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Sample records for acutely inhaled plutonium-239

  1. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

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    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  2. Dosimetry of inhaled plutonium-239 dioxide in rodent lung: a morphometric study

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    Rhoads, K.

    1979-06-01

    Morphometric analysis of rat and hamster lung did not demonstrate any extensive changes in lung composition or structure following inhalation exposure to /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ at levels near that for maximum tumor yield in rats. The problem of dosimetry for this compound thus appears to be relatively uncomplicated by any major radiation-induced pathological alterations in the lung. Rat and hamster lung were found to be similar in structure and composition, with few significant differences which could be directly related to the different tumor responses. The distribution of /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ particles was not uniform in all regions of the lung; thus estimation of the dose to specific tissues or regions within the lung requires a correction for this effect. Species differences were found for particle distribution in the subpleural region and major airways, and in the spatial association of particles, both of which may affect the tumor development process. These regions contain the principal target cells for tumor production and serve as foci for the origin of tumors. Different dose distributions within these regions may therefore explain, at least in part, the difference in tumor response to inhaled /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ for rats and hamsters.

  3. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

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    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  4. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

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    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  5. SKIN DOSIMETRY IN CONDITIONS OF ITS CONSTANT SURFACE CONTAMINATION WITH SOLUTIONS OF PLUTONIUM-239 AND AMERICIUM-241

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    E. B. Ershov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, on the basis of experimental data, the issue of assessing dose burdens to the skin basal layer in conditions of its permanent contamination with solutions of plutonium-239 and americium-241 and subsequent decontamination.

  6. Baseline Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 inventory assessment for Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Borelli, Pasquale; Evrard, Olivier; Ketterer, Michael; Mabit, Lionel; van Oost, Kristof; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Artificial fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 released as products of the thermonuclear weapons testing that took place from the mid-1950s to the early 1980s and from nuclear power plant accidents (e.g. Chernobyl) are useful tools to quantify soil redistribution. In combination with geostatistics, FRNs may have the potential to bridge the gap between small scale process oriented studies and modelling that simplifies processes and effects over large spatial scales. An essential requirement for the application of FRNs as soil erosion tracers is the establishment of the baseline fallout at undisturbed sites before its comparison to those inventories found at sites undergoing erosion/accumulation. For this purpose, undisturbed topsoil (0-20cm) samples collected in 2009 within the framework of the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) have been measured by gamma-spectrometry and ICP-MS to determine 137Cs (n=145) and 239+240Pu (n=108) activities. To restrict the analysis to undisturbed reference sites a geospatial database query selecting only sites having a slope angle soil redistribution for a comparable time-frame (1953-2009) following a harmonised methodological protocol across national boundaries.

  7. Comparison of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and mobile phone GSM 900 radiation in the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnya, Dmitry S; Romanovsky, Anton V

    2013-01-20

    The goal of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and GSM 900 modulated mobile phone (model Sony Ericsson K550i) radiation in the Allium cepa test. Three groups of bulbs were exposed to mobile phone radiation during 0 (sham), 3 and 9h. A positive control group was treated during 20min with plutonium-239 alpha-radiation. Mitotic abnormalities, chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and mitotic index were analyzed. Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and plutonium-239 dioxide

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    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. The purpose of this ongoing study is to investigate potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, Be metal, or these agents in combination. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high-linear-energy transfer, alpha-particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be. As a result, Be is classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United STates and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This study is in progress.

  9. Acute myocardial involvement after heroin inhalation

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    Ritu Karoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the illicit drugs cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis have been studied and documented well to cause myocardial infarction by different mechanisms but there is very sparse data available on myocardial involvement after heroin abuse. We report a young man who developed acute myocardial injury after heroin inhalation and alcohol binge drinking. Heroin induced cardio toxic effect and vasospasm compounded by alcohol were suspected to be the cause of this.

  10. Acute chemical pneumonitis caused by nitric acid inhalation: case report

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    Choe, Hyung Shim; Lee, In Jae; Ko, Eun Young; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation is a rare clinical condition. The previously reported radiologic findings of this disease include acute permeability pulmonary edema, delayed bronchiolitis obliterans, and bronchiectasis. In very few published rare radiologic reports has this disease manifested as acute alveolar injury; we report a case of acute chemical pneumonitis induced by nitric acid inhalation which at radiography manifested as bilateral perihilar consolidation and ground-glass attenuation, suggesting acute alveolar injury.

  11. Hydroxocobalamin for severe acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion or inhalation.

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    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frédéric J; Mégarbane, Bruno; Bismuth, Chantal

    2007-06-01

    This chart review was undertaken to assess efficacy and safety of hydroxocobalamin for acute cyanide poisoning. Hospital records of the Fernand Widal and Lariboisière Hospitals were reviewed for intensive care unit admissions with cyanide poisoning for which hydroxocobalamin was used as first-line treatment from 1988 to 2003. Smoke inhalation cases were excluded. Hydroxocobalamin (5-20 g) was administered to 14 consecutive patients beginning a median 2.1 hours after cyanide ingestion or inhalation. Ten patients (71%) survived and were discharged. Of the 11 patients with blood cyanide exceeding the typically lethal threshold of 100 micromol/L, 7 survived. The most common hydroxocobalamin-attributed adverse events were chromaturia and pink skin discoloration. Severe cyanide poisoning of the nature observed in most patients in this study is frequently fatal. That 71% of patients survived after treatment with hydroxocobalamin suggests that hydroxocobalamin as first-line antidotal therapy is effective and safe in acute cyanide poisoning.

  12. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

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    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  13. Acute inhalation exposure of azodicarbonamide in the guinea pig.

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    Shopp, G M; Cheng, Y S; Gillett, N A; Bechtold, W E; Medinsky, M A; Hobbs, C H; Birnbaum, L S; Mauderly, J L

    1987-02-01

    Humans have been exposed to azodicarbonamide (ADA) by inhalation where bulk quantities of ADA are handled in the workplace. Responses of some workers have led to concern for the potential irritant and sensitizing properties of inhaled ADA. This study examined the effects of inhaling ADA on lung structure and function of guinea pigs during and after an acute exposure. Groups of 20 guinea pigs were exposed to each of 3 concentrations of ADA (19, 58, and 97 mg/m3), plus air as a control, for 1 hr. Pulmonary function was measured before exposure (baseline), during exposure, immediately after exposure and 24 hr after exposure. Dynamic compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL), tidal volume (VT), respiratory frequency and minute volume were measured. In addition, gross necropsies and histological examinations of respiratory tract tissues were done either immediately following the exposure or 24 hr after exposure. There were no effects of ADA exposure on gross necropsy, histology, Cdyn, or RL. Some significant, concentration-related decreases in VT, respiratory frequency and minute volume were seen. The magnitudes of these changes were small: the largest change was seen in minute volume, amounting to a 24% decrease in the high concentration group. Inhalation exposure of guinea pigs to ADA at concentrations of up to 97 mg/m3 resulted in minor changes in pulmonary function without any changes in lung histology.

  14. Criticality Evaluation of Plutonium-239 Moderated by High-Density Polyethylene in Stainless Steel and Aluminum Containers Suitable for Non-Exclusive Use Transport

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    Watson, T T

    2007-08-10

    Research is conducted at the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Facility (JASPER) on the effects of high pressure and temperature environments on plutonium-239, in support of the stockpile stewardship program. Once an experiment has been completed, it is necessary to transport the end products for interim storage or final disposition. Federal shipping regulations for nonexclusive use transportation require that no more than 180 grams of fissile material are present in at least 360 kilograms of contiguous non-fissile material. To evaluate the conservatism of these regulatory requirements, a worst-case scenario of 180g {sup 239}Pu and a more realistic scenario of 100g {sup 239}Pu were modeled using one of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Monte Carlo transport codes known as COG 10. The geometry consisted of {sup 239}Pu spheres homogeneously mixed with high-density polyethylene surrounded by a cube of either stainless steel 304 or aluminum. An optimized geometry for both cube materials and hydrogen-to-fissile isotope (H/X) ratio were determined for a single unit. Infinite and finite 3D arrays of these optimized units were then simulated to determine if the systems would exceed criticality. Completion of these simulations showed that the optimal H/X ratio for the most reactive units ranged from 800 to 1600. A single unit of either cube type for either scenario would not reach criticality. An infinite array was determined to reach criticality only for the 180g case. The offsetting of spheres in their respective cubes was also considered and showed a considerable decrease in the number of close-packed units needed to reach criticality. These results call into question the current regulations for fissile material transport, which under certain circumstances may not be sufficient in preventing the development of a critical system. However, a conservative, theoretical approach was taken in all assumptions and such idealized configurations may not be

  15. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male ...

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    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute and one subchronic, were conducted to seek effects of the VOC, toluene, in rats and to compare the effects between acute and subchronic exposures. Adult male Long-Evans rats were exposed to toluene vapor (n = 6 per group) at a concentration of 0 or l 019 ± 14 ppm for 6 h in the acute study and at 0 ± 0, 10 ± 1.4, 97 ± 7, or 995 ± 43 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/week for 13 weeksin the subchronic study. For the acute study, brains were dissected on ice within 30 min of the end of exposure, while for the subchronic study, brains were dissected 18 h after the last exposure. Frontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum were assayed for a variety of oxidative stress (OS) parameters including total aconitase (TA), protein carbonyls, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione transferase (GST), y-­glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidants (TAS), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase- 1 (NQO1 ), and NADH ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD) activities using commercially available kits. Following acute exposure, UBIQ-RD, GCS and GRD were increased significantly only in the cerebellum, while TAS was increased in frontal cortex. On the other

  16. Inhalants

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    ... which open the breathing passages. Inhalers are very safe when used as prescribed by doctors. Inhalants, on the other hand, are common household chemicals that contain a volatile component which can be ...

  17. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

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    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), defined as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are critical conditions. AHRF results from a number of systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) ha...

  18. Inhalation Injuries

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    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  19. Inhaled iloprost for the control of acute pulmonary hypertension in children: a systematic review.

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    Mulligan, Claire; Beghetti, Maurice

    2012-07-01

    Inhaled iloprost is attracting growing interest as a potential alternative and/or adjuvant to inhaled nitric oxide in the management of pediatric pulmonary hypertension in the acute and intensive care settings. However, there are currently no formal evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of inhaled iloprost in children with pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the literature concerning the use of inhaled iloprost in children with pulmonary hypertension in the acute setting. Studies were identified from PubMed and Embase. Internal literature databases and recent congress abstracts (2009 onward) were also searched for relevant publications. Studies were included if they examined the use of inhaled iloprost in children with pulmonary hypertension in an acute or intensive care setting. Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. The majority were case studies or case series (n = 17), and in total, the 28 studies represented the treatment of 195 children with iloprost. Iloprost was most frequently studied in children undergoing cardiac surgery (as a bridge to surgery and postoperatively), in children undergoing acute pulmonary vasoreactivity testing, and in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. The results of the included studies suggested that inhaled iloprost may have a diverse role in the acute treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension and that its acute effects are similar to those of inhaled nitric oxide. However, the iloprost dose was not consistently reported and varied greatly between studies, and several different administration devices were used. Inhaled iloprost may be useful in the acute treatment of children and neonates with pulmonary hypertension, but clinical data are scarce, and the appropriate dosing of iloprost in different scenarios is uncertain. Well-designed prospective clinical trials are needed.

  20. Acute responses to inhalation of Iloprost in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

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    Zhang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yong; Xiong, Chang-Ming; Ni, Xin-Hai; He, Jian-Guo; Luo, Qin; Zhao, Zhi-Hui; Zhao, Qing; Sun, Xing-Guo

    2012-08-01

    Iloprost has been used to test acute pulmonary vasoreactivity in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We aimed to investigate the acute hemodynamic and oxygenation responses and tolerability to 20 µg aerosolized Iloprost in Chinese patients with pulmonary hypertension. Between March 2005 and May 2010, 212 pulmonary hypertension patients inhaled a single dose of 20 µg Iloprost over 10 - 15 minutes for vasoreactivity testing. The acute hemodynamic and oxygenation responses and adverse events were recorded. Iloprost decreased total pulmonary resistance ((1747 ± 918) dyn×s×cm(-5) vs. (1581 ± 937) dyn×s×cm(-5), P Iloprost. No adverse events requiring medical care or leading to termination of inhalation occurred. Inhalation of 20 µg Iloprost showed potent and selective pulmonary hemodynamic effects and was well tolerated in the Chinese pulmonary hypertension patients. Patients with idiopathic PAH and less severe pulmonary hypertension responded more favorably to inhalation of Iloprost.

  1. The effect of inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karam, O; Gebistorf, F; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Inhaled nitric oxide has been used to improve oxygenation but its role remains controversial. Our primary objective in this systematic review was to examine the effects of inhaled nitric oxide administration...... on mortality in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We included all randomised, controlled trials, irrespective of date of publication, blinding status, outcomes reported or language. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. We performed several subgroup and sensitivity......% CI) 1.59 (1.17-2.16)) with inhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence to support inhaled nitric oxide in any category of critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome despite a transient improvement in oxygenation, since mortality is not reduced and it may...

  2. Inhalants

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    Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : ... get treatment for addiction to inhalants? Some people seeking treatment for ... for positive behaviors such as staying drug-free. More research is ...

  3. Hemodynamic effect of iloprost inhalation and oral sildenafil during acute vasoreactivity test in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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    Sompradeekul, Suree; Wattanasiriphakdee, Siriphan

    2015-02-01

    The vasoreactivity test is usually performed to identify pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients who may benefit from long-term calcium channel blocker (CCB). The first and most commonly used agent is intravenous epoprostenol. A few other agents such as intravenous adenosine and inhaled nitric oxide are also used. In Thailand, epoprostenol is not available and the others are costly. Therefore, inhaled iloprost or oral sildenafil may be alternatives to test vasoreactivity. To evaluate the hemodynamic effect and response rate of inhaled iloprost and oral sildenafil during acute vasoreactivity test in PAH patients. In this retrospective descriptive study, the authors recruited patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) or PAHassociated with connective tissue disease (PAH-CNT) seen at the Medicine department Siriraj Hospital between January 2005 and December 2011 for whom acute vasoreactivity test was indicated. All patients used 20 microgram of inhaled iloprost via Delphinus® nebulizer for the test. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded before and after iloprost administration. Eight of those patients subsequently had a repeated test using 100 mg of oral sildenafil. Fifteen patients had acute vasoreactivity testing. Eleven patients were IPAH and four were PAH-CNT Using ESC/ERS guidelines criteria for responsiveness to vasoreactivity test, the response rate was 13% (2 out of 15 patients) using inhaled iloprost. Hemodynamic change was seen as early as five minutes after the inhalation and the effect lasted up to 35 minutes. The response rate was 25% (2 out of 8 patients) using oral sildenafil. Hemodynamic change was seen as early as 30 minutes after sildenafil ingestion and lasted up to 480 minutes. Inhaled iloprost can be used for acute vasoreactivity test in Thailand. The hemodynamic parameters should be recorded immediately after iloprost inhalation. Oral sildenafil, however, is not a suitable agent for acute vasoreactivity test due to its extended effect.

  4. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults

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    Gebistorf, Fabienne; Karam, Oliver; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and mostly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions. AHRF results from several systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in individuals of all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has been...

  5. The Effects of Inhaled Steroids on Recurrent Wheeze After Acute Bronchiolitis

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    Patricia Green MD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute bronchiolitis infection during infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma later in life. The objective of this study was to determine if inhaled steroids are effective in preventing the development of recurrent wheeze or asthma following acute bronchiolitis. Methods. Multiple databases and bibliographies of selected references were searched. Inclusion required (a a randomized controlled trial of inhaled steroids and control group, (b at least 2 weeks duration of therapy started during the acute phase of disease, and (c identification of the rate of recurrent wheeze or asthma at least 6 months after therapy. Results. Of 1410 studies reviewed, 8 reports were included in this meta-analysis (748 patients. The overall odds ratio for developing recurrent wheeze or asthma with treatment versus without treatment was 1.02 (95% confidence interval = 0.58-1.81. Conclusions. A course of inhaled steroids after acute bronchiolitis is not effective in preventing recurrent wheeze or asthma.

  6. Acute hemodynamic effect of inhaled iloprost in pulmonary artery hypertension evaluated with echocardiography

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    Miranda Rita

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Doppler echocardiography is useful in the initial evaluation and long-term follow-up of patients with pulmonary artery hypertension. Aerosolised iloprost has been shown to reduce pulmonary pressure immediately after inhalation. We report the echocardiographic findings in a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension, before and after the inhalation of aerosolized iloprost. These findings illustrate the acute influence of iloprost in right and left ventricular hemodynamics and morphology. These findings were reproduced in subsequent echocardiographic evaluations.

  7. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

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    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  8. Impact of acute and chronic inhalation exposure to CdO nanoparticles on mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedová, J.; Bláhová, L.; Večeřa, Z. (Zbyněk); P. Mikuška; Dočekal, B. (Bohumil); Buchtová, M. (Marcela); Míšek, I. (Ivan); Dumková, J.; Hampl, A.; Hilscherová, K.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium nanoparticles can represent a risk in both industrial and environmental settings, but there is little knowledge on the impacts of their inhalation, especially concerning longer-term exposures. In this study, mice were exposed to cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles in whole body inhalation chambers for 4 to 72 h in acute and 1 to 13 weeks (24 h/day, 7 days/week) in chronic exposure to investigate the dynamics of nanoparticle uptake and effects. In the acute experiment, mice were ...

  9. Comparison of inhaled milrinone, nitric oxide and prostacyclin in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Martin; Corsilli, Daniel; Williamson, David R; Brosseau, Marc; Bellemare, Patrick; Delisle, Stéphane; Nguyen, Anne QN; Varin, France

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the safety and efficacy of inhaled milrinone in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS Open-label prospective cross-over pilot study where fifteen adult patients with hypoxemic failure meeting standard ARDS criteria and monitored with a pulmonary artery catheter were recruited in an academic 24-bed medico-surgical intensive care unit. Random sequential administration of iNO (20 ppm) or nebulized epoprostenol (10 μg/mL) was done in all patients. Thereafter, inhaled milrinone (1 mg/mL) alone followed by inhaled milrinone in association with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) was administered. A jet nebulization device synchronized with the mechanical ventilation was use to administrate the epoprostenol and the milrinone. Hemodynamic measurements and partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) were recorded before and after each inhaled therapy administration. RESULTS The majority of ARDS were of pulmonary cause (n = 13) and pneumonia (n = 7) was the leading underlying initial disease. Other pulmonary causes of ARDS were: Post cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 2), smoke inhalation injury (n = 1), thoracic trauma and pulmonary contusions (n = 2) and aspiration (n = 1). Two patients had an extra pulmonary cause of ARDS: A polytrauma patient and an intra-abdominal abscess Inhaled nitric oxide, epoprostenol, inhaled milrinone and the combination of inhaled milrinone and iNO had no impact on systemic hemodynamics. No significant adverse events related to study medications were observed. The median increase of PaO2 from baseline was 8.8 mmHg [interquartile range (IQR) = 16.3], 6.0 mmHg (IQR = 18.4), 6 mmHg (IQR = 15.8) and 9.2 mmHg (IQR = 20.2) respectively with iNO, epoprostenol, inhaled milrinone, and iNO added to milrinone. Only iNO and the combination of inhaled milrinone and iNO had a statistically significant effect on PaO2. CONCLUSION When comparing the effects of inhaled NO, milrinone and epoprostenol, only NO significantly improved oxygenation

  10. Prediction of acute inhalation toxicity using in vitro lung surfactant inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid Birkelund; Huang, Yishi; Da Silva, Emilie

    2017-01-01

    numbers and amounts and exhibit great variety. Therefore, an alternative method to screen for acute inhalation toxicity is needed. The aim of our study was to determine if inhibition of lung surfactant by impregnation products in vitro could accurately predict toxicity in vivo in mice. We tested 21...... the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals. Impregnation products are present on the market in large...... impregnation products using the constant flow through set-up of the constrained drop surfactometer to determine if they inhibited LS function or not. The same products were tested in a mouse inhalation bioassay to determine their toxicity in vivo. The sensitivity was 100%, i.e. the in vitro method predicted...

  11. Phyto-inhalation for treatment of complications of acute respiratory viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhalations (inhalation of medicinal substances are one of the effective ways to treat upper respiratory tract diseases and colds. Inhalation therapy is used to treat rhinitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, which can be complications of acute respiratory viral infections. The main rules of inhalation are as follows to conduct the procedure better after 1.5 hours after eating; clothes should not impede breathing; the procedure can be carried out only while sitting or standing; solution for the inhaler for treatment of bronchitis should be fresh; it is necessary to strictly keep the prescribed dosage; the time of the procedure should also be respected — usually it is from 1 to 4 minutes, sometimes for adults up to 10 minutes, for children the inhalation period is shorter — 1–2 minutes. Contraindications to inhalation are body temperature above 37.5 degrees; propensity to nasal blee­ding in a patient; propensity to increased arterial pressure, with cardiovascular failure; purulent inflammation of the tonsils; respiratory failure. The procedure should be stopped immediately in case of appearance of adverse symptoms such as shortness of breath, dizziness, difficulty in breathing. Therefore, inhalations must be prescribed by a doctor after examination of a patient. During inhalations in rhinitis, you should try to inhale the vapor through the nose. For effective treatment of rhinitis, inhalations from conife­rous plants are very suitable: fir, pine, juniper, larch, from steamed dried chamomile flowers, mint, and blackberry leaves. Honey inhalations can be used for the treatment of acute and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and tracheitis. Medical herbal inhalation for children should be carried out from the age of two years. This must be done under the constant supervision of an adult. Leaves of coniferous trees: pine, fir, if or juniper, cedar

  12. PULMONARY AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION FOLLOWING ACUTE ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE INHALATION IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of ultrafine carbon particles (ufCP) causes cardiac physiological changes without marked pulmonary injury or inflammation. We hypothesized that acute ufCP exposure of 13 months old Spontaneously Hypertensive (SH) rats will cause differential effects on the lung and hea...

  13. Transportable Life Support for Treatment of Acute Lung Failure Due to Smoke Inhalation and Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Batchinsky AI, Cancio LC, Chung KK. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in wartime military burns: application of the Berlin criteria. J Trauma Acute...Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Burns: Application of the Berlin Definition Definition. Critical Care Med. 2013; 41(12):A53. Scaravilli V, Kreyer S...distress syndrome secondary to inhalation of chlorine gas. J Trauma 2006;60 (5)(5):944-957. 18. Batchinsky AI, Weiss WB, Jordan BS, Dick EJ, Jr

  14. Imbalance of Th17/Tregs in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Mian-yang; Lan, Ya-ting; Wang, Cheng-bin

    2016-01-01

    T helper (Th) 17 cells and CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are supposed to be critically involved in regulating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the Th17/Treg pattern in rats with gunpowder smog-induced acute lung injury. Wistar rats were equally randomized to three groups: normal control group, ALI 6 h group (smoke inhalation for 6 h) and ALI 24 h group (smoke inhalation for 24 h). We observed changes in cell counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and lung tissue pathology. Moreover, rats in ALI 6 h and ALI 24 h group showed increased expression of Th17 cell and related cytokines (IL-17 A, IL-6, TGF-β and IL-23). Meanwhile, Treg prevalence and related cytokines (IL-10, IL-2 and IL-35) were decreased. Consequently, the ratio of Th17/Treg was higher after smoke inhalation. Additionally, Th1 cell decreased while Th2 cell increased at 6 h and 24 h after smoke inhalation. In conclusion, Th17/Treg imbalance exists in rats with smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26884314

  15. Acute Adrenal Crisis in an Asthmatic Child Treated with Inhaled Fluticasone Proprionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratzan Susan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal suppression secondary to prolonged inhaled corticosteroid use is usually limited to biochemical abnormalities, with no obvious clinical effects. Acute adrenal crisis is much rarer event but has been reported with increasing frequency. We report a case of a 7-year-old asthmatic child who presented with an acute history of lethargy after a respiratory infection. He was maintained on 220 g/day of fluticasone propionate for several years. Initial evaluation revealed severe adrenal suppression, with undetectable cortisol levels and minimal response after stimulation with ACTH. After fluticasone was discontinued, a gradual recovery of the adrenal axis was seen. This case shows that acute adrenal crisis may be a consequence even at the usual prescribed doses, stressing the importance of using the lowest dose of inhaled steroids needed to control symptoms and having an increased awareness of this complication.

  16. Acute Adrenal Crisis in an Asthmatic Child Treated with Inhaled Fluticasone Proprionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela H. Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal suppression secondary to prolonged inhaled corticosteroid use is usually limited to biochemical abnormalities, with no obvious clinical effects. Acute adrenal crisis is much rarer event but has been reported with increasing frequency. We report a case of a 7-year-old asthmatic child who presented with an acute history of lethargy after a respiratory infection. He was maintained on 220 μg/day of fluticasone propionate for several years. Initial evaluation revealed severe adrenal suppression, with undetectable cortisol levels and minimal response after stimulation with ACTH. After fluticasone was discontinued, a gradual recovery of the adrenal axis was seen. This case shows that acute adrenal crisis may be a consequence even at the usual prescribed doses, stressing the importance of using the lowest dose of inhaled steroids needed to control symptoms and having an increased awareness of this complication.

  17. Severe Acute Respiratory Failure due to Inhalation of Baby Powder and Successfully Treated with Venous-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarello, Giovanna; Occhipinti, Giovanna; Piazza, Marcello; Capitanio, Guido; Vitulo, Patrizio; Gridelli, Bruno; Pilato, Michele; Arcadipane, Antonio

    2015-12-15

    Accidental inhalation of powder is a potential problem for infants. The clinical effects of inhaling powder depend on the powder contents, degree of aspiration, and the child's underlying systemic response. We present a case of accidental inhalation of rice starch powder in a 17-month-old girl, which led to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome responsive to conventional treatment, ultimately requiring venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  18. Effect of nitric oxide inhalation on gas exchange in acute severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Federico P; Amado, Veronica M; Roca, Josep; Torres, Antoni; Nicolas, Josep M; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Barberà, Joan A

    2013-06-15

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) causes selective pulmonary vasodilatation and may improve gas exchange. The study was aimed to evaluate the acute effects of inhaled NO on pulmonary gas exchange in severe unilateral pneumonia, where hypoxemia results from increased intrapulmonary shunt. We studied 8 patients without preexisting lung disease (59±18 yr; 4M/4F) with early unilateral severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics and gas exchange, including ventilation-perfusion (V;A/Q;) distributions, were measured at baseline and while breathing 5 and 40 parts per million (ppm) of NO. Inhaled NO caused a dose-dependent fall in pulmonary vascular resistance (by 12% and 21%, with 5 and 40ppm, respectively; ppneumonia.

  19. Inhalation exposure system used for acute and repeated-dose methyl isocyanate exposures of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, B; O'Connor, R W; Dement, J M

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory animals were exposed by inhalation for 2 hr/day (acute) or 6 hr/day (four consecutive days, repeated dose) to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Exposures were conducted in stainless steel and glass inhalation exposure chambers placed in stainless steel, wire mesh cages. MIC was delivered with nitrogen via stainless steel and Teflon supply lines. Chamber concentrations ranged from 0 to 60 ppm and were monitored continuously with infrared spectrophotometers to 1 ppm and at 2-hr intervals to 20 ppb with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence detector. Other operational parameters monitored on a continuous basis included chamber temperature (20-27 degrees C), relative humidity (31-64%), static (transmural) pressure (-0.3 in.), and flow (300-500 L/min). The computer-assistance system interfaced with the inhalation exposure laboratory is described in detail, including the analytical instrumentation calibration system used throughout this investigation.

  20. Effects of inhaled CO administration on acute lung injury in baboons with pneumococcal pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Bryan D.; Hess, Dean R.; Harris, R. Scott; Wolf, Monroe A.; Suliman, Hagir B.; Roggli, Victor L.; Davies, John D.; Winkler, Tilo; Stenzler, Alex; Baron, Rebecca M.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Choi, Augustine M.; Welty-Wolf, Karen E.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) gas has therapeutic potential for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome if a safe, evidence-based dosing strategy and a ventilator-compatible CO delivery system can be developed. In this study, we used a clinically relevant baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia to 1) test a novel, ventilator-compatible CO delivery system; 2) establish a safe and effective CO dosing regimen; and 3) investigate the local and systemic effects of CO therapy on inflammation and acute lung injury (ALI). Animals were inoculated with S. pneumoniae (108-109 CFU) (n = 14) or saline vehicle (n = 5); in a subset with pneumonia (n = 5), we administered low-dose, inhaled CO gas (100–300 ppm × 60–90 min) at 0, 6, 24, and/or 48 h postinoculation and serially measured blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. We found that CO inhalation at 200 ppm for 60 min is well tolerated and achieves a COHb of 6–8% with ambient CO levels ≤ 1 ppm. The COHb level measured at 20 min predicted the 60-min COHb level by the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation with high accuracy. Animals given inhaled CO + antibiotics displayed significantly less ALI at 8 days postinoculation compared with antibiotics alone. Inhaled CO was associated with activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in the lung and with augmentation of renal antioxidative programs. These data support the feasibility of safely delivering inhaled CO gas during mechanical ventilation and provide preliminary evidence that CO may accelerate the resolution of ALI in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate pneumonia model. PMID:26320156

  1. Comparative Plutonium-239 Dose Assessment for Three Desert Sites: Maralinga, Australia; Palomares, Spain; and the Nevada Test Site, USA - Before and After Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, B W; Shinn, J; Williams, G A; Martin, L J; O' Brien, R S; Adams, S R

    2000-07-14

    As a result of nuclear weapons testing and accidents, plutonium has been distributed into the environment. The areas close to the sites of these tests and accidental dispersions contain plutonium deposition of such a magnitude that health authorities and responsible officials have mandated that the contaminated areas be protected, generally through isolation or removal of the contaminated areas. In recent years remedial actions have taken place at all these sites. For reasons not entirely clear, the public perceives radiation exposure risk to be much greater than the evidence would suggest [1]. This perception seems to be particularly true for plutonium, which has often been ''demonized'' in various publications as the ''most hazardous substance known to man'' [2]. As the position statement adapted by the Health Physics Society explains, ''Plutonium's demonization is an example of how the public has been misled about radiation's environmental and health threats generally, and in cases like plutonium, how it has developed a warped ''risk perception'' that does not reflect reality'' [3]. As a result of this risk perception and ongoing debate surrounding environmental plutonium contamination, remedial action criteria are difficult to establish. By examining the data available before and after remedial actions taken at the three sites discussed in our report, we hope to present data that will illustrate that plutonium measured as aged deposition (older than several months) does not present as high a dose or risk as many had expected. The authors show that even though dose to the lung from inhalation (the primary pathway for the high-fired plutonium oxide particles present at these sites) is reduced, such a reduction is achieved at significant cost. The cost comes from damage to the environment, large expenditures per hectare rehabilitated, and the risk to occupational workers

  2. Comparative Plutonium-239 Dose Assessment for Three Desert Sites: Maralinga, Australia; Palomares, Spain; and the Nevada Test Site, USA - Before and After Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, B W; Shinn, J; Williams, G A; Martin, L J; O' Brien, R S; Adams, S R

    2000-07-14

    As a result of nuclear weapons testing and accidents, plutonium has been distributed into the environment. The areas close to the sites of these tests and accidental dispersions contain plutonium deposition of such a magnitude that health authorities and responsible officials have mandated that the contaminated areas be protected, generally through isolation or removal of the contaminated areas. In recent years remedial actions have taken place at all these sites. For reasons not entirely clear, the public perceives radiation exposure risk to be much greater than the evidence would suggest [1]. This perception seems to be particularly true for plutonium, which has often been ''demonized'' in various publications as the ''most hazardous substance known to man'' [2]. As the position statement adapted by the Health Physics Society explains, ''Plutonium's demonization is an example of how the public has been misled about radiation's environmental and health threats generally, and in cases like plutonium, how it has developed a warped ''risk perception'' that does not reflect reality'' [3]. As a result of this risk perception and ongoing debate surrounding environmental plutonium contamination, remedial action criteria are difficult to establish. By examining the data available before and after remedial actions taken at the three sites discussed in our report, we hope to present data that will illustrate that plutonium measured as aged deposition (older than several months) does not present as high a dose or risk as many had expected. The authors show that even though dose to the lung from inhalation (the primary pathway for the high-fired plutonium oxide particles present at these sites) is reduced, such a reduction is achieved at significant cost. The cost comes from damage to the environment, large expenditures per hectare rehabilitated, and the risk to occupational workers

  3. Efficacy of oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation of budesonide in the treatment of acute laryngitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation of budesonide in the treatment of acute laryngitis.Methods:Based on the routine treatment, the patients in the observation group were given oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation of budesonide, while the patients in the control group were given oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation of dexamethasone. The change of SpO2 before treatment and 30 min after treatment, the changes of serum IL-4 and IL-8 before treatment and 3 d after treatment, the clinical symptom disappearing time, hospitalization time, and clinical therapeutic effect after drug administration in the two groups were observed.Results: The improved degree of SpO2 30 min after treatment in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group. The decreased degree of IL-4 and IL-8 levels 3 d after treatment in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group. The clinical symptom disappearing time and hospitalization time in the observation group were significantly shorter than those in the control group. The total effective rate in the observation group (94.3%) was significantly superior to that in the control group (74.3%).Conclusions:Oxygen-driven atomizing inhalation of budesonide in the treatment of acute laryngitis can rapidly alleviate the local inflammatory reaction, improve the clinical symptoms, and enhance the safety of drug administration; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  4. Acute effects of inhaled urban particles and ozone: lung morphology, macrophage activity, and plasma endothelin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthillier, L; Vincent, R; Goegan, P; Adamson, I Y; Bjarnason, S; Stewart, M; Guénette, J; Potvin, M; Kumarathasan, P

    1998-12-01

    We studied acute responses of rat lungs to inhalation of urban particulate matter and ozone. Exposure to particles (40 mg/m3 for 4 hours; mass median aerodynamic diameter, 4 to 5 microm; Ottawa urban dust, EHC-93), followed by 20 hours in clean air, did not result in acute lung injury. Nevertheless, inhalation of particles resulted in decreased production of nitric oxide (nitrite) and elevated secretion of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 from lung lavage cells. Inhalation of ozone (0.8 parts per million for 4 hours) resulted in increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage fluid. Ozone alone also decreased phagocytosis and nitric oxide production and stimulated endothelin-1 secretion by lung lavage cells but did not modify secretion of macrophage inflammatory protein-2. Co-exposure to particles potentiated the ozone-induced septal cellularity in the central acinus but without measurable exacerbation of the ozone-related alveolar neutrophilia and permeability to protein detected by lung lavage. The enhanced septal thickening was associated with elevated production of both macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and endothelin-1 by lung lavage cells. Interestingly, inhalation of urban particulate matter increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1, but this response was not influenced by the synergistic effects of ozone and particles on centriacinar septal tissue changes. This suggests an impact of the distally distributed particulate dose on capillary endothelial production or filtration of the vasoconstrictor. Overall, equivalent patterns of effects were observed after a single exposure or three consecutive daily exposures to the pollutants. The experimental data are consistent with epidemiological evidence for acute pulmonary effects of ozone and respirable particulate matter and suggest a possible mechanism whereby cardiovascular effects may be induced by particle exposure. In a broad sense, acute biological effects of respirable particulate matter from ambient air

  5. HADOC: a computer code for calculation of external and inhalation doses from acute radionuclide releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1981-04-01

    The computer code HADOC (Hanford Acute Dose Calculations) is described and instructions for its use are presented. The code calculates external dose from air submersion and inhalation doses following acute radionuclide releases. Atmospheric dispersion is calculated using the Hanford model with options to determine maximum conditions. Building wake effects and terrain variation may also be considered. Doses are calculated using dose conversion factor supplied in a data library. Doses are reported for one and fifty year dose commitment periods for the maximum individual and the regional population (within 50 miles). The fractional contribution to dose by radionuclide and exposure mode are also printed if requested.

  6. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Titanium Ethanolate as a Possible Cause of Metal Fume Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadimanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen, the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human.

  7. Effects of acute inhalation of albuterol on submaximal and maximal VO2 and blood lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, S J; Lucia, A; Storms, W W; Wallach, J M; Vint, P F; Zimmerman, S D

    1993-07-01

    The acute effects of inhaled albuterol, a selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist, on measures of endurance cycling performance and pulmonary function were assessed in 21 competitive road cyclists. A 5 step methacholine challenge revealed all cyclists to be non-asthmatic. Albuterol (A) total dose 360 micrograms or a saline placebo (P) was administered by inhaler, in 4 metered doses of 90 micrograms each, 15 minutes before cycle ergometry exercise. Heart rate, whole blood lactate, perceived exertion and VO2 were determined at the submaximal workloads of 150, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300 watts and at max. Pulmonary function tests determining forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration, forced mid-expiratory flow and maximal voluntary ventilation were performed prior to and 10 minutes after inhalation; and 5, 10 and 15 minutes after termination of the exercise protocol. Heart rate was significantly greater during the A compared to the P treatment at 200 (150.8 +/- 2.5 vs 146.7 +/- 2.8 beats per minute), 225 (159.7 +/- 2.4 vs 154.6 +/- 2.7 beats per minute) and 250 watts (166.9 +/- 2.4 vs 164.4 +/- 2.6 beats per minute). Whole blood lactate was significantly greater during the A compared to the P treatment at 275 watts (4.7 +/- 0.3 vs 4.2 +/- 0.4 mmol.l-1). No other significant differences were found between the 2 treatments at any time point. These data indicate that the acute effect of albuterol inhalation at twice the recommended dosage has no positive effect on endurance performance measures or pulmonary function in athletes who are not asthmatic.

  8. Acute Impact of Inhaled Short Acting B-Agonists on 5 Km Running Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dickinson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there appears to be no ergogenic effect from inhaled salbutamol no study has investigated the impact of the acute inhalation of 1600 µg, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA daily upper limit, on endurance running performance. To investigate the ergogenic effect of an acute inhalation of short acting β2-agonists at doses up to 1600 µg on 5 km time trial performance and resultant urine concentration. Seven male non-asthmatic runners (mean ± SD; age 22.4 ± 4.3 years; height 1.80 ± 0.07 m; body mass 76.6 ± 8.6 kg provided written informed consent. Participants completed six 5 km time-trials on separate days (three at 18 °C and three at 30 °C. Fifteen minutes prior to the initiation of each 5 km time-trial participants inhaled: placebo (PLA, 800 µg salbutamol (SAL800 or 1600 µg salbutamol (SAL1600. During each 5 km time-trial HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, RPE and blood lactate were measured. Urine samples (90 ml were collected between 30-180 minutes post 5 km time-trial and analysed for salbutamol concentration. There was no significant difference in total 5 km time between treatments (PLA 1714.7 ± 186.2 s; SAL800 1683.3 ± 179.7 s; SAL1600 1683.6 ± 190.7 s. Post 5 km time-trial salbutamol urine concentration between SAL800 (122.96 ± 69.22 ug·ml-1 and SAL1600 (574.06 ± 448.17 ug·ml-1 were not significantly different. There was no improvement in 5 km time-trial performance following the inhalation of up to 1600 µg of salbutamol in non-asthmatic athletes. This would suggest that the current WADA guidelines, which allow athletes to inhale up to 1600 µg per day, is sufficient to avoid pharmaceutical induced performance enhancement.

  9. Acute inhalation of hypertonic saline does not improve mucociliary clearance in all children with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Amber

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known of how mucociliary clearance (MCC in children with cystic fibrosis (CF and normal pulmonary function compares with healthy adults, or how an acute inhalation of 7% hypertonic saline (HS aerosol affects MCC in these same children. Methods We compared MCC in 12 children with CF and normal pulmonary function after an acute inhalation of 0.12% saline (placebo, or HS, admixed with the radioisotope 99 mtechnetium sulfur colloid in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Mucociliary clearance on the placebo day in the children was also compared to MCC in 10 healthy, non-CF adults. Mucociliary clearance was quantified over a 90 min period, using gamma scintigraphy, and is reported as MCC at 60 min (MCC60 and 90 min (MCC90. Results Median [interquartile range] MCC60 and MCC90 in the children on the placebo visit were 15.4 [12.4-24.5]% and 19.3 [17.3-27.8%]%, respectively, which were similar to the adults with 17.8 [6.4-28.7]% and 29.6 [16.1-43.5]%, respectively. There was no significant improvement in MCC60 (2.2 [-6.2-11.8]% or MCC90 (2.3 [-1.2-10.5]% with HS, compared to placebo. In addition, 5/12 and 4/12 of the children showed a decrease in MCC60 and MCC90, respectively, after inhalation of HS. A post hoc subgroup analysis of the change in MCC90 after HS showed a significantly greater improvement in MCC in children with lower placebo MCC90 compared to those with higher placebo MCC90 (p = 0.045. Conclusions These data suggest that percent MCC varies significantly between children with CF lung disease and normal pulmonary functions, with some children demonstrating MCC values within the normal range and others showing MCC values that are below normal values. In addition, although MCC did not improve in all children after inhalation of HS, improvement did occur in children with relatively low MCC values after placebo. This finding suggests that acute inhalation of hypertonic saline may benefit a subset of

  10. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  11. Distinct Metabolic Profile of Inhaled Budesonide and Salbutamol in Asthmatic Children during Acute Exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Jun, Yang; Jian-Ping, Zhang; Jian-Hua, Zhang; Yong-Long, Han; Bo, Xin; Jing-Xian, Zhang; Bona, Dai; Yuan, Zhang; Cheng, Guo

    2017-03-01

    Inhaled budesonide and salbutamol represent the most important and frequently used drugs in asthmatic children during acute exacerbation. However, there is still no consensus about their resulting metabolic derangements; thus, this study was conducted to determine the distinct metabolic profiles of these two drugs. A total of 69 children with asthma during acute exacerbation were included, and their serum and urine were investigated using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A metabolomics analysis was performed using a principal component analysis and orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares using SIMCA-P. The different metabolites were identified, and the distinct metabolic profiles were analysed using MetPA. A high-resolution NMR-based serum and urine metabolomics approach was established to study the overall metabolic changes after inhaled budesonide and salbutamol in asthmatic children during acute exacerbation. The perturbed metabolites included 22 different metabolites in the serum and 21 metabolites in the urine. Based on an integrated analysis, the changed metabolites included the following: increased 4-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, cis-aconitate, 5-hydroxyindoleacetate, taurine, trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline, tiglylglycine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-methylhistidine, glucose, cis-aconitate, 2-deoxyinosine and 2-aminoadipate; and decreased alanine, glycerol, arginine, glycylproline, 2-hydroxy-3-methylvalerate, creatine, citrulline, glutamate, asparagine, 2-hydroxyvalerate, citrate, homoserine, histamine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, sarcosine, ornithine, creatinine, glycine, isoleucine and trimethylamine N-oxide. The MetPA analysis revealed seven involved metabolic pathways: arginine and proline metabolism; taurine and hypotaurine metabolism; glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism; methane metabolism; citrate cycle; and pyruvate metabolism. The perturbed metabolic profiles suggest potential metabolic

  12. Effects of inhaled L-arginine administration in a murine model of acute asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Arikan-Ayyildiz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased arginase activity in the airways decreases L-arginine and causes deficiency of bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory nitric oxide (NO in asthma. As, it is suggested that L-arginine may have therapeutic potential in asthma treatment, we aimed to investigate the effects of inhaled L-arginine on oxygen saturation (SaO₂ and airway histology in a murine model of acute asthma. Twenty eight BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I, II, III and IV (control. All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. After establishement of acute asthma attack by metacholine administration, the mice were treated with inhaled L-arginine (Group I, saline (Group II and budesonide (Group III, respectively. SaO₂was measured by pulse oximeter just before and 5 min after methacholine. A third measurement of SaO₂was also obtained 15 min after drug administration in these study groups. Inflammation in the lung tissues of the sacrificed animals were scored to determine the effects of the study drugs. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was determined. The results indicated that inflammatory scores significantly improved in groups receiving study drugs when compared with placebo and L-arginine was similar in decreasing scores when compared with budesonide. SaO₂had a tendency to increase after L-arginine administration after acute asthma attack and this increase was statistically significant (p=0.043. Eosinophilia in BAL significantly reduced in group receiving L-arginine when compared with placebo (p<0.05. Thus in this study we demonstrated that L-arginine improved SaO₂and inflammatory scores in an acute model of asthma.

  13. Estimation of the acute inhalation hazards of chemicals based on route-to-route and local endpoint extrapolation: Experience from Bulk Maritime Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfer, T.; James, D.; Syversen, T.; Bowmer, T.

    2011-01-01

    Data on acute lethal inhalation toxicity from animal studies are commonly required for assessing the hazards to human health of volatile, gaseous and dusty chemicals or their mixtures. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) made the provision of acute inhalation toxicity data a mandatory

  14. Estimation of the acute inhalation hazards of chemicals based on route-to-route and local endpoint extrapolation: Experience from Bulk Maritime Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfer, T.; James, D.; Syversen, T.; Bowmer, T.

    2011-01-01

    Data on acute lethal inhalation toxicity from animal studies are commonly required for assessing the hazards to human health of volatile, gaseous and dusty chemicals or their mixtures. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) made the provision of acute inhalation toxicity data a mandatory requ

  15. [Nitric oxide inhalation as an effective therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome due to near-drowning: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Y; Hirosako, S; Yamaguchi, T; Saita, N; Suga, M; Kukita, I; Okamoto, K; Ando, M

    1999-12-01

    A 16-year-old boy with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to near-drowning was admitted to our hospital. ARDS was treated with low-level nitric oxide (NO) inhalation (ranging from 4 ppm to 1 ppm) for 24 days. Oxygenation was improved and pulmonary hypertension was reduced after NO inhalation, but systemic blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output were not affected. PaO2 improved from 153 Torr to 354 Torr under identical ventilating conditions (F1O2 1.0), and mean pulmonary arterial pressure fell from 40 mm Hg to 27 mmHg. It has been reported that NO inhalation alleviates ventilation-flow mismatch and pulmonary hypertension. It is unclear, however, whether this therapy improves the prognosis for ARDS. In our patient, NO inhalation was effective in alleviating the oxygenation impairment and pulmonary hypertension associated with ARDS.

  16. Inhaled hydrogen sulfide protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faller Simone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local pulmonary and systemic infections can lead to acute lung injury (ALI. The resulting lung damage can evoke lung failure and multiple organ dysfunction associated with increased mortality. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S appears to represent a new therapeutic approach to ALI. The gas has been shown to mediate potent anti-inflammatory and organ protective effects in vivo. This study was designed to define its potentially protective role in sepsis-induced lung injury. Methods C57BL/6 N mice received lipopolysaccharide (LPS intranasally in the absence or presence of 80 parts per million H2S. After 6 h, acute lung injury was determined by comparative histology. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was analyzed for total protein content and differential cell counting. BAL and serum were further analyzed for interleukin-1β, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and/or myeloperoxidase glycoprotein levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences between groups were analyzed by one way analysis of variance. Results Histological analysis revealed that LPS instillation led to increased alveolar wall thickening, cellular infiltration, and to an elevated ALI score. In the presence of H2S these changes were not observed despite LPS treatment. Moreover, neutrophil influx, and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were enhanced in BAL fluid of LPS-treated mice, but comparable to control levels in H2S treated mice. In addition, myeloperoxidase levels were increased in serum after LPS challenge and this was prevented by H2S inhalation. Conclusion Inhalation of hydrogen sulfide protects against LPS-induced acute lung injury by attenuating pro-inflammatory responses.

  17. Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Attenuates Seawater Instillation-Induced Acute Lung Injury via the Nrf2 Pathway in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Mengyuan; Zhang, Sheng; Wu, Lifeng; Huan, Le; Huang, Fenglou; Cui, Yunliang; Lin, Zhaofen

    2016-12-01

    Seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury involves oxidative stress and apoptosis. Although hydrogen gas inhalation is reportedly protective in multiple types of lung injury, the effect of hydrogen gas inhalation on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of hydrogen gas on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury and explored the mechanisms involved. Rabbits were randomly assigned to control, hydrogen (2 % hydrogen gas inhalation), seawater (3 mL/kg seawater instillation), and seawater + hydrogen (3 mL/kg seawater instillation + 2 % hydrogen gas inhalation) groups. Arterial partial oxygen pressure and lung wet/dry weight ratio were detected. Protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels were determined. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to monitor changes in lung specimens, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. In addition, NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) 2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein expression were measured, and apoptosis was assessed by measuring caspase-3 expression and using terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. Hydrogen gas inhalation markedly improved lung endothelial permeability and decreased both MDA content and MPO activity in lung tissue; these changes were associated with decreases in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in BALF. Hydrogen gas also alleviated histopathological changes and cell apoptosis. Moreover, Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions were significantly activated and caspase-3 expression was inhibited. These results demonstrate that hydrogen gas inhalation attenuates seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury in rabbits and that the protective effects observed may be related to the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  18. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male Long-Evans Rats: Oxidative Stress Markers in Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute an...

  19. Influence of prone position ventilation in conjunction with inhalation of NO on acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於江泉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of prone position ventilation(PPV) combined with inhalation of NO on oxygenation of acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)patients. Methods A total of 21 patients with ARDS composed of 15 male and 6 female aged ranging from 2 to

  20. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male Long-Evans Rats: Oxidative Stress Markers in Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute an...

  1. Hemodynamics and Gas Exchange Effects of Inhaled Nitrous Oxide in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled nitrous oxide (iNO therapy aimed at improving pulmonary oxygenizing function and at decreasing artificial ventilation (AV load has been used in foreign clinical practice in the past decade. The study was undertaken to evaluate the hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of iNO in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that developed after car-diosurgical operations. Fifty-eight (43 males and 15 females patients aged 21 to 76 (55.2±2.4 years were examined. The study has demonstrated that in 48.3% of cases, the early stage of ARDS is attended by the increased tone pulmonary vessels due to impaired NO-dependent vasodilatation. In these patients, iNO therapy is an effective therapeutic method for correcting hemodynamic disorders and lung oxygenizing function.

  2. Pretreatment with Antioxidants Augments the Acute Arterial Vasoconstriction Caused by Diesel Exhaust Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Cora S; Jansen, Karen L; Cosselman, Kristen E; Trenga, Carol A; Stapleton, Pat L; Allen, Jason; Peretz, Alon; Olives, Casey; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust inhalation, which is the model traffic-related air pollutant exposure, is associated with vascular dysfunction. To determine whether healthy subjects exposed to diesel exhaust exhibit acute vasoconstriction and whether this effect could be modified by the use of antioxidants or by common variants in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and other candidate genes. In a genotype-stratified, double-blind, four-way crossover study, 21 healthy adult subjects were exposed at rest in a randomized, balanced order to diesel exhaust (200 μg/m(3) particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm [PM2.5]) and filtered air, and to pretreatment with antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and ascorbate) and placebo. Before and after each exposure, brachial artery diameter (BAd) was assessed using ultrasound. Changes in BAd were compared across pretreatment and exposure sessions. Gene-exposure interactions were evaluated in the AGTR1 A1166C polymorphism, on which recruitment was stratified, and other candidate genes, including TRPV1 and GSTM1. Compared with filtered air, exposure to diesel exhaust resulted in a significant reduction in BAd (mean, -0.09 mm, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.01 to -0.17; P = 0.03). Pretreatment with antioxidants augmented diesel exhaust-related vasoconstriction with a mean change in BAd of -0.18 mm (95% CI, -0.28 to -0.07 mm; P = 0.001). Diesel exhaust-related vasoconstriction was primarily observed in the variant alleles of AGTR1 and TRPV1. No association was found between diesel exhaust inhalation and flow-mediated dilation. We confirmed that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust in healthy subjects is associated with acute vasoconstriction in a conductance artery and found suggestive evidence of involvement of nociception and renin-angiotensin systems in this effect. Pretreatment with an antioxidant regimen increased vasoconstriction.

  3. The role of inhaled prostacyclin in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Randi J; Morales, James R; Ferreira, Jason A; Johnson, Donald W

    2015-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a syndrome of acute lung injury that is characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and severe hypoxemia second to a pathogenic impairment of gas exchange. Despite significant advances in the area, mortality remains high among ARDS patients. High mortality and a limited spectrum of therapeutic options have left clinicians searching for alternatives, spiking interest in selective pulmonary vasodilators (SPVs). Despite the lack of robust evidence, SPVs are commonly employed for their therapeutic role in improving oxygenation in patients who have developed refractory hypoxemia in ARDS. While inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) also impacts arterial oxygenation by decreasing ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) mismatching and pulmonary shunt flow, this effect is not different from inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). The most effective and safest dose for yielding a clinically significant increase in PaO2 and reduction in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) appears to be 20-30 ng/kg/min in adults and 30 ng/kg/min in pediatric patients. iEPO appears to have a ceiling effect above these doses in which no additional benefit may be derived. iNO and iEPO have shown similar efficacy profiles; however, they differ with respect to cost and ease of therapeutic administration. The most beneficial effects of iEPO have been seen in adult patients with secondary ARDS as compared with primary ARDS, most likely due to the difference in etiology of the two disease states, and in patients suffering from baseline right ventricular heart failure. Although iEPO has demonstrated improvements in hemodynamic parameters and oxygenation in ARDS patients, due to the limited number of randomized clinical trials and the lack of studies investigating mortality, the use of iEPO cannot be recommended as standard of care in ARDS. iEPO should be reserved for those refractory to traditional therapies.

  4. The Role of Inhaled Loxapine in the Treatment of Acute Agitation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders: A Clinical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico de Berardis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Loxapine is a first generation antipsychotic, belonging to the dibenzoxazepine class. Recently, loxapine has been reformulated at a lower dose, producing an inhaled powder that can be directly administered to the lungs to treat the agitation associated with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Thus, the aim of this narrative and clinical mini-review was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of inhaled loxapine in the treatment of acute agitation in patients with psychiatric disorders. The efficacy of inhaled loxapine has been evaluated in one Phase II trial on patients with schizophrenia, and in two Phase III trials in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Moreover, there are two published case series on patients with borderline personality disorder and dual diagnosis patients. Inhaled loxapine has proven to be effective and generally well tolerated when administered to agitated patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Two case series have suggested that inhaled loxapine may also be useful to treat agitation in patients with borderline personality disorder and with dual diagnosis, but further studies are needed to clarify this point. However, the administration of inhaled loxapine requires at least some kind of patient collaboration, and is not recommended in the treatment of severe agitation in totally uncooperative patients. Moreover, the drug-related risk of bronchospasm must always be kept in mind when planning to use inhaled loxapine, leading to a careful patient assessment prior to, and after, administration. Also, the higher costs of inhaled loxapine, when compared to oral and intramuscular medications, should be taken into account when selecting it for the treatment of agitation.

  5. Effect of inhalation of nebulized NO donor substance on acute hypoxic lung injury in newborn piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Hong-ping; HUANG Guo-ying; ZHU Jian-xing; SUN Bo

    2008-01-01

    Background Birth asphyxia may result in multiple organ dysfunction such as lung injury.Inhalation of nebulized nitric oxide precursor can selectively reduce pulmonary hypertension.However,it is unknown whether such precursors can alleviate lung injury induced by hypoxia.We evaluated the effect of inhalation of nebulized nitroglycerine and sodium nitroprusside on acute hypoxic lung injury in newborn piglets.Methods Acute hypoxic lung injury was induced by inspiring 10% O2 for 1 hour.Twenty-four anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated piglets (5-7 days old) were randomly divided into four groups:(1) group S,not hypoxic;(2) group C,nebulized saline after hypoxia;(3) group NTG,nebulized nitroglycerine after hypoxia;(4) group SNP,nebulized sodium nitroprusside after hypoxia.Respiratory dynamic compliance and resistance of respiratory system were recorded at baseline,0.5 hour and 1 hour of hypoxia;then 0.5 hour,1 hour,3 hours and 5 hours following hypoxia.After nebulization,arterial blood was collected for measuring methaemoglobin and nitrate/nitrite levels.Right lung tissue,wet-dry ratio and myeloperoxidase level were determined.White blood cell count (WBC),total surfactant phospholipids (TPL) and disaturated phosphatidyl choline (DSPC) of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were calculated,Left lungs were used for examining pathological changes.Results No significant difference was observed in respiratory dynamic compliance,resistance of respiratory system,wet-dry ratio,levels of methaemoglobin and nitrate/nitrite after nebulization,TPL or DSPC/TPL among four groups.WBC in BALF in groups NTG and SNP significantly decreased as compared with group C:similarly for myeloperoxidase level in lung tissue.Lung histological findings showed infiltration of neutrophils in groups NTG and SNP decreased significantly as compared with group C.Conclusion Inhalation of nebulized nitroglycerine or sodium nitroprusside can alleviate the infiltration of neutrophils,while it affects

  6. Acute and repeated inhalation lung injury by 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate in rats: CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yeon Soo [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Hee [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: mhchung@catholic.ac.kr; Park, Seog Hee [Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon-Yeong [Industrial Chemicals Research Center, Industrial Safety and Health Research Institute KISCO, 104-8, Moonji-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon-si 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Gil [Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Wook [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ah [Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon-si, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Won Jong [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    Objectives: To investigate the acute and repeated pulmonary damage in Sprague-Dawley rats caused by the inhalation of 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate (3-MBCF) using computed tomography (CT), and to correlate these results with those obtained from a pathological study. Methods: Sixty, 7-week-old rats were exposed to 3-MBCF vapor via inhalation (6 h/day) for 1 day (N = 20), 3 days (N = 20), and 28 days (5 days/week) (N = 20) using whole body exposure chambers at a concentration of 0 (control), 3, 6 and 12 ppm. CT examinations including densitometry and histopathologic studies were carried out. For the follow-up study, the rats exposed for 3 days were scanned using CT and their pathology was examined at 7, 14, and 28 days. Results: There was a significant decrease in the parenchymal density in the groups exposed to the 3-MBCF vapors for 1 day at 3 ppm (p = 0.022) or 6 ppm (p = 0.010), compared with the control. The parenchymal density of the rats exposed to12 ppm was significantly higher. The pathological findings in this period, the grades of vascular congestion, tracheobronchial exfoliation, and alveolar rupture were significant. In the groups exposed for 3 days, there was a large decrease in the parenchymal density with increasing dose (control: -675.48 {+-} 32.82 HU, 3 ppm: -720.65 {+-} 34.21 HU, 6 ppm: -756.41 {+-} 41.68 HU, 12 ppm: -812.56 {+-} 53.48 HU) (p = 0.000). There were significant density differences between each dose in the groups exposed for 28 days (p = 0.000). The CT findings include an irregular lung surface, areas of multifocal, wedge-shaped increased density, a heterogeneous lung density, bronchial dilatation, and axial peribronchovascular bundle thickening. The histopathology examination revealed the development of alveolar interstitial thickening and vasculitis, and an aggravation of the mainstem bronchial exudates and bronchial inflammation. The alveolar wall ruptures and bronchial dilatation became severe during this period. On the follow

  7. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lamson, Jacob Stuart; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2013-01-01

    at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar......, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. Conclusions Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk...

  8. (Toxic hepatitis and acute renal failure after inhalation of chloride solvents: report of one case (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixido Planas, J.; Martinez-Castelao, A.; Romero Gonzalez, R.; Grino Boira, J.; Gonzalez Segura, C.; Caralps Riera, A.

    1981-06-25

    Due to a combination of ingested ethanol and inhaled trichloroethylene (Tri) a 28 year old man developed toxic hepatitis and acute oliguric renal failure, both of which had a favorable evolution. Tri has been described as a cause of hepatic disfunction and acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, although some of the cases described are controversial, because Tri was either contaminated by other dissolvents or could not be proven pure, with the exception of one case. In many there was ethanol ingestion. The Tri inhaled by our patient was found to contain less than 1% of carbon tetrachloride (C-Tchl). This would suggest the C-Tchl to be responsible for the clinical picture although the combination Tri/ethanol cannot be discarded as the causal agent, due to the small amount of contaminant present.

  9. Use of noninvasive ventilation in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to accidental chlorine inhalation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Adriano Medina; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Lippi, Mauro Martins; Takatani, Rodrigo Ryoji; de Oliveira Filho, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by diffuse inflammatory lung injury and is classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Clinically, hypoxemia, bilateral opacities in lung images, and decreased pulmonary compliance are observed. Sepsis is one of the most prevalent causes of this condition (30 - 50%). Among the direct causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome, chlorine inhalation is an uncommon cause, generating mucosal and airway irritation in most cases. We present a case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome after accidental inhalation of chlorine in a swimming pool, with noninvasive ventilation used as a treatment with good response in this case. We classified severe acute respiratory distress syndrome based on an oxygen partial pressure/oxygen inspired fraction ratio <100, although the Berlin classification is limited in considering patients with severe hypoxemia managed exclusively with noninvasive ventilation. The failure rate of noninvasive ventilation in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome is approximately 52% and is associated with higher mortality. The possible complications of using noninvasive positive-pressure mechanical ventilation in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome include delays in orotracheal intubation, which is performed in cases of poor clinical condition and with high support pressure levels, and deep inspiratory efforts, generating high tidal volumes and excessive transpulmonary pressures, which contribute to ventilation-related lung injury. Despite these complications, some studies have shown a decrease in the rates of orotracheal intubation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with low severity scores, hemodynamic stability, and the absence of other organ dysfunctions. PMID:28444079

  10. Evidence-based clinical practice guideline: inhaled nitric oxide for neonates with acute hypoxic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBlasi, Robert M; Myers, Timothy R; Hess, Dean R

    2010-12-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is also a potent pulmonary vasodilator. When given via the inhaled route it is a selective pulmonary vasodilator. INO is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of term and near-term neonates with hypoxemic respiratory failure associated with clinical or echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with the intention of making recommendations related to the clinical use of INO for its FDA-approved indication. Specifically, we wrote these evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to address the following questions: (1) What is the evidence for labeled use? (2) What are the specific indications for INO for neonates with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure? (3) Does the use of INO impact oxygenation, mortality, or utilization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)? (4) Does INO affect long-term outcomes? (5) Is INO cost-effective therapy? (6) How is the appropriate dosing regimen and dose response to INO established? (7) How is the dose of INO titrated and weaned? (8) Which INO delivery system should be used? (9) How should INO be implemented with different respiratory support devices? (10) What adverse effects of INO should be monitored, and at what frequency? (11) What physiologic parameters should be monitored during INO? (12) Is scavenging of gases necessary to protect the caregivers? Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system, 22 recommendations are developed for the use of INO in newborns.

  11. Acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to nerve agent VX in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin S; Rezk, Peter E; Graham, Jacob R; Steele, Keith E; Gordon, Richard K; Sciuto, Alfred M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2006-05-01

    A microinstillation technique of inhalation exposure was utilized to assess lung injury following chemical warfare nerve agent VX [methylphosphonothioic acid S-(2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl) O-ethyl ester] exposure in guinea pigs. Animals were anesthetized using Telazol-meditomidine, gently intubated, and VX was aerosolized using a microcatheter placed 2 cm above the bifurcation of the trachea. Different doses (50.4 microg/m3, 70.4 micro g/m(m3), 90.4 microg/m(m3)) of VX were administered at 40 pulses/min for 5 min. Dosing of VX was calculated by the volume of aerosol produced per 200 pulses and diluting the agent accordingly. Although the survival rate of animals exposed to different doses of VX was similar to the controls, nearly a 20% weight reduction was observed in exposed animals. After 24 h of recovery, the animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed with oxygen free saline. BAL was centrifuged and separated into BAL fluid (BALF) and BAL cells (BALC) and analyzed for indication of lung injury. The edema by dry/wet weight ratio of the accessory lobe increased 11% in VX-treated animals. BAL cell number was increased in VX-treated animals compared to controls, independent of dosage. Trypan blue viability assay indicated an increase in BAL cell death in 70.4 microg/m(m3) and 90.4 microg/m(m3) VX-exposed animals. Differential cell counting of BALC indicated a decrease in macrophage/monocytes in VX-exposed animals. The total amount of BAL protein increased gradually with the exposed dose of VX and was highest in animals exposed to 90.4 microg/m(m3), indicating that this dose of VX caused lung injury that persisted at 24 h. In addition, histopathology results also suggest that inhalation exposure to VX induces acute lung injury.

  12. Acute effect of iloprost inhalation on right atrial function and ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with pulmonary artery hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Luigi; Ocaranza, María Paz; Sitges, Marta; Kanacri, Andrés; Saavedra, Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Pablo; Sepulveda, Luis; Rossel, Victor; Zagolin, Monica; Verdejo, Hugo E; Baraona, Fernando; Zalaquett, Ricardo; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Castro, Pablo F

    2017-01-01

    Right atrium function and ventricular function have significant prognostic value in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. Acute changes in right ventricular synchrony and right atrium function postiloprost inhalation have not been evaluated. Cross-sectional study. Consecutive pulmonary arterial hypertension patients (group I from Nice classification) were included. Echocardiographic right atrium and right ventricular function pre- and postiloprost inhalation, including a right ventricular dyssynchrony index and right atrium function using speckle tracking, were performed in all patients. Twenty pulmonary arterial hypertension patients, 44±7 years and 90% females, were included. After iloprost inhalation, we observed a significant increment in right ventricular fractional area change and a significant decrease in right ventricular dyssynchrony index (21.4±5.6% vs 26.1±4.0 %, P=.007 and 79±44 vs 32±22 mseconds, Pright atrium reservoir function (8.6±3.1% vs 11.7±3.5 %, P=.002). Iloprost inhalation induces acute changes in right ventricular function, dyssynchrony, and right atrium performance that may add relevant clinical information in the management and risk stratification of pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. ACUTE NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF INHALED PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON PATTERN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AS A FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE AND ESTIMATED BLOOD AND BRAIN CONCENTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous experiments have shown the effects of acute inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene are related to the target tissue concentration at the time of testing. The current studies examined exposure to another volatile organic compound, perchloroethylene (P...

  14. ACUTE NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF INHALED PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON PATTERN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AS A FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE AND ESTIMATED BLOOD AND BRAIN CONCENTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous experiments have shown the effects of acute inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene are related to the target tissue concentration at the time of testing. The current studies examined exposure to another volatile organic compound, perchloroethylene (P...

  15. Assessing acute systemic effects of an inhaled drug with serial echocardiography: a placebo-controlled comparison of inhaled and intravenous dihydroergotamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noveck RJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert J Noveck,1 Pamela S Douglas,2 Shein-Chung Chow,3 Barry Mangum,4 Shashidhar Kori,5 Donald J Kellerman51Duke Clinical Research Unit, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 2Imaging Program, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, USA; 3Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Durham, NC, USA; 4Clinical Pharmacology, Duke Clinical Research Unit, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 5MAP Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Mountain View, CA, USAObjective: MAP0004 is an investigational product which delivers dihydroergotamine (DHE through the lung via a breath-synchronized metered dose inhaler. The objective of this study was to compare the acute effects of orally inhaled and intravenous (IV DHE to placebo on maximum change and area under the curve for pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP.Research design and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period, crossover study of 24 health adults. Trial registration NCT01089062. Study assessments included pharmacokinetics, electrocardiograms (ECG, and validated echocardiographic (Doppler-derived measures of PASP by echocardiogram. The primary endpoint was the absolute change in calculated PASP using area under the curve, 0 to 2 hours (AUC0–2h.Results: The change in PASP with IV DHE was significantly different than MAP0004 and placebo (AUC0–2h2857, 2624, and 2453 mmHg*min, respectively. After a second dose of MAP0004, AUC0–4h remained lower with MAP0004 than with a single dose of IV DHE. Adverse events were more common with IV DHE than with MAP0004 or placebo. None of the treatments produced clinically significant changes in PASP or other cardiac parameters. Changes in PASP were significantly smaller with MAP0004 compared with IV DHE.Conclusion: These results indicate the effects 1 mg of orally inhaled DHE on the cardiovascular system are less than with 1 mg of IV DHE, and

  16. Pretreatment with Antioxidants Augments the Acute Arterial Vasoconstriction Caused by Diesel Exhaust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Karen L.; Cosselman, Kristen E.; Trenga, Carol A.; Stapleton, Pat L.; Allen, Jason; Peretz, Alon; Olives, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust inhalation, which is the model traffic-related air pollutant exposure, is associated with vascular dysfunction. Objectives: To determine whether healthy subjects exposed to diesel exhaust exhibit acute vasoconstriction and whether this effect could be modified by the use of antioxidants or by common variants in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and other candidate genes. Methods: In a genotype-stratified, double-blind, four-way crossover study, 21 healthy adult subjects were exposed at rest in a randomized, balanced order to diesel exhaust (200 μg/m3 particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm [PM2.5]) and filtered air, and to pretreatment with antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and ascorbate) and placebo. Before and after each exposure, brachial artery diameter (BAd) was assessed using ultrasound. Changes in BAd were compared across pretreatment and exposure sessions. Gene–exposure interactions were evaluated in the AGTR1 A1166C polymorphism, on which recruitment was stratified, and other candidate genes, including TRPV1 and GSTM1. Measurements and Main Results: Compared with filtered air, exposure to diesel exhaust resulted in a significant reduction in BAd (mean, −0.09 mm, 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.01 to −0.17; P = 0.03). Pretreatment with antioxidants augmented diesel exhaust–related vasoconstriction with a mean change in BAd of −0.18 mm (95% CI, −0.28 to −0.07 mm; P = 0.001). Diesel exhaust–related vasoconstriction was primarily observed in the variant alleles of AGTR1 and TRPV1. No association was found between diesel exhaust inhalation and flow-mediated dilation. Conclusions: We confirmed that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust in healthy subjects is associated with acute vasoconstriction in a conductance artery and found suggestive evidence of involvement of nociception and renin–angiotensin systems in this effect. Pretreatment with an antioxidant regimen increased

  17. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat; Etudes biocinetique et biologique comparees d'inhalations chroniques et aigues de composes uraniferes chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monleau, M

    2005-12-15

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure

  18. Acute pulmonary toxicity following inhalation exposure to aerosolized VX in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinqi; Perkins, Michael W; Simons, Jannitt; Witriol, Alicia M; Rodriguez, Ashley M; Benjamin, Brittany M; Devorak, Jennifer; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated acute toxicity and pulmonary injury in rats at 3, 6 and 24 h after an inhalation exposure to aerosolized O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX). Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were incubated with a glass endotracheal tube and exposed to saline or VX (171, 343 and 514 mg×min/m³ or 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 LCt₅₀, respectively) for 10 min. VX was delivered by a small animal ventilator at a volume of 2.5 ml × 70 breaths/minute. All VX-exposed animals experienced a significant loss in percentage body weight at 3, 6, and 24 h post-exposure. In comparison to controls, animals exposed to 514 mg×min/m³ of VX had significant increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein concentrations at 6 and 24 h post-exposure. Blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited dose dependently at each of the times points for all VX-exposed groups. AChE activity in lung homogenates was significantly inhibited in all VX-exposed groups at each time point. All VX-exposed animals assessed at 20 min and 3, 6 and 24 h post-exposure showed increases in lung resistance, which was prominent at 20 min and 3 h post-exposure. Histopathologic evaluation of lung tissue of the 514 mg×min/m³ VX-exposed animals at 3, 6 and 24 h indicated morphological changes, including perivascular inflammation, alveolar exudate and histiocytosis, alveolar septal inflammation and edema, alveolar epithelial necrosis, and bronchiolar inflammatory infiltrates, in comparison to controls. These results suggest that aerosolization of the highly toxic, persistent chemical warfare nerve agent VX results in acute pulmonary toxicity and lung injury in rats.

  19. Acute hemodynamic effects of inhaled sodium nitrite in pulmonary hypertension associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marc A.; Vanderpool, Rebecca R.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Bachman, Timothy N.; White, Pamela M.; Sugahara, Masataka; Gorcsan, John; Parsley, Ed L.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes, yet specific treatments only exist for a small subset of patients. The most common form of PH is that associated with left heart disease (Group 2), for which there is no approved therapy. Nitrite has shown efficacy in preclinical animal models of Group 1 and 2 PH, as well as in patients with left heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a potentially novel inhaled formulation of nitrite in PH-HFpEF patients as compared with Group 1 and 3 PH. METHODS. Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics were recorded after acute administration of inhaled nitrite at 2 doses, 45 and 90 mg. Safety endpoints included change in systemic blood pressure and methemoglobin levels. Responses were also compared with those administered inhaled nitric oxide. RESULTS. Thirty-six patients were enrolled (10 PH-HFpEF, 20 Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension patients on background PH-specific therapy, and 6 Group 3 PH). Drug administration was well tolerated. Nitrite inhalation significantly lowered pulmonary, right atrial, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, most pronounced in patients with PH-HFpEF. There was a modest decrease in cardiac output and systemic blood pressure. Pulmonary vascular resistance decreased only in Group 3 PH patients. There was substantial increase in pulmonary artery compliance, most pronounced in patients with PH-HFpEF. CONCLUSIONS. Inhaled nitrite is safe in PH patients and may be efficacious in PH-HFpEF and Group 3 PH primarily via improvements in left and right ventricular filling pressures and pulmonary artery compliance. The lack of change in pulmonary vascular resistance likely may limit efficacy for Group 1 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01431313 FUNDING. This work was supported in part by the NIH grants P01HL103455 (to MAS and MTG), R01HL098032 (to MTG), and R01HL096973 (to MTG), and Mast Therapeutics, Inc. PMID

  20. Translocation and biokinetic behavior of nanoscaled europium oxide particles within 5 days following an acute inhalation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzenberg, Otto; Kock, Heiko; Schaudien, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Nanoscaled europium oxide (Eu2O3) particles were inhaled by rats after acute exposure and the potential translocation of particles followed by chemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was investigated. An aqueous dispersion (phosphate buffer/bovine serum albumin) of a commercially available Eu2O3 particle fraction consisting partially of nanoscaled particles was aerosolized with pressurized air. After rapid evaporation, rats inhaled the dry aerosol for 6 h in a single exposure resulting in an alveolar calculated dose of approximately 39.5 μg Eu2O3. Using chemical analysis, 36.8 μg Eu2O3 was detected 1 h after lung inhalation. The amount declined slightly to 34.5 μg after 1 day and 35.0 μg after 5 days. The liver showed an increase of Eu2O3 from 32.3 ng 1 h up to 294 ng 5 days after inhalation. Additionally, lung-associated lymph nodes, thymus, kidneys, heart and testis exhibited an increase of europium over the period investigated. In the blood, the highest amount of europium was found 1 h after treatment whereas feces, urine and mesenteric lymph nodes revealed the highest amount 1 day after treatment. Using TEM analysis, particles could be detected only in lungs, and in the liver, no particles were detectable. In conclusion, the translocation of Eu2O3 within 5 days following inhalation could be determined very precisely by chemical analysis. A translocation of Eu2O3 particulate matter to liver was not detectable by TEM analysis; thus, the overproportional level of 0.8% of the lung load observed in the liver after 5 days suggests a filtering effect of dissolved europium with accumulation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Mapping acute systemic effects of inhaled particulate matter and ozone: multiorgan gene expression and glucocorticoid activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Errol M; Vladisavljevic, Djordje; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between air pollution and adverse effects that extend beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including low birth weight, appendicitis, stroke, and neurological/neurobehavioural outcomes (e.g., neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, depression, and suicide). To gain insight into mechanisms underlying such effects, we mapped gene profiles in the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, cerebral hemisphere, and pituitary of male Fischer-344 rats immediately and 24h after a 4-h exposure by inhalation to particulate matter (0, 5, and 50mg/m(3) EHC-93 urban particles) and ozone (0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm). Pollutant exposure provoked differential expression of genes involved in a number of pathways, including antioxidant response, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory signalling, and endothelial dysfunction. The mRNA profiles, while exhibiting some interorgan and pollutant-specific differences, were remarkably similar across organs for a set of genes, including increased expression of redox/glucocorticoid-sensitive genes and decreased expression of inflammatory genes, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. Pollutant exposure increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and the glucocorticoid corticosterone, confirming activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and there was a corresponding increase in markers of glucocorticoid activity. Although effects were transient and presumably represent an adaptive response to acute exposure in these healthy animals, chronic activation and inappropriate regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with adverse neurobehavioral, metabolic, immune, developmental, and cardiovascular effects. The experimental data are consistent with epidemiological associations of air pollutants with extrapulmonary health outcomes and suggest a mechanism through which such health effects may be induced.

  2. Aerosolized alpha-tocopherol ameliorates acute lung injury following combined burn and smoke inhalation injury in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Naoki; Traber, Maret G; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Westphal, Martin; Murakami, Kazunori; Leonard, Scott W; Cox, Robert A; Hawkins, Hal K; Herndon, David; Traber, Lillian D; Traber, Daniel L

    2006-03-01

    Victims of fire accidents who sustain both thermal injury to the skin and smoke inhalation have gross evidence of oxidant injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that delivery of vitamin E, an oxygen superoxide scavenger, directly into the airway would attenuate acute lung injury postburn and smoke inhalation. Sheep (N = 17 female, 35 +/- 5 kg) were divided into 3 groups: (1) injured, then nebulized with vitamin E (B&S, Vitamin E, n = 6); (2) injured, nebulized with saline (B&S, Saline, n = 6); and (3) not injured, not treated (Sham, n = 5). While under deep anesthesia with isoflurane, the sheep were subjected to a flame burn (40% total body surface area, 3rd degree) and inhalation injury (48 breaths of cotton smoke, Ringer lactate solution (4 mL/kg/%burn/24 h) and placed on a ventilator [positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 5 cm H2O, tidal volume = 15 mL/kg] for 48 h. B&S injury halved the lung alpha-tocopherol concentrations (0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol/g) compared with sham-injured animals (1.5 +/- 0.3), whereas vitamin E treatment elevated the lung alpha-tocopherol concentrations (7.40 +/- 2.61) in the injured animals. B&S injury decreased pulmonary gas exchange (PaO2/FiO2 ratios) from 517 +/- 15 at baseline to 329 +/- 49 at 24 h and to 149 +/- 32 at 48 h compared with sham ratios of 477 +/- 14, 536 +/- 48, and 609 +/- 49, respectively. Vitamin E treatment resulted in a significant improvement of pulmonary gas exchange; ratios were 415 +/- 34 and 283 +/- 42 at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Vitamin E nebulization therapy improved the clinical responses to burn and smoke inhalation-induced acute lung injury.

  3. Role of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in the Management of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Lucinda Hunt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To date, there have been several systematic reviews with meta-analysis that have shown no reduction in mortality with the use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Importantly, these reports fail to make a distinction between the pediatric and adult patient. The number of adult patients in these reviews are far greater than the number of pediatric patients which makes it difficult to interpret the data regarding the role of iNO on the pediatric population. Extrapolating data from the adult population to the pediatric population is complicated, as we know that physiology and the body’s response to disease can be different between adult and pediatric patients. iNO has been demonstrated to improve outcomes in term and near-term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension. Recently, Bronicki et al. published a prospective randomized control trial investigating the impact of iNO on the pediatric patient population with acute respiratory failure. In this study, a benefit of decreased duration of mechanical ventilation and an increased rate of ECMO-free survival was demonstrated in patients who were randomized to receiving iNO, suggesting that there may be benefit to the use of iNO in pediatric ARDS (PARDS that has not been demonstrated in adults. iNO has repeatedly been shown to transiently improve oxygenation in all age groups, and yet neonates and pediatric patients have shown improvement in other outcomes that have not been seen in adults. The mechanism that explains improvement with the use of iNO in these patient populations are not well understood but does not appear to be solely a result of sustained improvement in oxygenation. There are physiologic studies that suggest alternative mechanisms for explaining the positive effects of iNO, such as platelet aggregation inhibition and reduction in systemic inflammation. Hence the role of iNO by various mechanisms

  4. Comparison of acute hemodynamic effects of aerosolized iloprost and inhaled nitric oxide in adult congenital heart disease with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caojin, Zhang; Yigao, Huang; Tao, Huang; Wenhui, Huang; Chunli, Xia; Xinsheng, Huang

    2012-01-01

    To compare the acute hemodynamic effects of aerosolized iloprost and inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in adult congenital heart disease (CHD) patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). One hundred and eighty five adult CHDs with severe PAH were nonrandomized into two groups (iloprost, n=127; NO, n=58). Various hemodynamic parameters were measured before and after iloprost or NO inhalation. Iloprost and NO inhalation resulted in significant reductions in pulmonary arterial pressure (from 110.6±21.8 mmHg to 105.5±22.3 mmHg, piloprost and NO were compared, similar reductions in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were observed. Aerosolized iloprost and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) were generally well tolerated and no patient experienced any side effects during inhalation. Aerosolized iloprost can be effectively and safely used and might be an alternative to NO for testing pulmonary vascular reactivity and treating severe PAH in adult CHD patients.

  5. Bronchodilatory effect of inhaled budesonide/formoterol and budesonide/salbutamol in acute asthma: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Jenish J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies that have compared bronchodilatory effect of inhaled budesonide/formoterol combination with budesonide/salbutamol delivered by metered dose inhaler with a spacer in acute exacerbation of asthma in children. We, therefore, compared the bronchodilatory effects of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (dose: 200 μg and 12 μg respectively combination with budesonide (200 μg/salbutamol (200 μg administered by metered dose inhaler and spacer in children of 5-15 years with mild acute exacerbation of asthma [Modified Pulmonary Index Score (MPIS between 6-8] in this double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was FEV1 (% predicted in the two groups at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60 min after administration of the study drug. Results We did not observe any significant differences in the % predicted FEV1 and MPIS between formoterol and salbutamol at various time points from 1 min to 60 min post drug administration. There was significant improvement in FEV1 (% predicted from baseline in both the groups as early as 1 min after drug administration. Conclusions Salbutamol or formoterol delivered along with inhaled corticosteroid by metered dose inhaler with spacer in children between 5-15 years of age with mild acute exacerbation of asthma had similar bronchodilatory effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00900874

  6. Acute toxicity of polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenol ether in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damon, E.G. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM); Halliwell, W.H.; Henderson, T.R.; Mokler, B.V.; Jones, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response studies were conducted with Syrian hamsters exposed to polyethylene glycol p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) via inhalation or bronchopulmonary lavage. Syrian hamsters were exposed to an aerosol of Triton X-100 with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 ..mu..m and a concentration of 3.0 mg/liter. Estimated initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 ranged from 800 to 3100 ..mu..g. Hamsters were lavaged with concentrations of Triton X-100 ranging from 0.01 to 0.10% in isotonic saline resulting in initial lung burdens of Triton X-100 that ranged from 300 to 3200 ..mu..g. The LD50/7 values were 1700 ..mu..g (1300 to 2100 ..mu..g, 95% confidence limits) for the inhalation study and 2100 (1900 to 2700) ..mu..g for the lavage study. The difference between the LD50/7 values for the two methods of exposure was not significant. However, histopathological examination revealed differences in the nature and distribution of pathologic changes observed in animals exposed by the two routes of administration. Animals exposed by inhalation died as a result of ulcerative laryngitis and laryngeal edema with only minimal pulmonary pathologic alterations. Animals exposed by lavage, where the larynx was not exposed to Triton X-100, died from pulmonary edema and acute exudative pneumonia. These results demonstrate the need for careful selection of exposure methods to meet the specific objectives of a toxicology study.

  7. Acute systemic accumulation of acrolein in mice by inhalation at a concentration similar to that in cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Tian, Ran; Shi, Riyi

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is an important environmental factor associated with a wide array of public health concerns. Acrolein, a component of tobacco smoke and a known toxin to various cell types, may be a key pathological factor mediating the adverse effects linked with tobacco smoke. Although acrolein is known to accumulate in the respiratory system after acute nasal exposure, it is not clear if it accumulates systemically, and less is known in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of acrolein accumulation in the circulation and in the spinal cord following acute acrolein inhalation in mice. Using a laboratory-fabricated inhalation chamber, we found elevated urinary 3-HPMA, an acrolein metabolite, and increased acrolein adducts in the spinal cord after weeks of nasal exposure to acrolein at a concentration similar to that in tobacco smoke. The data indicated that acrolein is absorbed into the circulatory system and some enters the nervous system. It is expected that these findings may facilitate further studies to probe the pathological role of acrolein in the nervous system resulting from smoke and other external sources.

  8. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thoustrup Saber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analysed the mRNA expression of Serum Amyloid A (Saa3 in lung tissue from female C57BL/6J mice exposed to different particles including nanomaterials (carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multi- and single walled carbon nanotubes, diesel exhaust particles and airborne dust collected at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. RESULTS: Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. We propose that the particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may predict risk for cardiovascular disease.

  9. Metered-dose inhaler ipratropium bromide in moderate acute asthma in children: A single-blinded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Emma L; Borland, Meredith L; Doyle, Sarah K; Geelhoed, Gary C

    2015-02-01

    To determine if the addition of ipratropium bromide (IB) by metered-dose inhaler in moderate acute asthma in children affects hospital admission rates when compared with inhaled salbutamol and oral prednisolone alone. A prospective, single-blinded, randomised, controlled, equivalence trial in a tertiary paediatric emergency department. Patients aged 2-15 years with acute, moderate asthma were randomised to two groups, one receiving salbutamol, prednisolone and IB, the other receiving only salbutamol and prednisolone. The managing doctor was blinded to treatment. Admission rates were compared, and less than 15% difference was accepted as statistically equivalent. Recruitment ran from June 2007 until January 2011. Three hundred forty-seven subjects were analysed. The admission rate in the IB group was 70.1% (122/174) compared with 64.2% (111/173) in the non-IB group. The absolute difference of +5.9% (95% confidence interval -4.0% to 15.8%) is not statistically equivalent but does not show a statistically significant decrease in admission rates when IB was given. Adverse effects were more prevalent in the IB group, at 13.2% (23/174), compared with 4.6% (8/173) in the non-IB group, a relative risk of 2.86 (95% confidence interval 1.31-6.21). In children with acute asthma of moderate severity who are treated with adequate doses of salbutamol and prednisolone, the addition of IB is not significantly associated with a reduction in admission rates. There is a significantly higher rate of adverse effects if IB is given. IB should be reserved for children with severe asthma exacerbations. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Acute Inhalation Toxicity and Blood Absorption of 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-17

    by BAE Systems, Ordnance Systems, 4509 West Stone Drive, Kingsport, TN 37660. The certificate of analysis provided by the supplier indicated that the...promote melting for vapor/aerosol generation during the inhalation exposures. Oral dosing suspensions were mixed on a weight/volume basis in corn oil...The second group of six rats was administered a single oral dose in corn oil via gavage at calculated equivalent doses to those exposed via

  11. Alternative acute inhalation toxicity testing by determination of the concentration-time-mortality relationship : experimental comparison with standard LC50 testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, A.; Arts, J.H.E.; Berge, W.F. ten; Appelman, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    A new design for acute inhalation toxicity testing was evaluated and compared with results obtained according to OECD guideline 403. The new design consists of a range-finding test, which is compatible with a conventional limit test, and can be followed by determination of a

  12. Acute Lethality of Inhaled Hydrogen Cyanide in the Laboratory Rat: Impact of Concentration x Time Profile and Evaluation of the Predictivity of Toxic Load Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton Acute Lethality of Inhaled Hydrogen Cyanide in the Laboratory Rat : Impact of Concentration × Time Profile and...Cyanide in the Laboratory Rat : Impact of Concentration x Time Profile and Evaluation of the Predictivity of “Toxic Load” Models. 5a. Contract

  13. Development of an acute model of inhalational melioidosis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle; Dean, Rachel E; Salguero, Francisco J; Taylor, Christopher; Pearce, Peter C; Simpson, Andrew J H; Lever, Mark S

    2011-12-01

    Studies of inhalational melioidosis were undertaken in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Following exposure to an inhaled challenge with aerosolized Burkholderia pseudomallei, lethal infection was observed in marmosets challenged with doses below 10 cfu; a precise LD(50) determination was not possible. The model was further characterized using a target challenge dose of approximately 10(2) cfu. A separate pathogenesis time-course experiment was also conducted. All animals succumbed, between 27 and 78 h postchallenge. The challenge dose received and the time to the humane endpoint (1 °C below normal body temperature postfever) were correlated. The first indicator of disease was an increased core body temperature (T(c) ), at 22 h postchallenge. This coincided with bacteraemia and bacterial dissemination. Overt clinical signs were first observed 3-5 h later. A sharp decrease (typically within 3-6 h) in the T(c) was observed prior to humanely culling the animals in the lethality study. Pathology was noted in the lung, liver and spleen. Disease progression in the common marmoset appears to be consistent with human infection in terms of bacterial spread, pathology and physiology. The common marmoset can therefore be considered a suitable animal model for further studies of inhalational melioidosis.

  14. No additive effects of inhaled iloprost and prone positioning on pulmonary hypertension and oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, E; Cakar, N; Ozcan, P E; Basel, A; Sengul, T; Telci, L; Esen, F; Nahum, A; Strang, C M; Winterhalter, M

    2012-09-01

    In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary hypertension is associated with a poor prognosis. Prone position is effective to improve oxygenation whereas inhaled iloprost can treat pulmonary hypertension. However, combination of these interventions has not been examined before. The hypothesis was that this combination had additive effects on oxygenation and pulmonary hemodynamics as compared with each intervention alone. In a prospective, randomized cross-over study, ten pigs were anesthetized, intubated and ventilated with volume controlled ventilation. Carotid, jugular venous and pulmonary artery catheters were inserted. ARDS was induced with oleic acid (0.20 mL/kg). Measurements were repeated in randomized different sequences of prone or supine positions with or without iloprost inhalation (220 ng/kg/min) (four combinations). Systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures; arterial and mixed venous blood gases; and Qs/Qt and the resistances were recorded. Iloprost decreased pulmonary artery pressures (for MPAP: P=0.034) in both supine (37±10 vs. 31±8 mmHg; Piloprost application (331±112 vs. 167±117 mmHg, Piloprost reduced pulmonary arterial pressures, and prone positioning improved oxygenation; there are no additive effects of the combination of both interventions on both parameters. To treat both pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemia, application of iloprost in prone position is suggested.

  15. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particles (DEP – or carbon black (CB-induced lung inflammation initiates an acute phase response in the liver. Results Mice were exposed to filtered air, 20 mg/m3 DEP or CB by inhalation for 90 minutes/day for four consecutive days; we have previously shown that these mice exhibit pulmonary inflammation (Saber AT, Bornholdt J, Dybdahl M, Sharma AK, Loft S, Vogel U, Wallin H. Tumor necrosis factor is not required for particle-induced genotoxicity and pulmonary inflammation., Arch. Toxicol. 79 (2005 177–182. As a positive control for the induction of an acute phase response, mice were exposed to 12.5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS intraperitoneally. Quantitative real time RT-PCR was used to examine the hepatic mRNA expression of acute phase proteins, serum amyloid P (Sap (the murine homologue of Crp and Saa1 and Saa3. While significant increases in the hepatic expression of Sap, Saa1 and Saa3 were observed in response to LPS, their levels did not change in response to DEP or CB. In a comprehensive search for markers of an acute phase response, we analyzed liver tissue from these mice using high density DNA microarrays. Globally, 28 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in response to DEP or CB. The mRNA expression of three of the genes (serine (or cysteine proteinase inhibitor, clade A, member 3C, apolipoprotein E and transmembrane emp24 domain containing 3 responded to both exposures. However, these changes were very subtle and were not confirmed by real time RT

  16. Tolerability of inhaled N-chlorotaurine in an acute pig streptococcal lower airway inflammation model

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    Sergi Consolato

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation of N-chlorotaurine (NCT, an endogenous new broad spectrum non-antibiotic anti-infective, has been shown to be very well tolerated in the pig model recently. In the present study, inhaled NCT was tested for tolerability and efficacy in the infected bronchopulmonary system using the same model. Methods Anesthetized pigs were inoculated with 20 ml of a solution containing approximately 108 CFU/ml Streptococcus pyogenes strain d68 via a duodenal tube placed through the tracheal tube down to the carina. Two hours later, 5 ml of 1% NCT aqueous solution (test group, n = 15 or 5 ml of 0.9% NaCl (control group, n = 16 was inhaled via the tracheal tube connected to a nebulizer. Inhalation was repeated every hour, four times in total. Lung function and haemodynamics were monitored. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples were removed for determination of colony forming units (CFU, and lung samples for histology. Results Arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 decreased rapidly after instillation of the bacteria in all animals and showed only a slight further decrease at the end of the experiment without a difference between both groups. Pulmonary artery pressure increased to a peak 1-1.5 h after application of the bacteria, decreased in the following hour and remained constant during treatment, again similarly in both groups. Histology demonstrated granulocytic infiltration in the central parts of the lung, while this was absent in the periphery. Expression of TNF-alpha, IL-8, and haemoxygenase-1 in lung biopsies was similar in both groups. CFU counts in bronchoalveolar lavage came to 170 (10; 1388 CFU/ml (median and 25 and 75 percentiles for the NCT treated pigs, and to 250 (10; 5.5 × 105 CFU/ml for NaCl treated pigs (p = 0.4159. Conclusions Inhaled NCT at a concentration of 1% proved to be very well tolerated also in the infected bronchopulmonary system. This study confirms the tolerability in this delicate body region, which has been

  17. [Acute response of right ventricular function to iloprost inhalations in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: preliminary evaluation 
with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qingqing; Li, Dong; Yang, Zhenwen; Han, Yan; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Tielian

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally elevated blood pressure of the pulmonary circulation. Without treatment, PAH progresses rapidly to right ventricular (RV) failure and even death. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has been an accurate and reproducible tool to assessment of RV morphology and function, which are important factors in the prognosis of patients with PAH. The aim of this study is to investigate acute RV response to inhalation of aerosolized iloprost in patients with PAH using CMRI. From March 2012 to March 2014, 48 patients with PAH underwent CMRI before and immediately after inhalation of iloprost with a single dose of 20 μg over 15 min-20 min. RV function parameters derived from CMRI images were analyzed before and after iloprost inhalation, including end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-diastolic area (EDA), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-systolic area (ESA), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac output (CO). Percentage of RV area change was also calculated [%RVAC=(EDA-ESA)/EDA×100%]. Wilcoxon's Sign Rank Test or Paired Samples t-Test was used to compare the differences of RV function parameters before and after inhalation. After iloprost inhalation, all patients showed significant decrease in RV EDV and RV ESV (P=0.007, Piloprost can immediately improve RV function in patients with PAH, and noninvasive evaluation of the acute response with CMRI is feasibility.

  18. Acute Response of Right Ventricular Function to Iloprost Inhalations in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Preliminary Evaluation 
with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing LU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally elevated blood pressure of the pulmonary circulation. Without treatment, PAH progresses rapidly to right ventricular (RV failure and even death. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI has been an accurate and reproducible tool to assessment of RV morphology and function, which are important factors in the prognosis of patients with PAH. The aim of this study is to investigate acute RV response to inhalation of aerosolized iloprost in patients with PAH using CMRI. Method From March 2012 to March 2014, 48 patients with PAH underwent CMRI before and immediately after inhalation of iloprost with a single dose of 20 μg over 15 min-20 min. RV function parameters derived from CMRI images were analyzed before and after iloprost inhalation, including end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-diastolic area (EDA, end-systolic volume (ESV, end-systolic area (ESA, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF and cardiac output (CO. Percentage of RV area change was also calculated [%RVAC=(EDA-ESA/EDA×100%]. Wilcoxon's Sign Rank Test or Paired Samples t-Test was used to compare the differences of RV function parameters before and after inhalation. Results After iloprost inhalation, all patients showed significant decrease in RV EDV and RV ESV (P=0.007, P<0.001 respectively. Whereas, there were significant increase in RV SV (P=0.014, RV EF (P=0.009 and %RVAC (P=0.006. RV CO had no significant difference before and after inhalation (P=0.851. Conclusions Inhalation of iloprost can immediately improve RV function in patients with PAH, and noninvasive evaluation of the acute response with CMRI is feasibility.

  19. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapour for twenty one days. Test group one were exposed to gasoline for 30 min while test group two were exposed to gasoline vapour for 1 h daily. At the end of twenty one days of exposure, blood samples were collected from the rats and their haematological parameters were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using windows SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that inhalation exposure to gasoline may result in pancytopaenia and a significant fluctuation in the red blood cell-dependent haematological indices.

  20. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  1. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following Acute Acrolein Inhalation in Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set is an Excel file pertaining to the study that examined nasal, pulmonary, and systemic effects of acrolein in rats acutely exposed to a range of...

  2. Acute symptoms during non-inhalation exposure to combinations of toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    To study the acute effect of exposure to a mixture of three commonly used solvents in humans using a route of exposure not involving the nose and lungs, in this case a gastrointestinal application....

  3. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) prophylaxis is effective against acute murine inhalational melioidosis and glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kay B; Steward, Jackie; Thwaite, Joanne E; Lever, M Stephen; Davies, Carwyn H; Armstrong, Stuart J; Laws, Thomas R; Roughley, Neil; Harding, Sarah V; Atkins, Timothy P; Simpson, Andrew J H; Atkins, Helen S

    2013-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the disease melioidosis, which is prevalent in tropical countries and is intractable to a number of antibiotics. In this study, the antibiotic co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) was assessed for the post-exposure prophylaxis of experimental infection in mice with B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relative Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders. Co-trimoxazole was effective against an inhalational infection with B. pseudomallei or B. mallei. However, oral co-trimoxazole delivered twice daily did not eradicate infection when administered from 6h post exposure for 14 days or 21 days, since infected and antibiotic-treated mice succumbed to infection following relapse or immunosuppression. These data highlight the utility of co-trimoxazole for prophylaxis both of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and the need for new approaches for the treatment of persistent bacterial infection.

  4. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Snellings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits, were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061 ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698 ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831 ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262 ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884 ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459 ppm for the combined sexes.

  5. Disposition of plutonium-239 via production of fission molybdenum-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, A

    2011-04-01

    A heritage of physical consequences of the U.S.-Soviet arms race has accumulated, the weapons-grade plutonium (WPu), which will become excess as a result of the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons under the arms reduction agreements. Disposition of Pu has been proposed by mixing WPu with high-level radioactive waste with subsequent vitrification into large, highly radioactive glass logs or fabrication into mixed oxide fuel with subsequent irradiation in existing light water reactors. A potential option may be the production of medical isotope molybdenum-99 by using Pu-239 targets.

  6. A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE INHALED TOLUENE IN HUMAN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of acute exposure to toluene have been explored more thoroughly than other hydrocarbon solvents. These effects have been experimentally studied in humans and other species, e.g., rats, as well as in a number of in vitro preparations. The existence ofdosimetric and eff...

  7. Acute relief of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by inhaled formoterol in children with persistent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mette Northman; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Buchvald, Frederik;

    2006-01-01

    -controlled, crossover study of the immediate effect of formoterol, 9 microg, vs terbutaline, 0.5 mg, and placebo administered as dry powder at different study days. Exercise challenge test was used as a model of acute bronchoconstriction. PATIENTS: Twenty-four 7- to 15-year-old children with persistent asthma...

  8. Establishing a Point of Departure for Risk Assessment Using Acute Inhalation Toxicology Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bast, Cheryl B [ORNL; Rusch, George M. [Honeywell International; Cavender, Finis [Consultant

    2009-01-01

    A simple method is presented for estimating a non-lethal level for inhalation toxicity studies. By reviewing 209 LC50 studies representing 96 chemicals that also reported a non-lethal level, it has been shown that taking 1/3 of the LC50 is a conservative estimate for a non-lethal exposure level. This approach was also compared to studies with LC01 and BMCL05 calculations. In the 38 studies that reported either of these values, again taking 1/3 of the LC50 provided a more conservation estimate for the non-lethal threshold. The studies included time intervals from 5 minutes out to 8 hours and utilized multiple species such as the rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig and dog. In all but 13 cases, taking 1/3 of the LC50 provided a more conservative estimate for a non-lethal exposure level compared to the experimentally observed value. In all but one of the 13 cases, the higher values were consequences of the selection of the exposure levels.

  9. Acute Inhalation Toxicity Test of Ivermectin Raw Powder%伊维菌素原粉急性吸入毒性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡成云; 林师道; 纪磊; 汪建良; 张武; 岑江杰

    2016-01-01

    To study the acute inhalation toxicity of Ivermectin raw powder and provide the basis for safe use,limit test,the dose group was 2000 mg/m3 ,dynamic nose-only exposure,effective exposure time for 2 h.The results showed that ivermectin raw powder in male and female rats acute inhalation median lethal concentration (LC50 ) were more than 2089 mg/m3 .The acute inhalation toxicity was low toxicity.%对伊维菌素原粉急性吸入毒性进行研究,采用限量试验,设定2000 mg/m3一个剂量组,动式口鼻式染毒,有效染毒时间2h.结果显示,伊维菌素原粉对雌雄大鼠的急性吸入半数致死浓度(LC50)均大于2089 mg/m3.伊维菌素原粉急性吸入毒性属低毒,该结论为安全使用提供了依据.

  10. Acute Inhalation Toxicity Study of 1, 4-Dioxane in Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    of degenerative and/or toxic nephropathy . Degenerative nephropathy is not uncommon in rats and is due to the predisposing factors of age, sex...was attributed to early and more acute progression of chronic progressive glomerular nephropathy . 4.2.6 Statistical Analysis: A statistical...0.6084 Degeneration 1 day M - - - - - - - F 0.0011 - - 0.0256 - 0.0256 0.0256 2 wk M - - - - - - - F - - - - - - - Kidney Nephropathy

  11. Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome from Acute Inhalation of Dishwasher Detergent Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Timo J Hannu; Riihimäki, Vesa E; Piirilä, Päivi L

    2012-01-01

    Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, a type of occupational asthma without a latency period, is induced by irritating vapour, fumes or smoke. The present report is the first to describe a case of reactive airway dysfunction syndrome caused by acute exposure to dishwater detergent containing sodium metasilicate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The diagnosis was based on exposure data, clinical symptoms and signs, as well as respiratory function tests. A 43-year-old nonatopic male apprentice c...

  12. Assessment of toxicologic interactions resulting from acute inhalation exposure to sulfuric acid and ozone mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, R.B.; Zelikoff, J.T.; Chen, L.C.; Kinney, P.L. (Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Studies examining effects of air pollutants often use single compounds, while real world' exposures are to more than one chemical. Thus, it is necessary to assess responses following inhalation of chemical mixtures. Rabbits were exposed for 3 hr to sulfuric acid aerosol at 0, 50, 75, or 125 micrograms/m3 in conjunction with ozone at 0, 0.1, 0.3, or 0.6 ppm, following which broncho-pulmonary lavage was performed. Various pulmonary response endpoints related to general cytotoxicity and macrophage function were examined. In addition, a goal of the study was to define an improved approach to the analysis of data sets involving binary pollutant mixtures. Results were evaluated using analysis of variance with multiple linear contrasts to determine the significance of any effect in the pollutant-exposed groups compared to sham control animals and to assess the type, and extent, of any toxicological interaction between acid and ozone. Interaction was considered to occur when the effects of combined exposure were either significantly greater or less than additive. Pollutant exposures had no effect on lavage fluid levels of lactate dehydrogenase, prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha, nor on the numbers, viability, or types of immune cells recovered by lavage. Phagocytic activity of macrophages was depressed at the two highest acid levels and at all levels of ozone. Superoxide production by stimulated macrophages was depressed by acid exposure at the two highest concentrations, while ozone alone had no effect. Significant antagonistic interaction was observed following exposure to mixtures of 75 or 125 micrograms/m3 acid with 0.1 or 0.3 ppm ozone. The activity of tumor necrosis factor elicited from stimulated macrophages was depressed by acid at 75 and 125 micrograms/m3 while ozone had no effect. Exposure to mixtures of 125 micrograms/m3 acid with 0.3 or 0.6 ppm ozone resulted in synergistic interaction.

  13. Pulmonary microvascular hyperpermeability and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in smoke inhalation- and pneumonia-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Traber, Daniel L; Connelly, Rhykka; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Schmalstieg, Frank C; Herndon, David N; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2012-11-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis are major contributors to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. The current study was designed further evaluate the mechanism of pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability in sheep with these injuries. Sheep were randomized to a sham-injured control group (n=6) or ALI/sepsis group (n=7). The sheep in the ALI/sepsis group received inhalation injury followed by instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into the lungs. These groups were monitored for 24 h. Additional sheep (n=16) received the injury and lung tissue was harvested at different time points to measure lung wet/dry weight ratio, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression as well as 3-nitrotyrosine protein expression in lung homogenates. The injury induced severe deterioration in pulmonary gas exchange, increases in lung lymph flow and protein content, and lung water content (P<0.01 each). These alterations were associated with elevated lung and plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations, increased tracheal blood flow, and enhanced VEGF mRNA and protein expression in lung tissue as well as enhanced 3-nitrotyrosine protein expression (P<0.05 each). This study describes the time course of pulmonary microvascular hyperpermeability in a clinical relevant large animal model and may improve the experimental design of future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. A Method for Quantifying the Acute Health Impacts of Residential Non-Biological Exposure Via Inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Bret C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The inability to monetize the health costs of acute exposures in homes and the benefits of various control options is a barrier to justifying policies and approaches that can reduce exposure and improve health.We synthesized relationships between short-term outdoor concentration changes and health outcomes to estimate the health impacts of short-term in-home exposures. Damage and cost impacts of specific health outcomes were taken from the literature. We assessed the impact of vented and non-vented residential natural gas cooking burners on Southern California occupants for two pollutants (NO2 and CO).

  15. The beneficial effects of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with severe traumatic brain injury complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimos Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Iraq war has vividly brought the problem of traumatic brain injury to the foreground. The costs of death and morbidity in lost wages, lost taxes, and rehabilitative costs, let alone the emotional costs, are enormous. Military personnel with traumatic brain injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome may represent a substantial problem. Each of these entities, in and of itself, may cause a massive inflammatory response. Both presenting in one patient can precipitate an overwhelming physiological scenario. Inhaled nitric oxide has recently been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects beyond the pulmonary system, in addition to its ability to improve arterial oxygenation. Furthermore, it is virtually without side effects, and can easily be applied to combat casualties or to civilian casualties. Presentation of hypothesis Use of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome will show a benefit through improved physiological parameters, a decrease in biochemical markers of inflammation and brain injury, thus leading to better outcomes. Testing of hypothesis A prospective, randomized, non-blinded clinical trial may be performed in which patients meeting the case definition could be entered into the study. The hypothesis may be confirmed by: (1 demonstrating an improvement in physiologic parameters, intracranial pressure, and brain oxygenation with inhaled nitric oxide use in severely head injured patients, and (2 demonstrating a decrease in biochemical serum markers in such patients; specifically, glial fibrillary acidic protein, inflammatory cytokines, and biomarkers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and (3 documentation of outcomes. Implications of hypothesis Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in traumatic brain injury patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome could result in increased numbers of lives saved, decreased patient morbidity

  16. Mimicking exposures to acute and lifetime concentrations of inhaled silver nanoparticles by two different in vitro approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Herzog

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging market of nano-sized products, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are widely used due to their antimicrobial properties. Human interaction with Ag NPs can occur through the lung, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. However, the inhalation of Ag NP aerosols is a primary concern. To study the possible effects of inhaled Ag NPs, an in vitro triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar/airway barrier (A549 epithelial cells, human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic and macrophage cells together with an air–liquid interface cell exposure (ALICE system was used in order to reflect a real-life exposure scenario. Cells were exposed at the air–liquid interface (ALI to 0.03, 0.3, and 3 µg Ag/cm2 of Ag NPs (diameter 100 nm; coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone: PVP. Ag NPs were found to be highly aggregated within ALI exposed cells with no impairment of cell morphology. Furthermore, a significant increase in release of cytotoxic (LDH, oxidative stress (SOD-1, HMOX-1 or pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-8 was absent. As a comparison, cells were exposed to Ag NPs in submerged conditions to 10, 20, and 30 µg Ag/mL. The deposited dose per surface area was estimated by using a dosimetry model (ISDD to directly compare submerged vs ALI exposure concentrations after 4 and 24 h. Unlike ALI exposures, the two highest concentrations under submerged conditions promoted a cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory response after 24 h. Interestingly, when cell cultures were co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, no synergistic inflammatory effects were observed. By using two different exposure scenarios it has been shown that the ALI as well as the suspension conditions for the lower concentrations after 4 h, reflecting real-life concentrations of an acute 24 h exposure, did not induce any adverse effects in a complex 3D model mimicking the human alveolar/airway barrier. However, the highest concentrations used in the ALI setup, as well

  17. Acute inhalation of ozone stimulates bronchial C-fibers and rapidly adapting receptors in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleridge, J.C.G.; Coleridge, H.M.; Schelegle, E.S.; Green, J.F. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1993-05-01

    To identify the afferents responsible for initiating the vagally mediated respiratory changes evoked by acute exposure to ozone, the authors recorded vagal impulses in anesthetized, open-chest, artificially ventilated dogs and examined the pulmonary afferent response to ozone (2--3 ppM in air) delivered to the lower trachea for 20--60 min. Bronchial C-fibers (BrCs) were the lung afferents most susceptible to ozone, the activity of 10 of 11 BrCs increasing from 0.2 [+-] 0.2 to 4.6 [+-] 1.3 impulses/s within 1--7 min of ozone exposure. Ten of 15 rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) were stimulated by ozone, their activity increasing from 1.5 [+-] 0.4 to 4.7 [+-] 0.7 impulses/s. Stimulation of RARs (but not of BrCs) appeared secondary to the ozone-induced reduction of lung compliance because it was abolished by hyperinflation of the lungs. Ozone had little effect on pulmonary C-fibers or slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. The authors' results suggest that both BrCs and RARs contribute to the tachypnea and bronchoconstriction evoked by acute exposure to ozone when vagal conduction is intact and that BrCs alone are responsible for the vagally mediated tachypnea that survives vagal cooling to 7[degrees]C. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome from Acute Inhalation of Dishwasher Detergent Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo J Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, a type of occupational asthma without a latency period, is induced by irritating vapour, fumes or smoke. The present report is the first to describe a case of reactive airway dysfunction syndrome caused by acute exposure to dishwater detergent containing sodium metasilicate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The diagnosis was based on exposure data, clinical symptoms and signs, as well as respiratory function tests. A 43-year-old nonatopic male apprentice cook developed respiratory symptoms immediately after exposure to a cloud of detergent powder that was made airborne by vigorous shaking of the package. In spirometry, combined obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment developed, and the histamine challenge test revealed bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Even routine handling of a strongly caustic detergent, such as filling a dishwasher container, is not entirely risk free and should be performed with caution.

  19. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome from acute inhalation of dishwasher detergent powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannu, Timo J; Riihimäki, Vesa E; Piirilä, Päivi L

    2012-01-01

    Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, a type of occupational asthma without a latency period, is induced by irritating vapour, fumes or smoke. The present report is the first to describe a case of reactive airway dysfunction syndrome caused by acute exposure to dishwater detergent containing sodium metasilicate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The diagnosis was based on exposure data, clinical symptoms and signs, as well as respiratory function tests. A 43-year-old nonatopic male apprentice cook developed respiratory symptoms immediately after exposure to a cloud of detergent powder that was made airborne by vigorous shaking of the package. In spirometry, combined obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment developed, and the histamine challenge test revealed bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Even routine handling of a strongly caustic detergent, such as filling a dishwasher container, is not entirely risk free and should be performed with caution. PMID:22679618

  20. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome from acute inhalation of a dishwasher detergent powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannu, Timo J; Riihimäki, Vesa E; Piirilä, Päivi L

    2012-01-01

    Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, a type of occupational asthma without a latency period, is induced by irritating vapour, fumes or smoke. The present report is the first to describe a case of reactive airway dysfunction syndrome caused by acute exposure to dishwater detergent containing sodium metasilicate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The diagnosis was based on exposure data, clinical symptoms and signs, as well as respiratory function tests. A 43-year-old nonatopic male apprentice cook developed respiratory symptoms immediately after exposure to a cloud of detergent powder that was made airborne by vigorous shaking of the package. In spirometry, combined obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment developed, and the histamine challenge test revealed bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Even routine handling of a strongly caustic detergent, such as filling a dishwasher container, is not entirely risk free and should be performed with caution.

  1. Acute toxicity when concentration varies with time: A case study with carbon monoxide inhalation by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Goodwin, Michelle R; James, R Arden; Channel, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to time-varying concentrations of toxic compounds is the norm in both occupational settings and daily human life, but little has been done to investigate the impact of variations in concentration on toxic outcomes; this case study with carbon monoxide helps fill that gap. Median acute lethality of 10-, 20-, 40-, and 60-min continuous exposures of rats to carbon monoxide was well described by the toxic load model (k = C(n) × t; k is constant, C = test concentration, n = toxic load exponent, and t = exposure duration) with n = 1.74. Dose response-relationships for 1-h exposures including a recovery period between 10- or 20-min pulses showed greater similarity (in both median lethality and steepness of dose-response curve) to continuous exposures with equivalent pulse duration and concentration, rather than a 60-min exposure with equivalent time-weighted average concentrations or toxic load. When pulses were of unequal concentration (3:1 ratio), only the high concentration pulse contributed to lethality. These findings show that fluctuations or interruptions in exposure over a short time scale (60 min or less) can have a substantial impact on outcomes (when n > 1), and thus high-resolution monitoring data are needed to aid interpretation of resulting outcomes.

  2. Allergic diseases and the effect of inhaled epinephrine in children with acute bronchiolitis: follow-up from the randomised, controlled, double-blind, Bronchiolitis ALL trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Rolfsjord, Leif Bjarte; Berents, Teresa Løvold; Engen, Hanne; Dizdarevic, Edin; Midgaard, Cathrine; Kvenshagen, Bente; Aas, Marianne Hanneborg; Hunderi, Jon Olav Gjengstø; Stensby Bains, Karen Eline; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2015-09-01

    Although use of inhaled bronchodilators in infants with acute bronchiolitis is not supported by evidence-based guidelines, it is often justified by the belief in a subgroup effect in individuals developing atopic disease. We aimed to assess if inhaled epinephrine during acute bronchiolitis in infancy would benefit patients with later recurrent bronchial obstruction, atopic eczema, or allergic sensitisation. In the randomised, double-blind, multicentre Bronchiolitis ALL trial, 404 infants with moderate-to-severe acute bronchiolitis were recruited from eight hospitals in Norway to receive either inhaled epinephrine or saline up to every second hour throughout the hospital stay. Randomisation was done centrally, and the two study medications (20 mg/mL racemic epinephrine or 0.9% saline) were prepared in identical bottles. The dose given depended on the infant's weight: 0.10 mL, less than 5 kg; 0.15 mL, 5-6.9 kg; 0.2 mL, 7-9.9 kg; and 0.25 mL, 10 kg or more; all dissolved in 2 mL of 0.9% saline before nebulisation. The primary outcome was the length of hospital stay. In this follow-up study, 294 children were reinvestigated at 2 years of age with an interview, a clinical examination, and a skin prick test for 17 allergens, determining bronchial obstruction, atopic eczema, and allergic sensitisation, on which subgroup analyses were done. Analyses were done by intention to treat. The trial has been completed and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT00817466) and EUDRACT (number 2009-012667-34). Length of stay did not differ between patients who received inhaled epinephrine versus saline in the subgroup of infants who developed recurrent bronchial obstruction by age 2 years (143 [48.6%] of 294 patients; p(interaction)=0.40). However, the presence of atopic eczema or allergic sensitisation by the age of 2 years (n=77) significantly interacted with the treatment effect of inhaled epinephrine (p(interaction)=0.02); the length of stay (mean 80.3 h, 95% CI 72

  3. Heme Attenuation Ameliorates Irritant Gas Inhalation-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Lam, Adam; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Carlisle, Matthew A; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam; Matalon, Sadis

    2016-01-10

    Exposure to irritant gases, such as bromine (Br2), poses an environmental and occupational hazard that results in severe lung and systemic injury. However, the mechanism(s) of Br2 toxicity and the therapeutic responses required to mitigate lung damage are not known. Previously, it was demonstrated that Br2 upregulates the heme degrading enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Since heme is a major inducer of HO-1, we determined whether an increase in heme and heme-dependent oxidative injury underlies the pathogenesis of Br2 toxicity. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Br2 gas (600 ppm, 30 min) and returned to room air. Thirty minutes postexposure, mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of the heme scavenging protein, hemopexin (Hx) (3 μg/gm body weight), or saline. Twenty-four hours postexposure, saline-treated mice had elevated total heme in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma and acute lung injury (ALI) culminating in 80% mortality after 10 days. Hx treatment significantly lowered heme, decreased evidence of ALI (lower protein and inflammatory cells in BALF, lower lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and decreased airway hyperreactivity to methacholine), and reduced mortality. In addition, Br2 caused more severe ALI and mortality in mice with HO-1 gene deletion (HO-1-/-) compared to wild-type controls, while transgenic mice overexpressing the human HO-1 gene (hHO-1) showed significant protection. This is the first study delineating the role of heme in ALI caused by Br2. The data suggest that attenuating heme may prove to be a useful adjuvant therapy to treat patients with ALI.

  4. A critical role of acute bronchoconstriction in the mortality associated with high-dose sarin inhalation: Effects of epinephrine and oxygen therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Zhuang, Jianguo; Barrett, Edward G.; Xu, Fadi; Russell, Robert G.; Sopori, Mohan L., E-mail: msopori@lrri.org

    2014-01-15

    Sarin is an organophosphate nerve agent that is among the most lethal chemical toxins known to mankind. Because of its vaporization properties and ease and low cost of production, sarin is the nerve agent with a strong potential for use by terrorists and rouge nations. The primary route of sarin exposure is through inhalation and, depending on the dose, sarin leads to acute respiratory failure and death. The mechanism(s) of sarin-induced respiratory failure is poorly understood. Sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholine esterase, leading to excessive synaptic levels of acetylcholine and, we have previously shown that sarin causes marked ventilatory changes including weakened response to hypoxia. We now show that LD{sub 50} sarin inhalation causes severe bronchoconstriction in rats, leading to airway resistance, increased hypoxia-induced factor-1α, and severe lung epithelium injury. Transferring animals into 60% oxygen chambers after sarin exposure improved the survival from about 50% to 75% at 24 h; however, many animals died within hours after removal from the oxygen chambers. On the other hand, if LD{sub 50} sarin-exposed animals were administered the bronchodilator epinephrine, > 90% of the animals survived. Moreover, while both epinephrine and oxygen treatments moderated cardiorespiratory parameters, the proinflammatory cytokine surge, and elevated expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1α, only epinephrine consistently reduced the sarin-induced bronchoconstriction. These data suggest that severe bronchoconstriction is a critical factor in the mortality induced by LD{sub 50} sarin inhalation, and epinephrine may limit the ventilatory, inflammatory, and lethal effects of sarin. - Highlights: • Inhalation exposure of rats to LD{sub 50} sarin causes death through respiratory failure. • Severe bronchoconstriction is the major cause of sarin-induced respiratory failure. • Transfer of sarin exposed rats to 60% oxygen improves the mortality temporarily.

  5. High-dose inhaled salbutamol has no acute effects on aerobic capacity or oxygen uptake kinetics in healthy trained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, J; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Jansen, T

    2012-01-01

    oxygen uptake kinetics. During the incremental test, there were no effects of inhaled salbutamol on VO(2max) in absolute or relative terms, and no effect on peak power and lactate threshold. During the submaximal test, we found no effects on the time constant, time delay, the mean response time or O(2...... enrolled nine healthy well-trained men in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. Subjects were randomized to inhalation of 40 puffs of 0.2 mg salbutamol or two placebo tablets and performed an incremental test to exhaustion and three submaximal tests at 75% of peak power to determine...

  6. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBT

  7. Effects of acute inhalation of aerosols generated during resistance spot welding with mild-steel on pulmonary, vascular and immune responses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Meighan, Terence G.; Erdely, Aaron; Fedan, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, Janet A.; Bilgesu, Suzan; Waugh, Stacey; Anderson, Stacey; Marshall, Nikki B.; Afshari, Aliakbar; McKinney, Walter; Frazer, David G.; Antonini, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Spot welding is used in the automotive and aircraft industries, where high-speed, repetitive welding is needed to join thin sections of metal. Epoxy adhesives are applied as sealers to the metal seams. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation have been reported in spot welders, but no animal toxicology studies exist. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate vascular, immune and lung toxicity measures after exposure to these metal fumes in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation to 25 mg/m3 to either mild-steel spot welding aerosols with sparking (high metal, HM) or without sparking (low metal, LM) for 4 h/d for 3, 8 and 13 d. Shams were exposed to filtered air. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung gene expression and ex vivo BAL cell challenge were performed to assess lung toxicity. Lung resistance (RL) was evaluated before and after challenge with inhaled methacholine (MCh). Functional assessment of the vascular endothelium in isolated rat tail arteries and leukocyte differentiation in the spleen and lymph nodes via flow cytometry was also done. Immediately after exposure, baseline RL was significantly elevated in the LM spot welding aerosols, but returned to control level by 24 h postexposure. Airway reactivity to MCh was unaffected. Lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were mild and transient. Lung epithelial permeability was significantly increased after 3 and 8 d, but not after 13 d of exposure to the HM aerosol. HM aerosols also caused vascular endothelial dysfunction and increased CD4+, CD8+ and B cells in the spleen. Only LM aerosols caused increased IL-6 and MCP-1 levels compared with sham after ex vivo LPS stimulation in BAL macrophages. Acute inhalation of mild-steel spot welding fumes at occupationally relevant concentrations may act as an irritant as evidenced by the increased RL and result in endothelial dysfunction, but otherwise had minor effects on the lung. PMID:25140454

  8. Inhaler technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, M L; Dekhuijzen, P R N; Barnes, P J

    2016-01-01

    of this process: the use of inhalers is bewildering enough, particularly with regular introduction of new drugs, devices and ancillary equipment, without unnecessary and pointless adages. We review the evidence, or lack thereof, underlying ten items of inhaler 'lore' commonly passed on by health professionals...

  9. Comparação do corticoide inalatório e oral no tratamento da disfonia aguda Use of inhaled versus oral steroids for acute dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Moreira Veiga de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A disfonia aguda é um quadro comum na prática clínica. Seu tratamento, principalmente em adultos, não é bem definido na literatura. O corticoide é o tratamento medicamentoso mais recomendado. Os estudos existentes, entretanto, não são suficientes para a determinação da superioridade entre diferentes corticoides e a melhor forma de administração. OBJETIVO: Este estudo clínico prospectivo teve como objetivo comparar o efeito do corticoide inalatório na forma de pó seco com o efeito do corticoide oral, no tratamento da disfonia aguda. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 32 pacientes adultos, divididos em dois grupos de 16 pacientes para cada um dos tratamentos, antes e após sete dias do uso da medicação. Os pacientes foram submetidos à videolaringosocpia e avaliação perceptiva e acústica da voz. RESULTADOS: O tratamento inalatório e oral reduziram significativamente a hiperemia, o edema e melhorou o movimento muco-ondulatório; entretanto, a redução do edema foi estatisticamente mais significativa (p = 0,012 nos pacientes tratados com a forma inalatória. A comparação dos valores da análise perceptiva auditiva e das medidas acústicas após tratamento entre os grupos, entretanto, não apresentou significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: Houve melhora significativa da laringite aguda nas avaliações realizadas, em todos os pacientes estudados, com os dois tratamentos. O tratamento com corticoide inalatório foi significativamente mais efetivo na redução do edema.Acute dysphonia is a frequent condition in clinical practice. Its treatment, especially in adults, is not well established in the literature. Steroids are the most recommended drug treatment. However, the existing studies are not enough to establish superiority among the different steroids and the best route of administration. OBJECTIVE: This prospective clinical study aimed at comparing the effect of inhaling steroids as a dry powder with the effect of oral steroids to

  10. The ADMIT series - Issues in inhalation therapy. 4) How to choose inhaler devices for the treatment of COPD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, W.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Barnes, P.

    2010-01-01

    For patients with COPD, inhalation is the preferred route of administration of respiratory drugs for both maintenance and acute treatment. Numerous inhaler types and devices have been developed, each with their own particularities, advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, published COPD managemen

  11. Duration of Hospitalization in Association with Type of Inhalation Therapy Used in the Management of Children with Nonsevere, Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M. Pinto

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Prolonged hospitalization of children younger than 2 years with acute, nonsevere bronchiolitis is associated with administration of nebulized 3% saline, independent of age, clinical presentation of disease, or inclusion of other treatments in their management.

  12. Comparison of efficacy combination of inhaled phormoterol / budesonide turbuhaler vs. combination of nebulized salbutamol / ipratropium bromide on moderate asthma acute exacerbation in Persahabatan Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Barasila

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare efficacy combination of phormoterol/budesonide turbuhaler vs. salbutamol/ipratropium bromide nebulization. Main therapy for acute asthma is inhaled short acting β2-agonist. Asthma patients are using two drugs, controller and reliever. Recently there is device-containing combination of long-acting β2-agonist with rapid onset and corticosteroid. This combination can act as reliever and controller. An opened randomized clinical trial of 76 patients between the ages of 12 and 60 years presenting to Persahabatan Hospital with asthma score between 8-12 participated in this study. After initial evaluation, patients were divided into two groups. Thirty-eight patients were administered combination of formoterol/budesonide 4.5/160 µg via turbuhaler (T-group every 20 minutes, total of three doses, and another 38 of salbutamol/ipratropium bromide 2.5/0.25 mg via nebulizer (N-group also with the same manner. There were no statistical difference in sex, mean age, high, weight, initial PEFR, and asthma score between two groups. The significant increased of PEFR and decreased of asthma score were observed in both groups. However, there were no significant difference of PEFR and asthma score between the two groups within every time-interval. Adverse events were mild including hoarseness, tremor and palpitation. Of T-group, 1 subject was suffered from 3 adverse events simultaneously (hoarseness, tremor and palpitation, 5 subjects were only tremor. Of N-group, all 6 subjects were only suffered from tremor. A combination of formoterol/budesonide turbuhaler and a combination of nebulized salbutamol/ipratropium bromide are clinically equivalent for treatment moderate acute asthma. However, nebulized salbutamol/ipratropium bromide had less adverse effects. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:34-42Keywords: phormoterol, budesonide, salbutamol, ipratropium bromide, acute asthma

  13. Chest radiographic and CT features of acute inhaled mercury poisoning%急性吸入性汞中毒胸部X线及CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze chest radiographic and CT features of acute inhaled mercury poisoning. Methods 23 cases with high concentration of mercury vapour inhaled acutely were included in this study. Among them, 81 cases underwent chest radio-graphics (61 times) and 11 cases underwent CT scanning(17 times). Radiographic and CT features were analysed. Results Chest radiographs showed pneumonia in 10 cases, the lesions appeared as multiple and scattered patchy high density in bilateral lung field with obscure border, and 3 cases combined with emphysema. There were 7 cases of interstitial pneumonia, radiographs showed lung markings increased and disorder, patchy, strip and gridding high dense shadows. 6 cases had toxic bubble pulmonary edema, which presented as large patchy dense shadows, and 4 cases of interstitial pulmonary edema, K's A,B lines were seen. On CT images, pneumonia appeared as multiple and scattered patchy shadows in bilateral lung field with bullous emphysemas which were low dense thin-wall bubbly shadows. Interstitial pneumonia appeared as lung weight lung markings in creased and blurred, resulted in massive, stripe net-like dense shadows with exudative changes around the lesions. Bullous pulmonary edema appeared as large patchy or butterfly wing-like dense shadow with undefinitive borders. Conclusion The chest X-ray and CT manifestations arc of certain characteristics in acute inhalation of mercury-induced pneumonia, combined with the clinical history and laboratory examination the diagnosis may be done.%目的 分析急性吸入性汞中毒性肺炎胸部X线及CT表现.方法 23例急性吸入性汞中毒患者,拍摄胸部平片61次,其中11例行胸部CT扫描17次,分析其X线及CT表现.结果 23例入院时X线片示汞毒性实质性肺炎10例,表现为双肺野多发片状密度增高影,边缘模糊,散在分布,3例伴有泡性肺气肿.汞毒性肺间质性炎症7例,表现为肺纹理增重模糊及紊乱,呈

  14. Inhalational Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kowsarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become apparent several years after exposure to the particles. However, for certain types of dusts, e.g., silicone dioxide crystal and beryllium, heavy exposure within a short period can cause an acute disease. Pulmonary involvement in asbestosis is usually in the lower lobes. On the contrary, in silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis, the upper lobes are involved predominantly. For imaging evaluation of pneumoconiosis, high-resolution computed tomography (CT is superior to conventional chest x-ray. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan are helpful in those with suspected tumoral lesions. In this essay, we reviewed the imaging aspects of inhalational lung disease.

  15. The Association of Inbreeding With Lung Fibrosis Incidence in Beagle Dogs That Inhaled 238PuO2 or 239PuO2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brigantic, Andrea M.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-09-12

    Studies of health effects in animals after exposure to internally deposited radionuclides were intended to supplement observational studies in humans. Both nuclear workers and Beagle dogs have exhibited plutonium associated lung fibrosis; however, the dogs smaller gene pool may limit the applicability of findings to humans. Data on Beagles that inhaled either plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2) or plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) were analyzed. Wright's Coefficient of Inbreeding was used to measure genetic or familial susceptibility and was assessed as an explanatory variable when modeling the association between lung fibrosis incidence and plutonium exposure. Lung fibrosis was diagnosed in approximately 80% of the exposed dogs compared with 23.7% of the control dogs. The maximum degree of inbreeding was 9.4%. Regardless of isotope, the addition of inbreeding significantly improved the model in female dogs but not in males. In female dogs an increased inbreeding coefficient predicted decreased hazard of a lung fibrosis diagnosis. Lung fibrosis was common in these dogs with inbreeding affecting models of lung fibrosis incidence in females but not in males. The apparent protective effect in females predicted by these models of lung fibrosis incidence is likely to be minimal given the small degree of inbreeding in these groups.

  16. Acute inhalation toxicity evaluation of a 93:7 mixture of perfluoro-2-butene and 1-bromopropane, a replacement candidate for ozone depleting substances. Interim report, July--August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, M.L.; Leahy, H.F.; Vinegar, A.

    1997-10-01

    The DoD requires the development of toxicity profiles for chemical substitute candidates proposed to replace ozone depleting substances such as chloro- and fluorocarbons and halons. A 93:7 mixture of perfluoro-2-butene and 1-bromopropane was identified as a possible replacement candidate for ozone-depleting fire extinguishants. An acute inhalation toxicity test utilizing male and female Fischer 344 rats was performed on this test material. No deaths occurred in any of the rats exposed to 5.3 mg/L of the 93:7 perfluoro-2-butene and 1-bromopropane mixture. Body weights of male and female rats during the subsequent 14-day observation period were unaffected by treatment. The test material did not produce acute toxicity via the inhalation route.

  17. Acute inhalation of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane alters visual evoked potentials and signal detection behaviour of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The volatile organic compound 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP, “isooctane”) is a primary constituent of gasoline for which the current health effects data are insufficient to permit EPA to conduct a risk assessment. We evaluated potential neurological impairment from acute inhalati...

  18. Effect of (sub) acute inhalation of coal fly ash on metabolic defense capability of the rat lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree L van; Verhoef MA; Bos J; Rombout PJA

    1989-01-01

    Veranderingen in het pulmonale metabole afweersysteem na acute en subacute blootstelling aan vliegas aerosol zijn onderzocht in de rat. Hierbij zijn zowel effecten op antioxidant enzymen als op enzymen betrokken bij het metabolisme van lichaamsvreemde stoffen bestudeerd. Expositie aan 250 mg/m3

  19. Inhaled aerosolized insulin ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory responses in the lungs in an experimental model of acute lung injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei; Nakazawa, Koichi; Abe, Shinya; Inoue, Miori; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Makita, Koshi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that patients with diabetes mellitus appear to have a lower prevalence of acute lung injury. We assumed that insulin prescribed to patients with diabetes has an anti-inflammatory property and pulmonary administration of insulin might exert beneficial effects much more than intravenous administration. Methods Twenty-eight mechanically ventilated rabbits underwent lung injury by saline lavage, and then the animals were allocated into a normoglycemia grou...

  20. Effects of inhaled iloprost on right ventricular contractility, right ventriculo-vascular coupling and ventricular interdependence: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in an experimental model of acute pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Steffen; Missant, Carlo; Claus, Piet; Buhre, Wolfgang; Wouters, Patrick F

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Prostacyclin inhalation is increasingly used to treat acute pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure, although its pharmacodynamic properties remain controversial. Prostacyclins not only affect vasomotor tone but may also have cAMP-mediated positive inotropic effects and modulate autonomic nervous system tone. We studied the role of these different mechanisms in the overall haemodynamic effects produced by iloprost inhalation in an experimental model of acute pulmonary hypertension. Methods In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled animal study, twenty-six pigs (mean weight 35 ± 2 kg) were instrumented with biventricular conductance catheters, a pulmonary artery flow probe and a high-fidelity pulmonary artery pressure catheter. The effects of inhaled iloprost (50 μg) were studied in the following groups: animals with acute hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, and healthy animals with and without blockade of the autonomic nervous system. Results During pulmonary hypertension, inhalation of iloprost resulted in a 51% increase in cardiac output compared with placebo (5.6 ± 0.7 versus 3.7 ± 0.8 l/minute; P = 0.0013), a selective reduction in right ventricular afterload (effective pulmonary arterial elastance: 0.6 ± 0.3 versus 1.2 ± 0.5 mmHg/ml; P = 0.0005) and a significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (91 ± 12 versus 70 ± 20 ml; P = 0.006). Interestingly, right ventricular contractility was reduced after iloprost-treatment (slope of preload recruitable stroke work: 2.2 ± 0.5 versus 3.4 ± 0.8 mWatt·s/ml; P = 0.0002), whereas ventriculo-vascular coupling remained essentially preserved (ratio of right ventricular end-systolic elastance to effective pulmonary arterial elastance: 0.97 ± 0.33 versus 1.03 ± 0.15). In healthy animals, inhaled iloprost had only minimal haemodynamic effects and produced no direct effects on myocardial contractility, even after pharmacological blockade of the autonomic

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in acute stage ischemic cerebrovascular disease by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki (Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-03-01

    During the period from February 1984 through June 1985, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with xenon-133 inhalation method has been performed for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during the first 48 hours of onset of cerebral infarction (n=71) and transient ischemic attack (n=21). X-ray CT (CT) and carotid arteriography were concurrently performed in all the patients. In repeated studies performed for 15 normal volunteers, rCBF measurement by SPECT was found reproducible. Mean values of rCBF for the right and left cerebral hemispheres were 60.3{plus minus}6.52 and 61.8{plus minus}6.91 ml/100 g/min, respectively. For cerebral infarction, ischemic foci corresponding to clinical symptoms were detected more frequently on SPECT than on CT (93% vs 63%). In all of the evaluable 35 patients with cerebral infarction, rCBF within the first 8 hours of onset was decreased: 31.0 ml/100 g/min for the internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and 36.0 ml/100 g/min for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis was observed in 50% (9/18) for ICA occlusion and 37% (14/38) for MCA occlusion. For transient ischemic attack, there was no significant difference in the detection of ischemic foci between SPECT and CT (38% vs 43%). In detecting small foci especially in the deep regions such as the basal ganglia, SPECT was inferior to CT. Mean rCBF for transient ischemic attack tended to be lower than the normal rCBF (50.7 ml/100 g/min for the right cerebral hemisphere and 50.6 ml/100 g/min for the left cerebral hemisphere). SPECT may aid in predicting prognosis and chosing treatment strategy, as well as in determining cerebral hemodynamics. (N.K.).

  2. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K; Rezk, Peter E; Katos, Alexander M; Wajda, Nikolai A; Moran, Theodore S; Steele, Keith E; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2007-03-01

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m(3) of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure.

  3. Acute toxic effects of nerve agent VX on respiratory dynamics and functions following microinsillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Peter E; Graham, Jacob R; Moran, Theodore S; Gordon, Richard K; Sciuto, Alfred M; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2007-03-01

    Exposure to a chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) leads to severe respiratory distress, respiratory failure, or death if not treated. We investigated the toxic effects of nerve agent VX on the respiratory dynamics of guinea pigs following exposure to 90.4 mug/m3 of VX or saline by microinstillation inhalation technology for 10 min. Respiratory parameters were monitored by whole-body barometric plethysmography at 4, 24, and 48 h, 7 d, 18 d, and 4 wk after VX exposure. VX-exposed animals showed a significant decrease in the respiratory frequency (RF) at 24 and 48 h of recovery (p value .0329 and .0142, respectively) compared to the saline control. The tidal volume (TV) slightly increased in VX exposed animals at 24 and significantly at 48 h (p = .02) postexposure. Minute ventilation (MV) increased slightly at 4 h but was reduced at 24 h and remained unchanged at 48 h. Animals exposed to VX also showed an increase in expiratory (Te) and relaxation time (RT) at 24 and 48 h and a small reduction in inspiratory time (Ti) at 24 h. A significant increase in end expiratory pause (EEP) was observed at 48 h after VX exposure (p = .049). The pseudo lung resistance (Penh) was significantly increased at 4 h after VX exposure and remained slightly high even at 48 h. Time-course studies reveal that most of the altered respiratory dynamics returned to normal at 7 d after VX exposure except for EEP, which was high at 7 d and returned to normal at 18 d postexposure. After 1 mo, all the monitored respiratory parameters were within normal ranges. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 1 mo after exposure showed virtually no difference in protein levels, cholinesterase levels, cell number, and cell death in the exposed and control animals. These results indicate that sublethal concentrations of VX induce changes in respiratory dynamics and functions that over time return to normal levels.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow in acute stage with ischemic cerebrovascular disease by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Iino, Katsuro; Kojima, Hisashi; Saito, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Mikio; Watanabe, Kazuo; Kato, Toshiro

    1987-05-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with xenon-133 inhalation method was undertaken within 48 hr after the onset in 68 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The results for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were compared with concurrently available computed tomography (CT) scans. In patients with cerebral infarction, SPECT detected ischemic lesions earlier than CT, with the detectability being 92 %. The area with a decreased blood flow, as seen on SPECT, was more extensive than the low density area on CT, with a concomitant decrease in blood flow in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis was associated with stenosis of the internal carotid artery in 50 % (7/14), and with stenosis of the middle cerebral artery in 35 % (9/26). Abnormal SPECT findings were seen in 47 % (8/17) of the patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Five TIA patients had a decreased rCBF on SPECT, which was not provided by CT scans. On the contrary, small infarct lesions in the cerebral basal ganglia, as observed in 4 patients, was not detected by SPECT, but detected by CT. This may imply the limitations of SPECT in the detection of deep-seated lesions of the cerebrum. The results led to the conclusion that SPECT can be performed safely even in acute, seriously ill patients to know changes in rCBF because it is noninvasive and is capable of being repeated in a short time. (Namekawa, K.).

  5. Determination of pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI) prepolymers by bronchoalveolar lavage in acute rat inhalation studies according to TRGS 430.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Hock, L; Gamer, A O; Deckardt, K; Leibold, E; van Ravenzwaay, B

    2007-02-01

    Pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations of two hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI)-based prepolymers (I: polymeric emulsfier modified and II: oligomeric allophanate modified) were determined in acute inhalation studies according to TRGS 430 (Dangerous Substances Technical Rule, isocyanates, Germany), based on benchmark extrapolation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total protein. It was also investigated if the method is robust enough to be transferred to an independent laboratory. Five male Wistar rats per group were exposed nose-only to the test substances as liquid aerosols to concentrations of 0, 0.5, 3, 15 mg/m(3) for both test substances with an additional test group at 50 mg/m(3) for test substance I. The duration of the exposure was 6h, followed by serial sacrifices 1 day, 3 days and 7 days post exposure. BALF was analyzed for biochemical and cytological markers indicative for injury of the bronchoalveolar region. The exposure of rats to test substance I and II caused dose depended lung irritation with BALF total protein concentration being the most sensitive indicator of pulmonary effects. The extrapolated no observed adverse effect level of test substance I was 1.1 mg/m(3) and that of test substance II 2.3 mg/m(3). The acute pulmonary irritant threshold concentrations were found to be similar to those reported by [Pauluhn, J., 2004. Pulmonary irritant potency of polyisocyanate aerosols in rats: comparative assessment of irritant threshold concentrations by bronchoalveolar lavage. J. Appl. Toxicol. 24, 231-247] for HDI-homopolymers and other HDI-based polyisocyanates, and were at least 30 times higher than the MAK (occupational exposure limit) value for the HDI monomer (0.035 mg/m(3)). Thus the EBW (exposure assessment value) for these two HDI-based prepolymers can be established at 10x MAK, i.e. at 0.35 mg/m(3).

  6. Acute right heart failure after hemorrhagic shock and trauma pneumonectomy-a management approach: A blinded randomized controlled animal trial using inhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Andrea L; Sjoholm, Lars O; Goldberg, Amy; Pathak, Abhijit; Santora, Thomas; Sharp, Thomas E; Wallner, Markus; Berretta, Remus M; Poole, Lauren A; Wu, Jichuan; Wolfson, Marla R

    2017-02-01

    Hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy causes an acute increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The increase in PVR and right ventricular (RV) afterload leads to acute RV failure, thus reducing left ventricular (LV) preload and output. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) lowers PVR by relaxing pulmonary arterial smooth muscle without remarkable systemic vascular effects. We hypothesized that with hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy, iNO can be used to decrease PVR and mitigate right heart failure. A hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy model was developed using sheep. Sheep received lung protective ventilatory support and were instrumented to serially obtain measurements of hemodynamics, gas exchange, and blood chemistry. Heart function was assessed with echocardiography. After randomization to study gas of iNO 20 ppm (n = 9) or nitrogen as placebo (n = 9), baseline measurements were obtained. Hemorrhagic shock was initiated by exsanguination to a target of 50% of the baseline mean arterial pressure. The resuscitation phase was initiated, consisting of simultaneous left pulmonary hilum ligation, via median sternotomy, infusion of autologous blood and initiation of study gas. Animals were monitored for 4 hours. All animals had an initial increase in PVR. PVR remained elevated with placebo; with iNO, PVR decreased to baseline. Echo showed improved RV function in the iNO group while it remained impaired in the placebo group. After an initial increase in shunt and lactate and decrease in SvO2, all returned toward baseline in the iNO group but remained abnormal in the placebo group. These data indicate that by decreasing PVR, iNO decreased RV afterload, preserved RV and LV function, and tissue oxygenation in this hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy model. This suggests that iNO may be a useful clinical adjunct to mitigate right heart failure and improve survival when trauma pneumonectomy is required.

  7. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T; Halappanavar, Sabina; Folkmann, Janne K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute...... analyzed liver tissue from these mice using high density DNA microarrays. Globally, 28 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in response to DEP or CB. The mRNA expression of three of the genes (serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade A, member 3C, apolipoprotein E...

  8. Deposition, clearance, and shortening of Kevlar para-aramid fibrils in acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D P; Merriman, E A; Kennedy, G L; Lee, K P

    1993-10-01

    The deposition and clearance of lung-deposited Kevlar para-aramid fibrils (subfibers) have been investigated as part of a subchronic and chronic inhalation toxicity testing program. Fibrils recovered from lung tissue in para-aramid-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats were microscopically counted and measured after exposures to airborne fibrils which were about 12 microns median length (ML) and < 0.3 micron median diameter. In each of three studies lung-recovered fibrils were progressively shorter with increasing residence time in the lungs. Twenty-eight days after a single 6-hr exposure at 400 respirable fibrils per cubic centimeter (f/cm3) the ML of recovered fibrils decreased to about 5 microns. Twenty-four months after a 3-week exposure to 25 or 400 f/cm3, fibrils reached about 2 microns ML. After 2 years of continuous exposure at 2.5, 25, or 100 f/cm3 or 1 year exposure plus 1 year recovery at 400 f/cm3, fibril ML approached 4 microns. In the 2-year study, the lung-fiber accumulation rate/exposure concentration was similar for the three highest concentrations and was about 3 x greater than that seen at 2.5 f/cm3, indicating that concentrations of about 25 f/cm3 or more may overwhelm clearance mechanisms. Time required for fibrils to be reduced to < 5 microns in the lung was markedly less at lower exposure concentration and shorter exposure time. The primary shortening mechanism is proposed to be long fibril cutting by enzymatic attack at fibril defects. However, length-selective fibril deposition and clearance may contribute to shortening in the first few days after exposure. The enzymatic cutting hypothesis is supported by measured increases in numbers of short fibers following cessation of exposures, continued shortening of the fibril length distribution up to 2 years following exposure, and in vitro fibril shortening after 3 months in a proteolytic enzyme preparation. The conclusion is that para-aramid fibrils are less durable in the lungs of rats than expected from

  9. Study progress on mechanisms of seawater inhalation induced acute respiratory distress syndrome%海水吸入型急性呼吸窘迫综合征发病机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞璇; 马李杰; 金发光

    2016-01-01

    Drowning is the third accidental death cause in the world,more importantly,it is also the second leading cause of accidental death for children.Seawater inhalation would result in seawater inhalation induced acute respiratory distress syndrome(SW-ARDS)with a high mortality if the condition was not treated reasonably.Continuous evidences have indicated that pulmonary edema,inflammation in lung,metabolic disorder of lung tissue cells,cell apoptosis and autophagy participate in the occurrence and development of SW-ARDS.The article reviews the mechanisms of SW-ARDS.%淹溺在全球意外伤害中排名第三,且是儿童意外死亡的第二大原因。海水吸入后,若未能合理救治可发展为海水吸入型急性呼吸窘迫综合征(seawater inhalation induced acute respiratory distress syndrome,SW-ARDS),病死率极高。大量研究表明,肺组织水肿、肺部炎症反应、肺组织细胞代谢紊乱、细胞凋亡及自噬等参与 SW-ARDS 的发生和发展,现将有关发病机制作一综述。

  10. Inhaled Corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Barnes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are the most effective controllers of asthma. They suppress inflammation mainly by switching off multiple activated inflammatory genes through reversing histone acetylation via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2. Through suppression of airway inflammation ICS reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and control asthma symptoms. ICS are now first-line therapy for all patients with persistent asthma, controlling asthma symptoms and preventing exacerbations. Inhaled long-acting β2-agonists added to ICS further improve asthma control and are commonly given as combination inhalers, which improve compliance and control asthma at lower doses of corticosteroids. By contrast, ICS provide much less clinical benefit in COPD and the inflammation is resistant to the action of corticosteroids. This appears to be due to a reduction in HDAC2 activity and expression as a result of oxidative stress. ICS are added to bronchodilators in patients with severe COPD to reduce exacerbations. ICS, which are absorbed from the lungs into the systemic circulation, have negligible systemic side effects at the doses most patients require, although the high doses used in COPD has some systemic side effects and increases the risk of developing pneumonia.

  11. Protection by Inhaled Hydrogen Therapy in a Rat Model of Acute Lung Injury Can be Tracked in vivo Using Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Said H; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Zhang, Xiao; Camara, Amadou K S; Zhao, Ming; Medhora, Meetha M; Rizzo, Benjamin; Clough, Anne V

    2017-04-11

    Inhaled hydrogen gas (H2) provides protection in rat models of human acute lung injury (ALI). We previously reported that biomarker imaging can detect oxidative stress and endothelial cell death in vivo in a rat model of ALI. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HMPAO) and Tc-duramycin to track the effectiveness of H2 therapy in vivo in the hyperoxia rat model of ALI. Rats were exposed to room air (normoxia), 98% O2 + 2% N2 (hyperoxia) or 98% O2 + 2% H2 (hyperoxia+H2) for up to 60 hrs. In vivo scintigraphy images were acquired following injection of Tc-HMPAO or Tc-duramycin. For hyperoxia rats, Tc-HMPAO and Tc-duramycin lung uptake increased in a time-dependent manner, reaching a maximum increase of 270% and 150% at 60 hrs, respectively. These increases were reduced to 120% and 70%, respectively, in hyperoxia+H2 rats. Hyperoxia exposure increased glutathione content in lung homogenate (36%) more than hyperoxia+H2 (21%), consistent with increases measured in Tc-HMPAO lung uptake. In 60-hr hyperoxia rats, pleural effusion, which was undetectable in normoxia rats, averaged 9.3 gram/rat, and lung tissue 3-nitrotyrosine expression increased by 790%. Increases were reduced by 69% and 59%, respectively, in 60-hr hyperoxia+H2 rats. This study detects and tracks the anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of H2 therapy in vivo after as early as 24 hrs of hyperoxia exposure. The results suggest the potential utility of these SPECT biomarkers for in vivo assessment of key cellular pathways in the pathogenesis of ALI and for monitoring responses to therapies.

  12. Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome after smoke inhalation and cell stress%烟雾吸人性急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征与细胞应激

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜毅; 韩志海; 段蕴铀

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome after smoke inhalation is the major cause of death in the fire victims.The mechanisms are still not so clear.Recent studies show that this severe lung injury syndrome is related to cell stress.When smoke is inhaled,stresses such as heat shock begin earlier and make different kinds of heat shock proteins,oxidative stress induces the expression of various enzymes and reactive oxygen species,while hypoxia stress induces hypoxia-inducible factors.The biological significance of such stress proteins is the increased resistance against further perturbations of cell homeostasis,and thus,enhanced survival.However,when stress is persistent or cellular functions are severely impaired,apoptotic pathways are activated to protect the organism by eliminating the damaged cells.%烟雾吸人性急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征是火灾后患者的最主要死亡原因,其发病机制仍未完全清楚,近年来的研究发现其同细胞应激反应关系密切.其中热应激最早发生,产生各种热休克蛋白;氧化应激可诱导各种酶类及氧自由基的产生及释放;缺氧性应激可产生缺氧诱导因子.这些应激蛋白的产生可以提高细胞抗应激能力,维持细胞的稳态以利细胞在应激条件下生存,但若应激过强过久则诱导损伤细胞的凋亡来保护机体.本文就近年来烟雾吸人性急性肺损伤/急性呼吸窘迫综合征的研究与细胞应激的相关联系作一阐述.

  13. Ultrasonic atomizing inhalation nursing effect evaluation oftreatment of children with acute pneumonia%超声雾化吸入治疗小儿急性肺炎的护理效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑞霞; 王琰琰; 陈维秀

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nursing effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation therapy in children with acute pneumonia.Methods the ultra-sonic aerosol inhalation in treatment of 25 cases of pediatric patients as the research object,given nursing measures,effect of nursing.Results 25 cases after ul-trasonic atomization inhalation treatment and careful nursing,15 cases were cured,9 cases effective,1 cases ineffective,the total effective rate of the treatment was 96%.Conclusion in children with acute pneumonia inhalation therapy to give effective nursing measures can effectively improve the therapeutic effect.%目的:评价超声雾化吸入治疗小儿急性肺炎的护理效果。方法以行超声雾化吸入治疗的小儿患儿25例为研究对象,给予护理措施,研究护理效果。结果本组25例患儿经过超声雾化吸入治疗和精心的护理后,治愈15例,有效9例,无效1例,总的治疗有效率为96.0%。结论在小儿急性肺炎超声雾化吸入治疗中给予有效的护理措施能有效提高治疗效果。

  14. Delayed acute toxicity of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD), after oral administration, Obeys Haber's rule of inhalation toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, K K

    1999-05-01

    Eight different doses (2.5 to 10.0 mg/kg) of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD) were administered acutely to a total of 272 female Sprague-Dawley rats. The doses ranged from a NOAEL for wasting/hemorrhage to supralethal doses. Dose- and time-responses of wasting/hemorrhage, anemia, and cancer were and are being studied as end points of toxicity. The experiments will be continued until the last rat dies. There was a very steep dose- and time-response between the LOAEL for wasting/hemorrhage (2.8 mg/kg) and the third highest dose (4.1 mg/kg) of HpCDD. The dose-and time-responses were nearly symmetrical, obeying Haber's Rule of inhalation toxicology (c x t = constant) even beyond 100% mortality. Introduction of a minimum of 25% body weight loss as a discriminatory criterion to separate wasting from hemorrhage as the primary cause of death reduced variability from 5.8 to 3.2%. An arithmetic plot of the dose and time data resulted in a nearly perfect hyperbola. A logarithmic plot of these data yielded a straight line of similar perfection. Dose-response data at constant times illustrate the shifting of the dose-response curve towards a liminal value, which represents the necessary observation period for this effect. Time-response data at constant doses demonstrate the shifting of the time-response curve towards a liminal value, which represents the LOAEL for the dose-response of this effect. A three-dimensional plot of dose- and time-response data depicts the surface area on which c x t is constant along hyperbolas, in terms of wasting as the end point of toxicity. Surviving rats in all groups started developing anemia 126 days after dosing, but no rat died of wasting/hemorrhage after day 74. Rats surviving anemia began to die of lung cancer as of day 397 after dosing. Thus, although the experiment has been completed as far as dose- and time-responses of wasting/hemorrhage are concerned, it will be about another 2 years before complete dose and time

  15. Substance use -- inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rags or toilet paper soaked with the chemical. Effects of Inhalants on the Brain When inhaled, the chemicals are absorbed by the ... to replace the ones that involved inhalant use. Exercise and eat healthy ... the harmful effects of inhalants. Avoid triggers. These triggers can be ...

  16. OBSERVATION OF THE EFFECTS OF INHALATION INTERVENTION ON COPD IN ACUTE EXACERBATION PERIOD%COPD急性加重期雾化吸入干预效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江桂林; 王统梅; 孙晓敏

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effects of inhalation intervention on COPD in acute exacerbation period. [Methods] 80 patients diagnosed with acute exacerbation of COPD were randomly divided into the observation group of 40 patients and the control group of 40 patients. The control group was taken with conventional inhalation method. The observation group was taken with interventions based on the control group. The degree and incidence of adverse reactions of inhalation in the two groups were compared. [Results] The changes of coughing, wheezing, pulmonary tale in the observation group were better than in the control group. The adverse reactions such as tremor, irritable cough, palpitations, shortness of breath, wheezing, etc. In the observation group were significantly lower than in the control group.[Conclusion] The intervention of the inhalation for acute exacerbation of COPD significantly improve patients' compliance, tolerability, as soon as possible to relieve symptoms, reduce adverse drag reactions, reduce COPD mortality.%[目的]探讨COPD急性加重期雾化吸入干预效果.[方法]将80例确诊为COPD急性加重期的患者随机分为观察组和对照组各40例,对照组雾化吸入采用常规方法,观察组在此基础上增加干预措施,比较两组患者雾化吸入的配合度及不良反应发生率.[结果]两组患者在咳嗽、喘息、肺部啰音变化方面,观察组疗效优于对照组;两组患者的不良反应中震颤、刺激性咳嗽、心悸气短、喘息等,观察组明显低干对照组.[结论]COPD急性加重期雾化吸入干预明显地提高患者对雾化吸入的依从性、耐受性,尽快缓解症状、减轻药物的不良反应,有效降低COPD的死亡率.

  17. Óxido nítrico inalatório para crianças com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo Inhaled nitric oxide for children with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Fioretto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O objetivo desse estudo foi rever a literatura sobre a utilização de óxido nítrico inalatório em crianças com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. CONTEÚDO: Revisão bibliográfica e seleção de publicações mais relevantes sobre óxido nítrico inalatório, utilizando a base de dados MedLine e Cochrane de Revisões Sistemáticas. A revisão incluiu descrição de aspectos da definição, fisiopatologia e tratamento ventilatório da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, assim como o metabolismo, efeitos biológicos e aplicação clínica do óxido nítrico inalatório, comentando dose, administração e retirada do gás, precações, efeitos adversos e contra-indicações. CONCLUSÕES: O óxido nítrico, vasodilatador pulmonar seletivo, tem efeitos benéficos sobre as trocas gasosas e ventilação em crianças com hipóxia grave. É seguro quando administrado em ambiente de tratamento intensivo sob rigorosa monitorização. Estudos aleatórios e controlados devem enfocar a administração precoce do gás na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, quando essa é potencialmente reversível.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the literature on inhaled nitric oxide to children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONTENTS: A review of literature and selection of the most important publications on inhaled nitric oxide, using the MedLine and Cochrane Systematic Review Databases. This review was organized as follows: introduction; metabolism and biological effects; clinical applications; dosage, gas administration and weaning process; warnings and side-effects. Inhaled nitric oxide use was described in acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled nitric oxide as the first vasodilator to produce selective pulmonary vasodilation has beneficial effects on gas exchange and ventilation, improving outcome in children with severe hypoxia. It is safe

  18. Broncodilatadores en la crisis asmática: ¿Aerosol o nebulización? Bronchodilators in acute asthma: metered dose inhalers or wet nebulizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Lombardi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El número de consultas por asma aguda en el Hospital María Ferrer ha aumentado de 3300 consultas anuales en 1980 a 15364 en 2002. Los broncodilatadores de acción corta (salbutamol-ipratropio en nebulizaciones, procedimiento que consume tiempo y recursos humanos, eran el tratamiento inicial en 2002. Para tratar de mejorar el cumplimiento del tratamiento frente al aumento de la demanda, se reemplazaron las nebulizaciones por aerosoles dosificadores. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el impacto de este cambio. Comparamos 90 pacientes con crisis asmática tratados con aerosoles en diciembre del 2003 con igual número tratados con nebulizaciones en diciembre del 2002 pareados por sexo, edad, altura, VEF1 teórico y de ingreso. Con aerosoles se observó una reducción significativa del tiempo de permanencia en el Departamento de Emergencia (mediana 3 h (2-4.75 versus 4 h (1-6 p=0.01 y un número mayor de altas en las primeras 2 horas (48% vs. 31% p=0.03. Los pacientes tratados con aerosol recibieron el 87% de las dosis prescriptas, mientras que el otro grupo recibió sólo el 38%. El VEF1 mostró una tendencia a ser mayor al egreso en el grupo que recibió aerosoles, pero la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (78% ± 17% vs. 73% ± 17% p=0.09. El porcentaje de alta final fue similar en los dos grupos (96% vs. 93%. El tratamiento con aerosoles produjo una mejoría más rápida y mejor cumplimiento de las normas de tratamiento indicadas.The number of patients attending our Emergency Department (ED with acute asthma has increased from 3300 patient/year in 1980 to 15364 in 2003. Short acting bronchodilators (albuterol/ipratropium administered in wet nebulizations, a resource consuming procedure, were our main initial treatment in 2002. To improve treatment goals, we switched the method of bronchodilator delivery to metered dose inhalers (MDI in 2003. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of this change in the

  19. Method for Examining Acute Inhalation Toxicity of 44 Species of Indoor Coating%44种室内装潢涂料急性吸入毒性及检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红; 周永贵; 李真观

    2001-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to establish a method for assessment of acute inhalation toxicity of coating,to explore the related factors affecting the toxicity of indoor coating,and to provide the technical basis for the safety and hygiene quality management of indoor coating. [Methods] The acute inhalation toxicity and total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) were identified for 44 species in 6 categories of indoor coating,verifying the method of the measurement and assessment. [Results] The 44 species of indoor coating were classified according to both the acute inhalation toxicity and respiratory tract irritation,the aqueous coating such as emulsion paint etc belongs to class 0,the most of organic solvent coating to class Ⅱ or Ⅲ,and a few to Ⅳ. The certain kinds of coating can cause the damage of respiratory tract and lung tissue in degree from Ⅰ to Ⅱ in animal. The significant positive association was seen among the acute inhalation toxicity,respiratory tract irritation and the TVOC value of the coating. [Conclusion] Toxicity of the organic solvent coating is higher than that of the aqueous coating,and was related to the TVOC values. The toxicity of different kinds of coating can be efficiently identified by the acute inhalation toxicity classification and pathological findings described in this paper.%[目的] 建立涂料急性吸入毒性检测方法和评价标准,探讨影响室内装潢涂料毒性的有关因素,为室内装潢涂料安全卫生质量的管理提供技术依据。 [方法] 通过44种室内装潢涂料急性吸入毒性和总挥发性有机物(TVOC)含量的测试,验证上述测试及评价方法的科学性和可行性。 [结果] 检测了6大类44种涂料,其中乳胶漆等水性涂料急性吸入毒性和呼吸道刺激性均为0级;溶剂型涂料急性吸入毒性大多在Ⅱ至Ⅲ级,个别达到Ⅳ级,并引起实验动物呼吸道和肺组织Ⅰ~Ⅱ级损伤。涂料的急性

  20. 沙丁胺醇经气动雾化吸入法和超声雾化吸入法治疗支气管哮喘急性发作期的效果比较%The curative effect comparison of salbutamol by pneumatic atomization inhalation and ultrasonic atomizing inhalation in treatment of acute at-tack of bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永平; 阙伟东; 叶定村

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究气动雾化吸入和超声雾化吸入沙丁胺醇治疗支气管哮喘急性发作期的效果差异。方法选取本院2011年7月~2014年5月80例支气管哮喘急性发作期患者为研究对象,抽签随机分为观察组与对照组各40例,观察组采用沙丁胺醇经气动雾化吸入治疗,对照组采用超声雾化吸入法治疗,比较两组患者的康复时间指标及疗效。结果观察组咳嗽、气喘、肺部啰音、喘鸣音缓解时间分别为(4.31±1.15)、(3.87±1.42)、(6.30±1.78)、(4.18±1.62)d,显著短于对照组的(6.21±1.44)、(5.63±1.66)、(8.33±2.61)、(6.33±1.78)d,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组总有效率为90.00%,高于对照组的67.50%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论沙丁胺醇经气动雾化吸入法治疗支气管哮喘急性发作期的症状改善及临床疗效均优于超声雾化吸入法,具有较高的临床应用价值。%Objective To study the curative effect of pneumatic nebulization inhalation and ultrasonic atomizing inhala-tion of salbutamol in treatment of acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma. Methods 80 cases of patients with acute at-tack of bronchial asthma in our hospital from July 2011 to May 2014 were selected,and were randomly divided into ob-servation group and control group,40 cases of each group,the observation group adopted by pneumatic atomizing inhala-tion of salbutamol inhalation therapy,the control group adopted by ultrasonic atomization.The efficacy and rehabilitation time index of two groups was compared. Results In observation group,cough,asthma,pulmonary rales,wheezing sound re-mission time was (4.31±1.15) d,(3.87±1.42) d,(6.30±1.78) d,(4.18±1.62) d,was shorter than (6.21±1.44) d,(5.63±1.66) d, (8.33±2.61) d,(6.33±1.78) d of control group respectively,the difference was significant (P<0.05).The total effective rate of observation group was 90.00%,higher than 67.50%of control group,the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclu

  1. Advanced disposal systems for transuranic waste: Preliminary disposal criteria for Plutonium-239 at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide ''greater confinement'' than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth.

  2. Ultrasensitive detection and dose reconstruction for plutonium-239 through fission track analysis of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahenbuhl, Melinda Pearl

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation addresses a number of deficiencies in currently used Fission Track Analysis (FTA) methodology and introduces improvements to make FTA a more reliable research tool. The refined methodology, described herein, includes a chemically-induced precipitation phase followed by anion exchange chromatography and employs a chemical tracer, Plutonium236 (Pu236). An inverse correlation between Pu recovery and sample volume has been established, and tests confirm that larger sample volumes do not result in higher accuracy or lower detection limits. Subsequently, the optimal sample volume is determined to be approximately 2 liters and the detection limit for this volume is established at 2.8 muBq/L (76 aCi/L). In comparison, the detection limits of two alternate methodologies are 2 muBq (at Brookhaven National Lab) and 3.2 muBq (at the University Hospital in Lund, Sweden). A comparative review evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of these methodologies by comparing pivotal aspects of each laboratory's process. The obvious strength of FTA is the low detection limit for fissile materials. The greatest weakness is the lack of independent confirmation for the results of the three respective methodologies. Additionally, each laboratory's unique nomenclature has made comparison and evaluation problematic and has lead to occasional misinterpretation of numeric data. Addressing the scientific and engineering community's lack of confidence in FTA will require more complete disclosure of techniques and protocols, including documentation of experimental failures. In experiments detailed in this dissertation, the refined FTA methodology was used to determine the Pu236 concentration in urine for two unique populations, radiation workers and the general population. The results of this analysis were used to predict dose according to several different interpretations of the ICRP recommendations. These predictions focused on the liver, lung and skeletal systems. Predicted doses ranged from 0.02 fSv to 300 fSv as a function of organ and sample collection time. As anticipated, predicted dose to the lungs represented the highest predicted dose to any compartment of the body.

  3. Investigation of plutonium-239 conditioning in monazite and brabantite matrices: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glorieux, B.; Jorion, F.; Montel, J.M.; Matecki, M.; Deschanels, X.; Coutures, JP

    2004-07-01

    In response to the 1991 French radioactive waste management act, a research program was set up between the CNRS, the CEA and French universities to propose effective minor actinide disposal matrices capable of loading 10 wt% of actinide oxides and ensuring a hundred-fold better leaching performance than 'R7T7' glass. The lanthanide ortho-phosphates LaPO{sub 4} could constitute an excellent matrix for this purpose. In this type of structure, the (PO{sub 4}){sup 3-} negative entity is compensated by trivalent cations such as La, Ce, Gd, Pu, Am (monazite) or equal fractions of divalent and tetravalent cations such as Ca{sup 2+}Th{sup 4+}, Ca{sup 2+}U{sup 4+}, Ca{sup 2+}Np{sup 4+} (brabantite). Previous leach tests and geological discoveries have shown that these materials are highly resistant to leaching and conserve their crystalline state even in aqueous media. These points led us to investigate the incorporation of 10 wt% PuO{sub 2} in monazite and brabantite materials and to study the effects of self-irradiation on their structural states. Prior to plutonium conditioning tests, experiments were performed in the laboratory using cerium and thorium oxides according to the following reactions: (1-3x)LaPO{sub 4} + 2xCe{sup 4+}O{sub 2} + xLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} {yields} La{sub 1-2x}Ce{sub 2x}{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} + x/2O{sub 2}; (1-3x)LaPO{sub 4} + xTh{sup 4+}O{sub 2} + xCaO + xLa(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} {yields} La{sub 1-2x}Ca{sub x}Th{sub x}{sup 4+}PO{sub 4}. Cerium oxide was used to study the reduction of a tetravalent cation to a trivalent state in a phosphate structure and to prepare for Pu{sup 3+} conditioning. Thorium was used to study the conditioning of tetravalent cations such as Pu{sup 4+}. The parameters and sintering reaction of the final product were optimized. In a radioactive laboratory, PuO{sub 2} was then substituted for CeO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2} in the first and second reactions mentioned above, respectively. The synthesis and sintering procedures were unchanged. X-ray diffraction analysis of the powder before and after sintering showed promising results that are discussed. (authors)

  4. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for inhaling powder) and five Rotadisks (circular foil blister packs each containing four blisters of medication). Zanamivir powder ... put a hole in or open any medication blister pack until inhaling a dose with the Diskhaler.Carefully ...

  5. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Piparo Caterina; Vitulo Patrizio; Maggio Maria; Collura Mirella; Matina Federico; Corsello Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the bene...

  6. Inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin for the maintenance treatment of bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Manjit K; Hill, Adam T

    2017-09-01

    Inhaled or nebulised antibiotics are a major topic of ongoing research interest in reducing exacerbations in bronchiectasis. There are no licenced inhaled or nebulised antibiotics currently in bronchiectasis. Areas covered: Inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin as a long-term treatment in bronchiectasis. Expert opinion: Results from the Phase III ongoing trials on inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin will be key for the outcome of the drugs but additionally, cost-effectiveness and longer-term studies will be necessary to determine the viability of the drug. Head to head studies are needed to decide on the optimum inhaled or nebulised antibiotic and their place with or without long term macrolide therapy. It is also important to determine what treatment is viable for acute exacerbations due to P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin is the only currently available oral agent for exacerbations due to P. aeruginosa. The concern is that using inhaled or nebulised ciprofloxacin will prevent the use and efficacy of its oral equivalent, by developing resistance.

  7. 笑气吸入治疗急性牙髓炎的疗效分析%Analysis of curative effect of the treatment of acute pulpitis of nitrous oxide inhalation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐佳妮

    2014-01-01

    Objective Analyzing the effect of nitrous oxide inhalation therapy of acute pulpitis and nursing measures.Methods Selection in October 2013 to October 2014 of our hospital, 84 cases of patients with acute pulpitis the research object, according to the numerical method was divided into control group and observation group, control group, 42 cases observed 42 groups, control group patients with opening under local anesthesia, observation group of patients used nitrous oxide inhalation and opening under local anesthesia, application of the WHO criteria for evaluation of clinical pain pain of the patients with case analysis.Results Control group of patients with painless rate was 73.81%, the observation group of patients with painless rate was 92.56%, the control group signiifcantly lower than the experimental group, the difference between groups was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).Conclusion In the treatment of acute pulpitis laughing gas suction method has good effect, can effectively improve the patient's pain, and is worth popularizing in clinic use.%目的:研究分析笑气吸入治疗急性牙髓炎的疗效。方法选取2013年10月~2014年10月我院收治的急性牙髓炎患者84例作为研究对象,按照数字法分为对照组和观察组,各42例,对照组患者进行局麻下开髓,观察组患者应用笑气吸入并在局麻下开髓,应用WHO临床疼痛评估标准对患者的疼痛情况进行分析。结果对照组患者的无痛率为73.81%,观察组患者的无痛率为92.56%,对照组明显低于观察组,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在急性牙髓炎的治疗中应用笑气吸入方法具有较好的疗效,能够有效的改善患者的疼痛情况,值得在临床上推广以及使用。

  8. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension: acute vasoresponsiveness to inhaled nitric oxide and the relation to long-term effect of sildenafil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Iversen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Severe pulmonary sarcoidosis is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by different pathophysiological mechanisms. Objectives: To assess the acute vasoresponsiveness in patients with sarcoidosis and PH and the relation to the therapeutic effect of sildenafil...

  9. 大鼠吸入全氟异丁烯致急性肺损伤形态学改变%Lung Morphologic Changes of Mice With Acute Lung Injury Induced by Inhalation of Perfluoroisobutelene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海龙; 刘吉福; 武姗姗; 赵建; 张宪成; 黄春倩

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate lung morphologic changes of mice at early stage of acute lung injury induced by inhalation of Perfluoroisobutelene( PFIB) . Methods By dynamic observation ( 24 h, 72 h post inhalation of PFIB respectively) of light and electron microscopic changes of lung of mice. Results At 24h post inhalation,remarkable congestion and swelling were seen at lung surface, and the lung got much harder than usual, feeling solid. Under light microscope( 10 × 10) , several lesions in lung were observed, including pulmonary alveoli collapse , edema, hemorrhage, filling up of red cells in small vessel; under transmission electro microscope, organelles(such as lamellatedbody, mitochondria and endoplasmicre) andnu within both type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ lung itheliums showed more or less morphologic abnormalities. At 72h post inhalation, congestion and swelling at lung surface obviously relieved; under light microscope ( 10 × 10) , lung micoscopic lesions ( pulmonary alveoli collapse, edema, etc. ) relieved compared with those of 24h; under transmission electromicroscope, organelles within both type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ lung epitheliums showed signs of relif. Conclusion At early stage of ALI, inflammatory cells (including neutrophil and macrophage) accumulate in lung parenchyma, vital organelles within both type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ lung epitheliums show morphologic abnormalities due to injury. Microcirculation abnormalities exist with lung during ALI period. At 72h post inhalation, the proportion of macrophage in lung obviously increases, and both types of pulmonary epitheliums show signs of relief.%目的 探讨大鼠吸入PFIB所致急性肺损伤的早期肺脏形态学改变的特点.方法 动态观察大鼠吸入PFIB后24 h、72 h时肺脏在光镜、电镜下的改变.结果 在24 h点,肺脏表面充血、淤血明显,触感变硬;光镜(10 × 10)下可看到肺泡萎陷、水肿、出血、红细胞淤滞;透射电镜下看到Ⅰ、Ⅱ型上皮细胞内细胞器(板

  10. Salbutamol inhalado o nebulizado en el tratamiento de la exacerbación aguda del asma en el preescolar: estudio comparativo aleatorizado. Inhaled vs nebulized salbutamol in the management of acute asthma exacerbation in preschool children: a randomized comparative trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Luz Valencia Chávez

    1999-03-01

    70 patients during a six month period, in Medellín, Colombia. Patients were included because of acute asthma exacerbation. In 32 children two 100 mg doses of salbutamol were administered in three opportunities by means of an inhaling chamber with intervals of twenty minutes. In 38 children, on the other hand, 0.15 mg/k, diluted in 4 ml of saline solution, were administered three times by nebulization, during twenty minutes, with similar intervals. Respiratory frequency and oxygen saturation were measured before and after treatment, and the clinical response and secondary effects were registered. Children in both groups were similar regarding age, seriousness of the crisis, previous evolution and clinical and paraclinical criteria used in the evaluation. Improvement was similar in both groups (p>0.05; also similar was the number of good, fair and poor responses to treatment. Secondary reactions, particularly tachycardia, occurred in 36.8% of nebulized children and in 21.9% of those treated by inhalation (p=0.27. It is concluded that, in the studied population, results of treatment of acute asthma crises were similar regardless of the system of administration of salbutamol, either inhaled of nebulized.

  11. Computed tomographic criteria as expected effect to inhaled nitric oxide in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome; Computertomographische Kriterien fuer den zu erwartenden Effekt von inhaliertem Stickstoffmonoxid bei Patienten mit schwerem akutem Lungenversagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgen, R.; Einfeld, H.; Schroeder, R.J.; Felix, R. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Busch, T.; Lohbrunner, H.; Deja, M.; Weber-Carstens, S.; Falke, K.J.; Kaisers, U. [Klinik fuer Anaesthesiologie und Operative Intensivmedizin, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is an effective therapy for severe hypoxemia in most patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). For unknown reason, a subset of ARDS patients does not respond favorably to iNO therapy. We hypothesized that radiological manifestation of lung injury may be related to iNO response. Materials and methods: we retrospectively analyzed data from n = 25 ARDS patients who received iNO, and underwent chest CT within 72 h prior to inhaled treatment. The morphology of coherently pathologic lung tissue was characterized by the length of the borderline between consolidated, infiltrated and atelectatic lung tissue and radiologically normal lung tissue. This quantity was expressed as relative fraction of the visceral pleural circumference and averaged over all CT slices. Furthermore we semiquantitatively determined the total volume of consolidated lung tissue as part of the whole lung. Results: in n = 6 non-responders to iNO ({delta}PaO2 < 10%), we determined a short relative borderline between normal and consolidated lung tissue due to the presence of large and coherently consolidated lung regions. In n = 19 iNO responders ({delta}PaO2 > 10%), we found significantly less coherently consolidated lung tissue evidenced by an increased relative borderline when compared to iNO non-responders (0.09 {+-} 0.02 vs. 0.1 {+-} 0.01; P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a moderate and significant correlation between {delta}PaO2 induced by iNO and the relative borderline in all patients studied (R = 0.59; P < 0.05). Total fraction of consolidated lung tissue volume was not different between iNO non-responders and responders (60 {+-} 3% vs. 54 {+-} 2% n. s.). Conclusion: our data demonstrate that the gross morphological distribution of pathological lung tissue influences iNO response in ARDS. Inhaled NO was most beneficial in injured lungs characterized by many small consolidated areas surrounded by normal lung tissue. The increased borderline

  12. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  13. Observation on therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of mother chrysanthemum in treatment of acute pharyngitis and nursing care of it%野菊花超声雾化吸入治疗急性咽炎的疗效观察及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高影儿

    2014-01-01

    [目的]观察野菊花针剂雾化吸入治疗急性咽炎的疗效。[方法]将200例病人随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组100例,治疗组使用野菊花针剂雾化吸入,对照组使用庆大霉素+地塞米松雾化吸入,比较两组病人的治疗效果。[结果]治疗组疗效明显优于对照组(P<0.01)。[结论]野菊花针剂雾化吸入对急性咽炎有良好的效果。%Obj ective:To observe the therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection in treating acute pharyngitis. Methods:A total of 200 patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,200 cases in each.The patients in treatment group were giv-en ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection,while the patients in control group were given ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with gentamicin and dexamethasone.Results:The therapeutic effect in treatment group was significantly better than that in control group(P<0.01).Conclu-sion:The therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection for acute plmryngitis is good.

  14. Reasons for Inhalant Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents in a Texas drug abuse program, initial use of toxicant inhalants was related to availability and sensation-seeking, followed by psychological problems, parental and home problems, and peer influence. Quitting inhalant use was related to social pressures, attitude change, and perceived health risks. (Author/SV)

  15. Effect of hydrogen inhalation on acute lung injury in rats with sepsis%吸入氢气对脓毒血症大鼠急性肺损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕娜; 李会秦; 培娟; 曹玺; 帅训军; 姜敏; 艾登斌

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨吸入氢气(H2)对脓毒血症大鼠急性肺损伤的影响。方法选取雄性SD大鼠40只,体重200~250 g。采用随机数字表法将其分为4组(n=10):假手术组(SH组)、盲肠结扎穿孔组(CLP组)、1% H2组和2%H2组。采用CLP法制备脓毒血症模型。1%H2组与2%H2组于CLP术后12 h分别吸入1%H2与2%H22 h。结束后,采集股动脉血样行血气分析,计算氧合指数(PaO2/FiO2);测定血浆中高迁移率族蛋白1(HMGB1)、白细胞介素-6(IL-6)水平;随后处死大鼠取肺组织,检测肺组织中Toll样受体4(TLR-4)、核因子-剀B(NF-κB)、髓过氧化物酶(MPO)活性;光镜下观察肺组织病理改变。结果与SH组比较,CLP组、1% H2组、2%H2组PaO2/FiO2降低,血浆中HMGB1、IL-6水平升高,肺组织TLR-4、NF-κB、MPO水平升高,病理学损伤明显加重(P0.05)。结论吸入H2能够减轻脓毒血症引起的急性肺损伤,其机制可能与抑制炎性反应有关。%Objective To investigate the effect of hydrogen (H2) inhalation on acute lung injury in rats with sepsis. Methods Forty healthy male SD rats (weighing 200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10) using a ran-dom number table:sham operation group (SH group), cecal ligation and puncture group (CLP group), 1% H2 group, 2%H2 group respectively. Sepsis model was produced by CLP. 1% H2 and 2% H2 group received 2 h inhalation of 1% H2 and 2% H2 at 12 h after CLP, respectively. At the end of hydrogen inhalation, blood samples were obtained for blood gas analysis. PaO2/FiO2 was calculated and the levels of high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined. The rats were then sacrificed and lungs were immediately removed for determination of the activity of Toll-like receptors-4 (TLR-4), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and myeloperoxidase (MPO); pathology assessment of lung was done under light microscope. Results Compared with SH group, PaO2/FiO2 was significantly

  16. Inhalants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  17. Protocol for a human in vivo model of acute cigarette smoke inhalation challenge in smokers with COPD: monitoring the nasal and systemic immune response using a network biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Clare L; Galloway-Phillipps, Neil; Armstrong, Paul C; Mitchell, Jane A; Warner, Timothy D; Brearley, Christopher; Ito, Mari; Tunstall, Tanushree; Elkin, Sarah; Kon, Onn Min; Hansel, Trevor T; Paul-Clark, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoke contributes to a diverse range of diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disorders and many cancers. There currently is a need for human challenge models, to assess the acute effects of a controlled cigarette smoke stimulus, followed by serial sampling of blood and respiratory tissue for advanced molecular profiling. We employ precision sampling of nasal mucosal lining fluid by absorption to permit soluble mediators measurement in eluates. Serial nasal curettage was used for transcriptomic analysis of mucosal tissue. Methods and analysis Three groups of strictly defined patients will be studied: 12 smokers with COPD (GOLD Stage 2) with emphysema, 12 matched smokers with normal lung function and no evidence of emphysema, and 12 matched never smokers with normal spirometry. Patients in the smoking groups are current smokers, and will be given full support to stop smoking immediately after this study. In giving a controlled cigarette smoke stimulus, all patients will have abstained from smoking for 12 h, and will smoke two cigarettes with expiration through the nose in a ventilated chamber. Before and after inhalation of cigarette smoke, a series of samples will be taken from the blood, nasal mucosal lining fluid and nasal tissue by curettage. Analysis of plasma nicotine and metabolites in relation to levels of soluble inflammatory mediators in nasal lining fluid and blood, as well as assessing nasal transcriptomics, ex vivo blood platelet aggregation and leucocyte responses to toll-like receptor agonists will be undertaken. Implications Development of acute cigarette smoke challenge models has promise for the study of molecular effects of smoking in a range of pathological processes. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the West London National Research Ethics Committee (12/LO/1101). The study findings will be presented at conferences and will be reported in peer-reviewed journals

  18. Diferentes dispositivos inalatórios na crise aguda de asma: um estudo randomizado, duplo-cego e controlado com placebo Different inhaler devices in acute asthma attacks: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herberto J. Chong Neto

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia, eventos adversos e custo do tratamento da crise aguda de asma, utilizando diferentes dispositivos inalatórios. MÉTODOS: Estudo randomizado, duplo-cego e controlado com placebo. Foi utilizado salbutamol em nebulizador, inalador dosimetrado com espaçadores industrial e artesanal e inalador em pó. As avaliações foram feitas em 0, 20, 40 e 60 minutos, seguidas da aplicação de salbutamol e placebo em outro dispositivo. Foram avaliadas 40 crianças em crise aguda de asma, com média de idade = 11±3,5 anos. Utilizou-se escore clínico e função pulmonar, e foram verificados eventos adversos. Foram calculados gastos com o medicamento e o dispositivo inalatório. RESULTADOS: O escore clínico e a variação no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo foram semelhantes entre os grupos ao final do estudo. Foi encontrada uma variação maior na freqüência cardíaca com o uso de nebulizador (35% do que nos grupos que fizeram uso do espaçador industrial (15% e do inalador em pó (17%, e também entre os espaçadores artesanal e industrial, 28 e 15%, respectivamente (p = 0,004. O nebulizador e o espaçador artesanal provocaram mais tremores (p = 0,02. O custo do tratamento por paciente foi maior nos grupos nebulizador e espaçador industrial, R$ 22,31 e R$ 16,58, respectivamente (p = 0,0001. CONCLUSÕES: O nebulizador foi o mais caro e consumiu mais droga para apresentar a mesma eficácia. O espaçador artesanal foi o mais barato. No entanto, apresentou mais eventos adversos do que o espaçador industrial e o inalador em pó. O espaçador industrial foi tão caro quanto o nebulizador, porém mais seguro. O inalador em pó foi mais barato e apresentou menos tremores, mas taquicardia semelhante ao espaçador artesanal.OBJECTIVE: To verify the efficacy, side effects, and cost of treatment of acute asthma attacks, using different inhaler devices. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo

  19. 沙丁胺醇联合布地奈德雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘急性发作的临床疗效分析%Analysis of the clinical curative effect of salbutamol combined with budesonide atomizing inhalation in the treatment of acute attack of bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金友礼

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical curative effect of salbutamol combined with budesonide atomizing inhalation in the treatment of acute attack of bronchial asthma.Methods:80 patients with acute attack of bronchial asthma were selected.They were randomly divided into the control group and the study group.The control group was treated with salbutamol atomizing inhalation. The study group was treated with salbutamol combined with budesonide atomizing inhalation.We compared the treatment effect of two groups.Results:In the study group,the clinical symptoms disappeared time and lung function index changes were significantly better than the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The clinical curative effect of salbutamol combined with budesonide atomizing inhalation in the treatment of acute attack of bronchial asthma was significant.%目的:探讨布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘急性发作的效果。方法:收治支气管哮喘急性发作患者80例,随机分为对照组和研究组,对照组采用沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗,研究组采用布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗,比较两组治疗效果。结果:在研究组,临床症状消失时间和肺功能指标变化值均明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘急性发作的效果显著。

  20. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Piparo Caterina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  1. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-09-27

    The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  2. 布地奈德吸入法辅助治疗急性会厌炎的临床疗效观察%Clinical efficacy of Inhaled Budesonide in the adjuvant treatment of acute epiglottis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓龙刚

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨布地奈德雾化吸入治疗急性会厌炎的临床疗效.方法:将54例急性会厌炎患者随机分为观察组(26例)和对照组(28例).所有患者均给予抗生素、激素、吸氧、补充水电解质等常规综合治疗.观察组在常规治疗的基础上给予布地奈德治疗.两组连续治疗7 d后进行疗效比较.结果:观察组25例中治愈14例,治愈率为53.8%;对照组28例中治愈15例,治愈率为53.6%.两组治愈率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).观察组不良反应发生率为30.8%,对照组为60.7%.两组不良反应发生率相比,差异有统计学意义(x2=4.86,P<0.05).结论:布地奈德雾化吸入辅助治疗急性会厌炎全身副作用小,临床疗效满意,可于临床推广应用.%Objective: To study the clinical efficacy of Budesonide atomization inhalation in the treatment of acute epiglottis. Methods: 54 cases of patients with acute epiglottis were randomly divided into observation group (26 cases) and control group (28 cases). All patients were given comprehensive treatment such as antibiotics, hormone, oxygen. The observation group was given Budesonide on the basis of conventional treatment. After 7 days, the therapeutic efficacy of two groups was compared. Results: The observation group in 25 patients cured in 14 cases, cure percentage reached 53.8%, 28 cases of control group in 15 cases, the cure rate for 53.6%. Two groups of cure rate was no significance difference (ρ>0.05). In the observation group, the incidence of adverse was 30.8%, and was 60.7% in the control group. The observation group adverse reaction rate compared with control group was significant difference (χ2=4.86, ρ<0.05). Conclusion: Budesonide atomization inhalation in the adjuvant treatment of acute epiglottis has small systemic side effects, well clinical curative effect, and can be satisfied in clinical application.

  3. Formoterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema) in adults. Formoterol inhalation powder is also used with another medication to treat asthma and to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise in ...

  4. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indacaterol inhalation is used to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Indacaterol is in a class of medications called long- ...

  5. Pentamidine Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine is an anti-infective agent that helps to treat or prevent pneumonia caused by the organism ... Pentamidine comes as a solution to be inhaled using a nebulizer. It usually is used once every ...

  6. Insulin Human Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  7. Review of inhaled iloprost for the control of pulmonary artery hypertension in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Cecile; Beghetti, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    In the pediatric population, pulmonary hypertension may present as an acute event in the setting of lung or cardiac pathology or as a chronic disease, mainly as idiopathic pulmonary hypertension or associated with congenital heart disease. Recently, new pharmacologic approaches have demonstrated significant efficacy in the management of adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension; these include intravenous epoprostenol, prostacyclin analogs, endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. The same treatment strategies are currently used in children. There are only few reports of the use of inhaled iloprost in pediatrics, only one of which reported the use of chronic inhaled iloprost in a significant number of children. This report showed that 1) the acute pulmonary vasodilator response to inhaled iloprost is equivalent to that of inhaled nitric oxide; 2) acute inhalation of iloprost can induce bronchoconstriction 3) the addition of inhaled iloprost can reduce the need for intravenous prostanoid therapy in some patients; 4) most children tolerated the combination of inhaled iloprost and endothelin receptor antagonist or phosphodiesterase inhibitors; 5) Several patients had clinical deterioration during chronic inhaled iloprost therapy and required rescue therapy with intravenous prostanoids. In this review we will discuss the role of inhaled iloprost in acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension in children. PMID:19436672

  8. Review of inhaled iloprost for the control of pulmonary artery hypertension in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Tissot

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Tissot, Maurice BeghettiPediatric Cardiology Unit, Department of the Child and Adolescent, University Hospital of Geneva, SwitzerlandAbstract: In the pediatric population, pulmonary hypertension may present as an acute event in the setting of lung or cardiac pathology or as a chronic disease, mainly as idiopathic pulmonary hypertension or associated with congenital heart disease. Recently, new pharmacologic approaches have demonstrated significant efficacy in the management of adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension; these include intravenous epoprostenol, prostacyclin analogs, endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. The same treatment strategies are currently used in children. There are only few reports of the use of inhaled iloprost in pediatrics, only one of which reported the use of chronic inhaled iloprost in a significant number of children. This report showed that 1 the acute pulmonary vasodilator response to inhaled iloprost is equivalent to that of inhaled nitric oxide; 2 acute inhalation of iloprost can induce bronchoconstriction 3 the addition of inhaled iloprost can reduce the need for intravenous prostanoid therapy in some patients; 4 most children tolerated the combination of inhaled iloprost and endothelin receptor antagonist or phosphodiesterase inhibitors; 5 Several patients had clinical deterioration during chronic inhaled iloprost therapy and required rescue therapy with intravenous prostanoids. In this review we will discuss the role of inhaled iloprost in acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension in children.Keywords: pulmonary hypertension, children, iloprost

  9. Inhalation of aerosolized perfluorocarbon combined with tetramethylpyrazine ameliorates hemodynamics and pulmonary histopatholgy in a porcine model of acute lung injury%联合雾化吸入氟碳及中药川芎嗪治疗急性肺损伤的血流动力学及组织病理的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭雪梅; 谢娟华; 帅兵; 李雅兰; 王仲红; 王华东; 王彦平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨联合雾化吸入PFC(perfluorocarbon)与中药川芎嗪治疗急性肺损伤时血流动力学及组织病理的改变.方法 采用肺灌洗诱导急性肺损伤(acute lung injury,ALI)后,动物分3组:①雾化吸人PFC(perfluorocarbon group,P组)组;②联合雾化吸入PFC-川芎嗪(tetramethylpyrazine-perfluorocarbon group,TP组)组;③雾化中药川芎嗪(chinese medicialcontral group,T组)组.分别在ALI前、灌洗后、ALI及ALI后1、2、3、4h7个时段观察MAP、PetCO2、mPAP、CVP以及PAWP等血流动力学指标的变化,实验结束后取肺组织做病理学分析.结果 肺灌洗后3组动物MAP、mPAP、CVP以及PAWP显著升高(P>0.05),TP组治疗干预后各时段MAP、mPAP、CVP以及PAWP变化与P、T组相应时段比较具有统计学意义(P<0.05).组织病理学显示TP组的病理改变最小,T组改变最大.结论 联合雾化吸入PFC与中药川芎嗪能有效的改善氧合,显著的降低肺动脉压,减少肺组织损伤.%Objective To observe the effect of inhalation of aerosolized perfluorocarbon combined with tetramethylpyrazine on the hemodynamics and histopatholgy in a porcine model of acute lung injury. Methods Normal adult pigs were subjected to saline lavage of the bilateral lungs to induce acute lung injury and randomized subsequently into 3 groups for treatment with inhalation of perfluorocarbon, combined inhalation of perfluorocarbon and tetramethylpyrazine, or inhalation of tetramethylpyrazine. The changes of mean arterial pressure (MAP), PetCO2, mPAP, CVP and PAWP were recorded at different time points following the lung injury, and the lung tissues were sampled for histological observations. Results The MAP, mPAP, CVP and PAWP all increased significantly in the 3 groups after acute lung injury. Interventions with combined tetramethylpyrazine and perfluorocarbon inhalation significantly improved these indices as compared with inhalation of tetramethylpyrazine or perfluorocarbon alone (P< 0

  10. Experimental drug intervention study on dinitrogen tetroxide inhalation induced acute pulmonary edema in mice%四氧化二氮吸入中毒致小鼠急性肺水肿药物干预实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建忠; 刘志国; 常李荣; 司少艳; 化楠; 陈阿鑫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the mice model of acute pulmonary edema and investigate the therapeutic effect of the compound ami-no acids and vitamin B6. Methods Ten ICR mice(23˜25 g)were randomly divided into control group,poisoned group,and treatment group (n=8). The mice in poisoned group and treatment group were put in the 120 L exposed cabinet to establish N2O4 inhalation induced acute pulmo-nary edema model. Blood was obtained 48 h after the exposure. The mice in treatment group received composite amino acids and vitamin B6 for the treatment. ANP,SP-D,TGF-β1 and TNF-αwere detected by ELISA. Results There were significant differences in ANP,SP-D,TGF-β1 and TNF-α levels between poisoned group and control group( P <0. 05),and there were significant differences in ANP,SP-D and TNF-α levels between the treatment group and the poisoned group( P <0. 05). Conclusion N2 O4 inhalation poisoning can lead to pulmonary ede-ma. Mornitoring the changes of serum ANP,SP-D,TGF-β1 and TNF-αis of clinical significance for the study of the mechanism of N2 O4 in-halation poisoning. The treatment of composite amino acids in combination with vitamin B6 can significantly improve serum ANP,SP-D and TNF-α levels in N2 O4 inhalation poisoning animal. The study has certain reference value for the treatment of patients with this type of poisoning.%目的制作四氧化二氮( N2 O4)吸入中毒致小鼠肺水肿动物模型,应用复合氨基酸加维生素B6予以救治,研究药物干预效果。方法实验动物为ICR小鼠,体重23˜25 g,随机分为对照组、中毒组和治疗组三组( n=8)。将动物置于120 L染毒柜制作N2 O4吸入中毒致肺损伤动物模型,于48 h采用眼球摘除法取血,分离血清-70℃保存,酶联免疫分析(ELISA)法测定心钠素(ANP)和肺表面活性物质相关蛋白D(SP-D)、转化生长因子β1(TGF-β1)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)含量。结果中毒组与

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 260 KB] Using a metered dose inhaler (inhaler in mouth) Your browser does not support iframes Using a metered dose inhaler (inhaler in mouth) [PDF - 370 KB] Your browser does not ...

  12. STOP-EXPOSURE STUDIES OF INHALED CHLORINE PROVIDE IMPORTANT INSIGHTS ON PATHOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a project to inform approaches for risk assessment of inhaled irritants of interest to homeland security, a set of acute (Peay et aI., SOT 2010) and subacute (George et aI., SOT 2010) studies of inhaled chlorine (CI2) in female F344 rats was performed. The exposure des...

  13. Inhaled dust and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following: the respiratory system; respirable dust; the fate of inhaled dust; translocation and some general effects of inhaled dust; silicosis; experimental research on silica-related disease; natural fibrous silicates; asbestos dust levels and dust sources; asbestos-related diseases - asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma and other diseases, cancers at sites other than lung and pleura; experimental research relating to asbestos-related diseases; asbestos hazard - mineral types and hazardous occupations, neighbourhood and domestic hazard; silicates other than asbestos-man-made mineral fibres, mineral silicates and cement; metals; coal mine dust, industrial carbon and arsenic; natural and synthetic organic substances; dusts that provoke allergic alveolitis; tobacco smoke.

  14. 吸入性损伤的研究进展%Advancement in study of inhalation injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宗城

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with serious burns. The improvement in the understanding of smoke inhalation injury had been obtained in the last half century in China. The models of steam and smoke inhalation injury had been reproduced and a series of experimental studies had been performed .It was found that chemical bronchotracheitis, pulmonary edema and alveolar collapse(atelectasis) were the primary pathologic findings after inhalation injury. The second inflammatory response would play an important role in the development of acute respiratory failure. The roles of some cytokines, inflammatory cells and pulmonary surfactants in the development of inhalation injury had been elucidated. The etologic factors and the pathophysiologic changes in inhalation injury had been illustrated clearly. These basic science investigations had led to the advances in protective strategies for the complications of inhalation injury. Now the morbidity and mortality of inhalation injury have decreased markedly in China.

  15. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Inhaled Iloprost Therapy in Children With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. Dunbar; Doran, Aimee K.; Smith, Kelly J.; Mallory, George B.; Beghetti, Maurice; Barst, Robyn J.; Brady, Daniela; Law, Yuk; Parker, Donna; Claussen, Lori; Abman, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the short- and long-term outcome of children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treated with inhaled iloprost. Background Inhaled iloprost has been approved for the treatment of adults with PAH, but little is known about the effects in children with PAH. Methods We evaluated the acute effects of inhaled iloprost on hemodynamic status and lung function and the response to long-term therapy in 22 children (range 4.5 to 17.7 years) with PAH (idiopathic, n = 12; congenital heart disease, n = 10). Cardiac catheterization, standard lung function testing before and after iloprost inhalation, 6-min walk test, World Health Organization functional class, and hemodynamic parameters were monitored. Results Acute administration of inhaled iloprost lowered mean pulmonary artery pressure equivalent to the response to inhaled nitric oxide with oxygen. Acute iloprost inhalation reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s and mid-volume forced expiratory flow by 5% and 10%, respectively, consistent with acute bronchoconstriction. At 6 months, functional class improved in 35%, decreased in 15%, and remained unchanged in 50% of children. Sixty-four percent of patients continued receiving long-term iloprost therapy, 36% stopped iloprost, due to lower airway reactivity, clinical deterioration, or death. In 9 patients on chronic intravenous prostanoids, 8 transitioned from intravenous prostanoids to inhaled iloprost, which continued during follow-up. Conclusions Inhaled iloprost caused sustained functional improvement in some children with PAH, although inhaled iloprost occasionally induced bronchoconstriction. Most patients tolerated the transition from intravenous to inhaled prostanoid therapy. Clinical deterioration, side effects, and poor compliance, owing to the frequency of treatments, could limit chronic treatment in children. PMID:18191742

  16. [Inhaled corticosteroids for COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2003-01-01

    Over 60% of patients with COPD are treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), even though their use is still subject to debate. The inflammatory process in the lungs of patients with COPD is dominated by macrophages, CD8+ T-lymphocytes, neutrophilic granulocytes and mast cells, as well as an increa

  17. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns…

  18. Two cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients treated with high doses of inhaled beta-2-agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Camilla Fjord; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Stride, Nis Ottesen

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is characterised by reversible left ventricular dysfunction in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). TCM is considered multifactorial, and the repetitive exposure to inhaled beta-2-agonists has been suspected to induce TCM in predisposed individuals...

  19. Toxic alveolitis after inhalation of a water repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Guido; Van Baarlen, Joop; Van Der Valk, Paul D L P M

    2011-12-01

    Inhalation of fluorocarbon polymers can cause pulmonary toxicity. Although multiple cases of lung injury have been reported, cellular characterization of the associated alveolitis occurring acutely after inhalation is limited. We report the case of a previously healthy woman who presented at our Emergency Department with an acute pneumonitis following inhalation of a fluorocarbon polymer-based rain-proofing spray. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed shortly after the presentation showed an elevated total cell count, with a high proportion of neutrophils (58%) and eosinophils (9%). In addition, a lipid stain (Oil-Red-O-stain) showed a high level of lipid laden macrophages, a marker that could reflect a direct toxic effect of the spray on alveolar cells. The patient made a full recovery after four days of in-hospital observation with supportive care.

  20. Application Observation of Ultrasonic Atomization Inhalation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride for Elderly Patients at the Acute Attack Stage of Chronic Brochitis%盐酸氨溴索超声雾化吸入在老年慢性支气管炎急性发作期的应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫卫星

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the application of ultrasonic atomization inhalation of ambroxol hydrochloride for elderly patients at the acute attack stage of chronic brochitis.Method 120 elderly patients at the acute attack stage of chronic brochitis in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into two groups, 60 cases each group. The control group adopted the medical therapy of anti-inlfammation, relieving asthma and oxygen inhalation, etc. Based on the therapy of control group, the experimental group adopted the ultrasonic atomization inhalation of ambroxol hydrochloride. The clinical efifcacy and treatment satisfaction of two groups were compared.Result The effective rate of experimental group(96.7%) was higher than that of control group (83.3%)(P<0.05);the treatment satisfaction of experimental group(95.0%) was higher than that of control group (81.7%)(P<0.05).Conclusion For elderly patients at the acute attack stage of chronic bronchitis, the ultrasonic atomization inhalation of ambroxol hydrochloride has an obvious treatment effect. It has high clinical effect, worthy of clinical choice.%目的:探讨盐酸氨溴索超声雾化吸入在老年慢性支气管炎急性发作期的应用。方法将我院120例老年慢性支气管炎急性发作患者随机分为两组。对照组60例采用抗炎、平喘及吸氧等内科治疗,试验组60例在对照组基础上给予氨溴索超声雾化吸入。比较两组临床疗效及治疗满意度的差异。结果试验组有效率为96.7%高于对照组83.3%,比较有统计学差异(P<0.05);试验组治疗满意率为95.0%高于对照组81.7%,比较有统计学差异(P<0.05);结论盐酸氨溴索超声雾化吸入在老年慢性支气管炎急性发作期效果显著,具有较高的临床有效率,值得临床选择。

  1. 黄芪注射液联合超声雾化吸入治疗小儿支气管炎急性发作的临床效果和安全性%Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Astragalus Injection Combined with Ultrasonic Aerosol Inhalation in the Treatment of Children with Acute Episode of Bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鲲

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of Astragalus Injection combined with ultrasonic aerosol inhalation in the treatment of children with acute episode of bronchitis.Method:In our hospital,100 children with bronchitis acute attack were selected,50 cases were treated by ultrasonic atomizing inhalation therapy(the control group),50 cases were treated by Huangqi Injection combined with ultrasonic atomizing inhalation therapy(the observation group),the clinical efficacy and safety in two groups were compared.Result:The total effective rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion:The therapeutic effect of Astragalus Injection combined with ultrasonic atomizing inhalation in the treatment of children with acute episode of bronchitis is better,which can be used as a preferred choice.%目的:探讨黄芪注射液联合超声雾化吸入治疗小儿支气管炎急性发作的临床效果和安全性。方法:选择在笔者所在医院就诊的支气管炎急性发作患儿100例,其中50例行超声雾化吸入治疗(对照组),50例行黄芪注射液联合超声雾化吸入治疗(观察组),比较两组的临床疗效和安全性。结果:观察组总有效率明显高于对照组,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:黄芪注射液联合超声雾化吸入治疗小儿支气管炎急性发作效果佳,可作为优先选择方式。

  2. 布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘急性发作的临床疗效%Inhaled Budesonide Combined with Salbutamol in Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Acute Attack of Bronchial Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘急性发作的临床疗效。方法选取88例支气管哮喘急性发作患者,分为观察组与对照组,各44例,分别给予布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗、沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗,比较两组临床疗效及肺功能指标。结果治疗后,观察组与对照组患者总有效率比较(90.9%对79.5%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与治疗前比较,两组患者治疗后肺功能指标明显升高(P<0.05),且观察组明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入在治疗支气管哮喘急性发作中具有重要作用。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of budesonide combined with salbutamol atomization inhalation in treatment of acute attack of bronchial asthma.Methods Selected 88 cases of acute attack of bronchial asthma patients,divided into the observation group and control group,each 44 cases,were given budesonide combined with salbutamol atomization inhalation treatment,salbutamol atomization inhalation treatment,compared two groups of clinical curative effect and lung function index.Results After treatment,two groups of patients with total efective rate(90.9%vs79.5%),the diference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05);compared with before treatment, pulmonary function index increased significantly in the two groups after treatment(P<0.05),patients in observation group were significantly better than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Joint salbutamol aerosol inhalation budesonide in treating bronchial asthma with acute plays an important role.

  3. Potential of Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash for phytoremediation of plutonium ((239)Pu): Chelate assisted uptake and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shraddha; Fulzele, D P; Kaushik, C P

    2016-10-01

    Plants have demonstrated a great potential to remove toxic elements from soils and solutions and been successfully used for phytoremediation of important radionuclides. Uptake potential of vetiver plants (V. zizanoides) for the remediation of (239)Pu in hydroponic and soil conditions was studied in the present work. High efficiency of V. zizanoides for the removal of (239)Pu was recorded with 66.2% being removed from the hydroponic solution after 30 days. However, remediation of (239)Pu from soil was limited. Remediation of (239)Pu from soil was increased with the addition of chelating agents citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Accumulation of (239)Pu was recorded higher in roots than shoots, however its translocation from roots to shoots increased in the presence of chelators in hydroponic as well as soil conditions. DTPA was found more effective than CA showing higher translocation index (TI). Increase in TI was observed 8 and 6 times in the solution and soil respectively when plants were exposed to (239)Pu-DTPA in comparison to only (239)Pu. The present study demonstrates that V. zizanoides plant is a potential plant for phytoremediation of (239)Pu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhalers and nebulizers: which to choose and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S

    1996-02-01

    It is obvious that many factors should be considered when an inhaler is prescribed. Based upon the information discussed above, a rational inhaler strategy could be as follows: (1) Children valve system (and a face mask for the children) for the delivery of all drugs. When they are severely obstructed, some may need a nebulizer. If the patient cannot be taught the correct use of a spacer, a nebulizer should be prescribed. (2) Children > or = 5 years and adults are prescribed a spacer or a Turbuhaler for the administration of inhaled corticosteroids and a dry powder inhaler (preferably multiple dose) or a breath-actuated MDI for other drugs. If these alternatives are not available or the patient prefers, a conventional MDI can be used (preferably not for other corticosteroids than fluticasone propionate) provided that careful tuition is given. Fluticasone dipropionate may be given by DPI, Spacer or MDI. (3) Nebulizers are mainly reserved for severe acute attacks of bronchoconstriction. With this approach, most patients can be taught effective inhaler use with a minimum of instructional time. Finally, it must always be remembered to consider the patient's wish, since prescription of an inhaler which the physician likes but the patient does not is likely to reduce compliance.

  5. Carcinogenesis From Inhaled (PuO2)-Pu-239 in Beagles: Evidence for Radiation Homeostasis at Low Doses?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Weller, Richard E.

    2010-09-01

    From the early 1970s to the late 1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted life-span studies in beagle dogs on the biological effects of inhaled plutonium (239PuO2, 238PuO2, and 239Pu[NO3]4) to help predict risks associated with accidental intakes in workers. Years later, the purpose of the present follow-up study is to reassess the dose-response relationship for lung cancer induction in the 239PuO2 dogs compared to controls, with particular focus on the dose-response at low lung doses. A 239PuO2 aerosol (2.3 μm AMAD, 1.9 μm GSD) was administered to six groups of 20 young (18-month old) beagle dogs (10 males and 10 females) by inhalation at six different activity levels, as previously described in Laboratory reports. Control dogs were sham-exposed. In dose level 1, initial pulmonary lung depositions were 130 ± 48 Bq (3.5 ± 1.3 nCi), corresponding to 1 Bq g-1 lung tissue (0.029 ± 0.001 nCi g-1. Groups 2 through 6 received initial lung depositions (mean values) of 760, 2724, 10345, 37900, and 200000 Bq (22, 79, 300, 1100, and 5800 nCi) 239PuO2, respectively. For each dog, the absorbed dose to lungs was calculated from the initial lung burden and the final lung burden at time of death and lung mass, assuming a single, long-term retention function. Insoluble plutonium oxide exhibited long retention times in the lungs. Increased dose-dependent mortality due to lung cancer (bronchiolar-alveolar carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma) and radiation pneumonitis (highest exposures group) was observed in dogs exposed to 239PuO2. Calculated lung doses ranged from a few cGy in early-sacrificed dogs to 7764 cGy in dogs that experienced early deaths from radiation pneumonitis. Data were regrouped by lifetime lung dose and plotted as a function of lung tumor incidence. Lung tumor incidence in controls and zero-dose exposed dogs was 18% (5/28). However, no lung tumors were observed in 16 dogs with the lowest lung doses (8 to 22 cGy, mean 14.4 ± 7.6 c

  6. 硫酸沙丁胺醇气雾剂吸入与茶碱控释片治疗急性老年哮喘的疗效对比分析%Salbutamol Aerosol Inhalation and Efficacy Analysis of Theophylline Con-trolled Release Tablets in the Treatment of Acute Asthma in the Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽军

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the curative effect of inhalation of Salbutamol Aerosol and theophylline controlled release tablets in the treatment of acute asthma in the elderly. Methods Convenient selection from January 2013 to January 2016, 78 patients with acute senile asthma were selected as the research subjects. The patients were randomly divided into the in-halation group and the oral group, 39 cases in each group. Inhalation group received salbutamol sulfate aerosol agent inhala-tion therapy and combination group given salbutamol sulfate aerosol combined with theophylline controlled release tablets in the treatment, pulmonary function, arterial blood gas analysis were observed after the treatment, the patients in the two groups, adverse reactions and therapeutic effect. Results The combined group FEV1/FVC, FEV1%, PaCO2, Pa2O2 were bet-ter than the inhalation group, the total effective rate of the combined group was 94.87%, significantly higher than that in the group of 82.05%, it was proved that the combined group was significantly better than the inhalation group, and the differ-ence between the groups was P < 0.05. Conclusion Salbutamol sulfate aerosol combined with theophylline controlled re-lease tablets can effectively alleviate the asthma in elderly patients with acute arterial blood gas and lung function, reduced in elderly patients with dyspnea felt pain, improve their quality of life, and to enhance the clinical curative effect, worthy of our respiratory physicians actively promote the use of.%目的:探究硫酸沙丁胺醇气雾剂吸入与茶碱控释片治疗急性老年哮喘的疗效对比。方法方便选取该院2013年1月—2016年1月收治患急性老年哮喘患者78例作为研究对象,随机分为吸入组和口服组,每组39例。吸入组给予硫酸沙丁胺醇气雾剂吸入治疗,联合组给予硫酸沙丁胺醇气雾剂联合茶碱控释片治疗,观察两组患者治疗后肺功能水平、动脉血气分析、不良反

  7. Who Can Use an Inhaler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a bit harder. Any kid, even a baby, can use a metered dose inhaler with a spacer and a mask. Once a kid is 5 or 6 years old, he or she can learn to use a metered dose inhaler with just a spacer. Most kids that age are also able to use a dry powder inhaler. Your doctor will help you decide what ...

  8. Behavioral effects of subchronic inhalation of toluene in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Gilbert, Mary E; Bushnell, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the acute neurobehavioral effects of toluene are robust and well characterized, evidence for persistent effects of repeated exposure to this industrial solvent is less compelling. The present experiment sought to determine whether subchronic inhalation of toluene caused persistent behavioral changes in rats. Adult male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene vapor (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) for 6h/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks and were evaluated on a series of behavioral tests beginning 3 days after the end of exposure. Toluene delayed appetitively-motivated acquisition of a lever-press response, but did not affect motor activity, anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze, trace fear conditioning, acquisition of an appetitively-motivated visual discrimination, or performance of a visual signal detection task. Challenges with acute inhalation of toluene vapor (1200-2400 ppm for 1 h) and injections of quinpirole (0.01-0.03 mg/kg) and raclopride (0.03-0.10 mg/kg) revealed no toluene-induced latent impairments in visual signal detection. These results are consistent with a pattern of subtle and inconsistent long-term effects of daily exposure to toluene vapor, in contrast to robust and reliable effects of acute inhalation of the solvent.

  9. Sudden death due to inhalant abuse in youth: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intentional inhalation or abuse of volatile substances is a common public health problem all over the world. As these substances generate euphoria frequency of use among adolescents and young adults is increasing steadily. In cases using inhalants to achieve a euphoric state -without knowing possible consequences- sudden death may occurdue to acute cardio-pulmonary dysfunction.Here we present a case of sudden death of a nineteen-year-old female due to inhalation of volatile from butane containing lighter gas tube, with the findings of autopsy and death scene investigation.In the context of this case; it was aimed to draw attention to the risk of sudden death and steady increase of frequencyof volatile substance abuse among adolescents and young adults due to various psycho-social factors.

  10. The Influence of Different Periods Aerosol Inhalation Treatment on Acute Oral Mucositis Caused by Radiotherapy%不同雾化吸入时机对放射性急性口腔黏膜炎治疗效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of different periods aerosal inhalation treatment on acute o-ral mucositis caused by radiotherapy.Methods Totally 60 patients hospitalized with head and neck cancer and undergoing radiotherapy were randomly divided into observation group and control group,with 30 ca-ses in each group.The observation group received aerosol inhalation while the radiotherapy started,while the control group only received aerosol inhalation while the acute oral mucositis appeared.The incidence rate of acute oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy,inj ury of oral mucosa and pain degree were compared between two groups.Results During the radiotherapy,the incidence rate of acute oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy,inj ury of oral mucosa and pain degree in observation group were less or lower than which in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion Giving inhalation treatment at the beginning of radio-therapy can reduces the incidence rate of acute oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy,and the inj ury level of oral mucosa,and also ease the pain,which guarantees the success of radiotherapy,and thus to improve pa-tient’s quality of life.%目的:了解不同雾化吸入开始时间对放射性急性口腔黏膜炎治疗效果的影响.方法便利抽样法选择2012年10月至2013年7月,上海交通大学附属第六人民医院肿瘤放疗科收治的头颈部恶性肿瘤行根治性放射治疗的患者60例,按入院先后将其分为观察组和对照组各30例,观察组患者放疗开始即给予雾化吸入,对照组患者放疗过程中出现放射性急性口腔黏膜炎后再给予雾化吸入,评价并比较两组患者放射性急性口腔黏膜炎的发生情况、口腔黏膜损伤及疼痛程度.结果放疗期间,观察组患者放射性急性口腔黏膜炎的发生率、口腔黏膜损伤及疼痛程度均低于或轻于对照组患者,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论放疗开始即给予雾化

  11. 异丙托溴铵、布地奈德雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆辅助治疗小儿肺炎支原体肺炎的临床观察%Ipratropium Bromide Nebulized Budesonide Inhalation Plus Oral Acute Bronchitis Syrup Auxiliary Treatment of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Pneumonia Clinical Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽珍; 李飞平; 罗芳; 张梅娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To study the budesonide, ipratropium bromide Stock aerosol inhalation plus oral acute bronchitis syrup efficacy of mycoplasma pneumonia in children. Method; from May 2011 to May 2012 in our hospital diagnosed with pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, aged 3 to 14 years old, 69 cases of hospitalized children, 35 cases were randomly divided into a control group and a test group of 34 patients. Test group application budesonide, ipratropium bromide atomizing inhalation plus oral acute bronchitis syrup, observation and comparison of the two groups on the basis of given antibiotics. Experimental group, children with cough disappeared time, of pulmonary rales disappear and hospitalization time there was significantly shorter (P<0.01) than the control group, the total effective rate in the test group than the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion:Budesonide, ipratropium bromide oxygen drive to the aerosol inhalation plus oral acute bronchitis syrup can be used as auxiliary treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia treatment.%目的:研究布地奈德、异丙托溴铵联合雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆对小儿支原体肺炎的疗效.方法:将2011年5月-2012年5月在我院诊断为肺炎支原体肺炎,年龄3~14岁的69例住院患儿,随机分为对照组35例与试验组34例.在给予抗感染的基础上试验组应用布地奈德、异丙托溴铵氧气驱动雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆,观察比较两组疗效.结果:试验组患儿咳嗽消失时间、肺部罗音消失时间及住院时间均比对照组有极显著缩短(P<0.01),试验组总有效率比对照组高(P<0.01).结论:布地奈德、异丙托溴铵氧气驱动雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆可以作为治疗小儿支原体肺炎的辅助治疗方式.

  12. Iloprost inhalation in mild asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, Elizabeth; Hoskins, Aimee; Dworski, Ryszard; Sheller, James R

    2012-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of administering iloprost by inhalation in patients with mild atopic asthma. Volunteers underwent supervised inhalation of iloprost in the clinic with measurement of spirometry and blood pressure for 2 hours. The volunteers then inhaled iloprost four times daily at a dose of 2.5 or 5 μg for 14 days. Spirometry, asthma questionnaires, peak flow diaries, measurement of methacholine responsiveness, and exhaled nitric oxide concentrations were obtained prior to and after the treatment period. Chronic inhalation of iloprost (2.5-5 μg) did not alter spirometry or methacholine responsiveness. Inhaled iloprost in carefully selected volunteers with mild asthma appears to be a suitable intervention to explore the effects of prostacyclin in human asthma.

  13. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  14. Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Increases Cardiac Output, Bradyarrhythmias, and Parasympathetic Tone in Aged Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute air pollutant inhalation is linked to adverse cardiac events and death, and hospitalizations for heart failure. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant suspected to exacerbate preexisting cardiac conditions, in part, through autonomic and electrophysiologic disturbance...

  15. [Health significance of inhaled particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, A; Gessner, C; Hammerschmidt, S; Hoheisel, G; Wirtz, H

    2006-03-24

    Particulates refer to particles, dust, dirt, soot and aerosol mists that has suspended in the surrounding air. They may consist of solids of various forms including fibres or liquids. Long term exposure to silicon dioxide containing dusts (crystalline silica: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite) may cause pneumoconiosis in the form of acute or/either chronic silicosis. Asbestos refers to a divers family of crystalline hydrated fibrous siliates typically exhibiting a greater tha 3:1 length ot diameter ratio. It is subdivided into serpentine (Chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite). Exposure to asbestos fibres may cause lung fibrosis and promote cancer of the lung or the pleura. Besides the induction of malignant diseases dust exposure may result in obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases which may be compensate in case of the recognition as a occupational diseases. Other occupational exposures leading to pneumoconiosis are caused be talc, or metals including aluminium containing dusts. Also the group of man-made mineral (MMMFs) or vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments, microfibres, refractory ceramic fibres are bioactive under certain experimental conditions. Although it has been shown that MMMFs may cause malignancies when injected intraperitoneally in high quantities in rodents, inhalation trials and human studies could not reproduce these results in the same precision. Fine particles (particulate matter = PM) comprise one of the most widespread and harmful air pollutants in the industrialized world. PM may cause worsening of asthma and other respiratory diseases, reduce lung function development in children, potentially increased the risk of premature death in the elderly and enhance mortality from cardiac diseases. Because of the small size PM2.5 is seen to be even more hazardous than PM10.

  16. Inhalation delivery of asthma drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, H

    1990-01-01

    In the immediate future, metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) with spacers remain the aerosol application of choice for topical steroids, mainly to reduce side effects. For beta 2-agonist, anticholinergics and prophylactic drugs, MDI (with or without demand valve), dry powder inhalers (multidose inhalers), ultrasonic or jet aerosol generators (with or without mechanical breathing assistance [IPPB]) are chosen according to the preference or the ability of the patients to perform the necessary breathing maneuvers as well as the availability of different products in different countries.

  17. 高压喷射氧雾化吸入沐舒坦对慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期痰液性状的影响%The Effects of Ambroxol Mucosolvan Inhalated by High-pressure Jet Oxygen Atomization to Sputum Properties in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease During Acute Aggravating Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉平; 周向东

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of Ambroxol mucosolvan inhalated by High-pressure jet oxygen atomization to the physical and chemical properties of sputum in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during acute aggravating period. Method 72 cases of COPD patients with acute aggravating period to give an easy high-pressure jet oxygen atomization inhalation,bathing separately col ected before detect atomization,1 hours after atomization sputum volume,wet/dry weight and viscosity. Results After oxygen atomization,oxygen atomization before amount of sputum,sputum viscosity,sputum dry/wet weight had significant dif erence (p<0.05), and inflammatory biomarkers of neutrophil (PMN) combined with elastic enzyme membrane(HLE) has no obvious change. Conclusion High-pressure jet oxygen atomization inhalation of Ambroxol mucosolvan with dilute sputum and increased sputum volume effect,so as to ease of airway obstruction caused by high mucus secretion,relieve the patient's clinical symptoms,but the inhibition effect of the inflammatory response in the airways of has yet to be further research.%目的:观察高压喷射氧雾化吸入沐舒坦对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)急性加重期患者痰液理化性质的作用。方法72例COPD急性加重期患者给予沐舒坦高压喷射氧雾化吸入,分别收集检测雾化前、雾化后1h痰液量、干/湿重及黏度。结果氧雾化前与雾化后的痰液量、痰液黏度、痰液干/湿重均有明显差异(P<0.05)。而炎症指标中性粒细胞(PMN)膜结合弹力酶(HLE)无明显改变。结论高压喷射氧雾化吸入沐舒坦有稀释痰液、增加排痰量的作用。从而缓解黏液高分泌所致的气道阻塞、减轻患者的临床症状,但抑制气道炎症反应的作用尚无明确证据。

  18. Airway Management and Smoke Inhalation Injury in the Burn Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    technetium-99m DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy . Eur J Nucl Med 1997;24:125–9. 31. Whitener DR, Whitener LM, Robertson KJ, et al. Pulmonary...Xenon133 is a radioactive tracer that is injected intravenously and exhaled from the lungs . Using xenon133 permits visualization of an injury process...injury: prediction of acute lung injury. Surg Endosc 2004;18:1377–79. Fig. 4. (A, B) Typical appearance of the carina during fiberoptic bronchoscopic

  19. Fluticasone and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... it from the foil overwrap or after every blister has been used (when the dose indicator reads ...

  20. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.

  1. Survivor from asphyxiation due to helium inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Etteri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this rare case report we describe a 27- year-old white man survived to suicide by asphyxiation using the so-called suicide bag (or exit bag filled with helium supplied through a plastic tube. He had no previous psychiatric or organic illnesses. At the time of presentation to our Emergency Department he was awake and reported severe dyspnea with a clinical pattern of acute respiratory failure. Imaging studies showed pulmonary edema and the patient was treated with non-invasive ventilation in Intensive Care Unit. After 15 days the patient was discharged from hospital in optimal conditions. These rare cases of survivor might suggest the possible causes of death from inhaling helium.

  2. Dynamics of Structural Parameters and Accumulation of Collagen Fibrils in Rat Lung after Inhalations of Surfactant-BL at Various Terms of Bleomycin-Induced Alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchkov, V A; Dubrovskaya, V F; Valkovich, A A; Klestova, O V; Serzhanina, V A; Zhuikov, A G; Seiliev, A A; Rosenberg, O A

    2016-08-01

    Rats were subjected to surfactant-BL inhalations at the early and late phases of bleomycininduced alveolitis. In both regimens, the drug reduced the severity of inflammation. In the acute phase of alveolitis, the therapeutic effect of inhalation was accompanied by activation of the synthesis of fine lose collagen fibrils. In the late phase of alveolitis, inhalation of surfactant-BL thickened the fibrils and diminished their population in alveolar walls.

  3. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl 2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection.

  4. 犬烟雾吸入伤早期肺洗出液对大鼠肺损伤作用的研究%Role of BALF from dogs with acute severe smoke inhalation injury in ind ucing lung injury of normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂发传; 杨宗城; 刘志远; 罗奇志; 黄跃生

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the existence, intensit y and persisting time of biologic activity of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF ) collected from dogs with acute severe smoke inhalation injury in early post-i njury stage. Methods BALF was collected 1 h after the est ablishment of acute severe sawdust smoke inhalation injury in 5 dogs, and the fl uid was perfused into the lungs of Wistar rats in the amount of 5 ml/kg (gro up C). Normal saline (group A) and BALF from normal dog (group B) were perfused into the lungs of rats and served as control. The respiratory rate, PaO2, lung water content and the expanding stability of lungs in all rats were determ ined at the time points of 4,12 and 24 h after the purfusion. Results  Compared with the rats in group A and B, the rats in group C had higher mortality, wider range in RR, higher lung water content, PaO2 decreased obviou sly and lower lung expanding stability. The rats in control groups showed sl i ght mechanic obstruction in their airways in the course of experiment. Meanwhile ,the rats in group C showed higher oxidative activities and lower total anti-o xidative activities in lung tissues. Conclusion It is certai n that the BALF collected from dogs with acute severe smoke inhalation injury in early post-injury stage could induce obvious injury in lung structure of norma l rats, showing certain mechanic obstruction in small airways. The injuring act ivity of the BALF can be alleviated ultimately 24 h after the perfusion of the B ALF.%目的研究犬烟雾吸入伤早期肺洗出液是否具有生物学活性及其活性强度和持续时间。方法建立犬急性重度烟雾吸入伤模型,伤后1 h对伤肺进行生理盐水大容量灌洗。将一定量之洗出液经气管注入正常大鼠气道,观察自主呼吸24 h间大鼠呼吸频率、血气及离体肺含水量和肺泡稳定性等变化。结果与正常大鼠、等容量生理盐水或正常犬肺洗出液气道灌注大鼠相比,用

  5. The curative effect of budesonide combined with salbutamol atomization inhalation in treatment of acute attack of bronchial asthma%布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘急性发作的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊锋; 庚俐莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘急性发作的疗效。方法选取支气管哮喘急性发作患者80例采用随机数字表分为观察组(布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗)和对照组(沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗),每组各40例,观察并比较两组患者治疗前后FEV1和FVC的变化及两组患者咳嗽、胸闷、气短消失时间及哮鸣音消失时间,并进行疗效评价。结果观察组患者的FEV1和FVC均较治疗前及对照组显著改善(P<0.05)。观察组患咳嗽、胸闷、气短消失时间及哮鸣音消失时间均显著快于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组的总有效率达95.00%,显著高于对照组75.00%(P<0.05)。结论布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘急性发作能明显改善患者的临床症状及肺功能,从而提高疗效。%Objective To investigate the curative effect of budesonide combined with salbutamol atomization inhalation in treatment of acute attack of bronchial asthma. Methods Selected 80 patients with acute attack of bronchial asthma were randomly divided into observation group(budesonide combined with salbutamol atomization inhalation therapy) and control group (salbutamol treatment), 40 patients in each group,changes of FEV1 and FVC and cough, chest tightness, shortness of breath group disappearance time and wheeze disappeared time were compared, and valuated the curative effect.Results After treatment,the FEV1 and FVC improved significantly than before treatment and control group(P<0.05).The cough, chest tightness, shortness of breath, lost time and wheeze disappeared time of observation group was significantly faster than the control group(P<0.05).The total effective rate of the observation group was 95.00%, significantly higher than 75.00% the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Inhaled budesonide combined with salbutamol in treatment acute attack of bronchial asthma curative effect

  6. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KB] Using a metered dose inhaler one to two inches from mouth Your browser does not support iframes Using a metered dose inhaler one to two inches from mouth [PDF - 356 KB] Your browser ...

  7. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant abuse and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. References Baydala L. Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;15:443. Results from the 2013 ...

  8. Bronchoscopy-derived correlates of lung injury following inhalational injuries: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI is a major factor determining morbidity following burns and inhalational injury. In experimental models, factors potentially contributing to ALI risk include inhalation of toxins directly causing cell damage; inflammation; and infection. However, few studies have been done in humans. METHODS: We carried out a prospective observational study of patients admitted to the NC Jaycees Burn Center who were intubated and on mechanical ventilation for burns and suspected inhalational injury. Subjects were enrolled over an 8-month period and followed till discharge or death. Serial bronchial washings from clinically-indicated bronchoscopies were collected and analyzed for markers of cell injury and inflammation. These markers were compared with clinical markers of ALI. RESULTS: Forty-three consecutive patients were studied, with a spectrum of burn and inhalation injury severity. Visible soot at initial bronchoscopy and gram negative bacteria in the lower respiratory tract were associated with ALI in univariate analyses. Subsequent multivariate analysis also controlled for % body surface area burns, infection, and inhalation severity. Elevated IL-10 and reduced IL-12p70 in bronchial washings were statistically significantly associated with ALI. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of several factors including initial inhalational injury severity, infection, and extent of surface burns, high early levels of IL-10 and low levels of IL-12p70 in the central airways are associated with ALI in patients intubated after acute burn/inhalation injury. Lower airway secretions can be collected serially in critically ill burn/inhalation injury patients and may yield important clues to specific pathophysiologic pathways.

  9. [ECG indices in dogs after inhalation of 239Pu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, V N

    1985-11-01

    Dogs of both sexes aged 2 to 4 were subjected to inhalation inoculation with polymer 239Pu or submicron 239PuO2 aerosols in amounts close to acute, subacute and chronically effective ones. ECG was recorded in standard, amplified and single leads (V3). All calculations were done by lead II. Signs of the right heart overburdening were noted in the presence of the P-pulmonale complex, deep S1 wave or cardiac electrical axis of SI-SII-SIII type. Signs of the right heart overburdening were revealed after inhalation of polimer 239Pu (70%). The absence of similar changes in damage caused by 239Pu could be attributed to its fast resorption from the lungs resulting in more moderate lesion of the respiratory organs.

  10. Variation and clinical application value of fluoride concentrations in the serum and urine in patients with acute organic fluoride poisoning by inhaling%急性有机氟吸入中毒患者血尿氟浓度变化及临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳月珍; 陈寿权; 李章平

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察并比较不同程度急性有机氟吸入中毒患者在不同时间血、尿氟质量浓度的动态变化,探讨血、尿氟质量浓度测定在急性有机氟吸入中毒诊治中的临床应用价值.方法 分析2000年12月至2008年12月间浙江衢化医院收住的23例急性有机氟吸入中毒患者的临床资料,根据职业性急性有机氟中毒诊断标准(GBZ66-2002)分为轻度、中度和重度中毒组,采用离子选择性电极法动态检测中毒后1,2,3,4,5 d的血、尿氟质量浓度,同时测定同期在氟化工公司工作的10例健康员工血、尿氟离子质量浓度作为对照组,分析比较不同组和不同时间点的血、尿氟质量浓度变化.多组均数间的差异性比较采用重复测量方差分析,以P<0.05为差异具有统计学意义.结果 与轻度中毒组同时间点比较,中度中毒组血、尿氟离子质量浓度在第1~5天差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),而重度中毒组血、尿氟离子质量浓度在第1~5天差异均具统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).与中度中毒组同时间点比较,重度中毒组血、尿氟离子质量浓度在第1~5天差异也均有统计学意义(P<0.005).各中毒组血氟离子质量浓度在第1~5天均较对照组有统计学意义的升高(P<0.05),而尿氟离子质量浓度仅在轻度中毒组第1天、中度中毒组第1~3天和重度中毒组第1~5天有统计学意义的升高(P<0.05).结论 急性有机氟吸入中毒后的5 d内,血氟离子质量浓度测定可作为诊断和判定严重程度的指标,尿氟离子质量浓度可作为中毒的诊断指标,但仅在中毒早期或重度中毒有意义.%Objective To investigate the changes of serum and urine fluorion organic fluoride poisoning by inhaling, and to probe into the clinical application value of concentrations in different degrees and at different time in patients with acute evaluating the sertm and urine fluorion concentration in acute organic

  11. An Observation on Clinical Effect of Inhaled Drugs on Mild-moderate Acute Attack of Bronchial Asthma in Pregnancy%吸入性药物在妊娠期支气管哮喘轻中度急性发作中的临床治疗效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖锦斌; 叶文慧; 刘慧华

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and investigate the clinical therapeutic effect of inhaled drugs on mild-moderate acute attack of bronchial asthma in pregnancy .Methods:68 pregnany women with bronchial asthma received in some hospital during the period from January 2010 to January 2015 were taken as the research ob-ject,and these patients were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group,with 34 pa-tients in each group.In the control group,the patients inhaled aerosol salbutamol while in the observation group,on the basis of the treatment in the control group,the patients inhaled aerosol budesonide .Then, compare the clinical effects in these two groups.Results:The asthma rale disappearance time,wheezing rale disappearance time were earlier and hospitalization time and other indicators in the observation group were shorter than that in the control group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 );after treatment,no nausea,vomiting,voice hoarse and other adverse reaction occurred to none of the patients in these two groups.Conclusion:If mild-moderate bronchial asthma acts up to pregnant women,to treat them with the inhaled drugs can relieve airway spasm and improve patients'clinical symptoms and reduce the ad-verse effects of hormones on pregnancy.%目的:分析探讨妊娠合并支气管哮喘轻中度急性发作中使用吸入性药物的临床治疗效果。方法:选取某院于2010年1月~2015年1月收治的68例支气管哮喘孕妇作为研究对象,随机分为对照组和观察组,各组34例,对照组患者给予沙丁胺醇雾化吸入,观察组在对照组基础上加用布地奈德吸入剂治疗,比较两组患者的临床治疗效果。结果:观察组的喘憋消失时间、哮鸣音消失时间、住院时间等指标均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者治疗后均无恶心、呕吐、声音嘶哑等不良反应发生。结论:当孕妇妊娠期出现支气管哮喘轻

  12. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  13. Reproduction and evaluation of a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-fan LIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce and evaluate a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog. Methods The smog composition was analyzed and a rat model of inhalation lung injury was reproduced. Forty two healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC group and 1h, 2h, 6h, 24h, 48h and 96h after inhalation group (n=6. The arterial blood gas, wet to dry weight ratio (W/D of lung, leukocyte count, and protein concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF were determined. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in lung tissue were observed. Results The composition of black gunpowder smog was composed mainly of CO2 and CO, and their concentrations remained stable within 12 minutes. Smog inhalation caused a significant hypoxemia, the concentration of blood COHb reached a peak value 1h, and the W/D of lung reached peak value 2h after inhalation (P<0.05. The amount of leukocytes and content of protein in BALF increased significantly within 24h after inhalation (P<0.05. Histopathological observation showed diffuse hemorrhage, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue as manifestations of acute lung injury, and the injury did not recover at 96h after inhalation. Conclusion The rat model of inhalation lung injury can be reproduced using black gunpowder smog, and it has the advantages of its readiness for reproduction, reliability and stability, and it could be used for the experiment of inhalation injury in a battlefield environment.

  14. The clinical observation of combination chemotherapy of salbutamol and budesonide in aerosol inhalation treatment of acute attack of bronchial asthma%布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘急性发作的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周曦

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘急性发作的临床疗效.方法:将63例急性发作期支气管哮喘患者随机分为2组,其中对照组30例单用沙丁胺醇雾化吸入,治疗组33例在对照组的基础上加用布地奈德.比较2组患者的总体疗效、主要症状、体征持续时间及肺功能变化情况.结果:对照组总有效率为86.67%,治疗组总有效率93.94%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗组的胸闷、气短、咳嗽、肺哮鸣音等症状、体征消失时间均较对照组明显缩短;2组患者治疗后第一秒用力呼气容积、用力肺活量、呼气峰流速均显著升高(P<0.01),且治疗组肺功能改善较对照组更明显(P<0.01).结论:布地奈德联合沙丁胺醇雾化吸入治疗支气管哮喘,可明显改善症状,增强肺功能,值得临床推广应用.%Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of inhalation treatment with salbutamol and budesonide combination for acute attack of bronchial asthma. Methods:Sixty-three cases of acute attack of bronchial asthma were randomly divided into two groups, 30 patients in control group with salbutamol inhalation,33 patients in treatment group treated with salbutamol combined with budesonide.The overall efficacy, main symptoms, sign duration time and the changes of lung function in the two groups were compared. Results:The total effective rate was 86.67% and 93.94% in control group and treatment group, respectively, there was no statistical difference in the two groups( P > 0.05 ). In treatment group, chest tightness, shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing and other lung symptoms, sign disappeared time were significantly shortened compared with control group. The first second forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow after treatment were significantly higher than before treatment in the two groups( P < 0.01 ), and the lung function in treatment group was improved more

  15. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Godara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same.

  16. Lack of micronucleus induction activity of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in the bone marrow of F344 rats by sub-chronic drinking-water treatment, inhalation exposure, or acute intraperitoneal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Tadashi; Kamigaito, Tomoyuki; Katagiri, Taku; Kondou, Hitomi; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is an oxygenated gasoline additive synthesized from ethanol and isobutene that is used to reduce CO2 emissions. To support the Kyoto Protocol, the production of ETBE has undergone a marked increase. Previous reports have indicated that exposure to ETBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether resulted in liver and kidney tumors in rats and/or mice. These reports raise concern about the effects of human exposure being brought about by the increased use of ETBE. The present study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of ETBE using micronucleus induction of polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of male and female rats treated with ETBE in the drinking-water at concentrations of 0, 1,600, 4,000 or 10,000 ppm or exposed to ETBE vapor at 0, 500, 1,500 or 5,000 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no significant increases in micronucleus induction in either the drinking water-administered or inhalation-administered groups at any concentration of ETBE; although, in both groups red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration were slightly reduced in the peripheral blood in rats administered the highest concentration of ETBE. In addition, two consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at doses of 0, 250, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg did not increase the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells in either sex; all rats receiving intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg died after treatment day 1. These data suggest that ETBE is not genotoxic in vivo.

  17. Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

  18. Respiratory irritation associated with inhalation of boron trifluoride and fluorosulfonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, G.M.; Bowden, A.M.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the respiratory irritancy of boron trifluoride (BF3) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSA) following acute inhalation exposure. Testing was conducted using groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (BF3) or groups of 6 male rats (FSA). Rats were exposed for a single 4

  19. Respiratory support and treatment of severe inhalation injury%重度吸入性损伤的呼吸支持与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭光华

    2013-01-01

    Although the study of inhalation injury is deepening gradually,its clinical treatment is still difficult,and its mortality rate remains high due to the complicated pathophysiologic characteristics.This article reviews the recent progress in research and treatment of inhalation injury,acute lung injury,and acute respiratory distress syndrome at home and abroad,focusing on the effect of mechanical ventilation models,including the non-invasive ventilation,lung protective ventilation,liquid ventilation,high frequency ventilation,on respiratory support in early stage of inhalation injury.The effects of medications for inhalation injury are summarized,and the prospect of stem cell therapy for inhalation injury is also discussed.

  20. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  1. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  2. Inhalation therapy in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P L

    2000-03-01

    Current consensus guidelines advocate the use of inhalation therapy for all children with asthma. In this paper, the published evidence on technical and practical aspects of inhalation therapy in children with asthma is reviewed. For children under 6 yr of age, nebulizers and metered dose inhaler (MDI)/spacer combinations can be used. Nebulizers are cumbersome, bulky, and difficult to operate. They require technical and hygienic maintenance. A number of studies has shown that nebulizers are no more effective in delivering bronchodilator therapy than MDI/spacer combinations. Thus, for young children with asthma, MDI/spacer combinations are the device of choice for inhalation therapy. Due to static charge, the output from plastic spacers is lower than that from metal spacers. Static charge on plastic spacers can be reduced by washing the spacer in detergent and allow it to drip dry. Most children aged 6 yr or over can use a dry powder inhaler (DPI) reliably. Modern DPIs require relatively low inspiratory flow rates for proper operation. Lung deposition from the Turbuhaler is twice as high as that from the Diskus, but the former device is slightly more difficult to operate than the latter. Many children with asthma have a poor inhalation technique. Because a reliable inhalation technique is the key to successful inhalation therapy, inhalation technique should be instructed carefully and checked repeatedly in every asthmatic child using an inhaler device.

  3. Lung vasodilatory response to inhaled iloprost in experimental pulmonary hypertension: amplification by different type phosphodiesterase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissmann Norbert

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inhaled prostanoids and phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors have been suggested for treatment of severe pulmonary hypertension. In catheterized rabbits with acute pulmonary hypertension induced by continuous infusion of the stable thromboxane analogue U46619, we asked whether sildenafil (PDE1/5/6 inhibitor, motapizone (PDE3 inhibitor or 8-Methoxymethyl-IBMX (PDE1 inhibitor synergize with inhaled iloprost. Inhalation of iloprost caused a transient pulmonary artery pressure decline, levelling off within per se ineffective dose of each PDE inhibitor (200 μg/kg × min 8-Methoxymethyl-IBMX, 1 μg/kg × min sildenafil, 5 μg/kg × min motapizone with subsequent iloprost nebulization, marked amplification of the prostanoid induced pulmonary vasodilatory response was noted and the area under the curve of PPA reduction was nearly threefold increased with all approaches, as compared to sole iloprost administration. Further amplification was achieved with the combination of inhaled iloprost with sildenafil plus motapizone, but not with sildenafil plus 8MM-IBMX. Systemic hemodynamics and gas exchange were not altered for all combinations. We conclude that co-administration of minute systemic doses of selective PDE inhibitors with inhaled iloprost markedly enhances and prolongs the pulmonary vasodilatory response to inhaled iloprost, with maintenance of pulmonary selectivity and ventilation perfusion matching. The prominent effect of sildenafil may be operative via both PDE1 and PDE5, and is further enhanced by co-application of a PDE3 inhibitor.

  4. Inhalational mercury toxicity from artisanal gold extraction reported to the Oregon poison center, 2002-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Matthew J; Decker, Stewart L; Horowitz, B Z

    2016-11-01

    Mercury exposure has been described among small-scale gold mining communities in developing countries, but reports of inhalational mercury toxicity among home gold extractors in the US remain uncommon. We sought to identify inhalational mercury exposures and toxicity among artisanal gold extractors. This is an observational case series of a single Poison Center database from 2002-2015. We review all cases of "mercury" or "mercury inhalation" exposures, with detailed description of a recent representative case. Nine cases were reported, with patients' ages ranging 32-81 years. Eight (89%) patients were male. Seven of eight (88%) patients with acute exposures reported pulmonary symptoms consistent with mercury vapor inhalation such as dyspnea and cough; two (29%) patients had severe toxicity requiring intubation. Four of six (67%) patients had markedly elevated whole blood mercury concentrations up to 346 mcg/L; each received a different chelation regimen. Four (44%) patients used methamphetamines at the time of their exposure. The case report describes a patient with elevated mercury concentrations who required intubation for hypoxic respiratory failure. He received chelation therapy based on chelator availability, with decreasing 24-hour urine mercury concentrations. The house where he was exposed remains uninhabitable from elevated ambient mercury vapor concentrations. Artisanal gold extraction may be associated with inhalational mercury toxicity, including elevated blood mercury concentrations and acute hypoxic lung injury requiring intubation.

  5. 布地奈德吸入与甲泼尼龙静脉应用治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期的对比研究%Contrast study between budesonide inhalation with methylperdnisolone intravenous in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维; 徐秋芬

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较布地奈德吸入与甲泼尼龙静脉应用治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)急性加重期的疗效及安全性.方法 将80例COPD急性加重期患者随机分为对照组和观察组,每组40例.在给予常规治疗的基础上,对照组采用甲泼尼龙静脉应用,观察组则采用布地奈德吸入治疗.观察并比较两组患者的短期与长期的疗效及症状评分、两组患者治疗前后第一秒用力呼气/用力肺活量(FEV1/FVC)以及最大呼气中期流量(MMEF)等肺功能及动脉血氧分压(PaO2)以及二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)等动脉血气分析指标.结果 与对照组比较,观察组近、远期疗效及症状评分等差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05);治疗后,两组患者肺功能、血气分析指标及气道反应性均改善显著(均P<0.05),但两组间差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05);观察组不良反应发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 糖皮质激素治疗COPD急性加重期疗效肯定,无论给药方式如何,均具有较好的近期及远期疗效,但在不良反应方面布地奈德吸入显著优于甲泼尼龙静脉应用.%Objective To compare the effect and safety between budesonide inhalation with methylperdnisolone intravenous in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(AECOPD).Methods 80 patients with AECOPD were divided into the control group and observation group randomly,each group 40 cases.Based on regular treatment,the patients in the control group received intravenous treatment of methylprednisolone,while patients in the observation group receive inhaled treatment of budesonide.The near-term and long-term effect,symptom score,and the indicators such as FEV1/FVC,MMEF,PaO2,PaCO2 and AHR were observed and compared beween the two groups before and after treatment.Results Compared with control group,there were no significant differences of short-term and long term treatment effects and symptom score in observation group

  6. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled generics, inhaled antidotes, the future of anti-infectives and the indications of inhaled pentamidine. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, N; Le Guen, P; Andrieu, V; Bardot, S; Ravilly, S; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-12-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF) organized its third "Aerosolstorming" in 2012. During the course of one day, different aspects of inhaled therapy were discussed, and these will be treated separately in two articles, this one being the first. Inhaled products represent a large volume of prescriptions both in the community and in hospital settings and they involve various specialties particularly ENT and respiratory care. Technical aspects of the development of these products, their mode of administration and compliance with their indications are key elements for the effective therapeutic use of inhaled treatments. In this first article, we will review issues concerning generic inhaled products, the existence of inhaled antidotes, new anti-infective agents and indications for inhaled pentamidine.

  7. Sinusitis (acute)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  8. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, improve lung function, and reduce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity more effectively than other treatments. However, inhaled corticosteroids may be unable to return lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity...... of the disease. Therefore, a change in treatment strategy toward earlier introduction of corticosteroids may impede airway remodeling, bronchial hyperreactivity, and airway damage. No other treatment has been found to affect the course of the disease. Systemic side-effects, particularly inhibition of growth...... in asthmatic children using inhaled corticosteroids, do not seem to be cause for concern. Growth retardation has not been reported when inhaled corticosteroid doses of

  9. Impact of Inhalation of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Vascular Endothelial Cell Function, Platelet Function and Thrombosis of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke%吸入外源性一氧化氮对急性缺血性卒中患者血管内皮细胞功能、血小板功能及血栓形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春亭; 王朝晖

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of inhalation of exogenous nitric oxide on vascular endothelial cell function,platelet function and thrombosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods From September 2013 to January 2015,a total of 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke were selected in the Second Department of Neurology,Hanyang Hospital Affiliated to Wuhan University of Science and Technology,and they were randomly divided into control group and observation group,each of 50 cases. Patients of both groups were given conventional antithrombotic treatment after admission,while patients of observation group were given extra inhalation of exogenous nitric oxide for 5 days. Index of vascular endothelial cell function (including APC,sICAM-1 and vWF)before and after treatment,index of platelet function(including platelet aggregation rate, P - selectin and platelet granule membrane glycoproteins)before and after treatment,and incidence of phlebothrombosis during the 6 - month follow - up were compared between the two groups. Results No statistically significant differences of plasma level of APC,sICAM-1 or vWF was found between the two groups before treatment(P > 0. 05);after treatment,plasma APC level of observation group was statistically significantly higher that of control group,while plasma levels of sICAM-1 and vWF of observation group were statistically significantly lower than those of control group( P 0. 05),while platelet aggregation rate,plasma levels of P - selectin and platelet granule membrane glycoproteins of observation group were statistically significantly lower than those of control group after treatment(P 0.05);治疗后观察组患者血浆APC水平高于对照组,血浆sICAM-1和vWF水平低于对照组(P0.05);治疗后观察组患者血小板聚集率及血浆P-选择素和血小板颗粒膜糖蛋白水平低于对照组(P<0.05).随访半年,观察组患者静脉血栓发生率为2%,低于对照组的10%(P<0.05).治疗期间观察组患

  10. Progress in treatment of acute lung injury with inhaled perfluorocarbons%全氟化碳吸入治疗急性肺损伤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐顺贵; 吴国明; 徐智; 钱桂生

    2007-01-01

    急性肺损伤(acute lung injury,ALI)发病机制复杂,目前临床治疗尚未取得实质性进展,呼吸支持仍是其主要治疗手段之一,但疗效有限.全氟化碳具有特殊的理化和生物学性质,近年来,在液体通气的基础上进一步发展了全氟化碳吸入的新疗法,研究表明该疗法较常规机械通气具有明显的优势,不仅能有效改善ALI的氧合障碍、肺顺应性降低等病理生理改变,而且能拮抗肺部炎症反应,显示了良好的应用前景.

  11. Inhalation anaesthetics and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Sander, S P; Nielsen, O J

    2010-01-01

    Although the increasing abundance of CO(2) in our atmosphere is the main driver of the observed climate change, it is the cumulative effect of all forcing agents that dictate the direction and magnitude of the change, and many smaller contributors are also at play. Isoflurane, desflurane......, and sevoflurane are widely used inhalation anaesthetics. Emissions of these compounds contribute to radiative forcing of climate change. To quantitatively assess the impact of the anaesthetics on the forcing of climate, detailed information on their properties of heat (infrared, IR) absorption and atmospheric...

  12. Activity and Safety of Inhaled Itraconazole Nanosuspension in a Model Pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus Infection in Inoculated Young Quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlaź, Piotr; Knaga, Sebastian; Kasperek, Kornel; Wlaź, Aleksandra; Poleszak, Ewa; Jeżewska-Witkowska, Grażyna; Winiarczyk, Stanisław; Wyska, Elżbieta; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Rundfeldt, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is frequently reported in parrots, falcons, and other birds held in captivity. Inhalation is the main route of infection for Aspergillus fumigatus, resulting in both acute and chronic disease conditions. Itraconazole (ITRA) is an antifungal commonly used in birds, but its administration requires repeated oral dosing, and the safety margin is narrow. To investigate the efficacy of inhaled ITRA, six groups of ten young quails (Coturnix japonica) were inoculated intratracheally with 5 × 10(6) spores (3 groups) or 5 × 10(7) spores (3 groups). Animals were exposed to nebulized ITRA nanosuspension as 10 % suspension or 4 % suspension, once daily for 30 min, starting 2 h after inoculation for 6 days. Control groups were exposed to nebulized saline for the same period of time. Survival and clinical scores were evaluated, and animals were subjected to gross pathology. In control animals, aspergillosis resulted in systemic disease without pulmonary or air sac granulomas. Animals died from multiple organ failure. Inhalation of 10 % ITRA nanosuspension blocked lethality and prevented disease-related symptoms in the quails exposed to the low dose of spores, while the disease course in quails inoculated with the high-spore dose was retarded. Inhalation of 4 % ITRA nanosuspension was less effective. Both inhalations were well tolerated, and gross pathology did not reveal signs of local toxicity. The data indicate that inhaled administration of 10 % ITRA nanosuspension is capable of alleviating an acute A. fumigatus infection in quails. A lower ITRA concentration may be only active in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.

  13. 吸入氢气对脓毒症小鼠急性肺损伤时肺组织Rho/ROCK通路的影响%Effect of inhalation of hydrogen gas on Rho/ROCK pathway in lung tissues of septic mice with acute lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红涛; 刘玲玲; 于洋; 谢克亮; 梁禹; 于泳浩

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of inhalation of hydrogen gas (H2) on Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway in lung tissues of septic mice with acute lung injury.Methods Forty male C57BL/6 mice,weighing 20-25 g,aged 6 weeks,were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 each) using a random number table:sham operation group (group Sh),sham operation + inhalation of H2 group (group H2),sepsis group (group S),and sepsis+ inhalation of H2 group (group S+H2).Sepsis was produced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).Both H2 and S+H2 groups inhaled 2% H2 for 1 h starting from 1 and 6 h after CLP.The mice in each group were sacrificed at 24 h after CLP.The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for determination of protein concentrations,polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count,and concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).The lung tissues were obtained for examination of the pathological changes which were scored and for determination of the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D ratio),activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD),malonaldehyde (MDA) level,the expression of Rho,ROCK1,ROCK2 and activated caspase-3,and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target protein 1 (MYPT-1) (by Western blot).Results Compared with group Sh,the concentrations of protein,PMN count,and concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β in BALF,lung injury score,W/D ratio,and levels of MPO and MDA in lung tissues were significantly increased,the activity of SOD in lung tissues was significantly decreased,the expression of Rho,ROCK1,ROCK2 and activated caspase-3 was significantly upregulated,and the phosphorylation of MYPT-1 in lung tissues was significantly increased in S and S+H2 groups (P<0.05),and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in group H2 (P>0.05).Compared with group S,the concentrations of protein,PMN count,and concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β in BALF,lung injury

  14. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  15. Demographic Variability of Inhalation Mechanics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    discussion of findings from the literature review and recommendations for inhalation modeling conclude the section. 4.1. OVERVIEW Gender is an important ...roughly equal between the two genders . Additionally, the literature indicates that there are significant differences in the trachea between women and...influencing inhalation mechanics considered are age, gender , body size and height, ethnicity, smoking, altitude exposure, pregnancy, and lung

  16. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinsasser, N. H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects.The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases.Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction.

  17. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in adults working in substance existing places. Inhalant usage is common in disadvantaged groups, children living in street, people with history of crimes, prison, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes and conflict of family, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence and isolated populations. Inhalants are absorbed from lungs, after performing their quick and short effect metabolized by cytochrom P450 enzyme system except inhalant nitrites group which has a depressing effect like alcohol. In chronic use general atrophy, ventricular dilatation and wide sulcus were shown in cerebrum, cerebellum and pons by monitoring brain. Defects are mostly in periventricular, subcortical regions and in white matter. Demyelinization, hyperintensity, callosal slimming and wearing off in white and gray matter margins was also found. Ravages of brain shown by brain monitorisation are more and serious in inhalant dependence than in other dependences. It is important to decrease use of inhalants. Different approaches should be used for subcultures and groups in prevention. Prohibiting all the matters including inhalant is not practical as there are too many substances including inhalants. Etiquettes showing harmful materials can be used but this approach can also lead the children and adolescents recognize these substances easily.. Despite determintal effects of inhalant dependence, there are not yet sufficient number of studies conducted on prevention and

  18. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and those using hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs as propellants, which have been shown to be as safe and effective as CFC-containing inhalers and even offer interesting advantages over older inhalers. The transition to non-CFC MDIs requires a major effort to make the new products available and to ensure adequate comparision with the previous ones. It also requires a harmonization of actions taken by industry, government, licencing bodies and patients or health professional associations to ensure adequate information and education to the public and respiratory care providers.

  19. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... Health Effects Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  20. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lack of coordination, euphoria (a feeling of intense happiness), and dizziness. Some users also experience lightheadedness, hallucinations ( ... opioid abuse, cigarette and alcohol use among the nation’s youth. This publication is available for your use ...

  1. 不同雾化吸入方式对慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性期的临床护理疗效分析%Efficacy analysis of the clinical care of the different aerosol inhalation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in acute phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰娜

    2012-01-01

      目的分析探讨不同雾化吸入方式对 COPD 急性期的临床护理疗效.方法将120例笔者所在医院治疗的 COPD患者随机分为对照组及观察组,对照组给予超声雾化吸入治疗,观察组给予氧驱动雾化吸入治疗.结果两组患者治疗前 PaO2、PaCO2、SO23项指标比较差异均无统计学意义.治疗第3天时两组 PaO2、SO2均出现显著的提升,观察组两项指标显著高于对照组,两组间比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);治疗第7、14天时观察组 PaO2、SO2显著高于对照组,两组间比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);观察组在第7、14天的 PaCO2显著低于对照组,两组间比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).对照组显效33例(55.0%),有效17例(28.3%),总有效率83.3%;观察组显效38例(63.3%),有效20例(33.3%),总有效率为96.7%,观察组显著高于对照组,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).结论氧驱动雾化吸入与超声雾化相比较,能更好的改善 COPD 患者肺通气换气功能,提高 COPD 治疗的总有效率,应在临床推广使用.%  Objective To explore the clinical care efficacy of the different aerosol inhalation on patients with COPD in acute phase. Methods 120 patients with COPD in our hospital were randomly divided into control group and observation group.The control group was treated with ultrasound inhalation therapy, and the observation group were treated with oxygen-driven inhalation therapy. Results PaO2, PaCO2, SO2 of the two groups before treatment had no significant difference in treatment on day 3.PaO2 and SO2 of two groups were significantly improved, but the two indicators of the observation group was significantly higher (P <0.05).The 7th and 14th days of treatment, PaO2 and SO2 of the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group(P <0.05). PaCO2 of observation group was significantly lower, and there were significant

  2. Inhaler device preferences in older adults with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient preferences are important for medication adherence and patient satisfaction, but little is known about older adult preferences for inhaler devices. Methods: We developed a 25-item written self-administered questionnaire assessing experience with inhalers, prior inhaler education, and preferences with respect to inhaler device features and inhaler device teaching. We then conducted a cross-sectional survey of patients at least 65 years of age with chronic lung disease who had experience using inhaler devices for at least six months in the ambulatory setting. Results: Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. The majority of participants (80% reported prior experience with a metered dose inhaler (MDI, but only 26% used an MDI with a spacer. Most patients (76% had received formal instruction regarding proper use of the inhaler, but only 34% had ever been asked to demonstrate their inhaler technique. Physician recommendation for an inhaler, cost of the inhaler device, and inhaler features related to convenience were important with respect to patient preferences. With regard to inhaler education, participants prefer verbal instruction and/or hands-on demonstration at the time a new inhaler is prescribed in the setting of the prescribing provider’s office. Conclusion: Patient preferences for inhaler devices and inhaler education among older adults indicate physician recommendation, cost, and convenience are important. The impact of patient preferences on inhaler adherence and clinical outcomes remains unknown.

  3. Atomization Inhalation of Terbutaline and Budesonide Efficiently Improved Immunity and Lung Function of AECOPD Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guilan Xiong; Lijun Xu; Liu Wei; Xiaodan Li

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a syndrome of chronic progressive airflow limitation as a result of chronic inflammation of the airways and lung parenchyma. COPD patients always have airway hyperreactivity (AHR), so how to reduce AHR becomes the key purpose of clinical treatment. It is hypothesized that combined inhalation of corticosteroids andβ2-agonists can reduce the AHR in COPD. In this study, atomization inhalation of budesonide and terbutaline plus conventional therapies was applied to treat AECOPD (acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) patients for two weeks. The results showed that additional inhalation of budesonide and terbutaline could upregulate serum IL-2 levels, the percentages of CD3+ T and CD4+ T cells, and CD4/CD8 ratio, and decrease eosinophils and serum CRP level more efficiently than conventional treatment in patients with AECOPD. And the lung function of the atomization inhalation group was improved more obviously after the treatment compared with the conventional treatment group. Thus, atomization inhalation of terbutaline and budesonide can control AECOPD effectively, and has wide clinical perspective in controlling and preventing the exacerbation of COPD. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(4):287-291.

  4. Effects of nitric oxide inhalation on pulmonary serial vascular resistances in ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, M; Guénard, H; Gabinski, C

    1996-11-01

    The pulmonary vasculature site of action of nitric oxide (NO) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still unknown. Seven patients were studied during the early stage of ARDS. The bedside pulmonary artery single-occlusion technique, which allows estimation of the pulmonary capillary pressure (Pcap) and segmental pulmonary vascular resistance, was used without NO or with increasing inhaled NO concentrations (15 and 25 parts per million [ppm]). Systemic circulatory parameters remained unaltered during 15 ppm NO inhalation, whereas 25 ppm NO inhalation slightly decreased mean systemic arterial pressure from 76.7 +/- 5.1 (mean +/- SEM) to 69 +/- 5.2 mm Hg (p resistance decreased by 28% (p resistance of the capillary-venous compartment fell during 25 ppm NO inhalation from 100 +/- 16 to 47 +/- 16 dyn x s x m(2) x cm(-5) (p resistance was unchanged. In these patients NO inhalation during the early stage of ARDS reduces selectively Ppam and Pcapm by decreasing the pulmonary capillary-venous resistance. This latter effect may reduce the filtration through the capillary bed and hence alveolar edema during ARDS.

  5. Inhalation devices and patient interface: human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Stefan; Parkins, David; Lastow, Orest

    2015-03-01

    The development of any inhalation product that does not consider the patient needs will fail. The needs of the patients must be identified and aligned with engineering options and physical laws to achieve a robust and intuitive-to-use inhaler. A close interaction between development disciplines and real-use evaluations in clinical studies or in human factor studies is suggested. The same holds true when a marketed product needs to be changed. Caution is warranted if an inhaler change leads to a change in the way the patient handles the device. Finally, the article points out potential problems if many inhaler designs are available. Do they confuse the patients? Can patients recall the correct handling of each inhaler they use? How large is the risk that different inhaler designs pose to the public health? The presentations were given at the Orlando Inhalation Conference: Approaches in International Regulation co-organised by the University of Florida and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation & Science (IPAC-RS) in March 2014.

  6. Emerging inhaled bronchodilators: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, M; Matera, M G

    2009-09-01

    Bronchodilators remain central to the symptomatic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and, for this reason and also because the patent protection of many bronchodilators has expired, several companies have reinitiated research into the field. The only limits set for the development of a long-lasting bronchodilator with a new product profile are medical needs and marketing opportunities. The incorporation of once-daily dose administration is an important strategy for improving adherence and is a regimen preferred by most patients. A variety of beta(2)-agonists and antimuscarinic agents with longer half-lives and inhalers containing a combination of several classes of long-acting bronchodilator are currently under development. The present article reviews all of the most important compounds under development, describing what has been done and discussing their genuine advantage.

  7. The Clinical Curative Effect of Combination Inhaled Corticosteroid and Systemic Corticosteroids at acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease%应用吸入性联合全身激素治疗慢性阻塞性肺病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勋; 赵苏

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical results on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease using combination inhaled corticosteroid and systemic corticosteroids therapy .Methods :This study of 90 cases selected objects ,all selected from our hospital in May 2010 to May 2012 ,and treated as a-cute into two groups (local combined with systemic corticosteroids therapy ) 50 patients and the control group (systemic corticosteroids therapy alone) 40 cases .Results:The 50 cases were cured in 36 cases ,markedly ef-fective in 12 cases ,effective in 2 cases ,the total effective rate was 95% control group ,40 cases were cured in 24 cases ,markedly effective in 10 cases ,effective in 5 cases ,invalid in 1 case ,the total effective ralte was 85% .The total effective observtion group was significantly higher (P<0 0.5) .Before treatment ,the obser-vation group and control group FEV1/L levels ,(FEV1/FVC)% levels ,PaO2 level ,PaCO2 levels and serum procalctionin levels were not significantly different .After treatment , the improvement in the observation group was significantly better than the control group ,the difference was statistically significance (P<0 0.5) . Conclusion :Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using systemic corticosteroids com-bined with local corticosteroids therapy can significantly improve clinical outcomes ,improve lung function , with a high clinical value .%目的:观察慢性阻塞性肺病急性加重期采用吸入性联合全身激素治疗的临床效果。方法:研究选择的对象共90例,均为我院2010年5月~2012年5月收治的慢性阻塞性肺病急性加重期的患者,在使用同等级抗生素及平喘治疗情况下,随机分为观察组(局部联合全身激素治疗)50例和对照组(单纯全身激素治疗)40例。结果:观察组50例中,显效36例,有效12例,无效2例,总有效率为95%;对照组40例中,显效24例,有效10例,无效6

  8. Effect of ultrasonic nebulization of Shuang Huanglian double injectaion in the treatment of acute and chronic pharyngitis by ultrasonic atomizing inhalation%双黄连注射液在急慢性咽喉炎超声雾化吸入治疗中的应用效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永平; 何峭生

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨双黄连注射液在急慢性咽喉炎超声雾化吸入治疗中的应用效果。方法选取2014年2月~2015年2月我院接诊的90例急慢性咽喉炎患者作为本次研究对象,按照随机数表法分为观察组和对照组。观察组加入双黄连注射液进行超声雾化吸入治疗,对照组加入氯化钠注射液和地塞米松治疗。观察两组患者治疗前后炎症因子水平变化情况及治疗后症状改善时间、病情复发情况和临床疗效。结果治疗后,两组患者炎症因子1L-1、1L-6和TNF-α均有所下降,观察组下降程度(112.28±15.37,89.27±12.31,177.22±26.13)pg/ml优于对照组(121.13±18.34,95.36±14.27,188.29±25.94) pg/ml,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组咽痒咽干、咽部异物感、疼痛充血、黏膜干燥的症状改善时间(3.92±1.28,4.28±1.14,4.65±1.41,4.39±1.15)d均低于对照组,观察组复发率2.22%(1/40)低于对照组13.33%(6/40),临床疗效93.33%(42/45)高于对照组77.78%(35/45),两组比较具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论双黄连注射液在急慢性咽喉炎超声雾化吸入治疗中有效显著的疗效,并且治疗后病情复发率低,值得在临床上应用推广。%ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of the application of the double Shuang Huanglian in jectaion in the treatment of acute and chronic pharyngitis by ultrasonic atom-izing inhalation.Methods90 cases of acute and chronic pharyngitis patients from February 2014 to February 2015 in our hospital as the research object,were divided into obser-vation group and control group randomly,the patients in the observation group were treated with ultrasonic nebulization of Shuang Huanglian injectaion and ultrasonic atomizing in-halation,while patients in the control group waswere treated with ultrasonic nebulization ofsodium chloride injection and dexamethasone.ResultsThe changes of inflammatory factors

  9. Airway irritation, inflammation, and toxicity in mice following inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren T; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Steen S

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are used in a broad range of industrial processes and workers may be exposed to aerosols of the particles both during production and handling. Despite the widespread use of these particles, relatively few studies have been performed to investigate the toxicological effects...... in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model. Mice were exposed 60 min to aerosols of either ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 or CeO2 and the deposited...... doses in the upper and lower respiratory tracts were calculated. Endpoints were acute airway irritation, pulmonary inflammation based on analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell composition, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay and pulmonary toxicity assessed by protein level in BAL fluid...

  10. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. I. Study objectives and inhalation exposure design.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, D E; Frank, F R; Fowler, E H; Troup, C M; Milton, R M

    1987-01-01

    Early reports from India indicated that humans were dying within minutes to a few hours from exposure to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Attempts to explain the cause(s) of these rapid mortalities is where Union Carbide Corporation concentrated its post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations. The MIC studies involving rats and guinea pigs focused primarily on the consequences of acute pulmonary damage. All MIC inhalation exposures were acute, of short duration (mainly 15 min), and high in concentration (...

  11. Inhaled Corticosteroids Increase the Risk of Pneumonia in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ming-Chia; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Chien, Shu-Chen; Chang, Jer-Hwa; She, Han-Lin; Wang, Jann-Yuan; YU, MING-CHIH

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The association of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still controversial. From the National Health Insurance Database of Taiwan, COPD cases with history of acute exacerbation (AE) were identified (COPD cohort). Time-dependent Cox regression analysis was applied to investigate the risk factors for pneumonia with COPD severity controlled by surrogate variables. Among the COPD cohort, those who continuously used ...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On: Walking Through the Steps and Standards 2. Getting Started 3. Describing and Focusing 3A. Focus On: ... a video to follow along with the correct way to use your metered dose inhaler. Print the ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... things that can cause an attack. Watch a video to follow along with the correct way to use your metered dose inhaler. Print the step-by-step instructions and keep them with your Asthma Action Plan. ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical ... Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer [ PDF - 377 KB] Your browser does not support iframes ...

  15. Inhaled iloprost for sarcoidosis associated pulmonary hypertension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baughman, R P; Judson, M A; Lower, E E; Highland, K; Kwon, S; Craft, N; Engel, P J

    2009-01-01

    .... To determine the rate of response to inhaled prostacyclin, iloprost, in SAPH. Sarcoidosis patients with pulmonary hypertension and no evidence for left ventricular dysfunction were enrolled in an open label, prospective study...

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Mixed Methods 5. Purpose Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia ... USA.gov Top

  17. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other medical professional tells you ... keep them with your Asthma Action Plan. Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer Your browser ...

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Mixed Methods 5. Purpose Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia ... USA.gov Top

  19. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other medical professional tells you ... keep them with your Asthma Action Plan. Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer Your browser ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most ... control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL ...

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  2. Inhalation anthrax in a home craftsman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffin, S C; Carnes, W H; Kaufmann, A F

    1978-09-01

    Inhalation anthrax with complicating subarachnoid hemorrhage due to simultaneous infection with two capsular biotypes of Bacillus anthracis of different virulence for the mouse is reported. The patient, a home craftsman, acquired his infection from imported animal-origin yarn.

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by ... you to do and by avoiding things that can cause an attack. Watch a video to follow ...

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among persons with active asthma Uncontrolled ...

  5. A retrospective study on drug utilization in patients with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma in adults at a tertiary teaching hospital in Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraju Thejur Jayadeva

    2016-01-01

    Results: Majority of the prescriptions irrespective of severity received inhalation β2 agonist (formoterol as a bronchodilator. Nebulization route was given for managing the acute exacerbations followed by inhalation route. Hydrocortisone was prescribed to all patients for managing acute exacerbations. Montelukast was used an adjuvant therapy. Most of them were prescribed combination therapy. Doxophylline was prescribed among all the methylxanthines.

  6. Inhalation anesthesia. What to learn from modelisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriaz, H

    1997-01-01

    Models describing pharmacokinetics of inhalational anesthetic agents have been developed, usually on Mapleson's description of the body as a collection of tissues characterised by their volume, local blood flow and anesthetic solubility. Such models are very useful to understand the use of inhalation agents and circle circuit, to compare consumption of different agents in different anesthetic practices, and to prepare the anesthetist to administer new products safely.

  7. Inhaler devices - from theory to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis, Joaquin; Corrigan, Chris; Levy, Mark L;

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of the factors determining lung deposition of aerosols provides background information required by health care providers when instructing patients to use their prescribed inhalers. We discuss differences in the optimal inhalation manoeuvres for each type of aerosol generator a...... and the difficulties patients face. Provision of short, clear instructions with demonstration of critical steps and checking technique during later clinical visits are necessary if these aerosolised medications are to be fully beneficial....

  8. Inhalational Monkeypox Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eBarnewall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An inhalation exposure system was characterized to deliver aerosolized monkeypox virus (MPXV, and a nonhuman primate (NHP inhalation monkeypox model was developed in cynomologus macaques. A head-only aerosol exposure system was characterized, and two sampling methods were evaluated: liquid impingement via an impinger and impaction via a gelatin filter. The aerosol concentrations obtained with the gelatin filter and impinger were virtually identical, indicating that either method is acceptable for sampling aerosols containing MPXV. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD was for individual aerosol tests in the aerosol system characterization and the NHP study ranged from 1.08 to 1.15 µm, indicating that the aerosol particles were of a sufficient size to reach the alveoli. Six cynomolgus macaques (four male and two female were used on study. The animals were aerosol exposed with MPXV and received doses between 2.51 x 104 to 9.28 x 105 plaque forming units (pfu inhaled. Four of the six animals died or were euthanized due to their moribund conditions. Both animals that received the lowest exposure doses survived to the end of the observation period. The inhalation LD50 was determined to be approximately 7.8 x 104 pfu inhaled. These data demonstrate that an inhalation MPXV infection model has been developed in the cynomolgus macaque with disease course and lethal dose similar to previously published data.

  9. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method. Several groups of experimental animals are exposed to the...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and the definitions in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards apply to this section. The following definitions also apply to this section....

  10. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, R A

    1999-08-01

    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared.

  11. Mass casualty acute pepper spray inhalation – Respiratory severity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Sweeting*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: While the respiratory complaint was perceived as being the most detrimental of all presenting complaints, there was an overall non-threatening outcome in all patients. The presenting respiratory complaints were mostly subjective with benign outcome. Although various risk factors associated with severity increase of respiratory status, were present in a few of the index cases patients, their affect was negligible with a resultant benign outcome.

  12. Acute Inhalation of Explosively Disseminated Carbon Fibers in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    diameter PVC pipe was extended from the exposure chamber to the center of a 20 m3 chamber. Full-size grenades were detonated in the 20 m3 chamber, and...the resulting aerosol cloud was drawn into the 300 L exposure chamber. Incorporated into the PVC pipe, between the two chambers, was a "Y" fitting...for total protein with the BioRadO protein assay, and for enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), and 8

  13. [Evoked potentials and inhalation anesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A; Russ, W; Hempelmann, G

    1988-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials can be affected by various factors including volatile anaesthetics. These effects have to be considered in order to give correct interpretations of the obtained data. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and auditory evoked potentials (AEP) will show strong alterations under general anaesthesia whereas brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are slightly affected. The effects of nitrous oxide, halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) after median nerve stimulation were studied in 35 healthy adult patients. pCO2 and tympanic membrane temperature were held constant. Simultaneous cervical and cortical SEP recording was performed using surface electrodes. After induction of anaesthesia SEP were recorded during normoventilation with 100% oxygen and after inhalation of 66.6% nitrous oxide. 10 patients received halothane at inspired concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%. After nitrous oxide had been replaced by oxygen, halothane was reduced in steps of 0.5%. SEP were recorded at the end of each period (15 min). Equipotent doses of enflurane or isoflurane were administered to 15 and 10 patients, respectively. Nitrous oxide depressed early cortical SEP amplitude. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane caused dose dependent increases of latencies. Reduction of amplitude was most pronounced with isoflurane. Using high doses of enflurane in oxygen cortical SEP showed unusual high amplitudes associated with marked increases of latencies. Even under high concentrations of volatile anaesthetics cervical SEP were minimally affected. The effects of anaesthetic gases have to be considered when SEP are recorded intraoperatively.

  14. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  15. Achieving consistent multiple daily low-dose Bacillus anthracis spore inhalation exposures in the rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E Barnewall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated low-level exposures to Bacillus anthracis could occur before or after the remediation of an environmental release. This is especially true for persistent agents such as Bacillus anthracis spores, the causative agent of anthrax. Studies were conducted to examine aerosol methods needed for consistent daily low aerosol concentrations to deliver a low-dose (less than 106 colony forming units (CFU of B. anthracis spores and included a pilot feasibility characterization study, acute exposure study, and a multiple fifteen day exposure study. This manuscript focuses on the state-of-the-science aerosol methodologies used to generate and aerosolize consistent daily low aerosol concentrations and resultant low inhalation doses. The pilot feasibility characterization study determined that the aerosol system was consistent and capable of producing very low aerosol concentrations. In the acute, single day exposure experiment, targeted inhaled doses of 1 x 102, 1 x 103, 1 x 104, and 1 x 105 CFU were used. In the multiple daily exposure experiment, rabbits were exposed multiple days to targeted inhaled doses of 1 x 102, 1 x 103, and 1 x 104 CFU. In all studies, targeted inhaled doses remained fairly consistent from rabbit to rabbit and day to day. The aerosol system produced aerosolized spores within the optimal mass median aerodynamic diameter particle size range to reach deep lung alveoli. Consistency of the inhaled dose was aided by monitoring and recording respiratory parameters during the exposure with real-time plethysmography. Overall, the presented results show that the animal aerosol system was stable and highly reproducible between different studies and multiple exposure days.

  16. Heroin inhalation-induced unilateral complete hippocampal stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoilid, Aurélien; Collongues, Nicolas; de Seze, Jérôme; Blanc, Fréderic

    2013-08-01

    A 33-year-old man presented to our clinic with amnesia 48 hours after his first heroin inhalation. Examination showed lateral tongue biting and anterograde amnesia demonstrated by impaired performance on verbal and visual Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised tests carried out 10 days after onset, suggesting hippocampal involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed 48 hours after heroin snorting and evoked cortical laminar necrosis (CLN) of the left hippocampus without vascular abnormality. This is the first description of complete hippocampal CLN as a complication subsequent to acute intranasal heroine abuse. While the pathogenic mechanism remains uncertain, our case provides a very specific MRI lesion pattern and highlights the risk of intranasal heroin uptake-induced neurological complication.

  17. Brugada syndrome unmasked by accidental inhalation of gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranjcec, Darko; Bergovec, Mijo; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the gene SCN5A can cause Brugada syndrome (BrS), which is an inherited form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We report the case of a 46-year-old patient, with no previous medical history, who had ventricular fibrillation after accidental inhalation of gasoline...... vapors. His electrocardiogram (ECG) showed a typical type-1 BrS pattern that persisted after the acute event. Genetic investigations allowed the identification of a novel SCN5A mutation leading to a frame-shift and early termination of the channel protein. Biochemical and cellular electrophysiology...... experiments confirmed the loss-of-function of the mutant allele. The patient was implanted with a cardioverter/defibrillator....

  18. Smoke inhalation injury during enclosed-space fires: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pecanha Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the tragic fire at a nightclub in the city of Santa Maria, Brazil, which culminated in the sudden death of 232 young people, we decided to review the literature regarding smoke inhalation injury caused by enclosed-space fires, which can be divided into direct thermal damage, carbon monoxide poisoning, and cyanide poisoning. Such injuries often call for immediate orotracheal intubation, either due to acute airway obstruction or due to a reduced level of consciousness. The diagnosis and the severity of the thermal injury can be determined by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The levels of gases and gas by-products in the bloodstream should be assessed as rapidly as possible, even while still at the scene of the incident. First responders can also treat carbon monoxide poisoning, with immediate administration of oxygen at 100%, as well as cyanide poisoning, with oxygen therapy and hydroxocobalamin injection

  19. Inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, B.J.; Allen, M.D.; Rebar, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the acute inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols were undertaken to aid in evaluating the health hazards associated with the proposed use of lithium metal in fusion reactors. Male and female F344/Lov rats, 9-12 wk of age, were exposed once for 4 h to concentrations of 2600, 2300, 1400, or 620 mg/m/sup 3/ of aerosol (MMAD = 0.69 ..mu..m, sigma/sub g/ = 1.45) that was approximately 80% lithium carbonate and 20% lithium hydroxide to determine the acute toxic effects. Fourteen-day LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of 1700 (1300-2000) mg/m/sup 3/ for the male rats and 2000 (1700-2400) mg/m/sup 3/ for the female rate were calculated. Clinical signs of anorexia, dehydration, respiratory difficulty, and perioral and perinasal encrustation were observed. Body weights were decreased the first day after exposure in relation to the exposure concentration. In animals observed for an additional 2 wk, body weights, organ weights, and clinical signs began to return to pre-exposure values. Histopathologic examination of the respiratory tracts from the animals revealed ulcerative or necrotic laryngitis, focal to segmental ulcerative rhinitis often accompanied by areas of squamous metaplasia, and, in some cases, a suppurative bronchopneumonia or aspiration pneumonia, probably secondary to the laryngeal lesions. The results of these studies indicate the moderate acute toxicity of lithium carbonate aerosols and will aid in the risk analysis of accidental releases of lithium combustion aerosols.

  20. Chronic intermittent toluene inhalation initiated during adolescence in rats does not alter voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Alec L W; Lawrence, Andrew J; Duncan, Jhodie R

    2014-09-01

    Voluntary inhalation of organic solvents, such as toluene, is particularly prevalent in adolescent populations and is considered to be a contributing factor to substance use and dependence later in life. While inhalants are often the initial "drug" experienced during this period, alcohol is another substance readily abused by adolescent populations. Although both substances are thought to have similar actions within the brain, our understanding of the implications of adolescent inhalant abuse upon subsequent exposure to alcohol remains to be investigated. Thus, this study aimed to assess locomotor responses to acute ethanol and voluntary ethanol consumption following a period of toluene inhalation throughout adolescence/early adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day [PN] 27) inhaled air or toluene (3000 ppm) for 1 h/day, 3 days/week for 4 (PN 27-52) or 8 weeks (PN 27-80) to mimic the patterns observed in human inhalant abusers. Following the exposure period, cross-sensitization to acute ethanol challenge (0.5 g/kg, intra-peritoneally [i.p.]), and voluntary consumption of 20% ethanol in a chronic intermittent 2-bottle choice paradigm, were assessed. Hepatic ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism and liver histopathology were also investigated. Chronic intermittent toluene (CIT) exposure throughout adolescence for up to 8 weeks did not alter the behavioral response to acute ethanol or voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood, although an age-dependent effect on ethanol consumption was observed (p<0.05). Both liver function and pathology did not differ between treatment groups. Thus, in the paradigm employed, CIT exposure throughout adolescence and early adulthood did not predispose rats to subsequent locomotor sensitivity or voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adhesive mixtures for inhalation : the cohesion between formulation variables, inhalation variables and dispersion performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Floris

    2014-01-01

    Powdery drugs for inhalation to treat asthma and COPD are often mixed with lactose to enable their accurate dosing. However, because the drug particles adhere strongly to the lactose particles, they are difficult to disperse with the aid of a dry powder inhaler. As a result, over half the dose usual

  2. Conference report: 2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastow, Orest

    2014-02-01

    2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium 16 October 2013, Lund, Sweden The 2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium was arranged by the Medicon Valley Inhalation Consortium. It was held at the Medicon Village, which is the former AstraZeneca site in Lund, Sweden. It was a 1 day symposium focused on inhaled drug delivery and inhalation product development. 120 delegates listened to 11 speakers. The program was organized to follow the value chain of an inhalation product development. This year there was a focus on inhaled biomolecules. The inhaled delivery of insulin was covered by two presentations and a panel discussion. The future of inhaled drug delivery was discussed together with an overview of the current market situation. Two of the inhalation platforms, capsule inhalers and metered-dose inhalers, were discussed in terms of the present situation and the future opportunities. Much focus was on the regulatory and intellectual aspects of developing inhalation products. The manufacturing of a dry powder inhaler requires precision filling of powder, and the various techniques were presented. The benefits of nebulization and nasal delivery were illustrated with some case studies and examples. The eternal challenge of poor compliance was addressed from an industrial design perspective and some new approaches were introduced.

  3. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, David; de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-12-01

    Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Healthy subjects (n = 15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n = 45), and patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very-severe COPD (n = 60) were included in the studies. Inhalation pressure drop versus time profiles were recorded using an instrumented ELLIPTA® DPI or bespoke resistor component with equivalent resistivity. Inhaler-independent lung function assessments included pharyngometry, spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion. For the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles, the mean maximal effort peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFRs) varied across the subgroups from 65.8-110.6 L/min (range: 41.6-142.9). Peak pressure drop, PIFR, inhaled volume, and average inhalation flow rate (primary endpoints) did not differ markedly between healthy subjects and patients with asthma or mild COPD. Moderate, severe, and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated lower mean peak pressure drops, PIFRs and inhaled volumes, which tended to decrease with increasing COPD severity. Severe and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated shorter mean inhalation times compared with all other participants. Inhaler-independent lung function parameters were consistent with disease severity, and statistically significant (p  0.7) with components of the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles were observed in the COPD cohort; correlations in the asthma cohort tended to be weaker. All participants achieved a maximal effort PIFR ≥ 41.6 L/min through the moderate resistance of the ELLIPTA inhaler. Patients with asthma achieved similar inhalation profiles to healthy subjects, but increasing COPD severity

  4. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanizaki S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Tanizaki Department of Emergency Medicine, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan Abstract: Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. Keywords: inhalation injury, burn, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning

  5. Protection against inhaled oxidants through scavenging of oxidized lipids by macrophage receptors MARCO and SR-AI/II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Bauer, Alison K; Arredouani, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) express the class A scavenger receptors (SRAs) macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and scavenger receptor AI/II (SRA-I/II), which recognize oxidized lipids and provide innate defense against inhaled pathogens and particles. Increased MARCO expression......, consistent with SRA function in binding oxidized lipids. SR-AI/II-/- mice showed similar enhanced acute lung inflammation after beta-epoxide or another inhaled oxidant (aerosolized leachate of residual oil fly ash). In contrast, subacute ozone exposure did not enhance inflammation in SR-AI/II-/- versus SR-AI...

  6. Acute lung injury induces cardiovascular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suda, Koichi; Tsuruta, Masashi; Eom, Jihyoun

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with systemic inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction. IL-6 is a biomarker of this systemic response and a predictor of cardiovascular events, but its possible causal role is uncertain. Inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists (ICS/LABA) down...

  7. Improvement in sodium cromoglycate delivery from a spacer device by use of an antistatic lining, immediate inhalation, and avoiding multiple actuations of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, C; Lynch, J; Cant, M; Robertson, C

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Aerosols generated from metered dose inhalers may be highly charged. The aim of this study was to determine whether lining the walls of a polycarbonate spacer device with an antistatic agent would result in an increase in drug output. The effects of multiple actuations of drug into the spacer device and increasing residence time of drug within the spacer were also determined. METHODS--The amount of sodium cromoglycate contained in particles of various size available for inhalation (per 5 mg actuation) from a 750 ml polycarbonate spacer was determined by impinger measurement and spectrophotometric assay. RESULTS--Lining the spacer with an antistatic agent increased the mean (SD) amount of sodium cromoglycate in particles < 5 microns available for inhalation (per 5 mg actuation) by 244% from (0.59 (0.03) to 1.44 (0.2) mg). When there was a 20 second interval between actuation into the spacer device and inhalation, sodium cromoglycate available for inhalation in particles < 5 micrograms decreased by 67% (from 0.59 (0.03) mg to 0.2 (0.01) mg). Use of the spacer device increased sodium cromoglycate available for inhalation in respirable particles (< 5 microns) by 18% compared with direct delivery by metered dose inhaler. Multiple actuations into the spacer decreased the amount of sodium cromoglycate available for inhalation in particles < 5 microns by 31% after two actuations and 56% after three acutations. CONCLUSIONS--Multiple actuations of sodium cromoglycate into a spacer device before inhalation should be avoided, and inhalation from spacer devices should take place immediately after actuation to ensure maximum dose. Lining of a standard spacer device with an antistatic agent significantly increased output of sodium cromoglycate. This may have implications for improved therapeutic response and drug cost. Images PMID:8346488

  8. Effects of inspiratory resistance, inhaled beta-agonists and histamine on canine tracheal blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, W.T.; Baile, E.M.; Brancatisano, A.; Pare, P.D.; Engel, L.A. (Dept. of Respiratory Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia))

    1992-01-01

    Tracheobronchial blood flow is potentially important in asthma as it could either influence the clearance of mediators form the airways, thus affecting the duration and severity of bronchoispasm, or enhance oedema formation with a resultant increase in airflow obstruction. In anaesthetized dogs, spontaneously breathing via a tracheostomy, we investigated the effects of three interventions which are relevant to acute asthma attacks and could potentially influence blood flow and its distribution to the mucosa and remaining tissues of the trachea: (1) increased negative intrathoracic pressure swings (-25[+-]1 cmH[sub 2]O) induced by an inspiratory resistance; (2) variable inhaled doses of a beta-adrenoceptor-agonist (terbutaline); and (3) aerosolized histamine sufficient to produce a threefold increase in pulmonary resistance. Microspheres labelled with different radioisotopes were used to measure blood flow. Resistive breathing did not influence tracheobronchial blood flow. Following a large dose of terbutaline, mucosal blood flow (Qmb) increased by 50%. After inhaled histamine, Qmb reached 265% of the baseline value. We conclude that, whereas increased negative pressure swings do not influence tracheobronchial blood flow or its distribution, inhalation of aerosolized terbutaline, corresponding to a conventionally nebulized dose, increases mucosal blood flow. Our results also confirm that inhaled histamine, in a dose sufficient to produce moderate bronchoconstriction, increases tracheal mucosal blood flow in the area of deposition. (au).

  9. Deposition and biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreyling Wolfgang G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particle biokinetics is important in hazard identification and characterization of inhaled particles. Such studies intend to convert external to internal exposure or biologically effective dose, and may help to set limits in that way. Here we focus on the biokinetics of inhaled nanometer sized particles in comparison to micrometer sized ones. The presented approach ranges from inhaled particle deposition probability and retention in the respiratory tract to biokinetics and clearance of particles out of the respiratory tract. Particle transport into the blood circulation (translocation, towards secondary target organs and tissues (accumulation, and out of the body (clearance is considered. The macroscopically assessed amount of particles in the respiratory tract and secondary target organs provides dose estimates for toxicological studies on the level of the whole organism. Complementary, microscopic analyses at the individual particle level provide detailed information about which cells and subcellular components are the target of inhaled particles. These studies contribute to shed light on mechanisms and modes of action eventually leading to adverse health effects by inhaled nanoparticles. We review current methods for macroscopic and microscopic analyses of particle deposition, retention and clearance. Existing macroscopic knowledge on particle biokinetics and microscopic views on particle organ interactions are discussed comparing nanometer and micrometer sized particles. We emphasize the importance for quantitative analyses and the use of particle doses derived from real world exposures.

  10. Deposition and biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Particle biokinetics is important in hazard identification and characterization of inhaled particles. Such studies intend to convert external to internal exposure or biologically effective dose, and may help to set limits in that way. Here we focus on the biokinetics of inhaled nanometer sized particles in comparison to micrometer sized ones. The presented approach ranges from inhaled particle deposition probability and retention in the respiratory tract to biokinetics and clearance of particles out of the respiratory tract. Particle transport into the blood circulation (translocation), towards secondary target organs and tissues (accumulation), and out of the body (clearance) is considered. The macroscopically assessed amount of particles in the respiratory tract and secondary target organs provides dose estimates for toxicological studies on the level of the whole organism. Complementary, microscopic analyses at the individual particle level provide detailed information about which cells and subcellular components are the target of inhaled particles. These studies contribute to shed light on mechanisms and modes of action eventually leading to adverse health effects by inhaled nanoparticles. We review current methods for macroscopic and microscopic analyses of particle deposition, retention and clearance. Existing macroscopic knowledge on particle biokinetics and microscopic views on particle organ interactions are discussed comparing nanometer and micrometer sized particles. We emphasize the importance for quantitative analyses and the use of particle doses derived from real world exposures. PMID:20205860

  11. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, improve lung function, and reduce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity more effectively than other treatments. However, inhaled corticosteroids may be unable to return lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity...... to normal when introduced for moderately severe asthma. This finding highlights the need to improve treatment strategy in pediatric asthma. The natural progression of persistent asthma may lead to loss of lung function and chronic bronchial hyperreactivity for children and adults. There is evidence...... to suggest that asthma acts via a chronic inflammatory process that causes remodeling of the airways with mucosal thickening and smooth muscle hypertrophy. An optimal treatment strategy would be one aimed at reducing the ongoing airway inflammation. Inhaled steroids ameliorate the inflammation, whereas...

  12. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  13. [Elimination of secretions in CF patients under amiloride inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, H; Becker, T; Bittner, P; Boldt, A; Hofmann, T; Schwandt, H J

    1990-10-01

    Inhaled amiloride reduces active absorption of sodium of respiratory epithelium in CF patients and so, transiently, diminishes loss of water. 10 CF patients, 8 to 28 years of age, were examined on two days. First day, they inhaled in a randomised order isotonic saline and a solution of amiloride hydrochloride (0.3 mg/ml) one after another, each inhalation taking twenty minutes. Second day, inhalations were performed in an inverse order. To intensify the effect of inhalation, the inhalation procedure was combined with "autogenic drainage", a special kind of physiotherapy. Main criterion for evaluation was the amount of expectorated sputum. Mean increase of sputum during amiloride inhalation in comparison to saline was +50.4%. Patients and physiotherapist observed a liquefaction of secretion and a decrease of coughing by amiloride and a support of physiotherapy. These results suggest a beneficial clinical effect of regular amiloride inhalation in CF patients.

  14. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  15. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis: A European consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven;

    2009-01-01

    , mucolytics/mucous mobilizers, anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators and combinations of solutions. Additionally, we review the current knowledge on devices for inhalation therapy with regard to optimal particle sizes and characteristics of wet nebulisers, dry powder and metered dose inhalers. Finally, we...... review the current status of inhaled medication in CF, including the mechanisms of action of the various drugs, their modes of administration and indications, their effects on lung function, exacerbation rates, survival and quality of life, as well as side effects. Specifically we address antibiotics...

  16. Pediatric cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus. Toxicology Surveillance System of the Intoxications Working Group of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegi, Santiago; Clerigue, Nuria; Tipo, Vincenzo; Ponticiello, Eduardo; Lonati, Davide; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Delvau, Nicolas; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2013-11-01

    Most fire-related deaths are attributable to smoke inhalation rather than burns. The inhalation of fire smoke, which contains not only carbon monoxide but also a complex mixture of gases, seems to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality in fire victims, mainly in enclosed spaces. Cyanide gas exposure is quite common during smoke inhalation, and cyanide is present in the blood of fire victims in most cases and may play an important role in death by smoke inhalation. Cyanide poisoning may, however, be difficult to diagnose and treat. In these children, hydrogen cyanide seems to be a major source of concern, and the rapid administration of the antidote, hydroxocobalamin, may be critical for these children.European experts recently met to formulate an algorithm for prehospital and hospital management of adult patients with acute cyanide poisoning. Subsequently, a group of European pediatric experts met to evaluate and adopt that algorithm for use in the pediatric population.

  17. Resistivities of placebo and active Diskus inhalers compared.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Molema, J.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Verbal instruction and demonstration of inhalation technique are essential to enhance the effectiveness of inhalation therapy. Placebo devices are commonly used to instruct patients. It is not obvious that patients, who inhale with an adequate flow through an empty placebo Diskus, would

  18. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  19. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  20. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  1. Relationship between the use of inhaled steroids for chronic respiratory diseases and early outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Almirall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of inhaled steroids in patients with chronic respiratory diseases is a matter of debate due to the potential effect on the development and prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. We assessed whether treatment with inhaled steroids in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma and CAP may affect early outcome of the acute pneumonic episode. METHODS: Over 1-year period, all population-based cases of CAP in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma were registered. Use of inhaled steroids were registered and patients were followed up to 30 days after diagnosis to assess severity of CAP and clinical course (hospital admission, ICU admission and mortality. RESULTS: Of 473 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria, inhaled steroids were regularly used by 109 (23%. In the overall sample, inhaled steroids were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (OR=1.96, p = 0.002 in the bivariate analysis, but this effect disappeared after adjusting by other severity-related factors (adjusted OR=1.08, p=0.787. This effect on hospitalization also disappeared when considering only patients with asthma (OR=1.38, p=0.542, with COPD alone (OR=4.68, p=0.194, but a protective effect was observed in CB patients (OR=0.15, p=0.027. Inhaled steroids showed no association with ICU admission, days to clinical recovery and mortality in the overall sample and in any disease subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with inhaled steroids is not a prognostic factor in COPD and asthmatic patients with CAP, but could prevent hospitalization for CAP in patients with clinical criteria of chronic bronchitis.

  2. Microscopic distribution patterns of microspheres deposited by inhalation in lungs of rats, guinea pigs, and dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snipes, M.B.; Guilmette, R.A.; Nikula, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    Acute inhalation exposures of mammalian species to small amounts of poorly soluble particles result in deposition of the particles in the head airways, tracheobronchial region, and pulmonary region of the respiratory tract. Most of the particles that deposit in the head airways and tracheobronchial region are believed to clear rapidly, but some as yet undefined fraction of the particles is retained in the airway epithelium or subepithelial interstitium for extended times. This long-term retention has important implications for the new respiratory tract dosimetry model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection because particles retained within the region can result in long-term exposure of airway epithelial cells. Preliminary results from this study demonstrate that a substantial fraction of the PSL microspheres inhaled by these rats, guinea pigs, and dogs was incorporated into the epithelium and interstitium of the tracheobronchial region.

  3. Inhaled Iloprost for Patients With Precapillary Pulmonary Hypertension and Right-Side Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martischnig, Amadea M.; Tichy, Alexander; Nikfardjam, Mariam; Heinz, Gottfried; Lang, Irene M.; Bonderman, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can lead to right-side heart failure (RHF) and death. There are no therapeutic recommendations for patients experiencing acute RHF in the course of PH. This study aimed to examine the safety and efficacy of inhaled iloprost in patients with precapillary PH and RHF. Methods and Results Between October 2007 and December 2008, 7 patients with precapillary PH and RHF were enrolled. Per protocol, iloprost was inhaled hourly for a minimum of 12 hours during a 24-hour period. The starting dose of 2.5 μg was increased hourly by 2.5 μg as long as the increases were tolerated. Safety and efficacy were determined by continuous invasive monitoring of systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic parameters. Systemic pressures remained stable during inhalation (66.1 ± 6.9 mm Hg at baseline and 69.1 ± 6.4 mm Hg immediately after inhalation therapy, P = 0.48). Cardiac index increased from 2.4 ± 0.7 L/min/m2 to 2.9 ± 0.9 L/min/m2 (P = .008). Pulmonary vascular resistance decreased from 634.6 ± 218.3 dyn·s·cm−5 to 489.6 ± 173.8 dyn·s·cm−5 (P = .044), and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide levels decreased from 13,591 ± 10,939 pg/mL to 9,944 ± 8,569 pg/mL (P = .051). Conclusion Blood pressure-guided hourly inhalation of iloprost may offer a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of PH patients with RHF. PMID:21962419

  4. Predicting lung dosimetry of inhaled particleborne benzo[a]pyrene using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jerry; Franzen, Allison; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Lumpkin, Michael; Crowell, Susan; Meredith, Clive; Loccisano, Anne; Gentry, Robinan; Clewell, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a by-product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and plant/wood products, including tobacco. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BaP for the rat was extended to simulate inhalation exposures to BaP in rats and humans including particle deposition and dissolution of absorbed BaP and renal elimination of 3-hydroxy benzo[a]pyrene (3-OH BaP) in humans. The clearance of particle-associated BaP from lung based on existing data in rats and dogs suggest that the process is bi-phasic. An initial rapid clearance was represented by BaP released from particles followed by a slower first-order clearance that follows particle kinetics. Parameter values for BaP-particle dissociation were estimated using inhalation data from isolated/ventilated/perfused rat lungs and optimized in the extended inhalation model using available rat data. Simulations of acute inhalation exposures in rats identified specific data needs including systemic elimination of BaP metabolites, diffusion-limited transfer rates of BaP from lung tissue to blood and the quantitative role of macrophage-mediated and ciliated clearance mechanisms. The updated BaP model provides very good prediction of the urinary 3-OH BaP concentrations and the relative difference between measured 3-OH BaP in nonsmokers versus smokers. This PBPK model for inhaled BaP is a preliminary tool for quantifying lung BaP dosimetry in rat and humans and was used to prioritize data needs that would provide significant model refinement and robust internal dosimetry capabilities. PMID:27569524

  5. Isolated inhalational injury: Clinical course and outcomes in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Chacko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Although smoke inhalation is well known to cause acute lung injury, there are few reports in literature that study the evolution, clinical course and outcomes of isolated inhalational lung injury in a modern intensive care setting. A major fire disaster provided us the opportunity to study victims of isolated inhalational injury admitted to our Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit (MICU. Materials and Methods: We studied the clinical course, ICU and hospital outcomes of 13 victims of a fire disaster who required mechanical ventilation for isolated inhalational lung injury. All patients were followed up at regular intervals, and their functional status was assessed at 8 months after hospital discharge. Results: The Lung Injury Scores (LIS worsened to reach a nadir on Day 3 of injury. There was a significant correlation between the LIS on Day 3 and duration of mechanical ventilation (r = 0.8; P = 0.003, ICU (r = 0.8; P = 0.002 and hospital (r = 0.6; P = 0.02 days. Late-onset airway complications were encountered in four patients. Three of them required long-term artificial airways - two with a tracheostomy while the third patient required surgical insertion of a "T" tube. Persistent problems with phonation occurred in two patients. At 8 months postdischarge, all patients were independent with activities of daily living; all were back to work, except for two who continued to need artificial airways. Conclusions: Inhalational lung injury progresses over the first few days and is worst after 72 h. Late-onset airway complications may manifest after several weeks and require repeated intervention.

  6. Fine particle mass from the Diskus inhaler and Turbuhaler inhaler in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B; Sumby, B S;

    1998-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate dose consistency and particle distribution from the dry powder inhalers Diskus and Turbuhaler. Full profiles of inhalation pressure versus time were recorded in 18 4 yr old and 18 8 yr old asthmatic children through Diskus and Turbuhaler inhalers. These data were used...... is a determinant of the quality of the aerosol. The mean (SD) amount of drug in large particles (>4.7 microm), fine particles (children and 71 (3), 18 (2) and 2...... (1) from the 8 yr old children, respectively. Similar particle fractions from the Budesonide Turbuhaler were 35 (9), 21 (10) and 7 (5) from 4 yr old children and 30 (7), 32 (9) and 12 (6) from 8 yr old children. In conclusion, the Diskus inhaler provides an improved dose consistency through...

  7. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis: A European consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven; Touw, Daan; Döring, Gerd

    2009-09-01

    In cystic fibrosis inhalation of drugs for the treatment of CF related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. In this European consensus document we review the current status of inhaled medication in CF, including the mechanisms of action of the various drugs, their modes of administration and indications, their effects on lung function, exacerbation rates, survival and quality of life, as well as side effects. Specifically we address antibiotics, mucolytics/mucous mobilizers, anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators and combinations of solutions. Additionally, we review the current knowledge on devices for inhalation therapy with regard to optimal particle sizes and characteristics of wet nebulisers, dry powder and metered dose inhalers. Finally, we address the subject of testing new devices before market introduction.

  8. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    .... Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported...

  9. Tobramycin Inhalation Powder (TIP): An Efficient Treatment Strategy for the Management of Chronic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, John; Vaughan, Steven; Parkins, Michael D

    2013-11-13

    Repeated bouts of acute and chronic lung infections are responsible for progressive pulmonary function decline in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), ultimately leading to respiratory failure and death. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the archetypical CF pathogen, causes chronic infection in 70% of individuals, and is associated with an accelerated clinical decline. The management of P. aeruginosa in CF has been revolutionized with the development and widespread use of inhaled antibiotics. Aerosol delivery of antimicrobial compounds in CF enables extremely high concentrations of antibiotics to be reached directly at the site of infection potentially overcoming adaptive resistance and avoiding the potential for cumulative systemic toxicities. Tobramycin inhalation powder (TIP) represents the first dry powder inhaled (DPI) antibiotic available for use in CF. DPIs are notable for a markedly reduced time for administration, ease of portability, and increased compliance. TIP has been developed as a therapeutic alternative to tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS), the standard of care for the past 20 years within CF. Relative to TIS 300 mg nebulized twice daily in on-and-off cycles of 28 days duration, TIP 112 mg twice daily via the T-326 inhaler administered on the same schedule is associated with marked time savings, increased patient satisfaction, and comparable clinical end points. TIP represents an innovative treatment strategy for those individuals with CF and holds the promise of increased patient compliance and thus the potential for improved clinical outcomes.

  10. Association between early airway damage-associated molecular patterns and subsequent bacterial infection in patients with inhalational and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Robert; Jones, Samuel; Pan, Yinghao; Zhou, Haibo; Jaspers, Ilona; Peden, David B; Cairns, Bruce A; Noah, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial infection is a major cause of morbidity affecting outcome following burn and inhalation injury. While experimental burn and inhalation injury animal models have suggested that mediators of cell damage and inflammation increase the risk of infection, few studies have been done on humans. This is a prospective, observational study of patients admitted to the North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center at the University of North Carolina who were intubated and on mechanical ventilation for treatment of burn and inhalational injury. Subjects were enrolled over a 2-yr period and followed till discharge or death. Serial bronchial washings from clinically indicated bronchoscopies were collected and analyzed for markers of tissue injury and inflammation. These include damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as hyaluronic acid (HA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70), and high-mobility group protein B-1 (HMGB-1). The study population was comprised of 72 patients who had bacterial cultures obtained for clinical indications. Elevated HA, dsDNA, and IL-10 levels in bronchial washings obtained early (the first 72 h after injury) were significantly associated with positive bacterial respiratory cultures obtained during the first 14 days postinjury. Independent of initial inhalation injury severity and extent of surface burn, elevated levels of HA dsDNA and IL-10 in the central airways obtained early after injury are associated with subsequent positive bacterial respiratory cultures in patients intubated after acute burn/inhalation injury.

  11. Inhalation drug delivery devices: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Ibrahim, Rahul Verma, Lucila Garcia-ContrerasDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: The pulmonary route of administration has proven to be effective in local and systemic delivery of miscellaneous drugs and biopharmaceuticals to treat pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. A successful pulmonary administration requires a harmonic interaction between the drug formulation, the inhaler device, and the patient. However, the biggest single problem that accounts for the lack of desired effect or adverse outcomes is the incorrect use of the device due to lack of training in how to use the device or how to coordinate actuation and aerosol inhalation. This review summarizes the structural and mechanical features of aerosol delivery devices with respect to mechanisms of aerosol generation, their use with different formulations, and their advantages and limitations. A technological update of the current state-of-the-art designs proposed to overcome current challenges of existing devices is also provided.Keywords: pulmonary delivery, asthma, nebulizers, metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler

  12. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate for asthma in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Uijen, Johannes H. J. M.; Bernsen, Roos M. D.; Tasche, Marjolein J. A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Ducharme, Francine

    2008-01-01

    Background Sodium cromoglycate has been recommended as maintenance treatment for childhood asthma for many years. Its use has decreased since 1990, when inhaled corticosteroids became popular, but it is still used in many countries. Objectives To determine the efficacy of sodium cromoglycate compare

  13. Computational modelling for dry-powder inhalers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, Ralf; Woolhouse, Robert; Becker, Michael; Wachtel, Herbert; de Boer, Anne; Horner, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a simulation tool used for modelling powder flow through inhalers to allow optimisation both of device design and drug powder. Here, Ralf Kröger, Consulting Senior CFD Engineer, ANSYS Germany GmbH; Marc Horner, Lead Technical Services Engineer, Healthcare, ANSYS

  14. Behavioral changes in mice following benzene inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H L; Dempster, A M; Snyder, C A

    1981-01-01

    Although benzene is an important occupational health hazard and a carcinogen, the possibility that behavioral changes may forewarn of the later-occurring hematological changes has not been investigated. A time-sampling protocol was used to quantify the occurrence of 7 categories of behavior in the homecage following daily 6-hr exposures to two strains of adult mice (CD1 and C57BL/6J). The behavioral categories were stereotypic behavior, sleeping, resting, eating, grooming, locomotion, and fighting. The inhalation exposures were designed to reflect occupational exposure. Dynamic vapor exposure techniques in standard inhalation chambers were employed. Exposure to 300 or 900 ppm benzene increased the occurrence of eating and grooming and reduced the number of mice that were sleeping or resting. The responses to benzene of both the CD1 and the C57 strains were similar. The positive findings with benzene inhalation indicate the utility of behavioral investigations into the toxicology of inhaled organic solvents. The methods described herein illustrate an objective observation of animal behavior that is capable of documenting toxicity and of guiding detailed follow-up studies aimed at mechanism of action.

  15. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  16. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Arts, J.H.E.; Kuper, C.F.; Slootweg, P.J.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and me

  17. Inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Brimicombe, R W; Hodson, M E; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    Aerosol administration of antipseudomonal antibiotics is commonly used in cystic fibrosis. However, its contribution to the improvement of lung function, infection and quality of life is not well-established. All articles published from 1965 until the present time concerning the inhalation of

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ...

  19. Ozone inhalation modifies the rat liver proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney S. Theis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 is a serious public health concern. Recent findings indicate that the damaging health effects of O3 extend to multiple systemic organ systems. Herein, we hypothesize that O3 inhalation will cause downstream alterations to the liver. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 ppm O3 for 8 h/day for 5 days. Plasma liver enzyme measurements showed that 5 day O3 exposure did not cause liver cell death. Proteomic and mass spectrometry analysis identified 10 proteins in the liver that were significantly altered in abundance following short-term O3 exposure and these included several stress responsive proteins. Glucose-regulated protein 78 and protein disulfide isomerase increased, whereas glutathione S-transferase M1 was significantly decreased by O3 inhalation. In contrast, no significant changes were detected for the stress response protein heme oxygenase-1 or cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2B in liver of O3 exposed rats compared to controls. In summary, these results show that an environmentally-relevant exposure to inhaled O3 can alter the expression of select proteins in the liver. We propose that O3 inhalation may represent an important unrecognized factor that can modulate hepatic metabolic functions.

  20. Pneumonitis after Inhalation of Mercury Vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Glezos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old man presented to hospital with pneumonia but only after discharge from hospital did he admit to deliberate prior inhalation of mercury. His pulmonary involvement appeared to resolve almost completely with antibiotics and supportive care. Nevertheless, persisting elevated urinary excretion of mercury required two courses of chelation therapy. No serious systemic sequelae were observed.

  1. Inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Brimicombe, R W; Hodson, M E; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    1995-01-01

    Aerosol administration of antipseudomonal antibiotics is commonly used in cystic fibrosis. However, its contribution to the improvement of lung function, infection and quality of life is not well-established. All articles published from 1965 until the present time concerning the inhalation of antibi

  2. Inhaled corticosteroids do not affect behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, T. W.; van Roon, E. N.; Duiverman, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether children with asthma and on inhaled corticosteroids have more behavioural problems, such as aggressiveness and hyperactivity, as compared with healthy controls and with children under medical care because of other disorders. Methods: Questionnaires were given to three group

  3. Computational modelling for dry-powder inhalers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, Ralf; Woolhouse, Robert; Becker, Michael; Wachtel, Herbert; de Boer, Anne; Horner, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a simulation tool used for modelling powder flow through inhalers to allow optimisation both of device design and drug powder. Here, Ralf Kröger, Consulting Senior CFD Engineer, ANSYS Germany GmbH; Marc Horner, Lead Technical Services Engineer, Healthcare,

  4. Asthma Inhalers: Which One's Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it seems like you're not getting enough medication. Replace your inhaler if it has passed its expiration date or it shows that all the doses have been used. References Scichilone N. Asthma control: The right ... asthma medications. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. http:// ...

  5. Dry powder inhalers for pulmonary drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; De Boer, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    The pulmonary route is an interesting route for drug administration, both for effective local therapy (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis) and for the systemic administration of drugs (e.g., peptides and proteins). Well-designed dry powder inhalers are highly efficient

  6. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation and inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuom@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro [University of Occupational and Environmental Health (Japan); Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru [Hiroshima University (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We performed inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles in order to investigate their pulmonary toxicity, and observed pulmonary inflammation not only in the acute and but also in the chronic phases. In the intratracheal instillation study, F344 rats were exposed to 0.2 mg or 1 mg of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed from 3 days to 6 months following the instillation. In the inhalation study, rats were exposed to the maximum concentration of inhaled CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (2, 10 mg/m{sup 3}, respectively) for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were examined from 3 days to 3 months after the end of the exposure. The intratracheal instillation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles caused a persistent increase in the total and neutrophil number in BALF and in the concentration of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in BALF during the observation time. The inhalation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles also induced a persistent influx of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1, CINC-2, and HO-1 in BALF. Pathological features revealed that inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, invaded the alveolar space in both studies. Taken together, the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced not only acute but also chronic inflammation in the lung, suggesting that CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a pulmonary toxicity that can lead to irreversible lesions.

  7. Relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate inhaled products using urinary drug excretion post inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswania, Osama; Chrystyn, Henry

    2002-05-01

    The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation by different methods have been determined using a urinary excretion pharmacokinetic method. On three separate randomised study days, 7 days apart, subjects inhaled (i) 4x5 mg from an Intal metered dose inhaler (MDI), (ii) 4x5 mg from an MDI attached to a large volume spacer (MDI+SP) and (iii) 20 mg from an Intal Spinhaler (DPI). Urine samples were provided at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 24 h post dose. The mean (S.D.) amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted in the urine during the first 30 min post inhalation was 38.1 (27.5), 222.3 (120.3) and 133.1 (92.2) microg following MDI, MDI+SP and DPI, respectively. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of these amounts excreted in the urine over the first 30 min for MDI+SP vs. MDI, DPI vs. MDI and MDI+SP vs. DPI was 801.0 (358.0, 1244; psodium cromoglycate excreted over the 24 h post inhalation the ratios were 375.4 (232.9, 517.9; psodium cromoglycate from a metered dose inhaler attached to a large volume spacer.

  8. Workplace Inhalant Abuse in Adult Female: Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse is the purposeful inhalation of intoxicating gases and vapors for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. With its propensity for being yet an under-recognized form of substance use, being gateway to hard substances, cross-cultural penetration crossing socioeconomic boundaries, and causing significant morbidity and mortality in early ages, the prevention of inhalant misuse is a highly pertinent issue. This clinical report identifies a newer perspective in the emergence of inhalant abuse initiation. We report a case of an adult female with late onset of inhalant dependence developing at workplace and recommend for greater awareness, prevention, and management of this expanding substance abuse problem.

  9. Carbon monoxide inhalation ameliorates conditions of lung grafts from rat brain death donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hua-cheng; DING Wen-gang; CUI Xiao-guang; PAN Peng; ZHANG Bing; LI Wen-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Background Successful lung transplantation has been limited by the scarcity of donors. Brain death (BD) donors are major source of lung transplantation. Whereas BD process induces acute lung injury and aggravates lung ischemia reperfusion injury. Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation at 50-500 parts per million (ppm) can ameliorate lung injury in several models. We examined in rats whether CO inhalation in BD donor would show favorable effects on lung grafts.Methods Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. In sham group, donor rats received insertion of a balloon catheter into the cranial cavity, but the balloon was not inflated. In BD-only group, donor rats were ventilated with 40% oxygen after BD confirmation. In BD+CO250 and BD+CO500 groups, donor rats inhaled, after BD confirmation, 250 ppm or 500 ppm CO for 120 minutes prior to lung procurement, and orthotopic lung transplantation was performed. The rats were sacrificed 120 minutes after the lung transplantation by exsanguination, and their blood and lung graft samples were obtained. A total of 8 rats fulfilling the criteria were included in each group.Results The inhalation decreased the severity of lung injury in grafts from BD donors checked by histological examination. CO pretreatment reversed the aggravation of PaO2/FiO2 in recipients from BD donors. The CO inhalation down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) along with the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in recipient serum, and inhibited the activity of myeloperoxidase in grafts tissue. The inhalation significantly decreased cell apoptosis in lung grafts, inhibiting mRNA and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 in lung grafts. Further, the inhalation activated phosphorylation of p38 expression and inhibited phosphorylation of anti-extraceUular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression in lung grafts. The effects of CO at 500 ppm were greater than those at 250 ppm.Conclusions CO exerts

  10. A Review of Electronic Devices to Assess Inhaler Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Roberts, Courtney A; Sage, Adam J; George, Johnson; Horne, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Multiple electronic devices exist that provide feedback on the accuracy of patient inhaler technique. Our purpose is to describe the inhaler technique feedback provided by these devices, including specific technique steps measured, how feedback is displayed, target of feedback (patient, provider, researcher), and compatibility with inhaler type (metered-dose inhaler [MDI], diskus, etc.). We identified eight devices that provide feedback on inhaler technique. Only one device assessed all evidence-based MDI technique steps. Most devices provide limited real-time feedback to patients, if any feedback at all. Technologies to assess inhaler technique are advancing and hold great potential for improving patient inhaler technique. Many devices are limited in their ability to detect all evidence-based technique steps and provide real-time user-friendly feedback to patients and providers. Usability tests with patients and providers could identify ways to improve these devices to improve their utility in clinical settings.

  11. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, nebulisers synchronized with breathing and aerosol size distribution. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, P; Peron, N; Durand, M; Pourchez, J; Cavaillon, P; Reychler, G; Vecellio, L; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF) has organized its third Aerosolstorming in 2012. During one single day, different aspects of inhaled therapies have been treated and are detailed in two articles, this one being the second. This text deals with the indications of inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, the development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, the advantages and disadvantages of each type of technologies to measure the particle sizes of inhaled treatments.

  12. Inhaled insulin--does it become reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmeier, R; Scheuch, G

    2008-12-01

    After more than 80 years of history the American and European Drug Agencies (FDA and EMEA) approved the first pulmonary delivered version of insulin (Exubera) from Pfizer/Nektar early 2006. However, in October 2007, Pfizer announced it would be taking Exubera off the market, citing that the drug had failed to gain market acceptance. Since 1924 various attempts have been made to get away from injectable insulin. Three alternative delivery methods where always discussed: Delivery to the upper nasal airways or the deep lungs, and through the stomach. From these, the delivery through the deep lungs is the most promising, because the physiological barriers for the uptake are the smallest, the inspired aerosol is deposited on a large area and the absorption into the blood happens through the extremely thin alveolar membrane. However, there is concern about the long-term effects of inhaling a growth protein into the lungs. It was assumed that the large surface area over which the insulin is spread out would minimize negative effects. But recent news indicates that, at least in smokers, the bronchial tumour rate under inhaled insulin seems to be increased. These findings, despite the fact that they are not yet statistical significant and in no case found in a non-smoker, give additional arguments to stop marketing this approach. Several companies worked on providing inhalable insulin and the insulin powder inhalation system Exubera was the most advanced technology. Treatment has been approved for adults only and patients with pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma, emphysema, COPD) and smokers (current smokers and individuals who recently quitted smoking) were excluded from this therapy. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Exubera are similar to those found with short-acting subcutaneous human insulin or insulin analogs. It is thus possible to use Exubera as a substitute for short-acting human insulin or insulin analogs. Typical side effects of inhaled insulin were coughing

  13. Alterations in airway microbiota in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 after burn and inhalation injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Injury to the airways after smoke inhalation is a major mortality risk factor in victims of burn injuries, resulting in a 15-45% increase in patient deaths. Damage to the airways by smoke may induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is partly character...

  14. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults.

  15. Insulin inhalation for diabetic patients: Nursing considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Mohammed Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific knowledge has advanced to enable the development of inhaled insulin. It is a form of diabetes medication administered via the pulmonary system that studies have shown to be efficacious in the treatment of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Inhaled insulin is a new, safe means to deliver insulin that may increase patient compliance with insulin therapy, helping them to achieve optimal glycemic control and possibly reducing their risk of developing cardiovascular complications. However, diabetes is a chronic illness requiring lifetime intervention. Empowering patients with the knowledge of the diabetes disease process may give them the confidence to be more autonomous in managing their diabetes. HIIP gives nurse practitioners a new option that may improve their patients’ acceptance of insulin therapy, and improve glycemic control.

  16. Evaluating inhaler use technique in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Sangnual Pisalthanapuna, Nonglak Chetsadaphan, Woranoot Choomuang Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Poor inhalation techniques are associated with decreased medication delivery and poor disease control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate techniques for using inhaler devices in COPD patients.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted to assess patient compliance with correct techniques for using inhaler devices across four regimens, ie, the pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI, the pMDI with a spacer, the Accuhaler®, and the Handihaler®. The percentage of compliance with essential steps of correct device usage for each regimen was recorded without prior notification when COPD patients presented for a routine visit, and 1 month after receiving face-to-face training. We compared the percentage of compliance between the devices and risk factors related to incorrect techniques using logistic regression analysis. Percentage of patient compliance with correct techniques was compared between the two visits using the chi-square test. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.Results: A total of 103 COPD patients (mean age 71.2±9.2 years, males 64.1%, low education level 82.5%, and percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second 51.9±22.5 were evaluated. Seventy-seven patients (74.8% performed at least one step incorrectly. Patients using the Handihaler had the lowest compliance failure (42.5%, and the odds ratio for failure with the other devices compared with the Handihaler were 4.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–11.8 for the pMDI, 3.1 (95% CI 1.2–8.2 for the pMDI with a spacer, and 2.4 (95% CI 1.1–5.2 for the Accuhaler. Low education level was the single most important factor related

  17. Interspecies modeling of inhaled particle deposition patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martonen, T.B.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxic effects of ambient contaminants or therapeutic effects of airborne drugs, inhalation exposure experiments can be performed with surrogate laboratory animals. Herein, an interspecies particle deposition theory is presented for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. It is derived to improve animal testing protocols. The computer code describes the behavior and fate of particles in the lungs of human subjects and a selected surrogate, the laboratory rat. In the simulations CO2 is integrated with exposure chamber atmospheres, and its concentrations regulated to produce rat breathing profiles corresponding to selected levels of human physical activity. The dosimetric model is used to calculate total, compartmental (i.e., tracheobronchial and pulmonary), and localized distribution patterns of inhaled particles in rats and humans for comparable ventilatory conditions. It is demonstrated that the model can be used to predetermine the exposure conditions necessary to produce deposition patterns in rats that are equivalent to those in humans at prescribed physical activities.

  18. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk.

  19. Systematic Review of Errors in Inhaler Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis, Joaquin; Gich, Ignasi; Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    A systematic search for articles reporting direct observation of inhaler technique by trained personnel covered the period from 1975 to 2014. Outcomes were the nature and frequencies of the three most common errors; the percentage of patients demonstrating correct, acceptable, or poor technique; and variations...... were extracted from 144 articles reporting on a total number of 54,354 subjects performing 59,584 observed tests of technique. The most frequent MDI errors were in coordination (45%; 95% CI, 41%-49%), speed and/or depth of inspiration (44%; 40%-47%), and no postinhalation breath-hold (46%; 42...... no significant differences between the first and second 20-year periods of scrutiny. Conclusions Incorrect inhaler technique is unacceptably frequent and has not improved over the past 40 years, pointing to an urgent need for new approaches to education and drug delivery. © 2016 The Authors...

  20. Inhalation toxicity of (1→3-β-D glucan: recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Fogelmark

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of (1→3-β-D-glucan after inhalation, animals were exposed to different forms of glucan and the number of lung lavage cells was determined 24 h after exposure. None of the different forms assayed caused any increase in cell numbers. In animals exposed to endotoxin, all types of cells were increased after 24 h. A simultaneous exposure to curdlan reduced this increase in a dose-related fashion. The results suggest that (1→3-β-D-glucan-related acute injury to the lung is induced by mechanisms other than those induced by inflammagenic agents such as endotoxin.

  1. [Ventricular fibrillation following deodorant spray inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, F; Le Tacon, S; Maria, M; Pierrard, O; Monin, P

    2008-01-01

    We report one case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation following butane poisoning after inhalation of antiperspiration aerosol. An early management using semi-automatic defibrillator explained the success of the resuscitation. The mechanism of butane toxicity could be an increased sensitivity of cardiac receptors to circulating catecholamines, responsible for cardiac arrest during exercise and for resuscitation difficulties. The indication of epinephrine is discussed.

  2. Inflammatory Mediators in Smoke Inhalation Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of arte- rial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen ( PFR ) until a certain “threshold” smoke dose has been delivered; thereaf- ter, decreases in... PFR are steep [11, 16]. Pathologically, these models demonstrate evidence of tracheal and lobar bronchial mucosal sloughing with pseudomembrane...during an inhalation injury [31]. Initial animal research on six sheep given intravenous heparin improved PFR , improved peak airway pressures and

  3. Oxidative stress effects of thinner inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Thinners are chemical mixtures used as industrial solvents. Humans can come into contact with thinner by occupational exposure or by intentional inhalation abuse. Thinner sniffing causes damage to the brain, kidney, liver, lung, and reproductive system. We discuss some proposed mechanism by which thinner induces damage. Recently, the induction of oxidative stress has been suggested as a possible mechanism of damage. This paper reviews the current evidence for oxidative stress effects induced ...

  4. Electrostatics in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer; Chan, Hak-Kim; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip

    2013-08-01

    Electrostatics continues to play an important role in pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the charging process is complex and not well understood. Nonetheless, significant advances in the past few years continue to improve understanding and lead to better control of electrostatics. The purpose of this critical review is to present an overview of the literature, with an emphasis on how electrostatic charge can be useful in improving pulmonary drug delivery.

  5. Inhalation toxicity of high flash aromatic naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D G; Butterworth, S T; Martin, J G; Roderick, H R; Bird, M G

    1989-05-01

    A petroleum distillate--a high aromatic naphtha--consisting of a 50/50 blended mixture of equivalent products. SHELLSOL A* and SOLVESSO 100**, containing C9 isomers (75 percent) particularly trimethyl benzenes, was examined for systemic toxicity in rats by inhalation exposure. A preliminary 13-week inhalation study with SHELLSOL A had resulted in liver and kidney weight increases in female rats at the high (7400 mg/m3) and medium (3700 mg/m3) exposure levels, and a low grade anaemia in females at all exposure levels (7400, 3700 and 1800 mg/m3). The follow-up 12-month inhalation study in rats described here used atmosphere generated from the SHELLSOL A/SOLVESSO 100 blend of 1800, 900 and 450 mg/m3. Initial reduction in body weight gain occurred in both male and female rats at the higher exposures. Various statistically significant haematological changes were transiently seen in males up to six months, but were not considered biologically significant. High exposure male liver and kidney weights were increased at 6 and 12 months but, in the absence of histopathological changes, were considered to be physiological adaptive responses. No treatment-related histopathological abnormalities were found. It is concluded that chronic exposure to this high aromatic naphtha is without systemic toxicity in rats under the conditions of these studies.

  6. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment.

  7. The nasal distribution of metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S P; Morén, P F; Clarke, S W

    1987-02-01

    The intranasal distribution of aerosol from a metered dose inhaler has been assessed using a radiotracer technique. Inhalers were prepared by adding 99Tcm-labelled Teflon particles (simulating the drug particles) to chlorofluorocarbon propellants, and scans of the head (and chest) taken with a gamma camera. Ten healthy subjects (age range 19-29 years) each performed two radioaerosol studies with the inhaler held in two different ways: either in a single position (vial pointing upwards) or in two positions (vial pointing upwards and then tilted by 30 degrees in the sagittal plane). The vast majority of the dose (82.5 +/- 2.8 (mean +/- SEM) per cent and 80.7 +/- 3.1 per cent respectively for one-position and two-position studies) was deposited on a single localized area in the anterior one-third of the nose, the initial distribution pattern being identical for each study. No significant radioaerosol was detected in the lungs. Only 18.0 +/- 4.7 per cent and 15.4 +/- 4.1 per cent of the dose had been removed by mucociliary action after 30 minutes, and it is probable that the remainder had not penetrated initially beyond the vestibule. Since the deposition pattern was highly localized and more than half the dose probably failed to reach the turbinates it is possible that the overall effect of nasal MDIs is suboptimal for the treatment of generalized nasal disorders.

  8. Impact of non-constant concentration exposure on lethality of inhaled hydrogen cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Channel, Stephen R

    2014-03-01

    The ten Berge model, also known as the toxic load model, is an empirical approach in hazard assessment modeling for estimating the relationship between the inhalation toxicity of a chemical and the exposure duration. The toxic load (TL) is normally expressed as a function of vapor concentration (C) and duration (t), with TL equaling C(n) × t being a typical form. Hypothetically, any combination of concentration and time that yields the same "toxic load" will give a constant biological response. These formulas have been developed and tested using controlled, constant concentration animal studies, but the validity of applying these assumptions to time-varying concentration profiles has not been tested. Experiments were designed to test the validity of the model under conditions of non-constant acute exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats inhaled constant or pulsed concentrations of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) generated in a nose-only exposure system for 5, 15, or 30 min. The observed lethality of HCN for the 11 different C versus t profiles was used to evaluate the ability of the model to adequately describe the lethality of HCN under the conditions of non-constant inhalation exposure. The model was found to be applicable under the tested conditions, with the exception of the median lethality of very brief, high concentration, discontinuous exposures.

  9. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, rhabdomyolysis and myocardial injury following heroin inhalation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazoukis, G; Spiliopoulou, A; Mourouzis, K; Grigoropoulou, P; Yalouris, A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heroin use by non-injecting routes of administration (snorting, swallowing, “chasing the dragon”) is considered to be safer but is not risk-free for fatal overdose or serious side effects. We report the case of an adolescent who was transferred unconscious to the emergency department after heroin inhalation. Description of the case: A 17-year-old male was transferred to the emergency department unconscious (Glasgow coma scale: 6/15) after heroin inhalation. He was treated with non-rebreather mask and intravenous infusion of naloxone with gradual improvement of consciousness and arterial blood gasses. The chest computed tomography showed signs of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Laboratory exams on the second day of hospitalization showed elevated creatine kinase (CK) and troponin-I levels while his electrocardiography (ECG) showed J-point elevation in V1, V2, and V3 precordial leads. On the second day of hospitalization the pulmonary infiltrates were not present in his chest X-ray while on the eighth day, troponin-I and CK levels were normalized without dynamic ECG changes and the patient was discharged uneventfully. Conclusion: Heroin inhalation may cause severe complications, such as non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, rhabdomyolysis or myocardial injury. Hippokratia 2016, 20(1): 84-87 PMID:27895451

  10. Psychomotor and cognitive effects of 15-minute inhalation of methoxyflurane in healthy volunteers: implication for post-colonoscopy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam Q.; Burgess, Jenna; Debreceni, Tamara L.; Toscano, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Colonoscopy with portal inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) is highly feasible with low sedation risk and allows earlier discharge. It is unclear if subjects can return to highly skilled psychomotor skill task shortly after Penthrox assisted colonoscopy. We evaluated the psychomotor and cognitive effects of 15-minute inhalation of Penthrox in adults. Patients and methods: Sixty healthy volunteers (18 to 80 years) were studied on 2 occasions with either Penthrox or placebo in a randomized, double-blind fashion. On each occasion, the subject’s psychomotor function was examined before, immediately, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after a 15-minute inhalation of studied drug, using validated psychomotor tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), auditory reaction time (ART), eye-hand coordination (EHC) test, trail making test (TMT) and logical reasoning test (LRT). Results: Compared to placebo, a 15-minute Penthrox inhalation led to an immediate but small impairment of DSST (P < 0.001), ART (P < 0.001), EHC (P < 0.01), TMT (P = 0.02) and LRT (P = 0.04). In all subjects, the performance of all 5 tests normalized by 30 minutes after inhalation, and was comparable to that with placebo. Although increasing age was associated with a small deterioration in psychomotor testing performance, the magnitude of Penthrox effects remained comparable among all age groups. Conclusions: In all age groups, a 15-minute Penthrox inhalation induces acute but short-lasting impairment of psychomotor and cognitive performance, which returns to normal within 30 minutes , indicating that subjects who have colonoscopy with Penthrox can return to highly skilled psychomotor skills tasks such as driving and daily work the same day. PMID:27853742

  11. Inhalant abuse by adolescents: A new challenge for Indian physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Debasish

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse has been commonly reported especially in the young during the last decades globally. The reason for the relative paucity of literature from India may be attributed to a lack of knowledge about this growing problem among health professionals. A series of five cases of inhalant abuse is described in order to understand this growing public health concern. Most of the cases started inhalant abuse during adolescence. All patients except one abused typewriter erasing fluid and thinner which contains toluene. All the patients reported using inhalants as addictive substance because of their easy accessibility, cheap price, their faster onset of action and the regular ′high′ that it provided. Whereas several features of inhalant dependence were fulfilled, no physical withdrawal signs were observed. The diagnosis of inhalant abuse can be difficult and relies almost entirely on clinical judgment. Treatment is generally supportive.

  12. Rapid transition from inhaled iloprost to inhaled treprostinil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourge, Robert C; Tapson, Victor F; Safdar, Zeenat; Benza, Raymond L; Channick, Richard N; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Shapiro, Shelley; White, R James; McSwain, Christopher Shane; Gotzkowsky, Stephen Karl; Nelsen, Andrew C; Rubin, Lewis J

    2013-02-01

    Inhaled treprostinil is a prostacyclin analog approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that may provide a more convenient treatment option for patients receiving inhaled iloprost while maintaining the clinical benefit of inhaled prostacyclin therapy. In this open-label safety study, 73 PAH patients were enrolled with primarily World Health Organization Class II (56%) or III (42%) symptoms. At baseline, most patients (93%) were receiving 5 μg of iloprost per dose but 38% of patients reported a dosing frequency below the labeled rate of 6-9 times daily. Patients initiated inhaled treprostinil at 3 breaths four times daily (qid) at the immediate next scheduled iloprost dose. The primary objective was to assess the safety of rapid transition from iloprost to inhaled treprostinil; clinical status and quality of life were also assessed. Most patients (84%) achieved the target treprostinil dose of 9 breaths qid and remained on study until transition to commercial therapy (89%). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were cough (74%), headache (44%), and nausea (30%), and five patients prematurely discontinued study drug due to AE (n = 3), disease progression (n = 1), or death (n = 1). At week 12, the time spent on daily treatment activities was reduced compared to baseline, with a mean total savings of 1.4 h per day. Improvements were also observed at week 12 for 6-min walk distance (+16.0; P iloprost to inhaled treprostinil while maintaining clinical status. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Lung protection by inhalation of exogenous solubilized extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglei; Ravikumar, Priya; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Hsia, Connie C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) contains complex tissue-specific components that work in concert to promote tissue repair and constructive remodeling and has been used experimentally and clinically to accelerate epithelial wound repair, leading us to hypothesize that lung-derived ECM could mitigate acute lung injury. To explore the therapeutic potential of ECM for noninvasive delivery to the lung, we decellularized and solubilized porcine lung ECM, then characterized the composition, concentration, particle size and stability of the preparation. The ECM preparation at 3.2 mg/mL with average particle size <3 μm was tested in vitro on human A549 lung epithelial cells exposed to 95% O2 for 24 hours, and in vivo by tracheal instillation or nebulization into the lungs of rats exposed intermittently or continuously to 90% O2 for a cumulative 72 hours. Our results showed that the preparation was enriched in collagen, reduced in glycosaminoglycans, and contained various bioactive molecules. Particle size was concentration-dependent. Compared to the respective controls treated with cell culture medium in vitro or saline in vivo, ECM inhalation normalized cell survival and alveolar morphology, and reduced hyperoxia-induced apoptosis and oxidative damage. This proof-of-concept study established the methodology, feasibility and therapeutic potential of exogenous solubilized ECM for pulmonary cytoprotection, possibly as an adjunct or potentiator of conventional therapy. PMID:28151947

  14. Inhalation gases or gaseous mediators as neuroprotectants for cerebral ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Brad A; Harrison, Joanne C; Nair, Shiva M; Sammut, Ivan A

    2013-01-01

    Ischaemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While recombinant tissue plasminogen activator can be administered to produce thrombolysis and restore blood flow to the ischaemic brain, therapeutic benefit is only achieved in a fraction of the subset of patients eligible for fibrinolytic intervention. Neuroprotective therapies attempting to restrict the extent of brain injury following cerebral ischaemia have not been successfully translated into the clinic despite overwhelming pre-clinical evidence of neuroprotection. Therefore, an adequate treatment for the majority of acute ischaemic stroke patients remains elusive. In the stroke literature, the use of therapeutic gases has received relatively little attention. Gases such as hyperbaric and normobaric oxygen, xenon, hydrogen, helium and argon all possess biological effects that have shown to be neuroprotective in pre-clinical models of ischaemic stroke. There are significant advantages to using gases including their relative abundance, low cost and feasibility for administration, all of which make them ideal candidates for a translational therapy for stroke. In addition, modulating cellular gaseous mediators including nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulphide may be an attractive option for ischaemic stroke therapy. Inhalation of these gaseous mediators can also produce neuroprotection, but this strategy remains to be confirmed as a viable therapy for ischaemic stroke. This review highlights the neuroprotective potential of therapeutic gas therapy and modulation of gaseous mediators for ischaemic stroke. The therapeutic advantages of gaseous therapy offer new promising directions in breaking the translational barrier for ischaemic stroke.

  15. Severe lung injuries due to SO/sub 2/ inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, P.; Leupold, W.; Mittenzwey, K.W.; Rupprecht, E.

    1982-01-01

    By accident a 12 year old boy had to spend 4 hours in a SO/sub 2/-enriched atmosphere (concentration 13.8 mg per cubicmeter = 4.8 ppm). The course of the following intoxication was tetraphasic: 1. acute irritation of the mucous membranes of the upper airways and of the eye: rhinopharyngitis, laryngitis and bronchitis, conjunctivitis and corneal lesions (duration: 5 days), 2. symptom free interval (duration: 3 days), 3. subacute destruction of the low airways and the lung: destructing bronchitis, bronchiolitis, alveolitis, emphysema of the lung, mediastinum and skin, gradual development of bronchiectasis (duration: 9-12 months) and 4. gradual transition into terminal scarification: emphysema of the lung, continuous partial respiratory insufficiency with combined, especially obstructive disturbance of ventilation (without alterations observed during the last 4 years). On occasions of this fateful and therapeutically hardly influenced course recommendations are given for initial general and topical administration of very high doses of corticosteroids in each case of inhalative intoxication as the only measure which probably would have prevented it.

  16. Activated nuclear factor kappa B and airway inflammation after smoke inhalation and burn injury in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robert A; Burke, Ann S; Jacob, Sam; Oliveras, Gloria; Murakami, Kazunori; Shimoda, Katsumi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Traber, Lillian D; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L; Hawkins, Hal K

    2009-01-01

    In a recent study, we have shown a rapid inflammatory cell influx across the glandular epithelium and strong proinflammatory cytokine expression at 4 hours after inhalation injury. Studies have demonstrated a significant role of nuclear factor kappa B in proinflammatory cytokine gene transcription. This study examines the acute airway inflammatory response and immunohistochemical detection of p65, a marker of nuclear factor kappa B activation, in sheep after smoke inhalation and burn injury. Pulmonary tissue from uninjured sheep and sheep at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after inhalation and burn injury was included in the study. Following immunostaining for p65 and myeloperoxidase, the cell types and the percentage of bronchial submucosal gland cells staining for p65 and the extent of myeloperoxidase stained neutrophils in the bronchial submucosa were determined. Results indicate absence of detection of P65 before 12 hours after injury. At 12 hours after injury, strong perinuclear staining for p65 was evident in bronchial gland epithelial cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Bronchial submucosal gland cells showed a significant increase in the percentage of cells stained for p65 compared with uninjured animals and earlier times after injury, P macrophages, and endothelial cells. Quantitation of the neutrophil influx into the bronchial submucosa showed a significant increase compared with uninjured tissue at 24 and 48 hours after injury, P < .05. In conclusion, immunohistochemical detection of activated p65 preceded the overall inflammatory response measured in the lamina propria. However, detection of p65 did not correlate with a recent study showing rapid emigration of neutrophils at 4 hours postinjury. Together, these results suggest that p65 immunostaining may identify cells that are activated to produce proinflammatory cytokines after injury; however, the immunoexpression may not adequately reflect the temporal activation of gene transcription that may

  17. Histological Changes in the Lung and Liver Tissues in Mice Exposed to Pyrethroid Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem SHEIKH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cypermethrin, a type II pyrethroid, is one of the most widely used insecticides in Pakistan. It is considered to be a safe pesticide; however, the possible health hazards of this pyrethroid have been ignored. Cypermethrin may become an air pollutant and adversely affect the health of non-target organisms, leading to acute or chronic disorders. The present work aims to investigate the effects of cypermethrin on lung and liver tissues due to inhalation exposure. The study is performed on 16 mature Swiss albino mice, including controls. The animals are divided into 4 groups (4 mice each and exposed to 0.5 % dilution of cypermethrin in an inhalation chamber (40×35×25 cm3 for different time periods, whereas control animals are not exposed to any insecticide. The histopathological changes in lungs and liver tissues reveal that cypermethrin exposure induces time dependent changes in the liver and in the lungs. It damages the normal organization of liver tissues, causing liver injury due to necrosis, significant decrease in number of cells, and widening of sinusoids and fibrosis. Inhalation exposure of cypermethrin results in significant hyperplasia, clumping of cells and necrosis in the lungs. It also induces pulmonary edema, alveolitis, and pulmonary fibrosis by the deposition of collagen. Taking these findings together, it may be concluded that cypermethrin and other pyrethroids cause hazardous effects in non-target organisms through inhalation exposure. Serious efforts and awareness are required to monitor and reduce the insecticide induced health hazards in third world countries.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.67

  18. The Advantages of Low-Flow Inhalational Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Torok

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the economical and ecological use of inhalation anesthetics in low-flow anesthesia (LFA, 1—0.5 l/ min and high-flow anesthesia (HFA, more than 2—6 l/min. Four hundred and ninety six inhalational anesthesias lasting at least 80 minutes were analyzed in each group under consideration. The concentration of inhalation anesthetics was measures in the atmosphere of an operative theatre if inhalational anesthesia lasted more than 4 hours. There is evidence for the economical and ecological benefits in the use of LFA in terms of the availability of appropriate anesthesiological equipment, monitoring, and a highly skilled anesthesiologist.

  19. Patient preferences for inhaler devices in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: experience with Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hodder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard Hodder,1 David Price21Divisions of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ScotlandAbstract: Current guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD recommend the regular use of inhaled bronchodilator therapy in order to relieve symptoms and prevent exacerbations. A variety of inhaler devices are currently available to COPD patients, and the choice of device is an important consideration because it can influence patients’ adherence to treatment, and thus potentially affect the long-term outcome. The Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI generates a slow-moving aerosol with a high fine particle fraction, resulting in deposition of a higher proportion of the dose in the lungs than pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs or some dry powder inhalers (DPIs. We review clinical studies of inhaler satisfaction and preference comparing Respimat® SMI against other inhalers in COPD patients. Using objective and validated patient satisfaction instruments, Respimat® SMI was consistently shown to be well accepted by COPD patients, largely due to its inhalation and handling characteristics. In comparative studies with pMDIs, the patient total satisfaction score with Respimat® SMI was statistically and clinically significantly higher than with the pMDI. In comparative studies with DPIs, the total satisfaction score was statistically significantly higher than for the Turbuhaler® DPI, but only the performance domain of satisfaction was clinically significantly higher for Respimat® SMI. Whether the observed higher levels of patient satisfaction reported with Respimat® SMI might be expected to result in improved adherence to therapy and thus provide benefits consistent with those recently shown to be associated with sustained bronchodilator treatment in patients with COPD remains to be proven

  20. Acute bronchiolitis in infants, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common medical emergency situations in infancy, and physicians caring for acutely ill children will regularly be faced with this condition. In this article we present a summary of the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis, and focus on guidelines for the treatment of bronchiolitis in infants. The cornerstones of the management of viral bronchiolitis are the administration of oxygen and appropriate fluid therapy, and overall a “minimal handling approach” is recommended. Inhaled adrenaline is commonly used in some countries, but the evidences are sparse. Recently, inhalation with hypertonic saline has been suggested as an optional treatment. When medical treatment fails to stabilize the infants, non-invasive and invasive ventilation may be necessary to prevent and support respiratory failure. It is important that relevant treatment algorithms exist, applicable to all levels of the treatment chain and reflecting local considerations and circumstances. PMID:24694087

  1. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis : A European consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven; Touw, Daan; Döring, Gerd; Frijlink, Henderik

    In cystic fibrosis inhalation of drugs for the treatment of CF related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. In this European consensus document we

  2. Low flow and economics of inhalational anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odin, I; Feiss, P

    2005-09-01

    Even when anaesthesia does not represent a major part of the expense of a given surgical operation, reducing costs is not negligible because the large number of patients passing through a department of anaesthesia accounts for a huge annual budget. Volatile anaesthetics contribute 20% of the drug expenses in anaesthesia, coming just behind the myorelaxants; however, the cost of halogenated agents has potential for savings because a significant part of the delivered amount is wasted when a non- or partial-rebreathing system is used. The cost of inhaled agents is related to more than the amount taken up; it also depends on their market prices, their relative potencies, the amount of vapour released per millilitre of liquid, and last but not least the fresh-gas flow rate (FGF) delivered to the vaporizer--the most important factor determining the cost of anaesthesia. Poorly soluble agents like desflurane and sevoflurane facilitate the control of low-flow anaesthesia and reduce the duration of temporary high-flow phases to rapidly wash in or adjust the circuit gas concentrations. Modelling low-flow or minimal-flow anaesthesia will help anaesthetists to understand the kinetics of inhaled agents in those circumstances and to design their own clinical protocols. The monitoring facilities present on modern anaesthesia machines should convince clinicians that low- or even minimal-flow anaesthesia would not jeopardize the safety of their patients. Cost containment requires primarily a decrease in FGFs, but it may also be influenced by a rational use of the available halogenated agents. Isoflurane, the cheapest generic agent, might be advantageous for maintenance of anaesthesia of less than 3 hours. Sevoflurane is the agent of choice for inhalational induction and might also be used for maintenance. Desflurane might be preferred for long anaesthetics where rapid recovery will generate savings in the PACU.

  3. Acute Cyanide Poisoning from Jewelry Cleaning Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Bel Waer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is one of the most lethal and devastating poisons. It causes acute toxicity through smoke inhalation simultaneously with carbon monoxide, or by ingestion of cyanide salts that are commonly used in metallurgy and in jewelry or textile industries. Cyanide intoxication is an extremely rare event; in the present study, we report a case of cyanide poisoning involving a 25-year-old jeweler, who ingested a jewelry cleaning solution containing potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt.

  4. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H

    1988-01-01

    of the respiratory alkalosis normally seen at high altitude. Symptoms of acute mountain sickness were rapidly relieved. In three subjects cerebral blood flow increased by 17-39%, so that oxygen delivery to the brain would have been considerably improved. This study confirms earlier suggestions of the beneficial...... effect of CO2 inhalation at high altitude....

  5. Clinical Study of Budesonide Combined With β2 Receptor Agonist Inhalation in the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of COPD%布地奈德联合β2受体激动剂雾化吸入治疗COPD急性发作临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏会英

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveThe curative effect of budesonide inhalation of β2 agonists in the treatment of COPD exacerbation were observed.Methods 46 cases of COPD patients, randomly divided them into observation group and control group, two groups of efficacy and safety analysis.Results Compared with the control group and the observation group the total effective rate, respectively 82.6% and 69.1%.Conclusion budesonide inhalation of β2agonists for the treatment of COPD can make the treatment effect was strengthened, the two combined treatment of COPD should be widely used in the clinical medicine.%目的:对布地奈德联合雾化吸入β2受体激动剂治疗慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)急性发作的疗效进行观察。方法46例COPD患者,将其分为观察组与对照组,对两组疗效和安全性进行分析。结果对比观察组和对照组总有效率,分别为82.6%和69.1%。结论布地奈德联合雾化吸入β2受体激动剂对于治疗COPD能使治疗效果得到加强,将二者联合治疗COPD应在临床医学中广泛应用。

  6. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Images Digestive system Endocrine glands Pancreatitis, acute - CT scan Pancreatitis - series References Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. ...

  7. Cystitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  8. Airway irritation, inflammation, and toxicity in mice following inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren T; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Steen S

    2016-01-01

    in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model. Mice were exposed 60 min to aerosols of either ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 or CeO2 and the deposited...... particles except TiO2. The ranking of potency regarding induction of acute lung inflammation was Al2O3 = TiO2 CeO2 ≪ ZnO. Exposure to CeO2 gave rise to a more persistent inflammation; both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation was seen 13 weeks after exposure. As the only particles, ZnO caused......Metal oxide nanoparticles are used in a broad range of industrial processes and workers may be exposed to aerosols of the particles both during production and handling. Despite the widespread use of these particles, relatively few studies have been performed to investigate the toxicological effects...

  9. Dynamic Tracking Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Tropism following Smoke Inhalation Injury in NOD/SCID Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MeiJuan Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple preclinical evidences have supported the potential value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs for treatment of acute lung injury (ALI. However, few studies focus on the dynamic tropism of MSCs in animals with acute lung injury. In this study, we track systemically transplanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs in NOD/SCID mice with smoke inhalation injury (SII through bioluminescence imaging (BLI. The results showed that hBMSCs systemically delivered into healthy NOD/SCID mouse initially reside in the lungs and then partially translocate to the abdomen after 24 h. Compared with the uninjured control group treated with hBMSCs, higher numbers of hBMSCs were found in the lungs of the SII NOD/SCID mice. In both the uninjured and SII mice, the BLI signals in the lungs steadily decreased over time and disappeared by 5 days after treatment. hBMSCs significantly attenuated lung injury, elevated the levels of KGF, decreased the levels of TNF-α in BALF, and inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the mice with SII. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that more systemically infused hBMSCs localized to the lungs in mice with SII. hBMSC xenografts repaired smoke inhalation-induced lung injury in mice. This repair was maybe due to the effect of anti-inflammatory and secreting KGF of hMSCs but not associated with the differentiation of the hBMSCs into alveolar epithelial cells.

  10. Dynamic Tracking Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Tropism following Smoke Inhalation Injury in NOD/SCID Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, MeiJuan; Zhang, XiuWei; Sun, ShuLi; Xiao, PeiXin; Hou, ShiKe; Ding, Hui; Liu, ZiQuan; Dong, WenLong; Wang, JinQiang; Wang, Xue; Sun, ZhiGuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple preclinical evidences have supported the potential value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). However, few studies focus on the dynamic tropism of MSCs in animals with acute lung injury. In this study, we track systemically transplanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in NOD/SCID mice with smoke inhalation injury (SII) through bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The results showed that hBMSCs systemically delivered into healthy NOD/SCID mouse initially reside in the lungs and then partially translocate to the abdomen after 24 h. Compared with the uninjured control group treated with hBMSCs, higher numbers of hBMSCs were found in the lungs of the SII NOD/SCID mice. In both the uninjured and SII mice, the BLI signals in the lungs steadily decreased over time and disappeared by 5 days after treatment. hBMSCs significantly attenuated lung injury, elevated the levels of KGF, decreased the levels of TNF-α in BALF, and inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the mice with SII. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that more systemically infused hBMSCs localized to the lungs in mice with SII. hBMSC xenografts repaired smoke inhalation-induced lung injury in mice. This repair was maybe due to the effect of anti-inflammatory and secreting KGF of hMSCs but not associated with the differentiation of the hBMSCs into alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:27725837

  11. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  12. Inhaled analgesia for pain management in labour (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, T.; Poppel, M. van; Jones, L.; Lazet, J.; Nisio, M. Di; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women would like to have a choice in pain relief during labour and also would like to avoid invasive methods of pain management in labour. Inhaled analgesia during labour involves the self-administered inhalation of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of agents while the mother remains a

  13. Conceptual model for assessment of inhalation exposure: Defining modifying factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Schneider, T.; Goede, H.; Tischer, M.; Warren, N.; Kromhout, H.; Tongeren, M. van; Hemmen, J. van; Cherrie, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper proposes a source-receptor model to schematically describe inhalation exposure to help understand the complex processes leading to inhalation of hazardous substances. The model considers a stepwise transfer of a contaminant from the source to the receptor. The conceptual model is c

  14. A review of inhalability fraction models: discussion and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millage, Kyle K; Bergman, Josh; Asgharian, Bahman; McClellan, Gene

    2010-02-01

    The first step in mathematically modeling the mechanics of respiratory deposition of particles is to estimate the ability of a particle to enter the head, either through the mouth or nose. Models of the biological effects from inhaled particles are commonly, albeit incorrectly, simplified by making an assumption that the only particles of concern are those that can readily penetrate to the pulmonary region of the lung: typically particles less than 5microm in aerodynamic diameter. Inhalability for particles of this size is effectively 100%, so there is little need to develop a mathematical representation of the phenomenon. However, chemical irritants, biological agents, or radioactive material, in the form of large particles or droplets, can cause adverse biological responses by simply being taken into the head and depositing in the extrathoracic area. As a result, it is important to understand the inhalability of both small and large particles. The concept of particle inhalability received little consideration until the 1970s; since then it has been the subject of many experiments with a fairly wide disparity of results, in part due to the variety of dependent variables and the difficulty in adequate measurement methods. This article describes the currently utilized models of inhalability, recommends specific methods for implementing inhalability into mathematical models of respiratory deposition, and identifies outstanding issues and limitations. In this article, we describe inhalability as it applies to particulate matter and liquid droplets; modeling the inhalability of fibers is a work in progress and is not addressed.

  15. Inhalation characteristics and their effects on in vitro drug delivery from dry powder inhalers .1. Inhalation characteristics, work of breathing and volunteers' preference in dependence of the inhaler resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBoer, AH; Winter, H.M.I.; Lerk, CF

    1996-01-01

    A test inhaler with exchangeable air flow resistances encompassing the range of commercial DPIs has been used to study the inspiratory flow curves of 39 healthy adult volunteers. A strong increase in mean Peak Inspiratory Flow Rate (PIFR) has been obtained with decreasing inhaler resistance, varying

  16. Inhaled analgesia for pain management in labour (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, T.; Poppel, M. van; Jones, L.; Lazet, J.; Nisio, M. Di; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women would like to have a choice in pain relief during labour and also would like to avoid invasive methods of pain management in labour. Inhaled analgesia during labour involves the self-administered inhalation of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of agents while the mother remains

  17. Unintended effects of inhaled corticosteroids : disease or drugs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, F. de

    2007-01-01

    Patients with asthma or COPD are often treated with inhaled corticosteroids. These drugs reduce the inflammation in the lungs and patients suffer fewer exacerbations. In the late nineties, a tendency to treat patients in general with higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids was accompanied with an in

  18. Inhalation of Budesonide/Formoterol Increases Diaphragm Muscle Contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyohiko Shindoh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: BUD/FORM inhalation has an inotropic effect on diaphragm muscle, protects diaphragm muscle deterioration after endotoxin injection, and inhibits NO production. Increments in muscle contractility with BUD/FORM inhalation are induced through a synergistic effect of an anti-inflammatory agent and 02-agonist.

  19. Technological and practical challenges of dry powder inhalers and formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppentocht, M.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H.W.; de Boer, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    In the 50 years following the introduction of the first dry powder inhaler to the market, several developments have occurred. Multiple-unit dose and multi-dose devices have been introduced, but first generation capsule inhalers are still widely used for new formulations. Many new particle engineerin

  20. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Design and evaluation of a new dry powder inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Rouholamini Najafabadi AH

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Three versions of a new dry powder inhaler (DPI, RG-haler, were designed using two kinds of grid inserts. Salbutamol sulfate/lactose blend (Ventolin Rotacaps® was selected as a model formulation to analyze the performance of all inhalers and compare their efficiency with three marketed devices (Rotahaler®, Spinhaler® and ISF inhalator® using the twin impinger (TI. Deposition of the drug in device was significantly (P<0.05 lower for ISF inhalator® and all kinds of RG-halers in comparison with those of Rotahaler® and Spinhaler®. The amount of drug deposited in the stage 2 and the respirable dose for RG-halers were similar to those of ISF inhalator® and significantly (P<0.05 higher than those of Rotahaler® and Spinhaler®. The results suggest efficient aerosol generating capability of the RG-haler.

  2. Inhaled Nitric Oxide for the Prevention of Impaired Arterial Oxygenation during Myocardial Revascularization with Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kozlov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide used intraoperatively to prevent lung oxygenating dysfunction in patients with coronary heart disease after myocardial revascularization under extracorporeal circulation (EC. Subjects and methods. Thirty-two patients aged 55.0±2.0 years were examined. The inclusion criteria were the standard course of surgical intervention (the absence of hemorrhage, acute cardiovascular insufficiency, perioperative myocardial infarction, etc., a pulmonary artery wedge pressure of less than 15 – mm Hg throughout the study, and the baseline arterial partial oxygen tension/inspired mixture oxygen fraction (PaO2/FiO2 ratio of at least 350 mm Hg. There was a control group (n=21; Group 1 that used no special measures to prevent and/or to correct lung oxygenating dysfunction and Group 2 (n=11 that received inhaled nitric oxide. Ihe administration of inhaled nitric oxide at a concentration of 10 ppm was initiated after water anesthesia, stopped during EC, and resumed in the postperfusion period. Results. At the end, PaO2/FiO2 and intrapulmonary shunt fraction did not differ between the groups (p>0.05. Before EC, the patients receiving inhaled nitric oxide had a lower intrapulmonary blood shunting (8.9±0.7 and 11.7±1.0%; p<0.05. There were no intergroup differences in the values of PaO2/FiO2 at this stage. In the earliest postperfusion period, PaO2/FiO2 was higher in Group 2 than that in Group 1. At the end of operations, Groups 1 and 2 had a PaO2/FiO2 of 336.0±16.8 and 409.0±24.3 mm Hg, respectively (p<0.05 and an intrapulmonary shunt fraction of 14.5±1.0 and 10.4±1.0% (p<0.05. At the end of surgery, the rate of a reduction in PaO2/FiO2 to the level below 350 mm Hg was 52.4±11.1% in Group 1 and 18.2±11.6% in Group 2 (p<0.05. Six hours after surgery, PaO2/FiO2 values less than 300 mm Hg were diagnosed in 61.9±10.5% of Group 1 patients and in 27.3±13.4% of Group 2 ones (p<0.05. Conclusion. The

  3. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site.

  4. Syringe, pen, inhaler - the evolution of insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, I A; Hahn, E G; Konturek, P C

    2001-01-01

    The therapy with inhalable insulin can be expected to change the present concepts and the market of subcutaneous insulin dramatically within the next years. Several companies are currently developing formulations of inhalable insulin. In the most advanced concept, insulin is delivered as a dry-powder insulin formulation via a special aerosol device system. The phase III studies evaluating the efficiency of the inhaled insulin are already on their way. The recent phase II studies have shown, that the lung is capable of absorbing new insulin formulation in a dose-dependent and reproducible manner. However, a relatively small number of diabetic patients have been included in these studies, yet. The therapeutic efficacy and safety of the inhaled insulin is comparable to that of the usual subcutaneous insulin treatment regimens. The most important advantage of the new therapy is the enhanced therapeutic comfort of the patient who does not need to inject insulin for meal time glucose control. Generally, in terms of glycemic control, inhalable insulin offers no advantages in type 1 diabetics in comparison to an intensified conventional insulin therapy. However, before a large-scale marketing, several open questions have to be carefully investigated, the most important being the possible long-term effects of insulin inhalation for the lung, since insulin is known to have growth-promoting properties. There is still no available clinical data concerning the efficiency of the inhaled insulin in patients with pulmonary diseases which may cause problems in absorption of inhaled insulin due to the smaller cumulative alveolar surface. In smokers without pulmonary disease seems the inhaled insulin to act stronger and faster. Since therapy with inhalable insulin requires larger doses of insulin in comparison to subcutaneous insulin to achieve the same systemic effect, the costs of this therapy need to be clarified, too.

  5. Inhaled nitric oxide for the brain dead donor with neurogenic pulmonary edema during anesthesia for organ donation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sun; Lee, A-Ran; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, An Suk; Park, Soon Eun; Cho, Young Woo

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) in brain dead organ donors occurring after an acute central nervous system insult threatens organ preservation of potential organ donors and the outcome of organ donation. Hence the active and immediate management of NPE is critical. In this case, a 50-year-old male was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for organ donation. He was hypoxic due to NPE induced by spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage. Protective ventilatory management, intermittent recruitment maneuvers, and supportive treatment were maintained in the ICU and the operating room (OR). Despite this management, the hypoxemia worsened after the OR admission. So inhaled nitric oxide (NO) therapy was performed during the operation, and the hypoxic phenomena showed remarkable improvement. The organ retrieval was successfully completed. Therefore, NO inhalation can be helpful in the improvement of hypoxemia caused by NPE in brain dead organ donors during anesthesia for the organ donation. PMID:25237451

  6. Impact of hepatic P450-mediated biotransformation on the disposition and respiratory tract toxicity of inhaled naphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kelty, Jacklyn; Li, Lei; Hartog, Matthew; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Edwards, Patricia; Van Winkle, Laura; Ding, Xinxin

    2017-08-15

    We determined whether a decrease in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 activity would impact lung toxicity induced by inhalation exposure to naphthalene (NA), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The liver-Cpr-null (LCN) mouse showed decreases in microsomal metabolism of NA in liver, but not lung, compared to wild-type (WT) mouse. Plasma levels of NA and NA-glutathione conjugates (NA-GSH) were both higher in LCN than in WT mice after a 4-h nose-only NA inhalation exposure at 10ppm. Levels of NA were also higher in lung and liver of LCN, compared to WT, mice, following exposure to NA at 5 or 10ppm. Despite the large increase in circulating and lung tissue NA levels, the level of NA-GSH, a biomarker of NA bioactivation, was either not different, or only slightly higher, in lung and liver tissues of LCN mice, relative to that in WT mice. Furthermore, the extent of NA-induced acute airway injury, judging from high-resolution lung histopathology and morphometry at 20h following NA exposure, was not higher, but lower, in LCN than in WT mice. These results, while confirming the ability of extrahepatic organ to bioactivate inhaled NA and mediate NA's lung toxicity, suggest that liver P450-generated NA metabolites also have a significant, although relatively small, contribution to airway toxicity of inhaled NA. This hepatic contribution to the airway toxicity of inhaled NA may be an important risk factor for individuals with diminished bioactivation activity in the lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of early bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from dogs with smoke inhalation injury on the lungs of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Fa-chuan; SU Dong; YANG Zong-cheng; BI Min; HUANG Yue-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Whether early massive bronchoalveolar lavage can remove the harmful substances from the lungs injured with smoke inhalation remains uncertain. This study was designed to observe the effects of early massive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) on the healthy lungs in rats. Methods: Mongrel dogs were inflicted with severe smoke inhalation injury. The injured lungs were lavaged with large amount of normal saline in the first hour after injury and the BALF was collected. The BALF was injected into the healthy lungs of 30 rats (group C) in the dosage of 5 ml/kg. The functions and pathological changes of the lungs were observed 24 h after perfusion with the BALF. The data were compared with those of 23 rats (group B) whose lungs were perfused with the BALF collected from normal dogs and those of 21 rats (group A)whose lungs were perfused with normal saline. Results: The mortality rate 24 h after lung perfusion was higher in group C than in groups A and B. The survivors of group C exhibited fluctuation of respiratory rate (RR), remarkable decrease of PaO2, significantly higher content of lung water, decrease of total static pulmonary compliance and pulmonary expansion index, and increasse of inflammatory cytokines in the tissues of lungs. Only slight mechanic obstructive effect on the airway was observed in rats of group A and B. The pathological changes of the lungs of the rats in group C were similar to those of the dogs with actual smoke inhalation injury. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the BALF collected from dogs with acute severe smoke inhalation injury in the early stage after injury injured the normal lungs of rats with the bioactive substances in the BALF. These findings show us that it is a valuable therapeutic procedure to apply massive bronchoalveolar fluid lavage in the early stage after inhalation injury.

  8. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoking also slows down the healing process. Acute bronchitis treatment Most cases of acute bronchitis can be treated at home.Drink fluids, but ... bronchial tree. Your doctor will decide if this treatment is right for you. Living with acute bronchitis Most cases of acute bronchitis go away on ...

  9. Inhaled unfractionated heparin improves abnormalities of alveolar coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation in endotoxemia-induced lung injury rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zong-yu; WU Sheng-nan; ZHU Zhao-zhong; YANG Ba-xian; ZHU Xi

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome presents with not only local inflammation,but also pulmonary coagulopathy which is characterized by an alveolar procoagulant response,anticoagulant inhibition,fibrinolytic supression and fibrin deposition.We thus had hypothesized that if aerosolized unfractionated heparin was inhaled into alveolar spaces,it could block the procoagulant tendency,lessen depletion of coagulation factors,and even influence the inflammatory response.We also assessed the effects of different administration regimens of heparin.Methods Male Wistar rats were given inhaled heparin starting 30 minutes before (prophylactic heparin) or 2 hours after (therapeutic heparin) intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered at 6-hour intervals; control groups received inhaled normal saline with or without being exposed to LPS.Thrombin-antithrombin complexes,activated protein C,tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators (t-PNu-PA),plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAl-1),tumor necrosis factor-α,interleukin-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage,and lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity,and histology score were measured at three time-points.PAI-1/(t-PA + u-PA) was calculated based on the before-mentioned parameters.Statistical analysis was made using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc test or Student's t test in the case of heterogeneity of variance.Results An alveolar procoagulant reaction,depressed fibrinolysis,and inflammatory response occurred in endotoxemia-induced lung injury.Local prophylactic application of heparin attenuated coagulation and early inflammation,promoted fibrinolysis,and reduced the histology score.Therapeutic application of heparin had similar,but weaker effects.Conclusions Intrapulmonary application of unfractionated heparin by inhalation might inhibit alveolar procoagulant reaction and the early inflammatory response,promote flbrinolysis,and alleviate pulmonary pathology in endotoxemia

  10. [Acute asthmatic crisis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubus, J C; Bodiou, A C; Buttin, C; Jouglet, T; Stremler, N; Mély, L

    2000-03-01

    Acute asthma attack in children is an attack responsible for life-threatening acute respiratory distress with partial or no response to bronchodilator drugs. The severity of the episode needs to be quickly evaluated. This presupposes a perfect knowledge of the clinical signs of severity. Treatment is urgent and first based on the administration of high doses of inhaled short-acting beta 2-agonists. In the more obstructed children, anti-cholinergic drugs can be added to nebulized beta 2-agonists. Because of their delayed effect, systemic steroids require an early prescription. Symptomatic treatments are: urgent hospitalization, oxygen if needed, proper hydratation. Continuous nebulization or intravenous perfusion of beta 2-agonists are prescribed with cardiac monitoring when no objective improvement is noted. Admission into the pediatric intensive care unit when bronchial obstruction continues will permit the association of bronchodilator drugs and the proposal of mechanical ventilation if needed. When the episode is resolved, a prophylactic treatment using inhaled corticosteroids must be prescribed. Clinical and spirometric follow-up has to be organized, and the patient and his/her family have to be educated.

  11. Mercury vapor inhalation and poisoning of a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Serife Gul; Tozlu, Mukaddes; Yalcin, Songul Siddika; Sozen, Tumay; Guven, Gulay Sain

    2012-08-01

    Acute mercury vapor poisoning is a rare but fatal toxicological emergency. People are exposed to mercury in daily life by the way of foods, vaccines, antiseptics, ointments, amalgam or occupation. We present here, the clinical picture and management of four members of the same family who were exposed to elemental mercury. Three of the family members were seen in another hospital with malaise, fever, eritematous rash and pulmonary problems. Their questioning revealed the mercury exposure. Having a suspicion of heavy metal intoxication, blood and urine mercury levels were measured and mercury intoxication was diagnosed. On admission to our hospital, two patients already had chelation therapy. In three of them we found three distinct abnormalities: encephalopathy, nephrotic syndrome and polyneuropathy. The fourth family member had minor symptoms. This family is an example for the inhalation exposure resulting from inappropriate handling of liquid mercury. During the first days, flu like illness ensues. Then, severe pulmonary, neurological, renal, hepatic, hematological and dermatological dysfunctions develop. Blood and urine mercury levels should be tested on suspicion, but it must be kept in mind that blood level is unreliable in predicting the severity of mercury toxicity. The priority in the treatment should be removing the patient from the source of exposure. Then British anti-Lewisite, edetate calcium disodium, penicillamine, Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfhonate and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid can be used for binding the mercury. We conclude that since mercury-containing devices are present in daily life, physicians must be able to recognize the clinical manifestations and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  12. Systematic Review of Inhaled Bronchodilator and Corticosteroid Therapies in Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Implications and Future Directions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Clouse

    Full Text Available There is much debate surrounding the use of inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids for infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD.The objective of this systematic review was to identify strengths and knowledge gaps in the literature regarding inhaled therapies in BPD and guide future research to improve long-termoutcomes.The databases of Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PUBMED/MEDLINE, and Scopus were searched for studies that evaluated both acute and long-term clinical outcomes related to the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of inhaled beta-agonists, anticholinergics and corticosteroids in infants with developing and/or established BPD.Of 181 articles, 22 met inclusion criteria for review. Five evaluated beta-agonist therapies (n = 84, weighted gestational age (GA of 27.1(26-30 weeks, weighted birth weight (BW of 974(843-1310 grams, weighted post menstrual age (PMA of 34.8(28-39 weeks, and weighted age of 53(15-86 days old at the time of evaluation. Fourteen evaluated inhaled corticosteroids (n = 2383, GA 26.2(26-29 weeks, weighted BW of 853(760-1114 grams, weighted PMA of 27.0(26-31 weeks, and weighted age of 6(0-45 days old at time of evaluation. Three evaluated combination therapies (n = 198, weighted GA of 27.8(27-29 weeks, weighted BW of 1057(898-1247 grams, weighted PMA of 30.7(29-45 weeks, and age 20(10-111 days old at time of evaluation.Whether inhaled bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids improve long-term outcomes in BPD remains unclear. Literature regarding these therapies mostly addresses evolving BPD. There appears to be heterogeneity in treatment responses, and may be related to varying modes of administration. Further research is needed to evaluate inhaled therapies in infants with severe BPD. Such investigations should focus on appropriate definitions of disease and subject selection, timing of therapies, and new drugs, devices and delivery methods as compared to traditional methods across all modalities of

  13. Effect of 4% lidocaine inhalation in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, G S; Sharma, S K; Pande, J N

    1990-01-01

    The effect of 4% lidocaine inhalation was studied in a single-blind fashion in 18 patients with chronic stable asthma. Inhalation of normal saline solution was used as placebo. None of the parameters except flow rate at 50% of vital capacity (V50) showed any statistically significant change from baseline values. V50 at 15 min was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) after 4% lidocaine inhalation. Considering more than 10% change from the baseline value as significant, 8 of 15 patients showed decrease in airway resistance (Raw) and 7 of the 15 patients showed an increase in specific airway conductance (SGaw) after 15 min of inhalation. However, V50 (8/18 patients), flow rate at 25% vital capacity [V25 (6/15 patients], and forced expiratory flow rate at 25-75% of the vital capacity (FEF25-75) (5/15 patients) showed a decrease after 15 min of 4% lidocaine inhalation. No change in pulmonary function was noted after 30 min of lidocaine inhalation. It is concluded from this study that lidocaine produces a small bronchodilatory effect on the large airways and a bronchoconstrictor effect on the small airways after 15 min of inhalation, but this effect is not statistically significant. It can be safely used as topical agent for bronchoscopy in patients with bronchial asthma.

  14. Asthma and Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårnes, Camilla Boslev; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of maintenance asthma therapy. However, in spite of this, adherence to ICS remains low. The aim of this systematic literature review was to provide an overview of the current knowledge of adherence to ICS, effects of poor adherence, and means...... was found to be between 22 and 63%, with improvement up to and after an exacerbation. Poor adherence was associated with youth, being African-American, having mild asthma, ... prescribed fixed-combination therapy (ICS and long-acting β2 agonists). Good adherence was associated with higher FEV1, a lower percentage of eosinophils in sputum, reduction in hospitalizations, less use of oral corticosteroids, and lower mortality rate. Overall, 24% of exacerbations and 60% of asthma...

  15. Toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after inhaling heroin vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Kuehne, D. [Klinik fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik und Neuroradiologie, Alfried-Krupp-Krankenhaus, Alfried Krupp Strasse 21, D-45117, Essen (Germany); Moeller, P.; Bade, K. [Neurologische Klinik, Knappschafts-Krankenhaus, D-45657 Recklinghausen (Germany)

    1998-06-02

    This is a report of clinical, CT and MRI findings in a patient with toxic spongiform leucoencephalopathy after heroin ingestion. The disease is observed in drug addicts who inhale pre-heated heroin. The clinical onset, which usually occurs some days or even longer after the last heroin consumption, is characterized by a cerebellar syndrome. The cerebellar hemispheres, the cerebellar and cerebral peduncles and the pyramidal tract may be affected. Spongiform demyelination is the morphological substrate of the lesions, which are not contrast enhancing, hypodense on CT and hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI. The frequently perfect symmetry of the affection of functional systems points to a toxic and/or metabolic pathophysiological mechanism. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 26 refs.

  16. [Wood dust as inhalative noxious agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, D; Liebetrau, G; Meister, W

    1985-01-01

    Wood dust is known as a cause of asthma and chronic bronchitis. From 1979 to 1983 we observed 115 patients with chronic lung diseases, who were exposed to wood dust during many years. We found an irritative pathogenesis in 101 patients with asthma or bronchitis. Twenty nine patients had got a positive skin test, especially with makoré, beech, koto, ash, pine. The inhalation test was positive in 7 of them. The occupational etiology was verified in 5 patients. Besides wood dust itself chemicals for wood protection or wood adhesives can have importance in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fourteen patients had got alveolitis or lung fibrosis after wood-dust exposition. In each case we found precipitating antibodies against moulds, which could be cultivated from wood dust to which the patients were exposed.

  17. Toluene inhalation in adolescent rats reduces flexible behaviour in adulthood and alters glutamatergic and GABAergic signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Teri M; Duncan, Jhodie R; Corbit, Laura H; Rae, Caroline D; Rowlands, Benjamin D; Maher, Anthony D; Nasrallah, Fatima A; Milligan, Carol J; Petrou, Steven; Lawrence, Andrew J; Balleine, Bernard W

    2016-12-01

    Toluene is a commonly abused inhalant that is easily accessible to adolescents. Despite the increasing incidence of use, our understanding of its long-term impact remains limited. Here, we used a range of techniques to examine the acute and chronic effects of toluene exposure on glutameteric and GABAergic function, and on indices of psychological function in adult rats after adolescent exposure. Metabolomics conducted on cortical tissue established that acute exposure to toluene produces alterations in cellular metabolism indicative of a glutamatergic and GABAergic profile. Similarly, in vitro electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes found that acute toluene exposure reduced NMDA receptor signalling. Finally, in an adolescent rodent model of chronic intermittent exposure to toluene (10 000 ppm), we found that, while toluene exposure did not affect initial learning, it induced a deficit in updating that learning when response-outcome relationships were reversed or degraded in an instrumental conditioning paradigm. There were also group differences when more effort was required to obtain the reward; toluene-exposed animals were less sensitive to progressive ratio schedules and to delayed discounting. These behavioural deficits were accompanied by changes in subunit expression of both NMDA and GABA receptors in adulthood, up to 10 weeks after the final exposure to toluene in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and ventromedial striatum; regions with recognized roles in behavioural flexibility and decision-making. Collectively, our data suggest that exposure to toluene is sufficient to induce adaptive changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic systems and in adaptive behaviour that may underlie the deficits observed following adolescent inhalant abuse, including susceptibility to further drug-use. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Rapid transepithelial transport of prions following inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Anthony E; Hudson, Kathryn F; Richey, Matthew W; Bartz, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    Prion infection and pathogenesis are dependent on the agent crossing an epithelial barrier to gain access to the recipient nervous system. Several routes of infection have been identified, but the mechanism(s) and timing of in vivo prion transport across an epithelium have not been determined. The hamster model of nasal cavity infection was used to determine the temporal and spatial parameters of prion-infected brain homogenate uptake following inhalation and to test the hypothesis that prions cross the nasal mucosa via M cells. A small drop of infected or uninfected brain homogenate was placed below each nostril, where it was immediately inhaled into the nasal cavity. Regularly spaced tissue sections through the entire extent of the nasal cavity were processed immunohistochemically to identify brain homogenate and the disease-associated isoform of the prion protein (PrP(d)). Infected or uninfected brain homogenate was identified adhering to M cells, passing between cells of the nasal mucosa, and within lymphatic vessels of the nasal cavity at all time points examined. PrP(d) was identified within a limited number of M cells 15 to 180 min following inoculation, but not in the adjacent nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). While these results support M cell transport of prions, larger amounts of infected brain homogenate were transported paracellularly across the respiratory, olfactory, and follicle-associated epithelia of the nasal cavity. These results indicate that prions can immediately cross the nasal mucosa via multiple routes and quickly enter lymphatics, where they can spread systemically via lymph draining the nasal cavity.

  19. [Severe burns related to steam inhalation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, J A; Domínguez-Sampedro, P; Pérez, E; Suelves, J M; Collado, J M

    2015-02-01

    Despite lack of proven effectiveness and its potential to cause severe burns, steam inhalation therapy (SIT) is still used as a treatment for benign respiratory conditions. To characterize cases of burns related to steam inhalation therapy (BRSIT) in order to formulate appropriate preventive criteria. A review was conducted on cases of BRSIT admitted to a Burns Unit between 2006 and 2012, analysing epidemiological data, clinical aspects, severity and course. A total of 530 patients were admitted; 375 (70%) with scalds, and 15 with BRSIT (2.8% of burns; 4% of scalds). SIT was indicated in most cases for mild upper airway infections. The median age of patients was 7 years (2.5m-14 y). The burned area (BA) was ≥10% in 60% of cases (max. BA 22%). Injuries involved trunk, genital area, and extremities; only in one case was the face affected. The mean hospital length-of-stay was 14 days (3-30 d). Five patients (33%) were admitted to the PICU, most of them (60%) younger than 3 years. Eight patients (53%) underwent surgical treatment (skin grafting). In a 12-year-old patient whooping cough was diagnosed in the Burns Unit, and a 2.5-year-old patient developed staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. No patient died. The final course was satisfactory in all patients. BRSIT can be severe and cause significant use of health resources. Professionals caring for children, particularly paediatricians, should seriously consider their prevention, avoiding treatments with SIT, and educating parents in order not to use it on their own. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [New technical developments for inhaled sedation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, A; Bomberg, H; Volk, T; Groesdonk, H V

    2017-01-31

    The circle system has been in use for more than 100 years, whereas the first clinical application of an anaesthetic reflector was reported just 15 years ago. In the circle system, all breathing gas is rebreathed after carbon dioxide absorption. A reflector, on the other hand, with the breathing gas flowing to and fro, specifically retains the anaesthetic during expiration and resupplies it during the next inspiration. A high reflection efficiency (number of molecules resupplied/number of molecules exhaled, RE 80-90%) decreases consumption. In analogy to the fresh gas flow of a circle system, pulmonary clearance ((1-RE) × minute ventilation) defines the opposition between consumption and control of the concentration.It was not until reflection systems became available that volatile anaesthetics were used routinely in some intensive care units. Their advantages, such as easy handling, and better ventilatory capabilities of intensive care versus anaesthesia ventilators, were basic preconditions for this. Apart from AnaConDa™ (Sedana Medical, Uppsala, Sweden), the new MIRUS™ system (Pall Medical, Dreieich, Germany) represents a second, more sophisticated commercially available system.Organ protective effects, excellent control of sedation, and dose-dependent deep sedation while preserving spontaneous breathing with hardly any accumulation or induction of tolerance, make volatile anaesthetics an interesting alternative, especially for patients needing deep sedation or when intravenous drugs are no longer efficacious.But obviously, the outcome is most important. We know that deep intravenous sedation increases mortality, whereas inhalational sedation could prove beneficial. We now need prospective clinical trials examining mortality, but also the psychological outcome of those most critically ill patients sedated by inhalation or intravenously.

  1. The importance of serological assays in diagnosing acute pulmonary histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis caused by inhalation of Histoplasma capsulatum microconidia. The disease does not normally affect immunocompetent individuals after a single, transient inhalation exposure. However, longer exposure may cause chronic or disseminated acute pulmonary infection. Herein, we report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent patient, who presented fever, cough and dyspnea for one month. The chest radiography revealed interstitial infiltrate and diffuse micronodules. The patient reported having had close and prolonged contact with bats. Diagnosis was confirmed by positive double immunodifusion and immunoblotting assays. She was treated with ketoconazole (400 mg and there was complete resolution of the disease.

  2. Four inhalation devices for salbutamol : in vivo and in vitro comparison in asthma and COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, M.E.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Inhalation therapy with bronchodilators is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several inhalation drug-device combinations are available. Multiple factors, like the inhalation device and the inhalation technique influence the depositio

  3. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  4. The Chemo and the Mona: Inhalants, devotion and street youth in Mexico City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper understands inhalant use – the deliberate inhalation of volatile solvents or glues with intentions of intoxication – as a socially and culturally constituted practice. It describes the inhalant use of young street people in Mexico City from their perspective (“the vicioso or inhalant fien

  5. Effectiveness and success factors of educational inhaler technique interventions in asthma & COPD patients : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Sven L; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia M A A; Román-Rodríguez, Miguel; van der Molen, Thys; van Boven, Job F M

    2017-01-01

    With the current wealth of new inhalers available and insurance policy driven inhaler switching, the need for insights in optimal education on inhaler use is more evident than ever. We aimed to systematically review educational inhalation technique interventions, to assess their overall effectivenes

  6. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest...

  7. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. Modeling potential occupational inhalation exposures and associated risks of toxic organics from chemical storage tanks used in hydraulic fracturing using AERMOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Carter, Kimberly E

    2017-05-01

    Various toxic chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids may influence the inherent health risks associated with these operations. This study investigated the possible occupational inhalation exposures and potential risks related to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from chemical storage tanks and flowback pits used in hydraulic fracturing. Potential risks were evaluated based on radial distances between 5 m and 180 m from the wells for 23 contaminants with known inhalation reference concentration (RfC) or inhalation unit risks (IUR). Results show that chemicals used in 12.4% of the wells posed a potential acute non-cancer risks for exposure and 0.11% of the wells with may provide chronic non-cancer risks for exposure. Chemicals used in 7.5% of the wells were associated with potential acute cancer risks for exposure. Those chemicals used in 5.8% of the wells may be linked to chronic cancer risks for exposure. While eight organic compounds were associated with acute non-cancer risks for exposure (>1), methanol the major compound in the chemical storage tanks (1.00-45.49) in 7,282 hydraulic fracturing wells. Wells with chemicals additives containing formaldehyde exhibited both acute and chronic cancer risks for exposure with IUR greater than 10(-6), suggesting formaldehyde was the dominant contributor to both types of risks for exposure in hydraulic fracturing. This study also found that due to other existing on-site emission sources of VOCs and the geographically compounded air concentrations from other surrounding wells, chemical emissions data from storage tanks and flowback pits used in this study were lower than reported concentrations from field measurements where higher occupational inhalation risks for exposure may be expected.

  9. Fiber inhalability and head deposition in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their dimensions and long durability, inhaled asbestos fibers clear slowly from lung airways. Retained fibers may injure the epithelium, interact with macrophages, or translocate to the interstitium to result in various respiratory diseases. Therefore, calculations of fibe...

  10. Triple inhaled therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuschi, Paolo; Malerba, Mario; Macis, Giuseppe; Mores, Nadia; Santini, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    Combining individual drugs in a single inhaler is the most convenient way to deliver triple therapy. A long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) added to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) fixed-dose combination (FDC) can improve efficacy of pharmacological treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). New inhaled ICS/LABA/LAMA FDCs, including fluticasone furoate/vilanterol/umeclidinium, budesonide/formoterol/glycopyrronium and beclometasone/formoterol/glycopyrronium, are in Phase III of clinical development for COPD. Triple inhaled therapy might be particularly useful in patients with severe to very severe COPD, above all in those with peripheral blood or sputum eosinophilia, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) or frequent exacerbators. Future prospective studies should assess efficacy and safety of triple ICS/LABA/LAMA therapy in selected COPD phenotypes.

  11. [Inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis: what's new in 2013?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubus, J-C; Bassinet, L; Chedevergne, F; Delaisi, B; Desmazes-Dufeu, N; Reychler, G; Vecellio, L

    2014-04-01

    In the past few years some new inhaled drugs and inhalation devices have been proposed for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Breath-controlled nebulizers allow increased pulmonary deposition, with a lower variability and a shorter delivery time. The new dry powder formulations of tobramycin, colistine and mannitol require a change in the inhalation technique which must be slow and deep. In the field of the inhaled mucolytic drugs, hypertonic saline and mannitol have an indication in some patients. With regard to antibiotics, dry-powder tobramycin and colistine can be substituted for the same drug delivered by nebulization. Nebulized aztreonam needs more studies to determine its place. These new treatments represent a definite advance for cystic fibrosis patients and need to be known by all practitioners. Their position in our therapeutic arsenal remains to be accurately defined. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhaled therapy for the management of perioperative pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C A Thunberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH are at high risk for complications in the perioperative setting and often receive vasodilators to control elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP. Administration of vasodilators via inhalation is an effective strategy for reducing PAP while avoiding systemic side effects, chiefly hypotension. The prototypical inhaled pulmonary-specific vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO, has a proven track record but is expensive and cumbersome to implement. Alternatives to NO, including prostanoids (such as epoprostenol, iloprost, and treprostinil, NO-donating drugs (sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, and nitrite, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (milrinone, sildenafil may be given via inhalation for the purpose of treating elevated PAP. This review will focus on the perioperative therapy of PH using inhaled vasodilators.

  13. Development of an intelligent adapter for metered dose inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To better coordinate the interaction of inhalation and aerosol release, an intelligent adapter (IA was developed for metered dose inhalers (MDIs. The adapter included three main units: a signal acquisition device, a micro-control-unit (MCU, and an actuation mechanism. To fully study the effectiveness of the intelligent adapter, an inhalation simulation experiment was done, and two bands of MDI were used for the experiment. The results indicated that, when inhalation, the intelligent adapter can press down the MDI automatically; moreover, this intelligent adapter could achieve an aerosol-release time Tr of 0.4 s for MDI A and 0.60 s for MDI B, which compares very well with the existing pure mechanical systems at 0.8 s and 1.0 s.

  14. Interactions between diltiazem and inhalation anaesthetics in the isolated heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, M D; Miralles, F S; Laorden, M L; Hernandez, J

    1989-09-01

    It has been postulated that inhalation anaesthetics may interfere with calcium movement across cell membranes. We have evaluated the interaction between diltiazem and the inhalation anaesthetics halothane and isoflurane on sinus automaticity in the isolated right atrium (SAIRA). Isoflurane significantly reduced atrial rate at all concentrations tested. However, halothane produced only a small but significant decrease at the higher concentrations used (1-2 v/v%). Diltiazem modified the maximal negative chronotropic response to inhalation anaesthetics. Maximum depression of SAIRA was significantly greater in the presence of two different doses of diltiazem compared with exposure to halothane and isoflurane alone. These results suggest that inhalation anaesthetics may block the influx of extracellular calcium through voltage-dependent calcium channels inhibited by diltiazem.

  15. Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Hostrup, Morten; Pedersen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral....... Median (IQR) urine concentrations peaked in the period 0-4 h after inhalation with Cmax 472 (324) ng/mL in asthmatics and 661 (517) ng/mL in healthy subjects, and 4-8 h after oral use with Cmax 666 (877) ng/mL in asthmatic and 402 (663) ng/mL in healthy subjects. In conclusion we found no significant...... differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical differences in both groups but found it impossible to distinguish between...

  16. Inhaled insulin: overview of a novel route of insulin administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy D Mastrandrea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lucy D MastrandreaDepartment of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by inadequate insulin secretion with resulting hyperglycemia. Diabetes complications include both microvascular and macrovascular disease, both of which are affected by optimal diabetes control. Many individuals with diabetes rely on subcutaneous insulin administration by injection or continuous infusion to control glucose levels. Novel routes of insulin administration are an area of interest in the diabetes field, given that insulin injection therapy is burdensome for many patients. This review will discuss pulmonary delivery of insulin via inhalation. The safety of inhaled insulin as well as the efficacy in comparison to subcutaneous insulin in the various populations with diabetes are covered. In addition, the experience and pitfalls that face the development and marketing of inhaled insulin are discussed.Keywords: glycemic control, hemoglobin A1c, inhalation, insulin, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes

  17. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  18. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001087.htm Bronchitis - acute To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main ...

  19. Breath-synchronized plume-control inhaler for pulmonary delivery of fluticasone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Stephen B; Armer, Thomas A; Newman, Stephen P; Pitcairn, Gary

    2008-05-22

    A novel breath-synchronized, plume-control inhaler (Tempo inhaler) was developed to overcome limitations of a pressurized metered-dose inhaler. This report compared the Tempo inhaler and a commercial inhaler for fine particle distribution and lung deposition of fluticasone propionate. In vitro fine particle distribution was determined using the Andersen Cascade Impactor at inspiration rates of 28.3 and 45L/min. In vivo lung deposition was assessed in a randomized, two-arm, crossover study of (99m)Tc-radiolabeled fluticasone propionate in 12 healthy adult subjects, analyzed by gamma scintigraphy. In vitro: fine particle fractions at 28.3 and 45L/min were 88.6+/-3.6% and 89.2+/-3.0% (Tempo inhaler) versus 40.4+/-4.7% and 43.1+/-4.4% (commercial inhaler). In vivo: lung deposition was 41.5+/-9.8% (Tempo inhaler) versus 13.8+/-7.4% (commercial inhaler) and oropharyngeal deposition was 18.3+/-7.7% (Tempo inhaler) versus 76.8+/-7.1% (commercial inhaler). Variability of lung deposition was reduced from 55% (commercial inhaler) to 24% (Tempo inhaler) of the delivered dose. The Tempo inhaler produced significantly higher fine particle fraction values, reduced oropharyngeal deposition by 75%, and increased whole, central, intermediate, and peripheral lung delivery by more than 200%. Thus, the Tempo inhaler enhances efficient drug delivery to the lungs.

  20. Engineering of an Inhalable DDA/TDB Liposomal Adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Yang, Mingshi; Mulvad, Helle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB).......The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB)....

  1. Use of sevoflurane inhalation sedation for outpatient third molar surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzberg, S.; Weaver, J.; Beck, F. M.; McCaffrey, G

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if sevoflurane in oxygen inhaled via a nasal hood as a sole sedative agent would provide an appropriate level of deep sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. Twenty-four patients scheduled for third molar removal were randomly assigned to receive either nasal hood inhalation sevoflurane or an intravenous deep sedation using midazolam and fentanyl followed by a propofol infusion. In addition to measuring patient, surgeon, and dentist anesthesiologist subj...

  2. Clinical Trial Simulations and Pharmacometric Analysis in Pediatrics: Application to Inhaled Loxapine in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Min; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Selim, Sally; Smith, Mark A; Rabinovich-Guilatt, Laura; Cassella, James V; Vinks, Alexander A

    2017-02-15

    Loxapine for inhalation is a drug-device combination product approved in adults for the acute treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. The primary objective of this study was to develop a clinical trial protocol to support a phase I pharmacokinetic study in children aged 10 years and older. In addition, this report details the results of the clinical study in relation to the predicted likelihood of achieving the target exposure associated with therapeutic effect in adults. A nonlinear mixed-effects population pharmacokinetic model was developed using adult data and was adjusted for the targeted pediatric age groups by applying allometric scaling to account for body size effects. Based on this pediatric model, age-appropriate regimens to achieve loxapine exposures similar to the ones associated with therapeutic effect in the adult studies were identified via trial simulation. D-optimal design and power analysis were conducted to identify optimal pharmacokinetic sampling times and sample size, respectively. The developed clinical trial design formed the basis of a phase I study to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of loxapine for inhalation in children aged 10 years and older (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02184767). The results of the study indicated that overall loxapine exposures were consistent with what had been predicted by the trial simulations. The presented approach illustrates how modeling and simulation can assist in the design of informative clinical trials to identify safe and effective doses and dose ranges in children and adolescents.

  3. Mouse models to unravel the role of inhaled pollutants on allergic sensitization and airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemery Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollutant exposure has been linked to a rise in wheezing illnesses. Clinical data highlight that exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke (MS and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS as well as exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP could promote allergic sensitization or aggravate symptoms of asthma, suggesting a role for these inhaled pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma. Mouse models are a valuable tool to study the potential effects of these pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma, with the opportunity to investigate their impact during processes leading to sensitization, acute inflammation and chronic disease. Mice allow us to perform mechanistic studies and to evaluate the importance of specific cell types in asthma pathogenesis. In this review, the major clinical effects of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust exposure regarding to asthma development and progression are described. Clinical data are compared with findings from murine models of asthma and inhalable pollutant exposure. Moreover, the potential mechanisms by which both pollutants could aggravate asthma are discussed.

  4. Recreational inhalation of butane and propane in adolescents: Two forensic cases of accidental death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Luca; Amadasi, Alberto; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    The recreational use of inhalants is a fairly widespread habit among adolescents because of the ease of availability and methods of assumption. Their use is however not free of risks, both for direct toxicity on several target organs and for a mechanism of gas replacement with lack of oxygen. The first case concerns a 12-year-old boy who died suddenly after sniffing a mix of butane and propane contained in a can of air freshener. The second case concerns a 14-year-old boy who died by acute poisoning by the same mixture contained in a refill for lighters. High concentrations of the compounds were found in the tissues by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds found in tissues and biological fluids were perfectly compatible with those contained in the containers used for the inhalation. The mechanisms of death were therefore assessed in a combination of the direct toxicity of the compound and oxygen replacement, thus highlighting the crucial help that toxicological analyses can provide in such cases.

  5. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  6. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Park, Jung Duck; Song, Moon Yong; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ryu, Hyeon Ryol; Yoon, Jin Uk; Jeon, Ki Soo; Jeong, Jayoung; Han, Beom Seok; Chung, Yong Hyun; Chang, Hee Kyung; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong Won; Kelman, Bruce J; Yu, Il Je

    2011-05-14

    Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males) and 145 g (females), were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group): fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3), middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3), and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3). The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm) for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue distribution of gold nanoparticles showed a dose

  7. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Ha; Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Myung Hee; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present

  8. Inhalable dust and protein exposure in soybean processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Adri; Rees, David; Fourie, Anna M; Wilson, Kerry S; Harris-Roberts, Joanne; Robinson, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about inhalable dust concentrations in soybean processing plants in southern Africa. This project measured inhalable dust in soybean plants in the region and correlated dust measurements with total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor. Sixty-four personal inhalable dust measurements were taken in three processing plants. Levels of total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor were determined in only two of the three plants. Correlations between inhalable dust, total protein and trypsin inhibitor were determined for 44 of 64 samples. In plants' production areas, inhalable dust levels were 0.24-35.02 mg/m3 (median 2.58 mg/m3). Total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor levels were 29.41-448.82 microg/m3 (median 90.09 microg/m3) and 0.05-2.58 microg/m3 (median 0.07 microg/m3), respectively. No statistically significant correlations between presence of inhalable dust and soy trypsin inhibitor were found. Total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor were better correlated. This study indicates that total protein might be a good proxy for soybean specific protein concentrations in soybean processing plants.

  9. Hepatotoxic Alterations Induced by Inhalation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most potent organic unsaturated solvents being used in dry cleaning, metal degreasing, thinner for paints varnishes and electroplating, etc. and has been reported to be a hepatotoxicant through oral and dermal exposure. However, its inhalation toxicity data is very limited in the literature due to the fact that the exposure levels associated with these effects were usually not reported. Hence, inhalation toxicity study was carried out for hepatotoxic studies. Method Inhalation toxicity studies was carried out by exposing rats to TCE for 8, 12 and 24 weeks in a dynamically operated whole body inhalation chamber. Sham treated control rats were exposed to compressed air in the inhalation chamber for the same period. Results Significant increase in liver weight (liver enlargement) appearance of necrotic lesions with fatty changes and marked necrosis were observed after longer duration (12 and 24 weeks) of TCE exposure. The lysosomal rupture resulted in increased activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase alongwith reduced glutathione content and total increased sulfhydryl content in liver tissue. Conclusion TCE exposure through Inhalation route induces hepatotoxicity in terms of marked necrosis with fatty changes and by modulating the lysosomal enzymes.

  10. Acute exacerbation of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fanny W; Chan, Ka Pang; Hui, David S; Goddard, John R; Shaw, Janet G; Reid, David W; Yang, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations. The diagnostic approach to AECOPD varies based on the clinical setting and severity of the exacerbation. After history and examination, a number of investigations may be useful, including oximetry, sputum culture, chest X-ray and blood tests for inflammatory markers. Arterial blood gases should be considered in severe exacerbations, to characterize respiratory failure. Depending on the severity, the acute management of AECOPD involves use of bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, oxygen and noninvasive ventilation. Hospitalization may be required, for severe exacerbations. Nonpharmacological interventions including disease-specific self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation, early medical follow-up, home visits by respiratory health workers, integrated programmes and telehealth-assisted hospital at home have been studied during hospitalization and shortly after discharge in patients who have had a recent AECOPD. Pharmacological approaches to reducing risk of future exacerbations include long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, mucolytics, vaccinations and long-term macrolides. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in preventing COPD exacerbations.

  11. From inhaler to lung: clinical implications of the formulations of ciclesonide and other inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nave R

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruediger Nave, Helgert Mueller Nycomed: a Takeda Company, Nycomed GmbH, Konstanz, Germany Abstract: Asthma continues to be a global health problem and currently available treatments such as corticosteroids can cause unwanted side effects. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are recommended as first-line therapy for reducing airway inflammation and have a distinct advantage over oral preparations as they provide a direct route of delivery to the lungs. However, local deposition of ICS in the oropharynx can lead to oral candidiasis, dysphonia, and pharyngitis. The pharmaceutical quality is a primary concern of any ICS asthma treatment, with a higher quality product resulting in improved efficacy and safety profiles. The particle size distribution and the spray force velocity of an ICS may directly influence lung deposition, and the spray duration of a device is another important factor when coordinating inhalation. Recent advances in ICS device and formulation technology have resulted in significant improvements in the efficacy of available asthma treatments. In particular, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA solution technology and the development of smaller particle sizes have resulted in the production of new ICS formulations that have the ability to directly target drug delivery to the site of airway inflammation. Both the ICS formulation and the pressurized metered-dose inhaler device used to administer ciclesonide (CIC HFA have been developed to treat the underlying chronic inflammation associated with asthma. CIC is administered as a prodrug which is activated in the lungs, leading to minimal oropharyngeal deposition. The small particle size of CIC results in the delivery of a high fraction of respirable particles to the small airways of the lungs, resulting in high lung deposition and continual dose consistency. This review summarizes how CIC administered as an HFA formulation is an effective treatment for asthma. Keywords: ciclesonide, asthma, small airways

  12. Hazard identification of inhaled nanomaterials: making use of short-term inhalation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christoph L; Wiench, Karin; Wiemann, Martin; Ma-Hock, Lan; van Ravenzwaay, Ben; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-07-01

    A major health concern for nanomaterials is their potential toxic effect after inhalation of dusts. Correspondingly, the core element of tier 1 in the currently proposed integrated testing strategy (ITS) is a short-term rat inhalation study (STIS) for this route of exposure. STIS comprises a comprehensive scheme of biological effects and marker determination in order to generate appropriate information on early key elements of pathogenesis, such as inflammatory reactions in the lung and indications of effects in other organs. Within the STIS information on the persistence, progression and/or regression of effects is obtained. The STIS also addresses organ burden in the lung and potential translocation to other tissues. Up to now, STIS was performed in research projects and routine testing of nanomaterials. Meanwhile, rat STIS results for more than 20 nanomaterials are available including the representative nanomaterials listed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) working party on manufactured nanomaterials (WPMN), which has endorsed a list of representative manufactured nanomaterials (MN) as well as a set of relevant endpoints to be addressed. Here, results of STIS carried out with different nanomaterials are discussed as case studies. The ranking of different nanomaterials potential to induce adverse effects and the ranking of the respective NOAEC are the same among the STIS and the corresponding subchronic and chronic studies. In another case study, a translocation of a coated silica nanomaterial was judged critical for its safety assessment. Thus, STIS enables application of the proposed ITS, as long as reliable and relevant in vitro methods for the tier 1 testing are still missing. Compared to traditional subacute and subchronic inhalation testing (according to OECD test guidelines 412 and 413), STIS uses less animals and resources and offers additional information on organ burden and progression or regression of potential effects.

  13. Electrostatics and inhaled medications: influence on delivery via pressurized metered-dose inhalers and add-on devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Jolyon P; Coppolo, Dominic P; Nagel, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    .... Spacers and valved holding chambers used with pressurized metered-dose inhalers to treat obstructive lung diseases are particularly prone to this behavior, which increases variability in the amount...

  14. Effect of "rose essential oil" inhalation on stress-induced skin-barrier disruption in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukada, Mika; Kano, Eri; Miyoshi, Michio; Komaki, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2012-05-01

    In stressed animals, several brain regions (e.g., hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus [PVN]) exhibit neuronal activation, which increases plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and glucocorticoids. We previously reported that so-called "green odor" inhibits stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA axis) and thereby prevents the chronic stress-induced disruption of the skin barrier. Here, we investigated whether rose essential oil, another sedative odorant, inhibits the stress-induced 1) increases in PVN neuronal activity in rats and plasma glucocorticoids (corticosterone [CORT] in rats and cortisol in humans) and 2) skin-barrier disruption in rats and humans. The results showed that in rats subjected to acute restraint stress, rose essential oil inhalation significantly inhibited the increase in plasma CORT and reduced the increases in the number of c-Fos-positive cells in PVN. Inhalation of rose essential oil significantly inhibited the following effects of chronic stress: 1) the elevation of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), an index of the disruption of skin-barrier function, in both rats and humans and 2) the increase in the salivary concentration of cortisol in humans. These results suggest that in rats and humans, chronic stress-induced disruption of the skin barrier can be limited or prevented by rose essential oil inhalation, possibly through its inhibitory effect on the HPA axis.

  15. [Modern inhalational anesthesia in pediatric maxillofacial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, D V; Afonina, N V; Marusev, D L; Petrova, L L

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the use of sevoflurane and isoflurane in elective pediatric maxillofacial surgery. Having outlined the major features of anesthesia in this category of patients, the authors emphasize the application of the conception of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and its derivatives (MAC bar and MAC awake) reflecting the analgesic and hypnotic power of an inhalational anesthetic, respectively, and theoretically substantiate the use of certain anesthetic concentrations at particular stages of surgery. The technique described in the paper was used in 82 patients aged 1.5 months to 18 years, undergoing cleft lip and cleft palate repair, residual lip and nose deformation repair, and other elective maxillofacial procedures. The interventions lasted 40 minutes to 8 hours. Sevoflurane was commonly used as an induction agent while isoflurane was applied to maintain anesthesia. The anesthetics were administered at 1 to 1.3 and 0.8 MAC at traumatic and low traumatic stages of surgery, respectively. During the first traumatic period, the dose of fentanyl was not greater than 1.5 and 2.5 microg/kg in old and young children, respectively. Hemodynamics was characterized by moderate controlled hypotension with an average decrease in mean blood pressure by 30% of the age-related value. Emergence occurred 5-15 min after an anesthetic was discontinued. By and large, the technique demonstrated its efficiency and safety in this group of patients.

  16. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantegazza F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation. Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier. Ultrafine fibers (length

  17. Sevoflurane: a new inhalational anesthetic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, R F; Regan, B M; Napoli, M D; Stern, I J

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory screening of a series of halogenated methyl isopropyl ethers revealed sevoflurane (fluoromethyl-1,1,1,3,3,3,-hexafluroro-2-propyl ether) as a potent nonexplosive inhalational anesthetic agent. Sevoflurance, a pleasant-smelling liquid, boils at 58.5 degrees C at 760 torr and has a vapor pressure of 200 torr at 25 degrees C. It is nonflammable in air and has lower flammability limits of 11 vols percent in O2 and 10 vols percent in N2O. Sevoflurane exhibits limited chemical reactivity in vitro; it is subject to slight but measurable hydrolysis, and reacts with soda lime to form traces of related ethers. It provides rapid anesthetic induction and recovery consistent with its low distribution coefficients (blood:gas, 0.6; corn oil:gas, 41.6; olive oil:gas, 53.4). In dogs, anesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane did not produce spontaneous cardiac arrhythmias and did not sensitize the heart to epinephrine. Electroencephalographic patterns were similar to those observed during anesthesia with halothane. In rats, small increases in the urinary excretion of inorganic fluoride ion occurred during the first 24 hours after anesthesia. Subacute studies in dogs and rats, using closed-circle absorption with soda lime, revealed no toxicologically significant changes in animals anesthetized frequently for 2 weeks. Sevoflurane appears to be a unique volatile anesthetic agent worthy of further study.

  18. Seasonal inhalant insect allergy: Harmonia axyridis ladybug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, David W

    2009-08-01

    The exotic Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, has become a prominent cause of seasonal inhalant allergy (allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria) in the last two decades in North America and Europe after being introduced into the environment as an agricultural pest-control predator. Seeking winter hibernation sites, ladybug swarms will invade human habitats in the fall. Large fall swarms and smaller spring dispersions produce corresponding peaks in ladybug allergy. Ladybug allergy prevalence in endemic areas has been reported as high as 10%. For some individuals ladybug allergy is their first expression of allergic disease. Exposures at home, work, school, and in other settings may be sensitizing. Ladybug hemolymph is the primary source of allergens. Har a 1 and Har a 2 major ladybug allergens have been characterized. 'Reflex bleeding' from tibiofemoral joints (for communication and during alarm) disperses these allergens. Ladybug skin testing should be routine in endemic areas. Avoidance continues to be the first step in treatment. Allergen vaccine therapy may be effective, but a commercial extract of H. axyridis is needed.

  19. Inhalation of baby talc powder by hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Zwicker, G.M.; Cannon, W.C.; Watson, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Groups of 50 male and 50 female Syrian golden hamsters are being exposed to baby talc powder aerosol 3 min/day, 30 min/day, and 150 min/day, respectively, for 30 exposure days, and for 30 min/day and 150 min/day, respectively, for 300 exposure days. Mean total aerosol concentration is approximately 28 ..mu..g/l, mean respirable fraction of the aerosol is approximately 8 ..mu..g/l. Two groups of 25 male and 25 female control hamsters are receiving sham exposures 150 min/day for 30 and 300 exposure days, respectively. After the 30- and 300-day exposures the hamsters are being maintained for life span observations. At death, lung, trachea, larynx, liver, kidneys, adrenals, heart, stomach, ovaries and uterus, or testicles, and tissues showing gross lesions, are collected for histopathologic examination. Evaluative criteria are histopathologic findings, life span and body weights. Experimental data and results are incomplete at this time. Final results will be available by spring 1975. Preliminary pathologic evaluation indicates that systemic amyloidosis is the major cause of death in the exposed as well as in the control animals. Kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver are most frequently involved. Inhalation of baby talc powder has caused no obvious pulmonary lesions and no decreased life span in the exposed hamsters evaluated to date as compared with their controls.

  20. Early interventions in asthma with inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, L A; Altraja, A; Karjalainen, E M; Laitinen, A

    2000-02-01

    We have earlier shown epithelial damage in the airway mucosa in patients with asthma. Later other structural changes have been recognized in asthma, such as deposition of collagen and tenascin in the subepithelial basement membrane and changes in the laminin subchain composition. These processes are modified by an inflammatory process in the airways. Both the United States National Institutes of Health and the British Thoracic Society guidelines on the management of asthma emphasize the need for early use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Many clinical studies that used airway biopsy specimens have shown a decrease in airway inflammatory cell numbers after inhaled corticosteroid therapy. However, there is very little information on the effects of asthma medication on the structural components of the airways. Both the synthesis and degradation of many extracellular matrix components may be affected by the disease process and the drugs resulting in altered remodeling and gene expression in the airways. Because there are only a few studies that try to identify early changes in asthma, it is not known whether the anti-inflammatory treatment of asthma proposed by the guidelines is started early enough.

  1. Technical validation of a face mask adapted for dry powder inhalation in the equine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1997-11-01

    Development of dry powder inhalation (DPI) for horses requires the use of an adapted face mask. In experiment I, 4 masks (A, B, C and D) were tested and factors influencing the delivery of the dry powder were determined. Mask A was one which is commercially available for metered-dose inhalation. Mask B had the same shape as Mask A but an airtight rubber seal was added for the connection between the mask and horse's head. Mask C was a prototype adapted for DPI with connection for the DPI device between the nostrils, airtight expiratory valves in front of each nostril and airtight rubber seal to attach the mask on the horse's head. Mask D was the same as Mask C but the airtight expiratory valve was situated in front of one nostril and the connection for the DPI device was placed in front of the other nostril. Inhalet emptying and peak inspiratory pressure were measured on 5 healthy horses with each face mask. Both Masks A and B gave a low rate of inhalet emptying. Inspiratory pressures created in Masks C and D were negative enough to ensure inhalet emptying rates of mean +/- s.d. 98.28 +/- 1.79% and 100% respectively. In experiment 2, the face masks giving the greatest inhalet emptying were used to test the therapeutic efficacy of ipratropium bromide DPI. This was tested on 6 horses suffering from acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At a dose of 200 micrograms/100 kg bwt, ipratropium administered with Mask D improved significantly pulmonary function measurements compared to baseline values and placebo inhalation. With Mask C, a double dose of ipratropium (400 micrograms/100 kg bwt) was necessary to improve these parameters compared to baseline values. This indicated the importance of locating the DPI device in front of one nostril. It was concluded that inhalet emptying is correlated to inspiratory pressures measured in the face masks. Secondly, these pressures are in turn dependent on the air-tightness of the mask, i.e. air

  2. Novolizer: how does it fit into inhalation therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-01-01

    Inhalation therapy is the preferred route of administration of anti-asthmatic drugs to the lungs. However, the vast majority of patients cannot use their inhalers correctly, particularly pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The actual proportion of patients who do not use their inhalers correctly may even be under-estimated as GPs tend to over-estimate correct inhalation technique. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have many advantages over pMDIs. Unlike pMDIs, they are environmentally-friendly, contain no propellant gases and, more importantly, they are breath-activated, so that the patient does not need to coordinate actuation of the inhaler with inspiration. Three key parameters for correct inhaler use should be considered when evaluating existing or future DPI devices and especially when choosing the appropriate device for the patient: (1) usability, (2) particle size distribution of the emitted drug and (3) intrinsic airflow resistance of the device. The Novolizer is a breath-activated, multidose, refillable DPI. It is easy to use correctly, has multiple feedback and control mechanisms which guide the patient through the correct inhalation manoeuvre. In addition, the Novolizer has an intelligent dose counter, which resets only after a correct inhalation and may help to monitor patient compliance. The Novolizer has a comparable or better lung deposition than the Turbuhaler at similar or higher peak inspiratory flow (PIF) rates. A flow trigger valve system ensures a clinically effective fine particle fraction (FPF) and sufficient drug delivery, which is important for a good lung deposition. The FPF produced through the Novolizer is also relatively independent of flow rate and the device shows better reproducibility of metering and delivery performance compared to the Turbuhaler. The low-to-medium airflow resistance means that the Novolizer is easy for patients to use correctly. Even children, patients with severe asthma and patients with moderate

  3. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  4. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  5. Researches regarding the Morton ether inhaler at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Rajesh P; Mifflin, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-01

    The Morton ether inhaler in the possession of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, was traced back to 1906 when the earliest known photograph of it was published. The authors believe that the inhaler was given by William T. G. Morton, MD, to J. Mason Warren, MD, in January 1847. The inhaler was acquired by the Warren Anatomical Museum at an unknown date, loaned to Massachusetts General Hospital in October 1946, and placed on permanent loan to Massachusetts General Hospital in April 1948. Many documents relating to the inhaler have disappeared, and it was only identified in 2009 as the inhaler that probably belonged to J. Mason Warren, MD. The inhaler is not believed to be the one that Morton used on October 16, 1846, at Massachusetts General Hospital. It is the only known example of a Morton ether inhaler with valves (excluding replicas or reproduction inhalers) and is probably of similar design to the inhaler that Morton used on October 16, 1846.

  6. A New Quantitative Method for Evaluating Dry Powder Inhalation Efficiency in Asthma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yasha; Hu, Hefang; Tian, Cuijie; Lei, Yi; Liu, Chuntao; Luo, Fengming

    2016-10-01

    Many methods have been developed to evaluate dry powder inhalation techniques and their efficiency for disease control in asthma patients. However, it is difficult to apply these methods to clinical practice and research. In this study, we introduce a simple new method that can be applied to dry powder inhalation techniques to evaluate their efficiency in clinical practice. Twenty volunteers were recruited to evaluate the reliability of this new method. One hundred one asthma patients who met the inclusion criteria participated in this study. A dark cloth covered the outlet of the inhaler during dry powder inhalation. The image formed by the inhalation process was evaluated using analysis software and converted into integrated optical density (IOD). Inhalation techniques were scored before and after inhalation technique training, and asthma control was evaluated using the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) before inhalation technique training. The relative standard deviation of IOD ranged from 3.8% to 7.8%. In patients with or without inhaler prior use, both the IOD and inhalation technique scores improved significantly after inhalation technique training (p quantitative method is equivalent to traditional methods for dry powder inhalation evaluation. This study also indicated that training significantly improved the inhalation technique and efficiency in asthma patients with or without prior inhaler use.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruaki Toyota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  8. Treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  9. Long-term effects of aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin; de Klerk, Nicholas; Musk, A W Bill

    2013-12-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, aluminium dust inhalation was used as a potential prophylaxis against silicosis in underground miners, including in Australia. We investigated the association between aluminium dust inhalation and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's diseases in a cohort of Australian male underground gold miners. We additionally looked at pneumoconiosis mortality to estimate the effect of the aluminium therapy. SMRs and 95% CI were calculated to compare mortality of the cohort members with that of the Western Australian male population (1961-2009). Internal comparisons on duration of aluminium dust inhalation were examined using Cox regression. Aluminium dust inhalation was reported for 647 out of 1894 underground gold miners. During 42 780 person-years of follow-up, 1577 deaths were observed. An indication of increased mortality of Alzheimer's disease among miners ever exposed to aluminium dust was found (SMR=1.38), although it was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.69 to 2.75). Rates for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular death were above population levels, but were similar for subjects with or without a history of aluminium dust inhalation. HRs suggested an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease with duration of aluminium dust inhalation (HR=1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04, per year of exposure). No difference in the association between duration of work underground and pneumoconiosis was observed between the groups with or without aluminium dust exposure. No protective effect against silicosis was observed from aluminium dust inhalation. Conversely, exposure to aluminium dust may possibly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

  10. Towards the optimisation and adaptation of dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Schmalfuß, S; Zellnitz, S; Sommerfeld, M; Urbanetz, N

    2014-08-15

    Pulmonary drug delivery by dry powder inhalers is becoming more and more popular. Such an inhalation device must insure that during the inhalation process the drug powder is detached from the carrier due to fluid flow stresses. The goal of the project is the development of a drug powder detachment model to be used in numerical computations (CFD, computational fluid dynamics) of fluid flow and carrier particle motion through the inhaler and the resulting efficiency of drug delivery. This programme will be the basis for the optimisation of inhaler geometry and dry powder inhaler formulation. For this purpose a multi-scale approach is adopted. First the flow field through the inhaler is numerically calculated with OpenFOAM(®) and the flow stresses experienced by the carrier particles are recorded. This information is used for micro-scale simulations using the Lattice-Boltzmann method where only one carrier particle covered with drug powder is placed in cubic flow domain and exposed to the relevant flow situations, e.g. plug and shear flow with different Reynolds numbers. Therefrom the fluid forces on the drug particles are obtained. In order to allow the determination of the drug particle detachment possibility by lift-off, sliding or rolling, also measurements by AFM (atomic force microscope) were conducted for different carrier particle surface structures. The contact properties, such as van der Waals force, friction coefficient and adhesion surface energy were used to determine, from a force or moment balance (fluid forces versus contact forces), the detachment probability by the three mechanisms as a function of carrier particle Reynolds number. These results will be used for deriving the drug powder detachment model.

  11. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavet, R.; Nauss, K.M. (Environmental Research Information, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor.117 references.

  12. Hypoventilation after inhaled anesthesia results in reanesthetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Stanley; Roberson, Russell S; Philip, James H

    2014-10-01

    ), which reached a value of 0.8 MAC within 4 hours with all drugs and reached a value of 0.75 MAC with desflurane after 2 hours. Fat levels of anesthetic remained less than 0.15 MAC for all drugs up to the 6 hours tested. Reanesthetization from hypoventilation after inhaled anesthesia is possible. After initial emergence, muscle is a source of anesthetic and predisposes to reanesthetization while fat is a sink for anesthetic and fosters continued emergence. Severe hypoventilation will cause some degree of reanesthetization from anesthetic released from muscle after 4 hours of 1 MAC inhaled anesthesia with desflurane, sevoflurane, or isoflurane.

  13. Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.

  14. Simultaneous determination of radiocesium ((135)Cs, (137)Cs) and plutonium ((239)Pu, (240)Pu) isotopes in river suspended particles by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liguo; Zheng, Jian; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Pan, Shaoming; Wang, Zhongtang; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    Due to radioisotope releases in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, long-term monitoring of radiocesium ((135)Cs and (137)Cs) and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in river suspended particles is necessary to study the transport and fate of these long-lived radioisotopes in the land-ocean system. However, it is expensive and technically difficult to collect samples of suspended particles from river and ocean. Thus, simultaneous determination of multi-radionuclides remains as a challenging topic. In this study, for the first time, we report an analytical method for simultaneous determination of radiocesium and Pu isotopes in suspended particles with small sample size (1-2g). Radiocesium and Pu were sequentially pre-concentrated using ammonium molybdophosphate and ferric hydroxide co-precipitation, respectively. After the two-stage ion-exchange chromatography separation from the matrix elements, radiocesium and Pu isotopes were finally determined by ICP-MS/MS and SF-ICP-MS, respectively. The interfering elements of U ((238)U(1)H(+) and (238)U(2)H(+) for (239)Pu and (240)Pu, respectively) and Ba ((135)Ba(+) and (137)Ba(+) for (135)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively) were sufficiently removed with the decontamination factors of 1-8×10(6) and 1×10(4), respectively, with the developed method. Soil reference materials were utilized for method validation, and the obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios, and (239+240)Pu activities showed a good agreement with the certified/information values. In addition, the developed method was applied to analyze radiocesium and Pu in the suspended particles of land water samples collected from Fukushima Prefecture after the FDNPP accident. The (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratios (0.329-0.391) and (137)Cs activities (23.4-152Bq/g) suggested radiocesium contamination of the suspended particles mainly originated from the accident-released radioactive contaminates, while similar Pu contamination of suspended particles caused by the accident could be neglected as the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (0.182-0.208) were within the range of global fallout.

  15. Evaluation of dry powder inhalers with a focus on ease of use and user preference in inhaler-naïve individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schantz, Sofia; Katajavuori, Nina; Antikainen, Osmo; Juppo, Anne

    2016-07-25

    Inhaler errors are common amongst inhaler users. Therefore, in the development work of new inhalation devices, it is important to characterize the ease of use of the inhalers. In this study four dry powder inhalers, Diskus, Easyhaler, Ellipta and Turbuhaler, were evaluated, focusing on ease of use and patient preference. The study used a triangular methodology. The sample consisted of 31 inhaler naïve individuals. Educational videos for all inhalers were watched, and afterwards, the use of all four inhalers was demonstrated in a random order. The demonstrations were videotaped. Thereafter they were checked against a predefined checklist and all mistakes were recorded. Only 33% of inhaler demonstrations were completed without the participants making any mistakes. The proportions of subjects who used the devices correctly were as follows: Diskus 48%, Easyhaler 19%, Ellipta 55% and Turbuhaler 16%. When comparing correct and incorrect inhaler technique for each inhaler pair the following differences were statistically significant: Diskus vs. Easyhaler (pEllipta vs. Easyhaler (pEllipta vs. Turbuhaler (pEllipta, followed by Turbuhaler, were most often ranked as most preferred. Participants' preference of Ellipta over Easyhaler (p<0.01) and over Diskus (p<0.001) were statistically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhalability for aerosols at ultra-low windspeeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Vincent, James H, E-mail: jhv@umich.ed [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Most previous experimental studies of aerosol inhalability were conducted in wind tunnels for windspeeds greater than 0.5 ms-{sup 1}. While that body of work was used to establish a convention for the inhalable fraction, results from studies in calm air chambers (for essentially zero windspeed) are being discussed as the basis of a modified criterion. However, information is lacking for windspeeds in the intermediate range, which - it so happens - pertain to most actual workplaces. With this in mind, we have developed a new experimental system to assess inhalability - and, ultimately, personal sampler performance - for aerosols with particle aerodynamic diameter within the range from about 9 to 90 mum for ultra-low windspeed environments from about 0.1 to 0.5 ms{sup 1}. This new system contains an aerosol test facility, fully described elsewhere, that combines the physical attributes and performance characteristics of moving air wind tunnels and calm air chambers, both of which have featured individually in previous research. It also contains a specially-designed breathing, heated, life-sized mannequin that allows for accurate recovery of test particulate material that has been inhaled. Procedures have been developed that employ test aerosols of well-defined particle size distribution generated mechanically from narrowly-graded powders of fused alumina. Using this new system, we have conducted an extensive set of new experiments to measure the inhalability of a human subject (as represented by the mannequin), aimed at filling the current knowledge gap for conditions that are more realistic than those embodied in most previous research. These data reveal that inhalability throughout the range of interest is significantly different based on windspeed, indicating a rise in aspiration efficiency as windspeed decreases. Breathing flowrate and mode of breathing (i.e. nose versus mouth breathing) did not show significant differences for the inhalability of aerosols. On

  17. Inhalability for aerosols at ultra-low windspeeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeth, Darrah K.; Vincent, James H.

    2009-02-01

    Most previous experimental studies of aerosol inhalability were conducted in wind tunnels for windspeeds greater than 0.5 ms-1. While that body of work was used to establish a convention for the inhalable fraction, results from studies in calm air chambers (for essentially zero windspeed) are being discussed as the basis of a modified criterion. However, information is lacking for windspeeds in the intermediate range, which - it so happens - pertain to most actual workplaces. With this in mind, we have developed a new experimental system to assess inhalability - and, ultimately, personal sampler performance - for aerosols with particle aerodynamic diameter within the range from about 9 to 90 μm for ultra-low windspeed environments from about 0.1 to 0.5 ms1. This new system contains an aerosol test facility, fully described elsewhere, that combines the physical attributes and performance characteristics of moving air wind tunnels and calm air chambers, both of which have featured individually in previous research. It also contains a specially-designed breathing, heated, life-sized mannequin that allows for accurate recovery of test particulate material that has been inhaled. Procedures have been developed that employ test aerosols of well-defined particle size distribution generated mechanically from narrowly-graded powders of fused alumina. Using this new system, we have conducted an extensive set of new experiments to measure the inhalability of a human subject (as represented by the mannequin), aimed at filling the current knowledge gap for conditions that are more realistic than those embodied in most previous research. These data reveal that inhalability throughout the range of interest is significantly different based on windspeed, indicating a rise in aspiration efficiency as windspeed decreases. Breathing flowrate and mode of breathing (i.e. nose versus mouth breathing) did not show significant differences for the inhalability of aerosols. On the whole

  18. Effects of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, Pei Lin; Salihah, Noor; Mazlan, Nik

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on nausea, vomiting and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chemotherapy breast cancer patients. Single-blind, controlled, randomized cross-over study. Patients received 5-day aromatherapy treatment using either ginger essential oil or fragrance-matched artificial placebo (ginger fragrance oil) which was instilled in a necklace in an order dictated by the treatment group sequence. Two oncology clinics in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. VAS nausea score, frequency of vomiting and HRQoL profile (EORTC QLQ-C30 scores). Sixty female patients completed the study (age=47.3±9.26 years; Malay=98.3%; on highly emetogenic chemotherapy=86.7%). The VAS nausea score was significantly lower after ginger essential oil inhalation compared to placebo during acute phase (P=0.040) but not sustained for overall treatment effect (treatment effect: F=1.82, P=0.183; time effect: F=43.98, Pessential oil inhalation. A clinically relevant 10 points improvement on role functioning (P=0.002) and appetite loss (Pessential oil. At present time, the evidence derived from this study is not sufficiently convincing that inhaled ginger aromatherapy is an effective complementary therapy for CINV. The findings for HRQoL were however encouraging with significant improvement in several domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Withdrawal of inhaled glucocorticoids and exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Helgo; Disse, Bernd; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids in combination with long-acting bronchodilators is recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the benefit of inhaled glucocorticoids in addition to two long-acting bronchod......BACKGROUND: Treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids in combination with long-acting bronchodilators is recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the benefit of inhaled glucocorticoids in addition to two long......-acting bronchodilators has not been fully explored. METHODS: In this 12-month, double-blind, parallel-group study, 2485 patients with a history of exacerbation of COPD received triple therapy consisting of tiotropium (at a dose of 18 μg once daily), salmeterol (50 μg twice daily), and the inhaled glucocorticoid...... fluticasone propionate (500 μg twice daily) during a 6-week run-in period. Patients were then randomly assigned to continued triple therapy or withdrawal of fluticasone in three steps over a 12-week period. The primary end point was the time to the first moderate or severe COPD exacerbation. Spirometric...

  20. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, M R; Benson, M K

    1995-01-07

    Cough is a frequent side-effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. We examined the effects of inhaled sodium cromoglycate in 10 patients with ACE-inhibitor cough in a double-blind crossover study. After a 2-week run-in, patients were randomised to either 2 weeks' inhaled sodium cromoglycate or placebo followed by a further 2 weeks on the other treatment. Patients kept a cough diary during each study period. Cough severity was recorded on a scale from 0 to 12. At the end of each study period the cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin was measured. 9 patients reported a reduction in cough after sodium cromoglycate. Median (range) daily cough scores during run-in and placebo periods were 3.6 (1.9-6.4) and 4.1 (0.6-8.1), respectively (p > 0.05). Median daily cough score after sodium cromoglycate was 1.8 (0.4-3; p sodium cromoglycate; and cough-reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin was significantly reduced. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate is an effective treatment for ACE-inhibitor cough. Its effect may be due to suppression of afferent vagal activity.

  1. A Systematic Review of the Respiratory Effects of Inhalational Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; McGrogan, Jamie B; Maysonet, Alisha

    2016-11-01

    This systematic review focuses on respiratory effects of inhalational marijuana. The systematic review of the literature was conducted using a comparative method between 2 researchers. Abstracts were reviewed for inclusion of respiratory effects related to inhalational marijuana. Relevant abstracts were collected, and full text articles were retrieved for review. Articles were removed if they did not contain burning marijuana; were animal studies; or were editorials, systematic reviews, commentaries, non-English language, or non-respiratory-related articles. Forty-eight articles were collected and categorized by respiratory effects. In particular, lung cancer, bullous emphysema/COPD, and other respiratory symptoms were the primary categories. Articles were noted by study population country, sample size, age distribution, and findings that were pertinent to respiratory health. The research indicates that there is a risk of lung cancer from inhalational marijuana as well as an association between inhalational marijuana and spontaneous pneumothorax, bullous emphysema, or COPD. A variety of symptoms have been reported by inhalational marijuana smokers, including wheezing, shortness of breath, altered pulmonary function tests, cough, phlegm production, bronchodilation, and other symptoms. It is important to stay current with research findings to educate patients on this smoking behavior. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Rethinking the paradigm for the development of inhaled drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, John N

    2015-12-30

    Nebulized treatment is an important delivery option for the young, elderly, and those with severe chronic respiratory disease, but there is a lack of new nebulized drug products being produced for these patients, leading to the potential for under-treatment. This communication describes a new drug development paradigm as a timely solution to this issue. Often, drug development is initiated with nebulizers in the early stages, to provide cheaper and faster drug development, and then switched to inhaler devices in later clinical trials to address the majority of patients. However, the waste of resource on parallel development of the inhaler can be large due to the high early attrition rate of new drug development. The new paradigm uses the nebulizer to continue drug development through to market, and initiates inhaler development after completion of the riskier early phase studies. New drug safety and efficacy can be assessed faster and more efficiently by using a nebulized formulation rather than developing an inhaler. The results of calculations of expected net present value showed that the new paradigm produced higher expected net present values than the conventional model over a range of economic scenarios. This new paradigm could therefore provide improved returns on investments, as well as more modern drugs in nebulized form for those patients unable to use inhalers.

  3. Dry powder inhalable formulations for anti-tubercular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Chang, Rachel Yoon Kyung; Abdelghany, Sharif; Ye, Tian Tian; Britton, Warwick John; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infectious disease caused by the airborne bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite considerable research efforts, the treatment of TB continues to be a great challenge in part due to the requirement of prolonged therapy with multiple high-dose drugs and associated side effects. The delivery of pharmacological agents directly to the respiratory system, following the natural route of infection, represents a logical therapeutic approach for treatment or vaccination against TB. Pulmonary delivery is non-invasive, avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver and enables targeting of therapeutic agents to the infection site. Inhaled delivery also potentially reduces the dose requirement and the accompanying side effects. Dry powder is a stable formulation of drug that can be stored without refrigeration compared to liquids and suspensions. The dry powder inhalers are easy to use and suitable for high-dose formulations. This review focuses on the current innovations of inhalable dry powder formulations of drug and vaccine delivery for TB, including the powder production method, preclinical and clinical evaluations of inhaled dry powder over the last decade. Finally, the risks associated with pulmonary therapy are addressed. A novel dry powder formulation with high percentages of respirable particles coupled with a cost effective inhaler device is an appealing platform for TB drug delivery.

  4. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  5. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  6. Influences of gender and anthropometric features on inspiratory inhaler acoustics and peak inspiratory flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Terence E; Holmes, Martin S; Sulaiman, Imran; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Inhalers are hand-held devices used to treat chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Medication is delivered from an inhaler to the user through an inhalation maneuver. It is unclear whether gender and anthropometric features such as age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI) influence the acoustic properties of inspiratory inhaler sounds and peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) in inhalers. In this study, healthy male (n=9) and female (n=7) participants were asked to inhale at an inspiratory flow rate (IFR) of 60 L/min in four commonly used inhalers (Turbuhaler(™), Diskus(™), Ellipta(™) and Evohaler(™)). Ambient inspiratory sounds were recorded from the mouthpiece of each inhaler and over the trachea of each participant. Each participant's PIFR was also recorded for each of the four inhalers. Results showed that gender and anthropometric features have the potential to influence the spectral properties of ambient and tracheal inspiratory inhaler sounds. It was also observed that males achieved statistically significantly higher PIFRs in each inhaler in comparison to females (p<;0.05). Acoustic features were found to be significantly different across inhalers suggesting that acoustic features are modulated by the inhaler design and its internal resistance to airflow.

  7. Effect of allergic phenotype on treatment response to inhaled bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Lung Cheng,1,2 Hsu Hui Wang,1 Ching-Hsiung Lin3–5 1Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan, 3Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, 4Department of Respiratory Care, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, 5School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a heterogeneous disorder encompassing different phenotypes with different responses to treatment. The present 1-year, two-center hospital-based study investigated whether the plasma immunoglobulin E (IgE level and/or eosinophil cell count could be used as biomarkers to stratify patients with COPD according to predicted responses to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS-based therapy. Methods: A hospital-data based cohort study of COPD patients treated at two territory hospital centers was conducted for 1 year. Allergic biomarkers, including blood eosinophil counts and IgE levels, were assessed at baseline. Lung function parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT, were also evaluated. The frequencies of acute exacerbation (AE and pneumonia were also measured. Eosinophilia and a high IgE level were defined as >3% and 173 IU/mL, respectively. Results: A total of 304 patients were included. Among patients with eosinophilia and high IgE levels, ICS-based therapy was associated with significant improvements in FEV1, FVC, and CAT scores, compared with bronchodilator (BD therapy (P≤0.042. ICS-based therapy was also associated with a significantly lower incidence of AE vs BD-based therapy (11.7% vs 24.1%; P<0.008. Among patients with only eosinophilia, ICS-based therapy yielded significantly better CAT score results vs BD-based treatment

  8. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of a Unit Dose Dry Powder Inhaler with a Multidose Dry Powder Inhaler for Delivery of Fluticasone Furoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rashmi; Moore, Alison; Riddell, Kylie; Joshi, Shashidhar; Chan, Robert

    2017-05-02

    The unit dose dry powder inhaler (UD-DPI) is being considered as an alternative inhaler platform that, if developed, has the potential to improve access to inhaled respiratory medicines in developing countries. This study compared the systemic exposure of fluticasone furoate after delivery from the UD-DPI with that from the ELLIPTA(®) inhaler. This open-label, five-way cross-over, randomized, single-dose study in healthy subjects evaluated fluticasone furoate systemic exposure of three dose strengths (using four inhalations), 4 × 80 μg [320 μg], 4 × 100 μg [400 μg], and 4 × 140 μg [560 μg]), and two percentages of drug in lactose blends (0.6% and 0.8% by weight) after delivery from the UD-DPI compared with systemic exposures from the ELLIPTA inhaler (4 × 100 μg [400 μg] dose, 0.8% lactose blend). The primary treatment comparisons were area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to 6 hours [AUC0-6] and maximum plasma concentration [Cmax]. After single-dose administration of fluticasone furoate, systemic exposure was lower from all UD-DPI formulations versus the ELLIPTA inhaler in terms of both AUC0-6 [AUC0-6 geometric least squares mean (GLM) ratios confidence interval (90% CI) for: UD-DPI (400 μg 0.8% blend)/ELLIPTA: 0.61 (0.55-0.67) and Cmax GLM (90% CI) for: UD-DPI (400 μg 0.8% blend)/ELLIPTA: 0.56 (0.49-0.64)]. Systemic exposures were ∼10% lower for fluticasone furoate UD-DPI for the 0.8% blend versus the 0.6% blend [GLM ratio (90% CI); 0.90 (0.81-1.00) for AUC0-6 and 0.89 (0.77-1.01) for Cmax], and increasing doses of fluticasone furoate from the UD-DPI showed systemic exposures that were approximately dose proportional. All treatments were well tolerated. Fluticasone furoate systemic exposure was lower from the UD-DPI than from the ELLIPTA inhaler, but the UD-DPI formulations did demonstrate detectable systemic levels and approximate dose proportionality. Together with the good tolerability shown

  9. Health hazards from inhalation of metal fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscator, M.

    1976-04-01

    Hazards to the health of workers exposed to metal fumes in high-temperature industrial operations (such as in shipyards) are detailed. After oxidation, the metals appear as submicron particles which are deposited in various parts of the respiratory system. Mixed exposures and a wide variety of symptoms may occur, depending on the type of metal and the intensity and duration of exposure. The major metal may not always be the most dangerous. Two of the most hazardous metals are lead and cadmium, the former being well recognized but still a problem, the latter often unrecognized but capable of causing severe, acute or chronic disease. (RFC)

  10. A perspective on the developmental toxicity of inhaled nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Campagnolo, Luisa; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to clarify whether maternal inhalation of engineered nanoparticles (NP) may constitute a hazard to pregnancy and fetal development, primarily based on experimental animal studies of NP and air pollution particles. Overall, it is plausible that NP may translocate from the respirat......This paper aimed to clarify whether maternal inhalation of engineered nanoparticles (NP) may constitute a hazard to pregnancy and fetal development, primarily based on experimental animal studies of NP and air pollution particles. Overall, it is plausible that NP may translocate from...... the respiratory tract to the placenta and fetus, but also that adverse effects may occur secondarily to maternal inflammatory responses. The limited database describes several organ systems in the offspring to be potentially sensitive to maternal inhalation of particles, but large uncertainties exist about...

  11. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'.

  12. Survey of adrenal crisis associated with inhaled corticosteroids in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, G R G; Acerini, C L; Ross-Russell, R; Zahra, S; Warner, J T; McCance, D

    2002-12-01

    Until recently, only two cases of acute adrenal crisis associated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) had been reported worldwide. We identified four additional cases and sought to survey the frequency of this side effect in the United Kingdom. Questionnaires were sent to all consultant paediatricians and adult endocrinologists registered in a UK medical directory, asking whether they had encountered asthmatic patients with acute adrenal crisis associated with ICS. Those responding positively completed a more detailed questionnaire. Diagnosis was confirmed by symptoms/signs and abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function test results. From an initial 2912 questionnaires, 33 patients met the diagnostic criteria (28 children, five adults). Twenty-three children had acute hypoglycaemia (13 with decreased levels of consciousness or coma; nine with coma and convulsions; one with coma, convulsions and death); five had insidious onset of symptoms. Four adults had insidious onset of symptoms; one had hypoglycaemia and convulsions. Of the 33 patients treated with 500-2000 micro g/day ICS, 30 (91%) had received fluticasone, one (3%) fluticasone and budesonide, and two (6%) beclomethasone. The frequency of acute adrenal crisis was greater than expected as the majority of these patients were treated with ICS doses supported by British Guidelines on Asthma Management. Despite being the least prescribed and most recently introduced ICS, fluticasone was associated with 94% of the cases. We therefore advise that the licensed dosage of fluticasone for children, 400 micro g/day, should not be exceeded unless the patient is being supervised by a physician with experience in problematic asthma. We would also emphasise that until adrenal function has been assessed patients receiving high dose ICS should not have this therapy abruptly terminated as this could precipitate adrenal crisis.

  13. Effects of intraoperative inhaled iloprost on primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation: A retrospective single center study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Su Hyun; Lee, Jin Gu; Lee, Chang Yeong; Kim, Namo; Chang, Min-Yung; You, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun Joo; Paik, Hyo Chae; Oh, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled iloprost was known to alleviate ischemic-reperfusion lung injury. We investigated whether intraoperative inhaled iloprost can prevent the development of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation...

  14. Acute abdomen caused by brucellar hepatic abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibis, Cem; Sezer, Atakan; Batman, Ali K; Baydar, Serkan; Eker, Alper; Unlu, Ercument; Kuloglu, Figen; Cakir, Bilge; Coskun, Irfan

    2007-10-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection that is transmitted from animals to humans by ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal, or aerosol inhalation. The disease is endemic in many countries, including the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, India, Mexico, Central and South America and, central and southwest Asia. Human brucellosis is a systemic infection with a wide clinical spectrum. Although hepatic involvement is very common during the course of chronic brucellosis, hepatic abscess is a very rare complication of Brucella infection. We present a case of hepatic abscess caused by Brucella, which resembled the clinical presentation of surgical acute abdomen.

  15. Challenges in inhaled product development and opportunities for open innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Ben; Asgharian, Bahman; Dailey, Lea Ann; Ferguson, Douglas; Gerde, Per; Gumbleton, Mark; Gustavsson, Lena; Hardy, Colin; Hassall, David; Jones, Rhys; Lock, Ruth; Maas, Janet; McGovern, Tim; Pitcairn, Gary R; Somers, Graham; Wolff, Ron K

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry, safety and the efficacy of drugs in the lungs are critical factors in the development of inhaled medicines. This article considers the challenges in each of these areas with reference to current industry practices for developing inhaled products, and suggests collaborative scientific approaches to address these challenges. The portfolio of molecules requiring delivery by inhalation has expanded rapidly to include novel drugs for lung disease, combination therapies, biopharmaceuticals and candidates for systemic delivery via the lung. For these drugs to be developed as inhaled medicines, a better understanding of their fate in the lungs and how this might be modified is required. Harmonized approaches based on 'best practice' are advocated for dosimetry and safety studies; this would provide coherent data to help product developers and regulatory agencies differentiate new inhaled drug products. To date, there are limited reports describing full temporal relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) measurements. A better understanding of pulmonary PK and PK/PD relationships would help mitigate the risk of not engaging successfully or persistently with the drug target as well as identifying the potential for drug accumulation in the lung or excessive systemic exposure. Recommendations are made for (i) better industry-academia-regulatory co-operation, (ii) sharing of pre-competitive data, and (iii) open innovation through collaborative research in key topics such as lung deposition, drug solubility and dissolution in lung fluid, adaptive responses in safety studies, biomarker development and validation, the role of transporters in pulmonary drug disposition, target localisation within the lung and the determinants of local efficacy following inhaled drug administration.

  16. Inhalation a significant exposure route for chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreder, Erika D; Uding, Nancy; La Guardia, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (ClOPFRs) are widely used as additive flame retardants in consumer products including furniture, children's products, building materials, and textiles. Tests of indoor media in homes, offices, and other environments have shown these compounds are released from products and have become ubiquitous indoor pollutants. In house dust samples from Washington State, U.S.A., ClOPFRs were the flame retardants detected in the highest concentrations. Two ClOPFRs, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP or TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), have been designated as carcinogens, and there is growing concern about the toxicity of the homologue tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP or TCIPP). In response to concerns about exposure to these compounds, the European Union and a number of U.S. states have taken regulatory action to restrict their use in certain product categories. To better characterize exposure to ClOPFRs, inhalation exposure was assessed using active personal air samplers in Washington State with both respirable and inhalable particulate fractions collected to assess the likelihood particles penetrate deep into the lungs. Concentrations of ∑ClOPFRs (respirable and inhalable) ranged from 97.1 to 1190 ng m(-3) (mean 426 ng m(-3)), with TCPP detected at the highest concentrations. In general, higher levels were detected in the inhalable particulate fraction. Total intake of ClOPFRs via the inhalation exposure route was estimated to exceed intake via dust ingestion, indicating that inhalation is an important route that should be taken into consideration in assessments of these compounds.

  17. Preclinical safety evaluation of inhaled cyclosporine in propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Noonberg, Sarah; Steigerwalt, Ronald; Lynch, Maryellen; Kovelesky, Rosemary A; Rodríguez, Carlos A; Sprugel, Katherine; Turner, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporine inhalation solution has the potential to improve outcomes following lung transplantation by delivering high concentrations of an immunosuppressant directly to the allograft while minimizing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicity. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the potential toxicity of aerosolized cyclosporine formulated in propylene glycol when given by inhalation route to rats and dogs for 28 days. Sprague-Dawley rats received total inhaled doses of 0 (air), 0 (vehicle, propylene glycol), 7.4, 24.3, and 53.9 mg cyclosporine/kg/day. In a separate study, beagle dogs were exposed to 0, 4.4, 7.7, and 9.7 mg cyclosporine/kg/day. Endpoints used to evaluate potential toxicity of inhaled cyclosporine were clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, respiratory functions, toxicokinetics, and clinical/anatomic pathology. Daily administration of aerosolized cyclosporine did not result in observable accumulation of cyclosporine in blood or lung tissue. Toxicokinetic analysis from the rat study showed that the exposure of cyclosporine was approximately 18 times higher in the lung tissue compared to the blood. Systemic effects were consistent with those known for cyclosporine. There was no unexpected systemic toxicity or clinically limiting local respiratory toxicity associated with inhalation exposure to cyclosporine inhalation solution at exposures up to 2.7 times the maximum human exposure in either rats or dogs. There were no respiratory or systemic effects of high doses of propylene glycol relative to air controls. These preclinical studies demonstrate the safety of aerosolized cyclosporine in propylene glycol and support its continued clinical investigation in patients undergoing allogeneic lung transplantation.

  18. Lost in the Mist: Acute Adrenal Crisis Following Intranasal Fluticasone Propionate Overuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Loaiza-Bonilla

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion. This one-of-a-kind case describes acute adrenal crisis secondary to withdrawal from inhaled nasal corticosteroids overuse in a patient with particular risk factors. Prevention and early recognition of this disorder can significantly reduce its morbidity and mortality.

  19. Striatal dopamine dynamics in mice following acute and repeated toluene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apawu, Aaron K; Mathews, Tiffany A; Bowen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The abused inhalant toluene has potent behavioral effects, but only recently has progress been made in understanding the neurochemical actions that mediate the action of toluene in the brain. Available evidence suggests that toluene inhalation alters dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, but toluene's mechanism of action is unknown. The present study evaluated the effect of acute and repeated toluene inhalation (0, 2,000, or 4,000 ppm) on locomotor activity as well as striatal DA release and uptake using slice fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Acutely, 2,000 and 4,000 ppm toluene increased locomotor activity, while neurochemically only 4,000 ppm toluene potentiated electrically evoked DA release across the caudate-putamen and the nucleus accumbens. Repeated administration of toluene resulted in sensitization to toluene's locomotor activity effects. Brain slices obtained from mice repeatedly exposed to toluene demonstrated no difference in stimulated DA release in the caudate-putamen as compared to control animals. Repeated exposure to 2,000 and 4,000 ppm toluene caused a concentration-dependent decrease of 25-50 % in evoked DA release in the nucleus accumbens core and shell relative to air-exposed mice. These voltammetric neurochemical findings following repeated toluene exposure suggest that there may be a compensatory downregulation of the DA system. Acute or repeated toluene exposure had no effect on the DA uptake kinetics. Taken together, these results demonstrate that acute toluene inhalation potentiates DA release, while repeated toluene exposure attenuates DA release in the nucleus accumbens only.

  20. Neurobehavorial effects of acute exposure to four solvents: meta-abalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meta-and re-analyses of the available data for the neurobehavioral effects of acute inhalation exposure to toluene were reported by Benignus et al. (2007). The present study was designed to test the generality of the toluene results in as many other solvents as possible by furthe...