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Sample records for acutely inhaled plutonium-239

  1. 'In-vivo' and bioassay results from two contrasting cases of plutonium-239 inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.; Bains, M.E.D.; Fraser, D.C.

    1969-06-01

    'In-vivo' and bioassay measurements following two incidents involving plutonium-239 inhalation are described and contrasted. Incident 1, involving the inhalation of insoluble plutonium oxide, resulted in a lung content of about 20 nCi after the initial clearance. Urine excretion was negligible and the estimation of exposure was based on 'in-vivo' data and faecal excretion. Incident,2, involving the inhalation of soluble plutonium, proved negligible and the estimation of exposure, based on urinary excretion, was 0.6 nCi. (author)

  2. Comparison of acute mortality in baboons and dogs after inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.; Park, J.F.; Stevens, D.L.; Watson, C.R.; Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J.

    1979-01-01

    Results from experiments with baboons were compared with those from experiments with dogs to determine the relative sensitivity of the two species to acute mortality from inhaled 239 PuO 2 . To assure a valid comparison of data developed at two laboratories, methodology differences were minimized by establishing a common pool of raw data, using the same computer programs to analyze the data, and standardizing assumptions regarding the calculation of radiation doses to lungs. Several comparison methods were used involving variations in estimating different parameters such as the concentration of plutonium in the lungs. Although nearly all comparisons suggested baboons were slightly more sensitive, none of the methods for comparing the relationship between dose and survival time showed consistently significant differences between baboons and dogs. Although the baboons were physiologically and morphologically immature when exposed to plutonium, whereas the dogs were mature, it was concluded that adult baboons and dogs are similarly sensitive to the acute effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 . Since only acute mortality was considered in this comparison, the results do not apply to possible late effects caused by much lower levels of plutonium than were used in these experiments

  3. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl 4 and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl 4 by hamsters reduces uptake of 239 Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the 239 Pu to the skeleton

  4. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  5. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. The tissue distribution of plutonium, radiation effects in the lung and hematologic changes in plutonium-exposed beagles with lung tumors were evaluated

  6. Plutonium 238/239 Decorporation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    4. Transfer Coefficients for the DTPA Biokinetic Model (Breustedt 2009) ...................... 25 Table 5. Decay Properties of Pu-238 and Pu-239...volume 2), cesium-137 (volume 3), F. tularensis (volume 4), sulfur mustard (volume 5), americium-241 (volume 6), Y. pestis (volume 7), botulinum ... toxin (volume 8), plutonium-238/239 (volume 9) and vesicants (volume 10, an expansion on volume 5). This paper presents an inhalation exposure model for

  7. Hematologic effects of inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Buschbom, R.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Weller, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed, by inhalation, 5 to 11 years ago, to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , at six dose levels resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Translocation of the plutonium to extrapulmonary sites was related to the physical-chemical characteristics of the plutonium compound. The highly insoluble 239 PuO 2 was retained primarily in the lung and associated lymph nodes, whereas 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 was much more soluble and translocated relatively rapidly to the skeleton and other extrapulmonary tissues. The 238 PuO 2 was intermediate in solubility and translocation characteristics. The hematologic effects of plutonium inhalation were most pronounced on lymphocyte populations. Evidence suggests that these effects result from irradiation of lymphocytes via the pulmonary lymph nodes with insoluble 239 PuO 2 , and via these same lymph nodes, extrapulmonary lymph nodes, and bone marrow lymphocytes with the more soluble forms, i.e., 238 PuO 2 and 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . There is no evidence suggesting that these exposures increase the risk of developing myeloid or lymphoid neoplasia. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Skeletal lesions from inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; McClanahan, B.J.; Fisher, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The report briefly reviews the skeletal effects observed in ongoing lifespan studies in beagle dogs at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after inhalation exposure to 239 Pu oxide and nitrate or 238 Pu oxide. Plutonium nitrate was chosen to represent soluble material more readily translocated to bone and other tissues than the oxide. Bone lesions related to plutonium exposure were observed only in dogs exposed to 238 Pu oxide and 239 Pu nitrate. The skeleton accumulated approximately 2% ( 239 Pu oxide), 45% ( 238 Pu oxide) or 50% ( 239 Pu nitrate) of the final body burdens at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after exposure. 11 references, 2 figures

  9. Functional state of the bronchopulmonary system in Mayak nuclear workers inhaled plutonium-239 aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, Z.; Grigoryeva, E.; Khokhryakov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The current system of the individual and collective protection facilities for nuclear personnel permits decreasing the radiation dose from internal emitters at the most. At the same time, specific production conditions do not exclude possible inhalation of plutonium-239 aerosols. As the lung is the critical organ for this isotope, the study of respiratory function is aimed at detecting of pre-clinical lung pathology. Early detection of internal exposure effects on functional state of respiratory apparatus is difficult due to a number of confounding actors of non-radiation nature, one of which is smoking. Functional state of bronchopulmonary system was studied in 386 males, workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. 1198 examinations were carried out during medical inspection as well as hospitalization for routine preventive inspection. Most of males (39.4%) started working at the age of 21-26 years and 27.2% at the age of 20 years. The main factors of occupational exposure were exposure to plutonium-239 aerosols and the external gamma -rays. The absorbed dose to lungs from incorporated plutonium-239 was 0-435.8 c Gy. Whole-body external gamma dose varied from 0 to 382 c Gy at the examination. Individual dosimetry data were provided by the Mayak Radiation Safety Department and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute. While studying respiratory function, the most informative indices characterizing the state of lung tissue and tracheobronchial system such as vital capacity inspiration, forced expiratory volume, forced inspiratory volume, test Tiffno, diffusion capacity, characteristics of the flow vs. volume of the forced vital capacity inspiration curve, and resistance were used. Analysis was done separately for smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking index, i.e. product of number of smoked cigarettes per day and number of years of smoking was considered an integral value. The study did not reveal the

  10. Functional state of the bronchopulmonary system in Mayak nuclear workers inhaled plutonium-239 aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, Z.; Grigoryeva, E.; Khokhryakov, V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The current system of the individual and collective protection facilities for nuclear personnel permits decreasing the radiation dose from internal emitters at the most. At the same time, specific production conditions do not exclude possible inhalation of plutonium-239 aerosols. As the lung is the critical organ for this isotope, the study of respiratory function is aimed at detecting of pre-clinical lung pathology. Early detection of internal exposure effects on functional state of respiratory apparatus is difficult due to a number of confounding actors of non-radiation nature, one of which is smoking. Functional state of bronchopulmonary system was studied in 386 males, workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. 1198 examinations were carried out during medical inspection as well as hospitalization for routine preventive inspection. Most of males (39.4%) started working at the age of 21-26 years and 27.2% at the age of 20 years. The main factors of occupational exposure were exposure to plutonium-239 aerosols and the external gamma -rays. The absorbed dose to lungs from incorporated plutonium-239 was 0-435.8 c Gy. Whole-body external gamma dose varied from 0 to 382 c Gy at the examination. Individual dosimetry data were provided by the Mayak Radiation Safety Department and Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute. While studying respiratory function, the most informative indices characterizing the state of lung tissue and tracheobronchial system such as vital capacity inspiration, forced expiratory volume, forced inspiratory volume, test Tiffno, diffusion capacity, characteristics of the flow vs. volume of the forced vital capacity inspiration curve, and resistance were used. Analysis was done separately for smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking index, i.e. product of number of smoked cigarettes per day and number of years of smoking was considered an integral value. The study did not reveal the

  11. Cancer hazard from inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The best estimate of the lung cancer potential in humans for inhaled insoluble compounds of plutonium (such as PuO 2 particles) has been grossly underestimated by such authoritative bodies as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the British Medical Research Council. Calculations are presented of lung cancer induction by 239 Pu as insoluble particles and for deposited reactor-grade Pu. The reason for the gross underestimate of the carcinogenic effects of Pu by ICRP or the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) is their use of a totally unrealistic idealized model for the clearance of deposited Pu from the lungs and bronchi plus their non-recognition of the bronchi as the true site for most human lung cancers. The erroneous model used by such organizations also fails totally to take into account the effect of cigarette-smoking upon the physiological function of human lungs. Plutonium nuclides, such as 239 Pu, or other alpha particle-emitting nuclides, in an insoluble form represent an inhalation cancer hazard in a class some 100,000 times more potent than the potent chemical carcinogens, weight for weight. The already-existing lung cancer data for beagle dogs inhaling insoluble PuO 2 particles is clearly in order of magnitude agreement with calculations for humans

  12. Life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    In 1970 a life-span study with over 300 beagle dogs was begun to gain an understanding of long-term health effects resulting from respiratory tract intakes of plutonium and to derive risk estimates that might be applied to plutonium and other transuranic elements. Groups of beagle dogs were given single exposures to 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens ranging from 1 to 1800 Bq lung. The objective of this paper is to give you a progress report on the current life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. I will describe the biokinetics of inhaled plutonium in dogs and the resulting health effects. I will also mention some studies directed towards understanding the mechanism leading to these effects. Finally, I will discuss the current risk estimates derived from these studies and how they might relate to plutonium exposures in humans. 5 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  14. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  15. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in the prediction of health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; as described in previous Annual Reports, lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. Radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer have been observed at the highest dose levels

  16. Pulmonary distribution of inhaled 239PuO2 in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McShane, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Catt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 by inhalation were killed from 1 to 69 mo postexposure. The distribution of plutonium in the lungs, which was studied by analyzing autoradiographs, changed relative to time postexposure. This study investigates methods of measuring these changes

  17. The effect of oxidation state on the absorption of ingested or inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Ryan, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Rats received plutonium nitrate (as 239 Pu(IV) or 239 Pu(VI) by gavage or nose-only exposure. Some of the animals were deprived of food before and/or after exposure. Results obtained indicate that there was increased retention of plutonium after exposure to 239 Pu(VI) in comparison with 239 Pu(IV). The absence of food either before and/or after inhalation exposure had no effect on the amount of 239 Pu retained by the liver and carcass. It was concluded that plutonium in its hexavalent state may under certain conditions be more readily absorbed from the GI tract, but that these conditions are unlikely to occur in human exposure. (H.K.)

  18. Pathology associated with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Stevens, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathology associated with the inhalation of plutonium was studied in beagle dogs given a single exposure to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . The temporal-spatial relationships between plutonium deposition and the development of lesions in dogs were evaluated up to 11 years, 8 years, or 5 years, respectively, after exposures, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels produced a spectrum of progressively more severe morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis to fibrosis. Lung tumors occurred at exposure levels that did not result in early death from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. Bronchiolar-alveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinomas were observed. Sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis, radiation osteodystrophy, osteosarcoma, and hepatic adenomatous hyperplasia were the principal extrapulmonary lesions resulting from translocation of plutonium. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Comments on a paper entitled: Toxicity and carcinogenicity of plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocum, W.E.; Pigg, C.J.

    1978-06-01

    Studies on carcinogenic effects of Pu-239 on animals have been reviewed often in the literature. A summary of these studies, which were done primarily with dogs or rats, shows that the inhalation of Pu-239 results in plutonium being retained in highest concentrations in bone, liver, lung, and lymph nodes. This may result in the induction of specific kinds of cancer, primarily lung and bone carcinomas, and to a lesser extent, bile duct tumors. These animal studies have been extremely useful in the analysis of the limited number of studies available on humans exposed to plutonium and in the prediction of plutonium cancer risk to man. One of the most significant and relevant studies on human exposures to Pu-239 is that of the 1944-45 exposure at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Twenty-five men associated with the Manhattan Project were identified as having had significant plutonium exposures; total initial lung burden across the group was approximately 10 μCi. These individuals have been monitored clinically and in laboratory studies for the past 30 years. None of the individuals has shown cancer incidence and none shows medical findings attributable to internally deposited plutonium. There has been no recorded instance of cancer in man resulting from the internal deposition of any plutonium isotope in the more than three decades in which plutonium has been used. This excellent record illustrates the effectiveness of control measures and safety standards imposed on the handling of radioactive materials. These facts lead to a high level of confidence that the transportation of radioactive materials to and around the WIPP would not have a markedly different record

  20. Lymphocytopenia induced in beagle dogs by inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Park, J.F.; Olson, R.J.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium, we gave 124 beagle dogs a single exposure of 239 PuO 2 2 to 3 years ago at six different levels, i.e., 4, 20, 80, 300, 1100, or 5800 nCi mean initial alveolar depositions. Another group (20 dogs) served as controls. All dogs were about 18 months old. At the four highest exposure levels, a chronic lymphocytopenia developed which correlated with the initial alveolar plutonium burden in regard to magnitude of depression and time of development after exposure. The nadir occurred near 10 months after exposure in dogs receiving 5800, 1100, and 300 nCi, with corresponding lymphocyte levels 40, 55, and 75 percent, respectively, of those observed in control dogs. In the 80-nCi level the nadir occurred about 2 years after exposure at approximately 80 percent of control values. At the two lowest doses, i.e., 4 and 20 nCi, no effect on lymphocyte concentrations was noted 3 years after exposure. The persistent lymphocytopenia related to plutonium inhalation may be of significance in the subsequent development of pulmonary neoplasms previously observed in beagles at this laboratory 8 to 11 years after initial lung depositions of 200 to 1000 nCi of 239 Pu

  1. The inhalation of insoluble iron oxide particles in the sub-micron ranges. Part II - Plutonium-237 labelled aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Ramsden, D.

    1971-10-01

    The results of a series of inhalation studies using iron oxide particles in the size range 0.1 to 0.3 um (count median diameter) are described. In this series the aerosols were labelled with plutonium 237. In vivo detection, excretion analysis and crude location studies were obtainable and the results compared to the earlier studies using chromium 51 labelled aerosols. Plutonium 237 can be considered as a simulator for plutonium 239 and attempts are made to extrapolate the results to the problem of the estimation of plutonium 239 in the human lung. (author)

  2. Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 metabolism in dairy cows following ingestion of mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Sutton, W.W.; Potter, G.D.; Mosley, R.E.; Efurd, D.W.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    Dairy cows were given oral dosage of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 dioxide particles in a study to determine the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the nuclides. Two cows were given particles in which the two isotopes were homogeneously mixed within the particles. A third cow was given two batches of particles which contained either plutonium-238 or plutonium-239. Results indicate that, when the two isotopes of plutonium are homogeneous within the particles, there is no difference between plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution

  3. Dosimetry of inhaled plutonium-239 dioxide in rodent lung: a morphometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, K.

    1979-06-01

    Morphometric analysis of rat and hamster lung did not demonstrate any extensive changes in lung composition or structure following inhalation exposure to 239 Pu0 2 at levels near that for maximum tumor yield in rats. The problem of dosimetry for this compound thus appears to be relatively uncomplicated by any major radiation-induced pathological alterations in the lung. Rat and hamster lung were found to be similar in structure and composition, with few significant differences which could be directly related to the different tumor responses. The distribution of 239 Pu0 2 particles was not uniform in all regions of the lung; thus estimation of the dose to specific tissues or regions within the lung requires a correction for this effect. Species differences were found for particle distribution in the subpleural region and major airways, and in the spatial association of particles, both of which may affect the tumor development process. These regions contain the principal target cells for tumor production and serve as foci for the origin of tumors. Different dose distributions within these regions may therefore explain, at least in part, the difference in tumor response to inhaled 239 Pu0 2 for rats and hamsters

  4. Current status of life-span studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Weller, R.E.; Stevens, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Beagles that inhaled 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in dose-level groups of 20 dogs, with initial lung burdens of ∼2, 15, 70, 300, 1100, or 5500 nCi, are now 11, 9, or 5 years postexposure. Lung tumors, bone tumors, and radiation pneumonitis, the plutonium-exposure-related causes of death observed to date, have occurred in the two, three, and four highest dose-level groups exposed to 238 PuO 2 , 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and 239 PuO 2 , respectively. No plutonium-exposure-related deaths have thus far been observed in dose-level groups exposed to less than ∼40 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. Plutonium-exposure-related effects not directly related to the cause of death include chronic lymphopenia, chronic neutropenia, sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia in the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. No plutonium-exposure-related effects have thus far been observed in dose-level groups that received less than ∼15 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Plutonium 239 retention in former workers of the Thule base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul-Jensen, P.; Ulbak, K.

    1988-07-01

    In a memorandum of 1987 on a comprehensive health examination of persons employed at Thule air-base at the time of the crash of a nuclear-armed B-52 bomber in 1968, the National Board of Health suggested performing analyses for plutonium of urinesamples from 50-100 selected persons. This programme was carried out during the winter 1987-88. Collection of samples and evaluation of results were done by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. Department of Health Physics, National Laboratory Risoe, made the analyses. Included in the group were persons, who according to records from 1968 were judged to have had above-average potential for uptake of plutonium, as well as s number of persons, who before the summer 1987 had approached the social services and/or the Department of Dermatology, Marselisborg Hospital, with complaints of health effects attributed to the work at Thule air-base. 62 persons were included and results from the analyses of 53 24-hour-samples of urine, as well as from a number of control- and standard are presented. The technique used for the analysis had a minimum detectable activity for 239 Pu of 200 μBq per sample. Consequently, according to internationally recognized models for uptake, distribution and retention of plutonium in the human organism, it is possible in 1988 to recognize an intake by inhalation in 1968 of 300 Bq 239 Pu . No sample was found to contain 239 Pu . So the results indicate, that any intake of 239 Pu by the persons here involved, as a consequence of their work at Thule airbase in 1968, did not exceed 300 Bq. An intake of 300 Bq 239 Pu can be evaluated to result in a 50-year committed dose equivalent of 20 mSv. The current dose-limit for occupationally exposed persons is 50 mSv/y. (author)

  6. /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ aerosol inhalation with emphasis on pulmonary connective tissue modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metivier, H; Masse, R; Nobil' e, D; Lafuma, J

    1975-09-01

    Inhalation studies were undertaken in which plutonium dioxide (/sup 239/PuO/sub 2/) was administered to either unanesthetized Wistar rats or anaesthetized baboons. In both groups of animals some deaths occurred from acute lung damage resulting from cell necrosis particularly to vascular tissue followed by alveolar oedema. At later stages, marked interstitial pneumonitis and interstitial fibrosis occurred and deaths resulted from respiratory insufficiency preceded by high arterial blood pCO/sub 2/ and low pO/sub 2/. In rats as many as 50% of the animals finally developed lung neoplasms but only two such tumors were found in baboons. Attempts were made to correlate biochemical parameters with observed tissue damage and animal mortality.

  7. The calculation of annual limits of intake for plutonium-239 in man using a bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Values of the annual limit intake (ALI) for plutonium-239 in man have been calculated using committed dose equivalent limits as recommended by ICRP in Publication 26. The calculations were made using a multicompartment bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling in the skeleton. In one skeletal compartment, the growing surfaces of cortical bone, it is assumed that plutonium deposits are retained and are not subject to resorption or recycling. In the trabecular bone compartment plutonium is taken to be resorbed with either subsequent redeposition onto bone surfaces or retention in the bone marrow. ALIs for plutonium-239 have been calculated assuming a range of rates of bone accretion (0 to 32 μm yr -1 ), different amounts of plutonium retained in the marrow (0 to 60%) and a 20%, 45% or 70% deposition of plutonium in the skeleton from the blood. The calculations made using this bone model suggest that 750 Bq (20 nCi) is an appropriate ALI for the inhalation of class W and class Y plutonium compounds and that 830 kBq and 5 MBq (23 μCi and 136 μCi) are the appropriate ALIs for the ingestion of soluble and insoluble forms of plutonium respectively. (author)

  8. The calculation of annual limits of intake for plutonium-239 in man using a bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, N D; Hunt, B W

    1979-05-01

    Values of the annual limit of intake (ALI) for plutonium-239 in man have been calculated using committed dose equivalent limits as recommended by ICRP in Publication 26. The calculations were made using a multicompartment bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling in the skeleton. In one skeletal compartment, the growing surfaces of cortical bone, it is assumed that plutonium deposits are retained and are not subject to resorption or recycling. In the trabecular bone compartment plutonium is taken to be resorbed with either subsequent redeposition onto bone surfaces or retention in the bone marrow. ALIs for plutonium-239 have been calculated assuming a range of rates of bone accretion (0-32 micron yr-1), different amounts of plutonium retained in the marrow (0-60%) and a 20%, 45% or 70% deposition of plutonium in the skeleton from the blood. The calculations made using this bone model suggest that 750 Bq (20 nCi) is an appropriate ALI for the inhalation of class W and class Y plutonium compounds and that 830 kBq and 5 MBq (23 muCi and 136 muCi) are the appropriate ALIs for the ingestion of soluble and insoluble forms of plutonium respectively.

  9. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  10. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  11. The removal of inhaled 239Pu and 238Pu from beagle dogs by lung lavage and chelation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Miglio, J.J.; Slauson, D.O.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were conducted in beagle dogs to determine the efficiency of treatment by lung lavage and injections of chelating agents in removing inhaled plutonium of varied chemical forms and particle sizes. Polydisperse aerosols of 239 Pu were produced at different temperatures from 325 0 C to 1150 0 C to evaluate the effect of the chemical form of the particles. Aerosols of 238 Pu were produced at 1150 0 C only but were of different particle size or size distributions. Three dogs that inhaled each different plutonium aerosol were treated by lung lavages starting two days after the exposure. Subsequent lavages were performed on days 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 after exposure. Intravenous injections of 100 mg of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as the calcium salt were given on days 1, 2, 3 and 4 after exposure and twice weekly thereafter to the time of sacrifice, 56 days after exposure. The 10 lung lavages removed from 18 to 49% of the initial lung burden of plutonium. The recovery of plutonium by lavage was similar irrespective of the temperature at which the aerosol was produced, however, lavage recovery decreased somewhat with increasing particle size. The efficacy of DTPA treatment increased with decreasing production temperature of the 239 Pu. Treatment with DTPA was not affected by particle size of the 0.8- and 1.9-μm monodisperse 239 Pu aerosol. The effectiveness of lung lavage decreased as the solubility of the aerosol particles increased whereas the effectiveness of the DTPA treatment increased as the solubility of the inhaled aerosol increased as shown by the lowest temperature aerosol and the aerosol-containing soluble fraction. These findings correlated qualitatively with a 2-hour in-vitro solubility test on the exposure aerosols. (author)

  12. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Five additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 5 yr after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 3 postexposure yr. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  13. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, E.A.

    1998-02-01

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  14. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor; nine additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 6 yr after exposure. Two of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 4 yr postexposure, due to bone and lung tumors, with body burdens at death of 10 μCi. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of equal to or greater than 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  15. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Seventeen additional dogs, with body burdens of 0.2 to 1.8 μCi, died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 8 yr after exposure. Ten of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 5 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 1.5 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of >80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  16. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Busch, R.H.; Case, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that dies of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Eleven additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 7 yr after exposure. Four of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 4 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 6 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  17. Primary pulmonary sarcoma in a rhesus monkey after inhalation of plutonium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Brooks, A.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A pulmonary fibrosarcoma of bronchial origin was discovered in a Rhesus monkey that died of pulmonary fibrosis 9 years after inhalation of plutonium-239 dioxide and with a radiation dose to lung of 1400 rad (14 Gy). It grew around the major bronchus of the right cardiac lung lobe and extended into the bronchial lumen and into surrounding pulmonary parenchyma. It also readily invaded muscular pulmonary arteries, resulting in infarction and scarring in the right cardiac lobe. Despite this aggressive growth, the tumor did not metastasize. The primary cause of death was severe pulmonary fibrosis involving the alveolar septa and and perivascular and peribronchial interstitium. Bullous or pericitrical emphysema was prominent. The initial lung burden of plutonium in this monkey was 270 nCi (10 kBq) which is equivalent to approximately 500 times the maximum permissible lung burden for man on a radioactivity per unit body weight basis. The time-dose relationship for survival is consistent with that of dogs and baboons that inhaled plutonium dioxide and died with lung tumors

  18. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Ragan, H.A.; Watson, C.R.; Stevens, D.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dionne, P.J.; Harrington, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. Lymphopenia occurred at the two highest dosage levels as early as 1 mo following exposure and was associated with neutropenia and reduction in numbers of circulatory monocytes by 4 mo postexposure. Radiation pneumonitis developed in one dog at the highest dosage level at 14 mo postexposure. More rapid translocation to skeleton and liver occurred following inhalation of 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 than after 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 inhalation

  19. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Lund, J.E.; Park, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of 238 Pu or 239 Pu oxide are reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide is presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of Pu particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance is discussed

  20. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Hahn, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The modifying effects of a pre-existing lung disease (emphysema) on the deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in the rat are being investigated. Preliminary observations indicated that the deposition and retention patterns for 239 Pu particles inhaled by rats with emphysema and control rats were similar, but the distribution of inhaled 239 Pu immediately after exposure was different. Respiratory function measured through one year after exposure to 239 Pu was consistent with emphysema and was not altered by the 239 Pu lung burden. Long-term observations are continuing. 4 references, 2 tables

  1. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239 PuO 2 , during the 13-yr postexposure period. During the 10 1/2 years after exposure to 238 PuO 2 , mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 year after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had initial lung burdens greater than or equal to 80 nCi. 3 figures, 6 tables

  2. Commentary on inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in dogs - a prophylaxis against lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M., E-mail: jerrycuttler@rogers.com [Cuttler and Associates, Vaughan, ON (Canada); Feinendegen, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratories, Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer. (author)

  3. Commentary on inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in dogs - a prophylaxis against lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler and Assoc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Feinendegen, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratories, Upton, New York (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from {sup 239}PuO {sub 2} inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer. (author)

  4. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and plutonium-239 dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. The purpose of this ongoing study is to investigate potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, Be metal, or these agents in combination. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high-linear-energy transfer, alpha-particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be. As a result, Be is classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United STates and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This study is in progress.

  5. Inhaled 239PuO2 and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Decker, J.R.; Lai, Y.L.

    1988-08-01

    Rats and beagle dogs were given doses of 60 Co gamma radiation and/or body burdens of 239 PuO 2 within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses of both species within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell concentrations and by long-term loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in animals of both species that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled plutonium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in both species, but its only effect on blood cell concentrations was lymphocytopenia in dogs. Combined gamma irradiation and plutonium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Plutonium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the long-term effect of plutonium lung burdens in both species. Rats were less sensitive to both kinds of radiation, whether administered alone or in combination. 71 refs., 105 figs., 48 tabs

  6. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12μCi. Nineteen of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu haved died during the first 7-1/2 yr after exposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; their body burdens at death ranged from 0.7 to 10μCi. Chronic lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2

  7. Life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    In 1970 a life-span study with over 300 beagle dogs was begun. Groups of beagle dogs were given single exposures to 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens ranging from 1 to 1800 Bq lung. After 16 years, the lungs contained about 2% of the initial lung burden of 239 PuO 2 , the thoracic lymph nodes 20%, skeleton 1% and liver 10%. After 15 years the lungs contained about 0.2% of the initial lung burden of 238 PuO 2 , thoracic lymph nodes 5%, skeleton 10%, and liver 10%. After 10 years the lungs contained about 0.29% of the initial lung burden of 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , thoracic lymph nodes 0.17%, skeleton 18% and liver 13%. Chronic lymphopenia has been one of the earliest biological effects observed. Other effects associated with plutonium exposure included sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. In 16 years, mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and/or lung tumor increased with deposition of 24 Bq of 239 PuO 2 . In 15 years, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased with deposition of 96 Bq of 238 PuO 2 . In 11 years, after exposure, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased with deposition of 18 Bq of 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . Lung cancers appeared to originate in the parenchymal regions of the lungs and were of several types; bronchiolar alveolar carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinomas, adenosquamous carcinoma, and epidermoid carcinoma. Metastases were primarily to the thoracic lymph nodes. Sites of osteosarcomas in the 238 PuO 2 and 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 dogs were in the lumbar cervical and thoracic vertebrae, humerus, pelvis, facial bones, ribs and nasal turbinates. The risk of lung cancer, based on cumulative dose to the lungs, was about 12 times higher for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 than from inhaled 239 PuO 2 , and 50 times higher than for inhaled 238 PuO 2 . (J.P.N.)

  8. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  9. Analysis of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, H.

    2017-10-01

    Apart from radiometric techniques, several mass spectrometry (Ms) techniques can be used to evaluate the incorporation of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, among which we can consider mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-Ms); mass spectrometry with accelerators (AMS); thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (Sims). In this work we evaluated analytical methods to measure isotopes of plutonium-239 in urine samples from occupationally exposed personnel, using alpha spectroscopy (As), magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS) and AMS. The samples were collected during 24 h were acidified with HNO 3 at 5% in v/v. The processes used in the preparation of the samples were: a) co-precipitation, b) acid digestion, c) radiochemical separation and d) electro deposition. The results obtained in terms of minimum detectable activity of plutonium-239 were 0.1 μBq (∼ 0.4 fg per sample), 5.1 μBq (∼ 2 fg per sample), 30.1 μBq (∼ 13 fg per sample) and 0.1 μBq (∼ 51 fg per sample) for AMS, Aridus-Icp-SFMS, Icp, SFMS and As, respectively. On the other hand, samples previously analyzed by As were re-evaluated by Aridus-Icp-SFMS and AMS. The results show that extraction with 60 ml of 5% HNO 3 at 60 degrees Celsius and for 2.5 h is enough to extract 90% of Pu electrodeposited on the planchette. In conclusion, AMS is an ultra-sensitive technique for determining isotope ratios of Pu, especially when is desired to validate a method to measure plutonium-239. Additionally, Icp-SFMS is a rapid analysis technique and can be used as a screening technique in situations of radiological incidents or accidents with Pu in the occupationally exposed personnel. Regarding alpha spectroscopy has been considered as the technique of excellence in the routine analysis to measure plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, due to the low cost. Finally, Icp-SFMS and AMS

  10. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1985-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 (1.5 μm AMAD) to compare the biological effects with those observed in dogs exposed to a similar aerosol as young or aged adults. The study includes 96 dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 and 12 controls. The lung burdens of the plutonium-exposed dogs ranged from 0.00030 to 0.80 μCi/kg body weight (0.011-30 kBq/kg). No dogs died during this year. Seven dogs were diagnosed as having developing lung disease, mainly fibrosis, and one had a developing lung tumor. With 20 dogs having estimated cumulative radiation doses in excess of 1000 rad (10 Gy), the biological response of the dogs exposed as juveniles appears to be less than that seen in mature dogs. However, major uncertainties still exist in the current estimations of radiation dose, particularly regarding the local distribution of alpha radiation dose. 1 reference, 4 figures, 1 table

  11. Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-06-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Plutonium-239

  12. Inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats and dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Decker, J.R.; Lai, Y.L.; Lauhala, K.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Hiastala, M.P.; McGee, D.R.; Park, J.F.; Kuffel, E.G.; Ragan, H.A.; Cannon, W.C.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1988-08-01

    Rats and beagle dogs were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or body burdens of /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses of both species within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell concentrations and by long-term loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in animals of both species that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled plutonium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in both species, but its only effect on blood cell concentrations was lymphocytopenia in dogs. Combined gamma irradiation and plutonium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Plutonium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the long-term effect of plutonium lung burdens in both species. Rats were less sensitive to both kinds of radiation, whether administered alone or in combination. 71 refs., 105 figs., 48 tabs.

  13. Pulmonary retention and tissue distribution of 239Pu nitrate in F344 rats and syrian hamsters inhaling carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.; Nikula, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is possible that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to CCl 4 and plutonium compounds. Potential for future exposure exists during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapon production sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. The current Threshold Limit Value for CCl 4 is 5 ppm; however, concentrations of CCl 4 occurring in the nuclear weapons facilities over the past 40-50 y are unknown and may have exceeded this value. The pilot study described in this report is designed to determine whether subchronic inhalation of CCl 4 by CDF register (F-344)/CrlBR rats and Syrian golden hamsters, at concentrations expected to produce some histologic changes in liver, alters the hepatic retention and toxic effects of inhaled 239 Pu nitrate 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4

  14. Organ burdens and elimination rates of inhaled thorium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, K.; Murthy, K.B.S.; Sunta, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    For the purpose of interpreting observations from internal monitoring programmes, organ burdens and excretion rates resulting from inhalation of long-lived isotopes of plutonium and thorium have been calculated, on the basis of the ICRP model. Two types of inhalation, instantaneous (acute) and at a steady rate (chronic) are considered. The expected buildups of the burden in lungs, lymph nodes, bone, liver and other tissues, as well as the excretion rates, have been calculated for aerosol classes W and Y, and particle sizes of AMAD 1 μm and 6 μm. Further, in view of their use in selecting the periodicity of routine monitoring, theoretical results are also presented for the case of a total inhalation of 1 ALI in one year, instantaneously or at a constant rate. (author)

  15. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Hahn, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary emphysema on deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in the rat were investigated. The presence of emphysema in the rats tested was indicated by respiratory function measurements and confirmed microscopically. Initial lung burdens of 239 Pu per kg body weight were less in rats with emphysema than in control rats; however, the retention of 239 Pu was similar in emphysematous and control rats. Survival and lung tumor occurrence were similar in emphysematous and control rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 . We concluded that rats with pre-existing pulmonary emphysema were not more sensitive to the effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 than control rats. (author)

  16. Biological behaviour of plutonium inhaled by baboons as plutonium n-tributylphosphate complex. Comparison with ICRP models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Duserre, C.; Rateau, G.; Legendre, N.; Masse, R.; Piechowski, J.; Menoux, B.

    1989-01-01

    In order to devise a model capable of calculating committed doses for workers contaminated by inhalation of plutonium tributylphosphate complex during reprocessing, we investigated the biokinetics of plutonium in baboons after inhalation of this chemical form. The animals were killed 0.6, 3, 15, 30, 90 and 365 days post inhalation. Urine and faeces were collected daily. After killing, the main organs were collected for chemical analysis. In order to improve our knowledge of the behaviour of systemic plutonium, three baboons were given an intravenous injection of Pu-TBP and were respectively killed 2, 30 and 365 days post injection. We observed that Pu-TBP could be classified as a W compound, with a half-time for lung clearance of 150 days. Urinary Pu excretion was 3 times higher than was expected from Durbin's model, suggesting that Pu introduced as Pu-TBP, is extremely mobile, and that the complex formed with blood proteins differs from the one formed after inhalation of plutonium nitrate. (author)

  17. Analysis of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel; Analisis de plutonio-239 en personal ocupacionalmente expuesto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, H., E-mail: hector.hernandez520@gmail.com [Universidad del Centro de Mexico, Capitan Caldera 75, Col. Tequixquiapan, 78250 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    Apart from radiometric techniques, several mass spectrometry (Ms) techniques can be used to evaluate the incorporation of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, among which we can consider mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-Ms); mass spectrometry with accelerators (AMS); thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (Sims). In this work we evaluated analytical methods to measure isotopes of plutonium-239 in urine samples from occupationally exposed personnel, using alpha spectroscopy (As), magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS) and AMS. The samples were collected during 24 h were acidified with HNO{sub 3} at 5% in v/v. The processes used in the preparation of the samples were: a) co-precipitation, b) acid digestion, c) radiochemical separation and d) electro deposition. The results obtained in terms of minimum detectable activity of plutonium-239 were 0.1 μBq (∼ 0.4 fg per sample), 5.1 μBq (∼ 2 fg per sample), 30.1 μBq (∼ 13 fg per sample) and 0.1 μBq (∼ 51 fg per sample) for AMS, Aridus-Icp-SFMS, Icp, SFMS and As, respectively. On the other hand, samples previously analyzed by As were re-evaluated by Aridus-Icp-SFMS and AMS. The results show that extraction with 60 ml of 5% HNO{sub 3} at 60 degrees Celsius and for 2.5 h is enough to extract 90% of Pu electrodeposited on the planchette. In conclusion, AMS is an ultra-sensitive technique for determining isotope ratios of Pu, especially when is desired to validate a method to measure plutonium-239. Additionally, Icp-SFMS is a rapid analysis technique and can be used as a screening technique in situations of radiological incidents or accidents with Pu in the occupationally exposed personnel. Regarding alpha spectroscopy has been considered as the technique of excellence in the routine analysis to measure plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, due to the low cost. Finally, Icp

  18. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Tourdes, F.; Gremy, O.; Grillon, G.; Abram, M.C.; Poncy, J.L.; Griffiths, N. [CEA, DSV, DRR, SRCA, Centre DAM Ile de France, F-91297 Bruyeres Le Chatel, Arpajon (France)

    2008-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO{sub 2} or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% {sup 239}Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% {sup 239}Pu than for 70% {sup 239}Pu. (authors)

  19. Preliminary studies on the spatial-temporal microdistribution of inhaled soluble plutonium in the lungs of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.W.; Dagle, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The pulmonary microdistribution of inhaled soluble plutonium in four beagle dogs was studied in autoradiographs of histologic sections and transmission electron micrographs of lungs. Dogs were exposed to a single nose-only aerosol of 239 Pu nitrate with a post-exposure time ranging from 1 month to 42 months. At one month after the exposure, the plutonium was dispersed throughout the lung section, with a higher percentage of the activity found on alveolar macrophages and alveolar septa. However, a nonrandom localization of the plutonium was observed as time passed. The focal concentrations were primarily in nodular or diffuse interstitial fibrotic tissues typically contiguous with subpleural, peribronchial, or perivascular areas. More than 50% of the total activity was in the form of single-tracks at one month exposure, and this percentage increased with time. In summary, this preliminary study suggests an initial random dispersion of soluble plutonium with increased concentration of activity to nonrandom focal locations with time

  20. Accumulation of plutonium from fallout in southern Finns and Lapps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.

    1981-01-01

    The body burden of 239 , 240 Pu and 238 Pu from fallout in southern Finns and Lapps was determined by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry through analyses of autopsy tissue samples. Comparing the body burden against the inhalation and ingestion intake of plutonium of these population groups the fractional absorption factor for plutonium from the human gastrointestinal tract and lungs was estinated. In addition, the determined tissue values were compared with those computed with the aid of the ICRP lung model and plutonium content of surface air in the Helsinki area. The 239 , 240 Pu concentrations per wet weight of tissue descended in the order liver>lymph nodes>bone>lung>testes>muscle. A dependence of plutonium content of tissues on the amount of air inhaled by the person during the fallout period and, thus, on the age of the person, was shown. The skeletal distribution of plutonium in man was roughly similar to that reported for animals. The ratio of 239 , 240 Pu content in vertebrae to that in ribs was 1.4, on the average, and the rib/femur ratio 1.0. The average body burden of 239 , 240 Pu in adult southern Finn and Lapp males was estimated to be 1.2 pCi (44.4 mBq), of which about 51 per cent was located in liver and 40 per cent in skeleton. The estimates for the ingestion and inhalation intake of 239 , 240 Pu during the period 1945-78 were 36 and 18 pCi (1.3, 0.67 Bq) and 540 and 13 pCi (19.9, 0.48 Bq) for southern Finn and Lapp males, respectively. The estimated fractional absorption factor of plutonium in humn GI-tract was of the order (6-9)x10 -4 and in lungs (7.5-8.5)x10 -2 . (author)

  1. Biological effects like cancer formation due to inhalational exposure to plutonium. What are evident in animal experiments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghiso, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Literatures on the title subject are reviewed and problems to be solved are given. There are 2 reports of dog experiments of inhaled Pu by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which have given results incompatible/compatible with risk assessments hitherto: one with the micro-particle of Pu-nitrate, 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in which the dog lung is compared with human's by histology and autoradiography, presenting findings that differ from the previous ICRP assumption of the homogeneous distribution in the lung; and the other with 239 PuO 2 , indicating that non-tumorous diseases are agreeable with the determinative effect defined by ICRP. Other literatures have shown that effects of Pu inhalation differ dependently on the solubility of its chemical form and on its isotope ( 239 Pu and 238 Pu). Size of the inhaled Pu particle affects its deposition and thereby its influence on the air tract and other tissues. Rats are also used in Pu inhalation experiments. The significant increase of malignant lung tumor incidence is shown with 239 PuO 2 inhalation at >1 Gy lung absorbed dose by PNL and Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), at >0.7 Gy and not at 239 PuO 2 inhalation in dogs involves the long-term decrease of peripheral lymphocytes, acute radiation pneumonia and chronic fibroid lung at 10-20 Gy, which can be a cause of death. There are many studies of the lung tumor formation at various carcinogenic steps in rats. Problems to be solved for the inhaled Pu compound are the elucidation of accuracy and validity concerning the metabolic parameters, alpha-ray dose assessment, dose rate effects of particle size; the biological factors modifying the metabolism and effect; and the relationship of cancer formation with non-tumorous diseases. (T.T)

  2. Distribution, retention and early cytogenetic damage in Cynomolgus monkeys following inhalation of 239Pu(NO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Redman, H.C.; Guilmette, R.A.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen Cynomolgus monkeys were exposed by inhalation to an aerosol of 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 which resulted in calculated initial lung burdens of 1.0, 0.3 and 0.1 μCi. Four animals were exposed to the carrier aerosol and served as controls. Animals were sacrificed at 4 days and 45 days after exposure to determine the distribution and retention of the aerosol. The amount of plutonium in the liver, skeleton and testes increased as a function of time after exposure. Two monkeys died 155 and 188 days after inhalation exposure from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. There was a doubling of the total chromosome aberration frequency in the blood lymphocytes and a significant increase in dicentric chromosomes in the animals exposed for 6 months to initial lung burdens of 1.0 μCi

  3. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  4. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  5. Biological behaviour of plutonium given as a trilaurylamine complex. Comparison with plutonium-tributylphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Duserre, C.; Gil, I.; Rateau, G.; Metivier, H.

    1989-01-01

    The biokinetics of plutonium (Pu) were compared in rats after its administration by inhalation or intramuscular injection as Pu-trilaurylamine (Pu-TLA) or Pu-tri-n-butylphosphate (Pu-TBP). To study the mass effect, 238 Pu and 239 Pu were used. Translocation from the lungs and injection site was faster for 238 Pu than 239 Pu, and faster for Pu-TLA than Pu-TBP. The skeleton was always the main organ of deposition of the transferable Pu fraction. At 50 days after inhalation, the skeletal content, in per cent of the body content at death was 10% for 239 Pu-TBP, 54% for 238 Pu-TBP, 24% for 239 Pu-TLA and 62% for 238 Pu-TLA. The amounts in the liver were respectively 2, 6, 3, and 10% of the body content. Thirty days after intramuscular injection of 239 Pu-TLA, more Pu was translocated than after 239 Pu-TBP (26% versus 16%) and the skeletal deposit was 10 times the deposit in the liver. DTPA therapy after inhalation or injection of 238 Pu-TLA reduced the skeletal content by 35-58% with a corresponding increase in urinary excretion. (author)

  6. A Study of the 384 KeV Complex Gamma Emission from Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, R.S.; Ronqvist, N.

    1965-11-01

    Plutonium-239 has been reported to emit a gamma of energy 384 KeV. Subsequent workers, using radiation of this energy as a nondestructive measure of the plutonium content of various materials, found that the peak obtained by sodium iodide scintillation spectrometry showed a pronounced shoulder at about 330 KeV. This shoulder has been attributed to protactinium-233 and to uranium-237. From the width of the peak, however, it is obvious that at least three contributors are present. The present paper describes gamma spectrometric studies of plutonium samples of several isotopic compositions using a sodium iodide detector and a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The 384 KeV peak has been shown to be a complex peak containing 12 gamma components due to plutonium-239 between 300 - 450 KeV, and their relative intensities have been estimated. Anion exchange and solvent extraction experiments have also demonstrated that two further contributions due to uranium-237 are present in plutonium containing significant amounts of plutonium-241

  7. A Study of the 384 KeV Complex Gamma Emission from Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Ronqvist, N

    1965-11-15

    Plutonium-239 has been reported to emit a gamma of energy 384 KeV. Subsequent workers, using radiation of this energy as a nondestructive measure of the plutonium content of various materials, found that the peak obtained by sodium iodide scintillation spectrometry showed a pronounced shoulder at about 330 KeV. This shoulder has been attributed to protactinium-233 and to uranium-237. From the width of the peak, however, it is obvious that at least three contributors are present. The present paper describes gamma spectrometric studies of plutonium samples of several isotopic compositions using a sodium iodide detector and a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The 384 KeV peak has been shown to be a complex peak containing 12 gamma components due to plutonium-239 between 300 - 450 KeV, and their relative intensities have been estimated. Anion exchange and solvent extraction experiments have also demonstrated that two further contributions due to uranium-237 are present in plutonium containing significant amounts of plutonium-241.

  8. The significance of liver in metabolism of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netchev, Christo.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium 239 has an important toxicological significance and is widely used in the nuclear industry which makes the study of its metabolism in the organism appear of substantial interest. The role of the liver in the distribution of radionuclide and its barrier capabilities, determining to a certain extent the back transport of the isotope from the blood plasma into the gut is studied. The storage of Plutonium 239 in the organ and its reexcretion by way of the gull is quantitatively demonstrated. This question is related to the exact determination of the coefficient of absorption of the radioisotope in the digestive tract. The radionuclide is inserted into organism as PuCl 3 directly into vein jugularis and vein portae. The peculiarities of its distribution in the liver by the two ways of introduction as well as the essential differences in the radioactivity of the products of excretion by portal application are described. The mechanism of the storage of the radioisotope in the organ is explained to a great extent with its physical and chemical condition in the liver tissue. Plutonium 239 is found in the liver completely as a complex compound with the tissue proteins, the combining with globulines predominating. The dynamics of exchange of the radionuclide in the organ is determined mainly by its complex combination with the globulins. The part of nuclide connected with the other protein fractions of liver is not significant and hence they do not much influence kinetics in the organ

  9. Review of reports by J.W. Gofman on inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two recent widely circulated reports on the subject of inhaled plutonium have provoked concern among the press and in Congress. These reports, The Cancer Hazard from Inhaled Plutonium, CNR Report 1975-1R, May 14, 1975, and Estimated Production of Human Lung Cancers by Plutonium from Worldwide Fallout, CNR Report 1975-2, July 10, 1975, were written by John W. Gofman and issued by the Committee for Nuclear Responsibility, P. O. Box 2329, Dublin, California 94566. Gofman's reports do not present an objective analysis of the hazard of inhaled plutonium; his arguments, in fact, contradict many conclusions drawn in the scientific literature and supported by experimental data. Because the reports are skillfully written, however, they could easily mislead readers who are not well versed in this area. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to examine Gofman's reports in the light of recent research studies and to identify errors of fact and logic in his arguments

  10. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  11. Effect of change in diet on excretion of plutonium-239 from organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    To check supposition on milk effect on plutonium-239 excretion from organism the portable water for rats, contained in individual metabolic cages permitting separate excretion analysis, was replaced by milk. Some days later milk was excluded from diet. 24-hourly rate of radionuclide with feces and urine excretion from organism was determined. On the basis of preliminary data analysis it is supposed that interaction of some milk components with biocomponents of blood and deposition organ tissues violate 239 Pu steady equilibrium distribution in organism, affecting its metabolism through the intermediary of blood system. It results in increased plutonium excretion

  12. Inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in rats with pulmonary emphysema. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D L; Mauderly, J L; Carlton, W W; Hahn, F F

    1988-12-01

    The modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary emphysema on deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in the rat were investigated. The presence of emphysema in the rats tested was indicated by respiratory function measurements and confirmed microscopically. Initial lung burdens of {sup 239}Pu per kg body weight were less in rats with emphysema than in control rats; however, the retention of {sup 239}Pu was similar in emphysematous and control rats. Survival and lung tumor occurrence were similar in emphysematous and control rats exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. We concluded that rats with pre-existing pulmonary emphysema were not more sensitive to the effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} than control rats. (author)

  13. Dosimetry of 239Pu in dogs that inhaled monodisperse aerosols of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Existing data from human exposure cases and experimental animal studies on the fate and dosimetry of inhaled insoluble Pu particles are inadequate to provide a comprehensive description and evaluation of the tissues at risk from the alpha radiations of Pu. To improve our knowledge of the dosimetry of inhaled insoluble 239 PuO 2 , this paper describes the uptake and retention of 239 Pu in the tissues of dogs that received single inhalation exposures to monodisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 . These data include times through 3 years after exposure. Using analytical functions fitted to each tissue data set, 1100-day radiation doses were calculated for lung, liver, skeleton, kidney, spleen, and tracheobronchial, mediastinal, sternal, hepatic, mandibular, and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. The dosimetry results suggest that the lung and lymph nodes associated with lymphatic drainage of the respiratory tract are the principal sites of alpha irradiation. However, the doses for the different respiratory tract lymph nodes vary by a factor of 2000, suggesting that assuming equivalent doses to respiratory tract lymph nodes is not appropriate. Other tissues receive radiation doses also but at levels one to three orders of magnitude less than the lung. Particle size dependence on uptake and retention was noted for the skeleton, mediastinal lymph nodes, hepatic lymph nodes, retropharyngeal lymph nodes, and mandibular lymph nodes

  14. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure increases the pulmonary retention and radiation dose of 239Pu inhaled as 239PuO2 by F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lundgren, D.L.; Barr, E.B.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Nikula, K.J.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    As a portion of a study to examine how chronic cigarette smoke exposure might alter the risk of lung tumors from inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, the effects of smoke exposure on alpha-particle lung dosimetry over the life-span of exposed rats were determined. Male and female rats were exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 alone or in combination with cigarette smoke. Animals exposed to filtered air along served as controls for the smoke exposure. Whole-body exposure to mainstream smoke diluted to concentrations of either 100 or 250 mg total particulate matter m -3 began at 6 wk of age and continued for 6 h d -1 , 5 d wk -1 , for 30 mo. A single, pernasal, acute exposure to 239 PuO 2 was given to all rats at 12 wk of age. Exposure to cigarette smoke caused decreased body weight gains in a concentration dependent manner. Lung-to-body weight ratios were increased in smoke-exposed rats. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke before the 239 PuO 2 exposure deposited less 239 Pu in the lung than did controls. Except for male rats exposed to LCS, exposure to smoke retarded the clearance of 239 Pu from the lung compared to control rats through study termination at 870 d after 239 PuO 2 exposure. Radiation doses to lungs were calculated by sex and by exposure group for rats on study for at least 360 d using modeled body weight changes, lung-to-body weight ratios, and standard dosimetric calculations. For both sexes, estimated lifetime radiation doses from the time of 239 PuO 2 exposure to death were 3.8 Gy, 4.4 Gy, or 6.7 Gy for the control, LCS, or HCS exposure groups, respectively. Assuming an approximately linear dose-response relationship between radiation dose and lung neoplasm incidence, approximate increases of 20% or 80% in tumor incidence over controls would be expected in rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 and LCS or 239 PuO 2 and HCS, respectively

  15. F. Biological hazards of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is an unavoidable result of present nuclear power programmes. Its predominant isotopes are extremely long-lived and very toxic if absorbed in the body. In view of the increasing potential for plutonium and man to come into contact, the consequences of any plutonium release into the environment should be scientifically examined. This report is an attempt to place in one document a fully referenced account of the on-going work in many areas. There are three sections. Part 1 deals with the amounts of plutonium available in the fuel cycle, its properties and the probability of routine or accidental release. Part 2 examines the ways in which plutonium can reach man, in particular through food chains or inhalation. Part 3 details the biological effects of plutonium once it is absorbed into the body, assesses the amounts likely to be harmful and discusses the adequacy of present standards for plutonium burdens. There are two appendices. The likely differences between Pu-239, the most studied isotope, and other plutonium isotopes or transuranic nuclides are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a fuller account of the ways in which the fate of ingested or inhaled plutonium have been determined

  16. The effect of varying physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled plutonium aerosols on metabolism and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; McClellan, R.O.; Miglio, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of different chemical and physical parameters of plutonium aerosols on lung retention, tissue distribution and excretion patterns were evaluated in beagle dogs. Polydisperse aerosols of 239 Pu of different chemical form were produced by heating droplets nebulized from a solution of 239 PuIV in 1M HC1 to temperatures ranging from 325 0 C to 1150 0 C. Droplets containing 238 Pu(OH) 4 were treated at 1150 0 C and the resultant polydisperse aerosol used or separated into monodisperse size groups. Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to provide initial lung burdens in the range of 0.75 to 1.0μCi. The aerosols were characterized as to particle size and size distribution, and an in-vitro solubility measurement was made on samples of the aerosol from each animal exposure. Different production temperatures for the 239 Pu aerosols resulted in lung retention half-times that increased as the production temperature increased. The 239 Pu tissue distribution and urinary excretion patterns were correlated with lung retention. Faecal excretion was greater for aerosols produced at lower temperatures. Lung retention half-times for 238 Pu monodisperse aerosols were not greatly different from particle sizes of 0.8 and 1.9μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The third monodisperse aerosol intended to be 3.0μm AMAD had a bimodal particle size distribution and contained a significant fraction of readily soluble material. The 238 Pu polydisperse aerosol had a slightly lower lung retention, increased urinary excretion and translocation to tissues than the comparable 239 Pu polydisperse material. This study serves to emphasize the importance of complete analysis of the aerosol material as well as early excretion data following accidental human exposure to aerosols containing plutonium. The role of chemical form and aerosol particle size in evaluation of such cases is discussed. (author)

  17. An intercomparison experiment on isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using plutonium-239 spike for the determination of plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Shah, P.M.; Saxena, M.K.; Jain, H.C.; Gurba, P.B.; Babbar, R.K.; Udagatti, S.V.; Moorthy, A.D.; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of plutonium concentration in the dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is one of the key measurements in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report presents the results of an intercomparison experiment performed between Fuel Chemistry Division (FCD) at BARC and PREFRE, Tarapur for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel using 239 Pu spike in isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). The 239 Pu spike method was previously established at FCD as viable alternative to the imported enriched 242 Pu or 244 Pu; the spike used internationally for plutonium concentration determination by IDMS in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel. Precision and accuracy achievable for determining plutonium concentration are compared under the laboratory and the plant conditions using 239 Pu spike in IDMS. For this purpose, two different dissolver solutions with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of about 0.3 and 0.07 corresponding, respectively, to high and low burn-up fuels, were used. The results of the intercomparison experiment demonstrate that there is no difference in the precision values obtained under the laboratory and the plant conditions; with mean precision values of better than 0.2%. Further, the plutonium concentration values determined by the two laboratories agreed within 0.3%. This exercise, therefore, demonstrates that ID-TIMS method using 239 Pu spike can be used for determining plutonium concentration in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel, under the plant conditions. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  18. Toxicity of 239PuO2 inhaled by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Gillett, N.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of age at exposure on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles is being studied in aged Beagle dogs (8.0-10.5 yr of age at exposure). Forty-eight dogs inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 mm to achieve graded levels of initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) ranging from 0.02-0.66 μCi 239 Pu/kg body weight (0.75-24 kBq/kg). Twelve other dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent only. All forty-eight exposed dogs have died, including two in the past year. The twelve control dogs have also died, including one in the past year. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been the primary causes of death in these aged dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 . (author)

  19. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Lund, J.E.; Park, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium oxide were reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide was presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of plutonium particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance was discussed

  20. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented for all dogs employed in current life-span dose effect studies with inhaled 239 PuO 2 , and 239 Pu nitrate. Information is presented on the estimated initial alveolar deposition, based on external thorax counts and on estimated lung weights at time of exposure. Information is also provided on the current interpretation of the most prominent clinical-pathological features associated with the death of animals

  1. Plutonium-239 and americium-241 uptake by plants from soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.

    1979-03-01

    Alfalfa was grown in soil contaminated with plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) at a concentration of 29.7 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). In addition to alfalfa, radishes, wheat, rye, and tomatoes were grown in soils contaminated with americium-241 nitrate (241Am(NO3)3) at a concentration of 189 nCi/g. The length of exposure varied from 52 days for the radishes to 237 days for the alfalfa. The magnitude of plutonium incorporation by the alfalfa as indicated by the concentration ratio, 0.0000025, was similar to previously reported data using other chemical forms of plutonium. The results did indicate, however, that differences in the biological availability of plutonium isotopes do exist. All of the species exposed to americium-241 assimilated and translocated this radioisotope to the stem, leaf, and fruiting structures. The magnitude of incorporation as signified by the concentration ratios varied from 0.00001 for the wheat grass to 0.0152 for the radishes. An increase in the uptake of americium also occurred as a function of time for four of the five plant species. Evidence indicates that the predominant factor in plutonium and americium uptake by plants may involve the chelation of these elements in soils by the action of compounds such as citric acid and/or other similar chelating agents released from plant roots

  2. The influence of plutonium exposure and lung cancer on the frequency of x-ray-induced micronuclei in dog blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Rithidech, K.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lozano, D.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    This study determined if lung cancer or exposure to an inhaled alpha emitter, plutonium-239, increased the frequency of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes or altered the responsiveness of lymphocytes to induction of micronuclei by subsequent doses of X rays in vitro. Beagle dogs inhaled 1.5 mm ABAD monodisperse 239 PuO 2 aerosols. The exposure resulted in initial lung burdens of 1.8 KBq to 48 KBq and produced cumulative alpha radiation lung doses of 1.4 to 10.4 Gy at the time of this study. Blood lymphocytes were sampled and irradiated with either 0.0 or 2.0 Gy of X rays. The lymphocytes were stimulated to divide by phytohemagglutinin, cytokinesis was blocked with cytochalasin B, and the frequency of micronuclei was determined in binucleated cells. Plutonium inhalation alone produced no significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in blood lymphocytes. When 2 Gy of X rays ws given to blood lymphocytes of dogs that had inhaled 239 PuO 2 , there was a linear increase in micronuclei frequency as a function of alpha dose to the lungs; micronuclei/binucleated cell = 0.15 +0.2 D, where D is the cumulative alpha-radiation dose to the lung in Gy. Dogs with 239 PuO 2 - induced lung cancer did not have a significant increase in the frequency of X- ray-induced micronuclei relative to dogs exposed to plutonium that did not have lung cancer. These data suggest that inhaled 239 PuO 2 alters the responsiveness of blood lymphocytes to subsequent X-ray exposure. (author)

  3. Review of John W. Gofman's reports on health hazards from inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1976-02-01

    This document is a review of two reports prepared in 1975 by John W. Gofman on the subject of plutonium toxicity. Because Gofman's estimates of the calculated health effects from inhaled plutonium are significantly higher than those obtained from other analyses (including the risk estimates calculated by the National Academy of Science's Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation), it was decided to critically review Gofman's papers and supporting arguments. This review concludes that Gofman's predictions of large numbers of plutonium-induced lung cancers from nuclear weapons testing are derived mainly from his incorrect assumptions about the effects of cigarette smoking on the retention of plutonium particulates in the tracheobronchial region of the lungs. It appears that Gofman's assumptions are considerably overstated and cannot be substantiated by currently available information. Also, Gofman's attempt to equate a given number of lung cancer deaths to a pound of plutonium tends to obfuscate rather than clarify attempts to derive risk estimates for inhaled plutonium

  4. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood among mayak facility workers who inhaled insoluble forms of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, N. D.; Scott, B. R.; Tokarskaya, Z. B.; Zhuntova, G. V.; Khokhryakov, V. F.; Syrchikov, V. A.; Grigoryeva, E. S.

    2005-01-01

    A cytogenetic study was performed on 79 plutonium (Pu) workers chronically exposed to alpha radiation from inhaled, low-transportable (insoluble) compounds of airborne 239 Pu and to external gamma rays. Body burden estimates for 239 Pu ranged from 0 to 15.5 kBq. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) (stable and unstable among peripheral blood lymphocytes and cumulative alpha radiation doses were evaluated ∼25 y after first contact with 239 Pu. For the cytogenetic analyses, a standard two-day peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique was applied. While alpha radiation doses continually increase up to the time of cytogenetic measurements, significant gamma ray exposures essentially ceased long before the time of measurement, so that alpha and gamma doses were not correlated. For the exposed workers, the mean 239 Pu body burden (estimate), evaluated at the time of the cytogenetic measurement, was 1.23 ± 0.26 kBq and the corresponding mean absorbed external gamma ray dose (estimate) to the total body was 0.076 ± 0.009 Gy. Single and multivariate regression analyses were performed on the CA data. Stable, unstable and total aberrations increased as the 239 Pu body burden increased over the range 0-4.5 kBq. However, above this range little additional increase was observed. CAs were weakly correlated with time since the first intake of 239 Pu. No relationship between chromatid aberrations and 239 Pu incorporation was found. Unstable (but not stable) aberrations were correlated with gamma radiation dose. No significant relationship of CA and smoking was found. (authors)

  5. Siting criteria based on the prevention of deterministic effects from plutonium inhalation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, S.A.; Low, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    Siting criteria are established by regulatory authorities to evaluate potential accident scenarios associated with proposed nuclear facilities. The 0.25 Sv (25 rem) siting criteria adopted in the United States has been historically based on the prevention of deterministic effects from acute, whole-body exposures. The Department of Energy has extended the applicability of this criterion to radionuclides that deliver chronic, organ-specific irradiation through the specification of a 0.25 Sv (25 rem) committed effective dose equivalent siting criterion. A methodology is developed to determine siting criteria based on the prevention of deterministic effects from inhalation intakes of radionuclides which deliver chronic, organ-specific irradiation. Revised siting criteria, expressed in terms of committed effective dose equivalent, are proposed for nuclear facilities that handle primarily plutonium compounds. The analysis determined that a siting criterion of 1.2 Sv (120 rem) committed effective dose equivalent for inhalation exposures to weapons-grade plutonium meets the historical goal of preventing deterministic effects during a facility accident scenario. The criterion also meets the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy Nuclear Safety Goals provided that the frequency of the accident is sufficiently low

  6. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redman, H.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Scott, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on the biological effects of inhaled particles of 239 PuO 2 have been initiated in the Fischer 344 rat. To obtain information on the importance of homogeneity or nonhomogeneity of radiation dose to the lung, young adult (84 +- 7 days) animals have been exposed to monodisperse aerosols (sigma/sub g/ 239 PuO 2 of 1.0 and 2.8 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD). To determine the effects of age at exposure, aged rats (600 to 660 days) have been exposed to monodisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 of 1.0 μm aerodynamic diameter. To date, 480 young adult rats have been exposed to 239 PuO 2 : 240 rats to 1.0 μm AD particles and 240 rats to 2.85 μm AD particles. The projected exposure level ranged from 0.012 to 0.115 μCi/kg body weight. One hundred sixty rats were sham-exposed and maintained as controls. Also, 240 aged rats have been exposed to date to 1.0 μm AD particles of 239 PuO 2 . The projected activity level ranged from 0.012 to 0.115 μCi/kg body weight. Eighty rats were sham-exposed and maintained as controls. In addition, a serial sacrifice study to determine radiation-dose pattern in rats resulting from the inhalation of these monodisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 has been initiated in the young adult rat

  7. Low-level inhaled-239PuO2 life-span studies in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; McDonald, K.E.; Killand, B.W.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Cannon, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This study determined the dose-response curve for lung tumor incidence in rats after inhalation of high-fired 239 PuO 2 , which gave radiation doses to the lung of from ∼5 to >1000 rads. Exposed rats were given a single, nose-only, inhalation exposure to 169 Yb- 239 PuO 2 aerosol (AMAD, 1.6 +- 0.11 μm). The effective half-time for 169 Yb in the lung was 14 days, whereas ∼76% of 239 Pu was cleared with a half-time of 20 days and 24%, with a half-time of 180 days. Whole-body counting for 169 Yb at 14 days after exposure was an accurate method for determining 239 Pu IAD in individual rats, even at IAD's as low as 0.60 nCi of 239 Pu. The 239 Pu lung-clearance curve and an equation describing changes in lung weight with body weight and age were used to determine lung radiation doses. The IAD's of exposure groups were 0.60 +- 0.15 nCi of 239 Pu (1000 rats), 0.98 +- 0.25 (531 rats), 2.4 +- 0.69 (209 rats), 5.7 +- 1.2 (98 rats), and 7.5 +- 2.0 to 150 +- 37 nCi (300 rats); corresponding radiation doses to the lung estimated at 3 years after exposure were 8.3, 14, 33, 79, and 100 to 2100 rads, respectively. 71 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) and plutonium-240 ( 240 Pu) activity concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 ± 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 ± 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high 240 Pu/ 239 Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004)

  9. Modeling lung cancer risks in laboratory dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1990-06-01

    These analyses are based on data from a lifespan study of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An important goal of this study is to increase understanding of health risk resulting from this exposure, with particular attention to lung cancer risks. Data on humans exposed to plutonium are inadequate for achieving this goal

  10. The removal of inhaled 239Pu from beagle dogs by bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Slauson, D.O.; Miglio, J.J.; Ruoff, L.; Mersch, S.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelatan therapy for removing 239 Pu from beagle dogs after inhalation of 239 Pu aerosols having different solubilities has been investigated. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239 PuCl 4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900 and 1150 0 C. Groups of six beagle dogs were exposed to each of the aerosols. Subsequently, three dogs in each group were treated by lavage and intravenous injections of DTPA. The remaining three dogs in each group served as untreated controls. It was found that bronchopulmonary lavage treatment was effective in removing nearly half of the 239 Pu activity from the lung regardless of the aerosol production temperature. This early removal of 239 Pu activity resulted in a significant reduction in daily dose rate and therefore cumulative α dose to lung. The effectiveness of DTPA treatment depended on aerosol production temperature, and was effective in reducing accumulation of 239 Pu in liver and skeleton of the dogs that inhaled aerosols produced at 325 0 and 600 0 C by enhancing urinary excretion of 239 Pu. (U.K.)

  11. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Induction of lung tumors by various types of radiation is of paramount concern to the nuclear industry. The data presented were obtained by exposing the pulmonary system of Syrian hamsters to particles of zirconium oxide containing various amounts of either plutonium-238 or -239 as the alpha radiation source. These particles were injected intravenously and lodged permanently in the capillary bed of the lung. When less than 20% of the lung tissue was irradiated, simulating the ''hot particle'' mode, tumors were not evident with lung burdens up to 500 nCi plutonium. More diffuse irradiation significantly increased the tumor incidence, with lung burdens of 50 to 150 nCi. When plutonium-laden microspheres were administered intratracheally, tumor production was considerably increased and the addition of 3 mg of iron oxide intratracheally further increased the incidence. Using the zirconium oxide matrix for the carrier of plutonium in aerosol particles produced tumor incidences of up to 50% in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation. Initial pulmonary (alveolar) burdens reached 100 nCi of plutonium. Similar inhalation studies using plutonium dioxide alone (no matrix) failed to produce any increase in lung tumorigenesis. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms necessary for lung carcinogenesis. (H.K.)

  12. Osteosarcomogenic effect of plutonium-239 dependent on the age and sex of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyakov, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (2.5μ curie-kg) was administered to male and female rats at the age of 1,6 and 12 months. Besides, one-month-old rats were momentarily given 5μ curie-kg. It has been found that the highest sensitivity to osteosarcomogenic effect of plutonium is exhibited by six-month-old animals; a lesser one - by one-month-old, and the least one - by 12-month-old rats. Males of all age groups are almost twice more sensitive than females

  13. Reversibility of sorption of plutonium-239 onto hematite and goethite colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, N.; Cotter, C.R.; Kitten, H.D.; Bentley, J.; Triay, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate: (1) sorption of plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) on different iron oxide colloids (hematite and geothite), (2) sorption kinetics of colloidal Pu(IV) and soluble Pu(V) onto these two colloids, and (3) desorption of colloidal Pu(IV) and soluble Pu(V) from 239 Pu-loaded colloids as a function of time. Natural groundwater and carbonate-rich synthetic groundwater were used in this study. To examine the possible influence of bicarbonate on 239 Pu sorption, an additional set of experiments was conducted in sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) solutions under carbon dioxide free environments. Our results show that colloidal Pu(IV) as well as soluble Pu(V) was rapidly adsorbed by hematite and goethite colloids in both natural and synthetic groundwater. The amount of 239 Pu adsorbed by both iron oxide colloids in synthetic groundwater was higher than in natural groundwater. The presence of carbonate did not influence the sorption of 239 Pu. While sorption of soluble Pu(V) is a slow process, sorption of colloidal Pu(IV) occurs rapidly. Desorption of Pu from iron oxide colloids is much slower than the sorption processes. Our findings suggest that different sorption and desorption behaviors of 239 Pu by iron oxide colloids in groundwater may facilitate the transport of 239 Pu along potential flowpaths from the areas contaminated by radionuclide and release to the accessible environment. (orig.)

  14. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Case, A.C.; Madison, R.M.; McShane, J.F.; Stevens, D.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (four of five at the highest dosage level, in 14 to 25 mo postexposure; 1 of 20 at the medium-high dosage level, at 34 mo postexposure). There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. One dog, at 39 mo postexposure, has radiographic evidence of an osteosarcoma. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported (Annual Report, 1978). Twelve dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 showed a more rapid translocation of 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to bone and liver than was observed for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , but at 1 yr postexposure the percentage of the final body burden in bone and liver were similar for the two isotopes

  15. Deposition of plutonium in the lung of a worker following an accidental inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.B.; Robinson, B.

    The deposition of PuO 2 in the lungs of an occupationally exposed worker is characterized by assay for plutonium in excreta samples and from in vivo measurements of 241 Am in the thoracic region. Chelation therapy by intravenous injection of 1 gm Ca-DTPA was initially performed shortly after the incident and repeated using 0.5 gm of the chelate four additional times in subsequent days post intake. Analysis of the air sampler filter retrieved from the site of the exposure identified the isotopic composition and particle size of the plutonium material inhaled by the worker. Chelation with Ca-DTPA did not significantly reduce the magnitude of the lung or systemic deposition as determined from assay of plutonium in urine samples collected from the worker. In vivo measurements for 241 Am verify the retention of the inhaled material in the lung and also indicate the ingrowth of an amount of 241 Am as a daughter product of the 241 Pu initially inhaled

  16. Beiological behaviour of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is scarcely incorporated from the environment into the food chain because of its unability to penetrate biological membranes. Workers can be contaminated through inhalation or deposition in wounds. Pu present in the pulmonary alveoles or incorporated in wounds is redistributed in the organism either through cellular transport resulting in an important accumulation in the lymphatic ganglia either by blood transport as dissolved Pu bound to proteins. This mechanism results in a progressive accumulation of the radioelement in liver and bone. It is estimated that about 40% of the Pu present in the blood is deposited in the liver from which one half is eliminated every ten years. 50% is deposited in bone from which the elimination takes much longer and 10% is eliminated with the urines. Intravenous injection of DIPA is very useful for Pu elimination immediately after contamination. For elimination of pulmonary Pu the technique of ''pulmonary washing'' is suggested. This method reduces the pulmonary contamination in laboratory aniamls by a factor 10. (author)

  17. Late-occurring pulmonary pathologies following inhalation of mixed oxide (uranium + plutonium oxide) aerosol in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, N M; Van der Meeren, A; Fritsch, P; Abram, M-C; Bernaudin, J-F; Poncy, J L

    2010-09-01

    Accidental exposure by inhalation to alpha-emitting particles from mixed oxide (MOX: uranium and plutonium oxide) fuels is a potential long-term health risk to workers in nuclear fuel fabrication plants. For MOX fuels, the risk of lung cancer development may be different from that assigned to individual components (plutonium, uranium) given different physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate late effects in rat lungs following inhalation of MOX aerosols of similar particle size containing 2.5 or 7.1% plutonium. Conscious rats were exposed to MOX aerosols and kept for their entire lifespan. Different initial lung burdens (ILBs) were obtained using different amounts of MOX. Lung total alpha activity was determined by external counting and at autopsy for total lung dose calculation. Fixed lung tissue was used for anatomopathological, autoradiographical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Inhalation of MOX at ILBs ranging from 1-20 kBq resulted in lung pathologies (90% of rats) including fibrosis (70%) and malignant lung tumors (45%). High ILBs (4-20 kBq) resulted in reduced survival time (N = 102; p inhalation result in similar risk for development of lung tumors as compared with industrial plutonium oxide.

  18. Vertical distribution of 239+240Pu-concentration and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in sediment cores. Implications for the sources of plutonium in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Jian, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The main sources in the environmental plutonium is due to nuclear explosions held during 1945 - 1980. The global fallout of plutonium is estimated to amount to 10.9 PBq, of which 6.6 PBq entering into the ocean. The Japan Sea is reported to be concentrated in plutonium in excess according to previous measurements. The present report aims to clarify the origin and transport path of plutonium in Japan Sea by measuring 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio in sedimenta cores with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) which depends on the types of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuels, reacting time, or the types of nuclear weapons concerned. As an example the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio from the nuclear explosions in early 1960's is known to be 0.18, while that of 0.34-0.36 Bikini experiments in the Marshall Islands in early 1950's. After a detailed examination, the present authors propose that the plutonium from the explosion sites around the Marshall Islands was carried with an oceanic current to be deposited in the bed of the East-China Sea, from which a part of the plutonium was transported with the Black Stream to enter Japan Sea. (S. Ohno)

  19. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and 239PuO2 aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H.; Hahn, F.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Griffith, W.C.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high linear energy transfer alpha particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be; Be is currently classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United States and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of plutonium dioxide ( 239 PuO 2 ), Be metal, or these agents in combination

  20. Hematological effects of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Park, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A life-span study indicated that plutonium activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is a contributor to development of lymphopenia in beagles exposed to 239 PuO 2 . Significant lymphopenia was found in 67 (58%) beagles given a single nose-only exposure to 239 PuO 2 to result in mean initial lung depositions ranging from 0.69 to 213.3 kBq. Lymphoid atrophy and sclerosis of the thoracic lymph nodes and lymphopenia were observed in exposure-level groups with initial lung depositions ≥2.5 kBq. Those dogs with final plutonium concentrations in the thoracic lymph nodes ≥0.4 kBq/g and dose rates ≥0.01 Gy/day developed lymphopenia. Marked differences existed between chronically lymphopenic dogs and intermittently lymphopenic dogs with regard to initial lung deposition, time to lymphopenic events and absolute lymphocyte concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed moderate correlation between reduction in lymphocyte values and initial lung deposition, in both magnitude and time of appearance after exposure. Cumulative dose and dose rate appeared to act together to produce initial effects on lymphocyte populations, while dose rate alone appeared to be responsible for the maintenance and subsequent cycles of lymphopenia seen over the life span. No primary tumors were associated with the thoracic lymph nodes in this study, although 70% of the lymphopenic dogs developed lung tumors. 28 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Exposure of F344 rats to aerosols of 239PuO2 and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.; Bechtold, W.E.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear workers may be accidently exposed to radioactive materials such as 239 PuO 2 by inhalation, and thus have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radionuclides and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. This study is being conducted to better determine the combined effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and cigarette smoke on the induction of lung cancer in rats

  2. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile 239 Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m 2 ) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate 239 Pu production rate. Produced 239 Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, 239 Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type

  3. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including 238Pu/239Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as 238 U with 238 Pu and 241 Am with 241 Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the 238 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Disposition of plutonium-239 via production of fission molybdenum-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A., E-mail: muahtaq_a1953@hotmail.co [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-04-15

    A heritage of physical consequences of the U.S.-Soviet arms race has accumulated, the weapons-grade plutonium (WPu), which will become excess as a result of the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons under the arms reduction agreements. Disposition of Pu has been proposed by mixing WPu with high-level radioactive waste with subsequent vitrification into large, highly radioactive glass logs or fabrication into mixed oxide fuel with subsequent irradiation in existing light water reactors. A potential option may be the production of medical isotope molybdenum-99 by using Pu-239 targets.

  5. Determination of the rates of clearance of insoluble compounds of plutonium from the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, L.

    1974-04-01

    There are indications that the process of clearance of inhaled insoluble plutonium compounds from the lung may be represented by a model consisting of three exponential phases. A survey of published data on 'in vivo' and bioassay measurements made after 239 PuO 2 inhalation by men and dogs has been carried out, and the half times of the three exponential phases determined as approximately 1 day, 30 days and 500 days. (author)

  6. Estimation of the Body Content Following Inhalation of Insoluble Plutonium; Evaluation de la Charge Corporelle de Plutonium, a la Suite de l'Inhalation de Plutonium Insoluble; 041e 041f 0420 0415 0414 ; Carga Corporal Consecutiva a la Inhalacion de Plutonio Insoluble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolphin, G. W. [Authority Health and Safety Branch, Radiological Protection Division, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1964-11-15

    The problem of estimating the body content of plutonium following the inhalation of plutonium oxide is of considerable practical importance and, on the grounds of the known insolubility of plutonium oxide, measurements of plutonium in urine might be considered valueless. This paper reviews the relevant published biological data from beagle dog experiments and also reviews data from two human cases. From this review it is concluded that there is evidence for believing that the body content, following an accidental inhalation, can be estimated from the measurements of plutonium excreted in urine at times greater than about 300 d after the intake. Some possible excretion methods are discussed. Finally, there is a comment on the radiological protection aspects of insoluble plutonium in the lungs and bronchial lymph nodes and it is stressed that the particular nature of the plutonium must be taken into consideration. (author) [French] Le probleme de l'evaluation de la charge corporelle de plutonium a la suite de l'inhalation d'oxyde de plutonium presente une grande importance sur l'e plan pratique et, en raison de l'insolubilite bien connue de l'oxyde de plutonium on peut etre tente de considerer comme sans valeur les dosages du plutonium contenu dans l'urine. L'auteur passe en revue les donnees biologiques pertinentes deja publiees a la suite d'experiences faites sur les chiens bigles, ainsi que des donnees relatives a deux cas d'inhalation par des hommes. D'apres cette etude, il y a lieu de croire qu'on peut evaluer la charge corporelle de plutonium, a la suite d'une inhalation accidentelle, en faisant des dosages du plutonium contenu dans l'urine plus de 300 jours apres l'absorption. Il discute plusieurs methodes possibles. Il examine, enfin, sous l'angle de la protection radiologique, la presence du plutonium insoluble dans les poumons et les ganglions lymphatiques des bronches et il insiste sur le fait qu'il faut tenir compte de la nature particuliere du plutonium

  7. Application of the new ICRP respiratory tract model to inhaled plutonium nitrate using experimental biokinetic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, A.; Bailey, M.R.; Jarvis, N.S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the new ICRP respiratory tract model with particular reference to inhaled plutonium nitrate. The model is used to determine the absorption rates to blood for plutonium nitrate which when combined with the plutonium excretion functions were used to predict urinary excretion in man. The implications of the new model for radiological protection are discussed. (UK).

  8. Effects of combined inhalation exposure of rats to 239PuO2 and beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Hoover, M.D.; Haley, P.J.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    We exposed rats acutely to achieve one of two initial lung burdens (ILBs) of 239 PuO 2 alone or in combination with one of three ILBs of beryllium metal. Additional control groups of rats were sham exposed to air. Currently, approximately 58% of all rats planned for inclusion have been exposed. This report describes procedures used for the exposure, maintenance, and evaluation of rats in this study. Most of the animals are to be held for their life span in order to quantitate cancer incidence, with other animals assigned to serial sacrifice groups for quantitation of Pu and Be retention and determination of translocation patterns. Exposure to beryllium at any of the three doses tested retarded clearance of plutonium from the lung by a factor of approximately six. Acute inflammatory responses were studied in a separate group of rats exposed to Be. Except for rats receiving the highest ILB of beryllium metal, no differences between exposed and sham-exposed control groups have yet been noted in terms of mortality, weight changes, and clinical signs. (author)

  9. Study of a plutonium oxide fuel inhalation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, P.P.

    1991-01-01

    Lung retention, urine excretion and faecal excretion levels of plutonium fuel have been measured for an employee following a known inhalation. The employee has had no subsequent contact with the fuel material. The retention and excretion patterns are, however, complicated by a long previous history of suspected small exposures. The monitoring data are presented together with an interpretation of the data which can be compared directly with single intake retention and excretion function as given in ICRP 54. (author)

  10. Combined effects of inhaled plutonium oxide and benzo[a]pyrene on lung carcinogenesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Wahrendorf, J.; Lafuma, J.

    1986-01-01

    This study describes the effect of two intratracheal instillations (5 mg each) of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) on lung carcinogenesis in rats that had previously inhaled three levels of 239 PuO 2 . The BP does not modify survival in the high-level 239 PuO 2 -exposed rats, but markedly reduces survival in the two other groups. Median survival time with BP alone is shorter (666 days) than for the control group (838 days). Tumor incidence was increased by BP exposure, and the tumors were usually fatal, whereas tumors observed after 239 PuO 2 inhalation alone were usually not fatal. Statistical analysis of these data poses a problem because of the need to compare incidental and fatal tumors. 22 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile {sup 239}Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m{sup 2}) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate {sup 239}Pu production rate. Produced {sup 239}Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, {sup 239}Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of plutonium isotopes (238Pu and 239,240Pu) in sediments off the Rhone River mouth (NW Mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansard, B.; Charmasson, S.; Gasco, C.; Anton, M.P.; Grenz, C.; Arnaud, M.

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion and fate of the Rhone River inputs to the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) have been studied through the spatial and temporal distributions of plutonium isotopes in continental shelf sediments. Plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu) are appropriate tracers to follow the dispersion of particulate matter due both to their high affinity for particles and their long half-lives. In the Rhone River valley, plutonium isotopes originate from both the weathering of the catchment basin contaminated by global atmospheric fallout, and the liquid effluents released from the Marcoule reprocessing plant since 1961. This work presents a first detailed study on 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu distributions in sediments from the Rhone prodelta to the adjacent continental shelf, since the decommissioning of Marcoule in 1997. The vertical distribution of Pu isotopes has been analysed in a 4.75 m long core sampled in 2001 at the Rhone mouth. Despite this length, plutonium is found at the last 10 cm, manifesting the high sedimentation rate of the prodeltaic area and its ability for trapping fine-grained sediments and associated contaminants. The highest 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu concentrations reached 1.26 and 5.97 Bq kg -1 respectively and were found within the layer 280-290 cm. The 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios (AR) demonstrated an efficient and huge trapping of the Pu isotopes derived from Marcoule. The fresh sediments, located on the top of the core, show lower plutonium activity concentrations and lower 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu ratios. This decrease is in close relation with the shut down of the Marcoule reprocessing plant in 1997. In 2001, plutonium isotopes were also analysed in 21 surface sediments located offshore and concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.17 Bq kg -1 for 238 Pu and from 0.33 to 1.72 Bq kg -1 for 239,240 Pu. The 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu AR ranged from 0.24 close to the river mouth to 0.06 southwards, indicating the decreasing influence of the

  13. Comparison of predicted with observed biokinetics of inhaled plutonium nitrate and gadolinium oxide in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, A.; Shutt, A.L.; Etherington, G.; Hodgson, S.A.; Rance, E.; Stradling, G.N.; Youngman, M.J.; Ziesenis, A.; Kreyling, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The absorption kinetics to blood of plutonium and gadolinium after inhalation as nitrate and oxide in humans and animals has been studied. For each material, values describing the time dependence of absorption were derived from the studies in animals and used with the ICRP human respiratory tract model to predict lung retention and cumulative amounts to blood for the volunteers inhaling the same materials. Comparison with the observed behaviour in the volunteers suggests that absorption of plutonium and gadolinium is reasonably species independent, and that data obtained from animal studies can be used to assess their biokinetic behaviour in humans. (author)

  14. Biochemical effects of inhaled 239PuO2 on lung lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombropoulos, E.G.; Hadley, J.G.; Thomas, J.M.; Craig, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out to assess the effect of 239 Pu α irradiation on lung lipid biosynthesis and to determine the lungs ability to incorporate palmitate into lavage lecithin and its turnover are reported. The experiments were carried out on rats which had inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles. The study of palmitate incorporation into lipids shows conclusively that for medium (23 to 42 nCi) or high (more than 100 nCi) lung depositions the incorporation by isolated mitochondria is significantly (P 239 PuO 2 were positive, with respect to controls in 8 of 10 instances, when measured following the label of palmitate in lung lavage lecithin. The interpretation of the significant result (P < 0.05) is that: (1) initial and/or final lecithin pool sizes were different, (2) transfer rates were affected between blood and lung, or (3) rates of degradation of lung lavage lecithin were affected. (U.K.)

  15. Preliminary evaluation of lung doses for dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Hadley, R.T.; Park, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A group of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 is being followed for life-span effects. This paper reports preliminary lung dose estimates and dose-response relationships for incidence of lung tumors and radiation pneumonitis which have been observed to date. Doses were estimated by using both conventional dose-averaging and microdosimetric techniques. Cascade impactor sampling data were used to reconstruct the original plutonium aerosol size distributions unique to each of about 120 individual dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 . Data providing the initial plutonium lung burden and lifetime lung retention-clearance functions of plutonium for each dog were used for calculating average dose rates, cumulative absorbed doses, and specific energy distributions. A linear dose-response relationship for lung tumor induction was estimated on the basis of cumulative lung dose. Average time to death was estimated as a function of average dose rate. Conclusions regarding the potential value of microdosimetry in the interpretation of such dose-response relationships are discussed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Measurement of p-odd asymmetry of fragment escape in ternary fission of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.V.; Vodennikov, B.D.; Danilyan, G.V.; Korobkina, E.I.; Pavlov, V.S.; Pevchev, Yu.F.; Sadchikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Values of effects of parity nonconservation in binary and ternary fission of plutonium 239 by polarized thermal neutrons were measured simultaneously. The ratio of asymmetry coefficient (AC) of ternary fission to the AC of binary fission was equal to 0.67+-0.20. The obtained result testifies to insignificant disagreement of AC of fragment escape in studied fission types

  17. Alecto - results obtained with homogeneous critical experiments on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233; Alecto - resultats des experiences critiques homogenes realisees sur le plutonium 239, l'uranium 235 et l'uranium 233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruna, J G; Brunet, J P; Caizegues, R; Clouet d' Orval, Ch; Kremser, J; Tellier, H; Verriere, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In this report are given the results of the homogeneous critical experiments ALECTO, made on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233. After a brief description of the equipment, the critical masses for cylinders of diameters varying from 25 to 42 cm, are given and compared with other values (foreign results, criticality guide). With respect to the specific conditions of neutron reflection in the ALECTO experiments the minimal values of critical masses are: Pu239 M{sub c} = 910 {+-} 10 g, U235 M{sub c} = 1180 {+-} 12 g and U233 M{sub c} = 960 {+-} 10 g. Experiments relating to cross sections and constants to be used on these materials are presented. Lastly, kinetic experiments allow to compare pulsed neutron methods to fluctuation methods. [French] On presente dans ce rapport les resultats des experiences critiques homogenes ALECTO, effectuees sur le plutonium 239, l'uranium 235 et l'uranium 233. Apres avoir rappele la description des installations, on donne les masses critiques pour des cylindres de diametres variant entre 25 et 42 cm, qui sont comparees avec d'autres chiffres (resultats etrangers, guide de criticite). Dans les gammes des diametres etudies pour des cuves a fond plat reflechies lateralement, la valeur minimale des masses critiques est la suivante: Pu239 M{sub c} = 910 {+-} 10 g, U235 M{sub c} = 1180 {+-} 12 g et U233 M{sub c} 960 {+-} 10 g. Des experiences portant sur les sections efficaces et les constantes a utiliser sur ces milieux sont ensuite presentees. Enfin des experiences de cinetique permettent une comparaison entre la methode des neutrons pulses et la methode des fluctuations. (auteur)

  18. Solubility of reactor fuels in the mouse lung with respect to their U/Pu and 238Pu/239Pu ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, R.J.; Baker, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    The studies reported were designed to assess the comparative in vivo solubilities of a range of plutonium containing reactor fuels. To simulate these fuels, mixed U/Pu oxides were prepared and calcined at 1600 0 C. A plutonium content of 3% w/w was chosen as typical of water-cooled reactor fuel. Higher concentrations of plutonium (10, 20 and 30%) were included to simulate fast reactor fuel. As it is known that 238 PuO 2 , with high specific activity, is translocated more rapidly from lung than 239 PuO 2 , the effect of isotopic composition of plutonium in simulated reactor fuels was also investigated. For this purpose, both the water-cooled and fast-reactor fuels were prepared with plutonium containing 2% of 238 Pu by weight. The resulting oxides had about 6 times the specific activity of those prepared with 239 Pu. Groups of mice were killed at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after inhaling aerosols of the simulated reactor fuels. After 3 months, measurements of Pu retention in the lung showed no marked differences between materials. After 6 months, measurements of plutonium deposited in the liver and skeleton showed that mixed U/Pu oxides were more soluble in vivo than 239 PuO 2 . Their solubility was inversely related to their plutonium content. The addition of 238 Pu to the plutonium resulted in enhanced translocation of plutonium from the lung, in the cases of water-cooled reactor fuel by a factor of two. (author)

  19. Studies in biological excretion of inhaled plutonium in the case of a few occupational workers in a fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedge, A.G.; Chandramouli, S.; Iyer, R.S.; Bhat, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    A power reactor fuel reprocessing plant is in operation at Tarapur. The various processes involved in the plant are: fuel rod cutting, dissolution in nitric acid, separation of plutonium, and handling of separated plutonium. The chemical form of plutonium could be nitrate, TBP complex, or oxide depending upon the nature of the process involved. Possible internal exposure to plant personnel occurs mainly by inhalation and occasionally through a contaminated wound. Occupational workers are regularly monitored for internal contamination by urinary excretion analysis as well as by in-vivo lung counting. This paper presents a follow-up study of plutonium elimination in four inhalation exposure cases. (author) 8 refs.; 6 figs

  20. Effects of inhaled plutonium nitrate on bone and liver in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Weller, R.E.; Watson, C.R.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    The life-span biological effects of inhaled soluble, alpha-emitting radionuclides deposited in the skeleton and liver were studied in 5 groups of 20 beagles exposed to initial lung depositions ranging from 0.48 to 518 Bq/g of lung. Average plutonium amounts in the lungs decreased to approximately 1% of the final body deposition in dogs surviving 5 years or more; more than 90% of the final depositions accumulated in the liver and skeleton. The liver-to-skeletal ratio of deposited plutonium was 0.83. The incidence of bone tumors, primarily osteogenic sarcomas causing early mortality, at final group average skeletal depositions of 15.8, 2.1, and 0.5 Bq/g was, respectively, 85%, 50%, and 5%; there were no bone tumors in exposure groups with mean average depositions lower than 0.5 Bq/g. Elevated serum liver enzyme levels were observed in exposure groups down to 1.3 Bq/g. The incidence of liver tumors at final group average liver depositions of 6.9, 1.3, 0.2, and 0.1 Bq/g, was, respectively, 25%, 15%, 15%, and 15%; one hepatoma occurred among 40 control dogs. The risk of the liver cancer produced by inhaled plutonium nitrate was difficult to assess due to the competing risks of life shortening from lung and bone tumors

  1. Modifying effects of preexisting pulmonary fibrosis on biological responses of rats to inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Rebar, A.H.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the modifying effects of preexisting, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis on the deposition, retention, and biological effects of inhaled 239PuO2 in the rat. Among rats exposed to similar airborne concentrations of 239PuO2, initial lung burdens of 239Pu per kilogram body mass were similar whether or not pulmonary fibrosis was present. However, clearance of 239Pu from the lungs was significantly decreased in the rats with preexisting pulmonary fibrosis. The incidence of lung lesions (epithelial hyperplasia, diffuse macrophage increases and aggregation, and loose and dense connective tissue) was significantly greater among rats with preexisting pulmonary fibrosis than among the exposed controls. Rats with preexisting fibrosis had shorter life spans than 239PuO2-exposed control rats. When groups of rats with similar alpha doses to the lungs were compared, the incidences of neoplastic lesions in the lung, the times to death of rats with lung neoplasms, and the risk of lung tumors per unit of alpha dose to the lungs in rats with or without pulmonary fibrosis were similar. The results of this study suggest that humans with uncomplicated pulmonary fibrosis may not be more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of inhaled 239PuO2 than are individuals with normal lungs, assuming that the total alpha doses to the lungs are similar

  2. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963); Metabolisme et toxicologie du plutonium 239 - evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [French] Apres avoir passe en revue les principales proprietes metaboliques et toxicologiques du plutonium 239, ainsi que les normes professionnelles actuellement en vigueur, le rapport aborde le probleme difficile de l'evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees. Cette evaluation est fonction de l'organisation pratique de la surveillance: - surveillance systematique par des analyses periodiques de Pu urinaire et surveillance speciale en cas d'incidents par des examens appropries a chaque cas. Une interpretation simple des analyses systematiques, ainsi que des methodes d'evaluation utilisables dans les principaux cas de contamination accidentelle sont exposees. (auteur)

  3. In vitro cell-mediated immunity studies of plutonium-exposed beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.E.; Graham, T.; Park, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Mitogen-induced activation was measured in spleen and mesenteric lymph node cell preparations from dogs exposed to a single inhalation exposure of plutonium oxide ( 238 Pu or 239 Pu). Reduced stimulation indices of splenic lymphocytes from exposed animals suggest that a reduction in lymphocyte function has occurred in this tissue. No apparent reduction in mitogen stimulation indices was observed in mesenteric lymph node cultures

  4. Solubility of plutonium dioxide aerosols, in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Kanapilly, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of plutonium aerosols is an important parameter in establishing risk estimates for industrial workers who might accidentally inhale these materials and in evaluating environmental health impacts associated with Pu. In vitro solubility of industrial plutonium aerosols in a simulated lung fluid is compared to similar studies with ultrafine aerosols from laser ignition of delta phase plutonium metal and laboratory-produced spherical particles of 238 PuO 2 and 239 PuO 2 . Although relatively insoluble, industrial plutonium-mixed oxide aerosols were much more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium dioxide particles. Chain agglomerate aerosols from laser ignition of metallic Pu indicated in vitro dissolution half-times of 10 and 50 days for activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 0.7 and 2.3 μm, respectively. Plutonium-containing mixed oxide aerosols indicated dissolution half-times of 40 to 500 days for particles formed by industrial powder comminution and blending. Centerless grinding of fuel pellets yielded plutonium-containing aerosols with dissolution half-times of 1200 to 8000 days. All mixed oxide particles were in the size range 1.0 μm to 2.5 μm AMAD

  5. The uptake, retention and distribution of plutonium-239 in rat gonads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    The 239 Pu contents of 30 rat testes and 30 rat ovaries have been studied over periods of 575 and 146 days respectively after intravenous injection of plutonium nitrate at a mean dose of 2.4 microCi/kg body weight. The results presented show that in the rat testis about one third of the α tracks lie in the region of the spermatogonia, with a slightly greater fraction of the tracks lying above the intertubular spaces. The inhomogeneity factor for the spermatogonial stem cells of the rat testes was calculated to average 1.6, with a range of 1.1 to 2.8, as compared to 2.5 for the mouse. It is shown that the retention of 239 Pu in the testis and ovary is prolonged and in the studies reported here no significant loss of the nuclide from the gonads was observed during the period of observation. (U.K.)

  6. Growth of extrapulmonary tumours after inhalation of small doses of plutonium oxide by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Masse, R.; L'Hullier, I.; Metivier, H.; Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    After inhalation of plutonium oxide ( 239 PuO 2 ) involving initial lung burdens ranging from 74 to 103 Bq, male rats of the Wistar strain are kept in conditions allowing maximum survival; tumour incidences for the target organ (lung) and for the rest of the organs are calculated separately after the death of the animals. In the outbred Wistar rat the incidence of lung tumours is 18.5% for an initial lung burden of 74 Bq. The mean survival time of animals having such tumours is 973 days after inhalation. For an initial burden of 103 Bq syngenetic Wistar AG rats show a lower frequency of lung tumours (6.1%), but also a much reduced mean survival time, namely 757 days. Compared with the frequencies observed in the corresponding control groups, the frequency of non-pulmonary tumours is twice as high (12%) in consanguineous rats and six times as high (25.9%) in conventional rats. A supralinear dose-effect relationship at very low doses seems improbable in view of the dose delivered ( -3 Gy in the most exposed organs, such as the liver) and, in particular, because there is no correlation between the dose delivered to the organs and the location of the tumours. The exposed animals show, on the one hand, no specificity of organs for the surplus extrapulmonary tumours observed, and on the other, an inhibition by about 45% in the natural cytotoxic activity (natural killers) measured one year after inhalation. These observations suggest the hypothesis that an anti-tumour control mechanism is affected, perhaps as a result of the irradiation experienced during the circulation of blood cells in the lung capillaries. The failure of this system would in that case allow the expression of neoplastic characters as ageing progresses. A non-specific BCG immunotherapy does not restore this anti-tumour control system. (author)

  7. Plutonium activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in sediment cores from the east China sea and Okinawa Trough: Sources and inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-liang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2005-05-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation using ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed that 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, ranging from 0.21 to 0.33, were much higher than the reported value of global fallout (0.18). The highest 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios (0.32-0.33) were observed in the deepest Okinawa Trough sediment samples. These ratios suggested the US nuclear weapons tests in the early 1950s at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands were a major source of plutonium in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, in addition to the global fallout source. It was proposed that close-in fallout plutonium was delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds test sites via early direct tropospheric fallout and transportation by the North Pacific Equatorial Circulation system and Kuroshio Current into the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea. The total 239 + 240 Pu inventories in the cores were about 150-200% of that expected from direct global fallout; about 46-67% of the total inventories were delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds. Much higher 239 + 240 Pu inventories were observed in the East China Sea sediments than in sediments of the Okinawa Trough, because in the open oceans, part of the 239 + 240 Pu was still retained in the water column, and continued Pu scavenging was higher over the margin than the trough. According to the vertical distributions of 239 + 240 Pu activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in these cores, it was concluded that sediment mixing was the dominant process in controlling profiles of plutonium in this area. Faster mixing in the coastal samples has homogenized the entire 240Pu/ 239Pu ratio record today; slightly slower mixing and less scavenging in the Okinawa Trough have left the surface sediment ratios closer

  8. The effect of isotope on the dosimetry of inhaled plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Results of experimental studies in which animals inhaled 238 PuO 2 or 239 PuO 2 aerosols have shown that the biokinetics and associated radiation dose patterns for these two isotopes differ significantly due to differences in in-vivo solubility caused by the 260-fold difference in specific activity between 238 PuO 2 and 239 PuO 2 . We have adapted a biokinetics and dosimetry model derived from results of the ITRI dog studies to humans and have calculated dose commitments and annual limits on intake (ALI) for both Pu isotopes. Our results show that the ALI calculated in this study is one-third that for class Y 238 Pu from ICRP 30, and one-half or equal to that for class Y 239 Pu, depending on how activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is treated dosimetrically

  9. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled 239 PuO 2 were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-α protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-α. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-α also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-α were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Fetal doses from plutonium-239 and polonium-210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.D.; Morgan, A.; Stather, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The transfer of 239 Pu and 210 Po from the maternal circulation to the developing embryo and fetus was studied in rodents. The highest concentrations of both isotopes were measured in the yolk sac. In utero doses to haemopoietic tissue have been calculated taking account of transfer to the blastocyst/egg cylinder, yolk sac, liver and bone marrow. From animal data, the concentration ratios relative to maternal liver for these tissues were taken to be 0.1, 2, 0.01 and o.02, respectively for 239 Pu; and 1, 2, 0.1 and 0.1, respectively, for 210 Po. These concentration ratios were applied to periods of human gestation of 0-2.5 weeks, 2.5-6 weeks, 6-12 weeks and 12-38 weeks, and used to calculate fetal tissue doses for chronic maternal intake by ingestion of 1 kBq 239 Pu or 2 kBq 210 Po in the year of pregnancy (1 ALI for a member of the public). On this basis, the total in utero dose to haemopoietic tissue was about 1 μSv from 239 Pu and 60 μSv from 210 Po compared with red bone marrow doses to the mother in the year of 19 μSv from 239 Pu and 160 μSv from 210 Po. The yolk sac and bone marrow dominated in utero doses from both nuclides. For 239 Pu, because of its long half life, an important consideration was activity present in the offspring at birth and committed dose equivalents to red bone marrow in the child and mother. The total dose to haemopoietic tissue in the offspring to age 70 years, including in utero doses, was calculated as 13 μSv compared with a maternal dose to red bone marrow of 1400 μSv. For both isotopes the risk of leukaemia in the year of pregnancy was estimated to be of the same order for mother and fetus. For 239 Pu, the overall risk to 70 years of age was two orders of magnitude higher for the mother than her offspring. For 239 Pu, an acute intake of 1 kBq by ingestion during the period of yolk sac haemopoiesis would result in the highest in utero dose, estimated at about 20 μSv. However, activity at birth would be lower and the overall

  11. Multi-isotopic determination of plutonium (239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu) in marine sediments using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donard, O F X; Bruneau, F; Moldovan, M; Garraud, H; Epov, V N; Boust, D

    2007-03-28

    Among the transuranic elements present in the environment, plutonium isotopes are mainly attached to particles, and therefore they present a great interest for the study and modelling of particle transport in the marine environment. Except in the close vicinity of industrial sources, plutonium concentration in marine sediments is very low (from 10(-4) ng kg(-1) for (241)Pu to 10 ng kg(-1) for (239)Pu), and therefore the measurement of (238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu in sediments at such concentration level requires the use of very sensitive techniques. Moreover, sediment matrix contains huge amounts of mineral species, uranium and organic substances that must be removed before the determination of plutonium isotopes. Hence, an efficient sample preparation step is necessary prior to analysis. Within this work, a chemical procedure for the extraction, purification and pre-concentration of plutonium from marine sediments prior to sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) analysis has been optimized. The analytical method developed yields a pre-concentrated solution of plutonium from which (238)U and (241)Am have been removed, and which is suitable for the direct and simultaneous measurement of (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu by SF-ICP-MS.

  12. Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.

  13. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in aged beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Studies to determine the effects of age at exposure on metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled particles of 239 PuO 2 have been initiated in aged beagle dogs (8.0 to 10.5 years of age at exposure). Beagle dogs have been exposed to 1.5 μm AD particles of 239 PuO 2 resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.03 to 0.76 μCi/kg body weight. Dogs exposed to the aerosol diluent serve as controls. There were four blocks exposed in the past year, one of males and three of female dogs. Nine dogs died during the year. Seven of these had radiation pneumonitis and two died of nonradiation induced diseases. The surviving dogs are as long as 538 days after exposure. There are three blocks of male dogs planned for exposure in the next 12 months

  14. Fission track analysis method of urine plutonium and estimation of plutonium-239 internal dose to Marshallese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shixuan

    1995-01-01

    Bravo detonated at Bikini Atoll on the morning of March 1, 1954, unexpectedly released a large amount of radioactive fallout on the areas. Impact studies on the radiological health and safety of the residents living in the contaminated environments are still undergoing. For plutonium dose assessment, researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory established a fission track analysis (FTA) method for low-level 239 Pu measurement. Furthermore, a new shipboard protocol was developed for collecting 24-h radiologically clean urine samples. The purposes of this paper are to update information on the FTA processes and to present a set of results on the 239 Pu measurements in the Marshallese populations (Rongelap and Utirik) between 1981-1991. The detection sensitivity of FTA method (99% confidence level) in these samples was 2-3 μBq which is equivalent to 0.2-0.3 mSv effective dose equivalent (EDE) to age 70 for the Marshallese. The latest 1991 FTA data indicate average EDE of 0.62 mSv and 1.6 mSv for the people of Rongelap and Utirik, respectively, which both are the highest values since 1988

  15. Assessments of risk following the inhalation of plutonium oxide using observed lung clearance patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.

    1977-10-01

    Dose commitments and risk estimates for the inhalation of plutonium oxide are calculated using the lung clearance patterns observed at AEE Winfrith. These risks are compared with published data on risks arising from a lung clearance based on the ICRP Lung Model. (author)

  16. Presence of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, in soils from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo, E.; García-León, M.; Peruchena, J.I.; Cereceda, F.; Vidal, V.; Pinilla, E.; Miró, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global 239 Pu and 240 Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of 239 Pu and 240 Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20–40° Southern latitude range, with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30–53°S latitude range (0.185 ± 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The 239+240 Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  17. Influence of initial lung deposit on pulmonary clearance after plutonium oxide inhalation in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Grillon, G.; Tourdes, F.; Rateau, S.; Le Gall, B.; Griffiths, N.

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are a key element in the clearance of inhaled particles after phagocytosis, and thus participate actively in lung dose distribution and in the risk of tumour formation. We studied the influence of initial lung deposit (ILD) on lung clearance and distribution of activity from 3 d to 3 months after inhalation of two forms of PuO 2 (97% 239 Pu and 70% 239 Pu) in rats. ILDs ranging from 2.1 to 17 kBq were used. The total activity measured using X-ray spectrometry 3 months post-inhalation, relative to the ILD, showed a similar decrease in all groups, with the remaining activity representing ∼30% of the ILD. The total activity recovered in bronchoalveolar lavages represented ∼60% of the total lung activity. This ratio remained stable over time for the lowest ILD tested but decreased for higher ILD. In addition, the percentage of macrophages associated with particles decreased faster with time in rats with the highest ILD. Under our experimental conditions, there were no marked differences in lung clearance between groups. However, the distribution of the activity seems to vary with the time post-exposure between low and high ILD. (authors)

  18. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alecto - results obtained with homogeneous critical experiments on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, J.G.; Brunet, J.P.; Caizegues, R.; Clouet d'Orval, Ch.; Kremser, J.; Tellier, H.; Verriere, Ph.

    1965-01-01

    In this report are given the results of the homogeneous critical experiments ALECTO, made on plutonium 239, uranium 235 and uranium 233. After a brief description of the equipment, the critical masses for cylinders of diameters varying from 25 to 42 cm, are given and compared with other values (foreign results, criticality guide). With respect to the specific conditions of neutron reflection in the ALECTO experiments the minimal values of critical masses are: Pu239 M c = 910 ± 10 g, U235 M c = 1180 ± 12 g and U233 M c = 960 ± 10 g. Experiments relating to cross sections and constants to be used on these materials are presented. Lastly, kinetic experiments allow to compare pulsed neutron methods to fluctuation methods [fr

  20. Early effects of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Watson, C.R.; Stevens, D.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Madison, R.M.; Wierman, E.L.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (4 of 5) at the highest dosage level, 14 to 25 mo postexposure. There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported

  1. Proportional counters for measuring plutonium-239 'in vivo' - The choice of counting gas and the use of pulse shape discrimination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, R.A.; Ramsden, D.

    1969-08-01

    The system for determining insoluble plutonium 'in vivo', now in routine use at A.E.E-. Winfrith, has a limit of detection of the order of 4 nCi plutonium - 239. The method of reducing background by using pulse shape discrimination techniques whilst retaining a high detection efficiency is described. The choice of a counting gas mixture to obtain optimum performance is discussed as are the techniques of gas handling. (author)

  2. Influence of 239Pu aerosol production temperature on biological responses in Chinese hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A. L.; Peters, R.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the retention, distribution and effects of inhaled 239 Pu particles produced at different temperatures are continuing in an effort to assess the consequences of accidental inhalation exposures under various conditions. Three groups of Chinese hamsters, 381 animals per group, were exposed to aerosols of 239 Pu which had been treated in a heating column at either 50, 600 or 1150 0 C. Retention and distribution of the plutonium through 600 days after exposure reflected the relative insolubility of the aerosols heated at 1150 and 600 0 C, and the relative solubility of the aerosol heated at 50 0 C. Animals exposed to either of the insoluble aerosols had 80 to 90 percent of the sacrifice body burden in the lung at 400 days after exposure whereas animals exposed to the aerosol heated at 50 0 C had only 10 percent of the sacrifice body burden in the lung at 400 days. Translocation was mainly to the liver. To date, survival of the animals seemed to depend primarily on activity level, with production temperature exerting an influence only at the highest activities

  3. Gamma-ray isotopic ratio measurements for the plutonium inventory verification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemming, J.F.; Haas, F.X.; Jarvis, J.Y.

    1976-01-01

    The Plutonium Inventory Verification Program at Mound Laboratory provides a nondestructive means of assaying bulk plutonium-bearing material. The assay is performed by combining the calorimetrically determined heat output of the sample and the relative abundances of the heat-producing isotopes. This report describes the method used for the nondestructive determination of plutonium-238, -240, -241 and americium-241 relative to plutonium-239 using gamma-ray spectroscopy for 93 percent plutonium-239 material. Comparison of chemical data on aliquots of samples to the nondestructive data shows accuracies of +-7 percent for 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, +-15 percent for 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, +- 3 percent for 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and +-7 percent for 241 Am/ 239 Pu

  4. Dosimetry and response in rat pulmonary epithelium following inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, K.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Sanders, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and pathologic changes have been studied in the lung of rats. The clearance of inhaled 237 239 PuO 2 from the lung is a function of the amount of deposited Pu with a decrease in early alveolar clearance with increasing lung burden. With increasing time post-exposure there is a greater concentration of PuO 2 and an increased aggregation of PuO 2 particles in subpleural regions of the lung. Fibrotic and metaplastic lesions in the lung were usually focal, being found in subpleural regions associated with aggregates of PuO 2 . An average of 12 +- 6 percent of the lung volume was fibrotic at 530 days after an initial alveolar deposition of 180 nCi 239 Pu. Lung tumors occupied 4 +- 6 percent and epithelial metaplasias less than 1 percent of the lung volume at this time. Cell proliferation as assayed by tritiated thymidine autoradiography was greater in fibrotic, metaplastic and neoplastic regions than in areas of normal alveolar-bronchiolar epithelium. Turnover times ranged from about 6 days for fibrotic lesions to 1 to 3 days for metaplastic and neoplastic lesions. The lung tumor doubling times were 57 to 116 days due to tumor cell necrosis and other factors that limit tumor cell survival. Cell proliferation rates for adenomatous metaplasia were similar to those for adenocarcinoma while those for squamous cell metaplasia were similar to those for squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous lesions exhibited a more rapid growth than did adenomatous lesions

  5. Toxicology of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Data are reviewed from studies on the toxicity of Pu in experimental animals. Of the several plutonium isotopes, only 238 Pu and 239 Pu have been studied well. Sufficient results have been obtained to show that the behavior of 238 Pu in biological systems and the resulting biological effects cannot be precisely predicted from studies of 239 Pu. This probably applies also to other radiologically important plutonium isotopes which have half-lives ranging from 45 days to 10 7 years and decay by β-emission, electron capture, and spontaneous fission, as well as by emission of α-particles. All the biological effects of plutonium described in this review are attributed to alpha-particle radiation emitted by the plutonium. However, since plutonium is a chemically active heavy metal, one cannot ignore the possibility of chemical toxicity of the low-specific-activity isotopes, 239 Pu, 242 Pu, and 244 Pu. The preponderance of our knowledge of plutonium toxicology has come from short-term studies of relatively high dosage levels in several animal species. The consequences of high-level internal exposures can be predicted with confidence in experimental animals and probably also in man. However, considering the care with which plutonium is handled in the nuclear industry, a high-level contamination event is unlikely. Considerably less is known about the long-term effects of low levels of contamination. (250 references) (U.S.)

  6. Baseline Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 inventory assessment for Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Borelli, Pasquale; Evrard, Olivier; Ketterer, Michael; Mabit, Lionel; van Oost, Kristof; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Artificial fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 released as products of the thermonuclear weapons testing that took place from the mid-1950s to the early 1980s and from nuclear power plant accidents (e.g. Chernobyl) are useful tools to quantify soil redistribution. In combination with geostatistics, FRNs may have the potential to bridge the gap between small scale process oriented studies and modelling that simplifies processes and effects over large spatial scales. An essential requirement for the application of FRNs as soil erosion tracers is the establishment of the baseline fallout at undisturbed sites before its comparison to those inventories found at sites undergoing erosion/accumulation. For this purpose, undisturbed topsoil (0-20cm) samples collected in 2009 within the framework of the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) have been measured by gamma-spectrometry and ICP-MS to determine 137Cs (n=145) and 239+240Pu (n=108) activities. To restrict the analysis to undisturbed reference sites a geospatial database query selecting only sites having a slope angle <2 degree, outside riparian zones (to avoid depositional sites) and under permanent grassland cover (according to CORINE Land Cover and Landsat) was applied. This study reports preliminary results on the feasibility of establishing a 137Cs and 239+240Pu baseline inventory map for Central Europe. The 137Cs/239+240Pu activity ratios will further allow assessing the rate and the spatial variability of 137Cs Chernobyl fallout. The establishment of such baseline inventory map will provide a unique opportunity to assess soil redistribution for a comparable time-frame (1953-2009) following a harmonised methodological protocol across national boundaries.

  7. Aerosols generated by 239PU and 233U droplets burning in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.S.; Raabe, O.G.

    1978-01-01

    The inhalation hazards of radioactive aerosols produced by the explosive disruption and subsequent combustion of metallic plutonium in air are not adequately understood. Results of a study to determine whether uranium can be substituted for plutonium in such a situation in which experiments were performed under identical conditions with laser-ignited, single, freely falling droplets of 239 Pu and 233 U are reported. The total amounts of aerosol produced were studied quantitatively as a function of time during the combustion. Also, particle size distributions of selected aerosols were studied with aerodynamic particle separation techniques. Results showed that the ultimate quantity of aerosols, their final particle size distributions, and depositions as a function of time are not identical mainly because of the different vapor pressures of the metals, and the unlike degrees of violence of the explosions of the droplets

  8. Low-Level Plutonium Bioassay Measurements at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Hickman, D; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Kehl, S

    2007-06-18

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) are important alpha emitting radionuclides contained in radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu are long-lived radionuclides with half-lives of 24,400 years and 6580 years, respectively. Concerns over human exposure to plutonium stem from knowledge about the persistence of plutonium isotopes in the environment and the high relative effectiveness of alpha-radiation to cause potential harm to cells once incorporated into the human body. In vitro bioassay tests have been developed to assess uptakes of plutonium based on measured urinary excretion patterns and modeled metabolic behaviors of the absorbed radionuclides. Systemic plutonium absorbed by the deep lung or from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion is either excreted or distributed to other organs, primarily to the liver and skeleton, where it is retained for biological half-times of around 20 and 50 years, respectively. Dose assessment and atoll rehabilitation programs in the Marshall Islands have historically given special consideration to residual concentrations of plutonium in the environment even though the predicted dose from inhalation and/or ingestion of plutonium accounts for less than 5% of the annual effective dose from exposure to fallout contamination. Scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a state-of-the-art bioassay test to assess urinary excretion rates of plutonium from Marshallese populations. This new heavy-isotope measurement system is based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system at LLNL far exceeds the standard measurement requirements established under the latest United States Department of Energy (DOE) regulation, 10CFR 835, for occupational monitoring of plutonium, and offers several advantages over classical as well as competing new technologies for low-level detection and measurement of plutonium isotopes. The United States

  9. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  10. Presence of plutonium isotopes, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu, in soils from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Leon, M., E-mail: manugar@us.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes sn, 41012 Seville (Spain); Peruchena, J.I., E-mail: jiperuchena@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas Alba Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Cereceda, F., E-mail: francisco.cereceda@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Vidal, V., E-mail: victor.vidal@usm.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Centro de Tecnologias Ambientales (CETAM), Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Pinilla, E., E-mail: epinilla@unex.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas sn, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Miro, C., E-mail: cmiro@unex.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad sn, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Plutonium is present in every environmental compartment, due to a variety of nuclear activities. The Southern Hemisphere has received about 20% of the global {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu environmental inventory, with an important contribution of the so-called tropospheric fallout from both the atmospheric nuclear tests performed in the French Polynesia and in Australia by France and United Kingdom, respectively. In this work we provide new data on the impact of these tests to South America through the study of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in soils from different areas of Northern, Central and Southern Chile. The obtained results point out to the presence of debris from the French tests in the 20-40 Degree-Sign Southern latitude range, with {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios quite heterogeneous and ranging from 0.02 to 0.23. They are significantly different from the expected one for the global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere for the 30-53 Degree-Sign S latitude range (0.185 {+-} 0.047), but they follow the same trend as the reported values by the Department of Energy of United States for other points with similar latitudes. The {sup 239+240}Pu activity inventories show as well a wider variability range in that latitude range, in agreement with the expected heterogeneity of the contamination.

  11. p53, erbB-2 and K-ras gene alterations are rare in spontaneous and plutonium-239-induced canine lung neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, L.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Lechner, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Inhalation of high-linear energy transfer radiation in the form of radon progeny is a suspected cause of human lung cancer. To gain insight into the types of genetic derangements caused by this type of radiation, lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 and those arising in animals with no known carcinogen exposure were examined for evidence of aberrations in genes known to be altered in lung tumors. Altered expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and proto-oncogene erbB-2 proteins (p185 erbB2 ) was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of 117 tumors representing different histological types in exposed (n = 80) and unexposed (n = 37) animals. Twenty-eight tumors were analyzed for K-ras proto-oncogene mutations by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. Fourteen percent (16/116) of all lung neoplasms showed elevated nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Regardless of exposure history, adenosquamous and squamous cell cancers comprised 94% of all tumors with p53 abnormalities. Eighteen percent (21/117) of all tumors had evidence of erbB-2 protein overexpression. K-ras mutations were not detected in codons 12, 13 or 61 of tumors from unexposed (n = 9) or plutonium-exposed dogs (n = 19). These data indicate that p53 and K-ras gene abnormalities as a result of missense mutation are infrequent events in spontaneous and 239 PuO 2 -induced lung neoplasia in this colony of beagle dogs. Alternative mechanisms of gene alteration may be involved in canine pulmonary carcinogenesis. 45 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. The deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled 239PuO2 in the lungs of rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Damon, E.G.; Diel, J.H.; Hahn, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    Individuals with chronic obstructive lung disease, such as emphysema, may be more susceptible to injury from other inhaled pollutants. However, dose-response studies of inhaled radionuclides conducted to aid in estimating the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in man have typically used healthy laboratory animals. Changes in radionuclide deposition, distribution and retention in the lungs as the result of pre-existing lung diseases could alter the radiation dose or the resulting biological effects. An experimental animal model for human emphysema, in which emphysema is induced by the intratracheal instillation of either elastase or papain, has been reviewed. This model was used to study the effects of pulmonary emphysema on the deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats. (author)

  13. Bronchopulmonary lavage and DTPA treatment for the removal of inhaled 239Pu of varied solubility in beagle dogs. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Miglio, J.J.; Slauson, D.O.; McClellan, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy was determined for removing 239 Pu from Beagle dogs after inhalation of 239 Pu aerosols of differing in vivo solubility. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239 PuCl 4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900, and 1150 0 C, respectively. Six dogs were exposed to each of the four aerosols and three dogs in each group were treated subsequently by lavage and intravenous diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); three dogs served as untreated controls. Tissue accumulation of 239 Pu in the untreated control dogs at sacrifice 56 days post-exposure, expressed as a percentage of the initial lung burden (ILB), was 6 percent in liver and 9 percent in skeleton for the 325 0 C aerosol group, 1 percent in liver and 2 percent in the skeleton for the 600 0 C group, and less than 0.6 percent in these tissues for the 900 0 and 1150 0 C aerosol groups. Tissue accumulation was 1.0 percent or less of the ILB for all organs in the treated groups of dogs. The urinary excretion of 239 Pu was increased in the treated dogs compared to the control dogs that inhaled the 325 0 C and 600 0 C aerosols and was low in all dogs exposed to the 900 0 and 1150 0 C treated aerosol particles. Ten bronchopulmonary lavage procedures removed a mean of 44 percent of the ILB of 239 Pu from the lungs. The aerosol temperature and resulting differences in solubility of the particles did not influence the efficacy of the lavage procedure. An in vitro solubility test predicted the relative in vivo solubility of the four aerosols. These results are discussed in relation to the choice of therapy and its timing. (U.S.)

  14. Risk estimates for lung tumours from inhaled 239PuO2, 238PuO2, and 239Pu(NO3)4 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Gilbert, E.S.; Weller, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Lung cancer risks are being studied in beagle dogs given single exposures to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . A major objective of these studies is to examine the risk of lung cancer relative to the specific activity of the radionuclide, rate of dose accumulation due to differences in solubilities of the radionuclides, and the presence of competing risk from extrapulmonary lesions. Dose-response relationships were studied for the three groups of dogs, with analyses specifically designed to evaluate differences in response. Based on estimated cumulative dose to the lung, risks were found to differ significantly among the radionuclides; they were highest for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 and lowest for 238 PuO 2 . A model in which the risk was assumed to be a pure quadratic function of dose fitted the data much better than a pure linear model. Currently, all three groups of dogs can be compared only to 10 years after exposure. However, it is apparent that the average cumulative dose to the lung may not be an adequate predictor of lung cancer risk for different isotopic and physicochemical forms of plutonium. (author)

  15. Toxicity of 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 (1.5 μm AMAD) to compare the biological effects with those observed in dogs exposed to a similar aerosol as young or aged adults. The study includes 96 dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 and 12 controls. The lung burdens of the plutonium-exposed dogs ranged from 0.00030 to 0.80 μCi/kg body weight (0.011-30 kBq/kg). A total of 82 experimental and 11 control dogs are still alive. Seven dogs died this year. Of these, six died of radiation-induced lung disease; the other of a nonradiation cause. As is the case for dogs exposed as young adult animals, the primary causes of death have been lung carcinomas and radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. However, it is premature to compare the dose-response relationships for the two age groups. 4 figures

  16. Acute chemical pneumonitis caused by nitric acid inhalation: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Hyung Shim; Lee, In Jae; Ko, Eun Young; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation is a rare clinical condition. The previously reported radiologic findings of this disease include acute permeability pulmonary edema, delayed bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis. In very few published rare radiologic reports has this disease manifested as acute alveolar injury; we report a case of acute chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation which at radiography manifested as bilateral perihilar consolidation and ground-glass attenuation, suggesting acute alveolar injury.

  17. Deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ in the lungs of rats with pulmonary emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D L; Damon, E G; Diel, J H; Hahn, F F [Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Albuquerque, NM (USA). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.

    1981-02-01

    Individuals with chronic obstructive lung disease, such as emphysema, may be more susceptible to injury from other inhaled pollutants. However, dose-response studies of inhaled radionuclides conducted to aid in estimating the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in man have typically used healthy laboratory animals. Changes in radionuclide deposition, distribution and retention in the lungs as the result of pre-existing lung diseases could alter the radiation dose or the resulting biological effects. An experimental animal model for human emphysema, in which emphysema is induced by the intratracheal instillation of either elastase or papain, has been reviewed. This model was used to study the effects of pulmonary emphysema on the deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ in rats.

  18. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4π-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M.

    1999-01-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4π-α spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4π -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  19. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  20. Effects of inhaled insoluble 239PuO2 on immune responses following lung immunization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, D.E.; Harris, D.L.; Brooks, A.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    To determine if inhaled 239 PuO 2 suppresses immunity in lung-associated lymph nodes, Chinese hamsters were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 produced at 1150 0 C. The mean lung burden of these animals was estimated to be 10 nCi at 8 days after exposure. At 128, 256 and 400 days after exposure, sham exposed controls and experimental animals were immunized by intratracheal instillation of 1 x 10 8 sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Six days later, they were sacrificed and the number of antibody forming cells (AFC) in lung-associated lymph nodes, spleen and cervical lymph nodes was evaluated. Results of these studies indicated that the number of AFC in lung-associated lymph modes was significantly lower in animals exposed to 239 PuO 2 . Only a few AFC were found in spleen and cervical lymph nodes after intratracheal immunization and the number in exposed animals was not significantly different than in the controls. These data indicate that even though the 239 PuO 2 exposure had suppressed immune responses in lung-associated lymph nodes, their filtering capacity was unaffected and antigen did not translocate to the spleen. We conclude that, at the sacrifice intervals evaluated, the immune function of lung-associated lymph nodes was suppressed and that distant lymphoid tissue (e.g., spleen and cervical lymph nodes) did not replace the immune function of the lung-associated lymph nodes

  1. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere Ocean Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Gastaud, J.; Levy, I. [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency (Monaco); Fukasawa, M. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology Yokosuka (Japan); Kim, C. -S. [Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Roos, P. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Yim, S. A. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP-SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water of the central South Pacific (32.5{sup o}S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m{sup 3}. The {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20{sup o}S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic surface waters (30{sup o}S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The {sup 239}Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One of the dominant factors controlling plutonium distributions in the Southern Hemisphere oceans is biogeochemical processes including particle scavenging. (author)

  2. 239, 240, 241Pu fingerprinting of plutonium in western US soils using ICPMS: solution and laser ablation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizdziel, James V.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Farmer, Dennis; Faller, Scott H.; Hodge, Vernon F.

    2008-01-01

    Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) has been used with analysis of solution samples and laser ablation (LA) of electrodeposited alpha sources to characterize plutonium activities and atom ratios prevalent in the western USA. A large set of surface soils and attic dusts were previously collected from many locations in the states of Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Colorado; specific samples were analyzed herein to characterize the relative contributions of stratospheric fallout vs. Nevada Test Site (NTS) plutonium. This study illustrates two different ICPMS-based analytical strategies that are successful in fingerprinting Pu in environmental soils and dusts. Two specific datasets have been generated: (1) soils are leached with HNO 3 -HCl, converted into electrodeposited alpha sources, counted by alpha spectrometry, then re-analyzed using laser ablation SF-ICPMS; (2) samples are completely dissolved by treatment with HNO 3 -HF-H 3 BO 3 , Pu fractions are prepared by extraction chromatography, and analyzed by SF-ICPMS. Optimal laser ablation and ICPMS conditions were determined for the re-analysis of archived alpha spectrometry ''planchette'' sources. The best ablation results were obtained using a large spot size (200 μm), a defocused beam, full repetition rate (20 Hz) and scan rate (200 μm s -1 ); LA-ICPMS data were collected with a rapid electrostatic sector scanning experiment. Less than 10% of the electroplated surface area is consumed in the LA-ICPMS analysis, which would allow for multiple re-analyses. Excellent agreement was found between 239+240 Pu activities determined by LA-ICPMS vs. activity results obtained by alpha spectrometry for the same samples ten years earlier. LA-ICPMS atom ratios for 240 Pu/ 239 Pu and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu range from 0.038-0.132 and 0.00034-0.00168, respectively, and plot along a two-component mixing line ( 241 Pu/ 239 Pu = 0.013 [ 240 Pu/ 239 Pu] - 0.0001; r 2 = 0.971) with NTS and global fallout end

  3. Evaluating 239Pu levels using field detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.E.; Smith, W.J. II; Martin, B.

    1996-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, cleanup was planned at three septic tanks where surface soil in the outfall drainage areas was found to be contaminated with 239 Pu. To meet budget and deadline constraints, a technique was developed that used field instruments to verify 239 Pu soil contamination at levels less than 2.8 Bq g -1 , the established cleanup level. The drainage areas were surveyed using a low-energy gamma probe to identify likely areas of 239 Pu contamination. Between 40 and 135 0.1-min gamma radiation measurements were obtained from each drainage area. From these data, locations were identified for subsequent screening for alpha radioactivity. Soil samples from between 11 and 18 locations at each drainage area were placed in petri dishes, dried, and counted for 10 minutes using an alpha probe. Alpha counts were then related to 239 Pu concentrations using a curve developed from local soils containing known concentrations of 239 Pu. Up to six soil samples from each drainage area, representing a range of alpha radioactivity levels, were sent for laboratory analysis of isotopic plutonium to confirm field measurement results. Analytical and field results correlated well at all but one outfall area. At this area, field measurements predicted more 239 Pu than was measured in the laboratory, indicating the presence of another alpha-emitting radionuclide that might have been missed if only laboratory analyses for plutonium had been used. This technique, which combined a large number of gamma radioactivity measurements, a moderate number of alpha radioactivity measurements, and a few isotopic plutonium measurements, allowed quick and inexpensive comparison of 239 Pu with the cleanup level

  4. Minutes of the 28th annual plutonium sample exchange meeting. Part I: isotopic sample exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Contents of this publication include the following: list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 24 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: interlaboratory comparisons of plutonium isotope ratios. The plutonium ratios considered are 240/239, 241/239, 242/239, 238/239, 239/240, 241/240, 242/240, and 238/240; carbon, uranium, iron, and nickel data; mass spectroscopy data; determination of plutonium 241 half-life; review of plutonium overplating sample loading technique; on-line measurement evaluation system for isotopic analysis; and description of a new thermal ionization mass spectrometer

  5. Plutonium content of human placental tissues after occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.J.; Sikov, M.R.; Kathren, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    The placenta and umbilical cord were obtained following a normal live delivery from a volunteer donor who had received an accidental inhalation intake of plutonium 12 years prior to her pregnancy (Case 0777). Her employer estimated the intake to be about 73 Bq Class W plutonium. Based on bioassay results and clearance models in use at that time, they calculated her body content at the beginning of pregnancy to be about 5.6 Bq with an average concentration of approximately 60 mBq kg -1 . The placenta and cord from this pregnancy, along with the placenta and cord from a donor with no known exposure to plutonium (Case 0835), were divided and assayed for plutonium by ultrasensitive fission track analysis at two collaborating laboratories. Placental 239 Pu concentration values obtained by the two laboratories for Case 0777 agreed within a factor of 2 and were several-fold greater than for the control, Case 0835, as well as values that had been reported by others for unexposed populations. There was no elevated concentration of plutonium in the umbilical cord from the exposed person. The data yielded values of 0.16 and 0.27 for placental to maternal concentrations (C PI :C M ) that were of the same order of magnitude as the value of 0.1 the ICRP calculated for intakes before pregnancy. (author)

  6. Plutonium content of human placental tissues after occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.J.; Sikov, M.R.; Kathren, R.L

    2003-07-01

    The placenta and umbilical cord were obtained following a normal live delivery from a volunteer donor who had received an accidental inhalation intake of plutonium 12 years prior to her pregnancy (Case 0777). Her employer estimated the intake to be about 73 Bq Class W plutonium. Based on bioassay results and clearance models in use at that time, they calculated her body content at the beginning of pregnancy to be about 5.6 Bq with an average concentration of approximately 60 mBq kg{sup -1}. The placenta and cord from this pregnancy, along with the placenta and cord from a donor with no known exposure to plutonium (Case 0835), were divided and assayed for plutonium by ultrasensitive fission track analysis at two collaborating laboratories. Placental {sup 239}Pu concentration values obtained by the two laboratories for Case 0777 agreed within a factor of 2 and were several-fold greater than for the control, Case 0835, as well as values that had been reported by others for unexposed populations. There was no elevated concentration of plutonium in the umbilical cord from the exposed person. The data yielded values of 0.16 and 0.27 for placental to maternal concentrations (C{sub PI}:C{sub M}) that were of the same order of magnitude as the value of 0.1 the ICRP calculated for intakes before pregnancy. (author)

  7. Mortality study of Los Alamos workers with higher exposures to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Healy, J.W.; McInroy, J.F.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    A group of white male workers with the highest internal depositions of plutonium at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was selected in 1974 for a study of mortality. This group of 224 persons includes all those with an estimated deposition (in 1974) of 10 nanocuries or more of plutonium, principally 239 Pu but also in some cases 238 Pu. Follow-up of these workers is 100% complete through 1980. Smoking histories were obtained on all persons. Exposure histories for external radiation and plutonium were reviewed for each subject. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated using rates for white males in the United States population, adjusted for age and year of death. SMRs are low for all causes of death (56; 95% CI 40, 75) or for all malignant neoplasms (54; 95% CI 23,106). Cancers of interest for plutonium exposures, including cancers of bone, lung, liver, and bone marrow/lymphatic systems, were infrequent or absent. The absence of a detectable excess of cancer deaths is consistent with the low calculated risk to these workers using current radiation risk coefficients. An alternate theory that suggests much higher risk of lung cancer due to synergistic effects of smoking and inhaled insoluble plutonium particles is not supported by this study

  8. Integral data evaluation of stainless steel, 239Pu, 240Pu, and H2O for homogeneous plutonium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenquin, U.P.; Thompson, J.K.; Trapp, T.J.; Kottwitz, D.A.

    1979-08-01

    Theory-experiment correlations of plutonium-fueled systems using ENDF/B cross-section data have discrepancies which could be due to cross-section data, theoretical methods, and/or interpretation of the experiment. Analyses of homogeneous plutonium critical experiments were performed to determine where cross section deficiencies may exist. New thermal cross-section data (0.3 eV) were generated for 239 Pu and 240 Pu capture, fission, and neutrons per fission. Two scattering kernels for hydrogen bound in water were also generated. Calculated values of k/sub eff/ using these new data were compared with corresponding values using ENDF/B-IV data. The results indicate that the 240 Pu resonance data are sufficiently well known for hydrogen-moderated plutonium systems. In systems using stainless steel as structural and/or neutron control, a large fraction of the neutron absorptions occur in the stainless steel. Analyses of several systems containing stainless steel indicate that the uncertainty in calculated values of k/sub eff/ is small using current estimates of the uncertainties in the cross sections. 20 figures, 30 tables

  9. Annotated bibliography of literature relating to wind transport of plutonium-contaminated soils at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, N.; Bamford, R.

    1993-12-01

    During the period from 1954 through 1963, a number of tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to determine the safety of nuclear devices with respect to storage, handling, transport, and accidents. These tests were referred to as ''safety shots.'' ''Safety'' in this context meant ''safety against fission reaction.'' The safety tests were comprised of chemical high explosive detonations with components of nuclear devices. The conduct of these tests resulted in the dispersion of plutonium, and some americium over areas ranging from several tens to several hundreds of hectares. Of the various locations used for safety tests, the site referred to as ''Plutonium Valley'' was subject to a significant amount of plutonium contamination. Plutonium Valley is located in Area 11 on the eastern boundary of the NTS at an elevation of about 1036 m (3400 ft). Plutonium Valley was the location of four safety tests (A,B,C, and D) conducted during 1956. A major environmental, health, and safety concern is the potential for inhalation of Pu 239,240 by humans as a result of airborne dust containing Pu particles. Thus, the wind transport of Pu 239,240 particles has been the subject of considerable research. This annotated bibliography was created as a reference guide to assist in the better understanding of the environmental characteristics of Plutonium Valley, the safety tests performed there, the processes and variables involved with the wind transport of dust, and as an overview of proposed clean-up procedures

  10. Solubility of plutonium from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.

    1975-01-01

    Rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation at the Nevada Test Site were incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids to study the alimentary solubility of plutonium. Trials were run during November 1973, and during February, May, July and August 1974. During the May and July trials, a large increase in plutonium solubility accompanied by a marked reduction in plutonium concentration of the rumen contents was observed concurrently with a reduction in intake of Eurotia lanata and an increase in the intake of Oryzopsis hymenoides or Sitanion jubatum. However, during the November, February, and August trials, comparatively high concentration of plutonium, but low plutonium solubility, was associated with high levels of Eurotia lanata in the rumen contents. Plutonium-238 was generally more soluble than plutonium-239 in these fluids. Ratios of the percentage of soluble plutonium-238 to the percentage of soluble plutonium-239 varied fro []1:1 to 18:1 on a radioactivity basis. (auth)

  11. Inhalation dose assessment for Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; Lokan, K.H.; Williams, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Dose assessments for the inhalation of artificial radionuclides are presented for all types of contaminated areas at Maralinga and Emu. These enable Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (CEDE), to be estimated by scaling at any area of interest where activity concentrations are known. In the case of Aborigines, these dose are estimated assuming respirable dust loadings of 1 mg/m 3 for adults and 1.5 mg/m 3 for children and infants. Details of the calculations are presented in the appendix. The model of the respiratory system used in this assessment is that described in Interantional Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 (ICRP, 1979a). With the exception of Kuli, which is contaminated with uranium, at all other sites it is only the inhalation of plutonium and americium that contributes significantly to the dose, and of these 239 Pu is the largest contributor. Therefore, considering the long half lives of the radionuclides concerned, it appears that the inhalation problems highlighted by this dose assessment will not diminish significantly within any reasonable period of time and hence management strategies must be developed to deal with such problems. 32 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørli, Jorid B; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie; Hansen, Jitka S; Zuo, Yi Y; Frederiksen, Marie; Nørgaard, Asger W; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Larsen, Søren T; Hougaard, Karin S

    2018-01-01

    Private consumers and professionals may experience acute inhalation toxicity after inhaling aerosolized impregnation products. The distinction between toxic and non-toxic products is difficult to make for producers and product users alike, as there is no clearly described relationship between the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21 impregnation products using the constant flow through set-up of the constrained drop surfactometer to determine if the products inhibited surfactant function or not. The same products were tested in a mouse inhalation bioassay to determine their toxicity in vivo. The sensitivity was 100%, i.e., the in vitro method predicted all the products that were toxic for mice to inhale. The specificity of the in vitro test was 63%, i.e., the in vitro method found three false positives in the 21 tested products. Six of the products had been involved in accidental human inhalation where they caused acute inhalation toxicity. All of these six products inhibited lung surfactant function in vitro and were toxic to mice.

  13. Risk estimates for lung tumors from inhaled 239PuO2, 238PuO2, and /sup 239Pu/(NO3)4 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Gilbert, E.S.; Weller, R.E.

    1988-06-01

    Lung-cancer risks are being studied in beagle dogs given single exposures to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . A major objective of these studies is to examine the risk of lung cancer relative to the specific activity of the radionuclide, rate of dose accumulation due to differences in solubilities of the radionuclides, and the presence of competing risk from extrapulmonary lesions. Dose-response relationships were studied for the three groups of dogs, with analyses specifically designed to evaluate differences in response. Based on estimated cumulative dose to the lung, risks were found to differ significantly among the radionuclides; they were highest for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 and lowest for 238 PuO 2 . A model in which the risk was assumed to be a pure quadratic function of dose fit the data much better than a pure linear model. Currently, all three groups of dogs can be compared only to 10 years after exposure. However, it is apparent that the average cumulative dose to the lung may not be an adequate predictor of lung-cancer risk for different isotopic and physicochemical forms of plutonium. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to aerosols of 239PuO2. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, J.H.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed once or semi-annually for 10 yr by inhalation to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 to study the relative doses and effects of these two types of exposures. All exposures have been completed. Dogs exposed at high levels died predominantly of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Dogs exposed at lower levels, either once or repeatedly, are dying of a variety of causes including lung cancer. Dogs have survived up to 11 yr after their first exposure. Preliminary results suggest that single and repeated exposures cause similar health effects for equal accumulated radiation doses. (author)

  15. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Immature beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a 1.5 μm aerodynamic diameter monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 to compare the biological effects with those seen in young adult and aged dogs exposed to a similar aerosol. To date, 18 dogs have been exposed to the aerosol, resulting in graded initial lung burdens ranging from 0.003 to 0.38 μCi/kg body weight. Two dogs have been exposed to the aerosol diluent and serve as controls. Two of the 18 exposed animals were sacrificed 8 days after exposure to provide information on initial deposition and distribution. All other exposed animals are alive 400 days after exposure. No dogs were exposed during the past year because of an outbreak of canine parvovirus enteritis which caused death in 8 to 10 week-old dogs

  16. Proserpine - plutonium 239 - Proserpine - uranium 235 - comparison of experimental results; Proserpine - plutonium 239 - proserpine - uranium 235 - comparaison de resultats experimentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J P; Caizergues, R; Clouet D' Orval, Ch; Kremser, J; Moret-Bailly, J; Verriere, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The Proserpine homogeneous reactor is constituted by a tank, 25 cm dia, 30 cm high, surrounded by a composite reflector made of beryllium oxide and graphite. In this tank can be made critical plutonium or 90 per cent enriched uranium solutions, the fissile substances being in the form of a dissolved salt. In varying the concentration of the solution, critical masses were studied as a function of the level of the liquid in the tank. The minimum critical mass is 256 {+-} 2 grs for plutonium and 409 {+-} 3 grs for uranium 235. In the range of the critical concentrations which were studied, the neutronic properties of fissionable solutions of plutonium and enriched uranium were compared for identical geometries. (authors) [French] Proserpine est un reacteur homogene comportant une cuve de diametre 25 cm, de hauteur 30 cm, entouree d'un reflecteur composite d'oxyde de beryllium et de graphite. On y a rendu critiques des solutions de plutonium ou d'uranium enrichi a 90 pour cent, le produit fissile se trouvant sous la forme d'un sel dissous. En faisant varier la concentration de la solution, on a etudie les masses critiques en fonction de la hauteur du liquide dans la cuve. La masse- critique minimum est, pour le plutonium de 256 {+-} 2 g, pour l'uranium 235 de 409 {+-} 3 g. Dans la gamme des concentrations critiques etudiees, on a compare, dans des conditions de geometrie identique, les proprietes neutroniques des solutions fissiles de plutonium et d'uranium enrichi. (auteurs)

  17. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Ph.

    1963-01-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [fr

  18. Biological action of 239Pu during its administration to rats by inhalation and Zn- or CaDTPA- complexone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyakov, E.G.; Nifatov, A.P.; Lyubchanskij, Eh.R.; Bazhin, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors described the effect of substantial amounts of plutonium nitrate administered to rats by inhalation in the presence of Zn- or CaDTPA-complexone therapy for 2 months. A 2-fold decrease of absorbed doses in the lung, a 3-fold decrease in the skeleton and a 4-fold decrease in the liver were shown. The mean life span of the treated animals was considerably raised. A significant reduction of the frequency of development of severe pneumosclerosis and an increase in the frequency of lung tumor development were noted. In view of the above, complexone therapy should be necessarily recommended during inhalation of radionucleides in austantial ammounts

  19. Species variability in the gastrointestinal absorption and distribution of soluble or insoluble compounds of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Blanton, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Absorption of plutonium was measured after administration to neonatal rats, dogs, and swine by gavage or inhalation. The amount absorbed was not appreciably different for any of the three species, but absorption of the soluble nitrate form was 1000 times higher than that of the insoluble oxide. The higher quantities of 238 Pu absorbed and retained in the GI tract of swine suggested that solubilization of the oxide in the lung may have caused the increase. Studies with the more insoluble 239 PuO 2 also resulted in increased retention

  20. Plutonium-239, 240Pu and 210Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 239 Pu and 240 Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the 210 Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of 210 Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers

  1. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  2. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here......, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water----of the central South Pacific (32.5 °S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m3. The 239Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20°S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the 239Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic...... surface waters (30°S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 239Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although 239Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One...

  3. The handling of plutonium hexafluoride (1962); Manipulation de l'hexafluorure de plutonium (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berard, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-11-15

    The major problem posed in this work is the instability of plutonium hexafluoride. The influence of various factors on the decomposition of the fluoride has been studied: physical aspect of the walls, nature of the metal and its pretreatment, influence of the temperature. A means of detecting plutonium-239 in a metallic apparatus by {gamma}-ray counting has been developed; the sensitivity is of the order of half a milligram, but the precision is very low (about 50 per cent). Yields of over 95 per cent have been obtained for the transfer of plutonium during the preparation and sublimation of the hexafluoride. This study confirms the possibility of using plutonium hexafluoride for the extraction of plutonium from irradiated fuel elements by a dry method. (author) [French] Le probleme majeur de cette etude a ete l'instabilite de l'hexafluorure de plutonium. Nous avons etudie l'influence de divers facteurs sur la decomposition de l'hexafluorure: aspect physique des parois, nature du metal et de son pretraitement, influence de la temperature. Nous avons mis au point un mode de detection du plutonium-239 dans un appareillage metallique par comptage du rayonnement {gamma}; la sensibilite est de l'ordre du demi-milligramme, mais la precision est tres faible (50 pour cent environ). Nous avons obtenu des rendements depassant 95 pour cent dans le transfert du plutonium au cours de la fabrication et de la sublimation de l'hexafluorure. Cette etude confirme la possibilite d'utiliser l'hexafluorure de plutonium dans l'extraction du plutonium des combustibles irradies par voie seche. (auteur)

  4. Tabulated Neutron Emission Rates for Plutonium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shores, Erik Frederick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This work tabulates neutron emission rates for 80 plutonium oxide samples as reported in the literature. Plutonium-­238 and plutonium239 oxides are included and such emission rates are useful for scaling tallies from Monte Carlo simulations and estimating dose rates for health physics applications.

  5. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  6. 239 240Pu and 238Pu in sediments of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.; Singh, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    Plutonium-239,240 and plutonium-238 were determined in 59 Hudson River sediment dredge samples collected during 1973-77 in the vicinity of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station. Acid leaching followed by solvent extraction, electrodeposition, and alpha-spectrometry were used to extract, purify, and quantitate plutonium isotopes present in these samples. Annual median plutonium-238/plutonium-239,240 isotopic activity ratios in surficial sediments were 0.032 (1973-74), 0.035 (1975), 0.042 (1976), and 0.040 (1977). The source of these nuclides in the estuary was identified by analysis of the sample isotopic activity ratios. On the basis of the sampling regimen and the methods used, it is concluded that no input, other than that of fallout, has contributed significantly to the plutonium burden in Hudson sediments

  7. Inhaled mycotoxins lead to acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, N; Guarnieri, A; Garosi, G; Sacchi, G; Mangiarotti, A M; Di Paolo, M

    1994-01-01

    Mysterious deaths of archeologists after opening Egyptian tombs have been suspected, but never proved, to be secondary to inhalation of mycotoxin. We observed a case of acute renal failure (ARF) due to inhalation of ochratoxin A produced by a mould of the species Aspergillus ochraceus. After working 8 h in a granary closed for several months, a farmer and his wife suffered respiratory distress; the woman developed non-oliguric ARF and biopsy revealed tubulonecrosis. A strain of Aspergillus ochraceus producing ochratoxin was isolated from the wheat.

  8. Plutonium isotopes in the surface air in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Sugimura, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium isotope concentrations in the surface air at Tsukuba, Japan are reported during the period from 1981 to the end of 1986. The 239,240 Pu concentration in the surface air, which showed a marked seasonal variation with a spring maximum and fall minimum, decreased until the end of 1985 according to the stratospheric residence time of 1.15 years. In May 1986, elevated 239,240 Pu concentrations with high 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios were observed. The serial trend of plutonium concentration in the surface air is similar to the concentrations of the Chernobyl-released radionuclides. These findings suggest that a significant part of the plutonium in the surface air in May 1986 was due to the Chernobyl fallout. (author) 15 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols I. Physical chemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the fabrication of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuel, large quantities of dry powders are processed, causing dusty conditions in glove box enclosures. Inadvertent loss of glove box integrity or failure of air filter systems can lead to human inhalation exposure. Powdered samples and aerosol samples of these materials obtained during two fuel fabrication process steps have been obtained. A regimen of physical chemical tests of properties of these materials has been employed to identify physical chemical properties which may influence their biological behavior and dosimetry. Materials to be discussed are 750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the ball milling operation and 1750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Results of x-ray diffraction studies have shown that the powder generated by the centerless grinding of fuel pellets is best described as a solid solution of UO x and PuO x consistent with its temperature history. In vitro dissolution studies of both mixed oxide materials indicate a generally similar dissolution rate for both materials. In one solvent, the material with the higher temperature history dissolves more rapidly. The x-ray diffraction and in vitro dissolution results as well as preliminary results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses will be compared and the implications for the associated biological studies will be discussed. (author)

  10. The Effects of Inhaled Steroids on Recurrent Wheeze After Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Green MD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute bronchiolitis infection during infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma later in life. The objective of this study was to determine if inhaled steroids are effective in preventing the development of recurrent wheeze or asthma following acute bronchiolitis. Methods. Multiple databases and bibliographies of selected references were searched. Inclusion required (a a randomized controlled trial of inhaled steroids and control group, (b at least 2 weeks duration of therapy started during the acute phase of disease, and (c identification of the rate of recurrent wheeze or asthma at least 6 months after therapy. Results. Of 1410 studies reviewed, 8 reports were included in this meta-analysis (748 patients. The overall odds ratio for developing recurrent wheeze or asthma with treatment versus without treatment was 1.02 (95% confidence interval = 0.58-1.81. Conclusions. A course of inhaled steroids after acute bronchiolitis is not effective in preventing recurrent wheeze or asthma.

  11. Measurements Conducted on an Unknown Object Labeled Pu-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoteling, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Measurements were carried out on 12 November 2013 to determine whether Pu-239 was present on an object discovered in a plastic bag with label ''Pu-239 6 uCi''. Following initial survey measurements to verify that the object was not leaking or contaminated, spectra were collected with a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector with object positioned in two different configurations. Analysis of the spectra did not yield any direct evidence of Pu-239. From the measured spectra, minimum detectable activity (MDA) was determined to be approximately 2 uCi for the gamma ray measurements. Although there was no direct evidence of Pu-239, a peak at 60 keV characteristic of Am-241 decay was observed. Since it is very likely that Am-241 would be present in aged plutonium samples, this was interpreted as indirect evidence for the presence of plutonium on the object. Analysis of this peak led to an estimated Pu-239 activity of 0.02-0.04 uCi, or <1x10 -6 grams.

  12. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Discovery of the neutron made it easy to create elements which do not exist in nature. One of these is plutonium, and its isotope with mass number 239 has nuclear properties which make it both a good fuel for nuclear power reactors and a good explosive for nuclear weapons. Since it was discovered during a war the latter characteristic was put to use, but it is now evident that use of plutonium in a particular kind of nuclear reactor, the fast breeder reactor, will allow the world's resources of uranium to last for millennia as a major source of energy. Plutonium is very radiotoxic, resembling radium in this respect. Therefore the widespread introduction of fast breeder reactors to meet energy demands can be contemplated only after assurances on two points; that adequate control of the radiological hazard resulting from the handling of very large amounts of plutonium can be guaranteed, and that diversion of plutonium to illicit use can be prevented. The problems exist to a lesser degree already, since all types of nuclear reactor produce some plutonium. Some plutonium has already been dispersed in the environment, the bulk of it from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. (author)

  13. Plutonium mobilization from sedimentary sources to solution in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Inventories of plutonium radionuclides greatly in excess of global fallout levels persists in the benthic environments of Bikini and Eniwetok Atolls. It now appears that the atolls have reached a chemical steadystate condition with respect to the partitioning of 239+240 Pu between solution and solid phases of the environment. The mobilized 239+240 Pu has solute-like characteristics, passes rapidly and readily through dialysis membranes, has adsorption characteristics similar to those of fallout plutonium in the open ocean, and exists in solution primarily as some oxidized +5 or +6 chemical species. Water-column profiles of 239+240 Pu taken outside the atolls show a plutonium excess in the deep water mass. This remobilized 239+240 Pu possibly originates from the contaminated sediments previously deposited on the outer slopes of the atolls and surrounding basins

  14. Plutonium isotopes in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1977-12-01

    Determination of plutonium and americium by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry. Deposition of global fall-out and accumulated area-content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 241 Am in central Sweden (62.3 deg N, 12.4 deg E), by using the lichen species Cladonia alpestris as bioindicator. Retention and distribution of plutonium in carpets of lichen and soil. Transfer of plutonium from lichen to reindeer and man. Absorbed dose in reindeer and man from plutonium. Basic studies of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean surface waters, with emphases on particulate form of the transuranics. (author)

  15. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  16. Annual and life-time doses from acute and chronic intakes of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Sharda; Rudran, Kamala

    1994-01-01

    A procedure to estimate annual, committed and life time doses from acute and chronic intakes of a long-lived radionuclide 239 Pu, is described. Annual dose computations, presented for 239 Pu of 5μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD), takes into account contribution from previous years intakes. Annual limits on intakes (ALI) for W and Y class of 239 Pu are computed as per the new internal dose limitation system of ICRP-61. Life time doses, corresponding to chronic intakes of 1 ALI/y for working periods of 40 and 50 years are presented for life span of 70 years of a radiation worker. These results are useful in assigning annual doses for occupational workers handling 239 Pu. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  17. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): determination of the individual scenario of inhaled plutonium intake in the Mayak workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, A. B.; Efimov, A. V.; Vostrotin, V. V.; Birchall, A.; Dorrian, M.-D.

    2017-01-01

    In order to estimate doses of workers exposed to plutonium, it is necessary to make assumptions about both the route and the time course of intake. The objective of this study was to determine a time course for the inhalation rate for plutonium (intake regime) useful for biokinetic modeling. Records from workplace air sampling, personnel biophysical examinations and autopsy data from former Mayak Production Association (MPA) workers were used. Plutonium accumulation strongly correlated with the volumetric activity of plutonium in workplace air. Using data from activity in air at MPA workplaces over time, a three-step function of intake was adopted. The adequacy of this three-step function was tested by comparing predicted doses using more complicated intake regimes. Uncertainties on the three-step function were also characterized based on air sampling data. The three-step function was assumed to be common to all workers, but an individual intake regime for each worker was calculated by convoluting it with the worker's actual employment history. (authors)

  18. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  19. Acute renal failure from inhalation of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, N; Guarnieri, A; Loi, F; Sacchi, G; Mangiarotti, A M; Di Paolo, M

    1993-01-01

    Mysterious deaths of archeologists after opening Egyptian tombs have been suspected to be secondary to inhalation of mycotoxin, however, the hypothesis has never been verified. Recently, we observed a case of acute renal failure (ARF) undeniably due to inhalation of ochratoxin of Aspergillus ochraceus. After spending 8 h in a granary which had been closed for several months, a farmer and his wife suffered temporary respiratory distress; 24 h later, the woman developed nonoliguric ARF and biopsy revealed tubulonecrosis which healed in 24 days. Toxic substances were not found, but a strain of A. ochraceus producing ochratoxin was isolated from the wheat.

  20. Concentration of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Jin Yuren; Tian Mei; Li Weiping; Zeng Ke; Wang Yaoqin; Wang Yu

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated sites contributes to the evaluation of its pollution situation and to the survey of plutonium hyper accumulator. The concentration of 239 Pu in desert plants collected from a contaminated site was determined, and the influence factors were studied. The concentration of 239 Pu in plants was (1.8±4.9) Bq/kg in dry weight, and it means that the plants were contaminated, moreover, the resuspension results in dramatic plutonium pollution of plant surface. The concentration of plutonium in plants depends on species, live stages and the content of plutonium in the rhizosphere soil. The concentration of plutonium in herbage is higher than that in woody plant, and for the seven species of desert plants investigated, it decreases in the order of Hexinia polydichotoma, Phragmites australis, Halostashys caspica, Halogeton arachnoideus, Lycium ruthenicum, Tamarix hispida and Calligonum aphyllum. (authors)

  1. Transuranic and tracer simulant resuspension. [/sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G. A.

    1977-07-01

    Plutonium resuspension results are summarized for experiments conducted at Rocky Flats, onsite on the Hanford reservation, and for winds blowing from offsite onto the Hanford reservation near the Prosser barricade boundary. In each case, plutonium resuspension was shown by increased airborne plutonium concentrations as a function of either wind speed or as compared to fallout levels. All measured airborne concentrations were below maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Both plutonium and cesium concentrations on airborne soil were normalized by the quantity of airborne soil sampled. Airborne radionuclide concentrations in ..mu..Ci/g were related to published values for radionuclide concentrations on surface soils. For this ratio of radionuclide concentration per gram on airborne soil divided by that for ground surface soil, there are eight orders of magnitude uncertainty from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 4/. Horizontal plutonium fluxes on airborne nonrespirable soils at all three sites were bracketed within the same three to four orders of magnitude from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -3/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for plutonium-239 and 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for plutonium-238. These are the entire experimental base for nonrespirable airborne plutonium transport. Airborne respirable plutonium-239 concentrations increased with wind speed for a southeast wind direction coming from offsite near the Hanford reservation Prosser barricade. Airborne plutonium fluxes on nonrespirable particles had isotopic ratios, /sup 240/Pu//sup 239 +240/Pu, similar to weapons grade plutonium rather than fallout plutonium. Resuspension rates were summarized for controlled inert particle tracer simulant experiments. Wind resuspension rates for tracers increased with wind speed to about the fifth power.

  2. Activities concentration of 239+240Pu in sediment in Sabah and Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Norfaizal Mohamed; Kamarozaman Ishak; Zulkifli Daud

    2008-08-01

    The determination of plutonium, 239+240 Pu activity concentration and their distributions along the coastal area of the Sabah and Sarawak have been performed using alpha spectrometry counting system. The sampling coastal sediment for this study was carried out in July 2004 as part of the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. This results show that the distribution of Plutonium, 239+240 Pu radionuclides in coastal sediment is consistent, their activities are depending on the sampling locations. Generally, the 239+240 Pu activities measured in Sabah and Sarawak coastal sediment are in the range of BDL - 1.83 Bq/kg and 0.11 - 0.841 Bq/kg dry weights, respectively. The sampling stations, Persisiran Lubok Sabanan, SB 15 and Sungai Similajau, SR 13 showed the highest plutonium, 239+240 Pu radionuclides isotopes activity in Sabah and Sarawak. Meanwhile, these two stations shows higher activity compare to West Coast of Peninsular of Malaysia station for the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. (Author)

  3. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  4. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4{pi}-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples; Spectrometrie alpha 4{pi} de sources d'actinides realisees par electronebulisation. Developpement et optimisation d'un protocole applique au mesurage des isotopes 238 et 239+240 du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement (DPRE), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4{pi}-{alpha} spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4{pi} -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  5. Lung cancers already produced by plutonium inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter presents the basis for the author's estimate that plutonium particulates have already committed approximately 950,000 persons worldwide to a lung-cancer death, and that more will be so committed in the future, even if no more plutonium is dispersed in the environment. The author's calculations are based on fallout data from atmospheric bomb testing, and on two sets of workers exposed to plutonium: one group at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, and the other at the Los Alamos Laboratory who were involved in the Manhattan Project

  6. Environmental behaviour of plutonium accidentally released at Thule, Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental contamination resulting from the B-52 accident in 1968 at Thule was studied by scientific expeditions in 1968, 1970 and 1974. The contamination was mainly confined to the marine environment, where plutonium was preferentially located in the sediments and the benthic fauna. Plutonium concentrations down through the sediment layers decayed exponentially with a half-depth of 1 to 2 cm. The horizontal distribution of the plutonium may be described by an exponential expression: mCi sup(239,240)Pu km -2 = 460sub(e)sup(-0.28R) or by a power function: mCisup(239,240)Pu km -2 = 370 Rsup(-1.2), where R is the distance in km from the point of impact. The inventory of sup(239,240)Pu in the marine environment from the accident was estimated at 25 to 30 Ci. The amount of 238 Pu was approximately 0.5 Ci. The bottom animals, such as worms and molluscs, showed a horizontal distribution of radioactivity similar to that of the sediments. From 1968 to 1970 the sup(239,240)Pu concentrations in the biota decreased by an order of magnitude, since 1970 the decrease has been less evident. In 1970 and 1974 there were no indications of increased plutonium concentrations in surface seawater or in sea plants or zooplankton. Higher animals such as fish, seabirds and marine mammals have shown no tendency to increasing plutonium levels since the accident. (author)

  7. Animal Testing for Acute Inhalation Toxicity: A Thing of the Past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Emilie; Sørli, Jorid Birkelund

    2018-01-01

    According to REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), testing for acute inhalation toxicity is required for chemicals manufactured or imported at tonnages ≥ 10 tons per year. Three OECD test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity in vivo are adopted (TG 403......, TG 436, and TG 433). Since animal testing is ethically, scientifically and economically questionable, adoption of alternative methods by the European Union and the OECD is needed. An in vitro system based on the study of lung surfactant function is introduced....

  8. Contamination of living environment and human organism with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of 239 Pu in nuclear power is discussed. The radiotoxic properties of plutonium, its tissue distribution and the effects of internal and external contamination are described. The contamination of the atmosphere, water, and soil with plutonium isotopes is discussed. Dosimetry is described of plutonium in the living and working environments as is plutonium determination in the human organism. (H.S.)

  9. Performance characteristics of a Bioassay method for plutonium using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linauskas, S.H.; Elliot, N.L.; Paterson, L.M.; Totland, M.M

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium-in-urine analysis by radiochemical isolation of Pu followed by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) is capable of high sensitivity and precision measurements {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. Bias and precision estimates for the TIMS bioassay program at Chalk River Laboratories easily met the ANSI N13.30 performance criteria standards with {sup 239}Pu results of 1.5% and 3.0%, respectively. Analytical blanks derived from water, artificial urine and true urine samples did not produce any statistically different results. During a four-year period of development and implementation of {sup 239}Pu measurements by TIMS, average sample blank values were reduced from 3.9 fg (9.0 {mu}Bq) to 0.57 fg (1.3 {mu}Bq). This reduction was achieved through rigorous application of clean-room handling techniques throughout sample processing. Blank data were found to follow a Iognormal distribution, and current detection limit parameters for L{sub c} and L{sub d} at the 95% significance levels are 0.85 fg {sup 239}Pu (2.0 {mu}Bq) and 1.3 fg {sup 239}Pu (3.0 {mu}Bq), respectively. Detection limits in this range are expected to be sufficient to identify intakes of Pu/Am mixtures at levels that are around one-twentieth of an ALl or better under routine monitoring situations for ICRP Type S and Type M inhalation solubility classes. (author)

  10. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    If the world chooses to seek a solution to the energy dilemma through nuclear energy, the element plutonium will become an article of commerce to be handled in quantities of thousands of tonnes annually. Plutonium is a uniquely potent inhalation carcinogen, the potential induction of lung cancer dwarfing other possible toxic effects. For reasons to be presented here, it is the author's opinion that plutonium's carcinogenicity has been very seriously underestimated. If one couples the corrected carcinogenicity with the probable degree of industrial containment of the plutonium, it appears that the commercialization of a plutonium-based energy economy is not an acceptable option for society. Sagan's statement that ''the experience of 30 years supports the contention that plutonium can be used safely'' is manifestly indefensible. No meaningful epidemiological study of plutonium-exposed workers for that 30-year period has ever been done. Since thousands of those possibly exposed have left the industry and are not even available to follow-up, it is doubtful that any meaningful study of ''the experience of 30 years'' will ever be accomplished

  11. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide by contamination of compressed air: physiologic effects and interference with intended nitric oxide inhalation in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, A; Loop, T; Mols, G; Geiger, K

    1999-10-01

    Compressed air from a hospital's central gas supply may contain nitric oxide as a result of air pollution. Inhaled nitric oxide may increase arterial oxygen tension and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, the authors wanted to determine whether unintentional nitric oxide inhalation by contamination of compressed air influences arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance and interferes with the therapeutic use of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide concentrations in the compressed air of a university hospital were measured continuously by chemiluminescence during two periods (4 and 2 weeks). The effects of unintended nitric oxide inhalation on arterial oxygen tension (n = 15) and on pulmonary vascular resistance (n = 9) were measured in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome by changing the source of compressed air of the ventilator from the hospital's central gas supply to a nitric oxide-free gas tank containing compressed air. In five of these patients, the effects of an additional inhalation of 5 ppm nitric oxide were evaluated. During working days, compressed air of the hospital's central gas supply contained clinically effective nitric oxide concentrations (> 80 parts per billion) during 40% of the time. Change to gas tank-supplied nitric oxide-free compressed air decreased the arterial oxygen tension by 10% and increased pulmonary vascular resistance by 13%. The addition of 5 ppm nitric oxide had a minimal effect on arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance when added to hospital-supplied compressed air but improved both when added to tank-supplied compressed air. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide increases arterial oxygen tension and decreases pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The unintended nitric oxide inhalation interferes with the

  12. Removal of inhaled industrial mixed oxide aerosols from Beagle dogs by lung lavage and chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 15 adult Beagle dogs to evaluate lung lavage and chelation therapy for the removal of inhaled particles of mixed actinide oxides. The dogs were divided into three groups of five dogs each. Each group was exposed to an aerosol from a different industrial process. Group 1 was exposed to mixed oxide material which had been calcined at 750 0 C collected from a ball milling process. Group 2 was exposed to mixed oxide material from a centerless grinding operation which had been previously heat treated to 1750 0 C. The third group was exposed to 239 PuO 2 not containing uranium from a V-blending procedure which had been heat treated at 850 0 C. After exposure, three dogs in each group were given ten lung lavages and 18 intravenous injections of calcium trisodium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA). All dogs were sacrificed 64 days after inhalation exposure. The tissues were radioanalyzed for plutonium and americium. Fluorimetric analyses for uranium in the tissues are in progress. The urine, feces and lavage fluid are also being analyzed for plutonium, americium and uranium. The distribution of plutonium and americium expressed as percentages of the sacrifice body burden was similar in the tissues of the treated and unteated dogs. The lungs contained most of the radionuclides with a small amount in the liver, skeleton and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The percentage of the sacrifice body burden of americium and plutonium that was present in the lung was less in the treated dogs and was higher in the TBLN's and skeleton than in the untreated dogs. The ratio of Pu/Am was higher in the lungs than in the original material obtained from the industrial sites suggesting a shorter retention time for americium than plutonium to 64 days in the dog

  13. Vertical distributions of particulate plutonium in the western North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Ayako; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2007-01-01

    We examined the vertical distributions of 239+240 Pu activity and 240 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratio in particles collected by large volume water in-situ pump in the western North Pacific Ocean (off Rokkasho, Japan). This is the first information of vertical distribution of plutonium activity and Plutonium atom ratio in small particle (1-70 μm) and large particle (>70 μm). (author)

  14. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), defined as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are critical conditions. AHRF results from a number of systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has...

  15. Plutonium-induced lymphadenitis in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium oxide particles accumulate in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of beagles exposed by inhalation and in the popliteal lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection in the hind paws. The sequence of histopathologic changes after phagocytosis of particles included necrosis, increased numbers of macrophages, and fibroplasia. Scar tissue eventually replaced the normal architecture of the lymph nodes and sequestered the plutonium particles from surrounding parenchyma. Electron microscopy showed that plutonium particles were aggregated in phagolysosomes of macrophages

  16. Airborne plutonium transported during southwesterly winds near the Hanford Prosser Barricade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne plutonium could result from resuspension of nuclear-weapons-testing stratospheric fallout deposition. To determine this possible resuspension at the Hanford site, two field experiments between April 12 to june 29, 1976 and August 12, 1976 to January 11, 1977 were conducted near the Prosser Barricade in the Hanford area about 19 to 22 km southeast (140 0 to 160 0 ) of the fuel-processing areas. The primary objective of these experimentss was to determine if stratospheric fallout resuspension was reflected by airborne plutonium concentrations increasing with increasing wind speed. A secondary objective was to confirm the source of the airborne plutonium by determining the plutonium-240 isotopic content or the plutonium-240/plutonium-239-mass ratio. Stratospheric fallout can be identified by the ratio of 240 Pu to other plutonium isotopes in surface soils. Plutonium was transported during southwesterly winds during the two study periods at the Prosser Barricade. Airborne 239 240 Pu concentrations varied as powers of wind speed (U):U -0 2 to U 7 8 . The airborne solids content ranged from 6 x 10 -8 to 1.7 x 10 -6 μCi/g. The 240 Pu isotopic content ranged from 5.6 to 8.1 atom percent and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu mass ratio ranged from 0.065 to 0.089. The estimated fraction of stratospheric fallout plutonium in these samples was less than 0.24. The remaining airborne plutonium was probably of Hanford origin. Airborne plutonium probably represents resuspension of plutonium from undetermined sites by mechanisms and events not clear at present. An increasing airborne plutonium concentration with increasing wind speed might be expected for an upwind resuspension source(s). However, the geographical source(s) location was not investigated in this study

  17. Evaluation of plutonium at Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.W.; Ng, Y.C.; Robison, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive survey was carried out in 1972 to 1973 to assess the current radiological status of Enewetok Atoll. The radionuclides detected in the Atoll environment were studied for their potential contributions to the dose commitment of the returning population according to several pathways of exposure. Plutonium was detected in air and in the terrestrial and aquatic environment at concentrations that varied from background levels due to world-wide fallout to levels several orders-of-magnitude above. The dose commitments from plutonium via the terrestrial food chain and inhalation vary according to the postulated living pattern. The dosages via marine foods can be expected to be insensitive to living pattern and to exceed those via terrestrial foods. Plutonium would contribute nearly all of the dosage via inhalation, but this pathway ranks low in overall importance compared with the food-chain and external-dose pathways. Although the potential dose from plutonium via all pathways is low relative to that from 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs, plutonium will still remain in the Atoll environment after the other makor isotopes have decayed away. (author)

  18. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols II. Deposition, retention and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Mo, T.

    1978-01-01

    A series of studies has been initiated in which powdered fuel materials obtained at industrial sites have been aerosolized in the dry state for the inhalation exposure of Fischer-344 rats, Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys to evaluate the potential biological hazard of such accidents. The materials chosen for study were 750 deg. C heat-treated mixed PuO 2 and UO 2 obtained from a ball milling process and 1750 deg. C heat-treated (U,Pu)O 1.97 powder obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Care was taken to insure that the regenerated aerosols used in animal inhalation exposures had similar particle size and size distribution characteristics to those measured during glove box sampling at the industrial plant. The deposition, retention, distribution and excretion of these materials are being studied, using serial sacrifice of animals at times from 4 hours to several years after inhalation exposure. Periodic excreta samples are collected on all animals. Biological samples are analyzed to yield data on Pu, Am and U content. Data from animals sacrificed up to one year will be presented. The retention of 239 Pu and 241 Am in the lung and their subsequent clearance and translocation to other tissues such as liver, skeleton and tracheobronchial lymph nodes will be discussed in relation to the influence of species and of the physical chemical properties of the exposure aerosol. (author)

  19. Long time contamination from plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Patzeltova, N.; Ragan, P.; Matel, L.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO 3 , the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO 3 for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm -3 . The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10 -5 Sv.Bq -1 (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. For example the determination of the rate radionuclides Am-241/Pu-239,Pu-240 was 32-36 % in the fallout after the Chernobyl

  20. Investigation of plutonium behaviour in artificially contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukshiene, B.; Druteikiene, R.

    2006-01-01

    The vertical migration and transformation of plutonium chemical forms artificially supplied to sandy loam columns after its exposure to natural conditions for about one year was investigated. An analysis of artificially contaminated samples after one year had shown that 81% of 239 Pu 4+ and 44% of 239 Pu 3+ were accumulated in the 0-5 cm layer of sandy loam. The data of sequential analysis of the same type of soil at the adequate artificial contamination level after one month exposure under laboratory conditions are presented as well. Pu 239 binding to soil geochemical fractions was rather uneven. The largest amount of Pu 239 (60 %) was determined in the residual fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that organic substances and some inorganic compounds, which usually are the main components of a residual fraction, affects the retention and migration of plutonium in the soil. (authors)

  1. Investigation of plutonium behaviour in artificially contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luksiene, B.; Druteikiene, R.

    2006-01-01

    The vertical migration and transformation of plutonium chemical forms artificially supplied to sandy loam columns after its exposure to natural conditions for about one year was investigated. An analysis of artificially contaminated samples after one year had shown that 81% of 239 Pu 4+ and 44% of 239 Pu 3+ were accumulated in the 0-5 cm layer of sandy loam. The data of sequential analysis of the same type of soil at the adequate artificial contamination level after one month exposure under laboratory conditions are presented as well. Pu 239 binding to soil geochemical fractions was rather uneven. The largest amount of Pu 239 (60%) was determined in the residual fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that organic substances and some inorganic compounds, which usually are the main components of a residual fraction, affects the retention and migration of plutonium in the soil. (authors)

  2. Mechanical resuspension of 239Pu from unpaved roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The impacts of resuspended plutonium from two unpaved roads at the Rocky Flats Plant on nearby air samplers were investigated. Because the sources were complex fugitive dust emitters and because of the small source-receptor distances, traditional dispersion modeling techniques could not be employed. Thus two specialized techniques, one for fugitive dust emissions and one for near distance dispersion, were developed and used to calculate atmospheric dust concentrations at the subject air samplers. Atmospheric 239 Pu impacts were then determined from measurements of plutonium concentrations in the resuspendible dust on the road surfaces. As a final step in the process the calculated plutonium impacts were compared to the 1980 annual average 239 Pu concentration at four samplers. The impact calculated for the Gunnery Range Road represented 2.1 percent of the observed annual concentration, with a 95 percent confidence interval of 1.1 to 7.9 percent. The Southeast Perimeter Road produced a more substantial effect with a point estimate of 3.8 percent. The 95 percent confidence interval for this source was 2.0 to 9.1 percent. The combined impact of the two roads on the subject samplers was 5.9 percent of the observed plutonium concentration, with a 95 percent confidence interval of 3.2 to 17.0 percent. Thus it was shown that fugitive plutonium emissions from the Gunnery Range Road and Southeast Perimeter Road are not substantial contributors to the plutonium concentrations observed at the subject samplers. Even an increase in dust control efficiency to 90 percent (as with paving) would result in only a four percent decrease in the overall atmosperic plutonium concentration at the site

  3. The effect of inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karam, O; Gebistorf, F; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    on mortality in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We included all randomised, controlled trials, irrespective of date of publication, blinding status, outcomes reported or language. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed several subgroup and sensitivity......Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Inhaled nitric oxide has been used to improve oxygenation but its role remains controversial. Our primary objective in this systematic review was to examine the effects of inhaled nitric oxide administration......% CI) 1.59 (1.17-2.16)) with inhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence to support inhaled nitric oxide in any category of critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome despite a transient improvement in oxygenation, since mortality is not reduced and it may...

  4. Radiological safety aspects of handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Department of Atomic Energy in its scheme of harnessing the nuclear energy for electrical power generation and strategic applications has given a huge role to utilization of plutonium. In the power production programme, fast reactors with plutonium as fuel are expected to play a major role. This would require establishing fuel reprocessing plants to handle both thermal and fast reactor fuels. So in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities variety of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical operations have to be carried out involving significant inventories of "2"3"9 Pu and associated radionuclides. Plutonium is the most radiotoxic radionuclide and therefore any facility handling it has to be designed and operated with utmost care. Two problems of major concern in the protection of persons working in plutonium handling facilities are the internal exposure to the operating personnel from uptake of plutonium and transplutonic nuclides as they are highly radiotoxic and the radiation exposure of hands and eye lens during fuel fabrication operations especially while handling recycled high burn up plutonium. In view of the fact that annual limit for intake is very small for "2"3"9Pu and its radiation emission characteristics are such that it is a huge challenge for the health physicists to detect Pu in air and in workers. This paper discusses the principles and practices followed in providing radiological surveillance to workers in plutonium handling areas. The challenges in protecting the workers from receiving exposures to hands and eye lens in handling high burn up plutonium are also discussed. The sites having Pu fuel cycle facilities should have trained medical staff to handle cases involving excessive intake of plutonium. (author)

  5. Uncertainty assessment in gamma spectrometric measurements of plutonium isotope ratios and age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H., E-mail: henrik.ramebeck@foi.se [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, SE-901 82 Umea (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Nygren, U.; Tovedal, A. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, SE-901 82 Umea (Sweden); Ekberg, C.; Skarnemark, G. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    A method for the assessment of the combined uncertainty in gamma spectrometric measurements of plutonium composition and age was evaluated. Two materials were measured. Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-SFMS) was used as a reference method for comparing the results obtained with the gamma spectrometric method for one of the materials. For this material (weapons grade plutonium) the measurement results were in agreement between the two methods for all measurands. Moreover, the combined uncertainty in all isotope ratios considered in this material (R{sub Pu238/Pu239}, R{sub Pu240/Pu239}, R{sub Pu241/Pu239}, and R{sub Am241/Pu241} for age determination) were limited by counting statistics. However, the combined uncertainty for the other material (fuel grade plutonium) were limited by the response fit, which shows that the uncertainty in the response function is important to include in the combined measurement uncertainty of gamma spectrometric measurements of plutonium.

  6. Qualitative chemical analysis of plutonium by Alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez G, J Qumica.J.

    1994-01-01

    In this work the separation and purification of plutonium from irradiated uranium was done. The plutonium, produced by the irradiation of uranium in a nuclear reactor and the β decay of 239 Np, was stabilized to Pu +4 with sodium nitrite. Plutonium was separated from the fission products and uranium by ion exchange using the resin Ag 1 X 8. It was electrodeposited on stainless steel discs and the alpha radioactivity of plutonium was measured in a surface barrier detector. The results showed that plutonium was separated with a radiochemical purity higher than 99 %. (Author)

  7. Influence of inhaled Ca-DTPA on the long-term effects of inhaled Pu nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; McDonald, K.E.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Inhaled Ca-DTPA administered to rats in 6 weekly, one-hour treatments of 3 mg/rat did not affect weight gain or life-span compared to Pu burdened animals (78 nCi ILB) or nontreated controls. In addition, the drug did not appear to promote the development of malignant lung tumors and bone tumors in Pu burdened rats although one rat exposed only to Ca-DTPA aerosols did develop a malignant lung tumor. This single lung tumor can not be considered significant although the normal incidence of this lesion is quite low. Inhaled Ca-DTPA therapy administered 20 days after Pu inhalation showed little effect in reducing the lung burden of plutonium. Skeletal deposition was decreased possibly because Ca-DTPA was administered during a time of active translocation of the inhaled Pu when Pu may have been available for chelation in the blood. Inhaled Ca-DTPA therapy did not appear to be beneficial in reducing the number of malignant lung tumors or bone tumors in plutonium burdened rats but on the other hand the chelate did not appear to promote these lesions. (U.S.)

  8. The determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siripirom, Lopchai.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of plutonium in environmental samples such as soil, water, and surface air in the middle part of Thailand were studied. The surface air were collected only at the fifth floor of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). Plutonium-242 was used as a tracer. Soil and air samples were dissolved by pyrosulphate fusion, and plutonium was co-precipitated with barium sulfate. Then dissolved the precipitate in perchloric acid. Plutonium was extracted out by using solvent bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). Plutonium in water samples were coprecipitated with iron (III) hydroxide and were dissolved in 8 M. nitric acid. Then the plutonium was separated out by using anion exchange resin, Dowex 1x4. After the solvent extraction or the anion exchange, plutonium was coprecipitated with cerous hydroxide. The activities of plutonium were measured by a surface barrier detector for about 24 hours. Lower limit of detection for 1,440 minutes is 0.012 pCi. These studies showed that only plutonium-239, 240 was observed. The range of activities of plutonium-239, 240 in soil were 0.002-0.157 pCi/g (dry), in water were 0.1-81 f Ci/l, and in air were 7-330 a Ci/m 3 . However, the plutonium concentrations in these studies are far below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for general population which is equal to 3x10 8 f Ci/l of water and 5x10 6 a Ci/m 3 of air

  9. Comparison of the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 and β- emitting radionuclides on the incidence of lung carcinomas in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The health effects of inhaling radioactive particles when the lung is the primary organ irradiated were studied in rats and Beagle dogs. The animals were exposed to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 or fission-product radionuclides in insoluble forms and observed for their life span. Lung carcinomas were the primary late-occuring effect. The incidence rate for lung carcinomas was modeled using a proportional hazard rate model. Linear functions predominated below 5 Gy to the lung. The life-time risk for lung carcinomas per 10 4 Gy for beta emitters was 60 for rats and 65 for dogs, and for 239 PuO 2 it was 1500 for rats and 2300 for dogs

  10. Comparison of the effects of inhaled 239PuO2 and β-emitting radionuclides of the incidence of lung carcinomas in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The health effects of inhaling radioactive particles when the lung is the primary organ irradiated were studied in rats and dogs. The animals were exposed to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 or fission-product radionuclides in insoluble forms and observed for their life span. Lung carcinomas were the primary late-occurring effect. The incidence rate for lung carcinomas was modeled using a proportional hazard rate model. Linear functions predominated below 5 Gy to the lung. The life-time risk for lung carcinomas per 10 4 Gy for beta emitters was 60 for rats and 65 for dogs, and for 239 PuO 2 it was 1500 for rats and 2300 for dogs. (author)

  11. Plutonium speciation and isotope ratios in Yenisey and Ob river and Yenisey estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipperud, L.; Oughton, DH.; Fifield, K.; Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B.; Brown, J.

    2004-01-01

    Plutonium isotope ratios are known to vary with reactor type, nuclear fuel-burn up time, neutron flux, and energy, and for fallout from nuclear detonations, weapon type and yield. Weapons-grade plutonium is characterized by a low content of the 240 Pu isotope, with 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratio less than 0.05. In contrast, both global weapons fallout and spent nuclear fuel from civil reactors have higher 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios (civil nuclear power reactors have 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios of between about 0.2-1). Thus, different sources often exhibit characteristic plutonium isotope ratios and these ratios can be used to identify the origin of contamination, calculate inventories, or follow the migration of contaminated sediments and waters. Together with activity measurements and isotope ratios, knowledge of plutonium speciation in the Ob and Yenisey rivers and processes controlling its behaviour in estuarine systems is a prerequisite for predicting the transfer and subsequent environmental impact to Arctic Seas. With this in mind, the study had two objectives: first to determine whether discharges from nuclear installations in the river catchment areas are having any influence on Pu levels in the estuaries; and, second, to investigate the transfer and mobility of plutonium in the Yenisey river and estuary. Plutonium 240/239 ratios were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The data indicated a clear influence from a low 240 Pu: 239 Pu source in surface sediments collected from the Yenisey Estuary, whereas plutonium in the Ob Estuary sediments are dominated by global fallout. The results also show an increase in plutonium concentration and a decrease in isotope ratio going upstream from the estuary. Sequential extractions of sediments indicate that up 70% of the Pu in the Yenisey river is easily mobilized with weak oxidizing agents, which indicates that the Pu is organically bound, while the Pu is more strongly irreversible bound further out

  12. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid Birkelund; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie

    2018-01-01

    impregnation products using the constant flow through set-up of the constrained drop surfactometer to determine if they inhibited LS function or not. The same products were tested in a mouse inhalation bioassay to determine their toxicity in vivo. The sensitivity was 100%, i.e. the in vitro method predicted...... the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large...... numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21...

  13. Improved airline-type supplied-air plastic suit. [For personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, L. Jr.; Zippler, D.B.; Cofer, C.H.; Harper, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    Two piece supplied-air plastic suits are used extensively at the Savannah River Plant for personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium. Worker comfort and noise level problems gave impetus to development of an improved suit and aid distribution system. The resulting plastic suit and development work are discussed. The plastic suit unit cost is less than $20, the hearing zone noise level is less than 75 dBA, protection factors exceed 10,000, and user comfort is approved. This suit is expected to meet performance requirements for unrestricted use.

  14. Initial synthesis of area 13 239Pu data and other statistical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1976-02-01

    An initial effort is made here to synthesize the 239-240 Pu data currently available from Area 13 (Project 57). Plutonium concentrations for soil, vegetation, small vertebrates, and various tissues in beef cattle (grazed on the Pu contaminated vegetation) are plotted on a single graph for visual comparison. Hypothetical 239-240 Pu concentrations for lungs, skeletal bone, and kidney of a Standard Man assumed to live in and obtain most of his food from the area are also plotted. These hypothetical values were obtained using results from the plutonium transport and dose estimation model of Martin and Bloom (1975)

  15. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Kostiainen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  16. Comparative behavior of plutonium and americium in the equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inventories of 239 + 240 Pu and 241 Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The amount of 239 + 240 Pu mobilized to solution at the atolls can be predicted from a distribution coefficient K/sub d/ of 2.3 x 10 5 and the mean sediment concentrations. The mobilized 239 + 240 Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Characteristics of 239 + 240 Pu described at one location may not necessarily describe its behavior elsewhere. The relative amounts of 241 Am to 239 + 240 Pu may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay

  17. Nonparametric statistical techniques used in dose estimation for beagles exposed to inhaled plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Retention and translocation of inhaled radionuclides are often estimated from the sacrifice of multiple animals at different time points. The data for each time point can be averaged and a smooth curve fitted to the mean values, or a smooth curve may be fitted to the entire data set. However, an analysis based on means may not be the most appropriate if there is substantial variation in the initial amount of the radionuclide inhaled or if the data are subject to outliers. A method has been developed that takes account of these problems. The body burden is viewed as a compartmental system, with the compartments identified with body organs. A median polish is applied to the multiple logistic transform of the compartmental fractions (compartment burden/total burden) at each time point. A smooth function is fitted to the results of the median polish. This technique was applied to data from beagles exposed to an aerosol of 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . Models of retention and translocation for lungs, skeleton, liver, kidneys, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were developed and used to estimate dose. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS After Nitric Acid Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Kır

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung injury resulting from inhalation of chemical products continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Concentrated nitric acids are also extremely corrosive fuming chemical liquids. Fumes of nitric acid (HNO3 and various oxides of nitrogen such as nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 may cause fatal illnesses such as severe pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS when inhaled. Intensive respiratory management including mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP, inverse ratio ventilation, replacement of surfactant and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, steroids and n-acetylcysteine (NAC may improve survival. In this case report we present the diagnosis and successful treatment of a 57 years old male patient who developed ARDS following pulmonary edema due to nitric acid fumes inhalation.

  19. On the role of different biocomponents of bile and excretions in the elimination of plutonium and americium from the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvydko, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the role of biocomponents of bile, urine and feces in the elimination of plutonium and americium from the organism. Plutonium 239 and americium 241 were separated in bile due to higher tropism of plutonium to low molecular weight addends, and of americium, to a protein-containing fraction. The status of plutonium excreted in feces was the same as the physicochemical status of americium. Plutonium 239 and americium 241 eliminated in urine were in a completely ultrafiltered state

  20. Plutonium sorption by the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus (Tuerp) Kuetz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacik, M.F.; Giesy, J.P.; Corey, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the continuing study of the possible impact of released radioisotopes to the Savannah River Plant (SRP) environment, the interaction between a biological system and plutonium was investigated. Specifically, an algal culture, Scenedesmus obliquus, was exposed to the +4 and +6 oxidation states of 238 Pu and 239-240 Pu at three plutonium concentration levels. There was no significant different (p 3) 0.05) between 238 Pu and 239-240 Pu accumulation by the algae at equivalent concentrations or at different oxidation states

  1. MEANS FOR PRODUCING PLUTONIUM CHAIN REACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1961-01-24

    A neutronic reactor is described with an active portion capable of operating at an energy level of 0.5 to 1000 ev comprising discrete bodies of Pu/ sup 239/ disposed in a body of water which contains not more than 5 molecules of water to one atom of plutonium, the total amount of Pu/sup 239/ being sufficient to sustain a chain reaction. (auth)

  2. Plutonium in the air in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, J.; Salminen, S.; Jaakkola, T.; Outola, I.; Pulli, S. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Tarvainen, M.; Ristonmaa, S. [Finnish Authority for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Zilliacus, R. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Ossintsev, A.; Larin, V. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2006-07-31

    Weekly air samples of 25000 m{sup 3} volume were taken with two air samplers over a period of one year in 2000-2001 in the town of Kurchatov in Kazakhstan. For another three-month period in 2001, the samplers were run in the city of Astana, about 500 km west of Kurchatov. {sup 137}Cs, Pu and U concentrations were determined from the filters. Pu activities in Kurchatov varied in a 100-fold range; median {sup 239,240}Pu activities were 100 nBq/m{sup 3} and {sup 238}Pu activities 34 nBq/m{sup 3}. The corresponding values for Astana were considerably lower: 29 and 9 nBq/m{sup 3}, respectively, and in half of the filters the {sup 238}Pu activity was below the detection limit. Plutonium concentration correlated with the amount of dust retained on the filters only at the highest dust loads. Also no correlation between wind speed and the plutonium activity in the filters was observed. Thus, resuspension does not seem to be the mechanism responsible for the airborne plutonium. No clear seasonal variation of Pu air concentration was observed, though levels were somewhat elevated in February to April. There was no correlation between the plutonium and {sup 137}Cs concentrations. In most of the filters the cesium concentration was below the detection limit, but in those filters where it could be detected the cesium concentration was practically constant at 3.9+/-1.6 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}. Dose estimation for the inhalation of the airborne plutonium gave a low value of 0.018 {mu}Sv/a for the inhabitants in Kurchatov, which is about a thousand times lower than the dose caused by the naturally occurring {sup 210}Po. Air parcel trajectory analysis indicated that the observed Pu activities in the air could not unambiguously be attributed to the most contaminated areas at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. (author)

  3. Proserpine - plutonium 239 - Proserpine - uranium 235 - comparison of experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.P.; Caizergues, R.; Clouet D'Orval, Ch.; Kremser, J.; Moret-Bailly, J.; Verriere, Ph.

    1964-01-01

    The Proserpine homogeneous reactor is constituted by a tank, 25 cm dia, 30 cm high, surrounded by a composite reflector made of beryllium oxide and graphite. In this tank can be made critical plutonium or 90 per cent enriched uranium solutions, the fissile substances being in the form of a dissolved salt. In varying the concentration of the solution, critical masses were studied as a function of the level of the liquid in the tank. The minimum critical mass is 256 ± 2 grs for plutonium and 409 ± 3 grs for uranium 235. In the range of the critical concentrations which were studied, the neutronic properties of fissionable solutions of plutonium and enriched uranium were compared for identical geometries. (authors) [fr

  4. Biokinetic study of plutonium and americium associated to the particulates of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; Martinez, J.; Iranzo, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the biokinetic parameters of different Plutonium isotopes and Americium inhaled in the state in which they are found in the environment as a result of their deposition in the soil, from an aviation accident that generated different plutonium oxides. to achieve this objective, two lines of work planned. One was the determination of the mineralogical composition and associations that plutonium and americium present in that soil 22 years after the nuclear accident. Other studies were directed to determine the biokinetic of the plutonium isotopes and americium (contained in the dust) deposited tracheally and inhaled by laboratory animals (rats) and in vitro experiments by pulmonary leaching simulation. The in vivo tests have been developed in NRPB (U.K.) and the in vitro experiment, geochemical associations studies, assessment of internal doses to humans resulting from intake of plutonium and americium bearing dusts present in the contaminated area and establishment of ALIs for inhalation, were carried out in CIEMAT (Spain). In this work only determinations and experiments carried out by CIEMAT are includes as a part of the EU Project ''INHALATION AND INGESTION OF RADIONUCLIDES'' contract: FI3P-CT920064a. (Author) 10 refs

  5. Chromosome aberration frequency in blood lymphocytes of animals with 239Pu lung burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; LaBauve, R.J.; McClellan, R.O.; Jensen, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Other investigators have suggested a causal relationship between accidental 239 Pu exposures in man and the presence of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. For experimental assessment of this relationship, 16 rhesus monkeys and 171 Chinese hamsters were exposed to 239 PuO 2 aerosols and an additional five hamsters were injected with 239 Pu citrate, and the frequency of aberrations in blood lymphocyte was determined. Hamsters with the highest lung burden had a median survival time of about 80 days. No deaths occurred in any of the other treated hamsters or monkeys by 250 days after 239 Pu inhalation. Hamsters sacrificed at 30 days showed an increase in chromosome aberration frequency with increasing dose to lungs. By 120 days after inhalation, the aberration frequency in the controls was 0.012. The frequency in animals with doses that produced significant life shortening had decreased to 0.018 and to 0.032 aberration/cell in animals with lower doses. At 380 days after injection of 2 nCi of 239 Pu citrate per gram of body weight, hamster lymphocytes had an aberration frequency of 0.048 aberration/cell. The level of chromosome damage in the 239 PuO 2 -exposed monkeys at 30 and 90 days after inhalation was not different from that observed in controls. Possible reasons for differences between the experimental animal observations and findings in man are discussed

  6. Phyto-inhalation for treatment of complications of acute respiratory viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalations (inhalation of medicinal substances are one of the effective ways to treat upper respiratory tract diseases and colds. Inhalation therapy is used to treat rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, which can be complications of acute respiratory viral infections. The main rules of inhalation are as follows to conduct the procedure better after 1.5 hours after eating; clothes should not impede breathing; the procedure can be carried out only while sitting or standing; solution for the inhaler for treatment of bronchitis should be fresh; it is necessary to strictly keep the prescribed dosage; the time of the procedure should also be respected — usually it is from 1 to 4 minutes, sometimes for adults up to 10 minutes, for children the inhalation period is shorter — 1–2 minutes. Contraindications to inhalation are body temperature above 37.5 degrees; propensity to nasal blee­ding in a patient; propensity to increased arterial pressure, with cardiovascular failure; purulent inflammation of the tonsils; respiratory failure. The procedure should be stopped immediately in case of appearance of adverse symptoms such as shortness of breath, dizziness, difficulty in breathing. Therefore, inhalations must be prescribed by a doctor after examination of a patient. During inhalations in rhinitis, you should try to inhale the vapor through the nose. For effective treatment of rhinitis, inhalations from conife­rous plants are very suitable: fir, pine, juniper, larch, from steamed dried chamomile flowers, mint, and blackberry leaves. Honey inhalations can be used for the treatment of acute and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. Medical herbal inhalation for children should be carried out from the age of two years. This must be done under the constant supervision of an adult. Leaves of coniferous trees: pine, fir, if or juniper, cedar

  7. Sidestream smoke inhalation decreases respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA acutely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, D.H.; Havill, K.; Thompson, M.M.; Rittano, A.B.; Chu, J.; Glanville, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to an inhaled aerosol of technetium 99m labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetate ( 99m Tc-DTPA is used as an index of alveolar epithelial injury. Permeability is greatly increased in active smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sidestream smoke inhalation on permeability as this has not been described previously. Lung clearance of inhaled 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol was measured in 20 normal non-smoking subjects before and after exposure to one hours sidestream smoke inhalation. Measured carbon monoxide (CO) levels rose to a maximum of 23.5 ±6.2 ppm from baseline values of 0.6±1.3 (p 99m Tc-DTPA clearance rose from baseline 69.1± 15.6 (mean ± to 77.4 ±17.8) after smoke exposure. No effect of 99m Tc-DTPA scanning of sidestream smoke was demonstrated on lung function. It was concluded that low level sidestream smoke inhalation decreases 99m Tc-DTPA clearance acutely in humans. The mechanism of this unexpected result is not established but may include differences in constituents between sidestream and mainstream smoke, alterations in pulmonary microvascular blood flow, or changes in surfactant due to an acute phase irritant response. 34 refs., 2 figs

  8. Characterization of airborne plutonium-bearing particles from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.M. Jr.

    1977-11-01

    The elemental compositions, sizes, structures, and 239 Pu contents were determined for 299 plutonium-bearing particles isolated from airborne particles collected at various locations in the exhaust from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. These data were compared with data from natural aerosol particles. Most of the collected particles were composed of aggregates of crustal materials. Seven percent of the particles were organic and 3% were metallic, viz., iron, chromium, and nickel. High enrichment factors for titanium, manganese, chromium, nickel, zinc, and copper were evidence of the anthropic nature of some of the particles. The amount of plutonium in most particles was very small (less than one femtocurie of 239 Pu). Plutonium concentrations were determined by the fission track counting method. Only one particle contained sufficient plutonium for detection by electron microprobe analysis. This was a 1-μm-diameter particle containing 73% PuO 2 by weight (estimated to be 170 fCi of 239 Pu) in combination with Fe 2 O 3 and mica. The plutonium-bearing particles were generally larger than natural aerosols. The geometric mean diameter of those collected from the mechanical line exhaust point where plutonium is converted to the metal was larger than that of particles collected from the wet cabinet exhaust (13.7 μm vs. 4.6 μm). Particles from the mechanical line also contained more plutonium per particle than those from the wet cabinets

  9. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  10. Solution of human respiratory tract model for chronic inhalation intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadar, Minal Y.; Singh, I.S.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    For the radiation workers of fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants, inhalation is one of the major routes of intake of internal contamination. In case of routine monitoring which would result in lung activity above detection limit, it is assumed that intake has occurred at the midpoint of monitoring interval so that underestimation introduced by the unknown time of intake is less than a factor of three. In the plants, chronic intakes of 239 Pu are possible if low levels of 239 Pu activities remain undetected. In ICRP-78, the retention values are given as a function of time for continuous chronic inhalation of 239 Pu at 1.71 Bq/day that would result in Committed Effective Dose (CED) of 20 mSv. Retention values (R) are not given for inhalation intake at any other rate. Therefore, Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) is solved for continuous chronic inhalation at 1 Bq/day rate for type M compounds of 239 Pu to estimate R as a function of time. These values will be useful in estimating intake from lung activity measurements in case of chronic intakes

  11. Doses from potential inhalation by people living near plutonium contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranzo Gonzales, E.; Salvador Ruiz, S.

    1983-09-01

    An aviation accident above the town of Palomares, Spain resulted in four thermonuclear bombs carried by one of the planes falling. The nuclear fuel in two of them ignited and formed an aerosol which contaminated a 226-hectare area of underbrush, farmland and an urban center. The magnitude of risk to people living in the area who may have inhaled the plutonium aerosol or dusts during the fifteen-year period since the time the accident is addressed in this report. In addition the internal radiation doses that people may have received during this period and during a fifty-year period commencing with the accident is estimated. In brief summary, the lungs received the greatest dose equivalent (1966 to 1980). Over the fifty year period (to 2015) the bones are projected to receive the greatest dose. For the remaining organs - liver-intestines-kidneys, - the relationships or between the doses that will be accumulated up to the year 2015 and the corresponding annual dose equivalent limits are less than those for the bones and lungs

  12. Plutonium isotopes/137Cs activity ratios for soil in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N. M.; Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, N.; Andrukhovich, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes/ 137 Cs activity ratios were determined for six soil samples from Montenegro, using the results of alpha-spectrometric measurements of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu, as well as gamma-spectrometric cesium measurements. An average 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratio is found to be 0.02, as the 238 Pu/ 137 Cs and 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu one - 0.0006 and 0.03, respectively. It follows from the results that the source of plutonium in Montenegro soil is nuclear weapon testing during the fifties and sixties of the twentieth century. On the other hand, there is a contribution of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to the soil contamination with 137 Cs isotope. [sr

  13. The Transport of Close-In Fallout Plutonium in the Northwest Pacific Ocean: Tracing the Water Mass Movement Using {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu Atom Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Han [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Gi-Hoon; Suk, Moon-Sik [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gastaud, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory (Monaco); La Rosa, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ionizing Radiation Division, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Kim, Chul-Soo [Environmental Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Wyse, E. [New Brunswick Laboratory Argonne, IL (United States); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater and surface sediment collected from the northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean from 1992 to 1997 were determined using ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In whole water columns, the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu were higher than the global fallout ratio (0.18). It is noted that the atom ratios of {sup 240}Pu/2{sup 39}Pu in the seawater increase with depth. Such elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios indicate that the close-in fallout plutonium isotopes originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPGs) due to the U.S. tests are prevailing in the seawater in the NW Pacific Ocean. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the surface sediment from the NW Pacific Ocean varied with the sampling locations. As a consequence, this study will provide the information that the water mass along with the current plays a key role in driving the distribution of Pu and in transporting Pu from the PPGs to the far eastern marginal sea in the NW Pacific Ocean. (author)

  14. Rhabdomyolysis with acute tubular necrosis following occupational inhalation of thinners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngajilo, D; Ehrlich, R

    2017-07-01

    Thinners are mixtures of organic solvents commonly containing toluene, xylene, acetone, hexane, benzene and methyl isobutyl ketone. This report describes a case of rhabdomyolysis with acute tubular necrosis and renal failure, most likely attributable to toluene, following occupational exposure to thinners while cleaning a steel water tank. These adverse health effects have previously been reported following acute poisoning or intentional inhalation by drug abusers, but rarely in the occupational setting. Poor working conditions, lack of health and safety training and delayed treatment contributed to the onset and severity of the patient's complications. This case emphasizes the need for strict control measures, including adequate ventilation, training on working in confined spaces, appropriate personal protective equipment and emergency rescue procedures in such settings. In addition, rhabdomyolysis, acute tubular necrosis and renal failure should be added to safety data material as possible complications of excessive inhalation of thinners. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. 239Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of 239 Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for 239 Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of 239 Pu

  16. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  17. Excess Lead-210 and Plutonium-239+240: Two suitable radiogenic soil erosion tracers for mountain grassland sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, K; Porto, P; Mabit, L; La Spada, C; Arata, L; Alewell, C

    2018-01-01

    The expected growing population and challenges associated with globalisation will increase local food and feed demands and enhance the pressure on local and regional upland soil resources. In light of these potential future developments it is necessary to define sustainable land use and tolerable soil loss rates with methods applicable and adapted to mountainous areas. Fallout-radionuclides (FRNs) are proven techniques to increase our knowledge about the status and resilience of agro-ecosystems. However, the use of the Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) method is complicated in the European Alps due to its heterogeneous input and the timing of the Chernobyl fallout, which occurred during a few single rain events on partly snow covered ground. Other radioisotopic techniques have been proposed to overcome these limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of excess Lead-210 ( 210 Pb ex ) and Plutonium-239+240 ( 239+240 Pu) as soil erosion tracers for three different grassland management types at the steep slopes (slope angles between 35 and 38°) located in the Central Swiss Alps. All three FRNs identified pastures as having the highest mean (± standard deviation) net soil loss of -6.7 ± 1.1, -9.8 ± 6.8 and -7.0 ± 5.2 Mg ha -1 yr -1 for 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex and 239+240 Pu, respectively. A mean soil loss of -5.7 ± 1.5, -5.2 ± 1.5 and-5.6 ± 2.1 was assessed for hayfields and the lowest rates were established for pastures with dwarf-shrubs (-5.2 ± 2.5, -4.5 ± 2.5 and -3.3 ± 2.4 Mg ha -1 yr -1 for 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex and 239+240 Pu, respectively). These rates, evaluated at sites with an elevated soil erosion risk exceed the respective soil production rates. Among the three FRN methods used, 239+240 Pu appears as the most promising tracer in terms of measurement uncertainty and reduced small scale variability (CV of 13%). Despite a higher level of uncertainty, 210 Pb ex produced comparable results, with a wide range of erosion rates sensitive to changes

  18. Modifying effects of pre-existing fibrosis in rats exposed to aerosols of 239PuO2. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    We have initiated a study using rats to determine the modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis on the retention and biological effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 . Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of 8.5 IU/kg body weight of bleomycin at 45 to 49 days before inhalation exposure to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 . The clearance of 239 Pu from the lungs of rats was decreased significantly (p 239 Pu, apparently by entrapping the particles in fibrotic areas of the lung. The life span of the rats with pulmonary fibrosis was decreased by up to 25% compared with control rats having similar initial lung burdens of 239 Pu. (author)

  19. Assessment of 238Pu and 239+240Pu, in marine sediments of the oceans Atlantic and Pacific of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Ochaita, L.

    2000-01-01

    In this investigation samples of marine sediments were taken from 14 places representatives of the oceans coast of Guatemala. For the assesment of 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu in sediments a radiochemical method was used to mineralize sediments and by ionic interchange it was separated from other elements, after that an electrodeposition of plutonium was made in metallic discs. The radioactivity of plutonium was measured by alpha spectrometry system and the alpha spectrums were obtained. The levels of plutonium are not higher than other countries that shown contamination. The contamination of isotope of 239+240 Pu is higher than 238 Pu and the contamination by two isotopes of plutonium is higher in the Atlantic than the Pacific ocean

  20. Phytoextraction studies for removal of 239Pu using Vetiveria zizanoides plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D.P.; Kaushik, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Vetiveria zizanoides, a plant used for environmental conservation was tested for remediation of radionuclide plutonium ( 239 Pu). While the plant could remediate high levels of 239 Pu (65%) from solutions, remediation of radionuclides from soil was limited. Addition of chelating agents such as citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) enhanced phytoremediation of 239 Pu from soil. Translocation of 239 Pu to the shoot biomass showed an enhancement in the presence of chelating agents. The present studies have shown that V. zizanoides is a suitable candidate plant for remediation of 239 Pu and addition of DTPA enhanced translocation of radionuclide to shoot which may further lead to phytoextraction. (author)

  1. Plutonium uptake by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz, as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacik, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of plutonium chemical valence state on the availability of small concentrations of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu to algae. The uptake experiments involved the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, grown in batch cultures. Plutonium concentrations accumulated by this alga were linearly related to plutonium concentrations. There was no significant difference (rho = 0.05) in algal plutonium accumulations, on a mass basis, of either /sup 238/Pu or /sup 239/Pu in either Pu/sup +4/ or Pu/sup +6/ oxidation state at the concentrations studied.

  2. Plutonium uptake by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz, as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacik, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of plutonium chemical valence state on the availability of small concentrations of 238 Pu and 239 Pu to algae. The uptake experiments involved the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, grown in batch cultures. Plutonium concentrations accumulated by this alga were linearly related to plutonium concentrations. There was no significant difference (rho = 0.05) in algal plutonium accumulations, on a mass basis, of either 238 Pu or 239 Pu in either Pu +4 or Pu +6 oxidation state at the concentrations studied

  3. Biological effect of plutonium 239 on Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gafieva, Z.A.; Chudin, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium cells were exposed in a 239 Pu citrate solution. Cell death and induction of gene mutations were an exponential fucntion of γ-radiation dose. LD 37 was 34.8 Gy; mutation doubling dose, 19 Gy

  4. Evaluation of the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.S.; Silver, W.J.; Coles, D.G.; Lamson, K.C.; McIntyre, D.R.; Mendoza, B.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential hazard associated with the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops. Conditions were chosen that would maximize exposure to the 239 Pu in the sludge through resuspension and in plant content and thus approximated the maximum potential hazards due to the inhalation and ingestion pathways. The estimated 50-year radiation doses to the pulmonary region of the lung, bone, and liver based on the results of the inhalation experiment are 6 x 10 -4 rem, 1.2 x 10 -3 rem, and 0.55 x 10 -4 rem, respectively. Similarly, the 50-year radiation doses attributable to ingestion of the sludge-grown vegetables were 2.2 x 10 -5 rem to the bone and 1.5 x 10 -5 rem to the liver. Thus, the inhalation pathway is the more critical of the two. The maximum permissible annual doses to the lungs, bone, and the liver for a member of the general public are 1.5, 3.0, and 1.5 rem, respectively. Thus, the maximum credible 50-year lung, bone, and liver dose commitments associated with the use of the 239 Pu-contaminated sludge as a soil conditioner are approximately 4.0 x 10 -2 percent of the annual maximum permissible dose. Under more realistic exposure circumstances, one might expect less drying of the sludge, less resuspension of dust and flying dirt before and during rototilling, and a much smaller sludge vegetable consumption rate. The conservative assumptions made in this analysis tend to assure that actual radiation doses would be even less than those calculated. (auth)

  5. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,240}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual {sup 239} Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,240}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  6. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of 239,240 Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual 239 Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with 239,240 Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung

  7. First radiochemical studies on the transmutation of 239Pu with spallation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, J.-S.; Langrock, E.-J.; Westmeier, W.

    2000-01-01

    Incineration studies of plutonium were carried out at the synchrophasotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) using proton beams with energies of 0.53 GeV and 1.0 GeV. Solid lead target (8 cm in diameter and 20 cm long) was surrounded with 6 cm thick paraffin as neutron moderator and then irradiated. The transmutation of 239 Pu and the associated production of fission products 91 Sr, 92 Sr, 97 Zr, 99 Mo, 103 Ru, 105 Ru, 129 Sb, 132 Te, 133 I, 135 I and 143 Ce were studied. The plutonium samples (each 449 mg) were placed on the outer surface of moderator. For 1.0 GeV proton beam, the fission rate of 239 Pu is 0.0032 fissions per proton in one gram plutonium samples, for 0.53 GeV proton this value is 0.0022. The experimental uncertainty is about 15%. The experiments are compared to two theoretical model calculations with moderate success, using the Dubna Cascade Model (CEM) and the LAHET code. The practical incineration rate of 239 Pu is very high. For example: if one uses 10mA, 1 GeV proton beams under the same (fictive) experimental conditions, the incineration rate of 239 Pu via fission is 3 mg out of the 449 mg sample per day. For 0.53 GeV protons the corresponding rate is 2 mg per day

  8. Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Inventories of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of 239+240 Pu and lesser amounts of 241 Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of 239+240 Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized 239+240 Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of 239+240 Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of 241 Am to 239+240 Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of 239+240 Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebistorf, Fabienne; Karam, Oliver; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and mostly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions. AHRF results from several systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in individuals of all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has been...

  10. Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F.; Humphrey, David M. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Powell, Karen S. [Research Resource Facilities, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Roberts, Andrew M. [Department of Physiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Hoyle, Gary W., E-mail: Gary.Hoyle@louisville.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbits were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24 h after exposure to 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min to study acute effects or up to 7 days after exposure to 400 ppm for 8 min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24 h after inhalation of 800 ppm chlorine for 4 min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400 ppm chlorine for 8 min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure–volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7 days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. - Highlights: • A novel rabbit model of chlorine-induced lung disease was developed.

  11. Estimation of environmental transfer of plutonium and the dose to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The need to examine the behaviour of individual radionuclides in the environment is stressed. Sometimes unique pathways of exposure exist and more specialized methods of dose estimation could be considered. The toxicity of the alpha emitting plutonium isotopes is of concern and their long half-lives lead to persistence in the environment and long-term potential for exposing man. Some formulas are therefore presented for making preliminary estimates of environmental transfer and dose for the radioisotopes of the element plutonium. Exposure of man to plutonium in the environment may occur by inhalation or ingestion - the inhalation and ingestion intake rates for which specific pathways have been considered are listed. The primary pathway to man is the inhalation intake; the most important ingestion intake is the consumption of plant foods due to the greater concentration achieved and the higher consumption rates of these foods. Also discussed is plutonium in the nuclear fuel cycle, the release of plutonium from current nuclear installations, the occurrence of plutonium from weapons fallout, airborne releases of plutonium (concentration in the air, deposition rate, resuspension, transfer to plants - foliar and root uptake - transfer to milk, etc.), liquid release (concentration in water, transfer to drinking water, to fish, to plants by irrigation, to milk, to meat). The importance of the release situation and local environment conditions including land and water utilization, population factors and habits for any further investigation is pointed out

  12. Plutonium contamination at Maralinga - dosimetry and clean-up criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Martin, L.J.; O'Brien, R.S.; Williams, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    An area of South Australia remained contaminated following British nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga during 1955 - 1963. Of importance is the long-lived 239-Pu of which some 24 kg was explosively dispersed in several 'minor trials'. The extent, quantities and physical characteristics of the plutonium have been assessed and estimates of dose, dominated by the inhalation pathway in the critical group of Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle, have been made for potential occupants. Rehabilitation of the most contaminated areas is underway, involving scraping of surface soil and burial at depth on site. Dosimetry, together with social and economic factors, underpins the setting of clean-up criteria in terms of activity concentrations averaged over large areas and permissible concentrations of contaminated particles. The possibility of intentional behaviour such as fragment scavenging has also influenced limits on particulate contamination.The standard for this intervention is that the annual committed dose, for any scenario involving permanent occupancy by semi-traditional Aborigines, will be less than 5 mSv. In fact, following the clean-up, annual doses are not expected to exceed 1 mSv for all realistic scenarios. The possibility of intentional behaviour, such as fragment scavenging, has led to limits on particulate contamination. Three plutonium-contaminated sites have been treated by soil-removal. At Taranaki, the most contaminated site, by limiting the activity of the remaining soil to below about 400 kBq/m2 of 239Pu, and by limiting occupancy factors to those typical of hunting activities in a particular location (0.8%), the dose criteria will be met. An area of about 1.5 km 2 has been treated by removal of surface soil at Taranaki. At the other two sites, with no occupancy constraints, more stringent soil-removal criteria have been applied

  13. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  14. Summary report of the grazing studies conducted on a plutonium-contaminated range in Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.

    1979-05-01

    Actinide concentrations in the tissues of beef animals periodically sacrificed and sampled during a 3-year grazing study on a plutonium-contaminated range of the Nevada Test Site are tabulated and discussed. The primary objective of this study was to determine the uptake and tissue distribution of the plutonium by ruminants. Food habit analyses of ingesta from rumen-fistulated steers and sacrificed cattle revealed that shrub species made up the major portion of their diet during most seasons of the year. Grasses were preferred during the spring months. Using activity levels found in the rumen contents, it was estimated that a study cow ingested 100 microcuries of plutonium-239 prior to sacrifice. Of this, 16.4 microcuries was in rumen fluids from which a combined retention factor of 0.0034% was calculated for the bone, muscle, and liver. Comparisons of plutonium-239/plutonium-238 ratios in ingesta and tissues indicate that the plutonium-238 is more readily absorbed and retained. No radiologically significant lesions were found. The gonadal concentrations of the actinides were significantly higher than those of blood and muscle and approached those of bone. These data indicate that consideration should be given to the plutonium-239 dose to gonads as well as that to bone, liver, and lungs of man. Actinide concentrations of animals born in the study areas showed an increasing trend with time. Concentrations of plutonium-239 in the lung, liver, muscle, and femur tissues of the Area 13 cattle were significantly higher than in tissues collected from grazing cattle from other sites. The plutonium-239 concentrations in bones, lungs, and livers collected from wildlife with free access to and from the contaminated zones reflect the dilution resulting from these animals ranging into the less contaminated areas around the study sites

  15. Protracted chelate therapy after incorporation of plutonium 239 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemenetzis, E.

    1976-01-01

    The author has tested in how far 239 Pu can be mobilized by Ca and Zn, Desfenioxamin B(DFDA) and by combined doses of Ca-DTPA and DFDA. The pre-experiment covered the 239 Pu-metabolism in untreated male and female rats and the distribution in dependence of the way of application. If treatment is started immediately by multiple chelate doses, the first two injections play the main part in the decorporation of 239 Pu. The combination Ca-DTPA30 + DFDA30 μMol x kg -1 is proved to be the best means of decorporation for the whole body. The efficiency of another therapy depends essentially on the treatment used, a daily treatment showing the best effects. If treatment is started later with multiple chelate doses, the total decorporation efficiency is of less value, especially in the skeleton. Aequimolar doses of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA have the same degree of efficiency. This indicates that during protracted chelate treatment starting later, Ca-DTPA could be substituted by the less toxic Zn-DTPA after incorporation of 239 Pu. These results show that intermittant administration of the week's dose is more efficient than a single chelate administration of the whole week's dose at once. Permanent chelate infusion does not seem necessary in any case since it has the same effect as 3 to 5 injections per week and is difficult to carry out in medical practice. Thus, it seems advisable to divide up the weekly dose into 3-5 injections. In case of a wound contamination, the efficiency of immediate intensive treatment depends on the 239 Pu compound used, on the chelate used, and on its dosage. (orig.) [de

  16. Transfer of 239Pu to mouse fetoplacental tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sato, Hiroshi; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Takahashi, Sentaro

    1993-01-01

    Cross-placental transfer of 239 Pu from the mother to fetus was studied in C3H mice. The activity of 239 Pu in the conceptus was measured 24 hrs after the intravenous injection of 239 Pu citrate on days 10.5 to 16.5 of gestation. More 239 Pu was transferred to the conceptus when the plutonium was administered in the later stages of gestation; 0.12% of the injected dose per conceptus on day 10.5 and 1.3% on day 16.5. In all the gestational stages examined, the yolk sac and decidua contained more than 89% of the total activity distributed in the conceptus. The concentration of 239 Pu in the yolk sac was about two orders of magnitude greater than that in the fetus. The 239 Pu concentration in the maternal liver decreased with the gestational stage. In the early gestational stages the concentration in the maternal liver was greater than that in the yolk sac; but, this relationship was reversed in the later stages. (author)

  17. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in Beagle dogs. A. Monodisperse 0.75 μm AMAD particles. B. Monodisperse 1.5 μm AMAD particles. C. Monodisperse 3.0 μm AMAD particles. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.; Mauderly, J.L.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled particles of 239 PuO 2 in Beagle dogs are in progress. To obtain information on the relative importance of homogeneity versus nonhomogeneity of radiation doses to the lung, dogs have been exposed to monodisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 of 0.75, 1.5 or 3.0 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The exposures have resulted in graded initial lung burdens ranging from 0.0002 to 2.6 μCi 239 Pu per kilogram body weight. Other dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent to serve as controls. Ten dogs have died in the study with 0.75 μm AMAD particles, 40 dogs have died in the study with 1.5 μm AMAD particles and 35 dogs have died in the study with 3.0 μm AMAD particles of 239 PuO 2 . Dogs have died with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis and carcinomas of the lung. The remaining dogs have survived up to 2100 days after inhalation exposure and are being observed for the remainder of their life span

  18. A study of the comparison between human and animal excretion data following inhalation exposure to plutonium 238 oxide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, W.D.; Martinez, G.; Gautier, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Bioassay urine samples obtained since 1971 from eight Los Alamos employees, accidentally exposed by inhalation to high-fired plutonium-238 oxide aerosols, were studied and compared with excretion data obtained from Beagle dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ aerosols. The early period Pu human excretion data from the inhalation exposure were unexpected and were unlike previously studied occupational exposure urinary data obtained at Los Alamos. The initial urine samples collected on day one were below the detection limits of the analytical method (0.01 pCi). Within thirty days, however, detectible concentrations of Pu were measured in the urine for several of the exposed personnel. The amounts of Pu excreted continued to increase in each of the cases throughout the first year and the individual patterns of Pu excretion were similar. The human urinary excretion data was compared with similar excretion data obtained from an animal study conducted by the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (Me81). In the animal study, Beagle dogs received inhalation exposure to one of three sizes of monodisperse of polydisperse aerosol of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. Periodic sacrifice of pairs of dogs during the 4 years after the inhalation exposure provided data on the retention, translocation and mode of excretion of /sup 238/Pu. The comparison of human and animal /sup 238/Pu excretion data supported the observation that the excretion data were similar between the two species and that the animal excretion models can be applied to predict the human /sup 238/Pu excretion following inhalation exposure to high-fired oxides of /sup 238/Pu

  19. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monleau, M.

    2005-12-01

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure. It

  20. Model of plutonium dynamics in a deciduous forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Gardner, R.H.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A linear compartment model with donor-controlled flows between compartments was designed to describe and simulate the behavior of plutonium ( 239 240 Pu) in a contaminated forest ecosystem at Oak Ridge, TN. At steady states predicted by the model, less than 0.25% of the plutonium in the ecosystem resides in biota. Soil is the major repository of plutonium in the forest, and exchanges of plutonium between soil and litter or soil and tree roots were dominant transfers affecting the ecosystem distribution of plutonium. Variation in predicted steady-state amounts of plutonium in the forest, given variability in the model parameters, indicates that our ability to develop models of plutonium transport in ecosystems should improve with greater precision in data from natural environments and a better understanding of sources of variation in plutonium data

  1. /sup 239/Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of /sup 239/Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for /sup 239/Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of /sup 239/Pu. (CH)

  2. Investigation of plutonium abundance and age analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huailong, Wu; Jian, Gong; Fanhua, Hao [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2007-06-15

    Based on spectra analysis software, all of the plutonium material peak counts are analyzed. Relatively efficiency calibration is done by the non-coupling peaks of {sup 239}Pu. By using the known isotopes half life and yield, the coupling peaks counts are allocated by non-coupling peaks, consequently the atom ratios of each isotope are gotten. The formula between atom ratio and abundance or age is deduced by plutonium material isotopes decay characteristic. And so the abundance and age of plutonium material is gotten. After some re- peat measurements for a plutonium equipment are completed, a comparison between our analysis results and PC-FRAM and the owner's reference results are done. (authors)

  3. Radiation exposure and risk estimates for inhaled airborne radioactive pollutants including hot particles. Annual report 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-03-01

    Contents: Mixed-oxide fuel fabrication; Generation of aerosols of mixed uranium-plutonium oxides from dry powders for animal inhalation exposures; Analytical radiochemical determination of U, Pu and Am in biological samples; Physical chemical characterization of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide nuclear fuel as samples during animal inhalation exposure; Pilot studies of deposition and retention of industrial mixed-oxide aerosols in the laboratory rat; Extended radiation dose pattern studies of aerosols of mixed uranium-plutonium oxides treated at 750C inhaled by Fishcer-344 rats, beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys; Extended radiation dose pattern studies of aerosols of plutonium dioxide, treated at 850C and inhaled by Fischer-344 rats, beagle dogs and cynomolgus monkeys

  4. Plutonium concentrations in airborne soil at Rocky Flats and Hanford determined during resuspension experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Plutonium resuspension results are summarized for experiments conducted by the author at Rocky Flats, onsite on the Hanford reservation, and for winds blowing from offsite onto the Hanford reservation near the Prosser barricade boundary. In each case, plutonium resuspension was shown by increased airborne plutonium concentrations as a function of either wind speed or as compared to fallout levels. All measured airborne concentrations were far below maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Both plutonium and cesium concentrations on airborne soil were normalized by the quantity of airborne soil sampled. Airborne radionuclide concentrations in μCi/g were related to published values for radionuclide concentrations on surface soils. For this ratio of radionuclide concentration per gram on airborne soil divided by that for ground surface soil, there are eight orders of magnitude uncertainty from 10 -4 to 10 4 . This uncertainty in the equality between plutonium concentrations per gram on airborne and surface soils is caused by only a fraction of the collected airborne soil being transported from offsite rather than all being resuspended from each study site and also by the great variabilities in surface contamination. Horizontal plutonium fluxes on airborne nonrespirable soils at all three sites were bracketed within the same four orders of magnitude from 10 -7 to 10 -3 μCi/(m 2 day) for 239 Pu and 10 -8 to 10 -5 μCi/(m 2 day) for 238 Pu. Airborne respirable 239 Pu concentrations increased with wind speed for a southwest wind direction coming from offsite near the Hanford reservation Prosser barricade. Airborne plutonium fluxes on nonrespirable particles had isotopic ratios, 240 Pu/ 239 240 Pu, similar to weapons grade plutonium rather than fallout plutonium

  5. Ultra trace plutonium isotopic analyse by thermo ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuemei; Long Kaiming; Yang Tianli

    2008-06-01

    An anion exchange combined with TTA extraction decontamination method was established. The nanogram quantity Plutonium was separated from milligram uranium and the decontamination coefficient achieved 10 7 , the recovery coefficient >95%. The active carbon powder was chosen as the ionization intensifier to increase the plutonium ion flow. Used 6.7 pg Plutonium standard as sample to measured by TIMS and the RSD of the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ≤3.6%. (authors)

  6. The analysis study of plutonium in the environmental sample by mass spectrum combined with isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jun; Fu Zhonghua; Mao Xingen; Meng Fanben

    2004-01-01

    The technology of the rhenium filament carbonization was used to increase the ionization efficiency in this paper. The plutonium in the environmental sample was analyzed by Mass Spectrum combined with isotope dilution. Analysis of the 239 Pu blank in the process: The analysis of 239 Pu from the chemical process was carried out in order to establish the influence of the 239 Pu introduced from the process. The analysis results were shown in Table 1 sample 1 was not gone through the process, sample 2 and sample 3 were gone through the process. It was clear that there was no influence of the 239 Pu from the process within the deviation. Results and Discussions: The environmental samples which were dealed with the chemical method were prepared the sample of mass spectrum, The atomic ratio of the 239 Pu and 242 Pu in the environmental samples was measured by Mass Spectrum. The atomic ratio in the tracer 242 Pu was 0.01476±0.00007.The results for nuclide content in environment were given in Table 2. The content of 239 Pu in the tracer was high, so the existing of 239 Pu in the environmental samples can be determined by the changing of the atomic ratio of 242 Pu to 239 Pu. It was clear that there was 239 Pu in the environmental samples except the cypress leaves-2 and the pine leaves-3 within the deviation, and the content of 239 Pu were given in Table 2. Conclusion: a. Plutonium was separated and purified from the impurity by the anion-exchange and the electrodeposition, it was possible to provide the eligible mass spectrum sample. b. The measurement of plutonium in the environmental samples was not influenced by the flow of the background in the experiment. c. As the technology of the rhenium carbonization was used to increase the ionization efficiency, the content of plutonium which was about 10 -13 g in the environmental sample could be quantitatively analyzed by Mass Spectrum combined with isotope dilution. (authors)

  7. Plutonium isotopic measurements by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.X.; Lemming, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nondestructive technique is described for calculating plutonium-238, plutonium-240, plutonium-241 and americium-241 relative to plutonium-239 from measured peak areas in the high resolution gamma-ray spectra of solid plutonium samples. Gamma-ray attenuation effects were minimized by selecting sets of neighboring peaks in the spectrum whose components are due to the different isotopes. Since the detector efficiencies are approximately the same for adjacent peaks, the accuracy of the isotopic ratios is dependent on the half-lives, branching intensities, and measured peak areas. The data presented describe the results obtained by analyzing gamma-ray spectra in the energy region from 120 to 700 keV. Most of the data analyzed were obtained from plutonium material containing 6 percent plutonium-240. Sample weights varied from 0.25 g to approximately 1.2 kg. The methods were also applied to plutonium samples containing up to 23 percent plutonium-240 with weights of 0.25 to 200 g. Results obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy are compared to chemical analyses of aliquots taken from the bulk samples

  8. The application of data derived from autoradiographic studies with 241Pu in the formulation of a bone dosimetric model for 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Recently a dosimetric model for 239 Pu in bone has been published which in conjunction with the general ICRP dosimetric model for actinides is used to calculate annual limits of intake for 239 Pu. This model allows for the burial of plutonium in bone, for the recycling of plutonium within the skeleton and for the retention of plutonium in the bone marrow. The model was based upon published descriptions of the distribution and redistribution patterns of plutonium in bone and on evidence obtained from autoradiographic studies of bone from animals injected with 241 Pu. The experiments with 241 Pu demonstrated the initial uptake of plutonium by bone surfaces. As a result of the growth and drift processes much of this plutonium became either buried in the bone or was retained within macrophages in the bone marrow. (author)

  9. Development of techniques for measuring plutonium contents in TRU wastes by NDA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Toshiyuki; Kuwana, Katsumi; Morita, Tomio; Izuhara, Shigeomi; Suzuki, Masahiro

    1983-01-01

    In order to develop a technique for measuring the amount of plutonium in plutonium-contaminated (TRU) wastes, a passive gamma method was selected from many candidate methods, and examined for the suitability by applying the method to low density wastes. A segmented gamma scanner was used for the experiment. The instrument is composed mainly of a Ge(Li) detector, multichannel analyser, data processing system, turntable and transmission radiation source of (75)Se. A sham waste was prepared by adding plutonium oxide powder as a radiation source to waste matrix in a 20-1 carton box. The sham waste was put on the turntable, and the detector was set at 50 cm distance from the center of the turntable. 414 keV gamma ray emitted from (239)Pu was utilized for the assay of plutonium in the experiment. The effects of combustible (paper) waste matrix, organic chlorinated material matrix, and the distribution of plutonium source in a box on the count rate were examined, and it was concluded that 1) about 10 mg of (239)Pu contained in both matrices should be assayed by the passive gamma method, 2) 50 mg of (239) Pu was measured at 30 % confidence level with 2000 sec measuring time, 3) the effect of distribution of plutonium in a waste was able to be reduced to a value of less than 15 % by rotating the waste on the turntable. (Yoshitake, I.)

  10. Laboratory experiments on the transfer dynamics of plutonium from marine sediments to sea water and to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, T.; Lowman, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    The leachability of 239 240 Pu from a fine contaminated calcareous sediment to aerated open sea water and to anoxic sea water was measured. The distribution coefficient for 239 240 Pu from sediment to sea water was 6.1 x 10 -5 for aerated water and 2.6 x 10 -6 for anoxic water. Experiments on the uptake of 239 240 Pu by the clams Donax denticulatus, and Lucina pectinata, were done in aquaria containing kilogram quantities of sediment from the Bravo Crater at Bikini Atoll. The concentration factor for 239 240 Pu by the soft parts of these clams was about 200. All the plutonium taken up in the soft parts was associated with the gill, mantle and siphon. No plutonium was detected in the adductor muscles or hepatopancreas. The smooth surfaces of the shells of the Donax did not show any detectable plutonium, but the rough shell surfaces of the Lucina concentrated plutonium by a factor of 1.10 x 10 4 over that in the sea water. Marine periphyton cultured on glass plates in an aquarium concentrated 239 240 Pu by a factor of about 7 x 10 3 over that in the sea water. (U.S.)

  11. Behavior of plutonium isotopes in the marine environment of Enewetak atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    There continue to be reports in the literature that suggest a difference in the behavior of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu in some aquatic environments. Plutonium isotopes have been measured in marine samples collected over 3 decades form Enewetak atoll, one of the sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States between 1946 and 1958 to test nuclear devices. The plutonium isotopes originated from a variety of complex sources and could possibly coexist in this environment as different physical-chemical species. However results indicate little difference in the mobility and biological availability of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu. (author)

  12. X-spectrographic method for plutonium detection. Application to contamination measurements in humans; Etude d'une methode de detection du plutonium par spectrographie X. Application a la mesure des contaminations sur l'homme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouble, Michel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After reviewing the radio-toxicology of plutonium 239 and conventional detection methods using its {alpha}-radiation, the author considers the measurement of the X emission spectrum of plutonium 239 using a proportional counter filled with argon under pressure. This preliminary work leads to the third part of this research involving the detailed study of the possibilities of applying thin alkali halide crystal scintillators to the detection of soft plutonium X-rays; there follows a systematic study of all the parameters liable to render the detection as sensitive as possible: movement due to the photomultiplier itself and its accessory electronic equipment, nature and size of the crystal scintillator as well as its mode of preparation, shielding against external parasitic radiation. Examples of some applications to the measurement of contamination in humans give an idea of the sensitivity of this method. (author) [French] Apres un apercu de la radiotoxicologie du plutonium 239 et des methodes classiques de detection par son rayonnement {alpha}, on etudie le spectre d'emission X du plutonium 239 avec un compteur proportionnel rempli avec de l'argon sous pression. Ce travail preliminaire permet d'aborder la troisieme partie de cette etude dans laquelle nous examinons d'une fagon approfondie les possibilites d'application des cristaux scintillateurs minces d'halogenure alcalin a la detection du rayonnement X mou du plutonium; suit une etude systematique de tous les parametres susceptibles de rendre la detection aussi sensible que possible: mouvement propre du photomultiplicateur et de l'electronique associee, nature et dimensions du cristal scintillateur ainsi que son mode de fabrication, blindage contre les rayonnements parasites exterieurs. Quelques applications a la mesure des contaminations sur l'homme permettent d'apprecier la sensibilite de cette methode. (auteur)

  13. Long time contamination from plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fueloep, M; Patzeltova, N; Ragan, P [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia); Matel, L [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Department of Nuclear Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO{sub 3}, the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO{sub 3} for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm{sup -3}. The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10{sup -5} Sv.Bq{sup -1} (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephanie; Walther, Clemens; Bister, Stefan; Schauer, Viktoria; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

    2013-10-01

    The contamination of Japan after the Fukushima accident has been investigated mainly for volatile fission products, but only sparsely for actinides such as plutonium. Only small releases of actinides were estimated in Fukushima. Plutonium is still omnipresent in the environment from previous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We investigated soil and plants sampled at different hot spots in Japan, searching for reactor-borne plutonium using its isotopic ratio 240Pu/239Pu. By using accelerator mass spectrometry, we clearly demonstrated the release of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant: While most samples contained only the radionuclide signature of fallout plutonium, there is at least one vegetation sample whose isotope ratio (0.381 +/- 0.046) evidences that the Pu originates from a nuclear reactor (239+240Pu activity concentration 0.49 Bq/kg). Plutonium content and isotope ratios differ considerably even for very close sampling locations, e.g. the soil and the plants growing on it. This strong localization indicates a particulate Pu release, which is of high radiological risk if incorporated.

  15. Plutonium in intertidal coastal and estuarine sediments in the Northern Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, S.R.; Assinder, D.J.; Kelly, M.

    1985-01-01

    Surface intertidal sediments from 35 sites in the Irish Sea have been analysed for their 238 Pu and sup(239,240)Pu activities, together with an intensive study of plutonium in sediments of the Esk Estuary (NW England). The range of plutonium activities for the whole survey were 0.14-4118 and 1.3-16 026 Bq kg -1 for 238 Pu and sup(239,240)Pu, respectively. The levels of Pu activity, derived from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing effluents, in sediments are controlled by lithological factors and the influence of transport and post-depositional processes. Grain size distribution is particularly important, the major part of plutonium activity being in the mud fraction of all sediments. The data suggest that over the Irish Sea coastline, dynamic mixing of sediment grains by reworking and resuspension and/or by dispersion in tidal currents are important in determining plutonium distributions. The exponential decrease in sediment plutonium activities away from the Sellafield source is attributed to the progressive mixing with older contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. (author)

  16. Plutonium concentrations in airborne soil at Rocky Flats and Hanford determined during resuspension experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Plutonium resuspension results are summarized for experiments conducted by the author at Rocky Flats, onsite on the Hanford reservation, and for winds blowing from offsite onto the Hanford reservation near the Prosser barricade boundary. In each case, plutonium resuspension was shown by increased airborne plutonium concentrations as a function of either wind speed or as compared to fallout levels. All measured airborne concentrations were far below maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). Both plutonium and cesium concentrations on airborne soil were normalized by the quantity of airborne soil sampled. Airborne radionuclide concentrations in ..mu..Ci/g were related to published values for radionuclide concentrations on surface soils. For this ratio of radionuclide concentration per gram on airborne soil divided by that for ground surface soil, there are eight orders of magnitude uncertainty from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup 4/. This uncertainty in the equality between plutonium concentrations per gram on airborne and surface soils is caused by only a fraction of the collected airborne soil being transported from offsite rather than all being resuspended from each study site and also by the great variabilities in surface contamination. Horizontal plutonium fluxes on airborne nonrespirable soils at all three sites were bracketed within the same four orders of magnitude from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -3/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for /sup 239/Pu and 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ ..mu..Ci/(m/sup 2/ day) for /sup 238/Pu. Airborne respirable /sup 239/Pu concentrations increased with wind speed for a southwest wind direction coming from offsite near the Hanford reservation Prosser barricade. Airborne plutonium fluxes on nonrespirable particles had isotopic ratios, /sup 240/Pu//sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, similar to weapons grade plutonium rather than fallout plutonium.

  17. Irradiation of the lung with static plutonium microemboli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.M.; Prine, J.R.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Syrian hamsters are exposed to selected lung burdens of plutonium-239 contained in 10-μm diameter microspheres of ZrO 2 ceramic. After injection into the jugular vein, the microspheres lodge in the lung capillaries and remain immobile throughout the lifetime of the animal. The specific activity of the microspheres is varied from 0.22 to 59 pCi/sphere, and the lung burdens achieved vary from 0.44 to 354 nCi. The distribution in the lung is essentially random except in the groups receiving high numbers of spheres. Since entrapment in the lung approaches 100 percent, there is essentially none of the involvement of other organs seen with inhalation methods. Hamsters are also exposed intratracheally to 210 Po to compare the results from an experiment in which other organs are involved and in which a high tumor yield may be anticipated. Tumor production in the microemboli experiment has been quite low, and the overall damage to the lung has been minimal in comparison to the intratracheal experiments with 210 Po or with published data from aerosol experiments. (auth)

  18. Plutonium story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope 238 Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope 239 Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements

  19. Granulometric study of plutonium oxide particles in suspension in the atmosphere of a furnace enclosure during the preparation of U-Pu alloys; Etude granulometrique des particules d'oxyde de plutonium en suspension dans l'atmosphere d'une enceinte de fonderie pendant la fabrication d'alliages U-PU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataller, G; Lenkauer, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Since the extent of an internal contamination by respiration depends on the diameter of the radioactive particles in the atmosphere, a particle size study has been made of the particles present in the air of a working enclosure at the Plutonium Fuel Element Production Section during the preparation of Uranium Plutonium alloy bars. The air of this vessel is drawn through a glass fibre filter on which the dust is deposited. On these filters the radioactive particles are localized first of all by the luminous spots which they produce on a photographic plate when a scintillator is interposed (silver-activated zinc sulphide). An autoradiographic method then makes it possible to distinguish between, and to measure the particles of the oxides of uranium 235, uranium 238 and plutonium 239. On carrying out a microscopic scanning of the relevant parts of the filter, particles are seen surrounded by radial marks the length of which indicates the nature of the grains, and the number of which makes it possible to calculate the theoretical diameter of the radioactive grain. This latter can be compared with the diameter observed with the microscope. Thus for each category of particles it is possible to define a mean diameter and therefore to predict the path of the various inhaled particles in the human body. These results are compared with the very few weakly positive biological samples taken from the personnel working in this enclosure. (authors) [French] L'importance d'une contamination interne par inhalation etant fonction du diametre des particules radioactives en suspension dans l'atmosphere, une etude granulometrique a ete effectuee sur les poussieres existant dans l'air d'une enceinte de travail a la Section de Fabrication des Elements Combustibles au Plutonium pendant une fabrication de barreaux d'alliage Uranium Plutonium, L'air de ce caisson est aspire a travers un filtre en fibre de verre sur lequel restent fixees les poussieres. Sur ces filtres, les particules

  20. Plutonium and uranium in human bones from areas surrounding the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sakaguchi, Aya; Shinohara, Kunihiko; Kurihara, Osamu; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Gusev, Boris I

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the present levels of 239,240Pu and U in residents living near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, more than 70 bone samples were obtained at autopsy. The subjects ranged in age from 30 to 86 years (mean 59.3+/-12.9). Most of the samples consisted of victims who died of various diseases. Plutonium and U were radiochemically separated and determined by alpha-ray spectrometry. The mean concentrations of 239,240Pu and 238U observed were 0.050+/-0.041 mBq/g-ash (vertebrae 71, long-bones 18) and 0.28+/-0.13 mBq/g-ash (22.8+/-10.6 microg U/kg-ash) (vertebrae 58, long bones 16), respectively. The present 239,240Pu levels were within the range found for human bone samples from other countries due solely to global fallout in the early 1980s. The average U concentration was close to the estimate (mean 22.5 microg U/kg-ash) for the UK, and about 10 times higher than those estimated for residents in New York City and Japan. By assuming that the average concentration of 239,240Pu in bone samples is the value at 45 years after instantaneous inhalation in 1955, the initial total intake and the effective dose for 45 years were estimated as 10 Bq and 0.2 mSv, respectively. The annual intake of total U (234,235,238U) and its effective dose for 60 years were estimated as 30 Bq for adult and 0.1 mSv, respectively, for chronic ingestion.

  1. Determination of 238Pu and 239+240Pu in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, Edwin Ariel

    1999-01-01

    This study allowed to determine the concentration of radioactivity alpha, due to contamination for plutonium in cultivated soils of different regions of Guatemala. They were carried out samplings for convenience in cultivated soils of 15 departments of the republic, determined in each soils sample, the activity concentration for plutonium 2 38 Plutonium and 239+240 Plutonium expressed in mili-becquerel by kilogram (mBq/Kg), which has been caused from all over the world by the different provoked liberations or accidents of radioactive particles to the atmosphere

  2. Radiolytic gas generation in plutonium contaminated waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanjian, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Many plutonium contaminated waste materials decompose into gaseous products because of exposure to alpha radiation. The gases generated (usually hydrogen) over long-storage periods may create hazardous conditions. To determine the extent of such hazards, knowing the gas generation yields is necessary. These yields were measured by contacting some common Rocky Flats Plant waste materials with plutonium and monitoring the enclosed atmospheres for extensive periods of time. The materials were Plexiglas, polyvinyl chloride, glove-box gloves, machining oil, carbon tetrachloride, chlorothene VG solvent, Kimwipes (dry and wet), polyethylene, Dowex-1 resin, and surgeon's gloves. Both 239 Pu oxide and 238 Pu oxide were used as radiation sources. The gas analyses were made by mass spectrometry and the results obtained were the total gas generation, the hydrogen generation, the oxygen consumption rate, and the gas composition over the entire storage period. Hydrogen was the major gas produced in most of the materials. The total gas yields varied from 0.71 to 16 cm 3 (standard temperature pressure) per day per curie of plutonium. The oxygen consumption rates varied from 0.0088 to 0.070 millimoles per day per gram of plutonium oxide-239 and from 0.0014 to 0.0051 millimoles per day per milligram 238 Pu

  3. Solubility of plutonium and americium-241 from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids - August 1975 to January 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.; Giles, K.R.; Brown, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The alimentary solubility of plutonium and americium-241 ingested by cattle grazing at Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site and the Clean Slate II site on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada was studied in a series of experiments. For each experiment, or trial, rumen contents collected from a fistulated steer or a normal animals at the time of sacrifice were incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids, and the solubility of plutonium and americium was analyzed following the abomasal, duodenal, jejunal, and lower intestinal digestive states. For Area 13, the peak plutonium-238 solubilities ranged from 1.09 to 9.60 percent for animals grazing in the inner enclosure that surrounds ground zero (GZ); for animals grazing in the outer enclosure, the peaks ranged from 1.86 to 18.46%. The peak plutonium-239 solubilities ranged from 0.71 to 4.81% for animals from the inner enclosure and from 0.71 to 3.61% for animals from the outer enclosure. Plutonium-238 was generally more soluble than plutonium-239. Plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the outer enclosure was usually more soluble than plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the inner enclosure. The highest concentrations of plutonium in the rumen contents of cattle grazing in the inner enclosure were found in trials conducted during August and November 1975 and January 1976. These concentrations decreased during the February, May, and July 1976 trials. The decrease was followed by an increase in plutonium concentration during the November 1976 trial. The concentration of americium-241 followed the same trend. 13 references, 13 tables

  4. Monitoring the risks of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, B.

    1978-01-01

    The difficulties in monitoring the environment in work areas where plutonium is handled are identified and both continuous and personal air sampling techniques considered. Methods of estimating the amounts of plutonium retained in the body are: (1) Direct external counting over the chest of the 'soft' low energy X-rays and gamma rays emitted by the plutonium deposited in the lungs. (2) Measuring plutonium excreted in urine. (3) Analysing faeces soon after a suspected contamination. Limitation of these techniques are discussed and it is shown that estimating the amount of plutonium in the body, or a specific organ, is extremely difficult, both because of the lack of sensitivity of the measuring techniques (especially chest scanning) and because of the problems in interpreting data, stemming from a lack of knowledge of crucial characteristics of the inhaled plutonium (such as particle size and solubility). Nevertheless it is felt that the judicious integration of all the options creates a level of certainty that no individual technique can possibly inspire. (U.K.)

  5. The distribution of plutonium-241 in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium-241 citrate solution at pH 6.5 was injected intravenously or intraperitoneally into hamsters and rats at a dose of 50 MBq kg -1 (1.35 mCi kg -1 ). The animals were killed 1 day or 1 week later, and tissues were removed for autoradiography and radiochemical analysis. Plutonium-241 was distributed in rats in the same way as plutonium-239, and is a suitable isotope for high-resolution tissue-section autoradiography. Plutonium deposits in cells consisted of a nuclear and a cytoplasmic component. In the hamster kidney cells, the amount associated with the nucleus was about 55 per cent of the total cellular plutonium at 24 hours after injection. Six days later, it was only about 30 per cent. Plutonium deposits were also characterized in hepatocytes, in the interstitial cells of the testes, in the cells of ovarian follicles, in chondrocytes and in bone cells, including osteoblasts and osteocytes. In bone there appeared to be both an extracellular and intracellular deposit. No evidence was found of substantial incorporation of plutonium into the mineral phase of bone. (author)

  6. The relationship between sediment and plutonium budgets in a small macrotidal estuary: Esk Estuary, Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.; Emptage, M.; Mudge, S.; Bradshaw, K.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.

    1991-01-01

    During a spring tide, measurements were made of sediment and 239,240 Pu discharges through a cross-section of the Esk estuary. These indicated that over the full tidal cycle, the inner estuary had a net gain of ca. 18 t of sediment and ca. 85 MBq of particulate phase 239,240 Pu, and a probable net loss of ca. 1 to 2 MBq of solution phase 239,240 Pu. Each of these was the net result of large gross discharges of sediment and plutonium into and out of the estuary for which the sea was the main source, with eroded estuarine sediment providing an additional minor source of sediment, of particulate phase plutonium and, via desorption, of solution phase plutonium. A net input with each tide, of sediment and its associated radionuclides, is considered to be typical for the Esk estuary under the normal conditions of low river flows. (author)

  7. Portable gamma-ray holdup and attributes measurements of high- and variable-burnup plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, T.R.; Russo, P.A.; Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Takahashi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Aoki, I.

    1991-01-01

    High burnup-plutonium holdup has been assayed quantitatively by low resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The assay was calibrated with four plutonium standards representing a range of fuel burnup and 241 Am content. Selection of a calibration standard based on its qualitative spectral similarity to gamma-ray spectra of the process material is partially responsible for the success of these holdup measurements. The spectral analysis method is based on the determination of net counts in a single spectral region of interest (ROI). However, the low-resolution gamma-ray assay signal for the high-burnup plutonium includes unknown amounts of contamination from 241 Am. For most needs, the range of calibration standards required for this selection procedure is not available. A new low-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis procedure for assay of 239 Pu has been developed. The procedure uses the calculated isotope activity ratios and the measured net counts in three spectral ROIs to evaluate and remove the 241 Am contamination from the 239 Pu assay signal on a spectrum-by-spectrum basis. The calibration for the new procedure requires only a single plutonium standard. The procedure also provides a measure of the burnup and age attributes of holdup deposits. The new procedure has been demonstrated using portable gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment for a wide range of plutonium standards and has also been applied to the assay of 239 Pu holdup in a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediment following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Vintro, L.L.; Gasco, C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of ∼0.18. Measurements of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing, has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio was 0.033±0.004, while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056±0.003. Both ratios are consistent with those reported for soils samples at the Nevada site and Nagasaki, and are clearly indicative of weapons-grade plutonium. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. X-spectrographic method for plutonium detection. Application to contamination measurements in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel Trouble

    1967-01-01

    After reviewing the radio-toxicology of plutonium 239 and conventional detection methods using its α-radiation, the author considers the measurement of the X emission spectrum of plutonium 239 using a proportional counter filled with argon under pressure. This preliminary work leads to the third part of this research involving the detailed study of the possibilities of applying thin alkali halide crystal scintillators to the detection of soft plutonium X-rays; there follows a systematic study of all the parameters liable to render the detection as sensitive as possible: movement due to the photomultiplier itself and its accessory electronic equipment, nature and size of the crystal scintillator as well as its mode of preparation, shielding against external parasitic radiation. Examples of some applications to the measurement of contamination in humans give an idea of the sensitivity of this method. (author) [fr

  10. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-01-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from 239 Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of 239 Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both

  11. Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Attenuates Seawater Instillation-Induced Acute Lung Injury via the Nrf2 Pathway in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Mengyuan; Zhang, Sheng; Wu, Lifeng; Huan, Le; Huang, Fenglou; Cui, Yunliang; Lin, Zhaofen

    2016-12-01

    Seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury involves oxidative stress and apoptosis. Although hydrogen gas inhalation is reportedly protective in multiple types of lung injury, the effect of hydrogen gas inhalation on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of hydrogen gas on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury and explored the mechanisms involved. Rabbits were randomly assigned to control, hydrogen (2 % hydrogen gas inhalation), seawater (3 mL/kg seawater instillation), and seawater + hydrogen (3 mL/kg seawater instillation + 2 % hydrogen gas inhalation) groups. Arterial partial oxygen pressure and lung wet/dry weight ratio were detected. Protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels were determined. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to monitor changes in lung specimens, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. In addition, NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) 2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein expression were measured, and apoptosis was assessed by measuring caspase-3 expression and using terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. Hydrogen gas inhalation markedly improved lung endothelial permeability and decreased both MDA content and MPO activity in lung tissue; these changes were associated with decreases in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in BALF. Hydrogen gas also alleviated histopathological changes and cell apoptosis. Moreover, Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions were significantly activated and caspase-3 expression was inhibited. These results demonstrate that hydrogen gas inhalation attenuates seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury in rabbits and that the protective effects observed may be related to the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  12. Bronchodilatory effect of inhaled budesonide/formoterol and budesonide/salbutamol in acute asthma: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Jenish J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies that have compared bronchodilatory effect of inhaled budesonide/formoterol combination with budesonide/salbutamol delivered by metered dose inhaler with a spacer in acute exacerbation of asthma in children. We, therefore, compared the bronchodilatory effects of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (dose: 200 μg and 12 μg respectively combination with budesonide (200 μg/salbutamol (200 μg administered by metered dose inhaler and spacer in children of 5-15 years with mild acute exacerbation of asthma [Modified Pulmonary Index Score (MPIS between 6-8] in this double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was FEV1 (% predicted in the two groups at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60 min after administration of the study drug. Results We did not observe any significant differences in the % predicted FEV1 and MPIS between formoterol and salbutamol at various time points from 1 min to 60 min post drug administration. There was significant improvement in FEV1 (% predicted from baseline in both the groups as early as 1 min after drug administration. Conclusions Salbutamol or formoterol delivered along with inhaled corticosteroid by metered dose inhaler with spacer in children between 5-15 years of age with mild acute exacerbation of asthma had similar bronchodilatory effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00900874

  13. Plutonium in algae, sediments and biota in the Barents, Pechora and Kara seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, Kristina; Ikauheimonen, Tarja K; Ylipieti, Jarkko; Matishov, Dmitri G; Matishov, Gennady G

    2000-01-01

    The 239,240 Pu concentrations measured in the sediment, macro algae and benthic fauna were very low in the Russian Arctic seas, and in fish, seabirds and seals usually below the detection limit. The 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu ratios suggest that global fallout is the main source of the plutonium. Fallout level Pu isotope ratios, 0.02 - 0.04, were also found in surface vegetation and soil samples from fifteen locations covering Svalbard, Franz Joseph Land Archipelago, coastal areas and islands of the Barents, Pechora and White seas, including the southern coast of Novaya Zemlya, Kola Bay and the River Yenisey estuary. The areal 239,240 Pu concentrations of the terrestrial sampling plots varied from 9 to 32Bq/m 2 . Significantly enhanced 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu ratios of 0.10 - 0.18 were detected only in the Kola Bay in sediment layers outside and to the south of the Atomflot civilian nuclear ice-breaker base. The enhanced isotope ratios in this section of the Kola Bay were verified by triplicate determinations. The highest ratios were found at a depth 6-7.5 cm, and not in the surface sediment layers, indicating a larger previous release. Plutonium is not concentrated in the marine foodchains. Accumulation of 239,240 Pu was detected in some species of benthic fauna; in molluscs mainly in the shells compared to the soft edible parts of the specimen. Plutonium was not detected higher in the marine food-chain. The 239,240 Pu concentrations measured in the bones and soft tissues of commercial fish species, sea birds and seals were below the detection limit. (author)

  14. 239,249Pu and 137Cs in the air in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.; Salminen, S.; Jaakkola, T.

    2005-01-01

    Kurchatov, where concentrations from 7.400 to 37.000 nBq/m 3 were measured by Dubasov et al. They also determined naturally occurring 210 Po in their air filters and found that its concentration was 1000-times higher than that of plutonium. Concentration of 137 Cs in the air was mainly below the detection limit but in those samples where it was detected the average value was 3.9±1.6 μBq/m 3 . Radiation doses to the population of Kurchatov due to inhalation of air, estimated by the ICRP methodology, were found to be rather low: 0.013 μSv/a for 239,240 Pu and 0.001 μSv/a for 137 Cs at maximum. The annual dose caused by the naturally occurring 210 Po is considerably higher: 13 μSv/a.

  15. Nondestructive assay instrument for measurement of plutonium in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirk, D.G.; Hsue, F.; Li, T.K.; Canada, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    A nondestructive assay (NDA) instrument that measures the 239 Pu content in solutions, using a passive gamma-ray spectroscopy technique, has been developed and installed in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. A detailed evaluation of this instrument has been performed. The results show that the instrument can routinely determine 239 Pu concentrations of 1 to 500 g/l with accuracies of 1 to 5% and assay times of 1 to 2 x 10 3 s

  16. Individual economical value of plutonium isotopes and analysis of the reprocessing of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.C.; Rubini, L.A.; Barroso, D.E.G.

    1983-01-01

    An economical analysis of plutonium recycle in a PWR reactor, without any modification, is done, supposing an open market for the plutonium. The individual value of the plutonium isotopes is determined solving a system with four equations, which the unknow factors are the Pu-239, Pu-240, pu-241 and Pu-242 values. The equations are obtained equalizing the cost of plutonium fuel cycle of four different isotope mixture to the cost of the uranium fuel cycle. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high {sup 239}Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations.

  18. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high 239 Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations

  19. Radiation-induced mesotheliomas in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Haley, P.J.; Hubbs, A.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Mesotheliomas have been reported in rats that inhaled plutonium, but these tumors have not been extensively studied. To investigate a possible role for inhaled radionuclides in the induction of mesotheliomas, four life-span studies conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute are reviewed. A total of 3076 F344 rats were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , mixed uranium-plutonium oxide, or 144 CeO 2 . Results showed that a low incidence of pleural mesotheliomas was induced by either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung. Chronic alpha irradiation was more effective per unit dose in producing mesotheliomas than chronic beta irradiation of the lung by a factor of 15. 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  20. [Efficacy of systemic glucocorticoids combined with inhaled steroid on children with acute laryngitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q P; Zhou, R F; Zhang, Y M; Yang, L

    2018-01-07

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of systemic glucocorticoid (steroid) combined with high dose inhaled steroid in the treatment of children with acute laryngitis. Methods: A total of 78 children with acute laryngitis were randomly divided into study group( n =40) and control group( n =38) between November 2016 and April 2017. In addition to routine treatment of anti infection and symptomatic treatment, Dexamethasone injection(0.3-0.5 mg/kg, 1-3 d, according to the patient's condition) was provided to each group. In addition to the treatment mentioned above, the study group were assigned to receive 1.0 mg Budesonide suspension for inhalation, oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation, every/30 minutes, 2 times in a row, after that every 12 hours. The improvement of inspiratory dyspnea, hoarseness, barking cough and wheezing of both groups was evaluated at 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 72 h after treatment.Sigmaplot 11.5 software was used to analyze the data. Results: No significant difference was detected in terms of inspiratory dyspnea, hoarseness, barking cough or stridor score before treatment between the two groups( P >0.05). Compared with those before treatment, symptoms of inspiratory dyspnea, hoarseness, barking cough and stridor score of both groups improved markedly at 12 h and 24 h after treatment( P dyspnea, hoarseness, barking cough or stridor score at each time point after treatment between the two groups( P >0.05). The effective rate was 92.50% and 92.11% in study group and control group, respectively, and no significant difference was noted ( P >0.05). Conclusion: Compared with single systemic glucocorticoid, systemic glucocorticoids combined with inhaled steroid possessed similar efficacy in treating acute laryngitis and relieving laryngeal obstruction of children.

  1. Plutonium concentrations in arthropods at a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bly, J.A.; Whicker, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    Arthropods were collected for 239 240 Pu ( 239 Pu) and 238 Pu analysis from three study plots in close proximity to the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant and from a site 110 km N-NE of the plant. Mean 239 Pu concentrations in arthropods were 265, 16, 0.7 and 0.5 dis/min g -1 at the three Rocky Flats study plots and at the control site, respectively. Arthropod 239 Pu concentration data were statistically analyzed by season of collection, taxonomic group, and sampling site. Only the collection site differences were significant (α = 0.01) and these were correlated with 239 Pu concentrations in soil. The mean activity ratio of 239 Pu to 238 Pu in arthropods was 52, similar to the value of 51 obtained for soil. The mean ratio of 239 Pu in arthropods to 239 Pu in 0-3 cm soil at Rocky Flats was 9 x 10 -3 . Arthropod biomass and Pu concentration data indicated that only about 10 -8 of the total plutonium inventory is in the arthropod component of the ecosystem. Leafhoppers, grasshoppers and spiders accounted for roughly 80% of the arthropod inventory of 239 Pu. (author)

  2. Estimation of the acute inhalation hazards of chemicals based on route-to-route and local endpoint extrapolation: Experience from Bulk Maritime Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfer, T.; James, D.; Syversen, T.; Bowmer, T.

    2011-01-01

    Data on acute lethal inhalation toxicity from animal studies are commonly required for assessing the hazards to human health of volatile, gaseous and dusty chemicals or their mixtures. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) made the provision of acute inhalation toxicity data a mandatory

  3. Plutonium safety training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, H.J.

    1976-03-01

    This course seeks to achieve two objectives: to provide initial safety training for people just beginning work with plutonium, and to serve as a review and reference source for those already engaged in such work. Numerous references have been included to provide information sources for those wishing to pursue certain topics more fully. The first part of the course content deals with the general safety approach used in dealing with hazardous materials. Following is a discussion of the four properties of plutonium that lead to potential hazards: radioactivity, toxicity, nuclear properties, and spontaneous ignition. Next, the various hazards arising from these properties are treated. The relative hazards of both internal and external radiation sources are discussed, as well as the specific hazards when plutonium is the source. Similarly, the general hazards involved in a criticality, fire, or explosion are treated. Comments are made concerning the specific hazards when plutonium is involved. A brief summary comparison between the hazards of the transplutonium nuclides relative to 239 Pu follows. The final portion deals with control procedures with respect to contamination, internal and external exposure, nuclear safety, and fire protection. The philosophy and approach to emergency planning are also discussed

  4. Models for comparing lung-cancer risks in radon- and plutonium-exposed experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Cross, F.T.; Sanders, C.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1990-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies of radon-exposed underground miners have provided the primary basis for estimating human lung-cancer risks resulting from radon exposure. These studies are sometimes used to estimate lung-cancer risks resulting from exposure to other alpha- emitters as well. The latter use, often referred to as the dosimetric approach, is based on the assumption that a specified dose to the lung produces the same lung-tumor risk regardless of the substance producing the dose. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory, experiments have been conducted in which laboratory rodents have been given inhalation exposures to radon and to plutonium ( 239 PuO 2 ). These experiments offer a unique opportunity to compare risks, and thus to investigate the validity of the dosimetric approach. This comparison is made most effectively by modeling the age-specific risk as a function of dose in a way that is comparable to analyses of human data. Such modeling requires assumptions about whether tumors are the cause of death or whether they are found incidental to death from other causes. Results based on the assumption that tumors are fatal indicate that the radon and plutonium dose-response curves differ, with a linear function providing a good description of the radon data, and a pure quadratic function providing a good description of the plutonium data. However, results based on the assumption that tumors are incidental to death indicate that the dose-response curves for the two exposures are very similar, and thus support the dosimetric approach. 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Calculated critical parameters in simple geometries for oxide and nitrate water mixtures of U-233, U-235 and Pu-239 with thorium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, W.E.; Bierman, S.R.

    1979-11-01

    Calculations have been performed on water mixtures of oxides and nitrates of 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu with chemically similar thorium compounds to determine critical dimensions for simple geometries (sphere, cylinder, and slab). Uranium enrichments calculated were 100%, 20%, 10%, and 5%; plutonium calculations assumed 100% 239 Pu. Thorium to uranium or plutonium weight ratios (Th: U or Pu) calculated were 0, 1, 4, and 8. Both bare and full water reflection conditions were calculated. The results of the calculations are plotted showing a critical dimension versus the uranium or plutonium concentration. Plots of K-infinity and material buckling for each material type are also shown

  6. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat; Etudes biocinetique et biologique comparees d'inhalations chroniques et aigues de composes uraniferes chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monleau, M

    2005-12-15

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure. It

  7. Chemical characterization of local and stratospheric plutonium in Ohio soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical nature of plutonium derived from stratospheric fallout and industrial sources was studied in three agricultural soils. The majority of the soil plutonium was associated with a reductant-soluble, hydrous oxide phase that, under most conditions of terrestrial ecosystems, remains essentially immobile. The proportion of plutonium associated with organic matter (0.1N NaOH-extractable) varied among soils, and increased with decreasing particle size in the same soil. In a soil containing 238 Pu from a local fabrication facility and 239 , 240 Pu from stratospheric fallout, isotopic ratios between the NaOH-extractable and residual phases were essentially constant, indicating that, in these soils, plutonium from both sources behaves similarly. The distribution of soil plutonium with particle size appears to be most directly related to the mass of the soil particle

  8. Late effects of inhaled 238PuO2 in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.; Hackett, P.L.; Lund, J.E.; Powers, G.J.; Ragan, H.A.; Watson, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Osteosarcomas were the primary cause of death in beagle dogs 4 to 8 years after inhalation of 238 PuO 2 . The plutonium body burden at death ranged from 0.4 to 2.6 μCi with 32 to 55 percent of the plutonium in the skeleton. Pulmonary neoplasia was observed in three of the bone-tumor-bearing dogs

  9. Ten years' experience in determining internal contamination among plutonium laboratory workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.; Fieuw, G.

    1976-01-01

    Glove boxes in plutonium laboratories are fitted with ''sniffers'' (air samplers), which evaluate atmospheric contamination. The results of the measurements over a ten-year period of operation are available, and cases of detection in this way of air contamination exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations are exceptional. During contamination aerodynamic particle diameters of 1 - 4 μm were measured. The concentration and characteristics of the aerosol have made it possible to ascertain the inhalable fraction and to estimate the pulmonary and systemic burden in workers. The workers exposed in the laboratories undergo a urine test each month. The results obtained show that there is little risk of internal contamination without the person concerned being aware of an abnormal situation. In the majority of cases it is possible to take proper precautions and to collect the data necessary for evaluating the body burden. Three cases of specific contamination are examined in detail: contamination by plutonium and americium from a non-identified source, detected by routine urine analysis; contamination by inhalation of plutonium; an injury to the left forefinger, accompanied by plutonium contamination. (author)

  10. Compositions of airborne plutonium-bearing particles from a plutonium finishing operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.M. Jr.

    1976-11-01

    The elemental composition of 111 plutonium-bearing particles was determined (using an electron microprobe) as part of a program to investigate the origin and behavior of the long-lived transuranic radionuclides released from fuel reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant. These particles, collected from wet-cabinet and room-air exhausts from the plutonium finishing operation (JB-Line), were between 0.4 and 36 μm in diameter. Ninety-nine of the particles were found to be aggregates of various minerals and metals, six were quartz, and six were small (less than 2-μm-diameter) pieces of iron oxide. Collectively, these particles contained less minerals and more metals than natural dusts contain. The metallic constituents included elements normally not found in dusts, e.g., chromium, nickel, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of aluminum and iron exceeded those normally found in minerals. Elemental concentrations in individual particles covered a wide range: one 2-μm-diameter particle contained 97 percent NiO, a 9-μm-diameter particle contained 72 percent Cr 2 O 3 . Although the particles were selected because they produced plutonium fission tracks, the plutonium concentration was too low to be estimated by microprobe analysis in all but a 1-μm-diameter particle. This plutonium-bearing particle contained 73 percent PuO 2 by weight in combination with Fe 2 O 3 and mica; its activity was estimated at 0.17 pCi of 239 Pu

  11. Routes of plutonium uptake and their relation to biomagnification in starfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.-C.; Fowler, S.W.; Beasley, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu in environmental samples of starfish tissues is identical to the tissue distribution observed in experimental animals following uptake of plutonium directly from water. Plutonium in sea water has a strong affinity for the mucus-rich epidermal layer of starfish which contributes substantially to the relatively high levels of this transuranium nuclide measured in these invertebrates. Transfer of plutonium to starfish via food also occurs; however, the resultant tissue distribution is not consistent with that found in the natural environment where plutonium is available from both contaminated food and water. These data suggest that food chain biomagnification of plutonium by starfish does not occur in nature as has been previously hypothesized. (author)

  12. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  13. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS 2013): soluble plutonium retention in the lungs of an occupationally exposed USTUR case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmachev, S. Y.; Avtandilashvili, M.; Martinez, F.; Thomas, E. M.; Miller, F. L.; Nielsen, C. E.; Puncher, M.; Morgan, W. F.; Birchall, A.

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, plutonium retention in human upper airways was investigated based on the dosimetric structure of the human respiratory tract proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This paper describes analytical work methodology, case selection criteria, and summarizes findings on soluble (ICRP 68 Type M material) plutonium distribution in the lungs of a former nuclear worker occupationally exposed to plutonium nitrate [ 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 ]. Thirty-eight years post-intake, plutonium was found to be uniformly distributed between bronchial (BB), bronchiolar (bb) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) dosimetric compartments as well as between the left and right lungs. 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu total body activity was estimated to be 2333 ± 23 and 42.1 ± 0.7 Bq, respectively. The results of this work provide key information on the extent of plutonium binding in the upper airways of the human respiratory tract. (authors)

  14. Plutonium uptake by Scenedesmus obliquus as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacik, M.F.; Giesy, J.P.; Wilhite, E.L.; Corey, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Uptake of 238 Pu 4+ , 238 Pu 6+ , 239 Pu 4+ and 239 Pu 6+ by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz was studied to determine whether isotope or oxidation state differences affect Pu uptake from aqueous medium by algal cells. At equivalent 238 Pu and 239 PU concentrations, even when initial oxidation states differed, accumulations of these isotopes by S.obliquus were not significantly (p>0.05) different. Plutonium accumulation by S.obliquus was log-linear. (author)

  15. Feasibility study of plutonium isotopic analysis of resin beads by nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.

    1985-01-01

    We have initiated a feasibility study on the use of nondestructive low-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy for plutonium isotopic analysis on resin beads. Seven resin bead samples were measured, with each sample containing an average of 9 μg of plutonium; the isotopic compositions of the samples varied over a wide range. The gamma-ray spectroscopy results, obtained from 4-h counting-time measurements, were compared with mass spectrometry results. The average ratios of gamma-ray spectroscopy to mass spectrometry were 1.014 +- 0.025 for 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 0.996 +- 0.018 for 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 0.980 +- 0.038 for 241 Pu/ 239 Pu. The rapid, automated, and accurate nondestructive isotopic analysis of resin beads may be very useful to process technicians and International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Recent trends of plutonium deposition observed in Japan: comparison with naturallithogenic radionuclides, thorium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Aoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium in monthly deposition samples from 2000 to end of 2003 collected to Tsukuba (the Meteorological Research Institute), Japan is reported, together with monthly thorium deposition. The annual deposition of 239,240 Pri during the past 18 years. ranged from 1.7 to 7.8 mBq m -2 y -1 shows no systematic inter-annual variation. However, a maximum annual 239,240 Pu deposition (7.8 mBq m -2 y -1 ) was observed in 2002. On the other hand, monthly 239,240 Pu depositions show a typical seasonal variation with a maximum in spring season (March to April), which corresponds to the seasonal cycle of generation of dust storms in the East Asian arid area. Thorium, which is a typical lithogenic radionuclide, reflects soil-derived particles in the atmospheric dust. The monthly Th deposition showed a typical seasonal trend with a maximum in spring and minimum in summer. The 230 Th/ 232 Th activity ratios in the deposition samples significantly differed from that in surface soils collected in Tsukuba area, which means that a significant part of thorium in deposition samples is not derived from suspension of local soil particles. The result reveals that the resent 239,240 Pu deposition observed in Japan are attributed to resuspension of deposited plutonium; resuspended plutonium originates from the East Asian continent desert and arid areas. These findings suggest that a significant amount of soil dust observed in Tsukuba is attributable to the long-range transport of continental dust from the East Asian arid areas. Plutonium in deposition samples as does thorium would become a proxy of the environmental change in the Asian continent.

  17. Acute Impact of Inhaled Short Acting B-Agonists on 5 Km Running Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dickinson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there appears to be no ergogenic effect from inhaled salbutamol no study has investigated the impact of the acute inhalation of 1600 µg, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA daily upper limit, on endurance running performance. To investigate the ergogenic effect of an acute inhalation of short acting β2-agonists at doses up to 1600 µg on 5 km time trial performance and resultant urine concentration. Seven male non-asthmatic runners (mean ± SD; age 22.4 ± 4.3 years; height 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass 76.6 ± 8.6 kg provided written informed consent. Participants completed six 5 km time-trials on separate days (three at 18 °C and three at 30 °C. Fifteen minutes prior to the initiation of each 5 km time-trial participants inhaled: placebo (PLA, 800 µg salbutamol (SAL800 or 1600 µg salbutamol (SAL1600. During each 5 km time-trial HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, RPE and blood lactate were measured. Urine samples (90 ml were collected between 30-180 minutes post 5 km time-trial and analysed for salbutamol concentration. There was no significant difference in total 5 km time between treatments (PLA 1714.7 ± 186.2 s; SAL800 1683.3 ± 179.7 s; SAL1600 1683.6 ± 190.7 s. Post 5 km time-trial salbutamol urine concentration between SAL800 (122.96 ± 69.22 ug·ml-1 and SAL1600 (574.06 ± 448.17 ug·ml-1 were not significantly different. There was no improvement in 5 km time-trial performance following the inhalation of up to 1600 µg of salbutamol in non-asthmatic athletes. This would suggest that the current WADA guidelines, which allow athletes to inhale up to 1600 µg per day, is sufficient to avoid pharmaceutical induced performance enhancement.

  18. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET γ-irradiation or α-irradiation from inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled 239 PuO 2 or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + 239 PuO 2 study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning

  19. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat; Etudes biocinetique et biologique comparees d'inhalations chroniques et aigues de composes uraniferes chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monleau, M

    2005-12-15

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure

  20. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, H.; Gottlieb, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  1. Plutonium production in a remote cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddux, E.P.; Purcell, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Production of 239 Pu metal has traditionally been carried out in glovebox enclosures for protection of operating personnel and the environment. With the advent of more stringent federal regulations for protecting personnel, the environment, and security of special nuclear materials, it is proposed that plutonium be processed in a totally remote environment using automated work stations and robotic materials transfer and equipment maintenance. At the Savannah River Plant, the existing plutonium production facility is a batch-type glovebox operation built in the 1950s. A viable alternative to restoration of the existing glovebox operation is to provide a facility that uses remote cell operation

  2. Human health issues for plutonium inhalation: Perspectives from laboratory animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Since the first production of plutonium in the 1940s, potential health effects from plutonium have been a concern for humans. The few people exposed to plutonium and the relatively small intakes that have occurred, at least in the Western world, have resulted in very little direct information from human population studies. The Manhattan Project workers have been followed for decades, and few health effects have been observed. The situation is similar for the population of workers at the Rocky Flats facility. Some information is now being released from the former Soviet Union on selected worker populations who show biological effects, primarily pulmonary fibrosis and some increase in lung cancers

  3. The acute exposure effects of inhaled nickel nanoparticles on murine endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Cuevas, Azita K; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung Chi

    2014-08-01

    The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may help to explain observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled nickel nanoparticle exposures, such as increases in vascular inflammation, generation of reactive oxygen species, altered vasomotor tone and potentiated atherosclerosis in murine species. Following an acute whole body inhalation exposure to 500 µg/m(3) of nickel nanoparticles for 5 h, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the exposure. Acute exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation (CEPCs). CECs were significantly elevated indicating that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. These results coincided with a decrease in the mRNA of receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing. These data provide new insight into how an acute nickel nanoparticle exposure to half of the current Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit may adversely affect EPCs and exacerbate cardiovascular disease states.

  4. Plutonium concentrations in arthropods at a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, J A; Whicker, F W [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA). Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Biology

    1979-09-01

    Arthropods were collected for /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu (/sup 239/Pu) and /sup 238/Pu analysis from three study plots in close proximity to the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant and from a site 110 km N-NE of the plant. Mean /sup 239/Pu concentrations in arthropods were 265, 16, 0.7 and 0.5 dis/min g/sup -1/ at the three Rocky Flats study plots and at the control site, respectively. Arthropod /sup 239/Pu concentration data were statistically analyzed by season of collection, taxonomic group, and sampling site. Only the collection site differences were significant (..cap alpha.. = 0.01) and these were correlated with /sup 239/Pu concentrations in soil. The mean activity ratio of /sup 239/Pu to /sup 238/Pu in arthropods was 52, similar to the value of 51 obtained for soil. The mean ratio of /sup 239/Pu in arthropods to /sup 239/Pu in 0-3 cm soil at Rocky Flats was 9 x 10/sup -3/. Arthropod biomass and Pu concentration data indicated that only about 10/sup -8/ of the total plutonium inventory is in the arthropod component of the ecosystem. Leafhoppers, grasshoppers and spiders accounted for roughly 80% of the arthropod inventory of /sup 239/Pu.

  5. Environmental levels of 239+240Pu and 90Sr for internal radiation exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.; Khandekar, R.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements have been carried out on the concentration of low levels of long-lived isotopes of 239+240 Pu and 90 Sr in the environmental materials such as atmospheric particulates, drinking water and food. The estimation of daily intake of these isotopes through inhalation and ingestion is a pre-requisite for the assessment of internal exposure. This paper presents temporal distribution of 239+240 Pu and 90 Sr in rain water, drinking water and total diet samples collected at Trombay site. The annual committed effective dose due to 90 Sr through inhalation and diet to the population of Bombay has been estimated to be 0.06 nSv/y and 0.48 μSv/y, respectively, and the same for 239+240 Pu is 1.3 nSv/y and 0.9 nSv/y, respectively. The data is discussed in relation to previous years' values to assess for any significant increase. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Qualitative chemical analysis of plutonium by Alpha spectroscopy.; Determinacion cualitativa de plutonio mediante espectroscopia alfa.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez G, J Qumica.J.

    1994-12-31

    In this work the separation and purification of plutonium from irradiated uranium was done. The plutonium, produced by the irradiation of uranium in a nuclear reactor and the {beta} decay of {sup 239} Np, was stabilized to Pu {sup +4} with sodium nitrite. Plutonium was separated from the fission products and uranium by ion exchange using the resin Ag 1 X 8. It was electrodeposited on stainless steel discs and the alpha radioactivity of plutonium was measured in a surface barrier detector. The results showed that plutonium was separated with a radiochemical purity higher than 99 %. (Author).

  7. Radiation-induced mesotheliomas in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Haley, P.J.; Hubbs, A.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Mesotheliomas have been reported in rats that inhaled plutonium, but these tumors have not been extensively studied. To investigate a possible role for inhaled radionuclides in the induction of mesotheliomas, four life-span studies conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute are reviewed. A total of 3076 F344 rats were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, mixed uranium-plutonium oxide, or {sup 144}CeO{sub 2}. Results showed that a low incidence of pleural mesotheliomas was induced by either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung. Chronic alpha irradiation was more effective per unit dose in producing mesotheliomas than chronic beta irradiation of the lung by a factor of 15. 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs. (MHB)

  8. Aspects of inhaled DTPA toxicity in the rat, hamster and beagle dog and treatment effectiveness for excorporation of plutonium from the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.; Ballou, J.E.; Lund, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Busch, R.H.; Hackett, P.L.; Willard, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    After inhaling 1 to 4 HD (human dose equivalents, i.e. 1g of calcium trisodium N,N-bis(2-bis (carboxymethyl) amino ethyl)glycinate per 70kg of body weight) of Ca-DTPA, rats and hamsters developed a transitory vesicular emphysema. This was not found in animals sacrified later than 3 weeks after the last exposure. Dogs were anesthetized and administered Ca-DTPA aerosols via an intratracheal catheter for 30min/day for 5 days. The average dose/exposure was 4 HD. One week after the last exposure, 3/4 treated dogs and 0/2 dogs exposed to saline aerosols showed enlargement and submucosal lymphoid follicles in the pyloric region of the stomach; this was not present in dogs sacrificed at 4, 8 or 18 weeks post-exposure. Ephitheleal atypia in the alveolar lining was noted in 5/16 dogs inhaling Ca-DTPA and in 1/8 dogs exposed to saline aerosols, and may or may not be treatment-related. In long-term studies, rats were administered a lung burden of about 78 nCi 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 by inhalation and 20 days later were given six inhalation treatments of about 1 HD Ca-DTPA. Over their lifetime these animals showed no difference in survival or bone or lung tumour incidence from rats receiving Pu alone. Rats receiving 1.2 μCi 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 intramuscularly were treated promptly with 1.2 HD inhaled or intraperitoneally injected Ca-DTPA. The two methods of Ca-DTPA administration gave statistically identical Pu excorporation. Similar treatments initiated 8 months after the Pu injection also showed no effect of administration route. These experiments and implications for the safety and efficacy of inhaled Ca-DTPA as treatment for transuranic incorporations in man are discussed. (author)

  9. 239,240Pu distribution in the Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi

    1996-01-01

    Distribution of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the Japanese were reviewed, and compared with those estimated with ICRP metabolic models. Inhalation and ingestion amount of these nuclides were calculated from simple models, and used as input to the ICRP metabolic models. ICRP-30 model or the combination of ICRP-66 lung model and ICRP-67 metabolic model were used for the calculation. The estimated 239,240 Pu concentrations in lung, liver, skeleton, kidney and muscle by using of the combination of ICRP-66 and 67 models agreed well with the measured data in most cases. The contribution of ingestion intake to body burden of 239,240 Pu was estimated to be 12% with 5 x 10 -4 as f 1 value. The combination of ICRP-66 and 67 model could described fairly well the organ burden of 241 Am measured in Akita and Niigata district. The 241 Am grown from 241 Pu in the human body was calculated to contribute 90% of the burden. (author)

  10. NFAT5 participates in seawater inhalation-induced acute lung injury via modulation of NF-κB activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Liu, Manling; Bo, Liyan; Liu, Wei; Liu, Qingqing; Chen, Xiangjun; Xu, Dunquan; Li, Zhichao; Jin, Faguang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) is a transcription factor that can be activated by extracellular tonicity. It has been reported that NFAT5 may increase the transcription of certain osmoprotective genes in the renal system, and the aim of the current study was to explore the role of NFAT5 in seawater inhalation-induced acute lung injury. Though establishing the model of seawater inhalation-induced acute lung injury, it was demonstrated that seawater inhalation enhanced the transcription and protein expression of NFAT5 (evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry stain and western blotting) and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB (evaluated by western blotting and mRNA expression levels of three NF-κB-dependent genes) both in lung tissue and rat alveolar macrophage cells (NR8383 cells). When expression of NFAT5 was reduced in NR8383 cells using an siRNA targeted to NFAT5, the phosphorylation of NF-κB and transcription of NF-κB-dependent genes were significantly reduced. In addition, the elevated content of certain inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-8] were markedly reduced. In conclusion, NFAT5 serves an important pathophysiological role in seawater inhalation-induced acute lung injury by modulating NF-κB activity, and these data suggest that NFAT5 may be a promising therapeutic target. PMID:27779669

  11. Development of isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Parker, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Kurosawa, A.; Akiyama, T. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We are studying the feasibility of determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic distribution of highly radioactive, spent-fuel dissolver solutions by employing high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The study involves gamma-ray plutonium isotopic analysis for both dissolver and spiked dissolver solution samples, after plutonium is eluted through an ion-exchange column and absorbed in a small resin bead bag. The spike is well characterized, dry plutonium containing {approximately}98% of {sup 239}Pu. By using measured isotopic information, the concentration of elemental plutonium in the dissolver solution can be determined. Both the plutonium concentration and the isotopic composition of the dissolver solution obtained from this study agree well with values obtained by traditional isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Because it is rapid, easy to operate and maintain, and costs less, this new technique could be an alternative method to IDMS for input accountability and verification measurements in reprocessing plants. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET {gamma}-irradiation or {alpha}-irradiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning.

  13. Measurement of plutonium isotopic composition by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Shin, J. S.; Ahn, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The technology of the analysis of plutonium isotopic ratio is independent of the measurement geometry and applicable to samples of physical and chemical composition. Three standard plutonium samples were measured in the HPGe system. The results showed that CRM 136 and CRM 137 containing 238 Pu(0.223%) and 238 Pu(0.268%) were 18.4% and 14.2% error and CRM 138 of 238 Pu(0.01%) was 76% error. However the analysis represented less than 1.6% and 9% error in the three standard samples of highly involved 239 Pu and 240 Pu. Therefore, gamma-ray spectroscopy is very effective in the plutonium isotope analysis, having greater than 10% in content

  14. Using plutonium excretion data to predict dose from chronic and acute exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahenbuhl, M.P.; Wilde, J.L.; Slaughter, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Using fission track analysis (FTA) in conjunction with a composite theoretical model of the transport of plutonium (Pu) in the human body creates a new opportunity to estimate the exposure and dose to the general population due to plutonium in the environment. For the purposes of this study, data derived from FTA performed at the University of Utah's Center for Excellence in Nuclear Technology, Engineering and Research (CENTER) has been used to predict doses for two populations. Both population groups have no known history of plutonium exposures. Therefore, two exposure scenarios (acute and chronic) were assumed to provide boundaries for dose estimates. Dose predictions focus on equivalent dose to lung, liver, and skeletal systems and range from 0.01 mSv to 560 mSv as a function of organ, sample collection interval and exposure type. Additionally, these reconstructions demonstrate the sensitivity of dose calculations to time of sample collection and duration of exposure. As anticipated for a class Y particle, the predicted average equivalent tissue dose to the lungs represents the highest dose to the evaluated compartments. Furthermore, the data imply that the general population receives a dose one order of magnitude lower than a radiation worker with no history of exposure for the equivalent exposure scenario. (author)

  15. Virus Type and Genomic Load in Acute Bronchiolitis: Severity and Treatment Response With Inhaled Adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven, Håvard O; Megremis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2016-03-15

    Acute bronchiolitis frequently causes infant hospitalization. Studies on different viruses or viral genomic load and disease severity or treatment effect have had conflicting results. We aimed to investigate whether the presence or concentration of individual or multiple viruses were associated with disease severity in acute bronchiolitis and to evaluate whether detected viruses modified the response to inhaled racemic adrenaline. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 363 infants with acute bronchiolitis in a randomized, controlled trial that compared inhaled racemic adrenaline versus saline. Virus genome was identified and quantified by polymerase chain reaction analyses. Severity was assessed on the basis of the length of stay and the use of supportive care. Respiratory syncytial virus (83%) and human rhinovirus (34%) were most commonly detected. Seven other viruses were present in 8%-15% of the patients. Two or more viruses (maximum, 7) were detected in 61% of the infants. Virus type or coinfection was not associated with disease severity. A high genomic load of respiratory syncytial virus was associated with a longer length of stay and with an increased frequency of oxygen and ventilatory support use. Treatment effect of inhaled adrenaline was not modified by virus type, load or coinfection. In infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis, disease severity was not associated with specific viruses or the total number of viruses detected. A high RSV genomic load was associated with more-severe disease. NCT00817466 and EudraCT 2009-012667-34. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Determination of plutonium 241 in solutions of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, A.; Bilcot, J.B.; Poletiko, C.

    1990-09-01

    Determination of plutonium 241 in nuclear wastes is important because of long period and high energy of some daughter products. In this report are presented two quantitative analysis methods using both scintillation techniques: A complete method, in any case, by selective extraction of plutonium on an anionic resin allowing simultaneous determination of Pu 241 and the sum of other plutonium isotopes; a simplified method when alpha activity is higher than beta/gamma activity by liquid extraction with TTA. These methods are applied for analysis of 4 waste types: cement encapsulated wastes, bitumen encapsulated wastes, incineration ashes, leaching of encapsulated incineration ashes. In these 4 examples, Pu 241 activity is equal or higher than the sum of alpha plutonium isotope activity. Separation efficiency, measured from Pu 239 or with Pu 236 as tracer, is between 90 and 99% [fr

  17. Cerebral blood flow in acute and chronic ischemic stroke using xenon-133 inhalation tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1986-01-01

    . They showed in the acute phase (Days 1-3) very large low-flow areas, larger than the hypodense areas seen on the CT scan. The cerebral vasoconstrictor and vasodilator capacity was tested in the acute phase following aminophylline and acetazolamide, respectively. A preserved but reduced reactivity was seen......Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in 12 patients with acute symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. CBF was measured by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computer tomography. Six patients had severe strokes and large infarcts on the CT scan...

  18. The isotopic signature of fallout plutonium in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesseler, K.O.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium analyses of a dated coral record from the French Frigate Shoals in the central North Pacific indicate that there are two major sources of Pu in this basin: close-in (tropospheric) fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s and global (stratospheric) fallout which peaked in 1962. Furthermore, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds is characteristically higher (0.24) than that of global fallout Pu (0.18-0.19). Seawater and sediment samples from the North Pacific exhibit a wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu values (0.19-0.34), with a trend towards higher ratios in the subsurface waters and sediment. Deep water 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios are higher in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands relative to stations further from this close-in fallout source. These preliminary data suggest that fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds is more rapidly removed from the surface waters than is global fallout Pu. Plutonium geochemistry appears to be related to the physical/chemical form of Pu-bearing particles generated by different fallout sources. (author)

  19. ACRO - a computer program for calculating organ doses from acute or chronic inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Akio; Kishimoto, Yoichiro; Shinohara, Kunihiko.

    1978-01-01

    The computer program ACRO has been developed to calculate organ doses from acute or chronic inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides. The ICRP Task Group Lung Model (TGLM) was used for inhalation model, and a simple one-compartment model for ingestion. This program is written in FORTRAN IV, and can be executed with storage requirements of about 260 K bytes. (auth.)

  20. Modifying effects of pre-existing fibrosis in rats exposed to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D L; Mauderly, J L; Gillett, N A; Hahn, F F

    1988-12-01

    We have initiated a study using rats to determine the modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis on the retention and biological effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of 8.5 IU/kg body weight of bleomycin at 45 to 49 days before inhalation exposure to an aerosol of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. The clearance of {sup 239}Pu from the lungs of rats was decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in rats with pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis compared with controls. Respiratory function, lung morphometric measurements and histological evaluations were all consistent with the presence of mild pulmonary fibrosis in the rats treated with bleomycin. Pre-existing pulmonary fibrosis resulted in an increased retention of the initial lung burdens of {sup 239}Pu, apparently by entrapping the particles in fibrotic areas of the lung. The life span of the rats with pulmonary fibrosis was decreased by up to 25% compared with control rats having similar initial lung burdens of {sup 239}Pu. (author)

  1. Analysis of events resulting from an accident involving a transport aircraft carrying plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Hubert, P.; Pages, P.

    1988-03-01

    This study assesses the impact on health of an aircraft accident resulting in the release into the atmosphere of the reprocessing product PuO 2 . The consequences associated with the inhalation of the initial cloud, the passage into suspension of the powder deposited on the ground and the contamination of the food chain were therefore evaluated as a function of the quantity released. It was deduced that the risk of inhalation is by far the greatest. The countermeasures likely to be implemented during emergency action were subjected to analysis. In particular, it appeared that the impact of the first cloud could not really be mitigated but that it was possible to take effective action against the other consequences. Research was undertaken to establish tolerable release quantities which could if necessary be used as acceptance criteria for packaging tests. This indicated that a release in the range 10-100 g would give rise to controllable consequences, at least in a rural environment. The calculations relating to the estimation of the acute toxicity associated with the inhalation of Plutonium and details of the emergency action plan are given in appendix

  2. Historical aspects of the discovery of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The historical events that led up to the discovery of plutonium and subsequently, how that discovery helped shape the modern period table of the elements, and ushered in a new era of nuclear science and technology are discussed. When the first of the transuranium elements, neptunium was discovered, it was realized that the radioactive βdecay of "2"3"9Np should lead to the formation of element 94. The scale of the experiments at that time, however, precluded its identification. Plutonium was first produced late in 1940 by Seaborg, McMillan, Kennedy, and Wahl1,2 by bombarding uranium with deuterons to produce the isotope "2"3"8Pu

  3. Occurrence of plutonium in the terrestrial environment at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Per; Jernström, Jussi; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2011-01-01

    Samples of air, resuspended particles, water, soil and precipitation were collected in an area 10 km south of the Thule 1968 impact point and analysed for their content of 241Am and plutonium. The results from the soil sampling show a very inhomogeneous distribution with hot spots ranging up...... to several hundred kBq per m2 of Pu. Although concentrations in surface soil can be very high the concentration in analysed air filter samples and passive aerosol collectors are very low. Exposure to plutonium due to inhalation of airborne plutonium particles in the area is of little importance according...

  4. Rapid screening method for plutonium in mixed waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, W.; Culp, T.; Miller, R.

    1987-01-01

    A waste stream sampling program was undertaken to determine those waste streams which contained hazardous constituents, and would therefore be regulated as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The waste streams also had the potential of containing radioactive material, either plutonium, americium, or depleted uranium. Because of the potential for contamination with radioactive material, a method of rapidly screening the liquid samples for radioactive material was required. A counting technique was devised to count a small aliquot of a sample, determine plutonium concentration, and allow the sample to be shipped the same day they were collected. This technique utilized the low energy photons (x-rays) that accompany α decay. This direct, non-destructive x-ray analysis was applied to quantitatively determine Pu-239 concentrations in industrial samples. Samples contained a Pu-239, Am-241 mixture; the ratio and/or concentrations of these two radionuclides was not constant. A computer program was designed and implemented to calculate Pu-239 activity and concentration (g/ml) using the 59.5 keV Am-241 peak to determine Am-241's contribution to the 17 keV region. Am's contribution was subtracted, yielding net counts in the 17 keV region due to Pu. 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Incidence of bone cancer in beagles after inhalation of 90SrCl2 or 238PuO2: Implications for estimation of risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Among the life-span studies conducted with beagle dogs, bone cancer has been in two studies the predominant effect at death. These studies involved dogs that inhaled 90 SrCl 2 , which is very soluble in body fluids; and dogs that inhaled 238 PuO 2 , which is initially insoluble but eventually becomes fragmented and more soluble. Both radionuclides were deposited in the skeleton after dissolution in the lung and absorption into the bloodstream. All dogs in the 90 Sr study are dead, and all living dogs in the 238 Pu study are at least 7 years postexposure. Results from these two studies were compared to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of chronic beta and alpha radiation delivered from these two radionuclides. These data also were used to estimate the risk of bone cancer in man by using comparisons with data from the 90 Sr-, 239 Pu-, and 226 Ra-injected dogs at the University of Utah and data on humans who ingested 226 Ra or were injected with 224 Ra. Such comparisons provided a link between studies in laboratory animals and the available human data. In this way risks of bone cancer in humans from inhaled plutonium or strontium were estimated, even though currently no human cases of bone cancer are known to have resulted from the inhalation of either of these radionuclides. 15 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Study of a dosimetric methodology for plutonium by means of radiotonicological analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellintani, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The present study is mainly concerned with an internal individual monitoring program for workers dealing with 239 Pu, by measuring the 239 Pu content in their urine. General aspects related with the plutonium radiotoxicity and its chemical, physical and metabolic properties are discussed. The methodology chosen for the 239 Pu analyses in urine is based on the wet ashing of the urine sample, followed by the plutonium separation by precipitation with lanthanium nitrate and extraction with thenoyltrifluoroacetone. After the separation, the samples is electrodeposited and the activity measured by alpha spectrometry. The results were then analyzed by taking into account the couting efficiency obtained of 23.72%, the chemical recovery of 85.3% and the lower limit of detection of 1.1 x 10 -3 Bq. Finally, the bases for the establishment of reference levels for urinary excretion are discussed by considering the maximum permissible body burden (MPBB) and the annual limit of intake (ALI). (author) [pt

  7. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia); Wisnubroto, Djarot S. [The Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup −1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup −1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup −3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup −3}.

  8. Comparison and modification of Pu-239 kinetics in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volf, V.; Gamer, A.; Laengle, U.

    1987-01-01

    It is obvious that the biokinetics of bone-seeking radionuclides are influenced by skeletal growth and remodelling, the rate of which in general decreases with increasing age. For plutonium, Mahlum and Sikov (1974) observed that rats injected with Pu-239 as weanlings retained a lower percentage in the liver and more in the bones than the animals injected as adults. However, skeletal Pu-239 was diluted more rapidly in the young rats because of intensive new bone formation and this led to a more pronounced reduction in the accumulation of radiation dose than was the case in adult animals. The aim of the present experiments was to study: a) The age effect on Pu-239 biokinetics in adult rates as influenced by the sex of the animals. b) Early retention and distribution of Pu-239 in the bones of young and adult rats injected with an optimal osteosarcomogenic dose. c) The effectiveness of a delayed prolonged administration of Zn-DTPA in drinking water for the mobilization of injected Pu-239 in rats of various age. 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  9. Concentration of plutonium in hair following intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; Cacic, C.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Larsen, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of plutonium has been determined along the length of the hair of a female subject who received 11.1 kBq (0.3 μCi) of 239 Pu by intravenous injection in 1945. The subject succumbed to her preexisting illness 518 days post-injection. The growth rate of hair given for females in ICRP is 0.36 mm/day, and so a half-length of 43 +- 9 mm corresponds to a half-time of 120 +- 25 days. However, since plutonium was found in the most distal portion of the hair, an average growth rate of at least 280 mm/518 days, or 0.54 mm/ day is indicated for this individual. This value yields a half-time of 80 +- 20 days for the long-lived component of plutonium concentration in the hair and therefore also in the blood. This half-time is in excellent agreement with that of 88 +- 13 days found for the plutonium injection cases

  10. Cerebral blood flow in acute and chronic ischemic stroke using xenon-133 inhalation tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1986-01-01

    Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in 12 patients with acute symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. CBF was measured by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computer tomography. Six patients had severe strokes and large infarcts on the CT scan...

  11. The toxicological study of plutonium: tumor-inducing effect of plutonium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rusong; Zhao Yongchan; Wang Shoufang; Li Maohe

    1992-09-01

    The carcinogenic effects of Pu compounds through different routs of administration are introduced. The following results have been obtained: (1) Pu is really a powerful carcinogenic radionuclide. (2) Osteosarcoma can be induced in rats by plutonium nitrate at low level radiation. The incidence is from 38.9% to 42.9% in the 185 kBq/kg group. (3) Lung cancer can be induced by plutonium dioxide and the biological effect of TLN (thoracic lymph node) is significant. (4) Under the combined treatment of 239 Pu, 90 Sr and 144 Ce, the carcinogenic effects is much greater than their separative effect on rats. (5) By using the method of comparative toxicology, the risk of osteosarcoma induced by Pu in human is about 600/(10 6 man·cGy) which is extrapolated from animal to human. The above conclusions are important for evaluating the potential hazard of Pu to human beings

  12. Characterization of plutonium contamination at Maralinga: Dosimetry and cleanup criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Martin, L.J.; Williams, G.A.; Harries, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    An area of South Australia remained contaminated following British atomic tests at Maralinga during 1955-1963. Of importance is the long lived 239 Pu of which some 24 kg was explosively dispersed in several 'minor trials'. The extent, quantities and physical characteristics of the plutonium have been assessed and estimates of dose, dominated by the inhalation pathway in the critical group of Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle, have been made for potential occupants. Dosimetry, together with social and economic factors, underpins the setting of cleanup criteria in terms of activity concentrations averaged over large areas and permissible concentrations of contaminated particles. The possibility of intentional behaviour such as fragment scavenging has also influenced limits on particulate contamination. Rehabilitation of the most contaminated areas is underway, with scraping of surface soil and burial on site completed. Vehicular-mounted radiation detector systems for wide area and particle monitoring have been developed, and procedures established for determining cleanup boundaries and for the verification monitoring to ensure that the cleanup process has met the specified criteria. Data are being obtained for a final dose and health risk assessment of the cleaned up site. (author)

  13. A comparative assessment of the acute inhalation toxicity of vanadium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, N; Seagrave, J C; Plunkett, L M; MacGregor, J A

    2016-11-01

    Vanadium compounds have become important in industrial processes, resulting in workplace exposure potential and are present in ambient air as a result of fossil fuel combustion. A series of acute nose-only inhalation toxicity studies was conducted in both rats and mice in order to obtain comparative data on the acute toxicity potential of compounds used commercially. V 2 O 3 , V 2 O 4 , and V 2 O 5 , which have different oxidation states (+3, +4, +5, respectively), were delivered as micronized powders; the highly water-soluble and hygroscopic VOSO 4 (+4) could not be micronized and was instead delivered as a liquid aerosol from an aqueous solution. V 2 O 5 was the most acutely toxic micronized powder in both species. Despite its lower overall percentage vanadium content, a liquid aerosol of VOSO 4 was more toxic than the V 2 O 5 particles in mice, but not in rats. These data suggest that an interaction of characteristics, i.e., bioavailability, solubility and oxidation state, as well as species sensitivity, likely affect the toxicity potential of vanadium compounds. Based on clinical observations and gross necropsy findings, the lung appeared to be the target organ for all compounds. The level of hazard posed will depend on the specific chemical form of the vanadium. Future work to define the inhalation toxicity potential of vanadium compounds of various oxidation states after repeated exposures will be important in understanding how the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of specific vanadium compounds interact to affect toxicity potential and the potential risks posed to human health.

  14. DTPA treatment schedules for decorporation of /sup 239/Pu from simulated wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemenetzis, E; Volf, V [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie

    1977-06-01

    Rats were injected intramuscularly with /sup 239/Pu in the form of citrate or nitrate and the effect of daily subcutaneous injections of 30 ..mu..mole kg/sup -1/ Ca-DTPA was compared with that of higher Zn-DTPA doses administered in single daily injections or in a continuous infusion. Treatment reduced uptake by the organs of /sup 239/Pu, but did not influence its translocation. When /sup 239/Pu was injected as citrate, it was not only more readily translocated, but also more easily chelated than after injection as /sup 239/Pu-nitrate. The higher decorporation effectiveness of Ca-DTPA could be compensated only by increasing the Zn-DTPA dosage by a factor of 33. Maintenance of a sustained Zn-DTPA blood level proved to be of little significance. Thus, from the decorporation point of view, there is at present no reason to replace single daily injections of Ca-DTPA by Zn-DTPA during early treatment of incorporated plutonium.

  15. On-line monitoring of low-level plutonium concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Huff, G.A.; Rebagay, T.V.

    1979-10-01

    An on-line monitor has been developed to assay plutonium in nitric acid solutions. The performance of the monitor has been assessed by a laboratory experimentation program using solutions with plutonium concentrations from 0.1 to 10 g/l. These conditions are typical of the plutonium solutions in an input stream to a plutonium-purification cycle in a reprocessing plant following uranium/plutonium partitioning. The monitoring system can be fully automated and shows great promise for detecting and quantifying plutonium in situ, thus minimizing the reliance on traditional sampling and laboratory-analysis techniques. The total concentration and isotopic abundance of plutonium are determined by measuring the absolute intensities of the low-energy gamma rays characteristics of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu nuclides by direct gamma-ray spectroscopy and computer analysis of the spectral data. The addition of a monitoring system of this type to the input stream of a plutonium-purification cycle along with other suitable monitors on the waste streams and on the product stream provides the basis for a near real-time materials control and inventory system. Results of the laboratory-evaluation program employing plutonium in solutions with isotopic compositions typical of those involved in processing light water reactor fuels are presented. The detailed design of a monitoring cell and detection system is given. The precision and accuracy of the results relative to those measured by mass spectrometry and controlled potential coulometry are also summarized

  16. Plutonium-239 fission cross-section between 1 and 100 keV - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, E.; Salvatores, M.; Derrien, H.; Lagrange, Ch.; Kawai, M.; Nakajima, J.; Takano, H.; Weston, L.W.; Young, P.G.; Wagemans, C.

    1994-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation, and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The Working Party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The Parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank Member countries), and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries are organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The following report was issued by a Subgroup investigating the fission cross-section of Plutonium-239 in the energy range 1 to 100 keV. This cross section is of particular importance for fast reactor applications, such as k eff , sodium void reactivity coefficient and control rod worth. An analysis of recent experimental data by L. Weston et al. give significantly lower cross-section values that the simultaneous evaluation performed by W. Poenitz for the ENDF/B-VI library. The objective of the subgroup was to resolve this discrepancy. One experimental program and one evaluation one have been agreed upon: The experimental program which essentially aims at normalisation checking has been performed in Geel and Oak Ridge. It supports an upward re-normalisation by ∼3.1%. The evaluation program has not been completed and even, as a consequence of the experimental results, loses a part of its justification. But some acquired results are important and can be used for future 239 Pu evaluations. The JEFF-2

  17. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes

  18. Some investigations into the behaviour of plutonium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, J.A.; Jefferies, D.F.; Lovett, M.B.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium and other transuranic elements are produced during the operation of magnox reactors, although they do not usually present any problems of waste management until the fuel reaches the reprocessing stage. At this stage one of the chief aims is to separate and recover the plutonium from the depleted uranium and the fission products, the incentive being the value of plutonium itself as a nuclear fuel particularly for the fast breeder reactors. For this reason the amounts of plutonium appearing in the low activity waste streams for discharge to the environment are usually small, and their radiological impact insignificant compared with that of the more abundant fission products. However, with the prospect of use of large quantities of plutonium in the fast reactors, considerable interest surrounds all aspects of the properties of plutonium, and in an attempt to give a fuller understanding of the behaviour of plutonium in the marine environment use has been made of the small amounts which have been discharged in recent years to the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale in Cumbria. Details of the amounts of 239 Pu and 240 Pu discharged to sea are given and the resultant measured concentrations of the isotopes in the water throughout the Irish Sea are shown. The distribution of plutonium in sea water is shown to follow the same basic pattern as the fission products, details of which have been reported previously. By comparing the concentration gradients with distance from the point of discharge for plutonium and caesium, a value for the rate of loss of plutonium from the water to the other important compartment, namely the sediment, has been deduced. Measurements have been made of 239 Pu and 240 Pu in seabed and estuarine sediments and by combining these with the water data values of the concentration factor for the nuclide in sediment have been calculated. The results of a number of core samples have been used to calculate an

  19. Proceedings of public hearings: plutonium and the other transuranium elements, Washington, D.C., December 10--11, 1974. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency embarked on a program to evaluate the environmental impact of the transuranium elements and to consider whether further guidelines or standards are needed to assure adequate protection of the general ambient environment and of the public health from potential contamination of the environment by radionuclides of these elements. Public hearings were held in Washington, D. C., and Denver, Colorado, to gather information regarding the public and social implications of plutonium utilization; the factors involved in the balancing of costs vs benefits; dosimetry, health, and environmental effects; environmental levels and pathways; applications using plutonium; and control and cleanup technology. The proceedings of the hearing in Washington, D. C., Dec. 10-11, 1974, are presented. Data are included on current and potential sources of transuranium elements in the environment; animal studies on the tissue distribution of 233 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm, 249 Bk, 252 Cf, and 253 Es and pathological effects of body burdens of these radionuclides; and data on the health status of personnel known to have body burdens of 238 Pu or 239 Pu acquired during acute or chronic exposure, many of them over 30 years previously. It is pointed out that the lack of demonstrable biological effects of Pu in man provides presumptive evidence that the radiation protection standards in effect are adequate. (U.S.)

  20. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels

  1. Accumulation and transport of soil plutonium in liquid waste discharge areas at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Nyhan, J.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium inventory estimates for the surface 12.5 cm of soil in Mortandad Canyon did not reflect all the plutonium added to the canyon during a 7 month interval. The methods used in this study indicated that about 2 mCi 238 Pu and 0 mCisup(239,240)Pu were added to the canyon during the interval, compared with known additions of 5.5 mCi 238 Pu and 0.4 mCisup(239,240)Pu. The discrepancy likely was the result of the large sampling variability, indicating that inventory changes in this order (i.e. up to 17%) are not detectable with any certainty. However, factors other than sampling variability may be involved, including losses of plutonium to depths exceeding 12.5 cm. The relative distribution of plutonium within the canyon demonstrates that transport has occurred beyond the extent of surface water and that runoff from summer rainstorms can serve as a radionuclide transport vector in landscapes exhibiting these hydrologic features. There was a highly significant relationship between suspended sediment concentrations and total amounts of radioactivity in water. The flow rates achieved during the runoff event play an important part in determining the total amount of sediment and thus radioactivity transported downstream. The storm runoff event sampled during this study resulted in the downstream transport of about 1-2% of the sediment inventories of plutonium. (author)

  2. Calculation of Plutonium content in RSG-GAS spent fuel using IAFUEL computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochamad-Imron

    2003-01-01

    It has been calculated the contain of isotopes Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and isotope Pu-242 in MTR reactor fuel types which have U-235 contain about 250 gram. The calculation was performed in three steps. The first step is to determine the library of calculation output of BOC (Beginning of Cycle). The second step is to determine the core isotope density, the weight of plutonium for one core, and one fuel isotope density. The third step is to calculate weight of plutonium in gram. All calculation is performed by IAFUEL computer code. The calculation was produced content of each Pu isotopes were Pu-239 is 6.7666 gr, Pu-240 is 1.4628 gr, Pu-241 is 0.52951 gr, and Pu-242 is 0.068952 gr

  3. Risk analysis of fatal and incidental lung tumors in wister rats after inhalation of plutonium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M.; Akahane, K.; Ogiso, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Cancer risk analysis was done in animal studies for inhalation of plutonium dioxide. Female Wister rats were exposed to an aerosol of plutonium with AMAD of 0.4-0.5 μm and followed up until they died. We made some model analyses using their likelihood function. This approach enables us to consider temporal variation in dose-response analysis. Each rat contributes to the total likelihood depending on fatal or incidental tumors. In Weibul model analysis, the logarithm of the hazard function can be linearly modeled with the term of log (dose), log-L model, and additional term of the square of log (dose), log-LQ model. The likelihood ratio statistics gave a significantly better fit of the log-LQ model. However, if data more than 4 Gy were excluded, there was no significant difference between both models. The ratio of hazard function at 1 Gy and 0 Gy, the excess relative risk, showed 30 for total tumors. This result was much different from those in PNL data (Sanders et al.). The difference of pulmonary deposition depending upon particle size would cause different tumor incidence. Our studies indicated significant increase of occurrence of fatal lung cancer at an average dose of 0.5 Gy and thus did not suggest that a life-span effective threshold for death was about 1 Gy to the lung, which is shown in some papers. In contrast PNL, the incidence of adenoma showing the maximum at 0.5 Gy decreased with increasing lung dose from 1.5 Gy or higher, where malignant tumors such as adenocarcinomas increased. This phenomenon was analyzed with carcinogenesis models. (author)

  4. A 42-y medical follow-up of Manhattan Project plutonium workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, G L; Lawrence, J N

    1991-08-01

    Twenty-six white male subjects, who worked with plutonium (239Pu) during World War II at Los Alamos, have been given medical examinations periodically over a period of 42 y to identify potential health effects. Inhalation was the primary mode of Pu exposures. The latest examinations, including urine bioassay and in-vivo measurements for radioactivity, were performed in late 1986 and 1987. The average age of the 22 living subjects in 1986 was 66 y. The diseases and physical changes noted in these persons are characteristic of a male population in their 60s. Estimates of individual Pu depositions, including lung burdens, as of 1987 or at time of death range from 52 to 3180 Bq (1.4 to 86 nCi) with a median value of 500 Bq (13.5 nCi). Four persons from the original group had died as of 1987. The causes of death were lung cancer, myocardial infarction, accidental injury, and respiratory failure due to pneumonia/congestive heart failure. Expected deaths based on U.S. death rates of white males, adjusted for age and calendar year, are 9.2 based on U.S. rates (standardized mortality ratio = 0.41). Subsequent to 1987, three additional deaths occurred from atherosclerotic heart disease, lung cancer, and osteogenic sarcoma. The bone sarcoma case is discussed in terms of Pu exposure, the natural incidence of this disease, anatomical location of the tumor, and bone tumors observed in Pu-exposed dogs. Plutonium deposition in this man is estimated to have been below current radiation protection guidelines.

  5. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of 240 Pu to 239 Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime

  6. The isotopic signature of fallout plutonium in the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Plutonium analyses of a dated coral record from the French Frigate Shoals in the central North Pacific indicate that there are two major sources of Pu in this basin: close-in (tropospheric) fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s and global (stratospheric) fallout which peaked in 1962. Furthermore, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio of fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds is characteristically higher (0.24) than that of global fallout Pu (0.18-0.19). Seawater and sediment samples from the North Pacific exhibit a wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu values (0.19-0.34), with a trend towards higher ratios in the subsurface waters and sediment. Deep water {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios are higher in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands relative to stations further from this close-in fallout source. These preliminary data suggest that fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds is more rapidly removed from the surface waters than is global fallout Pu. Plutonium geochemistry appears to be related to the physical/chemical form of Pu-bearing particles generated by different fallout sources. (author).

  7. Plutonium isotopic measurements by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnink, R.

    1973-11-01

    A method is reported for analysis of isotopic and total plutonium by detecting and analyzing gamma rays emitted by the sample. A computerized prototype-system was developed and is now being routinely used at the Savannah River Plant for the nondestructive assay of solution samples. The analyses for 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, and for 241 Am, when it is present, can be made in counting times as short as 10 to 15 minutes under optimum conditions. Comparison of isotopic ratio values with mass spectrometry generally shows agreement within 0.1 percent for 239 Pu and about 1 percent for 240 Pu and 241 Pu. Some preliminary isotopic measurements on solids are also discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Inhaled transuranics in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    This project examines the interactions of external and internal radiation from mixtures of radionuclides present within the nuclear fuel inventory. The objective of the project is to evaluate the effects of mixed radiation insults, using key radiation sources as indicative of overall processes that may occur following release of nuclear fuel into the air. Previously initiated studies of immunological effects of plutonium inhalation are also being completed as part of this project

  9. Distribution of plutonium amongst and within selected bones from an injection case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Martin, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    The burden and macrodistribution of plutonium in the skeleton of a man who received 0.38 μCi of 239 Pu by injection were determined. The relative concentrations in the bones analyzed are comparable to those obtained in a study of another subject. The concentrations in the trabecular and cortical portions of these bones were determined; the concentration ratio ranged from 1.9 to 4.7. The data show that (1) within a bone the plutonium concentration in the trabecular portion is always higher than it is in the cortical portion, but (2) within a group of bones plutonium concentration is not correlated with degree of trabecularity

  10. Aerial deposition of plutonium in mixed forest stands from nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Pinder, J.E. III

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu were determined in bark, organic matter, and soil samples collected in the summer of 1975 from pine (Pinus taeda) and hardwood (Quercus falcata; Carya tormentosa) stands near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the U.S. Energy Res. and Dev. Admin.'s Savannah River Plant near Aiken, S.C. The results indicated that tree crowns intercepted fallout Pu (Pu-bearing particles) and produced higher Pu concentrations in the organic matter and soil under tree crowns. Higher 239 , 240 Pu concentrations were found under pines than under hardwoods. Plutonium concentrations in the O1 (litter, A 00 ) and O2 (organic matter, A 0 ) layers were higher than those in mineral soil, but most of the Pu was contained in the mineral soil. Higher contents of 239 , 240 Pu were observed near the tree stems than in locations outside of the tree crowns. In pines these values were 163 and 80 nCi 239 , 240 Pu/m 2 , and in hardwoods, 122 and 80 nCi 239 , 240 Pu/m 2 , for the respective locations, from the litter to the 15-cm depth. The proportion of 238 Pu contained in foliage, litter, and organic matter was greater than for 239 , 240 Pu. However, the latter radionuclides had a greater proportion contained in the mineral soil. This observation is consistent with the more recent releases containing a higher percentage of 238 Pu from reprocessing operation. Plutonium concentrations in the 5 to 15 cm depth indicated limited Pu mobility in soil, but 238 , 240 Pu concentrations at this depth were higher near tree stems, suggesting greater mobility perhaps as a result of stem flow

  11. Ultra-sensitive detection of plutonium by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L K; Cresswell, R G; Ophel, T R; Ditada, M [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Day, J P; Clacher, A [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Priest, N D [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    On the bases of the measurements performed to date, a sensitivity of 10{sup 6} atoms is achievable with accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for each of the plutonium isotopes. Not only does this open the way to the sort of study outlined, but it also makes possible other novel applications, of which two examples are given: (i)the ration of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu as a sensitive indicator of the source of the plutonium; (ii) the biochemistry of plutonium in humans. The ultra-sensitive atom counting capability of AMS will make it possible to use the very long-lived {sup 244}Pu (8x10{sup 7}a) in human volunteer studies without any significant increase in radiation body burden. This paper will describe the AMS technique as applied to plutonium using the ANU`s 14UD accelerator, will present the results obtained to date, and will discuss the prospects for the future.

  12. Ultra-sensitive detection of plutonium by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; Ditada, M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Day, J.P.; Clacher, A. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Priest, N.D. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    On the bases of the measurements performed to date, a sensitivity of 10{sup 6} atoms is achievable with accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for each of the plutonium isotopes. Not only does this open the way to the sort of study outlined, but it also makes possible other novel applications, of which two examples are given: (i)the ration of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu as a sensitive indicator of the source of the plutonium; (ii) the biochemistry of plutonium in humans. The ultra-sensitive atom counting capability of AMS will make it possible to use the very long-lived {sup 244}Pu (8x10{sup 7}a) in human volunteer studies without any significant increase in radiation body burden. This paper will describe the AMS technique as applied to plutonium using the ANU`s 14UD accelerator, will present the results obtained to date, and will discuss the prospects for the future.

  13. Plutonium in biota from an east Tennessee floodplain forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    239 240 Pu concentrations were measured in biota from a 30-year-old contaminated floodplain forest in Tennessee. Concentration ratios relative to soil, for plutonium in litter, invertebrate cryptozoans, herbaceous ground vegetation, orthoptera and small mammals were approximately 10 -1 , 10 -2 , 10 -3 , and 10 -4 , respectively. Concentration ratios (CR) for plutonium in biota from the floodplain forest are less than CR values from other contaminated ecosystems in the USA. Presumably, this is due to humid conditions and greater rainfall which minimize resuspension as a physical transport mechanism to biota. Plutonium and radiocesium concentrations are correlated in biota from the forest at Oak Ridge and also from Mortandad Canyon in New Mexico. The cause of the covariance between concentrations of these elements is unknown. Nevertheless, the existence of these relationships suggests that it is possible to predict plutonium in biota from radiocesium concentrations when both nuclides have a common origin and occur together in a contaminated terrestrial environment. (author)

  14. Determination of 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in human tissues collected from areas around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site by sector-field high resolution ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Oikawa, S; Sakaguchi, A; Tomita, J; Hoshi, M; Apsalikov, K N

    2008-09-01

    Information on the 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios in human tissues for people living around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was deduced from 9 sets of soft tissues and bones, and 23 other bone samples obtained by autopsy. Plutonium was radiochemically separated and purified, and plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) were determined by sector-field high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. For most of the tissue samples from the former nine subjects, low 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios were determined: bone, 0.125 +/- 0.018 (0.113-0.145, n = 4); lungs, 0.063 +/- 0.010 (0.051-0.078, n = 5); and liver, 0.148 +/- 0.026 (0.104-0.189, n = 9). Only 239Pu was detected in the kidney samples; the amount of 240Pu was too small to be measured, probably due to the small size of samples analyzed. The mean 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio for bone samples from the latter 23 subjects was 0.152 +/- 0.034, ranging from 0.088 to 0.207. A significant difference (a two-tailed Student's t test; 95% significant level, alpha = 0.05) between mean 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratios for the tissue samples and for the global fallout value (0.178 +/- 0.014) indicated that weapons-grade plutonium from the atomic bombs has been incorporated into the human tissues, especially lungs, in the residents living around the SNTS. The present 239,240Pu concentrations in bone, lung, and liver samples were, however, not much different from ranges found for human tissues from other countries that were due solely to global fallout during the 1970's-1980's.

  15. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of (239+240)Pu as soil erosion tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael; Park, Ji-Hyung; Sandor, Tarjan; Porto, Paolo; Alewell, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as (137)Cs and (210)Pbex. As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (>25tha(-1)yr(-1)). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratios and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of (239+240)Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of (137)Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of (137)Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of (239+240)Pu through less preferential transport compared to (137)Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, (239+240)Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the soil and lateral transport during water erosion was shown to differ from that of (137)Cs, there is a clear

  16. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  17. Plutonium radionuclides in the ground waters at Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Marsh, K.; Eagle, R.; Holladay, G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In 1974 a groundwater program was initiated at Eniwetok Atoll to study systematically the hydrology and the ground water geochemistry on selected islands of the Atoll. The program provides chemical and radiochemical data for assessment of water quality on those islands designated for rehabilitation. These and other data are used to interpret the mechanisms by which radionuclides are cycled in the soil-groundwater system. Because of the international concern over the long-term buildup, availability, and transport of plutonium in the environment, this program emphasizes analysis of the element. The results of the study show that on all islands sampled, small quantities of plutonium radionuclides have migrated through the soil columns and are redistributed throughout the groundwater reservoirs. The observed maximum surface concentrations are less than 0.02 percent of the maximal recommended concentration for drinking water. Concentrations of 137 Cs are found to correlate with water freshness, but those of 239 , 240 Pu show no such relationship. The mechanisms moving 239 , 240 Pu through the ground water reservoirs are independent of the processes controlling the cycling of 137 Cs and fresh water. A reasonable linear correlation is found between mean surface-water concentrations and soil burdens. This indicates that the quantities of 239 , 240 Pu migrating to the groundwater surface layers are, to a first approximation, independent of the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the islands. (auth)

  18. Investigation of environmental samples from Fukushima with respect to uranium and plutonium by AMS; Untersuchung von Umweltproben aus Fukushima in Bezug auf Plutonium und Uran mittels AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    In March 2011, the nuclear power plant Fukushima Dai-ichi was seriously damaged by a tsunami caused by an earthquake. During the accident large quantities of radionuclides, mainly of the volatile elements cesium and iodine, were released to the environment. In small amounts refractory elements such as plutonium and uranium have also been released. Plutonium and the uraniumisotope {sup 236}U have primarily been delivered by human activities in the environment. Large amounts were released during the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Additional sources are accidents in nuclear facilities, like Chernobyl. Every source has its own characteristic isotopic composition. It is therefore possible to determine the origin of the contamination by measuring the isotopic ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U. These ratios can be determined by using accelerator mass spectrometry. Due to its high sensitivity, it is possible to measure even small amounts of plutonium and especially of {sup 236}U. These measurements were performed using the compact 500 kV facility ''TANDY'' of ETH Zurich. In 2013 and 2015 vegetation, litter and soil drill core samples were taken in the contaminated area in Fukushima prefecture. In 2015 samples were taken as close to the sampling locations of the 2013 campaign as possible. After isolation of plutonium and uranium by chemical extraction, separate targets were prepared for the measurement. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios indicate global fallout as the plutonium source for most samples. The plutonium of the reactors of Fukushima Dai-ichi is located in the upper layers like in vegetation or litter. From the uranium ratios alone the reactors could not unambigously be identified as the source of {sup 236}U. However, this is plausible in the cases were reactor plutonium was detected. None of the samples contained higher plutonium activity concentrations than in the rest of Japan, caused by global fallout. This

  19. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Roos, P.

    2006-05-15

    Analyses of marine and terrestrial samples collected in August 2003 from Bylot Sound at Thule, Northwest Greenland, show that plutonium from nuclear weapons in the American B52 plane, which crashed on the sea ice in January 1968, persists in the environment. The highest concentrations of plutonium are found in the marine sediments under the location where the plane crashed. The distribution of plutonium in the marine sediment is very inhomogeneous and associated with hot particles with activities found up to 1500 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu. Sediment samples collected in Wolstenholme Fjord north of the accident site show plutonium concentrations, which illustrates the redistribution of plutonium after the accident. The total plutonium inventory in the sediments has been assessed based on systematic analyses considering hot particles. The inventory of {sup 239,240}Pu in the sediments within a distance of 17 km from the point of impact of the B52 plane is estimated at 2.9 TBq (1 kg). Earlier estimates of the inventory were approximately 1.4 TBq {sup 239,240}Pu. Seawater and seaweed samples show increased concentrations of plutonium in Bylot Sound. The increased concentrations are due to resuspension of plutonium-containing particles from the seabed and transport further away from the area. Plutonium concentrations in seawater, seaweed and benthic animals in Bylot Sound are low but clearly above background levels. All soil samples collected from Narssarssuk show accident plutonium with levels above background. Plutonium is very inhomogeneously distributed and associated with particles in the surface layers. Hot particles were found in soil with activities up to 150 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule presents an insignificant risk to man. Most plutonium remains in the seabed under Bylot Sound far from man under relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of

  20. Thule-2003 - Investigation of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Roos, P.

    2006-05-01

    Analyses of marine and terrestrial samples collected in August 2003 from Bylot Sound at Thule, Northwest Greenland, show that plutonium from nuclear weapons in the American B52 plane, which crashed on the sea ice in January 1968, persists in the environment. The highest concentrations of plutonium are found in the marine sediments under the location where the plane crashed. The distribution of plutonium in the marine sediment is very inhomogeneous and associated with hot particles with activities found up to 1500 Bq 239,240 Pu. Sediment samples collected in Wolstenholme Fjord north of the accident site show plutonium concentrations, which illustrates the redistribution of plutonium after the accident. The total plutonium inventory in the sediments has been assessed based on systematic analyses considering hot particles. The inventory of 239,240 Pu in the sediments within a distance of 17 km from the point of impact of the B52 plane is estimated at 2.9 TBq (1 kg). Earlier estimates of the inventory were approximately 1.4 TBq 239,240 Pu. Seawater and seaweed samples show increased concentrations of plutonium in Bylot Sound. The increased concentrations are due to resuspension of plutonium-containing particles from the seabed and transport further away from the area. Plutonium concentrations in seawater, seaweed and benthic animals in Bylot Sound are low but clearly above background levels. All soil samples collected from Narssarssuk show accident plutonium with levels above background. Plutonium is very inhomogeneously distributed and associated with particles in the surface layers. Hot particles were found in soil with activities up to 150 Bq 239,240 Pu. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule presents an insignificant risk to man. Most plutonium remains in the seabed under Bylot Sound far from man under relatively stable conditions and concentrations of plutonium in seawater and animals are low. However, the plutonium contamination of surface soil at

  1. Derived air concentration for high exposure plutonium : revised values based on ICRP -30 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Lata; Janardhanan, S.; Krishnamurthi, T.N.

    1983-01-01

    Derived Air Concentration (DAC) limits for plutonium isotopic mixtures, as obtained from reprocessing of spent fuel heavy water reactors, are presented in this paper. DAC for the mixtures is expressed in terms of alpha activity of plutonium. Growth of 241 Am in the product is taken into consideration. Current recommedations on DAC limits for individual Pu isotopes, as laid down in ICRP-30 report, are used for estimating DAC for the mixture. DACsub(α) for high exposure plutonium is found to be less by a factor of 2-3, when compared with the limit for 239 Pu. As a result, detection and alarm limits for air monitoring instruments should be scaled down while handling high exposure plutonium. (author)

  2. Plutonium isotopic determination from gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skourikhine, A.N.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-resolution room-temperature detectors for the nondestructive assay of nuclear materials has widespread applications to the safeguarding of nuclear materials. The challenge to using these detectors is the inherent difficulty of the spectral analysis to determine the amount of specific nuclear materials in the measured samples. This is especially true for extracting plutonium isotopic content from low- and medium-resolution spectral lines that are not well resolved. In this paper, neural networks trained by stochastic and singular value decomposition algorithms are applied to retrieve the plutonium isotopic content from a simulated NaI spectra. The simulated sample consists of isotopes 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu, and 241 Am. It is demonstrated that the neutral network optimized by singular value decomposition (SVD) and stochastic training algorithms is capable of estimating plutonium content consistently resulting in an average error much smaller than the error previously reported

  3. Accumulation and transport of soil plutonium in liquid waste discharge areas at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Nyhan, J.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium inventory estimates for the upper 12.5 cm of sediment in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico, did not reflect all the Pu added to the canyon during a 7 month interval. The methods used in this study indicate that about 2 mCi 238 Pu and 0 mCi 239 ' 240 Pu were added to the canyon during the interval compared with known additions of 5.5 mCi 238 Pu and 0.4 mCi 239 ' 240 Pu. The discrepancy likely was the result of the large sampling variability indicating that inventory changes in this order (i.e. up to 17 percent) are not detectable with any certainty. However, factors other than sampling variability may be involved, including losses of plutonium to depths exceeding 12.5 cm

  4. Some comments on the toxicity of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    There is no simple method of expressing a concept such as toxicity. The toxicity of a material depends upon its form (solid, liquid, or gas), the method of entry into the body (ingestion, inhalation, or abrasion), and the individual it enters (young, old, sick, well, heavy cigarette smoker, or consumer of alcohol). Thus, statements such as ''plutonium is the most toxic material known to man'' are not only incorrect; they are meaningless. By taking the one aspect of plutonium which can be quantitated in a meaningful manner, the induction of malignant bone sarcomas in humans, the incremental risk presented to those who have been exposed to this radioelement has been shown to be quite small. By means of a hypothetical exposure of radium dial workers to plutonium instead of radium, an industry-wide exposure to plutonium would have been less harmful than the actual exposure to radium, in spite of the fact that plutonium appears to be far more toxic than radium. Further, the observation that, after radium was recognized as a toxic material, it no longer was a hazard in the dial industry, clearly demonstrates that hazardous radioactive materials can be handled safely. This has been demonstrated again with plutonium, for even though much larger quantities have been handled by many more individuals, there are no demonstrable cases of malignancies induced by this hazardous material. The absence of clearly demonstrable excesses of lung cancer in the large group of long-term thorium workers is reassuring, for it may imply that low doses to the lung have a very low probability of inducing lung cancers. It is concluded that plutonium, a highly toxic material, can be handled safely, as are many other hazardous materials that play important roles in our daily lives

  5. Behavior of plutonium interacting with bentonite and sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, A.; Zheng, J.; Cayer, I.; Fujikawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ito, M.

    1997-01-01

    The interactions between sulfate reducing anaerobic bacteria and plutonium, with or without bentonite present, were investigated using distribution coefficients [Kd (ml/g)] as an index of the radionuclide behavior. Plutonium Kds for living bacteria varied within a large range, from 1,804 to 112,952, depending on the pH, while the Kds ranged from 1,180 to 5,931 for dead bacteria. In general, living bacteria had higher plutonium Kds than dead bacteria. Furthermore, the higher Kd values of 39,677 to 106,915 for living bacteria were obtained for a pH range between 6.83 and 8.25, while no visible pH effect was observed for dead bacteria. These Kd values were obtained using tracers for both 236 Pu and 239 Pu, which can check the experimental procedures and mass balance. Another comparison was conducted for plutonium Kd values of mixtures of living bacteria with bentonite and sterilized bacteria with bentonite. The range of Kd values for the non-sterilized bacteria with bentonite were 1,194 to 83,648 while Kd values for the sterilized bacteria with bentonite were from 624 to 17,236. Again, the Kd values for the living bacteria with bentonite were higher than those of sterilized bacteria with bentonite. In other words, the presence of living anaerobic bacteria with bentonite increased, by roughly 50 times, the Kd values of 239 Pu when compared to the mixture of dead bacteria with bentonite. The results indicate that the effects of anaerobic bacteria within the engineered barrier system (in this case bentonite) will play a significant role in the behavior of plutonium in geologic repositories

  6. Geochemical behaviour of plutonium isotopes in natural media (lakes, rivers, estuaries)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeandel, C.P.

    1981-10-01

    Artificial radionuclide activities ( 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu) were measured in natural environments. Their distribution and geochemical behaviour are evaluated and compared them to these of the 137 Cs. In a volcanic crater lake, influenced only by atmospheric fallout (Lac Pavin, France), sediments are enriched in 239+240 Pu, whereas 137 Cs stays in the dissolved phase. Diffusion processes and migration of radionuclides is shown to occur in sediments. Remobilization of 239+240 Pu is probable at the sediment/water interface. In the Garonne-Dordogne, Seine and Loire rivers, the 239+240 Pu activity levels in suspended matter are little influenced by the waste discharges of nuclear power plants. The element is essentially transported in the particulate fraction, more than is 137 Cs. In all the esturies studied (Gironde, Seine, Loire) 239+240 Pu concentrations in suspended matter increase between the river and the estuary. Simultaneously a removal of plutonium from the dissolved phase is observed. High plutonium concentrations are measured in the Seine estuary; they are attributed to a ''marine'' contamination: the French nuclear reprocessing plant of La Hague discharges low level radioactive liquid wastes, a part may reach the Seine estuary. There are no decrease in particulate 137 Cs concentrations between the river and the estuary of the Gironde, such as it occurs in the Loire. In this last case, the phenomenon is explained by the presence of ''young caesium'' originating in the power plant effluents and which is more exchangeable than 137 Cs of atmospheric origin. In the Seine estuary, the influence of marine contamination causes an increase of particulate and dissolved 137 Cs concentrations [fr

  7. Clinical and neuropathological findings of acute carbon monoxide toxicity in chihuahuas following smoke inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Creevy, Kate E; Delahunta, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Three adult Chihuahuas were presented for evaluation after smoke inhalation during a house fire. All three dogs received supportive care and supplemental oxygen. After initial improvement, the dogs developed seizures. Despite anticonvulsant therapy and supportive care, the dogs died. The brains of two dogs were examined. Lesions were identified that were compatible with acute carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity. Lesions were confined to the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the substantia nigra bilaterally, as well as the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and dorsal thalamus. This case report describes the clinicopathological sequelae in acute CO toxicity.

  8. A case of internal contamination with plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Clemente, G.F.; Strambi, E.; Testa, C.

    1980-01-01

    A case is described of internal contamination caused by the accidental explosion of a glove box, whereby a technician was wounded in his right cheek and inhaled insoluble PuO 2 . Immediate washing of the wound with a DTPA solution and the performance of a small surgical toilet reduced the wound contamination a hundred times. Intravenous injection of DPTA was started and continued for nine days. The ''in vivo'' determination of plutonium and Am-241 lung content was performed immediately after the accident and several other times thereafter. Plutonium was determined periodically in urine and fecal samples for five months. The large Esub(f)/Esub(u) ratio and the steep slope of the Esub(f) curve in the first days indicated that the inhaled material was very insoluble and that the suspended powder particles were large. This conclusion was confirmed by the lung clearance ''in vivo'' during the first few days. The initial lung burden, calculated by the fecal excretion of plutonium in the first five days, was in very good agreement with the direct measurement of the lung content; the residual lung burden and the systemic burden were derived respectively U by the fecal and urinary excretion 100 days after the intake. The committed doses to lungs, bone, liver and kidneys were calculated and were found to be considerably lower than the maximum permissible levels. (H.K.)

  9. Isotopic analysis of plutonium by optical spectroscopy; Analyse isotopique du plutonium par spectroscopie optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Chaput, M; Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Isotopic analysis of mixtures of plutonium 239 and 240 has been carried out by means of the photo-electric spectrometer Fabry-Perot, the source being a hollow cathode cooled by liquid nitrogen. This first research has been concerned with finding among the spectral lines given by the hollow cathode, those suitable for use in analysis. Actually, the relative precision is of the order of 2 per cent (for samples containing 3 per cent of {sup 240}Pu). The study of the reproducibility of the measurements should make it possible to increase the precision; the relative precision which can be expected from this method should be 1 per cent for mixtures containing 1 per cent of {sup 240}Pu. (author) [French] L'analyse isotopique des melanges de plutonium 239 et 240 a ete effectuee a l'aide du spectrometre photoelectrique Fabry-Perot, la source etant une cathode creuse refroidie a l'azote liquide. Ce premier travail a eu pour but de discerner parmi les raies spectrales emises par la cathode creuse, celles susceptibles de servir de raies d'analyse. Actuellement, la precision relative est de l'ordre de 2 pour cent (pour des echantillons contenant 3 pour cent de {sup 240}Pu). L'etude de la reproductibilite des mesures devrait permettre d'ameliorer la precision; la precision relative que l'on pourrait atteindre par cette methode serait de 1 pour cent pour des melanges contenant 1 pour cent de {sup 240}Pu. (auteur)

  10. DOE life-span radiation effects studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Major life-span radiation effects studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory fall into three categories: (1) studies with beagle dogs exposed to plutonium compounds via a single inhalation; (2) studies with dogs and rats exposed chronically via inhalation to various combinations and concentrations of radon, radon daughters, and other components of uranium mine atmospheres; and (3) a study in which rats are exposed via single inhalation, in very large numbers, to very low concentrations of 239 PuO 2 . Exposure of beagles currently on study was initiated in 1970 with 239 PuO 2 , in 1973 with 238 PuO 2 , and in 1976 with 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . These experiments involve more than 500 animals, many of them still alive. Experiments seeking to explain the increased incidence of lung cancer in uranium miners have been in progress since 1966. Present emphasis is on studies with rats, in an attempt to define dose-effect relationships at the lowest feasible radon-daughter exposure levels. Our very-low-level experiment with inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, with exposures still under way, includes 1000 rats in the control group and 1000 rats in the lowest-exposure group, where life-span lung doses of <5 rads are anticipated

  11. Results of Plutonium Intercalibration in Seawater and Seaweed Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Murray, C.N.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the intercalibration exercise for the measurement of plutonium-239 and 228 in two seawater samples SW-I-1 and SW-I-2 and a marine algae sample AG-I-1 are presented. Seventeen laboratories from 8 countries as well as the IAEA International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity took part. A discussion of the results and methods used in the analysis is given. It is concluded that in spite of the complicated chemical procedures involved in plutonium analysis, the scatter of the reported results was much smaller than that for fission product radionuclides such as strontium-90, ruthenium-106, cesium-137 etc. (author)

  12. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Titanium Ethanolate as a Possible Cause of Metal Fume Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadimanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen, the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human.

  13. Uptake and translocation of plutonium in two plant species using hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Hossner, L R; Attrep, M; Kung, K S

    2002-01-01

    This study presents determinations of the uptake and translocation of Pu in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from Pu contaminated solution media. The initial activity levels of Pu were 18.50 and 37.00 Bq ml(-1), for Pu-nitrate [239Pu(NO3)4] and for Pu-citrate [239Pu(C6H5O7)+] in nutrient solution. Plutonium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA: [239Pu-C14H23O10N3] solution was prepared by adding 0, 5, 10, and 50 microg of DTPA ml(-1) with 239Pu(NO3)4 in nutrient solution. Concentration ratios (CR, Pu concentration in dry plant material/Pu concentration in nutrient solution) and transport indices (Tl, Pu content in the shoot/Pu content in the whole plant) were calculated to evaluate Pu uptake and translocation. All experiments were conducted in hydroponic solution in an environmental growth chamber. Plutonium concentration in the plant tissue was increased with increased Pu contamination. Plant tissue Pu concentration for Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate application was not correlated and may be dependent on plant species. For plants receiving Pu-DTPA, the Pu concentration was increased in the shoots but decreased in the roots resulting in a negative correlation between the Pu concentrations in the plant shoots and roots. The Pu concentration in shoots of Indian mustard was increased for application rates up to 10 microg DTPA ml(-1) and up to 5 microg DTPA ml(-1) for sunflower. Similar trends were observed for the CR of plants compared to the Pu concentration in the shoots and roots, whereas the Tl was increased with increasing DTPA concentration. Plutonium in shoots of Indian mustard was up to 10 times higher than that in shoots of sunflower. The Pu concentration in the apparent free space (AFS) of plant root tissue of sunflower was more affected by concentration of DTPA than that of Indian mustard.

  14. Activity concentrations of 239+240 Pu in sediment at Sabah and Sarawak coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Hidayah Shahar

    2009-01-01

    The coastal sediment sampling was carried out in July 2004 as part of the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. The determination of plutonium, 239+240 Pu activity concentration and their distributions along the coastal areas of Sabah and Sarawak was by the alpha spectrometry counting system. Prior to counting, the radionuclides were isolated from the samples using radiochemical separation technique and mounted on a stainless steel disc by using electro-deposition. The results show that the distribution of 239+240 Pu activity concentration in coastal sediment is consistent, ranging from BDL - 1.83 Bq/kg and 0.11 - 0.84 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Lubok Sabanan, SB 15, in Sabah and Sungai Similajau, SR 13, in Sarawak were sampling stations that gave highest 239+240 Pu activity concentration. Overall, the 239+240 Pu activity concentration of Sabah and Sarawak are slightly higher in comparison the West Coast coastal stations of Peninsular Malaysia, and can be used as database. (Author)

  15. Mass determination of U-233 and Pu-239 by gamma spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Pugliesi, R.

    1988-09-01

    The gamma spectrometry technique has been used for masses determinations of uranium-233 and plutonium-239, granted by AERE-HARWELL. A high purity Ge semicondutor detector was used and the total efficiency curve was obtained for the counting system in the energy range 13 KeV to 135 KeV. The calculated values for the masses compared with that obtained by means of gravimetry technique. (author) [pt

  16. The distribution of plutonium in the mouse ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.; Howells, G.; Vennart, J.; Watts, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve-week old female CBA mice were injected intravenously with an ultra-filtered solution of 239 Pu in 1% trisodium citrate and were killed at intervals up to 180 days. The plutonium in the ovaries was measured radiochemically and autoradiographically. The fractional content of injected activity and daily absorbed dose showed no significant variation with time after injection. At early times after injection, α-tracks from the 239 Pu were randomly distributed over all the tissues, with concentrations of tracks occurring over some atretic follicles. By 180 days, the random distribution of tracks was much reduced, and discrete clusters of tracks were in evidence. The possible risk of genetic damage is discussed. (author)

  17. Plutonium measurements on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo, Elena; Enamorado, Santiago Miguel; Garcia-Leon, Manuel; Suter, Martin; Wacker, Lukas

    2008-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes have been recently added to the list of radionuclides that can be measured with the new generation of compact AMS facilities. In this paper we present first experimental results concerning the development of the plutonium AMS technique at 680 kV on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Sevilla, Spain. This is the first compact AMS machine designed and manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Europa. As we demonstrate, the obtained backgrounds for 239,240 Pu, of about 10 6 atoms, and the 239 Pu/ 238 U mass suppression factor, in the range of 10 -9 , compare to the ones achieved on other AMS facilities. With the measurement of reference materials provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-375, IAEA-Soil-6, IAEA-381) and samples already studied on the 600 kV compact ETH/PSI AMS system at Zuerich, we show that the CNA system can be perfectly used for the routine measurement of plutonium isotopes at environmental levels.

  18. Studies of plutonium in human tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Stewart, M.W.; Moss, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1959, tissues from 70 occupationally exposed former employees of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory have been examined following autopsy. Exposure in most cases was to inhaled plutonium oxide aerosols. Chemical analyses of selected tissues were performed to determine the amount of plutonium retained in the body at the time of death. On the basis of the measured tissue concentrations of plutonium, extrapolations of total-body burdens were made. Thirty-three of the measured cases had plutonium depositions in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes ranging from 0.1 to 4000 dpm per gram of tissue (0.05 to 1800 pCi/g). The duration of exposures ranged from 4 to 30 years. Microscopic examination of representative sections of these lymph nodes revealed no abnormalities other than those which were directly attributable to the basic disease that caused the demise of the various persons in this study. The size distribution of plutonium particles in nodes from one individual was determined by exposing tissue sections to nuclear track film. The estimated mass median diameter of the particles was 0.3 μm, and the distribution had a geometric standard deviation of 1.6. It is estimated that 95 percent of the individual particles had corresponding plutonium concentrations between 0.001 and 0.22 pCi

  19. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael; Park, Ji-Hyung; Sandor, Tarjan; Porto, Paolo; Alewell, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes 239 Pu and 240 Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex . As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (> 25 t ha −1 yr −1 ). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratios and 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of 239+240 Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of 137 Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the 239+240 Pu/ 137 Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of 137 Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of 239+240 Pu through less preferential transport compared to 137 Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, 239+240 Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the soil and lateral transport during water erosion was shown to differ from that of 137 Cs, there is a clear need for a

  20. Derived air concentration for high exposure plutonium : revised values based on ICRP -30 recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, L.; Janardhanan, S.; Krishnamurthi, T.N. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.)

    Derived Air Concentration (DAC) limits for plutonium isotopic mixtures, as obtained from reprocessing of spent fuel heavy water reactors, are presented in this paper. DAC for the mixtures is expressed in terms of alpha activity of plutonium. Growth of /sup 241/Am in the product is taken into consideration. Current recommedations on DAC limits for individual Pu isotopes, as laid down in ICRP-30 report, are used for estimating DAC for the mixture. DACsub(..cap alpha..) for high exposure plutonium is found to be less by a factor of 2-3, when compared with the limit for /sup 239/Pu. As a result, detection and alarm limits for air monitoring instruments should be scaled down while handling high exposure plutonium.

  1. Inhalation exposure to three-dimensional printer emissions stimulates acute hypertension and microvascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, A B; LeBouf, R F; Duling, M G; Yi, J; Abukabda, A B; McBride, C R; Nurkiewicz, T R

    2017-11-15

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM™), or three-dimensional (3D) printing has become routine in industrial, occupational and domestic environments. We have recently reported that 3D printing emissions (3DPE) are complex mixtures, with a large ultrafine particulate matter component. Additionally, we and others have reported that inhalation of xenobiotic particles in this size range is associated with an array of cardiovascular dysfunctions. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3DPE aerosols via nose-only exposure for ~3h. Twenty-four hours later, intravital microscopy was performed to assess microvascular function in the spinotrapezius muscle. Endothelium-dependent and -independent arteriolar dilation were stimulated by local microiontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). At the time of experiments, animals exposed to 3DPE inhalation presented with a mean arterial pressure of 125±4mmHg, and this was significantly higher than that for the sham-control group (94±3mmHg). Consistent with this pressor response in the 3DPE group, was an elevation of ~12% in resting arteriolar tone. Endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation was significantly impaired after 3DPE inhalation across all iontophoretic ejection currents (0-27±15%, compared to sham-control: 15-120±21%). Endothelium-independent dilation was not affected by 3DPE inhalation. These alterations in peripheral microvascular resistance and reactivity are consistent with elevations in arterial pressure that follow 3DPE inhalation. Future studies must identify the specific toxicants generated by FDM™ that drive this acute pressor response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plutonium and other transuranics in small vertebrates: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.; Naegle, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The published data relevant to transuranics in small vertebrates inhabiting terrestrial environments is reviewed. Experimental results indicate that atomic size and valence state affect rates of absorption, transportation, and excretion of transuranics in living systems. Whereas there is a marked tendency for transuranics to hydrolyze to insoluble colloidal products at physiological pH, complexing agents and chelation enhance solubility and transportability. The natural modes of uptake of transuranics by vertebrates include absorption from the gut, the intact or damaged skin, and inhalation. Absorption from the gut into the bloodstream is very low. Potential hazards may exist if complexing or chelating agents are present, if absorption is continuous, or if exposure involves young animals. The intact skin provides an effective barrier to absorption of transuranics. Relatively high levels of absorption may occur when transuranics are administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly, particularly with increased acidity and solubility of the compounds. Inhalation is probably the most hazardous natural route of uptake. Insoluble transuranic compounds are retained in the lung and soluble compounds are transported rapidly via the blood to bone, liver, and other organs. Deposition of plutonium in mammalian gonads resulting in a decrease in spermatogenesis, ovarian damage, and reduced fecundity is documented. The current knowledge of the behavior of transuranics in terrestrial environments is limited. Plutonium and americium uptake by small mammals has been documented. Plutonium body burdens were related to depressed leukocyte count on a statistical basis. Reduced rodent populations in areas of high plutonium concentrations illustrate the problems of evaluating uptake by mobile animals

  3. Characteristics of plutonium and americium contamination at the former U.K. atomic weapons test ranges at Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Cooper, M.B.; Lokan, K.H.; Wilks, M.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Physico-chemical studies on environmental plutonium are described, which provide data integral to an assessment of dose for the inhalation of artificial actinides by Australian Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle at Maralinga and Emu, sites of U.K. atomic weapons tests between 1953 and 1963. The most significant area, from a radiological perspective, is the area contaminated by plutonium in a series of ''one point'' safety trials in which large quantities of plutonium were dispersed explosively at a location known as Taranaki. The activity distribution of plutonium and americium with particle size is quite different from the mass distribution, as a considerably higher proportion of the activity is contained in the finer (inhalable) fraction than of the mass. Except in areas which were disturbed through ploughing during a cleanup in 1967, most the activity remains in the top 1 cm of the surface. Much of the activity is in particulate form, even at distances > 20 km from the firing sites, and discrete particles have been located even at distances beyond 100 km. Data are presented which permit the assessment of annual committed doses through the inhalation pathway, for Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle in the areas affected by the Taranaki firings in particular. (author)

  4. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature, young adult, and aged Syrian hamsters. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, C.H.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Slauson, D.A.; McClellan, R.O.; Miglio, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Syrian hamsters have been exposed at either 28 (immature), 84 (young adult), or 340 (aged) days of age to polydisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 to better define dose-response relationships for this radionuclide in a population with a wide range of ages such as would be the case with a human population following a catastrophic nuclear accident. Animals were exposed to obtain initial lung burdens of 240, 60, 15, 3.8, 0.95, 0.25, and 0.029 nCi for the immature and young adult animals and 240, 60, 15, and 3.8 nCi for the aged animals. Animals are being maintained both for serial sacrifice to determine the radiation dose pattern for lung and other tissues and for lifespan observation to determine dose-response relationships. At the present time, only animals with ILB of about 200 nCi or higher exposed as either immature, young adult, or aged animals have shown increased mortality as compared to controls. At this time, the young adult, immature, and aged animals are 68, 73, and 27 weeks post-inhalation exposure, respectively. The animals that died in the higher ILB groups had radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis along with atypical pulmonary epithelial hyperplasia. Histopathological examination is not complete on all animals that have died, but no pulmonary neoplasms have been observed to date. (U.S.)

  5. Impaired mitochondrial respiration and protein nitration in the rat hippocampus after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heung M.; Reed, Jason; Greeley, George H.; Englander, Ella W.

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of massive inhalation of combustion smoke endure critical injuries, including lasting neurological complications. We have previously reported that acute inhalation of combustion smoke disrupts the nitric oxide homeostasis in the rat brain. In this study, we extend our findings and report that a 30-minute exposure of awake rats to ambient wood combustion smoke induces protein nitration in the rat hippocampus and that mitochondrial proteins are a sensitive nitration target in this setting. Mitochondria are central to energy metabolism and cellular signaling and are critical to proper cell function. Here, analyses of the mitochondrial proteome showed elevated protein nitration in the course of a 24-hour recovery following exposure to smoke. Mass spectrometry identification of several significantly nitrated mitochondrial proteins revealed diverse functions and involvement in central aspects of mitochondrial physiology. The nitrated proteins include the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, F1-ATP synthase α subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), succinate dehydrogenase Fp subunit, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein. Furthermore, acute exposure to combustion smoke significantly compromised the respiratory capacity of hippocampal mitochondria. Importantly, elevated protein nitration and reduced mitochondrial respiration in the hippocampus persisted beyond the time required for restoration of normal oxygen and carboxyhemoglobin blood levels after the cessation of exposure to smoke. Thus, the time frame for intensification of the various smoke-induced effects differs between blood and brain tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that nitration of essential mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and underlie, in part, the brain pathophysiology after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

  6. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma}. On

  7. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of 239PuO2 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Pappin, J.L.; Stevens, D.L.; Irby, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Groups of rats were exposed or sham exposed to cigarette smoke for 7 mo, at which time they were exposed to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 . Rats were then subjected to whole-body counting (17-keV X-rays) periodically, beginning at day 4 after plutonium exposure, and smoke exposures or sham exposures were resumed on day 7. Clearance of plutonium from the lungs of cigarette-smoke-exposed rats was significantly slower than that from the sham-exposed rats' lungs. The difference between the two groups became significant 7 days after the resumption of cigarette-smoke exposures

  8. Plutonium transport to and deposition and immobility in Irish Sea intertidal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, S R; Stanners, D A [Lancaster Univ. (UK)

    1981-02-12

    The results are presented of an investigation of plutonium in intertidal sediments of the Irish Sea, contaminated with radioactive wastes from the Windscale reprocessing facility. The deposition characteristics and lack of vertical migration of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/ and /sup 240/Pu are discussed.

  9. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study was concerned with plutonium contamination of grassland at the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geogrphical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for plutonium analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99% of the total plutonium was contained in the soil. The concentrations of plutonium in soil were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes. A mechanism of agglomerated submicron plutonium oxide particles and larger (1-500 μm) host soil particles was proposed. Concentrations of Pu in litter and vegetation were inversely correlated to distance from the source and directly correlated to soil concentrations at the same location. Comparatively high concentration ratios of vegetation to soil suggested wind resuspension of contamination as an important transport mechanism. Arthropod and small mammal samples were highly skewed, kurtotic, and quite variable, having coefficients of variation (standard deviation/mean) as high as 600%. Bone Pu concentrations were lower than other tissues. Hide, GI, and lung were generally not higher in Pu than kidney, liver and muscle

  10. Airborne plutonium and americium concentrations measured from the top of Rattlesnake Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 blowing from offsite was measured in an initial experiment at the top of Rattlesnake Mountain. Average airborne concentration measured was similar to fallout concentrations. Airborne plutonium concentrations were independent of wind speed for seven wind speed increments between 0.5 and 31 m/sec. In contrast the airborne americium concentration was a minimum at a wind speed of approximately 7 m/sec. Similarly, the airborne solids concentration in μg/m 3 was a minimum at an intermediate wind speed increment of 7 to 11 m/sec

  11. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule, NW-Greenland after a nuclear weapons accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Ilus, E.

    2001-01-01

    was revisited in August 1997, 29 years after the accident. Water and brown algae data indicate that plutonium is not transported from the contaminated sediments into the surface waters in significant quantities. Sediment core data only indicate minor translocation of plutonium from the accident to the area...... outside Bylot Sound. The present data support an earlier quantification of the sedimentation rate as 2-4 mm per year, i.e. 5-12 cm during the 29 years since the accident. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium much deeper down, to 20-30 cm, and the 5-12 cm new sediment has been efficiently mixed...... than in sediments. Some biota groups show a somewhat higher uptake of americium than of plutonium. Sediment samples with weapons plutonium from the accident show a significant variation in Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in the range 0.027-0.057. This supports the hypothesis that the Thule plutonium...

  12. Cerebral blood flow in acute and chronic ischemic stroke using xenon-133 inhalation tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1986-01-01

    Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed in 12 patients with acute symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. CBF was measured by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computer tomography. Six patients had severe strokes and large infarcts on the CT scan....... They showed in the acute phase (Days 1-3) very large low-flow areas, larger than the hypodense areas seen on the CT scan. The cerebral vasoconstrictor and vasodilator capacity was tested in the acute phase following aminophylline and acetazolamide, respectively. A preserved but reduced reactivity was seen...... had occlusion of the relevant internal carotid artery. In all 6 patients, CBF studies at 2 and 6 months resembled the acute phase, showing large areas with reduced flow. At the 6 months follow-up, the vasodilatory stress test was repeated, and all but one showed a preserved but reduced vasoreactivity...

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of techniques for measuring lung burdens of low-energy X-ray emitters. Part of a coordinated programme on the calibration of burdens of inhaled plutonium by external counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.; Fry, F.A.; Taylor, B.T.; Eagle, M.C.; Sharma, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    An interlaboratory exercise has been conducted to assess techniques of detection and calibration in the direct measurement of lung contamination with plutonium and other nuclides emitting only low-energy X-rays. Three volunteers, of small, intermediate and large physique, inhaled an aerosol incorporating Pd-103, a 20-keV X-ray emitter, and visited 13 other laboratories in the UK, Europe and North America. Participants in the exercise were asked to estimate each subject's lung content, using their procedures for assessing burdens of plutonium, and their estimates were compared with values derived independently from measurements of Cr-51, also incorporated in the inhaled particles, by gamma-ray spectrometry. Laboratories' calibration procedures were in most cases based on elaborate thorax phantoms, and these generally led to underestimates of the subjects' contents, in some instances by a factor of three or more; only one such laboratory produced estimates in satisfactory agreement with the independently-known values. The ''phoswich'' detectors, employed by most participants, appeared to be more sensitive than gas counters. If a standard configuration were required, offering the highest sensitivity in most situations, the choice would be a pair of 12-cm diameter phoswich detectors viewing the left and right anterior surfaces of the upper thorax. No improvement in sensitivity would result from increasing the size, although larger units may offer other advantages

  14. Histopathology of kidney induced by LICAM (C) therapy in baboons after inhalation of plutonium-tributyl phosphate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Lepage, M.; Duserre, C.; Metivier, H.; Gerasimo, P.

    1989-01-01

    The histological changes induced in baboon kidneys after administration of LICAM C and/or DTPA to remove Pu after inhalation of large doses of 239 Pu-TBP have been characterised. Treatment with LICAM C alone was most effective at removing Pu from the body but increased its retention in the kidneys. It also induced specific kidney lesions confined to the proximal tubules, i.e. vacuole formation in the basal part of the tubular cells. No vacuolar lesions were observed after treatment with DTPA alone. Combined treatment with LICAM C and DTPA was less effective than with LICAM C alone but more effective than with DTPA alone. After this combined treatment, in which the smallest cumulated dose of LICAM C was used, the kidney Pu burden decreased compared to the burden after treatment with LICAM C alone, but the specific lesions in the proximal tubules were still sometimes observed. The vacuole formation induced by LICAM C seemed to be reversible and the number of vacuoles was closely correlated with the dose of LICAM C administered. (author)

  15. Determination of 90Sr, 137Cs and (239+240)Pu in waters with use of preliminary concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, V.M.; Kazachevskij, I.V.; Knatova, M.K.; Knyazev, B.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Solodukhin, V. P.; Khazhekber, S.; Gabdulin, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of artificial radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs and (239+240) Pu) in water samples is described. The following preconcentration steps are used: co-precipitation of cesium on copper ferrocyanide; co-precipitation of plutonium on iron hydroxide; and precipitation of strontium in the carbonate form. The chemical yield is determined by using the tracers: 88 Y, 85 Sr, 134 Cs and 236 Pu or 242 Pu. The method was applied to the determination of artificial radionuclides in water sources at nuclear test sites - the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and the 'Azgir' and 'Lira' test sites. The volume of water samples was 0.5 - 30.0 l, and the mineralization ranged from 0.1g/l to 100 g/l. The determination limits were: < 1 mBq/l for cesium-137; 0.02 mBq/l for plutonium-(239+240); and 1.5 mBq/l for strontium-90. The chemical yield was 60 - 90%

  16. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-01-01

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% 239 Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: (sm b ullet)bare, (sm b ullet)1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or (sm b ullet)12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection

  17. Improvement of sample preparation for input plutonium accountability measurement by isotope dilution gammy-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, K.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Masui, J.; Li, T.K.; Parker, J.L.; Hakkila, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    The sample preparation method for the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique has been further improved for simultaneously determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic composition of highly irradiated spent-fuel dissolver solutions. The improvement includes using ion-exchange filter papers (instead of resin beads, as in two previous experiments) for better separation and recovery of plutonium from fission products. The results of IDGS measurements for five dissolver solutions are in good agreement with those by mass spectrometry with ∼0.4% for plutonium concentration and ∼0.1% for 239 Pu isotopic composition. The precision of the plutonium concentration is ∼1% with a 1-h count time. The technique could be implemented as an alternative method for input accountability and verification measurements in reprocessing plants

  18. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 4 Caesium-137 and plutonium in soils of Cumbria and the Isle of Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.

    1980-08-01

    A network of soil sampling sites covering an area of some 2500 km 2 in Cumbria and the whole of the Isle of Man was selected and sampled in 1978. Soils from permanent grassland, coniferous woodland and deciduous woodland were examined, to a depth of 30 cm. The spatial distribution of sampling points is based on a grid of 10 km side. The objective of the study is to provide information on the integrated deposition of Cs-137, Pu-239+240 and Pu-238 from the atmosphere, and to determine the distribution of possible emissions from the nuclear establishment at Windscale in the presence of radioactivity deposited from nuclear weapons fallout, that is superimposed upon the natural background of radioactivity in soil. Results from soil samples collected in 1978 in Cumbria and the Isle of Man are compared with the average integrated deposition for UK soils from nuclear fallout. In the Isle of Man no radioactivity is observed in excess of nuclear weapons fallout, but in Cumbria excess levels of plutonium are detected in coastal lowland areas under permanent grassland probably due to the transport of radioactive material from sea to land. At three sampling sites on grassland and woodland within 2.3 km of the Windscale stacks, the excess plutonium and Cs-137 in soil could be attributed mainly to atmospheric discharges from Windscale. The observed deposition of radioactivity has little radiological significance, based on assessment of risk by inhalation of soil dust that contains plutonium. (author)

  19. Migration of plutonium from freshwater ecosystem at Hanford. [/sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R. M.; Klopfer, D. C.; McShane, M. C.

    1977-09-01

    A reprocessing waste pond at Hanford has been inventoried to determine quantities of plutonium (Pu) that have been accumulated since its formation in 1944. Expressions of export were developed from these inventory data and from informed assumptions about the vectors which act to mobilize material containing Pu. This 14-acre pond provides a realistic illustration of the mobility of Pu in a lentic ecosystem. The ecological behavior of Pu in this pond is similar to that in other contaminated aquatic systems having widely differing limnological characteristics. Since its creation, this pond has received about one Ci of /sup 239/,/sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu, most of which has been retained by its sediments. Submerged plants, mainly diatoms and Potamogeton, accumulate >95% of the Pu contained in biota. Emergent insects are the only direct biological route of export, mobilizing about 5 x 10/sup 3/ nCi of Pu annually, which is also the estimated maximum quantity of the Pu exported by waterfowl, birds and mammals collectively. There is no apparent significant export by wind, and it is not likely that Pu has migrated to the ground water below U-Pond via percolation. Although this pond has a rapid flushing rate, a eutrophic nutrient supply with a diverse biotic profile, and interacts with an active terrestrial environment, it appears to effectively bind Pu and prevent it from entering pathways to man and other life.

  20. Study of inhaled radio-active pollutants: 1. Current data; II. Pathology; III. Validity of animal model. Dose-effect relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.; Masse, R.; Metivier, H.; Nolibe, D.; Fritsch, P.; Nenot, J.C.; Morin, M.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt has been made to develop an animal for human industrial exposure to airradiation. That will give results applicable to man both qualitatively and quantitavely. Using over 2000 animals. The following studies were made. Radon, rat and occupationally exposed man; 239 plutonium oxide, rat and monkey; 12 different α and emitters, rat with different exposure media (aerosols particles) and exposure shcedules (acute chronic). Scrupulous pathological, microscopic, autoradiographic and ultrastructural analysis of animals followed their deaths. Acute changes are characterized by alveolaroedema, capillary and arteriolar thrombisus, and desquamation of type 1 pneumatocytes. There is interstitial pneumonia, hyaline membrane formation, and extensive bronchiolar and alveolar metaplasia. In a study of long-term effects a wide variety of both benign and malignant tumours was discovered. There are variations in species lateney and radiation sensitivity. The pathological changes, found in these studies are qualitatively very similar to changes found in man [fr

  1. The Role of Inhaled Loxapine in the Treatment of Acute Agitation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders: A Clinical Review

    OpenAIRE

    de Berardis, Domenico; Fornaro, Michele; Orsolini, Laura; Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Serroni, Nicola; Valchera, Alessandro; Carano, Alessandro; Vellante, Federica; Marini, Stefano; Piersanti, Monica; Perna, Giampaolo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Loxapine is a first generation antipsychotic, belonging to the dibenzoxazepine class. Recently, loxapine has been reformulated at a lower dose, producing an inhaled powder that can be directly administered to the lungs to treat the agitation associated with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Thus, the aim of this narrative and clinical mini-review was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of inhaled loxapine in the treatment of acute agitation in patients w...

  2. Considerations in the assessment of plutonium deposition in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.; Umbarger, J.; McInroy, J.; Healy, J.

    1975-01-01

    Data from human cases of plutonium inhalation are used to illustrate several important problems in the current methods of estimating plutonium body burdens. Individuals exposed to 238 PuO 2 particles in a highly insoluble matrix showed an unusually slow rising urinary excretion curve over 300 to 400 days. In vivo chest counts during the first 6 months estimated lung burdens to be 10 to 30 nCi, but urinary excretion methods calculate residual systematic body burdens of 50 to 100 nCi at 1200 days after exposure. Current assumptions used in the in vivo calibration do not consider possible lung distribution of particulates soon after exposure that could alter the interpretation significantly. Tissue analysis of a lung from another case after recent inhalation exposure shows a significantly lesser concentration of plutonium in the subpleural region--the principal region of plutonium measurement by in vivo chest counting--as compared to distributions found years after exposure. Tissue analyses indicate that urinary excretion estimates of body burden over the long term tend to err on the high side up to a factor of 5 or more. This procedure serves well for the purpose of protection of workers, but high estimates can lead to unnecessary job reassignments for the individual worker and can cause misleading conclusions when such data is used uncritically for reference in health effects studies. Additional research is needed to improve urinary excretion data analysis to reflect newer information derived from tissue data and to seek further understanding of the sources of variation in in vivo counting technology so it can be used with greater confidence

  3. Plutonium and tracer particle resuspension: an overview of selected Battelle-Northwest experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium resuspension at Rocky Flats was determined in July 1973, by measuring airborne plutonium as a function of sampling height and of wind speed. The maximum airborne plutonium-239 concentration was 3700 aCi/m 3 . The maximum plutonium-239 activity per gram of collected airborne soil was 50 pCi/g. Airborne plutonium concentrations were shown to increase as the sixth power of wind speed, but the data were very imprecise. In measurement of fallout resuspension caused by burning vegetation, the 137 Cs concentration in a forest fire smoke plume was 22 times the concentration in ambient air. Resuspension rates for a man walking across a tracer area on an asphalt surface ranged from 1 x 10 -5 to 7 x 10 -4 fraction of tracer resuspended/pass. For vehicular traffic driven on a tracer lane, resuspension rates from the asphalt surface ranged from 10 -4 to 10 -2 fraction resuspended/pass. When the vehicle was driven on the lane adjacent to the tracer lane, resuspension rates were smaller, ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -3 fraction resuspended/pass. Resuspension rates decreased when the tracer had been on the ground for several days. In comparison to the asphalt surface, vehicle-caused tracer resuspension rates from a cheat grass area were lower, ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -4 fraction resuspended/pass. Wind caused tracer resuspension rates were on the order of 10 -11 fraction resuspended/sec for nonrespirable particles. Resuspension rates for respirable particles increased as the 4.8th power of wind speed, ranging from 10 -11 to 10 -7 fraction resuspended/sec. In another study, airborne respirable soil concentrations measured as a function of wind speed increased as the 0.6 to 3.2 power of wind speed

  4. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plutonium in solid waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Jacques; Escarieux, Emile

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the results given by a study carried out for the development of qualitative and quantitative analysis, by γ spectrometry, of plutonium in solid waste drums is presented. After having reminded the standards and their incidence on the quantities of plutonium to be measured (application at industrial Pu: 20% of Pu 240 ) the equipment used is described. Measurement station provided with a mechanical system consisting of: a rail and a pulley block to bring the drums; a pit and a hydraulic jack with a rotating platform. The detection instrumentation consisting of: a high volume coaxial Ge(Li) detector with a γ ray resolution of 2 keV; an associated electronic; a processing of data by a 'Plurimat 20' minicomputer. Principles of the identification and measurements are specified and supported by experimental results. They are the following: determination of the quality of Pu by measuring the ratio between the γ ray intensities of the 239 Pu 129 keV and of the 241 Pu 148 keV; measurement of the 239 Pu mass by estimating the γ ray counting rate of the 375 keV from the calibrating curves given by plutonium samples varying from 32 mg to 80 g; correction of the results versus the source position into the drum and versus the filling in plastic materials into this drum. The experimental results obtained over 40 solid waste drums are presented along with the error estimates [fr

  5. Review of criticality safety benchmark data of plutonium solution in ICSBEP handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Okubo, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The criticality data of plutonium solutions published in the ICSBEP Handbook were reviewed. Criticality data for lower plutonium concentration and higher 240 Pu content, which correspond to a reprocessing process condition, are very scarce and hence the criticality data in this area are desired. While the calculated k eff 's with ENDF/B-V show the dependence of the plutonium concentration, the dependence has been corrected in JENDL-3.3 because of energy distribution of the capture cross section of 239 Pu. Based on the generalized perturbation theory, the sensitivity coefficient of k eff with respect to fission and capture cross section in plutonium solutions were obtained. In a plutonium solution with a lower concentration, cross sections in the thermal energy less than 0.1 eV have significant effects on the criticality. On the other hand, the criticality of higher concentration plutonium solutions is mostly dominated by cross sections in the energy range larger than 0.1 eV. Regarding the effect of 240 Pu on criticality, the capture cross section 240 Pu around the resonance peak near 1 eV is dominant regardless of the concentration. (author)

  6. Methods to improve routine bioassay monitoring for freshly separated, poorly transported plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; Lynch, T.P.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several human cases involving inhalation of plutonium oxide at Hanford have shown clearance half-times from the lung that are much longer than the 500-day half-time recommended for class Y plutonium in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP). The more tenaciously retained material is referred to as super class Y plutonium. The ability to detect super class Y plutonium by current routine bioassay measurements is shown to be poor. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff involved in the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program investigated four methods to se if improvements in routine monitoring of workers for fresh super class Y plutonium are feasible. The methods were lung counting, urine sampling, fecal sampling, and use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) to enhance urinary excretion. Use of DTPA was determined to be not feasible. Routine fecal sampling was found to be feasible but not recommended. Recommendations were made to improve the detection level for routine annual urinalysis and routine annual lung counting. 12 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Fractionation of plutonium in environmental and bio-shielding concrete samples using dynamic sequential extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Fractionation of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239,240Pu) in environmental samples (i.e. soil and sediment) and bio-shielding concrete from decommissioning of nuclear reactor were carried out by dynamic sequential extraction using an on-line sequential injection (SI) system combined with a specially...

  8. Fission Product Yields for 14 MeV Neutrons on 235U, 238U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Innes, M.; Chadwick, M.B.; Kawano, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report cumulative fission product yields (FPY) measured at Los Alamos for 14 MeV neutrons on 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu. The results are from historical measurements made in the 1950s–1970s, not previously available in the peer reviewed literature, although an early version of the data was reported in the Ford and Norris review. The results are compared with other measurements and with the ENDF/B-VI England and Rider evaluation. Compared to the Laurec (CEA) data and to ENDF/B-VI evaluation, good agreement is seen for 235 U and 238 U, but our FPYs are generally higher for 239 Pu. The reason for the higher plutonium FPYs compared to earlier Los Alamos assessments reported by Ford and Norris is that we update the measured values to use modern nuclear data, and in particular the 14 MeV 239 Pu fission cross section is now known to be 15–20% lower than the value assumed in the 1950s, and therefore our assessed number of fissions in the plutonium sample is correspondingly lower. Our results are in excellent agreement with absolute FPY measurements by Nethaway (1971), although Nethaway later renormalized his data down by 9% having hypothesized that he had a normalization error. The new ENDF/B-VII.1 14 MeV FPY evaluation is in good agreement with our data.

  9. Effect of the plutonium isotopic composition on the performance of fast reactors; Effet de la composition isotopique du plutonium sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Vliyanie izotopnogo sostava plutoniya na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Efectos de la composicion isotopica del plutonio sobre el funcionamiento de los reactores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiftah, S [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (Israel)

    1962-03-15

    The isotopic composition of plutonium to be used as fuel for fast reactors will depend on the source of plutonium. In principle three different sources are possible: (a) production reactors; (6) thermal power reactors (using natural uranium or enriched uranium as fuel); (c) fast reactor blankets. In general, source (a) and to some extent source (c) will provide relatively 'clean' plutonium, that is mostly Pu{sup 239}, while plutonium from source (6) will be 'dirty' plutonium, that is plutonium rich in Pu{sup 240}, Pu{sup 241}, and Pu{sup 242}. The degree of 'dirtiness' will depend on the kind of reactor, amount of burn-up and in general on the irradiation history of the fuel. The question then arises, can one use as fuel for fast reactors any kind of plutonium? To investigate the effect of different isotopic composition of the plutonium fuel, in the metallic, oxide and carbide form, on the performance of fast reactors, a limited series of spherical geometry 16-group diffusion theory calculations were performed, using the 16-group cross-section set developed recently by Yiftah, Okrent and Moldauer and taking three different kinds of plutonium, starting with pure Pu{sup 239} and increasing the amount of higher isotopes. For the systems studied-800, 1500 and 2500-l core-volumes, which are typical for large fast power reactors-the result is, when one takes into account only the thermally fissionable isotopes Pu{sup 239} arid Pu{sup 241}, that the 'dirtier' the plutonium, the smaller the critical mass and the higher the breeding ratio. For the 1500-l reactor, taken as an example, it is further found that in the metallic, oxide and carbide plutonium fuels the reactivity change upon removal of 40% of the sodium initially present in the core is made more negative (or less positive) when the plutonium is richer in higher isotopes. (author) [French] La composition isotopique du plutonium qui doit etre utilise comme combustible dans des reacteurs a neutrons rapides depend de

  10. Neuromotor effects of acute ethanol inhalation exposure in humans: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Véronique; Lamoureux, Daniel; Beuter, Anne; Charbonneau, Michel; Tardif, Robert

    2003-07-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) is added to unleaded gasoline to decrease environmental levels of carbon monoxide from automobiles emissions. Therefore, addition of ETOH in reformulated fuel will most likely increase and the involuntarily human exposure to this chemical will also increase. This preliminary study was undertaken to evaluate the possible neuromotor effects resulting from acute ETOH exposure by inhalation in humans. Five healthy non-smoking adult males, with no history of alcohol abuse, were exposed by inhalation, in a dynamic, controlled-environment exposure chamber, to various concentrations of ETOH (0, 250, 500 and 1,000 ppm in air) for six hours. Reaction time, body sway, hand tremor and rapid alternating movements were measured before and after each exposure session by using the CATSYS 7.0 system and a diadochokinesimeter. The concentrations of ETOH in blood and in alveolar air were also measured. ETOH was not detected in blood nor in alveolar air when volunteers were exposed to 250 and 500 ppm, but at the end of exposure to 1,000 ppm, blood and alveolar air concentrations were 0.443 mg/100ml and 253.1 ppm, respectively. The neuromotor tests did not show conclusively significant differences between the exposed and non-exposed conditions. In conclusion, this study suggests that acute exposure to ethanol at 1,000 ppm or lower or to concentrations that could be encountered upon refueling is not likely to cause any significant neuromotor alterations in healthy males.

  11. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples by controlled valence in anion exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    The title method was successfully used for collecting Pu-239, Pu-249 from 200 litres of seawater by coprecipitation with 16 g FeSO4 . 7H2O under reducing conditions without filtering. The plutonium is leached by concentrated HNO3 + HCI from the coprecipitate and the solid particles. The precipita...... stripped by H20, NaOH, 2N HNO3 and 0.5N HNO3 containing 0.01M NaNO3. The chemical yield of plutonium for a 200 l seawater sample is 60-80%. The resolution of the electroplated thin source is very good....

  12. Analysis of {sup 236}U and plutonium isotopes, {sup 239,240}Pu, on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, as a potential tool in oceanography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, Elena; López-Lora, Mercedes [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Villa, María [Departamento de Física Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4A, 41012 Seville (Spain); Servicio de Radioisótopos, Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, 41012 Seville (Spain); Casacuberta, Núria [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); López-Gutiérrez, José María [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidad de Sevilla, Virgen de África 7, 41011 Seville (Spain); Pham, Mai Khanh [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2015-10-15

    The performance of the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Seville, Spain) for {sup 236}U and {sup 239,240}Pu measurements has been extensively investigated. A very promising {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U abundance sensitivity of about 3 × 10{sup −11} has been recently achieved, and background figures for {sup 239}Pu of about 10{sup 6} atoms were reported in the past. These promising results lead to the use of conventional low energy AMS systems for the analysis of {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu and its further application in environmental studies. First {sup 236}U results obtained on our AMS system for marine samples (sediments and water) are presented here. Results of two new IAEA reference materials (IAEA-410 and IAEA-412, marine sediments from Pacific Ocean) are reported. The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, of 0.12 and 0.022, respectively, show a dependency with the contamination source (i.e. local fallout from the US tests performed at the Bikini Atoll and general fallout). The results obtained for a third IAEA reference material (IAEA-381, seawater from the Irish Sea), are also presented. In the following, the uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions obtained on a set of 5 intercomparison seawater samples from the Arctic Ocean provided by the ETH Zürich are discussed. By comparing them with the obtained results on the 600 kV AMS facility Tandy at the ETH Zürich, we demonstrate the solidity of the CNA technique for {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U determinations at, at least, 7 × 10{sup −10} level. Finally, these results are discussed in their environmental context.

  13. Determination of Pu-239, 240 tissue concentrations in non-occupationally exposed residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.

    1977-01-01

    The study reports on the Pu-239, 240 concentrations in various tissues obtained from individuals residing in New York City. Twenty-six tissue samples have been analyzed for their Pu-239, 240 content, which include sections from the right lung, the liver, bone (4th and 5th vertebrae) and the kidney. The tissues were obtained at autopsy from a selected population not occupationally exposed to plutonium and whose deaths were the result of causes other than metabolic disorders. A detailed description is presented of the radiochemical procedures employed to separate Pu and electrochemically deposit plutonium isotopes prior to alpha spectrometry with Si surface-barrier detectors. Results of these measurements are given as activity per gram wet weight and activity per gram of calcium in the individual tissue. All results have been compared to similar measurements made at other laboratories and with estimates of concentration based on metabolic models. To date, the magnitudes and the distribution of the measured values are consistent with the values inferred from the ICRP lung model and measured concentrations of air

  14. Toxicity of inhaled 238PuO2 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, J.H.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition, retention, translocation and microscopic distribution of inhaled 238 PuO 2 particles were studied to better define the organs at risk and uniformity of dose and cell types or structures at risk in the lung. Beagle dogs were exposed once by inhalation to an aerosol of 238 PuO 2 with particle aerodynamic diameters of 0.7, 1.4, or 2.7 μm (+-10%). Initial burdens averaged about 700 nCi, a level not expected to induce life-shortening effects in Beagle dogs. Animals were sacrificed at times from 4 hours to 2 years after exposure. Whole body retention of plutonium and its distribution among organs in the sacrificed animals was determined by radiochemical analysis for plutonium content of excreta and tissue samples. The distribution of particles in lung was determined using autoradiographs of lung tissue sections and computer-assisted data collection and analysis. Soon after exposure, PuO 2 was relatively insoluble in lung with individual particles being randomly distributed throughout the lung. A distinct change in the rate of dissolution from lung occurred at about 100 days after exposure resulting in decreased pulmonary retention and increased uptake by liver and skeleton. Particle breakup was observed in autoradiographs for time periods in excess of 128 days after exposure. Broken up particles dissolved rapidly leaving little residue in the lung. The remaining particles were randomly distributed in the lung. These results are discussed in relation to current radiation protection guides for plutonium radionuclides. (author)

  15. The effect of state of health on organ distribution and excretion of systemic plutonium in the Mayak workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslova, K.G.; Khokhryakov, V.F.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Nifatov, A.P.; Sokolova, A.B.; Kudryavtzeva, T.I.; Miller, S.C.; Krahenbuhl, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    The extrapulmonary distribution of plutonium in 20 organs (excluding the respiratory tract) was studied in workers who chronically inhaled plutonium at the radiochemical plants of the Mayak Production Association (Ozyorsk, Russia). The data were obtained by radiochemical analysis of soft tissue and bones samples collected at autopsy of 591 workers. The systemic plutonium distribution was determined in healthy individuals as well as in those with health impairment, specifically for those with liver diseases. Twenty-five years after the beginning of inhalation, systemic fractions in the liver and skeleton of individuals who were healthy at the time of death approximate the ratio 45%:45% proposed in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30. Pathological process in the liver, accompanied by fatty dystrophy of hepatocytes, increased plutonium clearance from the liver. There was a considerable shift of the plutonium from the liver to the skeleton in individuals who died from liver disease. The average fractions of systemic plutonium in the liver and skeleton of those individuals were 14% and 78% respectively, which did not correspond to ICRP models, indicating a significant effect of disease conditions. Plutonium that was not redistributed was excreted. The urinary excretion rate of plutonium also correlated with state of health. The observed excretion as a fraction of systemic content was 1.64 x 10 -5 d -1 for individuals of good health and 2.34 x 10 -5 d -1 for individuals with various chronic diseases. The current models do not account for the influence of different pathological processes in the body on plutonium distribution and retention in systemic organs. This could have significant consequences for dosimetry calculations and risk estimations. (author)

  16. Behavior of plutonium and other long-lived radionuclides in Lake Michigan. I. Biological transport, seasonal cycling, and residence times in the water column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Marshall, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Eight operating nuclear reactors are situated on the shores of Lake Michigan, but their releases of radioactivity have been much less than that entering the lake from stratospheric fallout. Measurements of 239 , 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 137 Cs from the latter source have been made in order to study biological transport, seasonal cycling, and residence times of long-lived radionuclides in the lake. The apparent turnover times for the residual fallout 239 , 240 Pu and 137 Cs, which are present as nonfilterable, ionic forms, are about 3 to 4 y. Resuspension may be occurring at a low rate, probably through the feeding activities of benthic organisms. Transport by settling of phytodetritus and zooplankton fecal pellets is postulated to be the cause of the rapid decline of the concentration of 239 , 240 Pu in surface waters observed during summer thermal stratification of the lake, while the concentration of 137 Cs remained almost constant. Concentration factors for fallout 239 , 240 Pu, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr at various trophic levels in the food chain in Lake Michigan have been measured. Analyses of biological samples taken at various distances from the Big Rock Point Nuclear Power Plant and of plant waste discharge show that any plutonium possibly released from the recycle plutonium test fuel is too low to be detectable in the presence of fallout plutonium. Measurements of 239 , 240 Pu, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr on a comparison set of surface water and net plankton samples from all five Great Lakes indicate generally consistent behavior patterns in these lakes. (U.S.)

  17. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.

    1981-01-01

    The PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2) package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities, especially as used in international safeguards activities, and especially as transported by air. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The accident environments may be imposed upon the package singly or seqentially. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. Packaging, operational features, and contents of package, are discussed

  18. Mortality from solid cancers other than lung, liver, and bone in relation to external dose among plutonium and non-plutonium workers in the Mayak Worker Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolnikov, Mikhail [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Preston, Dale [Hirosoft International Corporation, Eureka, CA (United States); Stram, Daniel O. [University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has well-documented long-term effects on cancer rates and other health outcomes in humans. While in vitro experimental studies had demonstrated that the nature of some radiation effects depend on both total dose of the radiation and the dose rate (i.e., the pattern of dose distribution over time), the question of whether or not the carcinogenic effect of radiation exposure depends on the dose rate remains unanswered. Another issue of interest concerns whether or not concomitant exposure to external gamma rays and inhaled plutonium aerosols has any effect on the external exposure effects. The analyses of the present paper focus on the risk of solid cancers at sites other than lung, liver, and bone in Mayak workers. Recent findings are reviewed indicating that there is no evidence of plutonium dose response for these cancers in the Mayak worker cohort. Then the evidence for differences in the external dose effects among workers with and without the potential for exposure to alpha particles from inhaled plutonium is examined. It is found that there is no evidence that exposure to plutonium aerosols significantly affects the risk associated with external exposure. While the Mayak external dose risk estimate of an excess relative risk of 0.16 per Gy is somewhat lower than an appropriately normalized risk estimate from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the uncertainties in these estimates preclude concluding that the external dose excess relative risks of this group of solid cancers differ in the two cohorts. (orig.)

  19. Mortality from solid cancers other than lung, liver, and bone in relation to external dose among plutonium and non-plutonium workers in the Mayak Worker Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Preston, Dale; Stram, Daniel O.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has well-documented long-term effects on cancer rates and other health outcomes in humans. While in vitro experimental studies had demonstrated that the nature of some radiation effects depend on both total dose of the radiation and the dose rate (i.e., the pattern of dose distribution over time), the question of whether or not the carcinogenic effect of radiation exposure depends on the dose rate remains unanswered. Another issue of interest concerns whether or not concomitant exposure to external gamma rays and inhaled plutonium aerosols has any effect on the external exposure effects. The analyses of the present paper focus on the risk of solid cancers at sites other than lung, liver, and bone in Mayak workers. Recent findings are reviewed indicating that there is no evidence of plutonium dose response for these cancers in the Mayak worker cohort. Then the evidence for differences in the external dose effects among workers with and without the potential for exposure to alpha particles from inhaled plutonium is examined. It is found that there is no evidence that exposure to plutonium aerosols significantly affects the risk associated with external exposure. While the Mayak external dose risk estimate of an excess relative risk of 0.16 per Gy is somewhat lower than an appropriately normalized risk estimate from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the uncertainties in these estimates preclude concluding that the external dose excess relative risks of this group of solid cancers differ in the two cohorts. (orig.)

  20. Stack released plutonium in the environment of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Sanders, S.M.; Corey, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Plant have released very small quantities of plutonium to the environment since 1955. Characterization studies of airborne particulates from the process stack show that the plutonium is nearly always attached to nonradioactive particles. The geometric mean diameter of plutonium-bearing particulates in the stack gas is 5.43 μm. Most of the particles contain less than 10 -15 Ci of 239 Pu. Studies with cascade impactors 1.1 m above the ground indicated that the average annual air concentration was 612 x 10 -18 Ci/m 3 (less than 0.1% of the maximum permissible concentration recommended by the ICRP). Cropping studies showed plutonium concentrations of 3 x 10 -3 pCi/g in wheat, 5.5 x 10 -4 in soybeans, and 1.7 x 10 -4 in corn. The 70-year dose-to-bone from ingesting 10 5 g of grain would be less than 1 mrem

  1. Determination of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio and its significance in environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of Pu concentrations and its isotopic ratios in environmental samples were developed by using ICP-MS. Detection limit of Pu by ICP-MS was about 0.02 pg ml{sup -1} (0.05 mBq ml{sup -1} for {sup 239}Pu; 0.17 mBq ml{sup -1} for {sup 240}Pu) in the sample solution. Analytical results of {sup 239+240}Pu in IAEA standard reference materials indicated that the accuracy of this method was satisfactory. Data on the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, which are rare in the literature, were also obtained for soil and sediment samples (including IAEA standard reference materials) from different areas such as Irish Sea, Mururoa Atoll, Marshall Islands, Chernobyl, Kyshtym, Nagasaki and some other places in Japan. The range of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios was about 0.04-0.4, and the ratios are depending on the origin of the materials. Analytical results for the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios provide information about the source of the contamination and the transfer of plutonium in the environment. (author)

  2. Calculation of Doses Due to Accidentally Released Plutonium From An LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, B.R.

    2001-08-07

    Experimental data and analytical models that should be considered in assessing the transport properties of plutonium aerosols following a hypothetical reactor accident have been examined. Behaviors of released airborne materials within the reactor containment systems, as well as in the atmosphere near the reactor site boundaries, have been semiquantitatively predicted from experimental data and analytical models. The fundamental chemistry of plutonium as it may be applied in biological systems has been used to prepare models related to the intake and metabolism of plutonium dioxide, the fuel material of interest. Attempts have been made to calculate the possible doses from plutonium aerosols for a typical analyzed release in order to evaluate the magnitude of the internal exposure hazards that might exist in the vicinity of the reactor after a hypothetical LMFBR (Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) accident. Intake of plutonium (using data for {sup 239}Pu as an example) and its distribution in the body were treated parametrically without regard to the details of transport pathways in the environment. To the extent possible, dose-response data and models have been reviewed, and an assessment of their adequacy has been made so that recommended or preferred practices could be developed.

  3. The effects of polymeric plutonium on erythrocyte survival in mice, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Kashima, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1976-01-01

    The changes in erythrocyte counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, reticulocyte counts and erythrocyte survival following an intravenous injection of polymeric 239 Pu at the dose level of 15 μCi/kg, 10 μCi/kg and 5 μCi/kg were studied in CF no. 1 male mice in order to investigate the possible pathogenesis of anemia produced by irradiation of polymeric plutonium. The administration of 15 μCi/kg and 10 μCi/kg of polymeric plutonium produced anemia but 5 μCi/kg had no significant effect. Studies with 51 Cr labelled erythrocyte showed a moderate reduction in survival of erythrocyte following a single intraveneous injection of polymeric plutonium. Not only the intracorpuscular effect but also extracorpuscular effect of polymeric plutonium was considered to lead to a reduction in erythrocyte survival, but no clear dose relationship could be observed between the reduction of survival and either intracorpuscular effect or extracorpuscular effect. Although the most important pathogenesis of anemia produced by polymeric plutonium is supposed to be a decreased erythropoiesis, it was believed that both qualitatively impaired erythropoiesis and abnormal erythrocyte destruction might also play some role in the occurrence of anemia. (auth.)

  4. Reanalysis of gastrointestinal absorption factors for plutonium and other actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Toohey, R.E.; Moretti, E.S.; Oldham, R.D.; Spaletto, M.I.; Engel, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    This project studies the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements relevant to nuclear power production, at concentrations at or below their respective maximum permissible concentrations (MPC's) in drinking water, using high specific activity isotopes. The gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium is measured in mice, rats, and dogs exposed to plutonium either via drinking water or by gavage. Plutonium concentrations are determined in liver and eviscerated carcass at 6 days (mice and rats) or 4 weeks (dogs). Administered solutions are 1 x 10 -10 M in Pu (the molar concentration at MPC for 239 Pu) and contain one of several high specific activity isotopes ( 237 Pu, 47-day half-life; 236 Pu, 2.8-year half-life; 238 Pu, 86-year half-life). Fasted mice and rats, administered plutonium solutions that are: (1) low in concentration (10- 10 M); and (2) carefully prepared to assure a given oxidation state and to avoid hydrolysis and polymes, and major policy issues. The first HEED for near-term battery energy storage systems (lead/acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron) astention being paid to potential releases of radionuclides at relatively short times after disposal

  5. Comparison of metabolism and late effects in dogs and rats exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Sanders, C.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Lung tumors were observed proportionally earlier in relation to expected life span in dogs than in rats after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 . Dogs appear to translocate a higher percentage of initial lung burden to liver, skeleton and thoracic lymph nodes than rats

  6. Late excretion of plutonium following acquisition of known amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary and fecal excretion rates of plutonium 10,000 days after intravenous injection of known amounts are compared with the predictions of various models. Both Langham's and Durbin's equations underestimated the urinary excretion by about an order of magnitude; the observed fecal excretion rates were also higher than the predictions. The total excretion rate predicted by the ICRP model was in quite good agreement with the observed rate, but it overestimated it at early times ( 239 Pu of former Manhattan Project plutonium workers, as calculated from the measured urinary excretion an application of Langham's equation. In one of these subjects the urinary excretion rate started to increase at about 6000 days, reached a maximum at about 9500 days, and declined for the next 2700 days

  7. Caesium and Plutonium Isotopes as Tracers of Various Events in Sediment Records in the Bay of Toulon (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Arnaud, M.; Charmasson, S.; Thebault, H. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DEI/SESURE/LERCM, La Seyne sur Mer (France)

    2013-07-15

    Located along the French Mediterranean coast, the Toulon bay has a specific configuration with two basins. The shallow one is a semi-enclosed basin (Petite Rade) with complex hydrodynamic conditions that contribute to fine sedimentation. The open sea basin, separated from the first one by a long sea wall, receives different anthropogenic inputs. Surface and core sediment sampling cruises took place in 2001 and 2008, in order to study radionuclide spatial dispersion and sediment accumulation. {sup 137}Cs values are statistically higher in the 'Petite Rade' than in the open basin. {sup 239+240}Pu levels range from 0.7 to 2.6 Bq/kg dry weight in surface sediments, up to 6 times higher than elsewhere in Mediterranean coastal areas not influenced by riverine inputs. Plutonium activity ratios ({sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu) labelled atmospheric nuclear weapon testing. Regarding the long cores, the highest plutonium activities, measured by alpha counting and ICP-MS, concern the first ten centimetres with a maximum value of 3.5 Bq/kg dry weight in {sup 239+240}Pu. (author)

  8. Plutonium dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1976-01-01

    Dose in internal exposure to Pu was investigated, and dose-effect relationship was discussed. Dose-effect relationship in internal exposure was investigated by means of two methods, which were relationship between dose and its effect (relationship between μ Ci/Kg and its effect), and exposure dose and its effects (rad-effect), and merits and demerits of two methods were mentioned. Problems in a indication method such as mean dose were discussed with respect to the dose in skeleton, the liver and the lung. Pu-induced osteosarcoma in mice rats, and beagles was described, and differences in its induction between animals were discussed. Pulmonary neoplasma induced by 239 PuO 2 inhalation in beagles was reported, and description was made as to differences in induction of lung cancer between animals when Pu was inhaled and was taken into the lung. A theoretical and experimental study of a extrapolation of the results of the animal experiment using Pu to human cases is necessary. (Serizawa, K.)

  9. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem. [Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes.

  10. A multi-radionuclide approach to evaluate the suitability of {sup 239+240}Pu as soil erosion tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusburger, Katrin, E-mail: Katrin.Meusburger@unibas.ch [Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Bernoullistrasse 30, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Mabit, Lionel, E-mail: L.Mabit@iaea.org [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf (Austria); Ketterer, Michael, E-mail: mkettere@msudenver.edu [Chemistry Department, Metropolitan State University of Denver, CO (United States); Park, Ji-Hyung, E-mail: jhp@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Sandor, Tarjan [Radioanalytical Reference Laboratory, Central Agricultural Office Food and Feed Safety Directorate (Hungary); Porto, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.porto@unirc.it [Dipartimento di AGRARIA, Università degli Studi “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria (Italy); Alewell, Christine, E-mail: Christine.Alewell@unibas.ch [Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, Bernoullistrasse 30, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides have been used successfully worldwide as tracers for soil erosion, but relatively few studies exploit the full potential of plutonium (Pu) isotopes. Hence, this study aims to explore the suitability of the plutonium isotopes {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu as a method to assess soil erosion magnitude by comparison to more established fallout radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb{sub ex}. As test area an erosion affected headwater catchment of the Lake Soyang (South Korea) was selected. All three fallout radionuclides confirmed high erosion rates for agricultural sites (> 25 t ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}). Pu isotopes further allowed determining the origin of the fallout. Both {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratios and {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios were close to the global fallout ratio. However, the depth profile of the {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratios in undisturbed sites showed lower ratios in the top soil increments, which might be due to higher migration rates of {sup 239+240}Pu. The activity ratios further indicated preferential transport of {sup 137}Cs from eroded sites (higher ratio compared to the global fallout) to the depositional sites (smaller ratio). As such the {sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratio offered a new approach to parameterize a particle size correction factor that can be applied when both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu have the same fallout source. Implementing this particle size correction factor in the conversion of {sup 137}Cs inventories resulted in comparable estimates of soil loss for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu. The comparison among the different fallout radionuclides highlights the suitability of {sup 239+240}Pu through less preferential transport compared to {sup 137}Cs and the possibility to gain information regarding the origin of the fallout. In conclusion, {sup 239+240}Pu is a promising soil erosion tracer, however, since the behaviour i.e. vertical migration in the

  11. Critical experiments in AQUILON with fuels slightly enriched in uranium 235 or in plutonium; Experiences critiques dans aquilon portant sur des combustibles legerement enrichis en uranium 235 et en plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrillac, M; Ledanois, G; Lourme, P; Naudet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Reactivity comparisons have been, made in Aquilon II between geometrically identical lattices differing only by the composition of the fuel. The fuel elements consist in metallic uranium single rods with either slight differences of the isotopic composition (0.69 - 0.71 - 0.83 - 0.86 per cent of uranium 235) or slight additions of plutonium (0.043 per cent). Five lattices pitches have bean used, in order to produce a large variation of spectrum. Two additional sets of plutonium fuels are prepared to be used in the same conditions. The double comparisons: natural enriched 235 versus natural-enriched plutonium are made in such a way that a very precise interpretation is permitted. The results are perfectly consistent which seems to prove that the calculation methods are convenient. Further it can been inferred that the usual data, namely for the ratio of the {eta} of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu seem reliable. (authors) [French] On a compare neutroniquement dans Aquilon II des reseaux geometriquement identiques mais comportant de petites differences de composition du combustible. EL s'agit de barres d'uranium metallique, les unes avec des teneurs differentes en isotopes 235 (0,69 - 0,71 - 0,83 - 0,86 pour cent) les autres comportant une legere addition de plutonium (0,043 pour cent). Les comparaisons ont ete faites a cinq pas differents, de maniere a mettre en jeu une assez large variation de spectre. Deux autres jeux de combustible au plutonium seront utilises ulterieurement dans les memes conditions. Les resultats des mesures se presentent sous forme de doubles comparaisons: naturel-enrichi 235/naturel-enrichi plutonium. On s'est place dans des conditions qui permettent des interpretations tres precises. Les resultats sont remarquablement coherents, ce qui semble montrer que les methodes de calcul sont bien adaptees, Ils tendent d'autre part a prouver que les valeurs numeriques admises dans la litterature, notamment pour le rapport des {eta} de l'U 235 et de Pu 239

  12. Bone tumors induced by inhalation of 238PuO2 in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Lund, J.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Hackett, P.L.; Frazier, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium-238, an alpha-emitting radionuclide, is used as a heat source in thermoelectric power generators such as have been employed on lunar expeditions of communications satellites and in cardiac pacemakers. It has an 86.4 year half-life and emits 5.5 MeV alpha particles. Beagle dogs were given single 10 to 30 minute exposures to 238 PuO 2 aerosols to study the long-term translocation of plutonium and biologicl effects. Dogs with a terminal body burden ranging from 7 to 260 MuCi were euthanized due to respiratory insufficiency related to plutonium-induced pneumonitis during the first 3 years after exposure. Nine of the 11 dogs euthanized during the 4 to 6 year postexposure period had osteosarcomas. The terminal plutonium body burden in the tumor-bearing dogs ranged from 0.5 to 2.6 muCi with 30 to 55 percent of the plutonium in the skeleton. Experiments are in progress to further define the dose-effect relationship of inhaled 238 PuO 2 and investigate the mechanisms of plutonium-induced neoplasia

  13. Age-related effects on the disposition and dosimetry of inhaled 239Pu or 144Ce in immature or aged beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Immature (90 days of age), young adult (18 months of age), and aged (8-10.5 years of age) male and female beagle dogs received a single brief pernasal inhalation exposure to an aerosol of 144 Ce in an insoluble fused aluminosilicate matrix or 239 PuO 2 . These isotopes were selected to represent low- and high-LET emitters, respectively. No age-related differences in the retention of Pu in the lungs of dogs have been observed, nor have there been any detectable differences in the uptake and retention of Pu in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Age-related effects have been seen in the uptake of Pu in the skeleton, with the amount of Pu being greatest in the skeleton of immature dogs. For the dogs exposed to the 144 Ce aerosol, there was a statistically significant difference in the retention of 144 Ce in the lungs of immature dogs compared to young adults. Increased uptake of 144 Ce in the immature dog skeleton was also noted. 14 refs.; 4 figs

  14. Report on intercomparison IAEA/SOIL-6 of the determination of Cs-137, Pu-239, Ra-226, and Sr-90 in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.; Suschny, O.

    1984-04-01

    The report presents results of a laboratory intercomparison of the determination of the activity level of cesium-137, plutonium-239, radium-226 and strontium-90 in a provided soil sample organized by the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service. Twenty-seven laboratories from 16 countries returned results based on 77 laboratory means (295 individual determinations). The aim of the interlaboratory comparison was to offer to the laboratories engaged in soil investigation an opportunity to control their analytical performance and to establish the concentration level of some radionuclides in a batch of analyzed soil for certification purposes. All radionuclides were determined by typical commonly used methods: cesium-137 by direct gamma spectroscopy, plutonium-239 by alpha spectroscopy after separation and electrodeposition, radium-226 by direct determination without or with separation or by determination of radon, and strontium-90 by measurement of its daughter yttrium-90. In general, the results can be accepted as satisfactory at such low level of activity (pCi/kg). The relative confidence intervals of the medians of 137 Cs and 239 Pu are below +-10% and of 226 Ra and 90 Sr below +-20%

  15. Toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Gillett, N.A.; Diel, J.H.; Lundgren, D.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides is being investigated in a series of interrelated dose-response studies. Dogs, rodents, and nonhuman primates have been exposed to monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols of the oxides of 239 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, or 244 Cm to measure the relative importance of average organ dose, local dose around particles, specific activity, chemical form, particle size, and number of particles inhaled to the development of biological effects. The influence of animal species, age at exposure, and pre-existing lung disease, as well as the effects of repeated exposure, are also being studied, because they may influence the toxicity of these radionuclides. (author)

  16. Exploiting the plutonium stockpiles in PWRs by using inert matrix fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.; Mazzola, A.

    1996-01-01

    The plutonium coming from dismantled warheads and that already stockpiled coming from spent fuel reprocessing have raised many concerns related to proliferation resistance, environmental safety and economy. The option of disposing of plutonium by fission is one of the most widely discussed and many proposals for plutonium burning in a safe and economical manner have been put forward. Due to their diffusion, PWRs appear to be the main candidates for the reduction of the plutonium stockpiles. In order to achieve a high plutonium consumption rate, a uranium-free fuel may be conceived, based on the dilution of PuO 2 within a carrier matrix made of inert oxide. In this paper, a partial loading of inert matrix fuel in a current technology PWR was investigated with 3-D calculations. The results indicated that this solution has good plutonium elimination capabilities: commercial PWRs operating in a once-through cycle scheme can transmute more than 98% of the loaded Pu-239 and 73 or 81% of the overall initially loaded reactor grade or weapons grade plutonium, respectively. The plutonium still let in the spent fuel was of poor quality and then offered a better proliferation resistance. Power peaking problems could be faced with the adoption of burnable absorbers: IFBA seemed to be particularly suitable. In spite of a reduction of the overall plutonium loaded mass by a factor 3.7 or 5.4 depending on its quality, there was no evidence of an increase of the minor actinides radiotoxicity after a time period of about 25 years. (author)

  17. Low-level 239PuO2 lifespan studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This project will produce data to generate a dose-response curve (and to evaluate other statistical methods that also incorporate survival time) for lung-tumor incidence in Wistar rats following inhalation of 239 PuO 2 at levels producing lifetime radiation doses to the lung of 2000 rad. The lung clearance of 239 Pu is best represented by a two-exponential equation, with 78% of the initial alveolar depositions (IAD) cleared with a half-time of 19 days and 22% cleared with a half-time of 180 days. A total of 593 of 2134 exposed and 242 of 1058 sham-exposed rats have died. Among the dead rats, the percent with primary lung tumors was 71% for the 150-nCi group, 70% for the 82-nCi group, and 23% for the 32-nCi group. No lung tumors have been found in controls, and only three have been found at an IAD of < 7.5 nCi. 1 figure, 3 tables

  18. Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Treatment in Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study on Safety and Neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hirohisa; Nishijima, Yoji; Ohta, Shigeo; Sakamoto, Masaki; Kinone, Kazunori; Horikosi, Tohru; Tamaki, Mituyuki; Takeshita, Hirosi; Futatuki, Tomoko; Ohishi, Wataru; Ishiguro, Taichi; Okamoto, Saori; Ishii, Shou; Takanami, Hiroko

    2017-11-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant. Inhalation of H 2 gas (1-4%) was effective for the improvement of cerebral infarction in multiple animal experiments. Thus, for actual applications, a randomized controlled clinical study is desired to evaluate the effects of inhalation of H 2 gas. Here, we evaluate the H 2 treatment on acute cerebral infarction. Through this randomized controlled clinical study, we assessed the safety and effectiveness of H 2 treatment in patients with cerebral infarction in an acute stage with mild- to moderate-severity National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (NIHSS = 2-6). We enrolled 50 patients (25 each in the H 2 group and the control group) with a therapeutic time window of 6 to 24 hours. The H 2 group inhaled 3% H 2 gas (1 hour twice a day), and the control group received conventional intravenous medications for the initial 7 days. The evaluations included daily vital signs, NIHSS scores, physical therapy indices, weekly blood chemistry, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans over the 2-week study period. The H 2 group showed no significant adverse effects with improvements in oxygen saturation. The following significant effects were found: the relative signal intensity of MRI, which indicated the severity of the infarction site, NIHSS scores for clinically quantifying stroke severity, and physical therapy evaluation, as judged by the Barthel Index. H 2 treatment was safe and effective in patients with acute cerebral infarction. These results suggested a potential for widespread and general application of H 2 gas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma

  20. Real-time measurement of inhaled and exhaled cigarette smoke: Implications for dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Conor; Warren, Nigel; Biggs, Philip; McAughey, John, E-mail: conor_mcgrath@bat.co [British American Tobacco, Group R and D Centre, Southampton, SO15 8TL (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke aerosol is a two-step process involving puffing followed by inhalation. Measured smoke deposition efficiencies in the lung (20-70%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150 -- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of a series of studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. The studies have been conducted to better understand smoke dosimetry and links to disease as part of a wider programme defining risk and potential harm reduction. In this study, the average CMD of inhaled smoke was 160 nm while the average CMD of exhaled smoke was 239 nm with an average growth factor of 1.5.

  1. Real-time measurement of inhaled and exhaled cigarette smoke: Implications for dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Conor; Warren, Nigel; Biggs, Philip; McAughey, John

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke aerosol is a two-step process involving puffing followed by inhalation. Measured smoke deposition efficiencies in the lung (20-70%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150 -- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of a series of studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. The studies have been conducted to better understand smoke dosimetry and links to disease as part of a wider programme defining risk and potential harm reduction. In this study, the average CMD of inhaled smoke was 160 nm while the average CMD of exhaled smoke was 239 nm with an average growth factor of 1.5.

  2. The research of sub-picogram plutonium's quantitative analysis by isotope mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lei; Long Kaiming; Yang Tianli; Liu Xuemei

    2005-10-01

    By using active carbon powder as emission matter, the detect sensitivity of 239 Pu was 0.5 pg (1 ± 0.15, 95% confidence level), improved 20 times compared with the sensitivity 10 pg (1 ± 0.5) of the tradition method. The sub-picogram plutonium sample was determined quantatively by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). (authors)

  3. Plutonium, cesium, uranium, and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1982-November 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured radionuclide activities in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported from the tidal Hudson to coastal waters. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion is likely to be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. 5 references

  4. Adsorption and diffusion of plutonium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.

    The behavior of plutonium (Pu) was studied in three soils that varied in texture, CEC, pH, organic matter content and mineralogy (Fuquay, Muscatine, Burbank). Two isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, were used in order to detect Pu over a range of several orders of magnitude. Unless added in a chelated form, Pu was added to the soil as a nitrate in .01 N HNO 3 to simulate the release of acidic waste on the soil and to prevent rapid Pu hydrolysis or polymerization

  5. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-09-22

    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  6. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaher, B.M.; Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Benjamin, T.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stoker, A.K. [Science Applications, Inc., White Rock, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    For more than three decades, Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. By measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate that the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1,000-fold along a 3,000-ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory-derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicate off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  7. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallaher, B.M.; Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Benjamin, T.M.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-10-01

    For more than three decades, Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. By measuring the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of 235 U and 236 U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate that the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1,000-fold along a 3,000-ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory-derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicate off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary

  8. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of 235 U and 236 U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary

  9. Comparison of rats and dogs exposed to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Sanders, C.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Rats and dogs inhaled aerosols of 239 PuO 2 at comparable ages relative to their lifespan. Both received a single exposure. The estimated lung doses at death in dogs were between 1100 and 11,000 rad. From two inhalation experiments, rats receiving doses in this range were chosen from the high-level exposed animals for comparison. Based on this data base, several comparisons were investigated. Metabolism of the material was compared for all animals and for animals which developed lung tumors. The differences in histopathology and tumor incidence in the lung were also reviewed. Although there were several differences between species, there were also many similarities. On-going research in dogs should produce data which will allow clarification of these relationships

  10. Consideration of the effect of lymph-node deposition upon the measurement of plutonium and americium in the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.B.; Lagerquist, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of an inhaled radionuclide by external photon counting includes quantities which may be contained in lymph nodes, as well as quantities in the lungs. An overestimate of the lung burden can result, if a portion of the radionuclide were present in the lymph nodes. This problem is analyzed with respect to the measurement of inhaled plutonium containing plutonium-241 and americium-241, when americium-241 has been used as a tracer for the plutonium. Equations are derived which yield the amounts of americium and of plutonium in the lungs and in the lymph nodes as a function of time after exposure and for various translocation and retention parameters. Count histories (count profiles) of actual exposure cases are compared with calculated count profiles in order to gain insight into possible values of the translocation and retention parameters. Comparison is also made with calculated count profiles using values of translocation and retention parameters recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use with the Task Group Lung Model. The magnitude of the possible overestimate (error factor) was calculated for combinations o []parameters which yielded matches to the observed count histories. (auth)

  11. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Olsen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout 239 240 Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of 239 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of 239 240 Pu. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility

  12. Charge distribution on plutonium-containing aerosols produced in mixed-oxide reactor fuel fabrication and the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Newton, G.J.; Teague, S.V.

    1976-01-01

    The inhalation toxicity of potentially toxic aerosols may be affected by the electrostatic charge on the particles. Charge may influence the deposition site during inhalation and the