,19-epoxycucurbit-7,23-dion-3β,25-diol (2), 5β,19-epoxycucurbit-6-en-19,23-dion-3β,25-diol (3), 5β,19-epoxy-23,24,25,26,27-pentanorcucurbit-6-en-7,19-dion-3β,22-diol (4), and cucurbit-5-en-7,23-dion-3β,19,25-triol (5) by extensive spectroscopic and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Some cucurbitane compounds from this species were screened for their potential antidiabetic properties in terms of antigluconeogenic activity. As a result, compounds 1, 10, 11, and 12 (at 25-100 µM) showed concentration-dependent inhibition on glucose production from liver cells. In addition, compounds 11 and 12 (at 100 µM) showed around 20-30 % inhibition on PEPCK activity. PMID:25760384

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA fragment of juvenile hormone diol kinase from the larvae of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis%亚洲玉米螟幼虫体内保幼激素二醇激酶cDNA片段克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯从经; 翟会峰

    2011-01-01

    为研究亚洲玉米螟Ostrinia furnacalis(Guenée)幼虫体内保幼激素二醇激酶(JHDK)表达调控的分子机理,根据不同昆虫保幼激素二醇激酶基因序列的保守区域,设计合成简并引物,采用RT-PCR技术从亚洲玉米螟5龄幼虫中扩增出一段cDNA片段,大小为189 bp,编码63个氨基酸,预测分子量为6.78 ku,理论等电点pI值为4.57.该基因序列中含有保守的GTP结合蛋白特征指纹基序∑3和∑1.BlastP分析结果表明:该片段氨基酸序列与烟草天蛾JHDK氨基酸序列的一致性最高,为69%;与家蚕和小菜蛾JHDK氨基酸序列的一致性分别为55%和52%.构建系统发育树分析了3种鳞翅目昆虫JHDK进化关系,结果显示:亚洲玉米螟cDNA片段氨基酸序列与家蚕JHDK的亲缘关系最近,与小菜蛾JHDK的亲缘关系最远.半定量PCR结果表明:JHDK基因在中肠中表达量最高,随着5龄幼虫的发育,JHDK基因在血细胞、脂肪体和体壁组织中表达量有下降趋势,但在中肠组织中表达量明显增强.%In order to explore the molecular mechanism controlling the expression and regulation of the juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) in Ostriniafurnacalis (Guenée) larvae,sequences of conserved regions of the JHDK gene from different individuals were used to design degenerate primers and a cDNA fragment of 189 bp,encoding 63 amino acids, was amplified from 5TH instar larvae by RT-PCR. This fragment had a predicted molecular weight of 6. 78 ku and a pl value of 4. 57. Two conserved fingerprint motifs of the GTP-binding proteins Σ 3 and Σ 1 in the JHDK gene were found. BlastP showed that the amino acid sequence of O. furnacalis JHDK ( Of-JHDK ) was most similar to that of Manduca sexta JHDK (69%) and its relative similarity to the Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella JHDK was 55% and 52%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Of-JHDK was most closely related to B. mori JHDK and least related to P.xylostella JHDK. Semi-quantitative PCR showed

  14. Acyclic Alkanes in the Soil over Heshang Cave in Qingjiang, Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Yang; Huang Junhua; Huang Xianyu; Cui Jingwei; Hu Chaoyong

    2006-01-01

    The reports that relate to the biomarker's fate and characteristics of the modern soil in the karst area are very lacking. By using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), a series of biomaximum at C31. They have a strong odd-over-even carbon number predominance. These characteristics represent an input mainly from higher plants. The lipid parameters, including CPIh (carbon preference index), Rh/1 (ratio of lower- to higher-molecular-weight homologues) and ACL (average chain length),show comparable trends with depth, probably reflecting vegetation change and microbial degradation.Series of monomethylalkanes and dipioptene are present in the extractable organic matter; they might be derived from soil microbes, cyanobacteria in particular.

  15. Redox-Active-Ligand-Mediated Formation of an Acyclic Trinuclear Ruthenium Complex with Bridging Nitrido Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Bidraha; Broere, Daniël L J; Siegler, Maxime A; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar

    2016-07-11

    Coordination of a redox-active pyridine aminophenol ligand to Ru(II) followed by aerobic oxidation generates two diamagnetic Ru(III) species [1 a (cis) and 1 b (trans)] with ligand-centered radicals. The reaction of 1 a/1 b with excess NaN3 under inert atmosphere resulted in the formation of a rare bis(nitrido)-bridged trinuclear ruthenium complex with two nonlinear asymmetrical Ru-N-Ru fragments. The spontaneous reduction of the ligand centered radical in the parent 1 a/1 b supports the oxidation of a nitride (N(3-) ) to half an equivalent of N2 . The trinuclear omplex is reactive toward TEMPO-H, tin hydrides, thiols, and dihydrogen. PMID:27321547

  16. Stereochemical studies of acyclic isoprenoids-XII. Lipids of methanogenic bacteria and possible contributions to sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risatti, J.B.; Rowland, S.J.; Yon, D.A.; Maxwell, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Abundant volatile lipids of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and Methanosarcina barkeri include isoprenoid hydrocarbons (??? C30), and C15, C20 and C25 isoprenoid alcohols. M. barkeri contains 2,6,10,15,19-pentamethyleicosane, whose relative stereochemistry is the same as found in marine sediments, indicating that it is a marker of methanogenic activity. The C20, C30 and C25 alkenes in M. thermoautotrophicum also have a preferred sterochemistry; the latter have the 2,6,10,14,18-pentamethyleicosanyl skeleton, suggesting that the alkane in marine sediments may derive from methanogens. The stereochemistry of squalane in a marine sediment is also compatible with an origin in methanogens; in contrast, the stereochemistry of pristane in M. thermoautotrophicum indicates a fossil fuel contaminant origin, suggesting that this and certain other alkanes reported in archaebacteria might also be of contaminant origin. There is, therefore, little evidence at present that the pristane in immature marine sediments originates in methanogens. The C15 and C20 saturated alcohols in M. thermoautotrophicum have mainly the all-R configuration. If this is generally true for methanogens, the C20 alcohol in the Messel shale may originate mainly from methanogens, whereas that in the Green River shale may originate mainly from photosynthetic organisms. ?? 1984.

  17. Acyclic N-halamine-immobilized polyurethane: Preparation and antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling functions

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jie; Porteous, Nuala; Lin, Jiajin; Sun, Yuyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyl groups were introduced onto polyurethane surfaces through 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate activation, followed by diethanolamine hydroxylation. Polymethacrylamide was covalently attached to the hydroxylated polyurethane through surface grafting polymerization of methacrylamide using cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate as an initiator. After bleach treatment, the amide groups of the covalently bound polymethacrylamide chains were transformed into N-halamines. The new N-halamine-immobilized po...

  18. Chemoselective and stereoselective lithium carbenoid mediated cyclopropanation of acyclic allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Peña, M J; Flores-Giubi, M E; Botubol-Ares, J M; Harwood, L M; Collado, I G; Macías-Sánchez, A J; Hernández-Galán, R

    2016-03-01

    The reaction of geraniol with different lithium carbenoids generated from n-BuLi and the corresponding dihaloalkane has been evaluated. The reaction occurs in a chemo and stereoselective manner, which is consistent with a directing effect from the oxygen of the allylic moiety. Furthermore, a set of polyenes containing allylic hydroxyl or ether groups were chemoselectively and stereoselectively converted into the corresponding gem-dimethylcyclopropanes in one single step in moderate to good yields mediated by a lithium carbenoid generated in situ by the reaction of n-BuLi and 2,2-dibromopropane.

  19. On acyclic decomposition problem of hypergraph%超图的无圈分解问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段广森; 薛春善; 田冲

    2008-01-01

    引入了超图的无圈分解的荫度的概念,研究了n阶r-完全超图Krn的无圈分解问题,给出了n阶r-完全超图Krn的荫度的一个下界Y(Krn)≥n!/r!(n-r+1)!.并提出猜想T(Krn)={n!/r!(n-r+1)!当[n!/r!(n-r+1)!]=n!/r!(n-r+1)!;n!/r!(n-r+1)!+1,当n!/r!(n-r+1)!≠n!/r!(n-r+1)!.这里[x]表示x的整数部分.

  20. Synthesis of modified cyclic and acyclic dextrins and comparison of their complexation ability

    OpenAIRE

    Kata Tuza; László Jicsinszky; Tamás Sohajda; István Puskás; Éva Fenyvesi

    2014-01-01

    We compared the complex forming ability of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) with their open ring analogs. In addition to the native cyclodextrins also modified cyclodextrins and the corresponding maltooligomers, functionalized with neutral 2-hydroxypropyl moieties, were synthesized. A new synthetic route was worked out via bromination, benzylation, deacetylation and debenzylation to obtain the 2-hydroxypropyl maltooligomer counterparts. The complexation properties of non-modif...

  1. Highly stable acyclic bifunctional chelator for {sup 64}Cu PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, S.; Lecointre, A.; Christine, C.; Charbonniere, L. [CNRS/UDS, EPCM, Strasbourg (France). Lab. d' Ingenierie Appliquee a l' Analyse; Dechamps-Olivier, I. [Univ. de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Reims (France). Group Chimie de Coordination; Platas-Iglesias, C. [Univ. da Coruna (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Elhabiri, M. [CNRS/UDS, EPCM, Strasbourg (France). Lab. de Physico-Chimie Bioinorganique

    2011-07-01

    Ligand L{sup 1}, based on a pyridine scaffold, functionalized by two bis(methane phosphonate)aminomethyl groups, was shown to display a very high affinity towards Cu(II) (log K{sub CuL}=22.7) and selectivity over Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Ga(III) ({delta} log K{sub ML}>4) as shown by the values of the stability constants obtained from potentiometric measurements. Insights into the coordination mode of the ligand around Cu(II) cation were obtained by UV-Vis absorption and EPR spectroscopies as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP model) performed in aqueous solution. The results point to a pentacoordination pattern of the metal ion in the fully deprotonated [CuL{sup 1}]{sup 6-} species. Considering the beneficial thermodynamic parameters of this ligand, kinetic experiments were run to follow the formation of the copper(II) complexes, indicating a very rapid formation of the complex, appropriate for {sup 64}Cu complexation. As L{sup 1} represents a particularly interesting target within the frame of {sup 64}Cu PET imaging, a synthetic protocol was developed to introduce a labeling function on the pyridyl moiety of L{sup 1}, thereby affording L{sup 2}, a potential bifunctional chelator (BFC) for PET imaging.

  2. Mononuclear and oligonuclear transition metal complexes with acyclic and macrocyclic ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Rösel, Pirmin

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 1 describes an efficient multi-step synthesis of an endotopic but sterically un¬hindered biisoquinoline decorated with long alkyl groups for better solubility. This chelate is ideally suited for macrocycle formation around transition metal ions and therefore a valuable new building block for topological chemistry. Sokolov’s concept to use an octahedral metal template for the syntheses of macrocycles and molecular knots is discussed in Chapter 2. The concept was successfully realise...

  3. Timing analysis of First-Come First-Served scheduled interval-timed Directed Acyclic Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijns, R.M.W.; Adyanthaya, S.; Stuijk, S.; Voeten, J.P.M.; Geilen, M.C.W.; Schiffelers, R.R.H.; Corporaal, H.

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing worst-case application timing for systems with shared resources is difficult, especially when non-monotonic arbitration policies like First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) scheduling are used in combination with varying task execution times. Analysis methods that conservatively analyze these syst

  4. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E; Montenegro, M A; Nazareno, M A; López de Mishima, B A

    2001-12-01

    The carotenoid composition of butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) cultivated in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was determined. The main carotenoids isolated were identified as beta-carotene (beta,beta-carotene), alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene), and lutein (beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) and the minor carotenoids, as phytofluene (7,8,11,12,7',8'-hexahydro-psi,psi-carotene), zeta-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-carotene), neurosporene (7,8-dihydro-psi,psi-carotene), violaxanthin (5,6,5',6'- diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) and neoxanthin (5,6-epoxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta- carotene-3,5,3'-triol). In some samples, 5,6,5',6'-beta-carotene diepoxide, (5,6,5',6'-diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene) and flavoxanthin (5,8-epoxy-5,8-dihydro-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) were detected. The presence of cis-isomers of beta,beta-carotene was also detected by HPLC. The vitamin A value obtained was 432 micrograms RE/100 g fresh sample, which indicates that this vegetable is an important source of provitamin A.

  5. Solar active fire clay based hetero-Fenton catalyst over a wide pH range for degradation of Acid Violet 7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inbasekaran Muthuvel; Balu Krishnakumar; Meenakshisundaram Swaminathan

    2012-01-01

    Fe(Ⅲ)immobilized fire clay(Fe-FC)was prepared using ferric nitrate by solid state dispersion method and this hetero-Fenton catalyst was applied for the degradation of Acid Violet 7(AV 7)under natural sunlight.The 26% ferric nitrate loaded fire clay was found to be most efficient.The experimental conditions such as solution pH,H2O2 concentration for efficient degradation of AV 7 have been determined.Unlike Fenton catalyst,Fe-FC is photoactive over a wide pH range of 3-7.This catalyst was found to be stable and reusable.The G-C-MS analysis of experimental solutions during irradiation revealed the formation of 2,8-diaminonaphthalene-1,3,6-triol,8-aminonaphthalene-1,2,3,6-tetrol,2-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6,8-tetrol and 2-aminobenzene-1,3-diol/5-aminonbenzene-1,3-diol/2-aminobenzene-1,4-diol as intermediates.The 26% ferric nitrate loaded fire clay was characterized by XRD,ICP-AES,BET surface area,FT-IR,SEM-EDS and UV-DRS studies.

  6. Nasute termite soldier frontal gland secretions. 1. Structure of Trinervi-2. beta. ,3. cap alpha. ,9. cap alpha. -triol 9-O acetate, a novel diterpene from Trinervitermes soldiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestwich, G.D. (International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya); Tanis, S.P.; Springer, J.P.; Clardy, J.

    1976-09-15

    One of the major constituents, ''TG-2,'' of the soldier secretions of Trinervitermes gratiosus Sjostedt were studied by x-ray diffraction. The structure was determined to be a novel diterpene skeleton with a bridgehead double bond in an 11-membered ring. Bond angles and lengths were discussed, and a computer generated perspective drawing of the compound was presented. (DDA)

  7. New Cucurbitane Triterpenoids and Steroidal Glycoside from Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Fang Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new cucurbitane triterpenoids 1–3 and one new steroidal glycoside 4, were isolated together with ten known compounds from Momordica charantia. The structures of new compounds were determined to be 19(R-n-butanoxy-5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,25-diol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (1, 23-O-β-allopyranosylecucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R,23(S-tetraol 3-O-β-allopyranoside. (2, 23(R,24(S,25-trihydroxycucurbit-5-ene 3-O-{[β-glucopyranosyl(1→6]-O-β-glucopyranosyl}-25-O-β-glucopyranoside (3, and 24(R-stigmastan-3β,5α,6β-triol-25-ene 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (4, respectively. Their structures were elucidated by the combination of mass spectrometry (MS, one and two-dimensional NMR experiments and chemical reactions.

  8. Synthesis, kinetics of photo-dimerization/photo-cleavage and physical properties of coumarin-containing branched polyurethanes based on polycaprolactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seoane Rivero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of coumarin-containing branched polyurethanes based on polycaprolactones, hexamethylene diisocyanate and a monohydroxylated coumarin monomer with 5 and 10% content by weight of coumarin units were successfully prepared. Chain architecture was controlled by combination of polycaprolactone (PCL triol or tetrol with PCL diol. Terminal coumarin units segregated from the polyurethane matrix as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Photo-dimerization with 313 nm lamps presented an anomalous behavior in two steps with high irreversibility at high conversions. Photo-dimerization/photo-cleavage reactions showed an increase in irreversibility with the increase in cycles. It was demonstrated that conversion measured by Raman spectroscopy gave the same results than conversion measured by ultraviolet (UV spectroscopy. Photo-dimerization produced an elastomeric material with much better mechanical properties than non-irradiated material as a consequence of the crosslinking produced. Photo-cleavage decreased the mechanical properties and repeated photo-dimerization increased mechanical properties again.

  9. Chemical Constituents of Schisandra rubriflora Rehd.et Wils.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan-Peng LI; Jing-Feng ZHAO; Yong-Qiang TU; Xiao-Dong YANG; Hong-Bin ZHANG; Liang LI

    2005-01-01

    Schisandra rubriflora Rehd. et Wils. is a traditional Chinese medicine. To search for new and bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines and provide scientific evidence for taxonomy, the chemical constituents ofthe plant were investigated by various column chromatography methods (silica gel,Sephadex LH-20, and RP-18). From the aerial parts ofS. rubriflora, three new megastigmane glycosides,namely (3S, 5R, 6S, 9R)-megastigmane-3, 9-diol 3-O-[α-L-arabionfuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside](1), 7-megastigmene-3-ol-9-one 3-O-[o-L-arabionfuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside] (2), and megastigmane-3α, 4β, 9ξ-triol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with 14 known compounds, were isolated.The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  10. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianMingJIN; XiKuiLIU; 等

    2002-01-01

    Two new spirostanol glycosides named agamenoside A and B, ere isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. Their structures were elucidated as (23S,25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside(1) and (25R)-5α-spiro-stan-3β,6α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyra-nosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside(2) by a combination of chemical and spectral methods.

  11. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new spirostanol glycosides named agamenoside A and B, were isolated from the fcrmcnted leaves of Agave americana. Their structures were elucidated as (23S, 25R)-5α-spirostan-3β, 6α, 23-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)- β-D-glucopyranosyl-(l→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-( 1 →3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-( l →4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and (25R)-5α-spiro stan-3β, 6α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(l→2)-[ β-D-xylopyranosyl-(l→3)]- β-D-glucopyra nosyl-(1→4)- β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by a combination of chemical and spectral methods.

  12. The Chemical Constituents of Diterpenoids from Kaempferia marginata Carey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuJingguang; YuDonglei; SunLan; ZhangShu; ZhengCaicheng; ChenYuheng

    2001-01-01

    Marginatol (1), a new isopimarene diterpenoid, and five known compounds 8(14),15-sandera-copimaradiene-1α,9α-diol (2), 8(14), 15-sanderacopimaradene-1α 6β,9α-triol (3), germacrone (4), trans-ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (5) and n-pentadecane (6) were isolated from the hexane extract of Kaempferia marginata Carey.The structure of marginatol (1) was established as 8(14),15-isopimaradiene-6α-ol on the basis of spectral data (IR,MS,1h--1H 13C-1H NOESY and HMBC). Compounds 2, 3 and 4 were isolated for the first time from thisplant.

  13. Structure and cytotoxicity of steroidal glycosides from Allium schoenoprasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timité, Gaoussou; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2013-04-01

    A phytochemical analysis of the whole plant of Allium schoenoprasum, has led to the isolation of four spirostane-type glycosides (1-4), and four known steroidal saponins. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,12β,21-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,11α,21-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), laxogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,11α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (4). Four of the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity against the HCT 116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cell lines. PMID:23357597

  14. Chemical constituents of Coriolus versicolor%云芝化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦向东; 刘吉开

    2012-01-01

    从真菌云芝子实体中分离鉴定了6个化合物和1个昆合物,分别为:(22E,24R) -ergosta-7,22-dien - 3β -ol(1)、(22E,24R) - ergosta -6,22 - dien - 3β,5α,8 α- triol (2)、5α,6α-epoxy- (22E,24R) -ergosta -8,22 - dien - 3β,7α - diol (3)、二十四碳酸(4)、二十六碳酸(5)和α,α- trehalose(6);混合物可推测主要由russulamide (7)、ascolipid C(8)、ascolipid D(9)组成.除化合物1外,其余化合物均为该种首次分离得到.%Six compounds and a white amorphous powder were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Cori-olus versicolor by column chromatographic methods, structures established by spectroscopic methods. Six compounds were determined to be (22 E, 24 R) - ergosta - 7, 22 - dien -3β-ol (1), (22E, 24R) -ergosta-6, 22-dien-3β, 5α, 8α - triol (2) , 5α, 6α-epoxy- (22E, 24R) -ergosta -8, 22 -dien -3β, 7 α - diol (3) , tetracosanoic acid (4) , hexacosanoic acid (5) , and a, a - trehalose (6) , and the white powder to be a mixture of russulamide (7) , ascolipid C (8) , ascolip-id D (9 ). Compounds 2-9 were isolated for the first time from C. versicolor.

  15. Five new cyotoxic steroidal glycosides from the fruits of Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinsheng; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Yiming

    2014-03-01

    The fruits of Solanum torvum Swartz, commonly known as Turkey berry, are edible and commonly used as a vegetable in the South Indian population's diet and as an essential ingredient in Thai cuisine. Five new steroidal glycosides together with five known ones were isolated from the fruits of S. torvum Swartz. Based on chemical and spectral evidence, the five new compounds were identified to be 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3β,6α,26-triol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (1), 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3-one-6α,26-diol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (2), 25(S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-22(20)-en-3β,6α,26-triol-6-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside (3), 5α-pregn-16-en-20-one-3β,6α-diol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (4), and 5α-pregn-16-en-3,20-dione-6α-ol-6-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-quinovopyranoside] (5). These new compounds were assayed for cytotoxicities in vitro, and 1 to 4 showed cyotoxic activity against the human melanoma cell line A375, with IC50 values of 30 μM to 260 μM. PMID:24444891

  16. Seasonal lake surface water temperature trends reflected by heterocyst glycolipid-based molecular thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauersachs, T.; Rochelmeier, J.; Schwark, L.

    2015-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that the relative distribution of heterocyst glycolipids (HGs) in cultures of N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria is largely controlled by growth temperature, suggesting a potential use of these components in paleoenvironmental studies. Here, we investigated the effect of environmental parameters (e.g., surface water temperatures, oxygen concentrations and pH) on the distribution of HGs in a natural system using water column filtrates collected from Lake Schreventeich (Kiel, Germany) from late July to the end of October 2013. HPLC-ESI/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) analysis revealed a dominance of 1-(O-hexose)-3,25-hexacosanediols (HG26 diols) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25-hexacosanol (HG26 keto-ol) in the solvent-extracted water column filtrates, which were accompanied by minor abundances of 1-(O-hexose)-3,27-octacosanediol (HG28 diol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-27-octacosanol (HG28 keto-ol) as well as 1-(O-hexose)-3,25,27-octacosanetriol (HG28 triol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25,27-octacosanediol (HG28 keto-diol). Fractional abundances of alcoholic and ketonic HGs generally showed strong linear correlations with surface water temperatures and no or only weak linear correlations with both oxygen concentrations and pH. Changes in the distribution of the most abundant diol and keto-ol (e.g., HG26 diol and HG26 keto-ol) were quantitatively expressed as the HDI26 (heterocyst diol index of 26 carbon atoms) with values of this index ranging from 0.89 in mid-August to 0.66 in mid-October. An average HDI26 value of 0.79, which translates into a calculated surface water temperature of 15.8 ± 0.3 °C, was obtained from surface sediments collected from Lake Schreventeich. This temperature - and temperatures obtained from other HG indices (e.g., HDI28 and HTI28) - is similar to the one measured during maximum cyanobacterial productivity in early to mid-September and suggests that HGs

  17. Seasonal lake surface water temperature trends reflected by heterocyst glycolipid based molecular thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauersachs, T.; Rochelmeier, J.; Schwark, L.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the relative distribution of heterocyst glycolipids (HGs) in cultures of N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria is largely controlled by growth temperature, suggesting a potential use of these components in paleoenvironmental studies. Here, we investigated the effect of environmental parameters (e.g. surface water temperatures, oxygen concentrations and pH) on the distribution of HGs in a natural system using water column filtrates collected from Lake Schreventeich (Kiel, Germany) from late July to the end of October 2013. HPLC-ESI/MS analysis revealed a dominance of 1-(O-hexose)-3,25-hexacosanediols (HG26 diols) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25-hexacosanol (HG26 keto-ol) in the solvent extracted water column filtrates, which were accompanied by minor abundances of 1-(O-hexose)-3,27-octacosanediol (HG28 diol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-27-octacosanol (HG28 keto-ol) as well as 1-(O-hexose)-3,25,27-octacosanetriol (HG28 triol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25,27-octacosanediol (HG28 keto-diol). Fractional abundances of alcoholic and ketonic HGs generally showed strong linear correlations with surface water temperatures and no or only weak linear correlations with both oxygen concentrations and pH. Changes in the distribution of the most abundant diol and keto-ol (e.g., HG26 diol and HG26 keto-ol) were quantitatively expressed as the HDI26 (heterocyst diol index of 26carbon atoms) with values of this index ranging from 0.89 in mid-August to 0.66 in mid-October. An average HDI26 value of 0.79, which translates into a calculated surface water temperature of 15.8 ± 0.3 °C, was obtained from surface sediments collected from Lake Schreventeich. This temperature - and temperatures obtained from other HG indices (e.g., HDI28 and HTI28) - is similar to the one measured during maximum cyanobacterial productivity in early to mid-September and suggests that HGs preserved in Lake Schreventeich sediments record summer surface water temperatures. As N2-fixing

  18. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-1,4-methanonaphthalene-2,3-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H12O2, is an intermediate in the synthesis of Varenicline, a nicotinic receptor partial agonist used to treat smoking addiction. In the crystal structure, there is an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond that generates an S(5 ring motif. Intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds form centrosymmetric dimers and also link these dimers into chains along the a axis.

  19. 1,3,5-Tri-p-tolylpentane-1,5-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thiruvalluvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C26H30O2, the central benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 14.85 (15 and 28.17 (14° with the terminal benzene rings. The dihedral angle between the terminal benzene rings is 32.14 (13°. The crystal packing exhibits two strong intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming directed four-membered co-operative rings. A region of disordered electron density, most probably disordered ethyl acetate solvent molecules, occupying voids of ca 519 Å3 for an electron count of 59, was treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. Their formula mass and unit-cell characteristics were not taken into account during refinement. The structure was refined as an inversion twin [absolute structure parameter = −0.3 (4].

  20. 1,1,1,5,5,5-Hexafluoro-2,4-dimethoxypentane-2,4-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Koen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H10F6O4, was isolated as an unexpected product from a reaction of tantalum(V methoxide with hexafluoroacetylacetone in a methanol solution. The asymmetric unit consists of one half-molecule with the middle C atom lying on a twofold axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by O—H...O and an array of C—H...F hydrogen-bonding interactions. These interactions link the molecules into a stable supramolecular three-dimensional network. The molecules pack in a ribbon-like form in the ac plane as a result of these interactions.

  1. PROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANE ELASTOMERS BASED ON POLY (OXYETHYLENE-co-OXYTETRAMETHYLENE) DIOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-yu Su; Guang-li Zhang; Hong-zhi Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Polyurethane elastomers derived from 4,4′-methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate), butylene glycol and the low oxyethylene moiety content copolyether of tetrahydrofuran and ethylene oxide, obtained by copolymerization using heteropolyacid-ethylene oxide initiator system, were prepared. The polyurethanes exhibited an increased water absorption and much better low temperature resilience, which remained high even at a temperature of-3℃, while that of polyurethane based upon poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol of the same molecular weight, I.e. Being 2000, and molecular weight distribution, I.e. In the range of 1.4-1.5, starts to decrease dramatically at 5℃.``

  2. The investigation of the reactions of some pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids with various diamines and diols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Kasımoğulları

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some new derivatives were synthesized of 4-benzoyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (1 and 4-(ethoxycarbonyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (2 that they were pyrazole carboxylic acid derivatives. Firstly, 1 and 2 reacted with SOCl2 to transform them into acyl chlorides (3, 4. Then various bis-carboxamide derivatives (5–8 were obtained from the reaction of 3 and 4 with various diamines and also a ;#946;-hydroxy ester (9 derivative was obtained from the reaction of 3 with ethylene glycol. The structures of synthesized compounds were elucidated with using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis methods.

  3. The investigation of the reactions of some pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids with various diamines and diols

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi Kasımoğulları; Makbule Maden; Samet Mert

    2012-01-01

    In this study, some new derivatives were synthesized of 4-benzoyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (1) and 4-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (2) that they were pyrazole carboxylic acid derivatives. Firstly, 1 and 2 reacted with SOCl2 to transform them into acyl chlorides (3, 4). Then various bis-carboxamide derivatives (58) were obtained from the reaction of 3 and 4 with various diamines and also a ;#946;-hydroxy ester (9) deri...

  4. The investigation of the reactions of some pyrazole-3-carboxylic acids with various diamines and diols

    OpenAIRE

    Kasımoğulları, Rahmi; Maden, Makbule; Mert, Samet

    2012-01-01

    In this study, some new derivatives were synthesized of 4-benzoyl-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (1) and 4-(ethoxycarbonyl)-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (2) that they were pyrazole carboxylic acid derivatives. Firstly, 1 and 2 reacted with SOCl2 to transform them into acyl chlorides (3, 4). Then various bis-carboxamide derivatives (5–8) were obtained from the reaction of 3 and 4 with various diamines and also a β-hydroxy ester (9)...

  5. 1,4-Dibromo­naphthalene-2,3-diol

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qinghe; Zhu, Yanping

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound (r.m.s. deviation for the non-H atoms = 0.020 Å), C10H6Br2O2, an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring. In the crystal, the same H atom also forms an inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond, generating a C(2) chain propagating in [100]. The other O—H hydrogen forms a weak O—H⋯π inter­action, and short Br⋯Br contacts [3.5972 (9) Å] also occur.

  6. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Some Diols by Dihydroxydiperiodatoargentate(Ⅲ) in Alkaline Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN, Jin-Huan; LI, Sheng-Min; HUO, Shu-Ying; SHEN, Shi-Gang; SUN, Han-Wen

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of ethylene glycol and 1,3-butylene glycol by dihydroxydiperiodatoargentate(Ⅲ) in alkaline medium have been studied by spectrophotometry in the range of 298.2-318.2 K. It is shown that the reaction was first order with respect to each reductant and Ag(Ⅲ), and kobs increased with an increase of [OH-]. A plausible mechanism of reaction involving a pre-equilibrium of adduct formation between complex and reductants was proposed, which could be applied to explain all experimental phenomena, and the activation parameters of the ratedetermining step have been also calculated.

  7. 1,3,5-Tri-p-tolyl-pentane-1,5-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvalluvar, A; Chithiravel, R; Muthusubramanian, S; Butcher, R J

    2014-02-01

    In the title compound, C26H30O2, the central benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 14.85 (15) and 28.17 (14)° with the terminal benzene rings. The dihedral angle between the terminal benzene rings is 32.14 (13)°. The crystal packing exhibits two strong inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming directed four-membered co-operative rings. A region of disordered electron density, most probably disordered ethyl acetate solvent mol-ecules, occupying voids of ca 519 Å(3) for an electron count of 59, was treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. Their formula mass and unit-cell characteristics were not taken into account during refinement. The structure was refined as an inversion twin [absolute structure parameter = -0.3 (4)]. PMID:24764851

  8. A novel fluorescent vesicular sensor for saccharides based on boronic acid-diol interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujian; He, Zhenfeng; Li, Guowen

    2010-04-15

    A novel amphiphile containing two functional groups of both naphthalene and boronic acid, 2-(hexadecyloxy)-naphthalene-6-boronic acid (HNBA), has been synthesized. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated the formation of bilayer vesicles in the ethanol/water solution (Phi=0.6). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) established the presence of crystal-to-liquid crystal transition at 63.36 degrees C. The vesicular fluorescence properties upon binding with carbohydrates have been studied in ethanol/water buffer at pH 7.4. Addition of saccharides to the vesicular solution, the fluorescent intensities of naphthalene in HNBA vesicles centered at 348 nm decreased dramatically with increasing concentration of saccharides. The change tendency of fluorescent intensities of the HNAB vesicles with concentration of saccharides followed in the order of fructose>galactose>maltose>glucose. The pH profiles of the fluorescence intensity were studied in the absence and in the presence of sugars. Also, the urine sample induced spectral changes of the HNBA vesicles were studied. These results suggest that the HNBA vesicles may be developed as a continuous monitoring and implantable fluorescence vesicular sensor, which might be applied in the practical field. PMID:20188967

  9. MONOALLYLATION OF DIOLS THROUGH RUTHENIUM-CATALYZED REACTION WITH HOMOALLYL ALCOHOLS. (R822668)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. A Striking Exception to the Chelate Model for Acyclic Diastereocontrol: Efficient Access to a Versatile Propargyl Alcohol for Chemical Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Ronald J.; Gregory B. Dudley; Tlais, Sami F

    2009-01-01

    The four-step, asymmetric synthesis of a chiral propargyl alcohol 1 from (R)-pantolactone is described. A key feature of the synthesis is a diastereoselective acetylide addition to a chiral α-alkoxy-aldehyde 7, in which unusual Felkin selectivity is observed, despite the potential for chelation control. Crystalline propargyl alcohol 1 is valuable for complex molecule synthesis, and is easy to prepare in multi-gram quantities and high diastereomeric purity.

  11. A Striking Exception to the Chelate Model for Acyclic Diastereocontrol: Efficient Access to a Versatile Propargyl Alcohol for Chemical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Clark

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The four-step, asymmetric synthesis of a chiral propargyl alcohol 1 from (R-pantolactone is described. A key feature of the synthesis is a diastereoselective acetylide addition to a chiral α-alkoxy-aldehyde 7, in which unusual Felkin selectivity is observed, despite the potential for chelation control. Crystalline propargyl alcohol 1 is valuable for complex molecule synthesis, and is easy to prepare in multi-gram quantities and high diastereomeric purity.

  12. Lanthanide-directed synthesis of luminescent self-assembly supramolecular structures and mechanically bonded systems from acyclic coordinating organic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Dawn E; Caffrey, David F; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2016-06-01

    Herein some examples of the use of lanthanide ions (f-metal ions) to direct the synthesis of luminescent self-assembly systems (architectures) will be discussed. This area of lanthanide supramolecular chemistry is fast growing, thanks to the unique physical (magnetic and luminescent) and coordination properties of the lanthanides, which are often transferred to the resulting supermolecule. The emphasis herein will be on systems that are luminescent, and hence, generated by using either visibly emitting ions (such as Eu(III), Tb(III) and Sm(III)) or near infrared emitting ions (like Nd(III), Yb(III) and Er(III)), formed through the use of templating chemistry, by employing structurally simple ligands, possessing oxygen and nitrogen coordinating moieties. As the lanthanides have high coordination requirements, their use often allows for the formation of coordination compounds and supramolecular systems such as bundles, grids, helicates and interlocked molecules that are not synthetically accessible through the use of other commonly used templating ions such as transition metal ions. Hence, the use of the rare-earth metal ions can lead to the formation of unique and stable species in both solution and in the solid state, as well as functional and responsive structures.

  13. Aldol condensation of acyclic ketones with benzaldehyde and subsequent cyclodehydration to form indenes over halide cluster catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    黒川, 秀樹; 千原, 貞次

    2006-01-01

    When a molecular halide cluster [(Ta6Cl12)C-12(H2O)(4)]-4H(2)O (1)/SiO2 was treated in a helium stream above 200 degrees C, it catalyzed the aldol condensation of acetone with benzaldehyde to yield E-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one. The bromide cluster of Ta and chloride clusters of Nb, Mo, and W of the same octahedral metal framework also catalyzed the reaction. 3,3-Dimethyl-2-butanone combined with benzaldehyde similarly yielded the corresponding aldol condensation product over 1/SiO2 at 400 degrees...

  14. Drug Design and Analysis In Silico of Sapelenin G, an Acyclic Triterpenoid as Potential Anti-Inflammatory

    OpenAIRE

    Ngabireng Marie. Claude; Menye Cyrille; Kouam F.Simeon; Ntede N .Hyppolite; Tagoudjeu Jacques; Awono Onana

    2013-01-01

    Diverse non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs and COX-2 inhibitors are a class of drugs which selectively inhibit COX-2, provide relief from pain and inflammation. However, they lack anti-thrombotic activity and hence lead to cardiovascular and renal liabilities apart from gastrointestinal irritation. To ameliorate this situation, research can be foccuss on the products originating from natural products that could offer better relief from inflammation than the currently used co...

  15. Chemical constituents of the style of Zea mays L. from Yunnan%滇产玉米须化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冕; 刘传水; 尹田鹏; 方海仙; 蔡乐; 丁中涛

    2013-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the style of Zea mays,silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography was applied to separate and purify the compounds from the style of Zea maya.EIMS,HRESIMS 1D-and 2D-NMR speetra was adopted to determine the structure of the compounds.Four compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated as:(2S,3S,4R)-2-[(2'R)-2 '-hydroxydocoasnoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol (1),ent-rosane-5β,15,16-triol (2),asergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol(3),and stigmaeta-5-en-3β,7α-diol(4).Compound 1 and 2 were isolated from this plant for the first time.The structure of 1was determined on the basis of methanolysis.The proton and carbon signals of 2 and 3 were assigned by 2D-NMR techniques.%为研究滇产玉米须中的化学成分,采用硅胶柱层析和Sephadex LH-20柱层析进行化合物分离和纯化,采用EI-MS、HR-ESI-MS、1D-和2D-NMR以及化学方法对化合物结构进行鉴定.从滇产玉米须中分离得到了4个化合物,分别鉴定为:(2S,3S,4R)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanoylamino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol(1),ent-rosane-5β,15,16-triol(2),麦角甾-7,22-二烯-3β,5α,6β三醇(3),豆甾-5-烯-3β,7α-二醇(4).化合物1和2为首次从玉米须中分离得到,并采用化学方法对化合物1进行结构确证,采用2D-NMR对这化合物2和3的碳氢数据进行准确归属.

  16. Preparation of Polyurethane Foam for Filling the Thawing Holes of Railway Roadbed in High Cold Area%高寒带铁路路基融洞填充用单组分聚氨酯泡沫填缝剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世泽; 姜志国; 张瑶; 刘唯平; 王乐然; 刘伟斌

    2015-01-01

    The influences of polyether triol/diol ratio,isocyanate index, the amount of catalyst on properties of one⁃component polyurethane foam were studied. The better usage of raw materials was obtained as below. The mix⁃ture of propane/butane mixture and dimethyl ether with mass ratio 1/1 was used as an aerosol propellant. The mass ratio of polyurethane and aerosol propellant was 4/1. The mole ratio polyether triol MN 700 and polyether diol DDL⁃1000D was between 3/2 and 1/1. The isocyanate index was 4. 25~4. 50, and the mass ratio of the catalyst DMDEE and polyether polyols was (2~3)/100. The prepared polyurethane foam had the following properties: the foaming ratio ≥15, the compressive strength(10%)≥0. 85 MPa, the shear strength to soil≥0. 85 MPa, the thermal con⁃ductivity ≤0. 05 W/( m·K) . The polyurethane foam could basically satisfy the use requirement of filling the tha⁃wing holes of railyway bedroad in high cold area.%研究了聚醚多元醇品种及其配比、异氰酸酯指数、催化剂用量对聚氨酯泡沫填缝剂材料性能的影响,确定了较佳的原料配比为:采用丙丁烷混合气和DME混合物(质量比1/1)作为抛射剂、料气质量比4/1、聚醚三醇MN⁃700与聚醚二醇DDL⁃1000D的摩尔比在3/2~1/1之间、异氰酸酯指数4.25~4.50、催化剂DMDEE的用量2~3份(相对于100份聚醚多元醇)。制备的聚氨酯泡沫材料达到如下性能:发泡倍率≥15,压缩强度(10%)≥0.85 MPa,土壤粘接剪切强度≥0.85 MPa,导热系数≤0.05 W/( m·K),基本满足高寒带铁路路基融洞填充使用要求。

  17. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus.

  18. Skin of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: a source of steroid glucuronides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steroid metabolism in the skin of mature male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, reared in the laboratory, was studied in vitro by tissue incubations with [3H]pregnenolone, [3H]dehydroepiandrosterone, [3H]17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, [3H]androstenedione, [14C]11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione, and [3H]testosterone as precursors. While pregnenolone was not converted to any other steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone was transformed mainly to 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The products of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone incubations were 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol-20-one, 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha, 20 beta-triol, and 5 beta-pregnan-17 alpha-o1-3,20-dione. The major steroids of androstenedione incubations were etiocholanolone, testosterone, and androsterone. Testosterone was converted mainly to etiocholanolone and androstenedione, and only small quantities of 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 11-ketoandrostenedione were the metabolites found in 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione incubation. These results demonstrated the presence of the enzymes 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases and 3 alpha-, 11 beta-, 17 beta-, and 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the skin. From enzymehistochemical results it appeared that the steroid conversions take place in the epithelial cells. Moreover, the presence of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucuronic acid, in these cells indicates the possibility of steroid glucuronide formation. Indeed significant amounts of water-soluble steroid conjugates, particularly 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone- and testosterone-glucuronide, were found in the incubations with androstenedione and testosterone, indicating the presence of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the catfish skin

  19. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. PMID:24128498

  20. The Synthesis of Tritium-Labelled Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partial, catalytic hydrogenation of 1.4-diene-3-ketosteroids yields among other products the adrenal and/or gonadal 4- ene-3-ketones. The Cortisol (4-pregnene-11 β, 17 α, 21-triol-3.20-dione) and several of its derivatives labelled with tritium on carbons 1 and 2 have been prepared previously by this method in good yield and high specific activity. The technique of reduction has been adapted to the quantities of substrate of the order of 0.1 mmole. This affords better utilization of tritium and easier purification of the final product. The description is given of the preparation of starting material for the synthesis of corticosterone (4-pregnene-11 β, 21-diol-3.20-dione), Reichstein's compound ''S'' (4-pregnene-17 α, 21-diol- 3.20 dione), desoxycorticosterone (4-pregnene-21-ol-3.20-dione), testosterone (4-androstene-17 β-ol-3-one) and androstenedione (4-androstene-3.17-dione). Several solvent systems are described as appropriate for paper chromatographic separation of hydrogénation products. Using tritium gas, all the above-mentioned compounds have been prepared with specific activities of 5 —10 mc/mg. The influence of molecular structure on reaction yield is discussed. Some observations are noted concerning the isotopic effect during the catalytic hydrogenation. Further work is reported on the stability of the label, particularly in the second position and during biological reactions involving ring A reduction. The principal applications are indicated in which this type of labelling can be used successfully. (author)

  1. Mechanism of formation of 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters under conditions of the vegetable oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmidrkal, Jan; Tesařová, Markéta; Hrádková, Iveta; Berčíková, Markéta; Adamčíková, Aneta; Filip, Vladimír

    2016-11-15

    3-MCPD esters are contaminants that can form during refining of vegetable oils in the deodorization step. It was experimentally shown that their content in the vegetable oil depends on the acid value of the vegetable oil and the chloride content. 3-MCPD esters form approximately 2-5 times faster from diacylglycerols than from monoacylglycerols. It has been proved that the higher fatty acids content in the oil caused higher 3-MCPD esters content in the deodorization step. Neutralization of free fatty acids in the vegetable oil before the deodorization step by alkaline carbonates or hydrogen carbonates can completely suppress the formation of 3-MCPD esters. Potassium salts are more effective than sodium salts. PMID:27283615

  2. Cyclopentadienyl-based Trioxo-rhenium Complexes for the Catalytic Deoxydehydration of Diols and Bio-based Polyols to Olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raju, S.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable sources like biomass, which mainly consists of materials derived from trees and plants, are currently considered as a key and future feedstock in the chemical industry for the sustainable production of chemicals. After the pre-treatment of biomass, lignocellulosic biomass is obtained as th

  3. (20S)-Dammar-24-ene-3β,20-diol monohydrate from the bark of Aglaia exima (Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Safariari; Asep Supriadin; Unang Supratman4); Khalijah Awang; Seik Weng Ng

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound {systematic name: (1R,2R,5R,7R,10R,11R,14S,15R)-14-[(2S)-2-hydroxy-6-methylhept-5-en-2-yl]-2,6,6,10,11-pentamethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.02,7.011,15]heptadecan-5-ol monohydrate}, C30H52O2·H2O, the three fused cyclohexane rings adopt chair conformations and the hydroxy substituent of one of these occupies an axial position. The fused cyclopentane ring adopts an envelope conformation (with the flap atom being the C atom bearing the methyl group) and the 3-methylbut-2-en...

  4. (20S-Dammar-24-ene-3β,20-diol monohydrate from the bark of Aglaia exima (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Safariari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound {systematic name: (1R,2R,5R,7R,10R,11R,14S,15R-14-[(2S-2-hydroxy-6-methylhept-5-en-2-yl]-2,6,6,10,11-pentamethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.02,7.011,15]heptadecan-5-ol monohydrate}, C30H52O2·H2O, the three fused cyclohexane rings adopt chair conformations and the hydroxy substituent of one of these occupies an axial position. The fused cyclopentane ring adopts an envelope conformation (with the flap atom being the C atom bearing the methyl group and the 3-methylbut-2-enyl portion of its substituent is disordered over three sets of sites in a 0.413 (7:0.250 (7:0.337 (7 ratio. The O atoms of both water molecules occupy special positions of 2 site symmetry. In the crystal, Os—H...Ow and Ow—H...Os (s = steroid and w = water hydrogen bonds link hydroxy groups and water molecules, forming a three-dimensional network. The crystal studied was found to be a non-merohedral twin with a 0.518 (1:0.482 (1 component ratio.

  5. Synthesis of 7-ω-Amidoalkyl-substituted 6,7-Dehydroestra-3,17β-diols

    OpenAIRE

    Inohae, Eiko; Thiemann, Thies; Mataka, Shuntaro; Melo'e Silva, M. Cristina; Patricio Catela, Luciana

    1999-01-01

    The entry to the novel C7-alkylsubstituted 6,7-dehydroestrones 10 by addition of C-nucleophiles on the enolate of suitably protected 6-ketoestrone derivative 3, reduction of the 6-keto group in 7, dehydration of 6-hydroxy group in 8 with a subsequent deprotection step is presented. An exemplary transformation of 10 to the 17α-iodoethynylestradiol 12 is shown.

  6. High efficient acetalization of carbonyl compounds with diols catalyzed by novel carbon-based solid strong acid catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The novel carbon-based acid catalyst has been applied to catalyzing the acetalization and ketalization. The results showed that the catalyst was very efficient with the average yield over 93%. The novel heterogeneous catalyst has the advantages of high activity, wide applicability even to 7-membered ring acetals, strikingly simple workup procedure, non-pollution, and reusability, which will contribute to the green process greatly.

  7. Cyclopentadienyl-based Trioxo-rhenium Complexes for the Catalytic Deoxydehydration of Diols and Bio-based Polyols to Olefins

    OpenAIRE

    RAJU, S

    2015-01-01

    Renewable sources like biomass, which mainly consists of materials derived from trees and plants, are currently considered as a key and future feedstock in the chemical industry for the sustainable production of chemicals. After the pre-treatment of biomass, lignocellulosic biomass is obtained as the major component. This contains various polymeric compounds such as starch, cellulose and lignin. By breaking these polymers into smaller monomeric molecules, sugars, polyols and aromatic compound...

  8. Bis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′(sulfato-Ocopper(II ethane-1,2-diol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu(SO4(C12H8N22]·C2H6O2, the CuII ion is five-coordinated in a distorted square-pyramidal manner by four N atoms from two chelating 1,10-phenanthroline (phen ligands and one O atom from a monodentate sulfate anion. The four N atoms comprise a square and the one O atom the apex of a square pyramid. The two chelating N2C2 groups are oriented at 71.1 (2°. In the crystal, the components are connected by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonding. The presence of pseudosymmetry in the structure suggests the higher symmetry space group C2/c, but attempts to refine the structure in this space group resulted in an unsatisfactory model.

  9. Synthesis of 5-azaandrostane-3b,17b-diol protected at the 17b-hydroxyl group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAROSLAV KALVODA

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the preparation of 3b-hydroxy-17b-dimethyl-tert-butylsilyloxy-5-azaandrostane (15 in fourteen steps is described. B-nor-17-oxoandrost-5-en-3b-yl acetate (1 was used as the starting material, which was transformed to the key intermediate of the synthesis, B-nor-17b-dimethyl-tert-butylsilyloxyandrost-4-en-3b-yl acetate (7.

  10. Nitric esters of polyoles. The conformation of nitroglycerin. NMR and dipolar moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemanceau, B.; Caire-Maurisier, M.

    1980-12-01

    The NMR spectrum on nitroglycerin of the type ABCA'B' was analyzed. The results show that the molecule is symmetric with respect to the HCO plane passing through the central atom. The protonic coupling constants were interpreted assuming a rigid structure of the -CH/sub 2/-CH-CH/sub 2/- chain with two possible conformations such that two neighbouring > Csup(H)sub(O) groupings are in an ecliptic position. The same holds for the -CH/sub 2/ONO/sub 2/ and the -CHONO/sub 2/ groupings of the propane-1,2-diole and butane-1,2,4-triole nitric esters. Dipole moment calculations were carried out considering the possible conformation of the -CH/sub 2/-CH-CH/sub 2/- chain and the rotation of the -ONO/sub 2/ groups around the C-O band. The results show that rotation is of the same importance as conformation. So it is not necessary to assume a change in the -CH/sub 2/-CH-CH/sub 2/- chain to explain the variation of the dipole moment in different solvents.

  11. Electrochemical corrosion protection studies of aniline-capped aniline trimer-based electroactive polyurethane coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the successful preparation of electroactive polyurethane (EPU) coatings containing amine-capped aniline trimer (ACAT) is presented for the first time. To accomplish this, ACAT was synthesized by carrying out oxidative coupling reactions between aniline and para-phenylenediamine, after which it was characterized through Fourier-transformation infrared and UV–vis spectroscopy. Subsequently, a polyurethane (PU) prepolymer was prepared by polymerizing diisocyanate of 4,4-methylene-bis(cyclohexylisocyanate), diol of polycaprolactone, and triol of phloroglucinol at 60 °C for 3 h. EPU was then produced by allowing the as-prepared polyurethane prepolymer to react with ACAT under suitable conditions. Non-electroactive polyurethane (NEPU) coating was also prepared for the control experiments. Based on a series of electrochemical corrosion measurements, EPU in the form of a coating was found to possess a clearly enhanced corrosion protection effect when compared to PU. The observed enhancement of the anticorrosion effect of EPU on a metallic substrate when compared to that of NEPU may have been caused by the redox catalytic capability of ACAT present in EPU, inducing the formation of a densely passive metal oxide layer (i.e., Fe2O3 and Fe3O4), as indicated by the results of scanning electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. The redox behavior of the EPU coatings was further analyzed and compared to that of the NEPU coating by cyclic voltammetric (CV) studies.

  12. Formulation and properties of ADN/GAP propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, Klaus; Heintz, Thomas; Schweikert, Wenka; Keicher, Thomas; Krause, Horst [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In this contribution two ways are described, how it is possible to achieve perfectly cured and processible propellants with prilled ADN, low amounts of HMX 5{mu}m mps and a binder system based on GAP diole and GAP triole oligomers with and without TMETN as a nitrate ester plasticizer. It was shown how it will be possible to suppress the strongly gas forming reaction between ADN and reactive isocyanates by a mixture of stabilizers. In this way it was possible to create minimum smoke ADN/HMX/GAP/TMETN propellants cured with the triisocyanate N100. In the second part an unconventional binder system based on the 1.3 dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azido groups with acetylene compounds forming 1,2,3-triazole heterocyclic rings has been applied for ADN/GAP and AP/GAP propellants. Together with small parts of HMX formulations with ADN/HMX/GAP and the corresponding AP/HMX/GAP exhibit high thermodynamic performance, are easily processible, and cure successfully at 60 C. Their basic properties consisting of burning behavior and mechanical properties, at ambient temperature, chemical stability, and sensitivity have been investigated and are compared to each other. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. 液体古马隆改性双组分聚氨酯涂料的制备和性能%Preparation and properties of liquid coumarone modified two-component polyurethane coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯涛; 韩胜利; 杨足明; 周柳

    2012-01-01

    The liquid coumarone modified two-component polyurethane coating was prepared,among which the component A is the prepolymcr containing NCO groups and the component B is the curing agent containing mixed diamine and liquid coumarone.The effects of ratio of triol and diol,NCO group content,liquid coumarone amount etc.,on the film properties were discussed and the optimal formulation was obtained.The tensile strength is 2.5 MPa.the elongation at break is 750% and the solid content is over 99%,that can achieve the requirements,in standard GB/T 19250-2003.%制备了液体古马隆改性的双组分聚氨酯涂料,其中A组分为含-NCO的预聚物,B组分为含混合二元胺和液体古马隆的固化剂.分别讨论了三元醇和二元醇的比例、-NCO含量、液体古马隆添加量等对涂膜性能的影响,得到最优化的配方.胶膜强度为2.5 MPa,断裂伸长率为750%.涂料固含量大于99%,可以达到《GB/T 19250-2003聚氨酯防水涂料》规定的指标要求.

  14. 狼毒大戟中二萜和三萜类成分%Diterpenes and Triterpenes from the Roots of Euphorbia fischeriana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴起成; 唐于平; 丁安伟; 尤奋强; 段金廒

    2010-01-01

    目的:对狼毒大戟的萜类成分进行研究.方法:采用硅胶柱层析色谱技术分离并纯化化合物,根据理化性质及波谱技术鉴定其结构.结果:从狼毒大戟的乙酸乙酯部位中分离得到8个二萜化合物和3个三萜化合物,分别鉴定为岩大戟内酯A(1),岩大戟内酯B(2),prostratin(3),ent-kaurane-3-oxo-16α,17-diol(4),antiquorin(5),neriifolene(6),ent-ati-sane-3β,16α,17-triol(7),kauranoic acid(S),乙酰木油树酸(9),24-亚甲基环木菠萝烷醇(10),乙酰羽扇豆醇(11).结论:化合物4-10为首次从该植物中分得.

  15. Blood compatibility of heparin-modified acyclic polyurethane elastomers%脂肪族聚氨酯弹性体肝素化的血液相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许乾慰; 肖世英

    2007-01-01

    目的:改进脂肪族聚氨酯(polyurethane,PU)弹性体表面接枝肝素(heparin,Hep)的工艺过程,观察共价键合法接枝肝素后其血液相容性.方法:实验于2005-08/2006-08于同济大学材料科学与工程学院实验室完成.材料制备:①脂肪族聚氨酯的合成:采用一步法合成以4,4'-甲烷二苯基二异氰酸酯(HMDI)或异氟尔酮二异氰酸醑(IPDI)、扩链剂1,4-丁二醇为硬段,聚四氢呋喃醚为软段的脂肪族聚氨酯,分别生成IPDI型聚氨酯和HMDI型聚氨酯.②共价键合法聚氨酯表面接枝肝素:形成PU-Hep,PU-聚乙烯醇(polyvinyl alcohol,PVA)-Hep,PU-聚乙二醇(polyethylene glycol,PEO)-Hep,PU-PVA-PEO-Hep中间产物.实验评估:①接枝肝素含量的测定:甲苯胺蓝显色法测定聚氨酯表面的肝素含量;甲苯胺蓝分光光度法测定肝素释放速率.②肝素接枝表面的血液相容性测定:通过溶血实验和血小板黏附实验测定.结果:①聚氨酯表面的肝素含量:IPDI型聚氨酯和HMDI型聚氨酯表面肝素(PU-PVA-PEO-Hep)接枝量分别达到64 8,51.0 mg/m2.②肝素释放速率:浸泡20 d后,IPDI型聚氨酯肝素化表面(PU-PVA-PEO-R-NHCO-Hep)的肝素含量从64.8 mg/m2下降到51.7 mg/m2(脱落20.2%),HMDI型聚氨酯肝素化表面(PU-PVA-PEO-Hep)的肝素含量从51.0 mg/m2下降到39.1 mg/m2(脱落23.3%).肝素的释放速率在浸泡7 d后达到稳定,约为0.6×10-8 g/(m2·min).③聚氨酯表面接枝肝素后溶血率:溶血率有一定降低(IPDI型从2.40%降低至1.94%、HMDI型从3.20%降低至2.36%),溶血率均小于5%,符合生物医用材料的溶血性要求,其中IPDI型聚氨酯血液相容性好于HMDI型.④血小板黏附情况:表面改性之前,IPDI型聚氨酯表面黏附的血小板数目多于HMDI型.IPDI型聚氨酯抑制血小板形成血栓的能力好于HMDI型.表面接枝肝素后,PU-PVA-PEO-Hep的血液相容性优于PU-PVA-Hep和PU-PEO-Hep.结论:表面共价键合法接枝肝素的脂肪族聚氨酯有良好的血液相容性,且肝素释放速率慢,基本满足人工心脏瓣膜材料的要求.

  16. New insight into the mechanism of the conjugate addition of benzenethiol to cyclic and acyclic enones and of the corresponding uranyl-salophen-catalysed version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axel Castelli, van Valeria; Dalla Cort, Antonella; Mandolini, Luigi; Reinhoudt, David N.; Schiaffino, Luca

    2003-01-01

    A thorough kinetic investigation of the triethylamine-catalysed addition of benzenethiol to 2-cyclopenten-1-one in chloroform shows that the highest energy transition state is a complex of thiol, enone, and base in a 1:1:1 ratio, but whether formation or disruption of the enolate-triethylammonium io

  17. 2 : 2 Fe(III): ligand and "adamantane core" 4 : 2 Fe(III): ligand (hydr)oxo complexes of an acyclic ditopic ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiladi, Morten; Larsen, Frank B.; McKenzie, Christine J.;

    2005-01-01

    a [ Fe(III) -(mu-OH)](2) rhomb structure with Fe center dot center dot center dot Fe = 3.109(1) angstrom. The non-coordinated tertiary amine of Hbpbp is protonated. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show a well-behaved weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the two Fe( III) atoms, J =- 8 cm(-1....... The best fit to the magnetic susceptibility of 2 center dot 4CH(3)OH was achieved by using three coupling constants J((Fe - OPh - Fe)) = 2.6 cm(-1), J((Fe - OH - Fe)) =- 0.9 cm(-1), J((Fe - O - Fe)) =- 101 cm(-1) and iron( III) single ion ZFS (| D| = 0.15 cm(-1))....

  18. Deconstructing selectivity in the gold-promoted cyclization of alkynyl benzothioamides to six-membered mesoionic carbene or acyclic carbene complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2014-05-02

    We demonstrate that the experimentally observed switch in selectivity from 5-exo-dig to 6-endo-dig cyclization of an alkynyl substrate, promoted by Au I and AuIII complexes, is connected to a switch from thermodynamic to kinetic reaction control. The AuIII center pushes alkyne coordination toward a single Au-C(alkyne) σ-bond, conferring carbocationic character (and reactivity) to the distal alkyne C atom. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Biologische Untersuchungen zum „lower acyclic terpene utilisation (atu) pathway“ in Pseudomonas aeruginosa und chemische Synthese wichtiger Intermediate dieses Stoffwechselweges

    OpenAIRE

    Randel, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Der Abbau von Citronellol und verwandten azyklischen Terpenoiden ist aufgrund einer Methylgruppe in beta-Position schwierig und nicht weit verbreitet. Die Organismen P. aeruginosa und P. citronellolis umgehen die Blockierung der beta-Oxidation durch Carboxylierung dieser Methylgruppe auf Stufe des CoenzymA-Esters 19 (Geranyl-CoA). Durch Wasseranlagerung an die Doppelbindung wird die Voraussetzung für die Abspaltung der Acetat-Funktionalität geschaffen, wobei die resultierende Verbindung 23 (7...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of mono- and bimetallic complexes of Zn(II and Cu(II; new multifunctional unsymmetrical acyclic and macrocyclic phenol-based ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Golchoubian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dicompartmental macrocyclic ligand (L22- was prepared by [1:1] cyclic condensation of N,N′-dimethyacetate-N,N′-ethylene-di(5-methyl-3-formyl-2-hydroxybenzylamine with 1,3-diaminopropane. The ligand includes dissimilar N(amine2O2 and N(imine2O2 coordination sites sharing two phenolic oxygen atoms and containing two methyl acetate pedant arms on the amine nitrogen donor atoms. A series of mono- and bimetallic complexes were synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance measurement, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. It was found that during the cyclization process the copper (II displaced from the N(amine2O2 to the N(imine2O2 coordination site and one of the methyl acetate pedant arms is dissociated. The heterodinuclear complex of [ZnL2Cu(-OAc]+ was prepared by a transmetallation reaction on the [ZnL2Zn(-OAc]+ by Cu(II. The characterization results showed that the two metal ions are bridged by two phenolic oxygen atoms and an acetate group, providing distorted five-coordination geometries for the both metal ions.

  1. RELATIVE SPECIFICITIES OF A SERIES OF BETA-LACTAM-RECOGNIZING ENZYMES TOWARDS THE SIDE-CHAINS OF PENICILLINS AND OF ACYCLIC THIOLDEPSIPEPTIDES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOTO, G; ADACHI, H; VANDERLINDEN, MPG; KECK, W; PRATT, RF

    1994-01-01

    In an attempt to understand more: of the subtle differences between bacterial beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases. comparisons have been made between the specificities of these enzymes towards the phenylacetyl side chain, generally thought to be favoured by beta-lactamases, and the NN'-diacetyl-L-lysy

  2. Synthesis and activity against HBV of novel Tetra-seconucleoside analogues of dyphlline having the acyclic chains of ACV and HBG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashry, El Sayed H; Awad, Laila F; Rashed, Nagwa; Abdelrahman, Adel; Rasheed, Hana A

    2008-03-01

    Selective alkylation of dyphylline (1) with (2-acetoxyethoxy)methyl bromide (2a) or 4-acetoxybutyl bromide (2b) afforded 3'-O-[(acetoxyethoxy)methyl]dyphylline (3a) and 3'-O-(4-acetoxybutyl)-dyphylline (3b), respectively. A trans esterification process rather than alkylation of the dihydroxy-propyl side chain in 1 had taken place during the reaction with 2-p-toluoyloxy)ethyl chloride (5) to afford the respective 3'-toluoyloxy derivative 7 and not the anticipated 3'-O-[(p-toluoyloxy)ethyl]-dyphylline (6). Deacylation of 3a,b and 7 afforded 4a,b and 1, respectively. Viral screening of selected compounds against HBV has been investigated.

  3. Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory polyhydroxylated spirostanol saponins from Tupistra chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Limin; Yi, Xiaomin; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2016-01-01

    Tupistra chinensis is widely distributed in southwestern China and its rhizome is a famous folk medicine for the treatment of carbuncles and pharyngitis. Its chemical identity of potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory constituents has been carried out in this study. Twenty-three polyhydroxylated spirostanol saponins, including nine novels, were isolated and identified. The new spirostanol saponins were elucidated as spirost-25(27)-en-1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-pentol-2-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), spirost-25(27)- en-1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-pentol-2-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (2), spirost-25(27)-en- 1β,3α,5β-triol (12), spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3α,4β,5β,6β-pentol (13), spirost-25(27)-en- 1β,2β,3β,5β-tetraol-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (16), 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (17), (25R)-5β-spirostan- 1β,3β-diol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (18), (25R)-5β- spirostan-1β,3β-diol-3-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (19), 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-3β-ol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (20). The antiproliferative effects against seven human cancer cell lines and inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were assayed for all the isolated compounds. Compounds 17, 19 and 21 exhibited potential antiproliferative activities against all of human cancer cell lines tested. Compounds 21 showed significant inhibition on NO production with IC50 values of 11.5 μM. These results showed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the dried rhizomes of T. chinensis have potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities and T. chinensis might be used as anticancer and.anti-inflammatory supplement. PMID:27530890

  4. Chemical constituents of Papulaspora immersa, an endophyte from Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae), and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Margareth Borges Coutinho; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; Barros, Francisco Washington Araújo; Odorico de Moraes, Manoel; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Pessoa, Cláudia; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2010-12-01

    Papulaspora immersa H. H. Hotson was isolated from roots and leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Rob. (Asteraceae), traditionally known as Yacon. The fungus was cultured in rice, and, from the AcOEt fraction, 14 compounds were isolated. Among them, (22E,24R)-8,14-epoxyergosta-4,22-diene-3,6-dione (4), 2,3-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-c-1,c-4,8-triol (10), and the chromone papulasporin (13) were new secondary metabolites. The spectral data of the known natural products were compared with the literature data, and their structures were established as the (24R)-stigmast-4-en-3-one (1), 24-methylenecycloartan-3β-ol (2), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), (-)-(3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein (5), (-)-(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (6), 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (7), (-)-(4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-α-tetralone (8), naphthalene-1,8-diol (9), 6,7,8-trihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin (11), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (12), and tyrosol (14). Compound 4 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines MDA-MB435 (melanoma), HCT-8 (colon), SF295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), with IC₅₀ values of 3.3, 14.7, 5.0 and 1.6 μM, respectively. Strong synergistic effects were also observed with compound 5 and some of the isolated steroidal compounds. PMID:21162007

  5. Grubbs's Cross Metathesis of Eugenol with cis-2-butene-1, 4-diol to Make a Natural Product: An Organometallic Experiment for the Undergraduate Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Frankowski, Kevin J.

    2006-01-01

    A modified experimental procedure for the one-step synthesis that is suitable for the undergraduate organic lab is presented. In the course of work towards the more routine use of air-sensitive organometallic complexes such as the Grubb's catalyst, the natural product (E)-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) but-2-en-ol, 4, was synthesized.

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and cigarette smoke condensate in human mucosa tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Philipp; Reiter, Maximilian; Kleinsasser, Norbert; Matthias, Christoph; Harréus, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    Although epidemiological studies indicate cancer preventive effects of diets rich in fruit and vegetables, large clinical intervention studies conducted to evaluate dietary supplementation with micronutrients, mostly vitamins, showed disappointing results in large parts. In contrast, there is encouraging epidemiologic data indicating great chemopreventive potential of a large group of phytochemicals, namely polyphenols. This study shows the DNA protective effect epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a tea catechin, and one of the best-studied substances within this group, on carcinogen-induced DNA fragmentation in upper aerodigestive tract cells. Cell cultures from fresh oropharyngeal mucosa biopsies were preincubated with epigallocatechin-3-gallate in different concentrations before DNA damage was introduced with the metabolically activated carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide or cigarette smoke condensate. Effects on resulting DNA fragmentation were measured using the alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet assay). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate significantly reduced benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-induced DNA damage by up to 51% (Pculture model. PMID:19491610

  7. Crystal structure of (1S,2R,4S-1-[(morpholin-4-ylmethyl]-4-(prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexane-1,2-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Outouch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H25NO3, contains two independent molecules with similar geometry. The morpholine and cyclohexane rings of both molecules adopt a chair conformation. Intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds are observed. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains parallel to the [101] direction. The chains are further connected through C—H...O hydrogen bonds forming undulating layers parallel to the (-101 plane. The absolute configuration was assigned by reference to an unchanging chiral centre in the synthetic procedure.

  8. Differential regulation of estrogen receptors α and β by 4-(E)-{(4-hydroxyphenylimino)-methylbenzene, 1,2-diol}, a novel resveratrol analog

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Amruta; Chatterjee, Anwesha; Singh, Bhupendra; Dandawate, Prasad; Murphy, Leigh; Nimee K Bhat; Padhye, Subhash; Bhat, Hari K.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in the United States. Estrogens have been implicated as major risk factors in the development of breast neoplasms. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested a protective role of phytoestrogens in prevention of breast and other cancers. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen found notably in red grapes, berries and peanuts, has been shown to possess potent anti-cancer properties. However, the poor efficacy of resveratro...

  9. Bis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′(sulfato-κ2O,O′cobalt(II propane-1,2-diol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Co(SO4(C12H8N22]·C3H8O2, the CoII atom (site symmetry 2 has a distorted octahedral coordination composed of four N atoms from two chelating 1,10-phenanthroline ligands and two O atoms from an O,O′-bidentate sulfate ligand, in which the S atom has site symmetry 2. The dihedral angle between the two chelating N2C2 groups is 84.46 (15°. The complex and solvent molecules are connected through O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The solvent molecule is equally disordered over two positions and is also located on a twofold axis.

  10. Sarcophine-Diol, a Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent, Inhibits Proliferation and Stimulates Apoptosis in Mouse Melanoma B16F10 Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Hesham Fahmy; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Szymanski, Pawel T.; Bhimanna Kuppast; Sherief Khalifa

    2011-01-01

    Sarcodiol (SD) is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B16F10 cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enh...

  11. Sarcophine-diol, a skin cancer chemopreventive agent, inhibits proliferation and stimulates apoptosis in mouse melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Pawel T; Kuppast, Bhimanna; Ahmed, Safwat A; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham

    2012-01-01

    Sarcodiol (SD) is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enhances fragmentation of DNA. We also evaluated the antitumor effect of SD on melanoma cell viability using several biomarkers for cell proliferation and apoptosis. SD inhibits the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription protein (STAT-3) and cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4). SD treatment also enhances cellular level of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and stimulates cleavage of the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved-PARP). SD also enhances cellular levels of cleaved Caspase-3, -8, -9 and stimulates enzymatic activities of Caspase-3, -8 and -9. These results, in addition to inhibition of cell viability, suggest that SD inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by arresting the cell-division cycle in a Go quiescent phase and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis) via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Finally, these studies demonstrate that SD shows a very promising chemopreventive effect in melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ tumor cells. PMID:22363217

  12. Crystal structure of (−-(2R,3S,4R,5R-5-(1,3-dithian-2-yl-3-methyl-1-(triisopropylsilyloxyhexane-2,4-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Cruz-Montanez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H42O3S2Si, crystallized with two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. They consist of syn,anti,anti-stereotetrads with a 1,3-dithiane motif and a primary alcohol protected as the triisopropyl silyl ether. The 1,3-dithiane ring adopts a chair conformation, while the rest of each molecule displays a common zigzag conformation. There is an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond in each molecule. In the crystal, the A and B molecules are linked via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming –A–B–A--B-- chains along [010]. The absolute structure was determined by resonant scattering (anomalous scattering [Flack parameter = 0.035 (8].

  13. The complexation of a novel squaric bis(thiosemicarbazone); 3,4-bis{[(aminothioxomethyl)amino]azamethylene}cyclobut-ene-1,2-diol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleem, H. S.; Ramadan, A. A. T.; Taha, A.; Eid, M. F.; Samy, F.

    2011-03-01

    A novel chelating agent (Sqtsc; H 4L) bearing both hard and soft donor atoms was synthesized by the condensation of squaric acid with thiosemicarbazide. The ligand has two symmetrical sets of donor atoms (SNO), therefore, it was allowed to react with the metal ions at the mole ratio 2:1 (M:L). Mono- and bi-nuclear chelates were obtained in which the ligand showed a variety of modes of bonding viz. (OO) 2-, (SNNS) 2- and (SNO) 2- per each metal ion supporting the ambidentate and flexidentate characters of the ligand. The mode of bonding and basicity of the ligand depend mainly on the type of the metal cation and its counter anion. All the obtained complexes have the preferable O h-geometry except the VO II-complex ( 7) which has also the preferable square pyramid geometry. Structural elucidation was achieved via elemental and spectral data.

  14. 17α-Ethyl-5β-estrane-3α,17β-diol, a biological marker for the abuse of norethandrolone and ethylestrenol in slaughter cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puymbroeck, M. van; Kuilman, M.E.M.; Maas, R.F.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Leyssens, L.; Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Hendriks, L.; Zande, D.J.M. van der; Adriaensens, P.; Jacobs, M.-P.; Raus, J.

    1999-01-01

    The metabolism of the illegal growth promoter ethylestrenol (EES) was evaluated in bovine liver cells and subcellular fractions of bovine liver preparations. Incubations with bovine microsomal preparations revealed that EES is extensively biotransformed into norethandrolone (NE), another illegal gro

  15. Structural studies on inclusion compounds and solvent sorption behavior of gradually elongated wheel-and-axle-type diol hosts featuring lateral benzo[b]thiophene units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzsch, Felix; Gruber, Tobias; Weber, Edwin

    2016-06-01

    Based on the wheel-and-axle design strategy, a series of six new clathrate hosts featuring two di(benzo[b]thien-2-yl)hydroxymethyl units attached to both ends of a central linear building element of varying length have been synthesized and their capability to form crystalline inclusion compounds with a fixed range of organic solvents are reported. X-ray crystal structures of relevant inclusion compounds have been determined and are comparatively discussed involving structural modification of the host molecules. Organic vapor sorption behavior of the host compounds coated as solid films on the quartz crystal of a QCM device has been studied. Significant differences in the affinities towards solvent vapors dependent both on structural and polarity properties of host and solvent are observed, indicating potential application as mass sensitive materials.

  16. Redox-active tetrathiafulvalene and dithiolene compounds derived from allylic 1,4-diol rearrangement products of disubstituted 1,3-dithiole derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Vilela; Skabara, Peter J; Mason, Christopher R.; Thomas D. J. Westgate; Asun Luquin; Coles, Simon J.; Hursthouse, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    We present a series of compounds by exploiting the unusual 1,4-aryl shift observed for electron-rich 1,3-dithiole-2-thione and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives in the presence of perchloric acid. The mechanistic features of this rearrangement are discussed since this synthetic strategy provides an alternative route for the synthesis and functionalisation of sulfur rich compounds including redox active compounds of TTFs, and a Ni dithiolene.

  17. Síntesis y caracterización de poliuretanos termoplásticos basados en policarbonato dioles. Relación estructura/propiedades.

    OpenAIRE

    Félix de Castro, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Los poliuretanos son una familia de polímeros muy versátil, utilizados en un amplio rango de aplicación, desde las espumas rígidas-flexibles, materiales elastómeros, recubrimientos, adhesivos, hasta materiales con aplicaciones biomédicas. Esta gran versatilidad es debida a que los reactivos utilizados en la síntesis de los poliuretanos son muy variados, permitiendo la gran versatilidad en la formulación del poliuretano y en las propiedades del mismo. Los poliuretanos termoplásticos el...

  18. Study on Waterborne Polycarbonate Diols-based Polyurethane%聚碳酸酯型水性聚氨酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全杰; 朱先义; 侯立杰; 蒋艳云; 杜丹华

    2009-01-01

    以聚碳酸酯二醇(PCDL)和4,4'-二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI )为主要原料合成水性聚碳酸酯型聚氨酯树脂(PCU).研究了软段分子量、软段用量对PCU力学性能和微观相分离结构的影响.结果表明,随着软段用量的增加,PCU的断裂强度迅速下降,断裂伸长率也有所下降.但相同软段用量,随着分子量的增加,断裂强度非但没有下降,反而有所上升;断裂伸长率略有下降.同时聚碳酸酯二醇可以明显提高聚氨酯的耐黄变性.

  19. hREV3 is essential for error-prone translesion synthesis past UV or benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-induced DNA lesions in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In S. cerevisiae, the REV3 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of polymerase zeta, is involved in translesion synthesis and required for the production of mutations induced by ultraviolet radiation (UV) photoproducts and other DNA fork-blocking lesions, and for the majority of spontaneous mutations. To determine whether hREV3, the human homolog of yeast REV3, is similarly involved in error-prone translesion synthesis past UV photoproducts and other lesions that block DNA replication, an hREV3 antisense construct under the control of the TetP promoter was transfected into an infinite life span human fibroblast cell strain that expresses a high level of tTAk, the activator of that promoter. Three transfectant strains expressing high levels of hREV3 antisense RNA were identified and compared with their parental cell strain for sensitivity to the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of UV. The three hREV3 antisense-expressing cell strains were not more sensitive than the parental strain to the cytotoxic effect of UV, but the frequency of mutants induced by UV in their HPRT gene was significantly reduced, i.e. to 14% that of the parent. Two of these hREV3 antisense-expressing cell strains were compared with the parental strain for sensitivity to (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α,10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). They were not more sensitive than the parent strain to the cytotoxic effect of BPDE, but the frequency of mutants induced was significantly reduced, i.e. in one strain, to 17% that of the parent, and in the other, to 24%. DNA sequencing showed that the kinds of mutations induced by BPDE in the parental and the derivative strains did not differ and were similar to those found previously with finite life span human fibroblasts. The data strongly support the hypothesis that hRev3 plays a critical role in the induction of mutations by UV or BPDE. Because the level of hRev3 protein in human fibroblasts is below the level of antibody detection, it was not possible to demonstrate that the decrease in mutagenesis reflected decreased hRev3 protein. However, the conclusion is supported by the fact that in a similar study with a strain expressing a high level of antisense hREV1, a very similar result was obtained, i.e. UV or BPDE mutagenesis was virtually eliminated.

  20. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes and antibodies to the adducts in serum from coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, C. C.; Vahakangas, K.; Newman, M J; Trivers, G E; Shamsuddin, A; Sinopoli, N; Mann, D L; Wright, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Coke oven workers are exposed to high levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and are at increased risk of lung cancer. Since B[a]P is enzymatically activated to 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy(9 alpha, 10 alpha)epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]PDE) that forms adducts with DNA, the presence of these adducts was measured in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and enzyme radioimmunoassay. App...

  1. 高温液相醇解法制备钴纳米粒子%Preparation of Cobalt Nanoparticles by High Temperature Liquid Phase Diol Reduction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧玉; 汤皎宁; 辛剑; 杨火电

    2006-01-01

    利用1,10-癸二醇做还原剂,在油酸和乙二醇辛基苯基醚两种表面活性剂存在下制备出磁性钴纳米粒子,利用XRD、XPS、TEM和激光光散射仪对所制备的钴纳米粒子进行了表征.结果表明:该方法制备的钴纳米粒子具有hcp相,平均粒径大约为30 nm.

  2. Ruthenium/1,1 '-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-Catalysed Oppenauer Oxidation of Alcohols and Lactonisation of alpha,omega-Diols using Methyl Isobutyl Ketone as Oxidant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicklaus, Celine M.; Phua, Pim Huat; Buntara, Teddy; Noel, Sebastien; Heeres, Hero J.; de Vries, Johannes G.

    2013-01-01

    A number of ruthenium catalysts, made in situ from [Ru(p-cymene)Cl-2](2) and various monodentate and bidentate phosphorus ligands were screened in the double Oppenauer oxidation of 1,6-hexanediol to caprolactone using methyl isobutyl ketone as oxidant and potassium carbonate as base. The catalyst ba

  3. Sarcophine-Diol, a Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent, Inhibits Proliferation and Stimulates Apoptosis in Mouse Melanoma B16F10 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Fahmy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcodiol (SD is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B16F10 cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enhances fragmentation of DNA. We also evaluated the antitumor effect of SD on melanoma cell viability using several biomarkers for cell proliferation and apoptosis. SD inhibits the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription protein (STAT-3 and cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4. SD treatment also enhances cellular level of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53 and stimulates cleavage of the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (cleaved-PARP. SD also enhances cellular levels of cleaved Caspase-3, -8, -9 and stimulates enzymatic activities of Caspase-3, -8 and -9. These results, in addition to inhibition of cell viability, suggest that SD inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by arresting the cell-division cycle in a Go quiescent phase and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Finally, these studies demonstrate that SD shows a very promising chemopreventive effect in melanoma B16F10 tumor cells.

  4. Sarcophine-diol, a skin cancer chemopreventive agent, inhibits proliferation and stimulates apoptosis in mouse melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Pawel T; Kuppast, Bhimanna; Ahmed, Safwat A; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham

    2012-01-01

    Sarcodiol (SD) is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enhances fragmentation of DNA. We also evaluated the antitumor effect of SD on melanoma cell viability using several biomarkers for cell proliferation and apoptosis. SD inhibits the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription protein (STAT-3) and cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4). SD treatment also enhances cellular level of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and stimulates cleavage of the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved-PARP). SD also enhances cellular levels of cleaved Caspase-3, -8, -9 and stimulates enzymatic activities of Caspase-3, -8 and -9. These results, in addition to inhibition of cell viability, suggest that SD inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by arresting the cell-division cycle in a Go quiescent phase and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis) via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Finally, these studies demonstrate that SD shows a very promising chemopreventive effect in melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ tumor cells.

  5. Effect of strand-specific excision repair on the spectra of mutations induced by benzo[a]pyrene-diol epoxide and ultraviolet radiation in diploid human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effect of excision repair on the spectra of mutations induced in diploid human cells by UV and ±-7β, 8α-dihydroxy-9α,10α-epoxy- 7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE), the author synchronized repair-proficient cells, treated them at the beginning of S phase or in G1 phase several hours prior to the onset of S phase, selected for thioguanine resistant cells, and determined the spectra of mutations in the coding region of the hyproxanthine(guanine)phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) gene in the mutants. As a control, the spectra of mutations similarly induced in repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells were compared. There was no difference in the kinds of mutations observed in mutants derived from either cell strain treated with a particular mutagen either in S or in G1. With BPDE, the majority were G.C→T.A transversions; with UV, they were mainly G.C.→A.T transitions. The strand distribution of premutagenic lesions in mutants from repair-proficient cells treated in S or G1 differed significantly. The results strongly support the hypothesis that human cells preferentially repair UV- and BPDE-induced lesions from the transcribed strand of the HPRT gene. To test this, the rate of repair of BPDE adducts from individual strands of the HPRT gene was measured, using the UvrABC exinuclease and Southern hybridizations with strand-specific probes to detect lesions remaining. BPDE lesions were removed from the transcribed strand at a significantly faster rate than from the nontranscribed strand, consistent with my hypothesis. It was found that BPDE adducts were removed faster from either strand of the HPRT gene than from a transcriptionally inactive locus, indicating preferential repair of active genes. The results of these studies provide biochemical and biological evidence of strand-specific DNA repair of BPDE adducts in human cells

  6. Crystal structure of (±)-(7RS,8SR)-7-methyl-1,4-dioxa-spiro-[4.5]decane-7,8-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Sugai, Tomoya; Fukaya, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yu; Watanabe, Ami; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, C9H16O4, the five-membered dioxolane ring adopts a twist conformation; two adjacent C atoms deviate alternately from the mean plane of other atoms by -0.297 (4) and 0.288 (4) Å. The spiro-fused cyclo-hexane ring shows a chair form. The hy-droxy group substituted in an axial position makes an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond with one of the O atoms in the cyclic ether, forming an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, the O-H⋯O hydrogen bond involving the equatorial hy-droxy group connects the mol-ecules into a zigzag chain with a C(5) motif running along the c axis. PMID:26594401

  7. 南海北部1,3,4-C27-29三醇化合物的检出及其指示%Detection and indication of 1,3,4-C27-29 triol in the sediment of northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小畏; 茅晟懿; 吴能友; 贾国东; 孙永革; 管红香; 邬黛黛

    2016-01-01

    继长链三醇化合物(1,20,21-C29)在部分沉积物和淡水蕨类植物中检出后,本文在南海北部Site4B岩芯沉积物中检出了与1,20,21-C29三醇不同羟基位置和碳链长度的新的长链三醇同系物(1,3,4-C27-29).通过对其分子分布和单体碳同位素测试发现1,3,4-C29三醇与n-C26-30偶碳长链脂肪醇含量具有良好相关性,R2 (n=68)分别为0.905、0.929和0.903,并且碳同位素组成(-32.3±1.9‰)与n-C26-30偶碳长链脂肪醇(分别为-29.13±0.87‰、-32.98±1.28‰和-32.98±1.28‰)较为接近.Site4B岩芯沉积物中1,3,4-C29三醇和陆源长链脂肪醇(n-C26-34)在整个剖面中的分布趋势高度一致,可以作为陆源输入的替代性指标.鉴于以往研究1,20,21-C29三醇专属于满江红属(Azolla)淡水蕨类植物,此次报道的1,3,4-C27-29三醇可能具有相似的生物来源,通过对其生源区及生长环境的判定可以为南海北部陆源输入途径和来源提供潜在的有机地球化学依据.

  8. Caracterização de pinos da blenda poli(L-co-D,L ácido láctico)/poli(caprolactona triol) (PLDLA/PCL-T) e análise das propriedade mecânicas dos pinos durante degradação in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Adriana Tomaz Duarte; Adriana Cristina Motta; Eliana Aparecida Rezende Duek

    2016-01-01

    Resumo Os dispositivos de fixação óssea, metálicos convencionais, usados em cirurgia crâniomaxilofacial têm apresentado alguns problemas, tais como, corrosão, inflamação e infecção, além de neoformação de estrutura óssea mecanicamente inferior devido à atrofia gerada pela diferença de módulo elástico entre metal e osso, razões que têm levado ao aumento do interesse por dispositivos poliméricos bioarreabsorvíveis. Os polímeros biorreabsorvíveis mais utilizados nesta aplicação pertencem à famíl...

  9. Different products in the reaction of the alcohols with cyclic and acyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds: K5CoW12O4o as an electron transfer nano catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezzat Rafiee; Masoud Kahrizi; Mohammad Joshaghani

    2012-01-01

    K5CoW12O4o was used as a highly effective catalyst for the benzylation of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.β-Keto enol ethers were obtained when cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds used in this conditions instead of linear ones.The present methodology offers a practical,simple,mild,environmentally friendly,and time-saving method for etherification.Very low loading of catalyst,ease of workup,ease of handling,and reusability of catalyst are other advantages of this catalyst.

  10. 基于时间序无圈有向图的多准则优化成像调度%Multicriteria Optimal Imaging Scheduling Based on Time Ordered Acyclic Directed Graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 王钧; 李军; 景宁

    2005-01-01

    合理有效地利用遥感卫星资源获取更多高质量影像数据是卫星成像调度的重要工作.提出了一种新的成像调度解决方案.应用图论相关理论,建立卫星成像时间序无圈有向图模型,利用多项准则作为衡量标准对不同成像路径进行评价,提出时间序多准则最短路径算法求取优化成像路径.理论分析和实验表明,该解决方案可以在较短时间内获得多条pareto优化成像路径,具有良好的调度性能.

  11. Determination of thermal stability of specific biomarker lipids of the freshwater fern Azolla through hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sap, Merel; Speelman, Eveline N.; Lewan, Michael D.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    Enormous blooms of the free-floating freshwater fern Azolla occurred within the Arctic Basin during an extended period of ~1.2 Ma during the middle Eocene (Brinkhuis et al. 2006; Speelman et al., GB, 2009). The sustained growth of Azolla, currently ranking among the fastest growing plants on Earth, in a major anoxic basin may have substantially contributed to decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels by burial of Azolla-derived organic matter. Speelman et al. (OG, 2009) reported biomarkers for Azolla (1,w20 C32 - C36 diols, structurally related C29 ω20,ω21 diols, C29 1,20,21 triols, C29 dihydroxy fatty acids as well as a series of wax esters containing these mono- and dihydroxy lipids), which can be used to reconstruct palaeo-environmental conditions. Here we assess the thermal stability of these compounds, to extend their biomarker potential. We specifically focused on the thermal stability of the Azolla biomarkers using hydrous pyrolysis in order to determine which burial conditions allow reconstruction of past occurrences of Azolla. In addition, hydrous pyrolysis was also performed on samples from the Eocene Arctic Ocean (ACEX core), to test if and how the biomarkers change under higher temperatures and pressures in situ. During hydrous pyrolysis, the biomass was heated under high pressure at temperatures ranging between 220 and 365°C for 72 hours. Four experiments were also run using different durations to explore the kinetics of biomarker degradation at specific temperatures. First results indicate that the Azolla specific diols are still present at 220°C, while the corresponding wax esters are already absent. At 300°C all Azolla specific biomarkers are destroyed. More specific determination of the different biomarkers' stability and kinetics would potentially allow the reconstruction of the temperature and pressure history of Azolla deposits. Literature: • Brinkhuis, H., Schouten, S., Collinson, M. E., Sluijs, A., Sinninghe Damste, J. S., Dickens, G. R., Huber

  12. Investigating the influences of SO2 and NH3 levels on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation using conditional sampling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Surratt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Filter-based PM2.5 samples were chemically analyzed to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from isoprene in a rural atmosphere of the southeastern US influenced by both anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ammonia (NH3 emissions. Daytime PM2.5 samples were collected during summer 2010 using conditional sampling approaches based on pre-defined high and low SO2 or NH3 thresholds. Known molecular-level tracers for isoprene SOA formation, including 2-methylglyceric acid, 3-methyltetrahydrofuran-3,4-diols, 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols, dimers, and organosulfate derivatives, were identified and quantified by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS. Mass concentrations of six isoprene low-NOx SOA tracers contributed to 12–19% of total organic matter (OM in PM2.5 samples collected during the sampling period, indicating the importance of the hydroxyl radical (OH-initiated oxidation (so-called photooxidation of isoprene under low-NOx conditions that leads to SOA formation through reactive uptake of gaseous isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX in this region. IEPOX-derived SOA tracers were enhanced under high-SO2 sampling scenarios, suggesting that SO2 oxidation increases aerosol acidity of sulfate aerosols needed for enhancing heterogeneous oxirane ring-opening reactions of IEPOX. No clear associations between isoprene SOA formation and high and low NH3 conditional samples were found. Furthermore, weak correlations between aerosol acidity and mass of IEPOX SOA tracers suggests that IEPOX-derived SOA formation might be modulated by other factors as well in addition to aerosol acidity. Positive correlations between sulfate aerosol loadings and IEPOX-derived SOA tracers for samples collected under all conditions indicates that sulfate aerosol could

  13. Experiments and simulations of NOx formation in the combustion of hydroxylated fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the influence of molecular structure in hydroxylated fuels (i.e. fuels with one or more hydroxyl groups), such as alcohols and polyols, on NOx formation. The fuels studied are three lower alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol), two diols (1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-propanediol), and one triol (1,2,3-propanetriol); all of which are liquids at room temperature and span a wide range of thermophysical properties. Experimental stack emissions measurements of NO/NO2, CO, and CO2 and flame temperature profiles utilizing a rake of thermocouples were obtained in globally lean, swirling, liquid atomized spray flames inside a refractory-lined combustion chamber as a function of the atomizing air flow rate and swirl number. These experiments show significantly lower NOx formation with increasing fuel oxygen content despite similarities in the flame temperature profiles. By controlling the temperature profiles, the contribution to NOx formation through the thermal mechanism were matched, and variations in the contribution through non-thermal NOx formation pathways are observed. Simulations in a perfectly stirred reactor, at conditions representative of those measured within the combustion region, were conducted as a function of temperature and equivalence ratio. The simulations employed a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic model for NOx formation from hydroxylated fuels developed based on recent alcohol combustion models and extended to include polyol combustion chemistry. These simulations provide a qualitative comparison to the range of temperatures and equivalence ratios observed in complex swirling flows and provide insight into the influence of variations in the fuel decomposition pathways on NOx formation. It is observed that increasing the fuel bound oxygen concentration ultimately reduces the formation of NOx by increasing the proportion of fuel oxidized through formaldehyde, as opposed to acetylene or acetaldehyde

  14. New monocyclic monoterpenoid glycoside from Mentha haplocalyx Briq.

    OpenAIRE

    She Gai-Mei; Xu Chao; Liu Bin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new monocyclic monoterpenoid glycosides, rel-(1R,2S,3R,4R) p-menthane-1,2,3-triol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and rel- (1S,2R,3S) terpinolene-1,2,3-triol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from aqueous acetone extract of the aerial parts of Mentha haplocalyx Briq.. Their structures were elucidated through spectral analysis using MS and NMR spectrometers.

  15. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, April S Y; Ho, Emmie N M; Wan, Terence S M; Lam, Kenneth K H; Stewart, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  16. Crystal structure of 5,5′-di­bromo-3,3′-di-tert-butyl-6,6′-di­methyl­biphenyl-2,2′-diol

    OpenAIRE

    Obata, Rika; Ohba, Shigeru; Einaga, Yasuaki; Nishiyama, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The whole mol­ecule of the title compound, C22H28Br2O2, is generated by twofold rotation symmetry. The dihedral angle of the biphenyl moiety is 85.05 (11)°. The hy­droxy groups show intra­molecular O—H⋯π inter­actions without any other hydrogen-bond acceptors. In the crystal, there are no other significant inter­molecular inter­actions present.

  17. Crystal structure of 5,5′-dibromo-3,3′-di-tert-butyl-6,6′-dimethylbiphenyl-2,2′-diol

    OpenAIRE

    Rika Obata; Shigeru Ohba; Yasuaki Einaga; Shigeru Nishiyama

    2015-01-01

    The whole molecule of the title compound, C22H28Br2O2, is generated by twofold rotation symmetry. The dihedral angle of the biphenyl moiety is 85.05 (11)°. The hydroxy groups show intramolecular O—H...π interactions without any other hydrogen-bond acceptors. In the crystal, there are no other significant intermolecular interactions present.

  18. Crystal structure of 5,5′-dibromo-3,3′-di-tert-butyl-6,6′-dimethylbiphenyl-2,2′-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Obata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The whole molecule of the title compound, C22H28Br2O2, is generated by twofold rotation symmetry. The dihedral angle of the biphenyl moiety is 85.05 (11°. The hydroxy groups show intramolecular O—H...π interactions without any other hydrogen-bond acceptors. In the crystal, there are no other significant intermolecular interactions present.

  19. 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol induces oxidative DNA damage in HEK 293 cells%3-氯-1,2-丙二醇对人胚肾293细胞DNA损伤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲花玲; 姜丽平; 于畅; 耿成燕; 仲来福; 陈敏; 刘晓芳

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究3-氯-1,2-丙二醇(3-MCPD)对人胚肾293(HEK293)细胞DNA损伤作用.方法 以HEK293细胞为靶细胞,3-MCPD设5个剂量组:0,1.25,2.5,5,10 mmol/L,应用单细胞凝胶电泳检测3-MCPD诱导的HEK293细胞DNA损伤;将3-MCPD设4个剂量组:0,2.5,5,10 mmol/L,以2,7-二氢二氯荧光素(DCFH)法测定HEK293细胞内活性氧(ROS)水平;将3-MCPD设4个剂量组:0,1.25,2.5,5 mmol/L,通过免疫组化法测定8-羟基脱氧鸟苷(8-OHdG)在HEK293细胞内的表达水平.结果 与对照组比较,1.25~10 mmol/L的染毒组细胞DNA链断裂,细胞形成彗星样脱尾,尾DNA%明显上升,且呈剂量依赖关系(P<0.05).2.5~10 mmol/L的染毒组细胞内ROS水平表达升高,在10 mmol/L时明显升高(P<0.05).1.25~5 mmol/L的染毒组细胞内8-OHdG表达水平上升,在2.5和5 mmol/L时8-OHdG表达明显增强(P<0.05).结论 3-MCPD导致了HEK293细胞DNA损伤,可能是通过细胞内ROS升高及8-OHdG形成增加所造成的氧化性DNA损伤作用.

  20. Flow cytometric analysis of mitotic cycle perturbation by chemical carcinogens in cultured epithelial cells. [Effects of benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide on mitotic cycle of cultural mouse liver epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlman, A.L.

    1978-08-01

    A system for kinetic analysis of mitotic cycle perturbation by various agents was developed and applied to the study of the mitotic cycle effects and dependency of the chemical carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene-diolepoxide, DE, upon a mouse lever epithelial cell line, NMuLi. The study suggests that the targets of DE action are not confined to DNA alone but may include cytoplasmic structures as well. DE was found to affect cells located in virtually every phase of the mitotic cycle, with cells that were actively synthesizing DNA showing the strongest response. However, the resulting perturbations were not confined to S-phase alone. DE slowed traversal through S-phase by about 40% regardless of the cycle phase of the cells exposed to it, and slowed traversal through G/sub 2/M by about 50%. When added to G/sub 1/ cells, DE delayed recruitment of apparently quiescent (G/sub 0/) cells by 2 hours, and reduced the synchrony of the cohort of cells recruited into active proliferation. The kinetic analysis system consists of four elements: tissue culture methods for propagating and harvesting cell populations; an elutriation centrifugation system for bulk synchronization of cells in various phases of the mitotic cycle; a flow cytometer (FCM), coupled with appropriate staining protocols, to enable rapid analysis of the DNA distribution of any given cell population; and data reduction and analysis methods for extracting information from the DNA histograms produced by the FCM. The elements of the system are discussed. A mathematical analysis of DNA histograms obtained by FCM is presented. The analysis leads to the detailed implementation of a new modeling approach. The new modeling approach is applied to the estimation of cell cycle kinetic parameters from time series of DNA histograms, and methods for the reduction and interpretation of such series are suggested.

  1. A facile synthesis of (4S,6R) - p - menth - 1 -ene - 6,8 - diol%(+)-4S,6R-对-(艹孟)-1-烯-6,8-二醇的简便合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷彩霞; 肖涵; 高竹林; 黄荣; 张甦; 刘复初

    2005-01-01

    以α-蒎烯为原料,脂环酸钴作为催化剂,通入氧气,控制反应温度在80~90℃的条件下,意外地得到无色针状结晶化合物(+)-4S,6R-对-(艹孟)-1-烯-6,8-二醇,反应产率为6.6%,ee值为98.9%.经旋光仪测定,其旋光方向为右旋,其结构分别由IR,1HNMR,13CNMR,13G-1H-HMQC-2DNMR及MS波谱图的验证.

  2. Crystal structure and absolute configuration of (3aS,4S,5R,7aR-2,2,7-trimethyl-3a,4,5,7a-tetrahydro-1,3-benzodioxole-4,5-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Macías

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The absolute configuration of the title compound, C10H16O4, determined as 3aS,4S,5R,7aR on the basis of the synthetic pathway, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The molecule contains a five- and a six-membered ring that adopt twisted and envelope conformations, respectively. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the rings is 76.80 (11° as a result of their cis-fusion. In the crystal, molecules are linked by two pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. These chains are further connected by weaker C—H...O interactions along [100], creating (001 sheets that interact only by weak van der Waals forces.

  3. Synthesis of 2- Benzyl- 2- Nitropropane- 1,3- Diol%2-硝基-2-苄基-1,3-丙二醇的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 徐崇福; 程耀洲; 王昕宇; 张杜鹃

    2011-01-01

    2-硝基-2-苄基-1,3-丙二醇是合成药物中间体α-丝氨酸的重要先行体,它由β-硝基苯乙烷与三聚甲醛在碱催化条件下的羟醛缩合反应合成.产物通过重结晶得到无色透明晶体,产率49.01%.对去质子剂、反应物配科比、反应温度以及反应时间进行了优化.产物的结构通过1H NMR,13CNMR,IR表征.X-Ray单晶衍射分析揭示分子间和分子内氢键的存在.

  4. Target-point formation control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, Shaoshuai; Cao, Ming; Morse, A. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new distributed feedback strategy is proposed for controlling a rigid, acyclic formation of kinematic point-modeled mobile autonomous agents in the plane. The strategy makes use of a new concept called a "target point" and is applicable to any two-dimensional, acyclic formation whose

  5. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  6. Substrate specificity and stereoselectivity of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. Kinetic evaluation of binding and activation parameters controlling the catalytic cycles of unbranched, acyclic secondary alcohols and ketones as substrates of the native and active-site-specific Co(II)-substituted enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, H W; Maurer, P; Schneider-Bernlöhr, H; Sartorius, C; Zeppezauer, M

    1991-11-01

    1. The steady-state parameters kcat and Km and the rate constants of hydride transfer for the substrates isopropanol/acetone; (S)-2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol/2-butanone; (S)-2-pentanol, (R)-2-pentanol/2-pentanone; 3-pentanol/3-pentanone; (S)-2-octanol and (R)-2-octanol have been determined for the native Zn(II)-containing horse-liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) and the specific active-site-substituted Co(II)LADH. 2. A combined evaluation of steady-state kinetic data and rate constants obtained from stopped-flow measurements, allowed the determination of all rate constants of the following ordered bi-bi mechanism: E in equilibrium E.NAD in equilibrium E.NAD.R1R2 CHOH in equilibrium E.NADH.R1R2CO in equilibrium E.NADH in equilibrium E. 3. On the basis of the different substrate specificities of LADH and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), a procedure has been developed to evaluate the enantiomeric product composition of ketone reductions. 2-Butanone and 2-pentanone reductions revealed (S)-2-butanol (86%) and (S)-2-pentanol (95%) as the major products. 4. The observed enantioselectivity implies the existence of two productive ternary complexes; E.NADH.(pro-S) 2-butanone and E.NADH.(pro-R) 2-butanone. All rate constants describing the kinetic pathways of the system (S)-2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol/2-butanone have been determined. These data have been used to estimate the expected enantiomer product composition of 2-butanone reductions using apparent kcat/Km values for the two different ternary-complex configurations of 2-butanone. Additionally, these data have been used for computer simulations of the corresponding reaction cycles. Calculated, simulated and experimental data were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the system (S)-2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol/2-butanone is the first example of a LADH-catalyzed reaction for which the stereochemical course could be described in terms of rate constants of the underlying mechanism. 5. The effects of Co(II) substitution on the different steps of the kinetic pathway have been investigated. The free energy of activation is higher for alcohol oxidation and lower for ketone reduction when catalyzed by Co(II)LADH in comparison to Zn(II)LADH. However, the free energies of binding are affected by metal substitution in such a way that the enantioselectivity of ketone reduction is not significantly changed by the substitution of Co(II) for Zn(II). 6. Evaluation of the data shows that substrate specificity and stereoselectivity result from combination of the free energies of binding and activation, with differences in binding energies as the dominating factors. In this regard, the interactions of substrate molecules with the protein moiety are dominant over the interactions with the catalytic metal ion.

  7. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 201Rev1: 2-Alkylated, aliphatic, acyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and precursors, with or without additional double-bonds, from chemical subgroup 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider in this revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 201, the additional data on genotoxicity submitted by the Industry on two substances, 2-methylpent-2-enal....... The Panel therefore concluded that further data are required in order to clarify the genotoxic potential of this subgroup. The Panel considers the Comet assay with [FL-no: 05.095] as test material and performed on liver, blood and first site of contact, as a preferred option to further investigate...

  8. Very-long-chain 1,2- and 1,3-bifunctional compounds from the cuticular wax of Cosmos bipinnatus petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Peng, Chen; Jetter, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Four uncommon classes of very-long-chain compounds were identified and quantified in the petal wax of Cosmos bipinnatus (Asteraceae). The first two were homologous series of alkane 1,2-diols and 1,3-diols, both ranging from C20 to C26. The upper and lower petal surfaces contained 0.11 and 0.09 μg/cm(2) of 1,2-diols, respectively. 1,3-Diols were present at quantities one order of magnitude less than the 1,2-diols. Both series had similar chain length distributions, with 6-20%, 59-73% and 20-31% of the C20, C22 and C24 diols, respectively. The other two compound classes were primary and secondary monoacetates of C20-C24 1,2-diols. The monoacetates had chain length profiles similar to the free 1,2-diols, and amounted to 0.04 and 0.09 μg/cm(2) on the adaxial and abaxial sides, respectively. Methods were developed to minimize acyl migration during monoacetate isomer analyses. The ratios of diol 1-acetates to diol 2-acetates averaged close to 3:5, and thus opposite to the chemical equilibrium ratio of 7:3.

  9. Furostanol saponins from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Su, Lan; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Haifeng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and colour reaction as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostane-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1); 26-O-β- D-glucopyranosyl-25(R)-5α-furostan-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2). PMID:22934688

  10. Rapid Diagnosis of 83 Patients with Niemann Pick Type C Disease and Related Cholesterol Transport Disorders by Cholestantriol Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Janine Reunert; Manfred Fobker; Frank Kannenberg; Ingrid Du Chesne; Maria Plate; Judith Wellhausen; Stephan Rust; Thorsten Marquardt

    2016-01-01

    Niemann Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by an impairment of intracellular lipid transport. Due to the heterogeneous clinical phenotype and the lack of a reliable blood test, diagnosis and therapy are often delayed for years. In the cell, accumulating cholesterol leads to increased formation of oxysterols that can be used as a powerful screening parameter for NP-C. In a large scale study, we evaluated the oxysterol cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (c-triol) as potential...

  11. THE PREPARATION OF WATERBORNE POLYURETHANE AND THE PROPERTIES OF THE CROSSLINKED FILMS%水性聚氨酯的制备及其交联膜的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪贵山; 顾雪蓉

    2000-01-01

    采用NaHSO封端法制备了一系列的水性聚氨基甲酰磺酸钠(PCS)。讨论了作为溶剂的水、乙酸乙酯、乙醇的用量对封端率的影响。结果表明3种溶剂的用量均有一最佳值。膜的吸水、吸乙醇及力学实验表明经多乙烯多胺交联的PCS膜具有良好的耐水、耐乙醇性能及力学性能。%In this paper, the waterborne polyurethane was prepared by blocking method. The title poly (cabamoyl sulfonates) (PCS) with different content of-SO were prepared by blocking reaction of aqueous NaHSO with two series of polyisccyanates and using ethyl acetate, ethanol and water as cosolvents. The two series of polyisocyanates (PU2 and PU3E) were prepared by the reaction of HDI with poly(propylene diol) or poly (propylene-ethylene oxide triol) respectively. The influnce of the amount of these cosolvents on blocking efficiency was investigated. The results suggested that the optimum weight ratio of ethyl acetate or water to prepolymer was 0.25, 0.2 respectively, and that of ethanol to ethyl acetate was 2.0. The transparent casting films were obtained by crosslinking reaction of aqueous PCS with polyethylene polyamine. The resistance of films to water and ethanol increases with the decrease of the NCO% of prepolymer. The films produced from two types of prepolymer (PU2 and PU3E) should he different responding behavior of swelling and dissolving in water or in ethanol to the NCO% changing because of the different hydrophilicity of the polyethers in PU2 and PU3E. The investigation of casting films indicated that the tensile strength and Young's modulus increased and the elongation at break decreased, with the ratio of NCO/OH increased. It was the result that the crosslinking density of films increased with the increase of NCO% of prepolymer. But, the tensile strength and Young's modulus of films descended when the ratio of NCO/OH was greater than 2.0 because the molecular weight of prepolymer descended and the content of

  12. Highly Enantioselective Organocatalytic Asymmetric Mukaiyama-aldol Reaction of Difluoroenoxysilanes with β,γ-Unsaturated α-Ketoesters%高对映选择性的有机催化的二氟烯醇硅醚与β,γ-不饱和-α-酮酸酯的不对称Mukaiyama-aldol反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘运林; 周剑

    2012-01-01

    We report the first example of catalytic asymmetric reaction of difluoroenoxysilanes 1 and β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoesters 2. In the presence of tertiary amine or tertiary amine-H-bonding donor bifunctional catalysts, it was found that the reaction selectively took place at the ketone moiety of ketoesters 2, and no conjugate reaction happened. Hydronquinine derived urea catalyst 11 was identified as a powerful catalyst for this Mukaiyama-aldol reaction to finnish a-difluoroalkyl substituted tertiary alcohols in good to high yield (44%-81%), with moderate to excellent enantioselectivity (72%-96%). The optimum reaction condition was determined to run the reaction at -40 ℃ using THF as the solvent, in the presence of 10 mol% of chiral catalyst 11. The reaction possibly proceeded via the dual activation of both reaction partners: the tertiary amine moiety of catalyst 11 working as a Lewis base to activate difluoroenoxysilanes 1, while the urea part of the catalyst as a Bronsted acid to activate carbonyl group of ketoesters 2. Different aryl substituted difluoroenoxysilanes 1 and ),-aryl substi- tuted β,γ-unsaturated a-ketoesters 2 all worked well under the established reaction condition, with 15 examples provided. The thus obtained chiral α-difluoroalkyl substituted tertiary alcohols were not only valuable in the medicinal research, but also versatile building blocks for the synthesis of a variety of difluoroalkyl-substituted chiral compounds. For example, the selec- tive reduction of the ketone or ester group of product 3g has been realized by using NaBH4 or Et3SiH as the reducing agents, giving the triol 14 or diol 15 in moderate yield without the loss ofee.%首次研究了二氟烯醇硅醚1与β,γ-不饱和酮酸酯2的反应.发现不论使用叔胺或叔胺-氢键给体双功能催化剂,均专一地发生Mukaiyama-aldol反应生成相应的叔醇3.利用手性氢化奎宁衍生的双功能脲催化剂11高对映选择性地实现了这一反

  13. A new sesquiterpene from Caragana intermediia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new alloaromadendrane-type sesquiterpene, (-)-alloaromadendrane-3β,9β-diol (1), has been isolated from the aerial part of Caragana intermediia. The structure of (-)-alloaromadendrane-3β,9β-diol (1) was established by spectroscopic methods,including X-ray analysis that provided its relative stereochemistry. Bioassay showed that (-)-alloaromadendrane-3β,9β-diol(1) possesses anti-pyricularia oryzae P-2b activity with MIC value of 10 μg/mL.

  14. SwissProt search result: AK070201 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070201 J023042C15 (P47227) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_BURCE 6e-14 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK107157 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107157 002-124-E09 (P47227) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_BURCE 3e-12 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK241729 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241729 J065199L10 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 4e-17 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK100767 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100767 J023119K22 (Q46381) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_COMTE 8e-13 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK070201 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070201 J023042C15 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 7e-15 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK060010 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060010 006-302-E01 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 7e-15 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK241729 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241729 J065199L10 (P50206) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSES1 5e-15 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK069875 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069875 J023036D07 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 7e-23 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK243680 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243680 J100090I20 (Q46381) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_COMTE 5e-15 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK107261 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107261 002-125-H01 (P47227) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_BURCE 4e-11 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK061856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061856 001-040-G03 (P08694) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPS 9e-13 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK103462 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103462 J033129M10 (Q46381) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_COMTE 1e-14 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK243680 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243680 J100090I20 (P08694) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPS 3e-11 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK111157 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111157 002-176-H05 (P50206) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSES1 2e-14 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK105938 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105938 001-205-B09 (P47230) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_RHOGO 5e-13 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK070356 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070356 J023050B21 (P47230) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_RHOGO 8e-11 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK104614 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104614 006-309-E02 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 7e-14 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK073545 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073545 J033041K02 (P50206) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSES1 2e-11 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK107619 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107619 002-131-D02 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 1e-13 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK107261 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107261 002-125-H01 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 4e-13 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK119471 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119471 001-134-A10 (P47230) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_RHOGO 5e-15 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK073265 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073265 J033025B16 (P47227) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_BURCE 2e-12 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK119471 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119471 001-134-A10 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 2e-20 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK068662 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068662 J013161B14 (Q46381) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_COMTE 2e-19 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK070201 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070201 J023042C15 (Q46381) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_COMTE 4e-17 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK061856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061856 001-040-G03 (P50206) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSES1 2e-14 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK069875 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069875 J023036D07 (P08694) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPS 2e-21 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK105938 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105938 001-205-B09 (Q46381) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_COMTE 4e-17 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK110700 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110700 002-170-B08 (Q46381) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_COMTE 2e-14 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK243389 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243389 J100063K09 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 1e-16 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK107157 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107157 002-124-E09 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 2e-12 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK108232 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108232 002-140-G04 (P08694) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPS 2e-12 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK119939 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119939 002-184-B05 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 4e-13 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK104614 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104614 006-309-E02 (P50206) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSES1 7e-14 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK106087 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106087 001-207-B04 (P72220) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPU 2e-13 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK069875 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069875 J023036D07 (P47227) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_BURCE 3e-22 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK070585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070585 J023062B22 (P47230) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_RHOGO 1e-13 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK060010 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060010 006-302-E01 (P47230) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_RHOGO 5e-13 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK105938 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105938 001-205-B09 (P50206) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSES1 1e-14 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK243389 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243389 J100063K09 (Q46381) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_COMTE 3e-16 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK110652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110652 002-169-E03 (P08694) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSEPS 8e-13 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK106087 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106087 001-207-B04 (P47230) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_RHOGO 5e-13 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK058655 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK058655 001-018-F07 (Q46381) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_COMTE 8e-13 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK110652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110652 002-169-E03 (P50206) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_PSES1 9e-17 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK243680 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243680 J100090I20 (P47230) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Biph...enyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_RHOGO 6e-11 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK110652 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110652 002-169-E03 (Q46381) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_COMTE 5e-17 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK106087 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106087 001-207-B04 (P47227) Cis-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.56) (Biphenyl-2,3-d...ihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dehydrogenase) (Bip...henyl-cis-diol dehydrogenase) (2,3-dihydroxy-4-phenylhexa-4,6-diene dehyd BPHB_BURCE 2e-13 ...