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Sample records for acute zonal occult

  1. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings

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    Dimitrios Karagiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To report a case of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR with atypical electrophysiology findings. Case Presentation. A 23-year-old-female presented with visual acuity deterioration in her right eye accompanied by photopsia bilaterally. Corrected distance visual acuity at presentation was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundus examination was unremarkable. Visual field (VF testing revealed a large scotoma. Pattern and full-field electroretinograms (PERG and ERG revealed macular involvement associated with generalized retinal dysfunction. Electrooculogram (EOG light rise and the Arden ratio were within normal limits bilaterally. The patient was diagnosed with AZOOR due to clinical findings, visual field defect, and ERG findings. Conclusion. This is a case of AZOOR with characteristic VF defects and clinical symptoms presenting with atypical EOG findings.

  2. Acute progression of electrophysiologically affected fellow eye in unilaterally symptomatic acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

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    Iriyama A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Kayo Kure, Ryo Obata, Yuji Inoue, Aya Iriyama, Yasuo YanagiDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Some patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR show symptomatic acute visual impairment in one eye only, but electrophysiological abnormalities in both eyes. A 46-year-old female who had noticed paracentral scotoma of her right eye six months previously was referred to our hospital. At initial examination, her best-corrected visual acuity was 0.7 in the right eye and 1.2 in the left. Whereas the full-field rod electroretinogram (ERG was normal in both eyes, the cone response was nonrecordable in the right eye and showed a significant decrease in amplitude in the left eye. The 30 Hz flicker ERG showed similar results. Multifocal ERG was nonrecordable in the right eye and showed a residual response in only the central part of the left. Fourteen months after the first visit, the patient presented complaining of acute visual acuity loss in the left eye. Visual acuity in her left eye had decreased to 0.01. The multifocal ERG was nonrecordable. Although the patient chose oral prednisolone therapy, only limited recovery was observed in the patient. Even if only the ERG shows changes and there are no other symptoms, ophthalmologists should continue observation in view of the possibility of an acute exacerbation.Keywords: acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, electroretinogram, scotoma

  3. Polycythemia vera and increased hemophilic factor VIII causing acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: a case report.

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    Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Shetty, Rohit; Avadhani, Kavitha; Ross, Cecil; Gupta, Anchal; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2010-08-01

    To report a case of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) caused by Polycythemia and increased levels of Factor VIIIC. Case Report - Interventional. We present a 23 year old male with blurring of vision and loss of lower visual fields in both eyes. Ocular examination suggested the possibility of AZOOR that was confirmed with Fluorescein Angiogram, Visual fields and Electroretinogram. Laboratory work up revealed polycythemia with increased Factor VIIIC. He was treated for the same. Ocular symptoms improved within 24 hours of treatment with venesection and asprin. Polycythemia vera and increased factor VIIIC levels, both venous thromboembolic risk factors are treatable causes of AZOOR.

  4. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy (AZOOR in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

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    Luiz Reis Barbosa Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR is a rare disease characterized by an acute damage of one or more external retinal zones leading to the visual field or the visual acuity impairment associated with small or no changes in the fundus examination.The main clinical symptoms are scotomas and the sudden onset of photopsias. Abnormal findings on electroretinography and visual field defects are critical for the diagnosis. Central vision is usually preserved and the stabilization occurs in six months in most cases. The objective of this article is to describe a 24-month follow-up of a patient with AZOOR and correlate the findings with the typical features of this disease.

  5. Systemic Corticosteroids Therapy in the Management of Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy

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    San-Ni Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the efficacy of systemic steroid in treating acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR. Methods. Retrospective study of 9 consecutive patients of AZOOR, who received systemic steroid therapy in Changhua Christian Hospital from 2005 to 2013, is presented. The duration of therapy was at least 3 months. Patients were evaluated with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, optical coherence tomography (OCT, fluorescein angiography (FA, indocyanine green angiography (ICG, visual field test, and electroretinography (ERG. Results. At the initial visit, visual field defect was noted in all patients and impaired visual acuity was noted in 4 eyes. OCT examination revealed disrupted ellipsoid zone at the macular area in 8 eyes and outer nuclear layer (ONL loss in 1 eye. At the end of follow-up, all patients had improvement of visual field. The 4 eyes with initial impaired visual acuity had BCVA recovering to 20/20. Follow-up OCT showed partial or complete recovery of the ellipsoid zone at the macular area in the 8 eyes with initial disrupted ellipsoid zone and stable condition in the eye with ONL loss. The mean follow-up duration was 47.11±26.65 months. Conclusion. Visual improvement was achieved in most cases of recent onset AZOOR after systemic steroid treatment.

  6. Relationship between Choroidal Thickness and Visual Field Impairment in Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy

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    Yuki Hashimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate sequential changes in choroidal thickness at the affected area in patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR. Methods. This retrospective observational case series included 14 affected eyes and 6 unaffected fellow eyes from 10 AZOOR patients with impaired macular area. Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, choroidal thicknesses at the subfovea and at nasal and temporal sites 1000 μm away from the fovea were manually measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months thereafter. Changes in the choroidal thicknesses and the average threshold at the affected area on Humphrey perimetry were compared during the 6-month follow-up. Results. In AZOOR eyes, the average threshold at the affected area significantly increased over time, while outer retinal structure ameliorated. The mean choroidal thicknesses at all the sites measured significantly decreased at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline values in AZOOR eyes, but not in fellow eyes. There was an inverse correlation between the changing rates of the average threshold and the subfoveal choroidal thickness at 6 months from baseline. Conclusion. The current data suggest that choroidal thickness at AZOOR-affected area significantly decreased with regression of AZOOR and this anatomical change correlated with the functional recovery.

  7. Pure small cell carcinoma of the prostate preceded by acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: A case report.

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    Ching, Daniel; Brown, Matthew; Forrest, Cindy; Hayne, Dickon

    2016-01-01

    Pure small cell prostate cancer (SCPC) cases are very rare. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) has been described as a non-neoplastic retinopathy. We report the first case of pure SCPC preceded by AZOOR in the literature. A 59year old gentleman presented with an obstructed infected urinary system. He had a diagnosis of AZOOR 6 months ago that was investigated with full body imaging without any suspicious findings. However, the most recent CT findings demonstrated extensive disease dissemination. The patient underwent rigid cystoscopy and resection that confirmed a diagnosis of pure SCPC. AZOOR is a clinical syndrome of photopsia and rapid zonal field loss. The exact aetiology remains unknown and its association with malignancy remains contentious. Paraneoplastic manifestations of unexplained visual loss in SCPC are rare with only 2 cases reported in the literature. There are no cases demonstrating an association between AZOOR and SCPC. Pure SCPC is an aggressive malignancy with most cases presenting with extensive disease dissemination on diagnosis. Early detection has a role in improving prognosis but is challenging. Further research is required to establish a standard treatment protocol. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

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    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    appearance were examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated perimetry and electroretinography (ERG). RESULTS: Both patients demonstrated photoreceptor atrophy corresponding to partial or complete scotomata with reduced or extinct electroretinographic responses. Attenuation or complete loss...... dysfunction. The field loss was more extensive than the area of photoreceptor loss. CONCLUSION: Photoreceptor atrophy can be demonstrated in AZOOR without ophthalmoscopically visible fundus lesions Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  9. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2006-01-01

    and multifocal electroretinography. Results: All three patients demonstrated partial or complete photoreceptor atrophy corresponding to partial or complete scotomata of retinal origin. Conclusion: Photoreceptor atrophy can be demonstrated early in the course of AZOOR, before ophthalmoscopically visible changes...

  10. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    of all the segments composing the photoreceptor layer was found by OCT. Full-field ERG revealed affection of the 30 Hz flicker responses and subnormal photopic responses in both patients and subnormal scotopic responses in case 1. Multifocal electroretinography (mERG) revealed localized outer retinal...

  11. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    composing the photoreceptor layer was found by OCT. Full-field ERG revealed affection of the 30 Hz flicker responses and subnormal photopic responses in both patients and subnormal scotopic responses in case 1. Multifocal electroretinography (mERG) revealed localized outer retinal dysfunction. The field...

  12. Occult Pneumothoraces in Acute Trauma Patients

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    Chad Berryman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many traumatic pneumothoraces (PTX are not seen on initial chest radiograph (CR(occult PTX but are detected only on computed tomography (CT. Although CR remains the first toolfor detecting PTX, most trauma patients with significant thoracoabdominal injuries will receive both CTand CR. The primary objective of this study was to retrospectively determine the effectiveness of CR fordetecting PTX in trauma patients. Our hypotheses were that CR is a sensitive indicator of PTX on CT,that chest pain and shortness of breath are good predictors of PTX on CR, and that we could determineother predictors of PTX on CR.Methods: All trauma patients presenting to our Level I trauma center with a CT-diagnosed PTX over a2-year period who had both a CR and a chest CT were included. The CT reading was considered thegold standard for PTX diagnosis. Electronic medical records were searched using key words fordiagnoses, symptoms, demographics, and radiologic results. We recorded the official radiologistreadings for both CR and CT (positive or negative and the size of the PTX on CT (large, moderate,small, or tiny. The outcome variable was dichotomized based on presence or absence of PTXdetected on CR. Descriptive statistics and v2 tests were used for univariate analysis. A regressionanalysis was performed to determine characteristics predictive of a PTX on CR, and 1 variable wasadded to the model for every 10 positive CRs. With equal-size groups, this study has the power of 80%to detect a 10% absolute difference in single predictors of PTX on CR with 45 subjects in each group.Results: There were 134 CT-documented PTXs included in the study. Mean age was 42, and 74%were men. For 66 (49% patients, PTX was detected on CR (sensitivity¼50%. The CR detected 30%of small PTX, 35% of moderate PTX, and 33% of large PTX. Comparing patients with and without PTXon CR, there were no significant differences in shortness of breath or chest pain. There no

  13. Occult pneumothoraces in acute trauma patients.

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    Ernst, Amy A; McIntyre, William A; Weiss, Steven J; Berryman, Chad

    2012-11-01

    Many traumatic pneumothoraces (PTX) are not seen on initial chest radiograph (CR) (occult PTX) but are detected only on computed tomography (CT). Although CR remains the first tool for detecting PTX, most trauma patients with significant thoracoabdominal injuries will receive both CT and CR. The primary objective of this study was to retrospectively determine the effectiveness of CR for detecting PTX in trauma patients. Our hypotheses were that CR is a sensitive indicator of PTX on CT, that chest pain and shortness of breath are good predictors of PTX on CR, and that we could determine other predictors of PTX on CR. All trauma patients presenting to our Level I trauma center with a CT-diagnosed PTX over a 2-year period who had both a CR and a chest CT were included. The CT reading was considered the gold standard for PTX diagnosis. Electronic medical records were searched using key words for diagnoses, symptoms, demographics, and radiologic results. We recorded the official radiologist readings for both CR and CT (positive or negative) and the size of the PTX on CT (large, moderate, small, or tiny). The outcome variable was dichotomized based on presence or absence of PTX detected on CR. Descriptive statistics and χ(2) tests were used for univariate analysis. A regression analysis was performed to determine characteristics predictive of a PTX on CR, and 1 variable was added to the model for every 10 positive CRs. With equal-size groups, this study has the power of 80% to detect a 10% absolute difference in single predictors of PTX on CR with 45 subjects in each group. There were 134 CT-documented PTXs included in the study. Mean age was 42, and 74% were men. For 66 (49%) patients, PTX was detected on CR (sensitivity = 50%). The CR detected 30% of small PTX, 35% of moderate PTX, and 33% of large PTX. Comparing patients with and without PTX on CR, there were no significant differences in shortness of breath or chest pain. There no relationships between PTX detected

  14. When the bell tolls on Bell's palsy: finding occult malignancy in acute-onset facial paralysis.

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    Quesnel, Alicia M; Lindsay, Robin W; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2010-01-01

    This study reports 4 cases of occult parotid malignancy presenting with sudden-onset facial paralysis to demonstrate that failure to regain tone 6 months after onset distinguishes these patients from Bell's palsy patients with delayed recovery and to propose a diagnostic algorithm for this subset of patients. A case series of 4 patients with occult parotid malignancies presenting with acute-onset unilateral facial paralysis is reported. Initial imaging on all 4 patients did not demonstrate a parotid mass. Diagnostic delays ranged from 7 to 36 months from time of onset of facial paralysis to time of diagnosis of parotid malignancy. Additional physical examination findings, especially failure to regain tone, as well as properly protocolled radiologic studies reviewed with dedicated head and neck radiologists, were helpful in arriving at the diagnosis. An algorithm to minimize diagnostic delays in this subset of acute facial paralysis patients is presented. Careful attention to facial tone, in addition to movement, is important in the diagnostic evaluation of acute-onset facial paralysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute paraparesis as presentation of an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: A case report

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    José Miguel Baião

    Full Text Available Introduction: Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most frequent type of well differentiated thyroid tumours. It is usually confined to the thyroid gland, however it can metastasize in a later stage of the disease. Signs and symptoms associated with bone metastasis are rare as first clinical manifestations. Case report: An 84-year-old female complained with acute paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extensive intraosseous infiltrating lesion compatible with a bone metastasis from an occult tumour. Biopsy samples were compatible with bone metastasis from a follicular thyroid carcinoma. The patient was submitted to total thyroidectomy followed by iodine ablative therapy. Discussion: Follicular thyroid carcinoma presentation with symptoms related to bone metastasis is rare. Patients with bone lesions, such as pathological fractures or compressive symptoms should be studied since they may have clinically unapparent lesions from an unknown tumour. Patients with FTC should be submitted to total thyroidectomy. Bone lesions may be addressed to improve quality of life however this decision depends on disease extent. Conclusion: Acute paraparesis is a rare form of presentation of thyroid carcinoma. These neoplasms must be taken into account when investigating metastasis to the bone from unknown neoplasms. Keywords: Acute paraparesis, Follicular thyroid carcinoma, Bone metastasis, Case report

  16. Pure small cell carcinoma of the prostate preceded by acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: A case report

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    Daniel Ching, MBBS, MSc

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Pure SCPC is an aggressive malignancy with most cases presenting with extensive disease dissemination on diagnosis. Early detection has a role in improving prognosis but is challenging. Further research is required to establish a standard treatment protocol.

  17. Pre-operative stool analysis for intestinal parasites and fecal occult blood in patients with acute appendicitis.

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    Hatipoğlu, Sinan; Lök, Uğur; Gülaçtı, Umut; Çelik, Tuncay

    2016-09-01

    Etiology of acute appendicitis (AA) rarely involves parasitic infections of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Preoperative diagnosis of parasitic infections in appendix remains difficult, although parasites can sometimes be observed inside the lumen during histopathological examination. The aim of the present study was to prospectively screen prevalence and species of intestinal parasites and adherence of fecal occult blood (FOB) in patients admitted to emergency department (ED) with clinical symptoms of AA who underwent appendectomy. Demographic and stool analysis data of a total of 136 patients (≥13 years old) who underwent appendectomy between July 2009 and December 2014 were prospectively assessed, and histopathological data of all patients were retrospectively assessed. In histopathological examination after appendectomy, of 136 patients, 75.5% (n=103) had AA, 11.1% (n=15) had perforated appendicitis (PA), and 13.2% (n=18) had a negative appendicitis (normal appendix, NA). Pre-operative stool analysis revealed that 25% (n=34) had intestinal parasites and 14.7% (n=20) of patients had positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Those with positive FOBT represented 9.7% (n=10) of 103 AA patients, 53.3% (n=8) of 15 PA patients, and 11.1% (n=2) of 18 NA patients; this was statistically more significant for PA than other groups (pparasites in stool might not be associated with appendicitis, but it can occasionally lead to pathological findings of appendicitis. A positive FOBT may be a predictor for PA.

  18. Review of zonal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.; Hahm, T.S.

    2004-10-01

    A comprehensive review of zonal flow phenomena in plasmas is presented. While the emphasis is on zonal flows in laboratory plasmas, zonal flows in nature are discussed as well. The review presents the status of theory, numerical simulation and experiments relevant to zonal flows. The emphasis is on developing an integrated understanding of the dynamics of drift wave - zonal flow turbulence by combining detailed studies of the generation of zonal flows by drift waves, the back-interaction of zonal flows on the drift waves, and the various feedback loops by which the system regulates and organizes itself. The implications of zonal flow phenomena for confinement in, and the phenomena of fusion devices are discussed. Special attention is given to the comparison of experiment with theory and to identifying direction for progress in future research. (author)

  19. Occult falcine meningioma unmasked following nearly complete hemorrhagic transformation with resultant spontaneous acute interhemispheric subdural hematoma

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    Prasad Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden-onset monoplegia with features of vomiting and headache usually signals an intracranial cerebrovascular event. We describe a 62-year-old man in whom this presentation was the result of the rare occurrence of an almost complete hemorrhagic transformation of a falcine meningioma with resultant acute interhemispheric subdural hematoma, and discuss the risk factors and possible mechanisms that may lead to such an event. The need for careful examination of the available radiology and aggressive tumor removal is stressed.

  20. Occult renal cell carcinoma with acrometastasis and ipsilateral juxta-articular knee lesions mimicking acute inflammation

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    Bhaskar Borgohain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, skeletal peripheral metastases below the elbow and the knee are rare. Skeletal metastases to the hand or foot are very rare; but when they do it may be a revealing clinical finding. Purely lytic lesions are commonly seen in metastases from lung, renal, and thyroid tumors, but they are also known to occur in primary myeloma, brown tumor and lymphomas. A 70-year-old man was brought to the emergency department with acute painful swelling involving his right hand and the right knee. Due to significant accompanying soft tissue swellings cellulitis, acute osteomyelitis and gouty arthropathy were included in the initial differential diagnosis. Radiographs showed pure lytic bony lesion with complete disappearance of lower two third of the second metacarpal, trapezium and trapezoid bones of the right hand along with a lytic subarticular lesion of medial condyle of ipsilateral femur. Chest X-ray (CXR was normal but sonography of the abdomen readily demonstrated a large renal mass, later confirmed at biopsy as renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Clinicians should be cognizant of the strong association between digital acrometastases and renal cell carcinoma in male patients with normal CXR findings. In suspected hand acrometastasis associated with a soft tissue component outside the contours of normal bone, screening the abdomen by sonography should be done prior to bone biopsy and before costly or time-consuming investigations are offered. Metastatic RCC should be included in the differential diagnosis of all unilateral expansile bony lesions of the digit. It is particularly important if such lesion/lesions are accompanied by local inflammation. Screening the abdomen by sonography may be of particular value in such elderly male patient when Chest X-ray shows no abnormality.

  1. Physics of zonal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Nagashima, Y.; Diamond, P.H.; Tynan, G.R.; Hahm, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Zonal flows, which means azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows, are ubiquitous phenomena in nature and the laboratory. It is now widely recognized that zonal flows are a key constituent in virtually all cases and regimes of drift wave turbulence, indeed, so much so that this classic problem is now frequently referred to as ''drift wave-zonal flow turbulence.'' In this review, new viewpoints and unifying concepts are presented, which facilitate understanding of zonal flow physics, via theory, computation and their confrontation with the results of laboratory experiment. Special emphasis is placed on identifying avenues for further progress. (author)

  2. Role of Occult and Post-acute Phase Replication in Protective Immunity Induced with a Novel Live Attenuated SIV Vaccine

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    Berry, Neil; Manoussaka, Maria; Ham, Claire; Ferguson, Deborah; Tudor, Hannah; Mattiuzzo, Giada; Klaver, Bep; Page, Mark; Stebbings, Richard; Das, Atze T.; Berkhout, Ben; Almond, Neil; Cranage, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of persisting virus replication during occult phase immunisation in the live attenuated SIV vaccine model, a novel SIVmac239Δnef variant (SIVrtTA) genetically engineered to replicate in the presence of doxycycline was evaluated for its ability to protect against

  3. Detection of single-phase CTA occult vessel occlusions in acute ischemic stroke using CT perfusion-based wavelet-transformed angiography

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    Kunz, Wolfgang G.; Sommer, Wieland H.; Meinel, Felix G.; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Thierfelder, Kolja M. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Havla, Lukas; Dietrich, Olaf [Ludwig-Maximilian-University Hospital Munich, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging of the Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Dorn, Franziska [Ludwig-Maximilian-University Hospital Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Buchholz, Grete [Ludwig-Maximilian-University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    To determine the detection rate of intracranial vessel occlusions using CT perfusion-based wavelet-transformed angiography (waveletCTA) in acute ischemic stroke patients, in whom single-phase CTA (spCTA) failed to detect an occlusion. Subjects were selected from a cohort of 791 consecutive patients who underwent multiparametric CT including whole-brain CT perfusion. Inclusion criteria were (1) significant cerebral blood flow (CBF) deficit, (2) no evidence of vessel occlusion on spCTA and (3) follow-up-confirmed acute ischemic infarction. waveletCTA was independently analysed by two readers regarding presence and location of vessel occlusions. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of waveletCTA-detected occlusions. Fifty-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Overall, an occlusion was identified using waveletCTA in 31 (52.5 %) patients with negative spCTA. Out of 47 patients with middle cerebral artery infarction, 27 occlusions (57.4 %) were detected by waveletCTA, mainly located in the M2 (15) and M3 segments (8). The presence of waveletCTA-detected occlusions was associated with larger CBF deficit volumes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.335, p = 0.010) and shorter times from symptom onset (OR = 0.306, p = 0.041). waveletCTA is able to detect spCTA occult vessel occlusions in about half of acute ischemic stroke patients and may potentially identify more patients eligible for endovascular therapy. (orig.)

  4. Ozone zonal asymmetry and planetary wave characterization during Antarctic spring

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    I. Ialongo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large zonal asymmetry of ozone has been observed over Antarctica during winter-spring, when the ozone hole develops. It is caused by a planetary wave-driven displacement of the polar vortex. The total ozone data by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the ozone profiles by MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars were analysed to characterize the ozone zonal asymmetry and the wave activity during Antarctic spring. Both total ozone and profile data have shown a persistent zonal asymmetry over the last years, which is usually observed from September to mid-December. The largest amplitudes of planetary waves at 65° S (the perturbations can achieve up to 50% of zonal mean values is observed in October. The wave activity is dominated by the quasi-stationary wave 1 component, while the wave 2 is mainly an eastward travelling wave. Wave numbers 1 and 2 generally explain more than the 90% of the ozone longitudinal variations. Both GOMOS and MLS ozone profile data show that ozone zonal asymmetry covers the whole stratosphere and extends up to the altitudes of 60–65 km. The wave amplitudes in ozone mixing ratio decay with altitude, with maxima (up to 50% below 30 km.

    The characterization of the ozone zonal asymmetry has become important in the climate research. The inclusion of the polar zonal asymmetry in the climate models is essential for an accurate estimation of the future temperature trends. This information might also be important for retrieval algorithms that rely on ozone a priori information.

  5. Overview of zonal flow physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Hahm, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    Zonal flows, by which we mean azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows, are ubiquitous phenomena in nature and the laboratory. It is now widely recognized that zonal flows are a key constituent in virtually all cases and regimes of drift wave turbulence, indeed, so much so that this classic problem is now frequently referred to as 'drift wave-zonal flow turbulence'. In this theory overview, we present new viewpoints and unifying concepts which facilitate understanding of zonal flow physics, via theory, computation and their confrontation with the results of laboratory experiment. Special emphasis is placed on identifying avenues for further progress. (author)

  6. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)

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    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fecaloccultbloodtestfobt.html Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a Fecal Occult Blood Test? A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) looks at ...

  7. Equatorial zonal circulations: Historical perspectives

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    Hastenrath, Stefan

    2007-04-01

    The changing perceptions on zonal circulations in the equatorial belt are traced for (a) stratospheric wind regimes, and (b) vertical-zonal circulation cells in the troposphere. (a) Observations from the Krakatoa eruption 1883 and Berson's 1908 expedition to East Africa, along with later soundings over Batavia (Jakarta) led to the notion of "Krakatoa easterlies" around 30 km (10 mb) and "Berson westerlies" around 20 km (50 mb). Prompted by contrary observations since the late 1950s, this dogma was replaced by the notion of easterlies alternating with westerlies in the equatorial stratosphere at a rhythm of about 26 months. (b) Stimulated by Bjerknes' postulate of a "Walker circulation" along the Pacific Equator, a multitude of such cells have been hypothesized at other longitudes, in part from zonal contrasts of temperature and cloudiness. Essential for the diagnosis of equatorial zonal circulation cells is the continuity following the flow between the centers of ascending and subsiding motion. Evaluation of the recent NCEP-NCAR and ECMWF Reanalysis upper-air datasets reveals equatorial zonal circulation cells over the Pacific all year round, over the Atlantic only in boreal winter, and over the Indian Ocean only in autumn, all being seasons and oceanic longitudes with strong zonal flow in the lower troposphere.

  8. A Clinical Prospective Observational Cohort Study on the Prevalence and Primary Diagnostic Accuracy of Occult Vertebral Fractures in Aged Women with Acute Lower Back Pain Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Atsushi Terakado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elderly female patients complaints of acute low back pain (LBP may involve vertebral fracture (VF, among which occult VF (OVF: early-stage VF without any morphological change is often missed to be detected by primary X-ray examination. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of VF and OVF and the diagnostic accuracy of the initial X-ray in detecting OVF. Method. Subjects were elderly women (>70 years old complaining of acute LBP with an accurate onset date. Subjects underwent lumbar X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and bone mineral density (BMD measurement at their first visit. The distribution of radiological findings from X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as well as the calculation of the prevalence of VF and OVF are investigated. Results. The prevalence of VF among elderly women with LBP was 76.5% and L1 was the most commonly injured level. Among VF cases, the prevalence of OVF was 33.3%. Furthermore, osteoporotic patients tend to show increased prevalence of VF (87.5%. The predictive values in detecting VF on the initial plain X-ray were as follows: sensitivity, 51.3%; specificity, 75.0%; and accuracy rate, 56.7%. Conclusions. Acute LBP patients may suffer vertebral injury with almost no morphologic change in X-ray, which can be detected using MRI.

  9. Occult spinal dysraphism.

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    Bajpai, M; Kataria, R; Gupta, D K; Agarwala, S

    1997-01-01

    When spina bifida is associated with skin abnormalities such as dimples, sinus tracts hypertrichosis, or capillary hemangiomas, there is a high incidence of an occult intraspinal lesion such as epidermoid and dermoid tumours, lipomas, diastematomyelia, dural bands and tethered spinal cord. The present study consists of 50 patients with occult spinal dysraphism treated with the diagnosis of lipomeningomyelocoele (20), lumbosacral lipoma (15) and diastematomyelia (15). The clinical presentation varied from lipoma in the lumbosacral region, dermal sinus, cutaneous hemangioma and hypertrichosis. The age range varied from 2 months to 7 years with an average of 2 years. 40% patients had neurological deficit at the time of presentation which varied from lower limb weakness to bladder & bowel involvement. All patients underwent laminectomy of the lumbar and lumbo-sacral spine with excision of intraspinal lipoma, excision of bony or cartilaginous spur in diastematomyelia and detethering of the conus medullaris & cauda equina. No patient developed late neurological deficit.

  10. On the influence of zonal gravity wave distributions on the Southern Hemisphere winter circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lilienthal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic global circulation model is used to simulate the Southern Hemisphere stratospheric, mesospheric, and lower thermospheric circulation during austral winter. The model includes a gravity wave (GW parameterization that is initiated by prescribed 2-D fields of GW parameters in the troposphere. These are based on observations of GW potential energy calculated using GPS radio occultations and show enhanced GW activity east of the Andes and around the Antarctic. In order to detect the influence of an observation-based and thus realistic 2-D GW distribution on the middle atmosphere circulation, we perform model experiments with zonal mean and 2-D GW initialization, and additionally with and without forcing of stationary planetary waves (SPWs at the lower boundary of the model. As a result, we find additional forcing of SPWs in the stratosphere, a weaker zonal wind jet in the mesosphere, cooling of the mesosphere and warming near the mesopause above the jet. SPW wavenumber 1 (SPW1 amplitudes are generally increased by about 10 % when GWs are introduced being longitudinally dependent. However, at the upper part of the zonal wind jet, SPW1 in zonal wind and GW acceleration are out of phase, which reduces the amplitudes there.

  11. Magellan radio occultation measurements of atmospheric waves on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, David P.; Jenkins, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radio occultation experiments were conducted at Venus on three consecutive orbits of the Magellan spacecraft in October 1991. Each occultation occurred over the same topography (67 deg N, 127 deg E) and at the same local time (22 hr 5 min), but the data are sensitive to zonal variations because the atmosphere rotates significantly during one orbit. Through comparisons between observations and predictions of standard wave theory, we have demonstrated that small-scale oscillations in retrieved temperature profiles as well as scintillations in received signal intensity are caused by a spectrum of vertically propagating internal gravity waves. There is a strong similarity between the intensity scintillations observed here and previous measurements, which pertain to a wide range of locations and experiment dates. This implies that the same basic phenomenon underlies all the observations and hence that gravity waves are a persistent, global feature of Venus' atmosphere. We obtained a fairly complete characterization of a gravity wave that appears above the middle cloud in temperature measurements on all three orbits. The amplitude and vertical wavelength are about 4 K and 2.5 km respectively, at 65 km. A model for radiative damping implies that the wave intrinsic frequency is approximately 2 x 10(exp 4) rad/sec, the corresponding ratio between horizontal and vertical wavelengths is approximately 100. The wave is nearly stationary relative to the surface or the Sun. Radiative attenuation limits the wave amplitude at altitudes above approximately 65 km, leading to wave drag on the mean zonal winds of about +0.4 m/sec per day (eastward). The sign, magnitude, and location of this forcing suggest a possible role in explaining the decrease with height in the zonal wind speed that is believed to occur above the cloud tops. Temperature oscillations with larger vertical wavelengths (5-10 km) were also observed on all three orbits, but we are able unable to interpret these

  12. DETECTION OF OCCULT GLOMERULAR DYSFUNCTION IN GLUCOSE SIX PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Abdel Hakeem

    2016-08-01

    G6PD deficiency anemia is associated with a variable degree of glomerular dysfunction during acute hemolytic episodes. This glomerular dysfunction can result in chronic subclinical or occult chronic kidney injury.

  13. The Halogen Occultation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James M., III; Gordley, Larry L.; Park, Jae H.; Drayson, S. R.; Hesketh, W. D.; Cicerone, Ralph J.; Tuck, Adrian F.; Frederick, John E.; Harries, John E.; Crutzen, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) uses solar occultation to measure vertical profiles of O3, HCl, HF, CH4, H2O, NO, NO2, aerosol extinction, and temperature versus pressure with an instantaneous vertical field of view of 1.6 km at the earth limb. Latitudinal coverage is from 80 deg S to 80 deg N over the course of 1 year and includes extensive observations of the Antarctic region during spring. The altitude range of the measurements extends from about 15 km to about 60-130 km, depending on channel. Experiment operations have been essentially flawless, and all performance criteria either meet or exceed specifications. Internal data consistency checks, comparisons with correlative measurements, and qualitative comparisons with 1985 atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) results are in good agreement. Examples of pressure versus latitude cross sections and a global orthographic projection for the September 21 to October 15, 1992, period show the utility of CH4, HF, and H2O as tracers, the occurrence of dehydration in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, the presence of the water vapor hygropause in the tropics, evidence of Antarctic air in the tropics, the influence of Hadley tropical upwelling, and the first global distribution of HCl, HF, and NO throughout the stratosphere. Nitric oxide measurements extend through the lower thermosphere.

  14. MR Imaging of Prostate Zonal Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Oto, Aytekin

    2018-03-01

    McNeal first described the zonal anatomy of the prostate about 40 years ago, outlining 4 zones of the prostate and defining their relation to the urethra and the ejaculatory ducts. The zonal anatomy remains the accepted model for describing the prostate and the zones are well-depicted on MR imaging, including the central zone, which until recently was grouped with the transition zone in the radiology literature. An accurate understanding of the zonal anatomy and periprostatic anatomy is key for accurate interpretation of the prostate MR imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Beamsteerable GNSS Radio Occultation ASIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop an integrated RF ASIC to enable high quality radio occultation (RO) weather observations using the Global Navigations System Satellite (GNSS)...

  16. Zonal methods and computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in developing numerical algorithms for solving fluid flow problems, and the continuing improvement in the speed and storage of large scale computers have made it feasible to compute the flow field about complex and realistic configurations. Current solution methods involve the use of a hierarchy of mathematical models ranging from the linearized potential equation to the Navier Stokes equations. Because of the increasing complexity of both the geometries and flowfields encountered in practical fluid flow simulation, there is a growing emphasis in computational fluid dynamics on the use of zonal methods. A zonal method is one that subdivides the total flow region into interconnected smaller regions or zones. The flow solutions in these zones are then patched together to establish the global flow field solution. Zonal methods are primarily used either to limit the complexity of the governing flow equations to a localized region or to alleviate the grid generation problems about geometrically complex and multicomponent configurations. This paper surveys the application of zonal methods for solving the flow field about two and three-dimensional configurations. Various factors affecting their accuracy and ease of implementation are also discussed. From the presented review it is concluded that zonal methods promise to be very effective for computing complex flowfields and configurations. Currently there are increasing efforts to improve their efficiency, versatility, and accuracy

  17. Transport Phenomena in Zonal Centrifuge Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H. W.

    1968-01-01

    An analysis is presented for the evaluation of velocity components and shear-stress distributions of fluid in zonal centrifuge rotors during acceleration. Analytical expressions for the distribution of tangential and radial velocity components and the tangential shear-stress and the radial shear-stress distributions of fluid are obtained for the transient case. Characteristics of each distribution for a typical density gradient liquid in a zonal centrifuge rotor are computed from the relations derived, and are presented as figures. An unusual phenomenon—the tangential velocity of the gradient exceeding the velocity of the rotor during a particular period of acceleration—is demonstrated. PMID:5678322

  18. Occult Phenomena in Sherlock Holmes the Movie

    OpenAIRE

    NAMAZCARRA, CHRIESHER

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Occult phenomena, Sherlock Holmes, movie. Lately, it is not difficult for people to find occult practices. There are many television programs and movie which air mystical programme aggressively to raise the rating and attract the viewers. A movie that raise occultism theme is Sherlock Holmes, the Movie. This movie tells about the struggle of detective Sherlock Holmes to fight the black magic power of Lord Blackwood.To carry out the study, the theories of Occultism such as the secrec...

  19. Experimental progress on zonal flow physics in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Ido, T.; Shimizu, A.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Hamada, Y.; Nakano, H.; Ohshima, S.; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Shinohara, Koji; Miura, Yukitoshi

    2006-10-01

    Present status of experiments on zonal flows is overviewed. Innovative use of traditional and modern diagnostics has revealed unambiguously the existence of zonal flows, their spatio-temporal characteristics, their relationship with turbulence, and their effects on confinement. Particularly, a number of observations have been accumulated on the oscillatory branch of zonal flows, dubbed geodesic acoustic modes, suggesting necessity of theories to give their proper description. In addition to these basic properties of zonal flows, several new methods have elucidated the zonal flow generation processes from turbulence. Further investigation of relationship between zonal flows and confinement is strongly encouraged as cross-device activity including low temperature toroidal and linear devices. (author)

  20. Building an Anisotropic Meniscus with Zonal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashioka, Michael M.; Chen, Justin A.; Hu, Jerry C.

    2014-01-01

    Toward addressing the difficult problems of knee meniscus regeneration, a self-assembling process has been used to re-create the native morphology and matrix properties. A significant problem in such attempts is the recapitulation of the distinct zones of the meniscus, the inner, more cartilaginous and the outer, more fibrocartilaginous zones. In this study, an anisotropic and zonally variant meniscus was produced by self-assembly of the inner meniscus (100% chondrocytes) followed by cell seeding the outer meniscus (coculture of chondrocytes and meniscus cells). After 4 weeks in culture, the engineered, inner meniscus exhibited a 42% increase in both instantaneous and relaxation moduli and a 62% increase in GAG/DW, as compared to the outer meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential tensile modulus and collagen/DW of the outer zone was 101% and 129% higher, respectively, than the values measured for the inner zone. Furthermore, there was no difference in the radial tensile modulus between the control and zonal engineered menisci, suggesting that the inner and outer zones of the engineered zonal menisci successfully integrated. These data demonstrate that not only can biomechanical and biochemical properties be engineered to differ by the zone, but they can also recapitulate the anisotropic behavior of the knee meniscus. PMID:23931258

  1. 21 CFR 864.6550 - Occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood is...

  2. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B.

    1990-01-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer

  3. Scaling Relation for Occulter Manufacturing Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Dan; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    An external occulter is a spacecraft own along the line-of-sight of a space telescope to suppress starlight and enable high-contrast direct imaging of exoplanets. The shape of an external occulter must be specially designed to optimally suppress starlight and deviations from the ideal shape due to manufacturing errors can result loss of suppression in the shadow. Due to the long separation distances and large dimensions involved for a space occulter, laboratory testing is conducted with scaled versions of occulters etched on silicon wafers. Using numerical simulations for a flight Fresnel occulter design, we show how the suppression performance of an occulter mask scales with the available propagation distance for expected random manufacturing defects along the edge of the occulter petal. We derive an analytical model for predicting performance due to such manufacturing defects across the petal edges of an occulter mask and compare this with the numerical simulations. We discuss the scaling of an extended occulter test-bed.

  4. Linear zonal atmospheric prediction for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick C.; Rhoadarmer, Troy A.; Coy, Hanna A.; Angel, J. Roger P.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael

    2000-07-01

    We compare linear zonal predictors of atmospheric turbulence for adaptive optics. Zonal prediction has the possible advantage of being able to interpret and utilize wind-velocity information from the wavefront sensor better than modal prediction. For simulated open-loop atmospheric data for a 2- meter 16-subaperture AO telescope with 5 millisecond prediction and a lookback of 4 slope-vectors, we find that Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule training of linear nets and Back- Propagation training of non-linear multilayer neural networks is quite slow, getting stuck on plateaus or in local minima. Recursive Least Squares training of linear predictors is two orders of magnitude faster and it also converges to the solution with global minimum error. We have successfully implemented Amari's Adaptive Natural Gradient Learning (ANGL) technique for a linear zonal predictor, which premultiplies the Delta-Rule gradients with a matrix that orthogonalizes the parameter space and speeds up the training by two orders of magnitude, like the Recursive Least Squares predictor. This shows that the simple Widrow-Hoff Delta-Rule's slow convergence is not a fluke. In the case of bright guidestars, the ANGL, RLS, and standard matrix-inversion least-squares (MILS) algorithms all converge to the same global minimum linear total phase error (approximately 0.18 rad2), which is only approximately 5% higher than the spatial phase error (approximately 0.17 rad2), and is approximately 33% lower than the total 'naive' phase error without prediction (approximately 0.27 rad2). ANGL can, in principle, also be extended to make non-linear neural network training feasible for these large networks, with the potential to lower the predictor error below the linear predictor error. We will soon scale our linear work to the approximately 108-subaperture MMT AO system, both with simulations and real wavefront sensor data from prime focus.

  5. Currents, Geostrophic, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Zonal Geostrophic Current is inferred from Sea Surface Height Deviation, climatological dynamic height, and basic fluid mechanics.

  6. Occultations for probing atmosphere and climate

    CERN Document Server

    Foelsche, Ulrich; Steiner, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Use of occultation methodology for observing the Earth's atmosphere and climate has become so broad as to comprise solar, lunar, stellar, navigation and satellite­ crosslink occultation methods. The atmospheric parameters obtained extend from the fundamental variables temperature, density, pressure, water vapor, and ozone via a multitude of trace gas species to particulate species such as aerosols and cloud liquid water. Ionospheric electron density is sensed as well. The methods all share the key properties of self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultation data are thus of high value in a wide range of fields including climate monitoring and research, atmospheric physics and chemistry, operational meteorology, and other fields such as space weather and planetary science. This wide area of variants and uses of the occultation method has led to a diversi­ fication of the occultation-related scientific community into a...

  7. Radio occultation exploration of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliore, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    The radio occultation technique, consisting of the observation of changes in the phase, frequency, and amplitude of a radio signal from a spacecraft as it passes through the atmosphere of a planet before and after occultation, was first applied to measure the atmosphere of Mars with the Mariner IV spacecraft in 1965. The interpretation of these changes in terms of refraction of the radio beam by the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere of the planet provided the first direct and quantitative measurement of its vertical structure and established the surface atmospheric pressure of Mars as lying between 5 and 9 mb. The presence of a daytime ionosphere with a peak electron density of about 10 5 el cm -3 was also measured. The Mariner VI and VII spacecraft flew by Mars in 1969 and provided an additional four measurements of the atmosphere and surface radius of the planet. They confirmed the surface pressure values measured by Mariner IV and provided data for a crude estimate of the shape of the planet. (Auth.)

  8. Occult fracture of the calcaneus - another Toddler's fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshak, R.J.; Simons, G.W.; Sty, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Fractures of the calcaneus have been considered rare among children. We feel this may be erroneous since in the last 12 months we have seen 10 such fractures among children, 19 and 41 months of age, who presented with acute limping. The fractures were detected with bone imaging which was performed when initial radiographs were noncontributory. Subsequent radiographs of the calcaneus were positive for fracture in 4 to 10 while follow up radiographs confirmed healing fractures in the two children so evaluated. The sensitivity of bone imaging for the detection of occult fractures in toddlers is emphasized. (orig.)

  9. Sociology of religion and the occult revival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available The "new" that makes the cults of the occult revival to "new religions" of the Western world, is their recently increased social significance. Historically most of modern occultism is anything but new. From the research and theorizing about the occult revival we have picked up some main themes. The first is the social diffusion of the new occultism. In this field, we find some studies of superstition, especially astrology. These illuminate the differences in social connotation between the consumers of superstition and the followers of institutional religion. Secondly the study of the occult revival has made valuable contributions to the conceptualizing of "cult" and the cultic phenomenon. Thirdly, we will look upon the connection between the occult revival and the counter-culture. The problem of the rise of cults as a symptom of socio-cultural change will be briefly discussed with reference to Bell's thesis of "the disjuntion of culture and social structure". Lastly, we proffer some reflections on the occult revival and the new spiritual trends in the churches, which so sharply contrast with the theology and churchmanship of the sixties.

  10. Thermospheric zonal mean winds and tides revealed by CHAMP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieberman, R.S.; Akmaev, R.A.; Fuller-Rowell, T.J.; Doornbos, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present direct, global observations of longitudinally averaged CHAMP zonal winds gathered between 2003 and 2007. A diurnal variation dominates the global zonal wind. Westward flows are observed from the early morning through afternoon hours, while eastward flows peak in the evening. A semidiurnal

  11. Collisional damping for ion temperature gradient mode driven zonal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yong; Catto, Peter J.; Molvig, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Zonal flow helps reduce and control the level of ion temperature gradient turbulence in a tokamak. The collisional damping of zonal flow has been estimated by Hinton and Rosenbluth (HR) in the large radial wavelength limit. Their calculation shows that the damping of zonal flow is closely related to the frequency response of neoclassical polarization of the plasma. Based on a variational principle, HR calculated the neoclassical polarization in the low and high collisionality limits. A new approach, based on an eigenfunction expansion of the collision operator, is employed to evaluate the neoclassical polarization and the zonal flow residual for arbitrary collisionality. An analytical expression for the temporal behavior of the zonal flow is also given showing that the damping rate tends to be somewhat slower than previously thought. These results are expected to be useful extensions of the original HR collisional work that can provide an effective benchmark for numerical codes for all regimes of collisionality

  12. Reflective Occultation Mask for Evaluation of Occulter Designs for Planet Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Lyon, Richard; Shiri, Shahram; Roman, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Advanced formation flying occulter designs utilize a large occulter mask flying in formation with an imaging telescope to block and null starlight to allow imaging of faint planets in exosolar systems. A paper describes the utilization of subscale reflective occultation masks to evaluate formation flying occulter designs. The use of a reflective mask allows mounting of the occulter by conventional means and simplifies the test configuration. The innovation alters the test set-up to allow mounting of the mask using standard techniques to eliminate the problems associated with a standard configuration. The modified configuration uses a reflective set-up whereby the star simulator reflects off of a reflective occulting mask and into an evaluation telescope. Since the mask is sized to capture all rays required for the imaging test, it can be mounted directly to a supporting fixture without interfering with the beam. Functionally, the reflective occultation mask reflects light from the star simulator instead of transmitting it, with a highly absorptive carbon nanotube layer simulating the occulter blocking mask. A subscale telescope images the star source and companion dim source that represents a planet. The primary advantage of this is that the occulter can be mounted conventionally instead of using diffractive wires or magnetic levitation.

  13. Phase Occulted Nulling Coronagraph: Instrument Technology Advancement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase Occulted Nulling Coronagraph (PONC), invented by R. Lyon, is a viable and game-changing approach for future arbitrary shaped aperture exoplanet science...

  14. Zonal wavefront reconstruction in quadrilateral geometry for phase measuring deflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Gao, Bo; Zuo, Chao; Idir, Mourad

    2017-06-20

    There are wide applications for zonal reconstruction methods in slope-based metrology due to its good capability of reconstructing the local details on surface profile. It was noticed in the literature that large reconstruction errors occur when using zonal reconstruction methods designed for rectangular geometry to process slopes in a quadrilateral geometry, which is a more general geometry with phase measuring deflectometry. In this work, we present a new idea for the zonal methods for quadrilateral geometry. Instead of employing the intermediate slopes to set up height-slope equations, we consider the height increment as a more general connector to establish the height-slope relations for least-squares regression. The classical zonal methods and interpolation-assisted zonal methods are compared with our proposal. Results of both simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed idea. In implementation, the modification on the classical zonal methods is addressed. The new methods preserve many good aspects of the classical ones, such as the ability to handle a large incomplete slope dataset in an arbitrary aperture, and the low computational complexity comparable with the classical zonal method. Of course, the accuracy of the new methods is much higher when integrating the slopes in quadrilateral geometry.

  15. Tokamak residual zonal flow level in near-separatrix region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing-Ren, Shi

    2010-01-01

    Residual zonal flow level is calculated for tokamak plasmas in the near-separatrix region of a diverted tokamak. A recently developed method is used to construct an analytic divertor tokamak configuration. It is shown that the residual zonal flow level becomes smaller but still keeps finite near the separatrix because the neoclassical polarisation mostly due to the trapped particles goes larger in this region. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  16. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  17. Transport hysteresis and zonal flow stimulation in magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravier, E.; Lesur, M.; Reveille, T.; Drouot, T.; Médina, J.

    2017-12-01

    A hysteresis in the relationship between zonal flows and electron heating is observed numerically by using gyrokinetic simulations in fusion plasmas. As the electron temperature increases, a first transition occurs, at a given electron/ion temperature ratio, above which zonal flows are much weaker than before the transition, leading to a poorly confined plasma. Beyond this transition, even if the electron temperature is lowered to a moderate value, the plasma fails to recover a dynamic state with strong zonal flows. Then, as the electron temperature decreases further, a new transition appears, at a temperature lower than the first transition, below which the zonal flows are stronger than they were initially. The confinement of the plasma and the heat flux are thus found to be sensitive to the history of the magnetized plasma. These transitions are associated with large exchanges of energy between the modes corresponding to instabilities ( m> 0 ) and zonal flows ( m = 0 ). We also observe that up to the first transition it is possible to use a control method to stimulate the appearance of zonal flows and therefore the confinement of the plasma. Beyond that transition, this control method is no longer effective.

  18. Oligometastasis as a predictor for occult disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Wayne S

    2014-05-01

    Oligometastasis can be defined as a state of limited metastases that is potentially amenable to ablative local therapy; the success of such therapy depends on whether or not additional occult metastases exist. A model is presented here to predict occult metastases given detectable oligometastases. Predictions were based on Bayes' theorem, in conjunction with descriptions of the statistical distributions for the sizes and numbers of hematogenous metastases. The background probability for occult metastases in individuals with oligometastases increased markedly with relatively minor increases in metastatic potential. With each additional metastasis detected the chance of further occult metastases increased. These latter increases were incremental and proportionately smaller with the more metastatic tumors. Long disease free intervals had a major effect to decrease in the probability of further occult disease. Demonstration of oligometastases depends heavily upon the sensitivity of radiological imaging techniques, where the proportion of detectable metastases relates to the position of the distribution of metastasis growth times with respect to the detection threshold. Given the limitations of radiological methods, and the possibility that the oligometastases detected may be the only disease, an aggressive approach appears indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rossby wave, drift wave and zonal flow turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobinsky, Demian G.

    An extensive qualitative and quantitative study of Rossby wave, drift wave and zonal flow turbulence in the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model is presented. This includes details of two generation mechanisms of the zonal flows, evidence of the nonlocal nature of this turbulence and of the energy exchange between the small and large scales. The modulational instability study shows that for strong primary waves the most unstable modes are perpendicular to the primary wave, which corresponds to the generation of a zonal flow if the primary wave is purely meridional. For weak waves, the maximum growth occurs for off-zonal modulations that are close to being in three-wave resonance with the primary wave. Nonlinear jet pinching is observed for all nonlinearity levels but the subsequent dynamics differ between strong and weak primary waves. The jets of the former further roll up into Karman-like vortex streets and saturate, while for the latter, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet and a dominant primary wave. A critical level of nonlinearity is defined which separates the two regimes. Some of these characteristics are captured by truncated models. Numerical proof of the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence is presented. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively-well conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjortoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the wellknown drift wave - zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation

  20. Characteristics of tropopause parameters as observed with GPS radio occultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rieckh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the lapse rate tropopause are analyzed globally for tropopause altitude and temperature using global positioning system (GPS radio occultation (RO data from late 2001 to the end of 2013. RO profiles feature high vertical resolution and excellent quality in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, which are key factors for tropopause determination, including multiple ones. RO data provide measurements globally and allow examination of both temporal and spatial tropopause characteristics based entirely on observational measurements. To investigate latitudinal and longitudinal tropopause characteristics, the mean annual cycle, and inter-annual variability, we use tropopauses from individual profiles as well as their statistical measures for zonal bands and 5° × 10° bins. The latitudinal structure of first tropopauses shows the well-known distribution with high (cold tropical tropopauses and low (warm extra-tropical tropopauses. In the transition zones (20 to 40° N/S, individual profiles reveal varying tropopause altitudes from less than 7 km to more than 17 km due to variability in the subtropical tropopause break. In this region, we also find multiple tropopauses throughout the year. Longitudinal variability is strongest at northern hemispheric mid latitudes and in the Asian monsoon region. The mean annual cycle features changes in amplitude and phase, depending on latitude. This is caused by different underlying physical processes (such as the Brewer–Dobson circulation – BDC and atmospheric dynamics (such as the strong polar vortex in the southern hemispheric winter. Inter-annual anomalies of tropopause parameters show signatures of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO, the quasi–biennial oscillation (QBO, and the varying strength of the polar vortex, including sudden stratospheric warming (SSW events. These results are in good agreement with previous studies and underpin the high utility of the entire RO record

  1. Strong scintillations during atmospheric occultations Theoretical intensity spectra. [radio scattering during spacecraft occultations by planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    Each of the two Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977 has completed a reconnaissance of the Jovian and Saturnian systems. In connection with occultation experiments, strong scintillations were observed. Further theoretical work is required before these scintillations can be interpreted. The present study is, therefore, concerned with the derivation of a theory for strong scattering during atmospheric occultation experiments, taking into account as fundamental quantity of interest the spatial spectrum (or spectral density) of intensity fluctuations. Attention is given to a theory for intensity spectra, and numerical calculations. The new formula derived for Phi-i accounts for strong scattering of electromagnetic waves during atmospheric occultations.

  2. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-04-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling timescale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  3. Occult liver involvement by polyarteritis nodosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumà, M; Lorenzo-Zúñiga, V; Olivé, A; Perendreu, J; Bechini, J; Doménech, E; Planas, R

    2002-05-01

    The diagnosis of panarteritis nodosa is usually difficult because of the variability of clinical manifestations. Herein is presented a case of occult liver involvement by polyarteritis nodosa. Several biopsies were performed but the diagnosis was made with the contribution of a hepatic arteriography.

  4. Occult Metabolic Bone Disease in Chronic Pancreatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) leads to malabsorption and metabolic bone disease (MBD). Alcoholic CP (ACP) and tropical CP (TCP) are the two common types of CP. Objective: We investigated the presence of occult. MBD in patients with CP and compared the same between ACP and TCP.

  5. Occult hepatitis B infection: an evolutionary scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukashov Vladimir V

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occult or latent hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is defined as infection with detectable HBV DNA and undetectable surface antigen (HBsAg in patients' blood. The cause of an overt HBV infection becoming an occult one is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism of the development of occult infection, we compared the full-length HBV genome from a blood donor carrying an occult infection (d4 with global genotype D genomes. Results The phylogenetic analysis of polymerase, core and X protein sequences did not distinguish d4 from other genotype D strains. Yet, d4 surface protein formed the evolutionary outgroup relative to all other genotype D strains. Its evolutionary branch was the only one where accumulation of substitutions suggests positive selection (dN/dS = 1.3787. Many of these substitutiions accumulated specifically in regions encoding the core/surface protein interface, as revealed in a 3D-modeled protein complex. We identified a novel RNA splicing event (deleting nucleotides 2986-202 that abolishes surface protein gene expression without affecting polymerase, core and X-protein related functions. Genotype D strains differ in their ability to perform this 2986-202 splicing. Strains prone to 2986-202 splicing constitute a separate clade in a phylogenetic tree of genotype D HBVs. A single substitution (G173T that is associated with clade membership alters the local RNA secondary structure and is proposed to affect splicing efficiency at the 202 acceptor site. Conclusion We propose an evolutionary scenario for occult HBV infection, in which 2986-202 splicing generates intracellular virus particles devoid of surface protein, which subsequently accumulates mutations due to relaxation of coding constraints. Such viruses are deficient of autonomous propagation and cannot leave the host cell until it is lysed.

  6. Rethinking wave-kinetic theory applied to zonal flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have employed a wave-kinetic theory to describe fluctuations interacting with zonal flows. Recent work has uncovered a defect in this wave-kinetic formulation: the system is dominated by the growth of (arbitrarily) small-scale zonal structures. Theoretical calculations of linear growth rates suggest, and nonlinear simulations confirm, that this system leads to the concentration of zonal flow energy in the smallest resolved scales, irrespective of the numerical resolution. This behavior results from the assumption that zonal flows are extremely long wavelength, leading to the neglect of key terms responsible for conservation of enstrophy. A corrected theory, CE2-GO, is presented; it is free of these errors yet preserves the intuitive phase-space mathematical structure. CE2-GO properly conserves enstrophy as well as energy, and yields accurate growth rates of zonal flow. Numerical simulations are shown to be well-behaved and not dependent on box size. The steady-state limit simplifies into an exact wave-kinetic form which offers the promise of deeper insight into the behavior of wavepackets. The CE2-GO theory takes its place in a hierarchy of models as the geometrical-optics reduction of the more complete cumulant-expansion statistical theory CE2. The new theory represents the minimal statistical description, enabling an intuitive phase-space formulation and an accurate description of turbulence-zonal flow dynamics. This work was supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, a US DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Fellowship, and US DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Characterization of zonal flow generation in weak electrostatic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, 13 A.I. Cuza Street, 200585 Craiova (Romania); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)], E-mail: mnegrea@yahoo.com

    2008-05-15

    The influence of the diamagnetic Kubo number, which is proportional to the diamagnetic drift velocity, on the zonal flow generation by an anisotropic stochastic electrostatic potential is considered from a semi-analytic point of view. The analysis is performed in the weak turbulence limit and as an analytical tool the decorrelation trajectory method is used. It is shown that the fragmentation of the drift wave structures (a signature of the zonal flow generation) is influenced not only by the anisotropy parameter and the electrostatic Kubo number as expected, but also by the diamagnetic Kubo number. Global Lagrangian averages of characteristic quantities are calculated and interpreted.

  8. Parasitic Diseases of Ruminants Brought to Two Zonal Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five years study (2003-2007) of parasitic diseases of ruminants brought to two Zonal Veterinary clinics located in the Southern part of Niger State, Central Nigeria was carried out to establish disease patterns in cattle, sheep and goats. The study was based on the data extracted from the monthly records of parasitic disease ...

  9. Can zonally symmetric inertial waves drive an oscillating mean flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Torsten; Harlander, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    In the presentation [5] zonal mean flow excitation by inertial waves is studied in analogy to mean flow excitation by gravity waves [3] that plays an important role for the quasi-biennial oscillation in the equatorial atmosphere. In geophysical flows that are stratified and rotating, pure gravity and inertial waves correspond to the two limiting cases: gravity waves neglect rotation, inertial waves neglect stratification. The former are more relevant for fluids like the atmosphere, where stratification is dominant, the latter for the deep oceans or planet cores, where rotation dominates. In the present study a hierarchy of simple analytical and numerical models of zonally symmetric inertial wave-mean flow interactions is considered and the results are compared with data from a laboratory experiment [4]. The main findings can be summarised as follows: (i) when the waves are decoupled from the mean flow they just drive a retrograde (eastward) zonal mean flow, independent of the sign of the meridional phase speed; (ii) when coupling is present and the zonal mean flow is assumed to be steady, the waves can drive vertically alternating jets, but still, in contrast to the gravity wave case, the structure is independent of the sign of the meridional phase speed; (iii) when coupling is present and time-dependent zonal mean flows are considered the waves can drive vertically and temporarily oscillating mean flows. The comparison with laboratory data from a rotating annulus experiment shows a qualitative agreement. It appears that the experiment captures the basic elements of the inertial wave mean flow coupling. The results might be relevant to understand how the Equatorial Deep Jets can be maintained against dissipation [1, 2], a process currently discussed controversially. [1] Greatbatch, R., Brandt, P., Claus, M., Didwischus, S., Fu, Y.: On the width of the equatorial deep jets. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 42, 1729-1740 (2012) [2] Muench, J.E., Kunze, E.: Internal wave

  10. Convective towers detection using GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, S.

    an important role since they lead to deep convective activity. With this work we want to investigate if severe storms leave a significant signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. The GPS radio occultation (RO) technique is useful for studying severe weather phenomena because...... the GPS signals penetrate through clouds and allow measurements of atmospheric profiles related to temperature, pressure, and water vapour with high vertical resolution. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from different GPS RO missions (COSMIC, GRACE, CHAMP, SACC and GPSMET), we selected...... 1194 profiles in a time window of 3 hours and a space window of 300 km from the eye of the cyclone. We show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS RO signal is typically larger than the climatology above the tropopause. Comparisons with co-located radiosondes, climatology of tropopause altitudes...

  11. OCCULTISM AND MEDIUMSHIP IN FERNANDO PESSOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Diêgo Dias de Medeiros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of a research on the influence that the occultism had on the work of the Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa. To delimitate the study, we selected papers of Fernando Pessoa, which  suggested that the poet considered himself medium, and hence influenced his work, building his depersonalization. This work presents, thus, as main objectiveto analyze personal papers of Fernando Pessoa, whose outstanding characteristic is the presence of occultism and the supposed mediumship defended by him in response to non-literary and heteronymic manifestations. To this end, I focused on specific objectives, which are: a to study the speech of Fernando Pessoa on his supposed mediumship / occultism b to analyze specific texts that are, for the poet, mediumistic manifestations c to study excerpts from a set of personal letters in which Fernando Pessoa suggested being a medium. It is true that this dissertation will address many discussions already made by scholars and specialists in Fernando Pessoa, but we consider the possibility to deepen issues and contribute to the critical fortune of the poet.

  12. ASTEROID SIZING BY RADIOGALAXY OCCULTATION AT 5 GHZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.; Muinonen, K.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala (Finland); Bach, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Radioobservatorium Effelsberg, Max-Planck-Str. 28, D-53902 Bad Münstereifel-Effelsberg (Germany); Petrov, L., E-mail: kimmo.lehtinen@nls.fi [Astrogeo Center, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Stellar occultations by asteroids observed at visual wavelengths have been an important tool for studying the size and shape of asteroids and for revising the orbital parameters of asteroids. At radio frequencies, a shadow of an asteroid on the Earth is dominated by diffraction effects. Here, we show, for the first time, that a single observation of an occultation of a compact radio source at a frequency of 5 GHz can be used to derive the effective size of the occulting object and to derive the distance between the observer and the center of the occultation path on the Earth. The derived diameter of the occulting object, asteroid (115) Thyra, is 75 ± 6 km. The observed occultation profile shows features that cannot be explained by diffraction of a single asteroid.

  13. Ipsilateral occult hernias during endoscopic groin hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Mayank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic repair of groin hernias allows the surgeon to have a complete view of the groin and pelvis to diagnose occult hernias both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. These occult hernias can then be treated simultaneously and may reduce the incidence of recurrence and persistent symptoms. The authors present four unusual cases where occult hernias were found ipsilaterally during an endoscopic repair. All these occult hernias were treated along with the clinically diagnosed hernia at the same surgery with excellent results and no post-operative morbidity.

  14. Behavior of zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio and its relationship with zonal mean temperature during the winter 1978-1979 stratospheric warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.-H.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio in the lower stratosphere near 75 deg N and its relationship with the zonal mean temperature during the January-February 1979 stratospheric sudden warming have been investigated based on the satellite sensor SAM II (Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement) and auxiliary meteorological measurements. The results indicate that distinct changes in the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio occurred during this stratospheric sudden warming. It is also found that horizontal eddy transport due to planetary waves may have played a significant role in determining the distribution of the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio.

  15. Gravity field and zonal winds of rotationally distorted Jupiter (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, D.; Zhang, K.; Schubert, G.

    2013-12-01

    Interpretation of JUNO's gravity measurements requires an accurate description of Jupiter's gravitational field in its equilibrium under the balance of self-gravity, internal pressure and strong rotational effects. Rotational distortion cannot be treated as a small perturbation on a spherically symmetric state. We report the results of two related problems pertinent to the interpretation of Jupiter's gravitational coefficients. In the first problem, we carry out the accurate computation of the zonal gravitational coefficients J_2, J_4,...,J_{12} taking into account the full rotational distortion. The first 3 coefficients J_2, J_4, J_6 are found to be in a good agreement with the measured values for Jupiter. In the second problem we compute an upper bound to the effects of zonal winds on the gravitational coefficients of rotationally distorted Jupiter with non-spherical geometry. We argue that the two problems are mathematically and physically coupled and inseparable for the interpretation of JUNO's gravity measurements.

  16. Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.

  17. Influence of zonal vorticity on the cross phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chan-Yong; Min, Byunghoon; Kim, Chang-Bae

    2017-10-01

    The study of the evolution of the cross phase δ between the electron pressure and the potential in the resistive-drift-Afvén turbulence under the sheared magnetic field lines are reported. The linear cross phase is established by both the drift-wave dynamics and the Ohm's law and it is vanishingly small in the modes with low k∥. The nonlinearly saturated cross phase is correspondingly different from the linear δ mainly due to the E × B flux. Numerical computations are performed in order to investigate the roles of E × B nonlinearity when the self-consistent zonal flow exists on δ by using BOUT++ platform. In this work, the influence of the non-uniformity of the zonal flow, the gradient and the curvature, on δ and transport is presented and the departure of δ from the linear state is particularly highlighted.

  18. Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Johan; Botha, G. J. J.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxes to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed

  19. Zonally Asymmetric Ozone and the Morphology of the Planetary Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Parameterization of middle 295 atmospheric water vapor photochemistry for high-altitude NWP and data 296 assimilation, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 8...associated with zonally 22 1 Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources: Atmospheric Science...67 McCormack et al. [2006, 2008]. Shortwave heating and longwave cooling rates are 68 computed using the predicted profiles of O3 and H2O, and a

  20. The relevance of grid expansion under zonal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, Joachim; Hagspiel, Simeon; Just, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The European electricity market design is based on zonal markets with uniform prices. Locational price signals within these zones - necessary to ensure long-term efficiency - are not provided. Specifically, if intra-zonal congestion occurs due to missing grid expansion, the market design is revealed as inherently incomplete. This might lead to severe, unwanted distortions of the electricity market, both in the short- and in the long-term. In this paper, we study these distortions with a specific focus on the impact of restricted grid expansion under zonal markets. For this, we use a long term fundamental dispatch and investment model of the European electricity system and gradually restrict the allowed expansion of the transmission grid per decade. We find that the combination of an incomplete market design and restricted grid expansion leads to a misallocation of generation capacities and the inability to transport electricity to where it is needed. Consequences are severe and lead to load curtailment of up to 2-3 %. Moreover, missing grid expansion makes it difficult and costly to reach envisaged energy targets in the power sector. Hence, we argue that in the likely event of restricted grid expansion, either administrative measures or - presumably more efficient - an adaptation of the current market design to include locational signals will become necessary.

  1. Variability in daily, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, John R.; Drouilhet, S. James, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01 and 0.08 C per 2.5 deg latitude band. Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1 C. The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15 deg N and 15 deg S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70 deg N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1 (39.2% of the variance) for anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions to be counterbalanced by anomalies equatorward of 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitudes. In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.

  2. The use of MRI and CT in Imaging Occult Hip Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadă B.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hip fractures is particularly important due to the high dependence on the integrity of this structure for people to function in their daily lives. Left unrecognized, patients face increasing morbidity and mortality as time from the original injury lengthens. A delay of just 2 days in surgical treatment for an acute hip fracture doubles mortality. In addition, an unrecognized non-displaced fracture may displace, requiring surgery of much higher risk. This may be part of the reason that the most frequent lawsuit against Emergency Physicians is for missed orthopedic injury. We reviewed the use of MRI and CT for occult hip fractures (OHF detection at a major urban trauma unit. Our study is a retrospective review. Inclusion criteria: all patients presenting to the Emergency Clinical Hospital of Constanta with a suspected, posttraumatic, occult hip fracture, over a 5 years period were included. All patients had negative initial radiographs and underwent further imaging with either CT or MRI. A total of 185 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. 72 occult hip fractures were detected with both imaging modalities. Although MRI certainly enables greater image detail, in our experience both modalities are able to provide satisfactory fracture characterization. The choice of imaging should be determined by availability and indication. MRI provides superior imaging of soft tissue but is less sensitive for degenerative changes in presence of bone edema.

  3. Latest advances in diagnosis and treatment of occult common bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Occult common bile duct stones have no clinical symptoms and if it is not diagnosed or treated in time, it can cause unexplained abdominal pain after cholecystectomy or serious complications such as biliary pancreatitis and acute cholangitis, which may threaten patients′ lives. Proper diagnosis and treatment modalities can reduce postoperative complications, save medical resources, and reduce medical disputes. This article introduces the latest advances in the diagnosis and treatment of occult common bile duct stones, including the features and diagnostic efficacy of imaging examinations (abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, intraoperative cholangiography, intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasonography, intraductal ultrasonography, and intraoperative choledochoscopy, as well as the effect of treatment modalities (endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE, open common bile duct exploration, endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation, electrohydaulic lithotripsy, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, litholysis, and laser lithotripsy. It is pointed out that the diagnosis and treatment of occult common bile duct stones should be treated differently according to risk stratification. Endoscopic ultrasonography or MRCP should be performed for patients with moderate risks or above, and their results are critical to the choice of surgical procedure. For treatment modality, LCBDE or ERCP/EST should be selected according to patients′ actual conditions.

  4. The Treatment of the Occult in General Encyclopedias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gary F.

    This paper is a content analysis of three general encyclopedias, "Encyclopedia Americana" (EA), "Encyclopaedia Brittanica" (EB), and "World Book Encyclopedia" (WBC), which quantifies the treatment of the occult. Entries are selected from each by starting with the article "Occultism" and tracing all…

  5. Molecular and serological detection of occult hepatitis B virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infections are becoming a major global threat, but the available data on its prevalence in various parts of the world are often divergent. Objective: This study aimed to detect occult hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative serum using anti-HBc as a marker of previous infection.

  6. Occult Power and Africa's Socio-Economic Problems | Obiwulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occult Power and Africa's Socio-Economic Problems. ... OGIRISI: a New Journal of African Studies ... in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan part, many people believe in the existence of occult powers and this belief affects their behaviours: the way they do business, their attitude to one another, their political and social life.

  7. Inter-observer agreement between 2-dimensional CT versus 3-dimensional I-space model in the diagnosis of occult scaphoid fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijkoningen, T. (Tessa); Knotter, R. (Robert); Coerkamp, E.G. (Emile G.); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); S. Rhemrev (Steven); Beeres, F.J. (Frank J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The I-Space is a radiological imaging system in which Computed Tomography (CT)-scans can be evaluated as a three dimensional hologram. The aim of this study is to analyze the value of virtual reality (I-Space) in diagnosing acute occult scaphoid fractures. Methods: A

  8. Lunar occultation observations of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, F.P.

    1977-01-01

    Three lunar of occultations of the Crab Nebula were observed, two at 114 MHz and one at 26.3 MHz, during the 1974 series of events. The higher frequency observations were deconvolved of diffraction effects to yield four strip integrated brightness profiles of the Nebula, with an effective resolution of 30 arc-seconds. These four profiles were Fourier inverted and cleaned of sidelobe structure to synthesize a two-dimensional map of the Nebula. At 114 MHz, the Nebula is composed of a broad envelope of emission which contains several smaller sources. The attenuation of the low radio frequency radiation by the thermal hydrogen in the filaments is considered as a possible mechanism to explain these new data. The 26.3 MHz observations indicate the presence of a bright, localized source containing greater than 80% of the flux of the Nebula. The position of the source is confined by the data to a narrow strip centered at the pulsar position. Both sets of data are compared with past occultation observations

  9. Surrealism and the Occult. Occultism and Esotericism in the Work and Movement of André Breton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauduin, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a new perspective on a long-debated issue: the role of the occult in surrealism, in particular under the leadership of French writer André Breton. Based on thorough source analysis, this study details how our understanding of occultism and esotericism, as well as of their function

  10. Occult fracture of the calcaneus - another toddler's fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starshak, R.J.; Simons, G.W.; Sty, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Fractures of the calcaneus have been considered rare among children. We feel this may be erroneous since in the last 12 months we have seen 10 such fractures among children, 19 and 41 months of age, who presented with acute limping. The fractures were detected with bone imaging which was performed when initial radiographs were noncontributory. Subsequent radiographs of the calcaneus were positive for fracture in 4 to 10 while follow up radiographs confirmed healing fractures in the two children so evaluated. The sensitivity of bone imaging for the detection of occult fractures in toddlers is emphasized.

  11. A 2016 Ganymede stellar occultation event

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aversa, Emiliano; Oliva, Fabrizio; Sindoni, Giuseppe; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Plainaki, Christina; Aoki, Shohei; Person, Michael J.; Carlson, Robert W.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2017-04-01

    On 2016 April,13th the Jovian satellite Ganymede occulted a 7th magnitude star. The predicted occultation track crossed the Northern Pacific Ocean, Japan, and South Korea. Hence, it was a very favorable event due to the star brightness and to the visibility from the large aperture telescopes at Hawaii. While no other similar event is expected for the next 10 years, only two occultation events are reported in literature in the past, from Earth in 1972 [1] and from Voyager [2], in large disagreement in respect to the atmosphere detection. However, evidence of an exosphere around Ganymede was inferred by [3], through H Lyman alpha emission detected by Galileo UVS, and by [4], through HST/GHRS detection of far-UV atomic O airglow emissions, signature of dissociated molecular oxygen ([5],[6]). Later, the HST/STIS observations by [7] provided further evidence for exospheric neutral hydrogen. Since Ganymede is known to have an intrinsic magnetic field ([8]) reconnecting with the Jovian magnetic field and (partially) shielding the surface equatorial latitudes from the electron impact, the UV emissions have been so far attributed to auroral processes ([6]). Nevertheless, the physical mechanisms governing these processes are not known with certainty (e.g. whether the emissions morphology is determined by the spatial distribution of magnetospheric electrons or by an uneven O2 exosphere or both, see e.g.[9]). We took advantage of this event in order to search for a signature of Ganymede's exosphere in the occultation light curve, by using facilities on Mauna Kea at Hawaii (NASA-IRTF observatory) and at Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in South Korea. At IRTF, both MORIS [10] and SpeX [11] instruments have been used, fed by the same optical entrance through a dichroic beam splitter at 0.95 micron. MORIS acquired a high-rate sequence of images about 0.25 sec apart in the visible range, while SpeX acquired a sequence of spectra at a bit lower rate, covering the 0

  12. Convectively driven decadal zonal accelerations in Earth's fluid core

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Colin; Dumberry, Mathieu

    2018-04-01

    Azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis have been inferred to exist in Earth's fluid core on the basis of magnetic field observations and changes in the length-of-day. These accelerations have a typical timescale of decades. However, the physical mechanism causing the accelerations is not well understood. Scaling arguments suggest that the leading order torque averaged over cylindrical surfaces should arise from the Lorentz force. Decadal fluctuations in the magnetic field inside the core, driven by convective flows, could then force decadal changes in the Lorentz torque and generate zonal accelerations. We test this hypothesis by constructing a quasi-geostrophic model of magnetoconvection, with thermally driven flows perturbing a steady, imposed background magnetic field. We show that when the Alfvén number in our model is similar to that in Earth's fluid core, temporal fluctuations in the torque balance are dominated by the Lorentz torque, with the latter generating mean zonal accelerations. Our model reproduces both fast, free Alfvén waves and slow, forced accelerations, with ratios of relative strength and relative timescale similar to those inferred for the Earth's core. The temporal changes in the magnetic field which drive the time-varying Lorentz torque are produced by the underlying convective flows, shearing and advecting the magnetic field on a timescale associated with convective eddies. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal changes in the magnetic field deep inside Earth's fluid core drive the observed decadal zonal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces through the Lorentz torque.

  13. Radial and zonal modes in hyperfine-scale stellarator turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenko, F.; Kendl, A.

    2002-10-01

    Electromagnetic plasma turbulence at hyperfine (i.e., electron gyroradius) scales is studied in the geometry of an advanced stellarator fusion experiment, Wendelstein 7-AS [H. Renner, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 31, 1579 (1989)], by means of nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. It is demonstrated that high-amplitude radial streamers may also exist in non-tokamak devices, raising the electron heat flux to experimentally relevant values. Moreover, some statistical characteristics of the fully developed turbulence are computed, highlighting the (co-)existence, nature, and role of self-generated zonal flows and fields.

  14. Cost-Optimal ATCs in Zonal Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to existing frameworks for AvailableTransfer Capacity (ATC) determination, we propose to define ATCs in an integrated and data-driven manner, optimizing for expected operational costs of the whole system to derive cost-optimal ATCs. These ATCs are purely financial parameters, separate...... from the physical ATCs based on security indices only typically used in zonal electricity markets today. Determining cost-optimal ATCs requires viewing ATCs as an endogenous market construct, and leads naturally to the definition of a market entity whose responsibility is to optimize ATCs...

  15. Sonographic swelling of pronator quadratus muscle in patients with occult bone injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Junko; Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    The disarranged fat stripe of the pronator quadratus muscle (PQ) on radiographs (the PQ sign) is reported to be predictive of subtle bone fractures. This study aimed to report the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in the patients in whom bone injury was not radiographically detected around the wrist joint, and the PQ was sonographically swollen following acute trauma. We evaluated sonographically the PQ of 55 patients who showed normal radiographs following acute trauma. The sonographic appearance of the PQ was checked on both longitudinal and transverse images. On the longitudinal image, the probe was positioned along the flexor carpi radialis tendon. For the transverse image, we adopted the image of the same level in which the PQ of the unaffected hand showed maximal thickness. The PQ was considered to be swollen with disproportionate hyperechogenicity and/or thickening compared with the unaffected side at least in one of the two images. Of the 55 patients, 25 patients whose PQ was considered to be swollen underwent MRI study. PQ thickness in millimeters was retrospectively measured on longitudinal and transverse sonographic images. Twenty-three patients (92.0%) had occult bone injury, and two adult patients (8.0%) showed only wrist joint effusion on MRI. Among these 23, the distal radius was the most frequent location of the occult bone injury (20 patients; 9 [36.0%] with an occult fracture line and 11 [44.0%] with bone bruising). In longitudinal image, the mean value of the PQ thickness of affected hands was 6.2 (3.7–9.6 mm; standard deviation [SD], 1.5) and that of unaffected hands was 4.5 (2.3–6.7 mm; SD, 1.2), respectively. In transverse image, that of dominant and nondominant hands was 7.6 (4.6–13.2 mm; SD, 2.0) and 5.5 (3.6–7.5 mm; SD, 1.1), respectively. The mean difference in PQ thickness between affected and unaffected hands was 1.7 (0.1–5.0 mm; SD, 1.1) in longitudinal image and 2.0 (0.3–6.8 mm; SD, 1.7) in transverse image

  16. Zonal Wind Indices to Reconstruct CONUS Winter Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, David J.; Steinschneider, Scott; Lall, Upmanu

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal precipitation forecasts over the contiguous United States (CONUS) during the 2015-2016 El Niño exhibited significant bias over many regions, especially in the western United States where seasonal information is particularly valuable for reservoir operation. Diagnosing the origin of this bias requires understanding the empirical signal from tropical heating to midlatitude precipitation. In this paper, we find that atmospheric zonal wind indices computed over the region typically associated with the winter jet stream provide a skillful, spatially distributed, linear prediction of precipitation over CONUS, over all winters (January-March; JFM). Furthermore, we show that more (less) central (eastern) Pacific Ocean heating may have contributed to the unexpected 2016 JFM CONUS precipitation and that this was likely predictable based on antecedent (December) sea surface temperatures. The zonal wind indices act as intermediate variables in a causal chain, and our analyses provide support for the potential for empirical prediction and also a diagnostic for physics-based models to help improve forecasts.

  17. Dynamics of zonal flows and self-regulating drift-wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Fleischer, J.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Hinton, F.L.; Malkov, M.; Smolyakov, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a theory of zonal flow - drift wave dynamics. Zonal flows are generated by modulational instability of a drift wave spectrum, and are damped by collisions. Drift waves undergo random shearing-induced refraction, resulting in increased mean square radial wavenumber. Drift waves and zonal flows together form a simple dynamical system, which has a single stable fixed point. In this state, the fluctuation intensity and turbulent diffusivity are ultimately proportional to the collisional zonal flow damping. The implications of these results for transport models is discussed. (author)

  18. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HALOE home page on the WWW is http://haloe.gats-inc.com/home/index.php The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...

  19. Occult spinal dysraphism | Mankahla | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occult spinal dysraphism refers to a diverse group of congenital abnormalities resulting from varying degrees of disordered neuroembryogenesis. Several terms have been used to describe these conditions, including spina bifida occulta and closed neural tube defects.

  20. Characterization and evolution of distant planetary atmospheres using stellar occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. A.

    2008-09-01

    Ground-based or near-Earth (e.g., HST) stellar occultations of every atmosphere in our solar system has been observed: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, and Pluto [1]. These observations probe the atmospheres at roughly 0.1 to 100 microbar. I will talk about three aspects of stellar occultations: one-dimensional vertical profiles of the atmosphere, two- or three-dimensional atmospheric states, and the time evolution of atmosphere. In all three, I will draw on recent observations, with an emphasis on Pluto. Occultations are particularly important for the study of Pluto's atmosphere, which is impossible to study with imaging, and extremely difficult to study with spectroscopy. It was discovered by stellar occultation in 1988 [2]. No subsequent Pluto occultations were observed until two events in 2002 [3]. Pluto is now crossing the galactic plane, and there have been several additional occultations observed since 2006. These include a high signal-to-noise observation from the Anglo Australian Observatory in 2006 [4] (Fig 1), densely spaced visible and infrared observations of Pluto's upper atmosphere from telescopes in the US and Mexico in March, 2007 [5] (Fig. 2), and a dualwavelength central flash observation from Mt. John in July, 2007 [6] (Fig 3). The flux from a star occulted by an atmosphere diminishes primarily due to the increase in refraction with depth in the atmosphere, defocusing the starlight, although absorption and tangential focusing can also contribute. Because the atmospheric density, to first order, follows an exponential, it is feasible to derive a characteristic pressure and temperature from isothermal fits to even low-quality occultation light curves. Higher quality light curves allow fits with more flexible models, or light curve inversions that derive temperatures limited by the resolution of the data. These allow the derivation of one-dimensional profiles of temperature and pressure vs. altitude, which are critical

  1. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT data product consists of daily vertical profiles of temperature, aerosol extinction and concentrations of HCl,...

  2. An Outrigger Component for a Deployable Occulter System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase II, Roccor proposes to build upon the results of Phase I to increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of the NASA JPL deployable external occulter. An...

  3. First Results From The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z; Bianco, F B; Lehner, M J; Coehlo, N K; Wang, J; Mondal, S; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y; Chen, W P; Cook, K H; Dave, R; de Pater, I; Porrata, R; Kim, D; King, S; Lee, T; Lin, H; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S; Wen, C

    2008-08-22

    Results from the first two years of data from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) are presented. Stars have been monitored photometrically at 4 Hz or 5 Hz to search for occultations by small ({approx}3 km) Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). No statistically significant events were found, allowing us to present an upper bound to the size distribution of KBOs with diameters 0.5 km < D < 28 km.

  4. Isolated submandibular gland metastasis from an occult papillary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda A; Pandey D; Bhalla S; Goyal A

    2004-01-01

    A case of an isolated submandibular gland metastasis from a clinically occult papillary thyroid carcinoma is described in a 46-year old lady. Initial surgery was done based on the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) report of adenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland. Histopathologic examination of the specimen suggested a metastatic papillary carcinoma. Occult papillary carcinoma in the thyroid was found by multiple blind FNACs. Subsequently to near-total thyroidectomy, no other site of m...

  5. Digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during gynecologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Farinna L; Fanning, James

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during pelvic examination. We reviewed the data for 232 consecutive women who underwent digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during routine pelvic examination and who had had at least 1-year of follow-up visits: 59% of the women were followed for gynecologic cancer, and 41% of the women were followed for benign gynecologic disease. The median age was 62 years. Patients with positive digital rectal fecal occult blood screening were sent for gastroenterologic examination. Sixteen of 232 patients (7%) had a positive digital rectal fecal occult blood screening result. On gastroenterologic examination, 5 of the 16 patients (31%) were found to have disease (2 polyps, 1 diverticular disease, 2 radiation proctitis). At 1-year follow-up, no patient had colon cancer. Until better compliance can be obtained with home stool sample fecal occult blood testing, we recommend a larger study of digital rectal fecal occult blood screening during gynecologic examination to verify our results.

  6. Drift-wave turbulence and zonal flow generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    2003-01-01

    Drift-wave turbulence in a plasma is analyzed on the basis of the wave Liouville equation, describing the evolution of the distribution function of wave packets (quasiparticles) characterized by position x and wave vector k. A closed kinetic equation is derived for the ensemble-averaged part of this function by the methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It has the form of a non-Markovian advection-diffusion equation describing coupled diffusion processes in x and k spaces. General forms of the diffusion coefficients are obtained in terms of Lagrangian velocity correlations. The latter are calculated in the decorrelation trajectory approximation, a method recently developed for an accurate measure of the important trapping phenomena of particles in the rugged electrostatic potential. The analysis of individual decorrelation trajectories provides an illustration of the fragmentation of drift-wave structures in the radial direction and the generation of long-wavelength structures in the poloidal direction that are identified as zonal flows

  7. Generation of zonal flows in rotating fluids and magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.

    2006-01-01

    contribution the generation of zonal flows will be illustrated in a simple fluid experiment performed in a rotating container with radial symmetric bottom topography. An effective mixing that homogenizes the potential vorticity in the fluid layer will lead to the replacement of the high-potential vorticity......The spontaneous generation of large-scale flows by the rectification of small-scale turbulent fluctuations is of great importance both in geophysical flows and in magnetically confined plasmas. These flows regulate the turbulence and may set up effective transport barriers. In the present...... near the centre with low potential vorticity from the outside, which will imply the formation of a large-scale flow. The experimental results are supported by direct numerical solutions of the quasi-geostrophic vorticity equation in the beta-plane approximation modelling the experimental situation...

  8. A zonal Galerkin-free POD model for incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michel; Ferrero, Andrea; Iollo, Angelo; Lombardi, Edoardo; Scardigli, Angela; Telib, Haysam

    2018-01-01

    A domain decomposition method which couples a high and a low-fidelity model is proposed to reduce the computational cost of a flow simulation. This approach requires to solve the high-fidelity model in a small portion of the computational domain while the external field is described by a Galerkin-free Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) model. We propose an error indicator to determine the extent of the interior domain and to perform an optimal coupling between the two models. This zonal approach can be used to study multi-body configurations or to perform detailed local analyses in the framework of shape optimisation problems. The efficiency of the method to perform predictive low-cost simulations is investigated for an unsteady flow and for an aerodynamic shape optimisation problem.

  9. A time Fourier analysis of zonal averaged ozone heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.-H.; Wu, M.-F.; Deepak, A.; Hong, S.-S.

    1981-01-01

    A time-Fourier analysis is presented for the yearly variation of the zonal averaged ozone heating rates in the middle atmosphere based on a model study. The ozone heating rates are determined by utilizing two-dimensional ozone distributions, the altitude and latitude, and by including the effect of the curved earth's atmosphere. In addition, assumptions are introduced to the yearly variations of the ozone distributions due to the lack of sufficient existing ozone data. Among other results, it is shown that the first harmonic component indicates that the heating rates are completely out of phase between the northern and southern hemispheres. The second Fourier component shows a symmetric pattern with respect to the equator, as well as five distinct local extreme values of the ozone heating rate. The third harmonic component shows a pattern close to that of the first component except in the regions above 70 deg between 45-95 km in both hemispheres.

  10. SPI Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle [Clean Tech Innovations, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Zonal isolation in geothermal injection and producing wells is important while drilling the wells when highly fractured geothermal zones are encountered and there is a need to keep the fluids from interfering with the drilling operation. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) objectives are to advance technologies to make it more cost effective to develop, produce, and monitor geothermal reservoirs and produce geothermal energy. Thus, zonal isolation is critical to well cost, reservoir evaluation and operations. Traditional cementing off of the lost circulation or thief zones during drilling is often done to stem the drilling mud losses. This is an expensive and generally unsuccessful technique losing the potential of the remaining fracture system. Selective placement of strong SPI gels into only the offending fractures can maintain and even improve operational efficiency and resource life. The SPI gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a promising solution to thief zones and conformance problems with water and CO2 floods and potentially geothermal operations. This gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an initiator (either internal such as an additive or external such as CO2) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current mechanical methods of using packers, plugs, liners and cementing technologies that often severely damage the highly fractured area that is isolated. In the SPI gels, the initiator sets up the fluid into a water-like (not a precipitate) gel and when the isolated zone needs to be reopened, the SPI gel may be removed with an alkaline solution without formation damage occurring. In addition, the SPI gel in commercial quantities is expected to be less expensive than competing mechanical systems and has unique deep placement possibilities. This project seeks to improve upon the SPI gel integrity by modifying the various components to impart temperature stability for use in

  11. Occult endocrine dysfunction in patients of cerebrovascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebrovascular disorders are common conditions leading to significant morbidity and mortality in the population. Occult endocrine disorders also contribute to the morbidity and we studied the prevalence of endocrine dysfunction in patients of cerebrovascular accident (CVA. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 30 patients of CVA (aged 18-75, admission within 72 h of symptoms and positive neuroimaging in this prospective, observational study. All subjects were assessed clinically and biochemically for hormonal dysfunction at admission and for mortality at the end of 1 month. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (infarct, n = 20 and Group 2 (hemorrhage, n = 10 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests using GraphPad Prism Software, version 6. Results: The study participants (24M:6F had a mean age of 60.7 ± 11.4 years and body weight of 67.2 ± 11.4 kg. Fourteen out of 30 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including sick euthyroid syndrome (SES and central hypothyroidism (n = 10, secondary hypogonadism (n = 3, subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 1, and growth hormone (GH deficiency in two patients. The endocrine conditions did not differ significantly between both the groups and nine out of 30 patients succumbed to their illness within 1 month. None of the hormonal parameters studied, could predict the 30 day mortality. Conclusion: Endocrine disorders are common in acute stage of CVA and commonest finding is a SES. Hormonal dysfunction did not differ based on the etiology of the CVA. Long-term follow-up is essential to understand the morbidity contributed by the hormonal alterations.

  12. Clues to occult cancer in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Jae Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hidden malignancy could be detected in patients with cryptogenic stroke without active cancer when they showed the distinctive characteristics of cancer-related stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Among 2,562 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, patients with cryptogenic stroke were analyzed and categorized into two groups according to the presence of active cancer: cryptogenic stroke with active cancer (cancer-related stroke, CA-stroke group and without active cancer (CR-stroke group. Patients with active lung cancer without stroke were also recruited for comparison purposes (CA-control. Clinical factors, lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI, and laboratory findings were analyzed among groups. A total of 348 patients with cryptogenic stroke were enrolled in this study. Among them, 71 (20.4% patients had active cancer at the time of stroke. The D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with CA-stroke than those with CR-stroke or CA-control (both p<0.001. Regarding lesion patterns, patients with CA-stroke mostly had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories, while more than 80% of patients with CR-stroke had single/multiple lesions in a single vascular territory (P<0.001. D-dimer levels (OR 1.11 per 1 µg/mL increase; 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P<0.001 and DWI lesion patterns (OR 7.13; 95% CI 3.42-14.87; P<0.001 were independently associated with CA-stroke. Workup for hidden malignancy was performed during hospitalization in 10 patients who showed elevated D-dimer levels and multiple infarcts involving multiple vascular territories but had no known cancer, and it revealed hidden malignancies in all the patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with CA-stroke have distinctive D-dimer levels and lesion patterns. These characteristics can serve as clues to occult cancer in patients with cryptogenic stroke.

  13. Occult carcinoma discovered after simple hysterectomy treated with postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Schneider, Bernard F.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment of patients with occult carcinoma of the cervix discovered after simple hysterectomy is controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine our results with postoperative radiotherapy and to compare them to similar reports and to reports of treatment with radical parametrectomy. Methods and Materials: Between November 1979 and April:, 18 patients were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Virginia for invasive carcinoma of the cervix discovered after simple hysterectomy. Simple hysterectomy was performed in all 18 patients for a variety of indications. After surgery gross residual carcinoma remained in four patients; and microscopic disease was present at the surgical margins in two patients. The remaining patients had no evidence of residual disease. All 18 patients had postoperative radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy. The endpoints for this study were local control, survival, and treatment-related toxicity. Actuarial rates were calculated using the Life method. Results: Median follow-up for all 18 patients was 42 months (range 2-202 months). Both the 5 and the 10-year actuarial local control rates were 88%. Five and 10-year actuarial overall survival rates were both 93%. Two patients had both local and distant cancer recurrences. There were no recurrences among the six patients treated with external beam alone. The remaining patients are all alive without evidence of disease, including two patients who had gross residual disease after surgery, and one patient with both microscopic positive margin and a positive lymph node (the only patient to undergo lymph node sampling). There was no severe acute morbidity and only one patient had severe late morbidity. Conclusions: Invasive carcinoma found after simple hysterectomy may be treated safely and effectively with postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with known residual disease following surgery do poorly with either radiotherapy or reoperation, but treatment with radiotherapy

  14. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  15. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  16. Celestial shadows eclipses, transits, and occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, John

    2015-01-01

    Much of what is known about the universe comes from the study of celestial shadows—eclipses, transits, and occultations.  The most dramatic are total eclipses of the Sun, which constitute one of the most dramatic and awe-inspiring events of nature.  Though once a source of consternation or dread, solar eclipses now lead thousands of amateur astronomers and eclipse-chasers to travel to remote points on the globe to savor their beauty and the adrenaline-rush of experiencing totality, and were long the only source of information about the hauntingly beautiful chromosphere and corona of the Sun.   Long before Columbus, the curved shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse revealed that we inhabit a round world. The rare and wonderful transits of Venus, which occur as it passes between the Earth and the Sun, inspired eighteenth century expeditions to measure the distance from the Earth to the Sun, while the recent transits of 2004 and 2012 were the most widely observed ever--and still produced re...

  17. GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitric Acid Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitric Acid Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpHNO3) contains zonal means and related...

  18. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Zonal Mean Ozone Binary Database of Profiles (BDBP), version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Zonal Mean Ozone Binary Database of Profiles (BDBP) dataset is a vertically resolved, global, gap-free and zonal mean dataset...

  19. GOZCARDS Source Data for Hydrogen Chloride Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Hydrogen Chloride Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpHCl) contains zonal means and related...

  20. GOZCARDS Source Data for Water Vapor Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Water Vapor Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpH2O) contains zonal means and related...

  1. GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitrous Oxide Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitrous Oxide Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpN2O) contains zonal means and related...

  2. GOZCARDS Source Data for Temperature Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.00

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Temperature Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpT) contains zonal means and related...

  3. GOZCARDS Source Data for Ozone Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Ozone Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpO3) contains zonal means and related information...

  4. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Nitrous Oxide Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Nitrous Oxide Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpN2O) contains zonal means and related...

  5. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Water Vapor Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Water Vapor Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpH2O) contains zonal means and related...

  6. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Hydrogen Chloride Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Hydrogen Chloride Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpHCl) contains zonal means and related...

  7. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Ozone Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Ozone Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpO3) contains zonal means and related information...

  8. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Nitric Acid Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Nitric Acid Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpHNO3) contains zonal means and related...

  9. Observing upper troposphere-lower stratosphere climate with radio occultation data from the CHAMP satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foelsche, Ulrich; Borsche, Michael; Steiner, Andrea K.; Gobiet, Andreas; Pirscher, Barbara; Kirchengast, Gottfried [University of Graz, Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change (WegCenter) and Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Meteorology (IGAM), Graz (Austria); Wickert, Jens; Schmidt, Torsten [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    High quality observations of the atmosphere are particularly required for monitoring global climate change. Radio occultation (RO) data, using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, are well suited for this challenge. The special climate utility of RO data arises from their long-term stability due to their self-calibrated nature. The German research satellite CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload for geoscientific research (CHAMP) continuously records RO profiles since August 2001 providing the first opportunity to create RO based climatologies for a multi-year period of more than 5 years. A period of missing CHAMP data from July 3, 2006 to August 8, 2006 can be bridged with RO data from the GRACE satellite (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment). We have built seasonal and zonal mean climatologies of atmospheric (dry) temperature, microwave refractivity, geopotential height and pressure with 10 latitudinal resolution. We show representative results with focus on dry temperatures and compare them with analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Although we have available only about 150 CHAMP profiles per day (compared to millions of data entering the ECMWF analyses) the overall agreement between 8 and 30 km altitude is in general very good with systematic differences <0.5 K in most parts of the domain. Pronounced systematic differences (exceeding 2 K) in the tropical tropopause region and above Antarctica in southern winter can almost entirely be attributed to errors in the ECMWF analyses. Errors resulting from uneven sampling in space and time are a potential error source for single-satellite climatologies. The average CHAMP sampling error for seasonal zonal means is <0.2 K, higher values occur in restricted regions and time intervals which can be clearly identified by the sampling error estimation approach we introduced (which is based on ECMWF analysis fields). The total error of this new type of temperature

  10. [Occultism, parapsychology and the esoteric from the perspective of psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfetter, C

    1998-10-01

    The concepts and main themes of occultism, parapsychology and esoterics are set in comparison to religion, spirituality, mysticism. The cultural relativity of these concepts is emphasised. Occultism means dealing with phenomena, processes, and/or powers which are not accessible to "normal perception". The manipulation of such powers is effected via (white, black, grey) magic. Parapsychology, in its popular sense, deals with occult phenomena, whereas scientific parapsychology investigates them empirically. Esoterics is a complex of beliefs within a hermetic tradition about occult processes and about desting after death. Transpersonal psychology deals with these issues while calling them "spiritual". Effects of paranormal experiences and actions on the side of the actor as well as the adept are discussed: personality types, interpersonal effects, crises and psychoses (mediumistic psychoses). The concept of dissociation of subpersonalities (subselves) appears to be a viable perspective to explain these phenomena. In mediumistic psychoses, the splitting of non-ego parts of the psyche leads to a manifestation of schizophrenic symptoms. Dangers for mental health are an ego inflation by self-attribution of "superhuman" power. A personality disposition for parapsychological perception and/or action may be seen in schizotypia and similar near-psychotic "personalities up the border". Adepts of occultism may present with a "false self" in the sense of Winnicott.

  11. Investigation of zonal flows with toroidal correlation analysis in TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erofeev, Ivan; Schmid, Bernhard; Ramisch, Mirko [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In toroidal fusion plasmas, zonal potential perturbations associated with zonal flows can appear. These potential structures have toroidal and poloidal symmetry. Zonal flows are intrinsically connected to flow shear and interact with drift-wave turbulence through the shearing of eddies. By this mechanism, the zonal flow gains energy and the transport through drift-wave turbulence is reduced. Zonal flows have been found to evolve naturally in the drift-wave dominated turbulence of low-temperature plasmas in the stellarator TJ-K. In order to capture their long-range feature through the symmetry properties, Langmuir-probe measurements are performed at two well separated toroidal positions. Long-range correlations are studied with respect to their spatio-temporal properties. In a first step, the radial structure is analyzed by means of a rake-like probe with radially separated pins. Thereby, the influence of zonal flows on radial correlation lengths of the ambient turbulence is shown. Furthermore, a stationary poloidal probe array is used in combination with a 2D-movable probe system in order to uncover the turbulent dynamics in the full poloidal cross-section, conditionally, when zonal flows evolve.

  12. Lateral rectus metastasis from an occult systemic malignancy masquerading as abducens palsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammad T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abduction deficit in the elderly is commonly caused by sixth cranial nerve palsy due to microvasculopathy. However, not all such cases are of neurogenic origin, as our case report shows. Case presentation We present the case of a 75-year-old woman who was generally unwell, developed acute diplopia and was found to have a right abduction deficit in a quiet eye with no gross orbital signs and symptoms. A computed tomography scan of the head and orbits revealed a metastatic mass in the right lateral rectus muscle. Systemic evaluation confirmed widespread thoracic and abdominal metastases from an occult systemic malignancy. Lateral rectus metastasis from an occult systemic malignancy was masquerading as abducens palsy. Conclusion Orbital metastasis involving extraocular muscles can present as isolated diplopia with minimal local signs and the absence of a history of systemic malignancy. A detailed history and systemic examination can identify suspicious cases, which should be investigated further. The clinician should avoid presuming that such an abduction deficit in the elderly is a benign neurogenic palsy.

  13. Pericarditis as a Marker of Occult Cancer and a Prognostic Factor for Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Ehrenstein, Vera; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2017-09-12

    Pericarditis may be a serious complication of malignancy. Its significance as a first symptom of occult cancer and as a prognostic factor for cancer survival is unknown. Using Danish medical databases, we conducted a nationwide cohort study of all patients with a first-time diagnosis of pericarditis during 1994 to 2013. We excluded patients with previous cancer and followed up the remaining patients for subsequent cancer diagnosis until November 30, 2013. We calculated risks and standardized incidence ratios of cancer for patients with pericarditis compared with the general population. We assessed whether pericarditis predicts cancer survival by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression using a matched comparison cohort of cancer patients without pericarditis. Among 13 759 patients with acute pericarditis, 1550 subsequently were diagnosed with cancer during follow-up. The overall cancer standardized incidence ratio was 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-1.5), driven predominantly by increased rates of lung, kidney, and bladder cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, and unspecified metastatic cancer. The pericarditis was 2.7%, and the standardized incidence ratio was 12.4 (95% CI, 11.2-13.7). The 3- to pericarditis, respectively, and the hazard ratio was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.8). One-year survival was 65% and 70%, respectively, corresponding to a 3- to Pericarditis may be a marker of occult cancer and augurs increased mortality after a cancer diagnosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Sub-seasonal temperature variability in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere observed with GPS radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Randel, William J.; Kim, Joowan

    2017-04-01

    We investigate sub-seasonal temperature variability in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region using daily gridded fields of GPS radio occultation measurements. The unprecedented vertical resolution (from about 100 m in the troposphere to about 1.5 km in the stratosphere) and high accuracy and precision (0.7 K to 1 K between 8 km and 25 km) make these data ideal for characterizing temperature oscillations with short vertical wavelengths. Long-term behavior of sub-seasonal temperature variability is investigated using the entire RO record from January 2002 to December 2014 (13 years of data). Transient sub-seasonal waves including eastward-propagating Kelvin waves (isolated with space-time spectral analysis) dominate large-scale zonal temperature variability in the tropical tropopause region and in the lower stratosphere. Above 20 km, Kelvin waves are strongly modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Enhanced wave activity can be found during the westerly shear phase of the QBO. In the tropical tropopause region, however, sub-seasonal waves are highly transient in time. Several peaks of Kelvin-wave activity coincide with short-term fluctuations in tropospheric deep convection, but other episodes are not evidently related. Also, there are no obvious relationships with zonal winds or stability fields near the tropical tropopause. Further investigations of convective forcing and atmospheric background conditions along the waves' trajectories are needed to better understand sub-seasonal temperature variability near the tropopause. For more details, see Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Randel, W. J., and Kim, J.: Tropical temperature variability and Kelvin-wave activity in the UTLS from GPS RO measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 793-806, doi:10.5194/acp-17-793-2017, 2017. http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/17/793/2017/acp-17-793-2017.html

  15. Comparisons of the tropospheric specific humidity from GPS radio occultations with ERA-Interim, NASA MERRA, and AIRS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergados, Panagiotis; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Ao, Chi O.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Iijima, Byron

    2018-03-01

    We construct a 9-year data record (2007-2015) of the tropospheric specific humidity using Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS RO) observations from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission. This record covers the ±40° latitude belt and includes estimates of the zonally averaged monthly mean specific humidity from 700 up to 400 hPa. It includes three major climate zones: (a) the deep tropics (±15°), (b) the trade winds belts (±15-30°), and (c) the subtropics (±30-40°). We find that the RO observations agree very well with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim), the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) by capturing similar magnitudes and patterns of variability in the monthly zonal mean specific humidity and interannual anomaly over annual and interannual timescales. The JPL and UCAR specific humidity climatologies differ by less than 15 % (depending on location and pressure level), primarily due to differences in the retrieved refractivity. In the middle-to-upper troposphere, in all climate zones, JPL is the wettest of all data sets, AIRS is the driest of all data sets, and UCAR, ERA-Interim, and MERRA are in very good agreement, lying between the JPL and AIRS climatologies. In the lower-to-middle troposphere, we present a complex behavior of discrepancies, and we speculate that this might be due to convection and entrainment. Conclusively, the RO observations could potentially be used as a climate variable, but more thorough analysis is required to assess the structural uncertainty between centers and its origin.

  16. Comparisons of the tropospheric specific humidity from GPS radio occultations with ERA-Interim, NASA MERRA, and AIRS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vergados

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We construct a 9-year data record (2007–2015 of the tropospheric specific humidity using Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS RO observations from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC mission. This record covers the ±40° latitude belt and includes estimates of the zonally averaged monthly mean specific humidity from 700 up to 400 hPa. It includes three major climate zones: (a the deep tropics (±15°, (b the trade winds belts (±15–30°, and (c the subtropics (±30–40°. We find that the RO observations agree very well with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim, the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA, and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS by capturing similar magnitudes and patterns of variability in the monthly zonal mean specific humidity and interannual anomaly over annual and interannual timescales. The JPL and UCAR specific humidity climatologies differ by less than 15 % (depending on location and pressure level, primarily due to differences in the retrieved refractivity. In the middle-to-upper troposphere, in all climate zones, JPL is the wettest of all data sets, AIRS is the driest of all data sets, and UCAR, ERA-Interim, and MERRA are in very good agreement, lying between the JPL and AIRS climatologies. In the lower-to-middle troposphere, we present a complex behavior of discrepancies, and we speculate that this might be due to convection and entrainment. Conclusively, the RO observations could potentially be used as a climate variable, but more thorough analysis is required to assess the structural uncertainty between centers and its origin.

  17. Radio Occultation Bending Angle Anomalies During Tropical Cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, Stig

    signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), we show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS radio occultation signal is typically larger......The tropical deep convection affects the radiation balance of the atmosphere changing the water vapor mixing ratio and the temperature of the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The aim of this work is to better understand these processes and to investigate if severe storms leave a significant...... than the annual mean of the atmosphere around the tropopause. Comparisons with co-located CALIPSO products and GOES analyses will also be shown. The results are discussed in connection to the GPS radio occultation receiver which will be part of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) payload...

  18. Radio occultation bending angle anomalies during tropical cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, S.

    2011-01-01

    The tropical deep convection affects the radiation balance of the atmosphere changing the water vapor mixing ratio and the temperature of the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The aim of this work is to better understand these processes and to investigate if severe storms leave a significant...... signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from different GPS radio occultation missions (COSMIC, GRACE, CHAMP, SACC and GPSMET), we selected 1194 profiles in a time window of 3 h and a space window of 300 km from the eye...... of the cyclone. We show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS radio occultation signal is typically larger than the climatology in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and that a double tropopause during deep convection can easily be detected using this technique. Comparisons with co...

  19. Categorizing the Occult: Vodun, Sorcery and Religious Beliefs In Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    confronted with this difficulty. Both because the vodun, as a recognized religion in the country - equal to Islam and Christianity - , plays an important role in society as well as in individual life, but also because all area of social life are on one level or another influenced by beliefs and practices...... characterized as witchcraft or occult. Reflecting upon earlier research and particularly on the choice of terminology of the occult in writing on religion and political change in Benin (PhD thesis 2008), this paper seeks to clarify some of the epistemological, academic and historical reasons that have formed...... the popular and academic understanding of three key terms (vodun, sorcery and occult). The paper will thus both focus on the role of religious encounters during early Christian missions in Benin and on the recent expansion of evangelical churches and strengthen of neo vodun cults as well as on the dynamics...

  20. Operation of the Radio Occultation Mission in KOMPSAT-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoo Choi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea multi-purpose satellite-5 (KOMPSAT-5 is a low earth orbit (LEO satellite scheduled to be launched in 2010. To satisfy the precision orbit determination (POD requirement for a high resolution synthetic aperture radar image of KOMPSAT-5, KOMPSAT-5 has atmosphere occultation POD (AOPOD system which consists of a space-borne dual frequency global positioning system (GPS receiver and a laser retro reflector array. A space-borne dual frequency GPS receiver on a LEO satellite provides position data for the POD and radio occultation data for scientific applications. This paper describes an overview of AOPOD system and operation concepts of the radio occultation mission in KOMPSAT-5. We showed AOPOD system satisfies the requirements of KOMPSAT-5 in performance and stability.

  1. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. However, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. Here we present a new theory that captures both of these effects, while still treating DW quanta (``driftons'') as particles in phase space. In this theory, the drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner-Moyal type, which is analogous to the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. The ``Hamiltonian'' and the ``dissipative'' parts of the DW-ZF interactions are clearly identified. Moreover, this theory can be interpreted as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion (CE2). In the GO limit, this formulation features additional terms missing in the traditional WKE that ensure conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the traditional WKE. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. Supported by the U.S. DOE through Contract Nos. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.

  2. Assessment of NOAA NUCAPS upper air temperature profiles using COSMIC GPS radio occultation and ARM radiosondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, M. L.; Borg, L.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D.; Revercomb, H.; Gambacorta, A.

    2017-09-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recently began operational processing to derive vertical temperature profiles from two new sensors, Cross-Track Infrared Sounder and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder, which were developed for the next generation of U.S. weather satellites. The NOAA-Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) has been developed by NOAA to routinely process data from future Joint Polar Satellite System operational satellites and the preparatory Suomi-NPP satellite. This paper assesses the NUCAPS vertical temperature profile product from the upper troposphere into the middle stratosphere using radiosonde and GPS radio occultation (RO) data. Radiosonde data from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program are=] compared to both the NUCAPS and GPS RO temperature products to evaluate bias and RMS errors. At all three fixed ARM sites for time periods investigated the NUCAPS temperature in the 100-40 hPa range is found to have an average bias to the radiosondes of less than 0.45 K and an RMS error of less than 1 K when temperature averaging kernels are applied. At a 95% confidence level, the radiosondes and RO were found to agree within 0.4 K at the North Slope of Alaska site and within 0.83 K at Southern Great Plains and Tropical Western Pacific. The GPS RO-derived dry temperatures, obtained from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission, are used as a common reference for the intercomparison of NUCAPS temperature products to similar products produced by NASA from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and by European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites from MetOp-B Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). For seasonal and zonal scales, the NUCAPS agreement with AIRS and IASI is less than 0.5 K after application of averaging kernels.

  3. A global perspective on atmospheric blocking using GPS radio occultation – one decade of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brunner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric blocking represents a weather pattern where a stationary high-pressure system weakens or reverses the climatological westerly flow at mid-latitudes for up to several weeks. It is closely connected to strong anomalies in key atmospheric variables such as geopotential height, temperature, and humidity. Here we provide, for the first time, a comprehensive, global perspective on atmospheric blocking and related impacts by using an observation-based data set from Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO from 2006 to 2016. The main blocking regions in both hemispheres and seasonal variations are found to be represented well in RO data. The effect of blocking on vertically resolved temperature and humidity anomalies in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is investigated for blocking regions in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. We find a statistically significant correlation of blocking with positive temperature anomalies, exceeding 3 K in the troposphere, and a reversal above the tropopause with negative temperature anomalies below −3 K in the lower stratosphere. Specific humidity is positively correlated with temperature throughout the troposphere with larger anomalies revealed in the Southern Hemisphere. At the eastern and equatorward side of the investigated blocking regions, a band of tropospheric cold anomalies reveals advection of cold air by anticyclonic motion around blocking highs, which is less distinct in the Southern Hemisphere due to stronger zonal flow. We find GPS RO to be a promising new data set for blocking research that gives insight into the vertical atmospheric structure, especially in light of the expected increase in data coverage that future missions will provide.

  4. The stellar occultation by the dwarf planet Haumea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Sicardy, Bruno; Rossi, Gustavo; Berard, Diane; Morales, Nicolas; Duffard, Rene; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Hopp, Ulrich; Ries, Christoph; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Marzari, Francesco; Granata, Valentina; Pál, András; Kiss, Csaba; Pribulla, Theodor; Milan Komzík, Richard; Hornoch, Kamil; Pravec, Petr; Bacci, Paolo; Maestripieri, Martina; Nerli, Luca; Mazzei, Leonardo; Bachini, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Succi, Giacomo; Ciabattari, Fabrizio; Mikuz, Herman; Carbognani, Albino; Gaehrken, Bernd; Mottola, Stefano; Hellmich, Stephan; Rommel, Flavia; Fernández-Valenzuela, Estela; Campo Bagatin, Adriano; Haumea occultation international Collaboration: https://cloud.iaa.csic.es/public.php?service=files&t=d9276f8ab1a316cef13bee28bef75add

    2017-10-01

    The dwarf planet Haumea is a very peculiar Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO) with unique and exotic characteristics. It is currently classified as one of the five dwarf planets of the solar system, and it is the only one for which size, shape, albedo, density and other basic properties were not accurately known. To solve that we predicted an occultation of the star GaiaDR1 1233009038221203584 by Haumea and organized observations within the expected shadow path. Medium/large telescopes were needed to record the occultation with enough signal to noise ratio because the occulted star is of similar brightness as Haumea (R~17.7 mag). We will report results derived from this successful stellar occultation by Haumea on 2017 January 21st. The occultation was positive from 12 telescopes at 10 observing stations in Europe: the Asiago Observatory 1.8m telescope (Italy), the Mount Agliale Observatory 0.5m telescope (Italy), the Lajatico Astronomical Centre 0.5m telescope (Italy), the S.Marcello Pistoiese Observatory 0.6m telescope (Italy), the Crni Vrh Observatory 0.6m telescope (Slovenia), the Ondrejov Observatory 0.65m telescope (Czech Republic), the Bavarian Public Observatory 0.81m telescope (Germany), the Konkoly Observatory 1m and 0.6m telescopes (Hungary), the Skalnate Pleso Observatory 1.3m telescope (Slovakia), and the Wendelstein Observatory 2m and 0.4m telescopes (Germany). This is the occultation by a TNO with the largest number of chords ever recorded.Part of this work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No. 687378.

  5. Generation of a bending angle radio occultation climatology (BAROCLIM) and its use in radio occultation retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Syndergaard, S.; Foelsche, U.; Lauritsen, K. B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a bending angle radio occultation climatology (BAROCLIM) based on Formosat-3/COSMIC (F3C) data. This climatology represents the monthly-mean atmospheric state from 2006 to 2012. Bending angles from radio occultation (RO) measurements are obtained from the accumulation of the change in the raypath direction of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Best quality of these near-vertical profiles is found from the middle troposphere up to the mesosphere. Beside RO bending angles we also use data from the Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter Radar (MSIS) model (modified for RO purposes) to expand BAROCLIM in a spectral model, which (theoretically) reaches from the surface up to infinity. Due to the very high quality of BAROCLIM up to the mesosphere, it can be used to detect deficiencies in current state-of-the-art analysis and reanalysis products from numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers. For bending angles derived from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis fields from 2006 to 2012, e.g., we find a positive bias of 0.5 to 1% at 40 km, which increases to more than 2% at 50 km. BAROCLIM can also be used as a priori information in RO profile retrievals. In contrast to other a priori information (i.e., MSIS) we find that the use of BAROCLIM better preserves the mean of raw RO measurements. Global statistics of statistically optimized bending angle and refractivity profiles also confirm that BAROCLIM outperforms MSIS. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of BAROCLIM.

  6. Predictions of stellar occultations by TNOs/Centaurs using Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmars, Josselin; Camargo, Julio; Berard, Diane; Sicardy, Bruno; Leiva, Rodrigo; Vieira-Martins, Roberto; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Assafin, Marcelo; Rossi, Gustavo; Chariklo occultations Team, Rio Group, Lucky Star Occultation Team, Granada Occultation Team

    2017-10-01

    Stellar occultations are the unique technique from the ground to access physical parameters of the distant solar system objects, such as the measure of the size and the shape at kilometric level, the detection of tenuous atmospheres (few nanobars), and the investigation of close vicinity (satellites, rings, jets).Predictions of stellar occultations require accurate positions of the star and the object.The Gaia DR1 catalog now allows to get stellar position to the milliarcsecond (mas) level. The main uncertainty in the prediction remains in the position of the object (tens to hundreds of mas).Now, we take advantage of the NIMA method for the orbit determination that uses the most recent observations reduced by the Gaia DR1 catalog and the astrometric positions derived from previous positive occultations.Up to now, we have detected nearly 50 positive occultations for about 20 objects that provide astrometric positions of the object at the time of the occultation. The uncertainty of these positions only depends on the uncertainty on the position of the occulted stars, which is a few mas with the Gaia DR1 catalog. The main limitation is now on the proper motion of the star which is only given for bright stars in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution. This limitation will be solved with the publicationof the Gaia DR2 expected on April 2018 giving proper motions and parallaxes for the Gaia stars. Until this date, we use hybrid stellar catalogs (UCAC5, HSOY) that provide proper motions derived from Gaia DR1 and another stellar catalog.Recently, the Gaia team presented a release of three preliminary Gaia DR2 stellar positions involved in the occultations by Chariklo (22 June and 23 July 2017) and by Triton (5 October 2017).Taking the case of Chariklo as an illustration, we will present a comparison between the proper motions of DR2 and the other catalogs and we will show how the Gaia DR2 will lead to a mas level precision in the orbit and in the prediction of stellar

  7. The occultation of Surrealism: a study of the relationship between Bretonian Surrealism and western esotericism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauduin, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been said that Surrealism was nothing if not deeply involved with occultism and Western esotericism. Others claim that there was no such involvement or even that Surrealism was directly opposed to the occult and esoteric. ‘The occultation of Surrealism’ offers a fresh view of this complex and

  8. Three-phase radionuclide bone imaging and magnetic resonance imaging detection of occult knee fractures in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giammarile, F. (Cattedra di Medicina Nucleare, Dipt. di S.T.B.B., L' Aquila (Italy)); Masciocchi, C. (Cattedra di Radiologia, Dipt. Med. Sperimentale, Univ. L' Aquila (Italy)); Barile, A. (Cattedra di Radiologia, Dipt. Med. Sperimentale, Univ. L' Aquila (Italy)); Di Pietro, M. (Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale San Salvatore, L' Aquila (Italy)); Carducci, A. (Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale San Salvatore, L' Aquila (Italy)); Baschieri, I. (Cattedra di Medicina Nucleare, Dipt. di S.T.B.B., L' Aquila (Italy))

    1994-06-01

    Twelve athletes presenting acute knee injury with normal radiological findings underwent both three-phase radionuclide bone imaging (TPBI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The association of these highly sensitive diagnostic procedures detected occult fractures in all patients. The areas of signal intensity alterations on MRI corresponded to those of increased radionuclide uptake in blood pool images. However, the same areas seemed to be more extended on delayed TPB images. TPBI yielded early diagnostic information about lesion sites and functional activities, while MRI provided better anatomical definition and specific information about associated soft tissue lesions and served to establish the correct therapeutic approach and follow-up. (orig.)

  9. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Ano Nuevo, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  10. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCN2O) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  11. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)...

  12. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCNO2) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  13. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Dinitrogen Pentoxide (N2O5) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Dinitrogen Pentoxide (N2O5) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCN2O) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  14. Zonal Flows Driven by Small-Scale Drift-Alfven Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dehui; Zhou Deng

    2011-01-01

    Generation of zonal flows by small-scale drift-Alfven modes is investigated by adopting the approach of parametric instability with the electron polarization drift included. The zonal mode can be excited by primary modes propagating at both electron and ion diamagnetic drift directions in contrast to the assertion in previous studies that only primary modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift directions can drive zonal instabilities. Generally, the growth rate of the driven zonal mode is in the same order as that in previous study. However, different from the previous work, the growth rate is no longer proportional to the difference between the diamagnetic drift frequencies of electrons and ions. (magnetically confined plasma)

  15. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 12.1 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 12.1 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFC12MEXT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  16. Thermodynamic and dynamic controls on changes in the zonally anomalous hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Robert C.; Byrne, Michael P.; Schneider, Tapio

    2016-05-01

    The wet gets wetter, dry gets drier paradigm explains the expected moistening of the extratropics and drying of the subtropics as the atmospheric moisture content increases with global warming. Here we show, using precipitation minus evaporation (P - E) data from climate models, that it cannot be extended to apply regionally to deviations from the zonal mean. Wet and dry zones shift substantially in response to shifts in the stationary-eddy circulations that cause them. Additionally, atmospheric circulation changes lead to a smaller increase in the zonal variance of P - E than would be expected from atmospheric moistening alone. The P - E variance change can be split into dynamic and thermodynamic components through an analysis of the atmospheric moisture budget. This reveals that a weakening of stationary-eddy circulations and changes in the zonal variation of transient-eddy moisture fluxes moderate the strengthening of the zonally anomalous hydrological cycle with global warming.

  17. Generation of zonal flow in the Earth's dissipative ionospheric F-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaladze, T.D.; Shad, M.; Tsamalashvili, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    Generation of zonal flow in the Earth's dissipative ionospheric F-layer is considered. Dissipation arises due to Pedersen conductivity acting as an inductive (magnetic) inhibition. It is shown that in contrast to previous investigations the zonal flow growth rate does not depend on small wave vector component of zonal flow mode, needs no instability condition and the spectral energy transferring (inverse cascade) process unconditionally takes place. -- Highlights: → Generation of zonal flow in the Earth's dissipative ionospheric F-layer is considered. → Dissipation arises due to Pedersen conductivity acting as inductive (magnetic) inhibition. → It is shown that such generation doesn't need any instability condition. → Energy transferring (inverse cascade) process takes place even for the small values of pumping intensity.

  18. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCCFC11) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of...

  19. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data expressed as...

  20. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorine Nitrate (ClONO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorine Nitrate (ClONO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCCLONO2) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  1. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Ozone (O3) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Ozone (O3) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCO3) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data expressed as...

  2. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 8.3 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 8.3 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFC8MEXT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  3. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Water Vapor (H2O) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Water Vapor (H2O) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCH2O) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  4. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitric Acid (HNO3) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitric Acid (HNO3) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCHNO3) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  5. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCCFC12) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of...

  6. Wind Diffusivity Current, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  7. TOMS/EP UV Reflectivity Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/EP UV Reflectivity Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Level-3 Earth Probe TOMS...

  8. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Geopotential Height Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Geopotential Height Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCGPH) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  9. Two- and three-dimensional natural and mixed convection simulation using modular zonal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, E. [Universite de la Rochelle, (France). Lab. d`Etudes Pour la Thermique Appliquee au Batiment; Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    We demonstrate the use of the zonal model approach, which is a simplified method for calculating natural and mixed convection in rooms. Zonal models use a coarse grid and use balance equations, state equations, hydrostatic pressure drop equations and power law equations of the form {ital m} = {ital C}{Delta}{sup {ital n}}. The advantage of the zonal approach and its modular implementation are discussed. The zonal model resolution of nonlinear equation systems is demonstrated for three cases: a 2-D room, a 3-D room and a pair of 3-D rooms separated by a partition with an opening. A sensitivity analysis with respect to physical parameters and grid coarseness is presented. Results are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and experimental data.

  10. TOMS/EP Total Column Ozone Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/EP Total Column Ozone Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this Level-3 Earth Probe TOMS...

  11. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)...

  12. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Aerosol Index Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Aerosol Index Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)...

  13. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  14. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  15. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay Outlet, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  16. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay Outlet, Normal Model, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal model....

  17. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, 1 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  18. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  19. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Bodega Bay, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  20. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Ano Nuevo, Normal Model, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal model....

  1. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, Normal Model, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal model....

  2. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Bodega Bay, 1 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  3. Changes in Jupiter's Zonal Wind Profile Preceding and During the Juno Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Joshua; Wong, Michael H.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Cosentino, Richard G.; Januszewski, William; Morales-Juberias, Raul; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present five epochs of WFC3 HST Jupiter observations taken between 2009-2016 and extract global zonal wind profiles for each epoch. Jupiter's zonal wind field is globally stable throughout these years, but significant variations in certain latitude regions persist. We find that the largest uncertainties in the wind field are due to vortices or hot-spots, and show residual maps which identify the strongest vortex flows. The strongest year-to-year variation in the zonal wind profiles is the 24 deg N jet peak. Numerous plume outbreaks have been observed in the Northern Temperate Belt and are associated with decreases in the zonal velocity and brightness. We show that the 24 deg N jet peak velocity and brightness decreased in 2012 and again in late 2016, following outbreaks during these years. Our February 2016 zonal wind profile was the last highly spatially resolved measurement prior to Juno s first science observations. The final 2016 data were taken in conjunction with Juno's perijove 3 pass on 11 December 2016, and show the zonal wind profile following the plume outbreak at 24 deg N in October 2016.

  4. Effect of mean flow on the interaction between turbulence and zonal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, Ken; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Li Jiquan

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an external mean flow on the generation of zonal flow in drift wave turbulence are theoretically studied in terms of a modulational instability analysis. A dispersion relation for the zonal flow instability having complex frequency ω q =Ω q +iγ q is derived, which depends on the external mean flow's amplitude |φ f | and radial wave number k f . As an example, we chose an ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence-driven zonal flow as the mean flow acting on an electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence-zonal flow system. The growth rate of the zonal flow γ q is found to be suppressed, showing a relation γ q =γ q0 (1 - α|φ f | 2 k f 2 ), where γ q0 is the growth rate in the absence of mean flow and α is a positive numerical constant. This formula is applicable to a strong shearing regime where the zonal flow instability is stabilized at α|φ f 2 |k f 2 ≅ 1. Meanwhile, the suppression is accompanied by an increase of the real frequency |Ω q |. The underlying physical mechanism of the suppression is discussed. (author)

  5. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  6. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Guang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  7. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  8. Detection of occult HBV infection by nested PCR assay among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) has been reported among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of OBI in chronic hepatitis C patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 40 chronic hepatitis C patients ...

  9. OCCULT POWER AND AFRICA'S SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    OCCULT POWER AND AFRICA'S SOCIO-ECONOMIC. PROBLEMS. Aloysius Obiwulu. Abstract. It is known to Africans and the international community that Africa is a poor continent, though she is very rich in mineral and human resources. Her basic problems as a continent include: bad leadership, corrupt and selfish ...

  10. Occult spontaneous lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahina Bano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal encephaloceles are extremely rare congenital malformations. Advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are necessary for diagnosing the asymptomatic, occult basal encephalocele and planning the surgical approach. We present an interesting case of clinically silent right-sided lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele through a large bony defect.

  11. Occult Metabolic Bone Disease in Chronic Pancreatitis | Hari Kumar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) leads to malabsorption and metabolic bone disease (MBD). Alcoholic CP (ACP) and tropical CP (TCP) are the two common types of CP. Objective: We investigated the presence of occult MBD in patients with CP and compared the same between ACP and TCP. Materials and Methods: ...

  12. Another look at zonal flows: Resonance, shearing, and frictionless saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We show that shear is not the exclusive parameter that represents all aspects of flow structure effects on turbulence. Rather, wave-flow resonance enters turbulence regulation, both linearly and nonlinearly. Resonance suppresses the linear instability by wave absorption. Flow shear can weaken the resonance, and thus destabilize drift waves, in contrast to the near-universal conventional shear suppression paradigm. Furthermore, consideration of wave-flow resonance resolves the long-standing problem of how zonal flows (ZFs) saturate in the limit of weak or zero frictional drag, and also determines the ZF scale. We show that resonant vorticity mixing, which conserves potential enstrophy, enables ZF saturation in the absence of drag, and so is effective at regulating the Dimits up-shift regime. Vorticity mixing is incorporated as a nonlinear, self-regulation effect in an extended 0D predator-prey model of drift-ZF turbulence. This analysis determines the saturated ZF shear and shows that the mesoscopic ZF width scales as LZ F˜f3 /16(1-f ) 1 /8ρs5/8l03 /8 in the (relevant) adiabatic limit (i.e., τckk‖2D‖≫1 ). f is the fraction of turbulence energy coupled to ZF and l0 is the base state mixing length, absent ZF shears. We calculate and compare the stationary flow and turbulence level in frictionless, weakly frictional, and strongly frictional regimes. In the frictionless limit, the results differ significantly from conventionally quoted scalings derived for frictional regimes. To leading order, the flow is independent of turbulence intensity. The turbulence level scales as E ˜(γL/εc) 2 , which indicates the extent of the "near-marginal" regime to be γL<εc , for the case of avalanche-induced profile variability. Here, εc is the rate of dissipation of potential enstrophy and γL is the characteristic linear growth rate of fluctuations. The implications for dynamics near marginality of the strong scaling of saturated E with γL are discussed.

  13. Estimating zonal electricity supply curves in transmission-constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraei-Ardakani, Mostafa; Blumsack, Seth; Kleit, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many important electricity policy initiatives would directly affect the operation of electric power networks. This paper develops a method for estimating short-run zonal supply curves in transmission-constrained electricity markets that can be implemented quickly by policy analysts with training in statistical methods and with publicly available data. Our model enables analysis of distributional impacts of policies affecting operation of electric power grid. The method uses fuel prices and zonal electric loads to determine piecewise supply curves, identifying zonal electricity price and marginal fuel. We illustrate our methodology by estimating zonal impacts of Pennsylvania's Act 129, an energy efficiency and conservation policy. For most utilities in Pennsylvania, Act 129 would reduce the influence of natural gas on electricity price formation and increase the influence of coal. The total resulted savings would be around 267 million dollars, 82 percent of which would be enjoyed by the customers in Pennsylvania. We also analyze the impacts of imposing a $35/ton tax on carbon dioxide emissions. Our results show that the policy would increase the average prices in PJM by 47–89 percent under different fuel price scenarios in the short run, and would lead to short-run interfuel substitution between natural gas and coal. - Highlights: • We develop a method to estimate of zonal supply curves in electricity markets. • The model estimates zonal electricity prices and zonal fuel utilization. • The model implicitly captures the average impacts of transmission constraints. • Using the method, we project supply curves for the seventeen utility zones of PJM. • We use the estimated supply curves to study the impacts of Pennsylvania's Act 129 and a carbon tax of $35 per ton

  14. The characteristic target-pattern regional ore zonality of the Nanling region, China (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwen Yu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available By applying the ‘theory of synchronization’ from the science of complexity to studying the regional regularity of ore formation within the Nanling region of South China, a characteristic target-pattern regional ore zonality has been discovered. During the early and late Yanshanian epoch (corresponding respectively to the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, two centers of ore formation emerged successively in the Nanling region; the former is mainly for rare metals (W, Sn, Mo, Bi, Nb and one rare-earth element (La and was generated in the Jurassic period; whereas the latter is mainly for base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Sb, Hg, noble metals (Au, Ag, and one radioactive element (U and was generated in the Cretaceous period. Centers of ore formation were brought about by interface dynamics respectively at the Qitianling and Jiuyishan districts in southern Hunan Province. The characteristic giant nonlinear target-pattern regional ore zonality was generated respectively from the two centers of ore formation by the spatio-temporal synchronization process of the Nanling complex metallogenic system. It induced the collective dynamics and cooperative behavior of the system and displayed the configuration of the regional ore zonality. Then dynamical clustering transformed the configuration into rudimentary ordered coherent structures. Phase dynamics eventually defined the spatio-temporal structures of the target-pattern regional ore zonality and determined their localization and distribution. The integral successive processes of synchronization-dynamical clustering-phase dynamics accomplished the regional ore zonality by way of “multiple field dynamics” of spatio-temporal superposition of multiple coupled pulsatory solitary wave trains of the zonal sequences of different ores. A new methodology for revealing regional ore zonality is developed, which will encourage further investigation of the formation of deep-seated ore resources and the onset of large

  15. Error analysis for mesospheric temperature profiling by absorptive occultation sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rieder

    Full Text Available An error analysis for mesospheric profiles retrieved from absorptive occultation data has been performed, starting with realistic error assumptions as would apply to intensity data collected by available high-precision UV photodiode sensors. Propagation of statistical errors was investigated through the complete retrieval chain from measured intensity profiles to atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature profiles. We assumed unbiased errors as the occultation method is essentially self-calibrating and straight-line propagation of occulted signals as we focus on heights of 50–100 km, where refractive bending of the sensed radiation is negligible. Throughout the analysis the errors were characterized at each retrieval step by their mean profile, their covariance matrix and their probability density function (pdf. This furnishes, compared to a variance-only estimation, a much improved insight into the error propagation mechanism. We applied the procedure to a baseline analysis of the performance of a recently proposed solar UV occultation sensor (SMAS – Sun Monitor and Atmospheric Sounder and provide, using a reasonable exponential atmospheric model as background, results on error standard deviations and error correlation functions of density, pressure, and temperature profiles. Two different sensor photodiode assumptions are discussed, respectively, diamond diodes (DD with 0.03% and silicon diodes (SD with 0.1% (unattenuated intensity measurement noise at 10 Hz sampling rate. A factor-of-2 margin was applied to these noise values in order to roughly account for unmodeled cross section uncertainties. Within the entire height domain (50–100 km we find temperature to be retrieved to better than 0.3 K (DD / 1 K (SD accuracy, respectively, at 2 km height resolution. The results indicate that absorptive occultations acquired by a SMAS-type sensor could provide mesospheric profiles of fundamental variables such as temperature with

  16. Disturbance zonal and vertical plasma drifts in the Peruvian sector during solar minimum phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, we investigate the behavior of the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over the Peruvian region under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the vertical and zonal components of the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95°S; 76.87°W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between electric fields and plasma drifts under prompt penetration electric field during a disturbed periods and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. For the first time, based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere, we will show, on a detailed quantitative basis, that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal electric field in the presence of an enhanced nighttime E region ionization. It is shown that an increase in the field line-integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio (∑H/∑P), which can arise from precipitation of energetic particles in the region of the South American Magnetic Anomaly, is capable of explaining the observed anticorrelation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the low-latitude station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.67°S; 44.9°W)—Brazil. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon two hours earlier than its reference quiet time pattern is possibly caused by weakening of the zonal wind

  17. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Howard, N. T. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the threshold for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. The zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations.

  18. The characteristic target-pattern regional ore zonality of the Nanling region, China (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwen Yu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available By applying the ‘theory of synchronization’ from the science of complexity to studying the regional regularity of ore formation within the Nanling region of southern China, a characteristic target-pattern regional ore zonality has been discovered. During the early and late Yanshanian epoch (corresponding respectively to the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, two centers of ore formation emerged successively in the Nanling region; the former is mainly for rare metals (W, Sn, Mo, Bi, Nb and one rare-earth element (La and was generated in the Jurassic period; whereas the latter is mainly for base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Sb, Hg, noble metals (Au, Ag, and one radioactive element (U and was generated in the Cretaceous period. Centers of ore formation were brought about by interface dynamics respectively at the Qitianling and Jiuyishan districts in southern Hunan Province. The characteristic giant nonlinear target-pattern regional ore zonality was generated by spatio-temporal synchronization process of the Nanling complex metallogenic system. It induced the collective dynamics and cooperative behavior of the system and displayed the configuration of the regional ore zonality. Then dynamical clustering transformed the configuration into rudimentary ordered coherent structures. Phase dynamics eventually defined the spatio-temporal structures of the target-pattern regional ore zonality and determined their localization and distribution. A new methodology for revealing regional ore zonality is developed, which will encourage further investigation of the formation of deep-seated ore resources and the onset of large-scale mineralization.

  19. The role of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating in interhemispheric transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn

    2017-03-01

    While the importance of the seasonal migration of the zonally averaged Hadley circulation on interhemispheric transport of trace gases has been recognized, few studies have examined the role of the zonally asymmetric monsoonal circulation. This study investigates the role of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating on interhemispheric transport using a dry atmospheric model that is forced by idealized Newtonian relaxation to a prescribed radiative equilibrium temperature. When only the seasonal cycle of zonally symmetric heating is considered, the mean age of air in the Southern Hemisphere since last contact with the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude boundary layer is much larger than the observations. The introduction of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating not only reduces the mean age of tropospheric air to more realistic values but also produces an upper tropospheric cross-equatorial transport pathway in boreal summer that resembles the transport pathway simulated in the NASA Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry Transport Model driven with Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications meteorological fields. These results highlight that the monsoon-induced eddy circulation plays an important role in the interhemispheric transport of long-lived chemical constituents.

  20. The characteristic target-pattern regional ore zonality of the Nanling region, China (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwen Yu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available By applying the ‘theory of synchronization’ from the science of complexity to studying the regional regularity of ore formation within the Nanling region of southern China, a characteristic target-pattern regional ore zonality has been discovered. During the early and late Yanshanian epoch (corresponding respectively to the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, two centers of ore formation emerged successively in the Nanling region; the former is mainly for rare metals (W, Sn, Mo, Bi, Nb and one rare-earth element (La and was generated in the Jurassic period; whereas the latter is mainly for base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Sb, Hg, noble metals (Au, Ag, and one radioactive element (U and was generated in the Cretaceous period. Centers of ore formation were brought about by interface dynamics respectively at the Qitianling and Jiuyishan districts in southern Hunan province. The characteristic giant nonlinear target-pattern regional ore zonality was generated by spatio-temporal synchronization process of the Nanling complex metallogenic system. It induced the collective dynamics and cooperative behavior of the system and displayed the configuration of the regional ore zonality. Then dynamical clustering transformed the configuration into rudimentary ordered coherent structures. Phase dynamics eventually defined the spatio-temporal structures of the target-pattern regional ore zonality and determined their localization and distribution. A new methodology for revealing regional ore zonality is developed, which will encourage further investigation of the formation of deep-seated ore resources and the onset of large-scale mineralization.

  1. Collisionless kinetic-fluid model of zonal flows in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Horton, W.

    2006-12-01

    A novel kinetic-fluid model is presented, which describes collisionless time evolution of zonal flows in tokamaks. In the new zonal-flow closure relations, the parallel heat fluxes are written by the sum of short- and long-time-evolution parts. The former part is given in the dissipative form of the parallel heat diffusion and relates to collisionless damping processes. The latter is derived from the long-time-averaged gyrocenter distribution and plays a major role in describing low-frequency or stationary zonal flows, for which the parallel heat fluxes are expressed in terms of the parallel flow as well as the nonlinear-source and initial-condition terms. It is shown analytically and numerically that, when applied to the zonal flow driven by either ion or electron temperature gradient turbulence, the kinetic-fluid equations including the new closure relations can reproduce the same long-time zonal-flow responses to the initial condition and to the turbulence source as those obtained from the gyrokinetic model. (author)

  2. Transorbital Craniocerebral Occult Penetrating Injury with Cerebral Abscess Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Abdulbaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transorbital intracranial penetrating injury is an uncommon mechanism of head injury. These injuries can be occult during the initial clinical presentation. Certain patients develop an intracranial cerebral infection. Herein, we report a 5-year-old child with an occult transorbital intracranial penetrating injury caused by a pen. A retained pen tip was found at the superior orbital roof and was not noticed at initial presentation. This was complicated by a right frontal lobe cerebral abscess. This paper emphasizes the importance of orbitocranial imaging in any penetrating orbital injury. A review of the literature on intracranial infection locations in relation to the route and mechanism of injury is included to complement this report.

  3. Detection of occult disease in tissue donors by routine autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, J; Fresno, M F; Escudero, D; Seco, M; González, M; Peces, R

    1998-01-01

    The transmission of infectious and neoplastic diseases is a potential risk of tissue allografting. In this study, we analyzed the occurrence of occult disease in tissue donors as detected by standard screening and autopsy. Whereas 18% of the potential donors initially evaluated were eliminated on the basis of their medical and social histories, laboratory screening and autopsy revealed that an additional 9% of tissue donors had undetected, transmissible disease that prohibited tissue donation. This report emphasizes once again the risk of occult disease being transplanted with grafts and the need for autopsy to reduce the likelihood of this occurring. If donor selection, appropriate screening tests, and autopsy are carefully carried out, the risk of transmitting diseases from tissue allografts can be kept to a minimum.

  4. Digital solar edge tracker for the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. W.; Mayo, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (Haloe) elevation sun sensor is described. The Haloe instrument is a gas-correlation radiometer now being developed at NASA Langley for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned monolithic CCD. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the Haloe science instantaneous field of view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration and then to maintain the science IFOV 4 arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 700-nm operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability.

  5. Dusty Dwarfs Galaxies Occulting A Bright Background Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne

    2017-08-01

    The role of dust in shaping the spectral energy distributions of low mass disk galaxies remains poorly understood. Recent results from the Herschel Space Observatory imply that dwarf galaxies contain large amounts of cool (T 20K) dust, coupled with very modest optical extinctions. These seemingly contradictory conclusions may be resolved if dwarfs harbor a variety of dust geometries, e.g., dust at larger galactocentric radii or in quiescent dark clumps. We propose HST observations of six truly occulting dwarf galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo catalog of silhouetted galaxy pairs. Confirmed, true occulting dwarfs are rare as most low-mass disks in overlap are either close satellites or do not have a confirmed redshift. Dwarf occulters are the key to determining the spatial extent of dust, the small scale structure introduced by turbulence, and the prevailing dust attenuation law. The recent spectroscopic confirmation of bona-fide low mass occulting dwarfs offers an opportunity to map dust in these with HST. What is the role of dust in the SED of these dwarf disk galaxies? With shorter feedback scales, how does star-formation affect their morphology and dust composition, as revealed from their attenuation curve? The resolution of HST allows us to map the dust disks down to the fine scale structure of molecular clouds and multi-wavelength imaging maps the attenuation curve and hence dust composition in these disks. We therefore ask for 2 orbits on each of 6 dwarf galaxies in F275W, F475W, F606W, F814W and F125W to map dust from UV to NIR to constrain the attenuation curve.

  6. Implementation of immunochemical faecal occult blood test in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Bro, Flemming; Hornung, Nete

    2016-01-01

    anvendelsen af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. iFOBT detekterer humant globin i fæces og indikerer gastrointestinal blødning. Studiet udgør en del af et ph.d.-studie, der bidrager med ny viden til at optimere udredningen af patienter med tarmkræft. Der er et stort behov...

  7. Zonally averaged model of dynamics, chemistry and radiation for the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, K. K.

    1985-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations on a sphere, taking advantage of the more direct relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate which is available in isentropic coordinates. Possible differences between results of nongeostrophic theory and the commonly used geostrophic formulation are discussed concerning: (1) the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation, and (2) the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit vs the geostrophic limit. Problems associated with the traditional Rossby number scaling in quasi-geostrophic formulations are pointed out and an alternate, more general scaling based on the smallness of mean meridional to zonal velocities for a rotating planet is suggested. Such a scaling recovers the geostrophic balanced wind relationship for the mean zonal flow but reveals that the mean meridional velocity is in general ageostrophic.

  8. Renal trauma in occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastia, M.C.; Rodriguez-Dobao, M.; Quiroga, S.; Pallisa, E.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Alvarez-Castells, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present CT findings of occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction in patients with renal trauma and to describe the clinical signs and singular CT features that are characteristically observed with trauma and are relevant to management of these patients. We retrospectively reviewed 82 helical CT studies in patients with renal trauma referred to our institution. We found 13 cases of occult preexisting renal pathology, six of which were occult ureteropelvic junction obstructions. The clinical presentation, radiologic findings of trauma according to the Federle classification, and CT findings of obstructed ureteropelvic junction are presented. We found three category-I lesions (one in a horseshoe kidney), two of them treated with nephrostomy because of increased ureteropelvic junction obstruction due to pelvic clots; two category-II lesions (parenchymal and renal pelvis lacerations) that had presented only with microhematuria; and one category-IV lesion (pelvic laceration alone). Pelvic extension was demonstrated in all the cases with perirenal collections. The CT studies in all the cases with suspected ureteropelvic junction obstruction showed decreased parenchymal thickness and enhancement, and dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyx, with a normal ureter. Computed tomography can provide information to confidently diagnose underlying ureteropelvic junction obstruction in renal trauma, categorize the traumatic injury (at times clinically silent) and facilitate proper management according to the singularities observed, such us rupture of the renal pelvis alone (Federle category IV) and increasing ureteropelvic obstruction due to clots which can be decompressed by nephrostomy. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 13 refs.

  9. [Results of conservative treatment in patients with occult pneumothorax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaquet Bayo, Heura; Montmany Vioque, Sandra; Rebasa, Pere; Navarro Soto, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    An occult pneumothorax is found in 2-15% trauma patients. Observation (without tube thoracostomy) in these patients presents still some controversies in the clinical practice. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and the adverse effects when observation is performed. A retrospective observational study was undertaken in our center (university hospital level II). Data was obtained from a database with prospective registration. A total of 1087 trauma patients admitted in the intensive care unit from 2006 to 2013 were included. In this period, 126 patients with occult pneumothorax were identified, 73 patients (58%) underwent immediate tube thoracostomy and 53 patients (42%) were observed. Nine patients (12%) failed observation and required tube thoracostomy for pneumothorax progression or hemothorax. No patient developed a tension pneumothorax or experienced another adverse event related to the absence of tube thoracostomy. Of the observed patients 16 were under positive pressure ventilation, in this group 3 patients (19%) failed observation. There were no differences in mortality, hospital length of stay or intensive care length of stay between the observed and non-observed group. Observation is a safe treatment in occult pneumothorax, even in pressure positive ventilated patients. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-frequency variation of a zonally localized jet stream: Observation and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, M.

    1994-01-01

    The climatological mean circulation in the extratropics of the Northern Hemisphere is characterized by two zonally localized jet streams over the east coasts of the two major continents. The zonal inhomogeneity of the climatological mean circulation is believed to be a primary factor determining the geographical locations of the maximum activity centers of the atmospheric transients, such as storm tracks over the east coasts of the two major continents and frequent blocking episodes occurring over the central regions of the two oceans. The impact of the transients on the zonally localized jet streams is studied mostly in the linear dynamics framework in terms of so-called open-quotes feedbackclose quotes diagnosis. This study investigates nonlinear instability of a zonally localized jet stream. The emphasis is on the nonlinear adjustment of a zonally localized jet stream associated with the development of the transients via local instability. The adjustment of a zonally localized jet stream would naturally consists of two parts: One is the time-invariant part and the other is the transient part (temporal variation of the adjustment). In conjunction with the observation, the time-mean adjustment is part of the climatological mean flow and hence is open-quotes invisible.close quotes The transient part of the adjustment is evidenced by the changes of the jet streams in terms of both location and intensity. In this study, we tend to relate the transient part of the adjustment of the jet stream to the maximum activity centers of low-frequency variability. The underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the temporal variation of the adjustment will be investigated. The time-mean adjustment will be also studied to better understand the temporal variation of the adjustment

  11. Comparison of Global Distributions of Zonal-Mean Gravity Wave Variance Inferred from Different Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.

  12. Cognitive zonal fusion biopsy of the prostate: Original technique between target and saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Galosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe our experience in prostate biopsy using a new standardized cognitive fusion techniques, that we call “cognitive zonal fusion biopsy”. This new technique is based on two operative options: the first based on target biopsies, the Cognitive Target Biopsy (CTB if the same target was detected with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS and multiparametric magnetic resonance (mpMRI; the second based on saturation biopsies, the Zonal Saturation Biopsy (ZSB on anatomical zone/s containing the region of interest if the same target was not evident with TRUS and MRI. We evaluated results of our technique compared to standard biopsy in order to identify clinically relevant prostate cancer. Methods: This is a single-center prospective study conducted in 58 pts: 25 biopsy-naïve, 25 with previous negative biopsy and in 8 with cancer in active surveillance. Based on mpMRI and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS, all patients were scheduled for standard 12-core TRUS-guided biopsy. If mpMRI was suggestive or positive (PI-RADS 3, 4 or 5: patients underwent additional targeted 2 to 6 cores using cognitive zonal fusion technique. Results: 31/58 (53.4% patients had a cancer. Our technique detected 80.6% (25 of 31 with clinically significant prostate cancer, leading to detection of insignificant cancer in 20%. Using standard mapping in MR negative areas we found 5 clinically significant cancer and 4 not significant cancers. MRI cancer detection rate was 18/31 (58.1%, and 9/18 (50% in high grade tumors. Therefore MRI missed 50% of high grade cancers. The mean number of cores taken with cognitive zonal fusion biopsy was 6.1 (2-17, in addition biopsy sampling was done outside the ROI areas. Overall 15.4 cores (12-22 were taken. Cancer amount in Zonal Biopsy was larger than 7.3 mm (1-54.5 in comparison with 5.2 mm (1-23.5 in standard mapping. Largest percentage of cancer involvement with cognitive zonal fusion technique was detected in 19.4% vs 15.9%. Conclusions

  13. Advanced Electrocardiography Can Identify Occult Cardiomyopathy in Doberman Pinschers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiljak, M.; Petric, A. Domanjko; Wilberg, M.; Olsen, L. H.; Stepancic, A.; Schlegel, T. T.; Starc, V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, multiple advanced resting electrocardiographic (A-ECG) techniques have improved the diagnostic value of short-duration ECG in detection of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans. This study investigated whether 12-lead A-ECG recordings could accurately identify the occult phase of DCM in dogs. Short-duration (3-5 min) high-fidelity 12-lead ECG recordings were obtained from 31 privately-owned, clinically healthy Doberman Pinschers (5.4 +/- 1.7 years, 11/20 males/females). Dogs were divided into 2 groups: 1) 19 healthy dogs with normal echocardiographic M-mode measurements: left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd . 47mm) and in systole (LVIDs . 38mm) and normal 24-hour ECG recordings (100 VPCs/24h; 1/12 dogs had only abnormal 24-hour ECG recordings (>100 VPCs/24h). ECG recordings were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate multiple parameters of high-frequency (HF) QRS ECG, heart rate variability, QT variability, waveform complexity and 3-D ECG. Student's t-tests determined 19 ECG parameters that were significantly different (P < 0.05) between groups. Principal component factor analysis identified a 5-factor model with 81.4% explained variance. QRS dipolar and non-dipolar voltages, Cornell voltage criteria and QRS waveform residuum were increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas mean HF QRS amplitude was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in dogs with occult DCM. For the 5 selected parameters the prediction of occult DCM was performed using a binary logistic regression model with Chi-square tested significance (P < 0.01). ROC analyses showed that the five selected ECG parameters could identify occult ECG with sensitivity 89% and specificity 83%. Results suggest that 12-lead A-ECG might improve diagnostic value of short-duration ECG in earlier detection of canine DCM as five selected ECG parameters can with reasonable accuracy identify occult DCM in Doberman Pinschers. Future extensive clinical studies need to clarify if 12-lead A

  14. Blob/hole formation and zonal-flow generation in the edge plasma of the JET tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.S.; Naulin, Volker; Fundamenski, W.

    2009-01-01

    The first experimental evidence showing the connection between blob/hole formation and zonal-flow generation was obtained in the edge plasma of the JET tokamak. Holes as well as blobs are observed to be born in the edge shear layer, where zonal-flows shear off meso-scale coherent structures, lead...

  15. The latitude dependence of the variance of zonally averaged quantities. [in polar meteorology with attention to geometrical effects of earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. R.; Bell, T. L.; Cahalan, R. F.; Moeng, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Geometric characteristics of the spherical earth are shown to be responsible for the increase of variance with latitude of zonally averaged meteorological statistics. An analytic model is constructed to display the effect of a spherical geometry on zonal averages, employing a sphere labeled with radial unit vectors in a real, stochastic field expanded in complex spherical harmonics. The variance of a zonally averaged field is found to be expressible in terms of the spectrum of the vector field of the spherical harmonics. A maximum variance is then located at the poles, and the ratio of the variance to the zonally averaged grid-point variance, weighted by the cosine of the latitude, yields the zonal correlation typical of the latitude. An example is provided for the 500 mb level in the Northern Hemisphere compared to 15 years of data. Variance is determined to increase north of 60 deg latitude.

  16. Educational Change Leadership through a New Zonal Theory Lens: Using Mathematics Curriculum Change as the Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Janeen; Branson, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines actions that educational change leaders can take to better meet their curriculum change obligations and responsibilities. In order to do this we extend Vygotsky's (1978) zonal theory and its many extensions and elaborations by positioning educational change leadership within this theory. We rename the zones to Zone of Principal…

  17. Simulations of Turbulence in Tokamak Edge and Effects of Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress is reported on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge. This extends previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT that solves Braginskii-based plasma fluid equations in tokamak edge domain. The calculations use realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produce fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  18. Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence Including Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge is summarized in this mini-conference talk. A more detailed report on this work is presented in a poster at this conference. This work extends our previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed the simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT. The calculations used realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produced fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  19. Light microscopical demonstration and zonal distribution of parasinusoidal cells (Ito cells) in normal human liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, T; Junge, Jette; Nielsen, O

    1988-01-01

    The parasinusoidal cells of the liver (Ito cells) were demonstrated light microscopically in autopsy specimens fixed in formalin and stained with Oil red O after dichromate treatment. The method allows examination of large samples containing numerous acini. Quantitative assessment showed a zonal...

  20. A Multi-layered Model for the Shape, Zonal Winds and Gravitational Field of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Zhang, K.; Kong, D.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional, finite-element, multi-layered, non-spheroidal model of Jupiter consisting of an inner core, a metallic dynamo region and an outer molecular electrically insulating envelope. Different polytropic equations of state are used in the metallic and molecular regions. The zonal winds are on cylinders parallel to the rotation axis and are confined within the molecular envelope by magnetic braking. The effect of rotational distortion is fully accounted for; it is not treated as simply a small perturbation on a spherically symmetric state. The model determines the density, size and shape of the inner core, the irregular shape of the 1-bar pressure level, and the internal structure of Jupiter. It produces the known mass, the known equatorial and polar radii, and the known zonal gravitational coefficient J2 of Jupiter within their error bars; it also yields the coefficients J4 and J6 with an accuracy of a few percent. The variation of the gravitational field caused solely by the effect of the zonal winds on the rotationally distorted Jupiter is also determined. Different cases, ranging from a deep wind profile to a very shallow profile, are considered. The model enables accurate interpretation of the zonal gravitational coefficients expected from the Juno mission.

  1. Elaboration of generalized criterion for zonality determination of the Chernobyl' NPP working spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, A.V.; Bad'in, V.I.; Nosovskij, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the features of radioactive dose rating, regularities of their formation and dosimetry allows suggesting generalized criterion for assess zonality of compartments and territories, combining all factors and their action on operators. This criterion may be used during design of the new objects, development of programs and pursuance of work on removal of atomic power plants from operation. 6 refs.; 1 fig

  2. The paramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 1. Zonal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello, A.N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonal paramo vegetation communities present on top of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo state, Venezuela, have been studied with the aim to provide a syntaxonomic scheme or classification, based oil analysis of the physiognomy, floristic composition, ecological relations and spatial distribution of the

  3. Evaluation of Sub-Zonal Airflow Models for the Prediction of Local Interior Boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul W. M. H.; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    and applicability of the sub-zonal airflow model to predict the local indoor environmental conditions, as well as the local surface transfer coefficients near building components. Two test cases were analyzed for, respectively, natural and forced convection in a room. The simulation results predicted from the sub...

  4. The páramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 1. Zonal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello A., N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonal páramo vegetation communities present on top of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo state, Venezuela, have been studied with the aim to provide a syntaxonomic scheme or classification, based on analysis of the physiognomy, floristic composition, ecological relations and spatial distribution of the

  5. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Area-average 200-hPa Zonal Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 200-hPa zonal wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 165oW-110oW. The anomalies are...

  6. Numerical simulation of phenomenon on zonal disintegration in deep underground mining in case of unsupported roadway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengshan; Wu, Xinli; Li, Xia; Zhu, Dekang

    2018-02-01

    Zonal disintegration phenomenon was found in deep mining roadway surrounding rock. It seriously affects the safety of mining and underground engineering and it may lead to the occurrence of natural disasters. in deep mining roadway surrounding rock, tectonic stress in deep mining roadway rock mass, horizontal stress is much greater than the vertical stress, When the direction of maximum principal stress is parallel to the axis of the roadway in deep mining, this is the main reasons for Zonal disintegration phenomenon. Using ABAQUS software to numerical simulation of the three-dimensional model of roadway rupture formation process systematically, and the study shows that when The Direction of maximum main stress in deep underground mining is along the roadway axial direction, Zonal disintegration phenomenon in deep underground mining is successfully reproduced by our numerical simulation..numerical simulation shows that using ABAQUA simulation can reproduce Zonal disintegration phenomenon and the formation process of damage of surrounding rock can be reproduced. which have important engineering practical significance.

  7. Multi-scale-nonlinear interactions among micro-turbulence, double tearing instability and zonal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.

    2007-01-01

    Micro-turbulence and macro-magnetohydrodynamic (macro-MHD) instabilities can appear in plasma at the same time and interact with each other in a plasma confinement. The multi-scale-nonlinear interaction among micro-turbulence, double tearing instability and zonal flow is investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. It is found that the double tearing instability, which is a macro-MHD instability, appears in an equilibrium formed by a balance between micro-turbulence and zonal flow when the double tearing mode is unstable. The roles of the nonlinear and linear terms of the equations in driving the zonal flow and coherent convective cell flow of the double tearing mode are examined. The Reynolds stress drives zonal flow and coherent convective cell flow, while the ion diamagnetic term and Maxwell stress oppose the Reynolds stress drive. When the double tearing mode grows, linear terms in the equations are dominant and they effectively release the free energy of the equilibrium current gradient

  8. Detection of radiographically occult-ankle fractures. Positive predictive value of post-traumatic soft-tissue swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Caruana, E.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs as a predictor of radiographically occult fracture, after acute ankle injury (trauma). Patients with acute ankle trauma and plain radiographic evidence of soft-tissue swelling were included in this study. Patients were excluded if ankle trauma was sustained more than 48 hours previously or if fracture was visible on plain radiographs. All subjects (n=25) underwent computed tomography (CT) of the ankle in sagittal and coronal planes. Size of soft-tissue swelling was measured from initial Antero-posterior (AP) radiographs. The subjects in the study were placed into two groups according to whether a fracture was identified on CT or not. The results identified that those subjects without a fracture demonstrated by CT, had a soft-tissue swelling of less than 12.6 mm, while those with over 17.1mm swelling, showed a fracture on CT. Twelve patients (48 per cent) had radiographically occult fractures identified with CT. Fracture sites included: Talus/Talar Dome (n=9), posterior or lateral malleolos (n=2), distal tibia/fibula (n=1). CT detected significant soft-tissue injuries in six patients (24 per cent), composed of damaged anterior talo-fibular ligament (n=4), torn flexor tendons (n=1), and damaged fibular calcaneal ligament (n=1). One patient also showed gas in the talar dome. This study concludes that presence of a large soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs after acute ankle trauma suggests an underlying fracture. A soft-tissue swelling of >15 mm is a reasonable threshold to prompt further imaging. Helical computed tomography provides good visualisation of subtle bone injuries and may detect clinically important soft-tissue injuries. While the study has a small sample, there is clear evidence that there is a trend worth investigating. Future research will seek to investigate a larger sample. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  9. Analysis of zonal flow bifurcations in 3D drift wave turbulence simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammel, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The main issue of experimental magnetic fusion devices lies with their inherently high turbulent transport, preventing long-term plasma confinement. A deeper understanding of the underlying transport processes is therefore desirable, especially in the high-gradient tokamak edge which marks the location of the drift wave regime as well as the outer boundary of the still badly understood high confinement mode. One of the most promising plasma features possibly connected to a complete bifurcation theory for the transition to this H-mode is found in large-scale phenomena capable of regulating radial transport through vortex shearing - i.e. zonal flows, linearly stable large-scale poloidal vector E x vector B-modes based on radial flux surface averages of the potential gradient generated through turbulent self-organization. Despite their relevance, few detailed turbulence studies of drift wave-based zonal flows have been undertaken, and none of them have explicitly targeted bifurcations - or, within a resistive sheared-slab environment, observed zonal flows at all. In this work, both analytical means and the two-fluid code NLET are used to analyze a reduced set of Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, describing a sheared collisional drift wave system without curvature. The characteristics of the drift waves themselves, as well as those of the drift wave-based zonal flows and their retroaction on the drift wave turbulence are examined. The single dimensionless parameter ρ s proposed in previous analytical models is examined numerically and shown to divide the drift wave scale into two transport regimes, the behavioral characteristics of which agree perfectly with theoretical expectations. This transport transition correlates with a transition from pure drift wave turbulence at low ρ s into the high-ρ s zonal flow regime. The associated threshold has been more clearly identified by tracing it back to a tipping of the ratio between a newly proposed frequency gradient length at

  10. Dependence of thermospheric zonal winds on solar flux, geomagnetic activity, and hemisphere as measured by CHAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Liu, Libo; Liu, Songtao

    2017-08-01

    The thermospheric zonal winds measured by the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite are used to statistically determine the climatology under quiet and active geomagnetic conditions. By collectively analyzing the bin-averaged wind trend with F10.7 and the solar-induced difference in wind structures, the solar flux dependence of global thermosphere zonal wind is determined. The increase of solar flux enhances the eastward winds at low latitudes from dusk to midnight. The increased ion drag reduces the nighttime eastward wind in the subauroral latitudes, and the daytime westward winds from 06 to 08 MLT at all latitudes decrease with increasing solar flux. Zonal winds show coupled seasonal/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) dependency. The equatorial zonal winds from 18 to 04 magnetic local time (MLT) indicate weaker eastward winds during the June solstice at high solar flux levels. Quiet time eastward winds at subauroral latitudes from 16 to 20 MLT are further decreased in the winter hemisphere. Influenced by asymmetries in solar illumination and the magnetic field, zonal winds show hemispheric asymmetries. Quiet daytime winds are additionally influenced by solar illumination effects, and the westward winds at the middle and subauroral latitudes are always stronger in the summer. The nighttime eastward winds are higher in the winter hemisphere during the solstices, as in the Southern Hemisphere during equinoxes, with the winter-summer asymmetry lessened or receding at the solar maxima. Storm-induced subauroral westward disturbance winds are higher in the summer hemisphere and in the Northern Hemisphere during equinoxes. At a high level of solar flux, the westward disturbance winds are comparable in the two hemispheres during December solstice. Geomagnetic disturbance wind observations from CHAMP agree well with the empirical geomagnetic disturbance wind model, except for stronger subauroral westward jets. Westward winds during the afternoon may be enhanced in

  11. Comparative analysis of zonal systems for macro-level crash modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen

    2017-06-01

    Macro-level traffic safety analysis has been undertaken at different spatial configurations. However, clear guidelines for the appropriate zonal system selection for safety analysis are unavailable. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the optimal zonal system for macroscopic crash modeling considering census tracts (CTs), state-wide traffic analysis zones (STAZs), and a newly developed traffic-related zone system labeled traffic analysis districts (TADs). Poisson lognormal models for three crash types (i.e., total, severe, and non-motorized mode crashes) are developed based on the three zonal systems without and with consideration of spatial autocorrelation. The study proposes a method to compare the modeling performance of the three types of geographic units at different spatial configurations through a grid based framework. Specifically, the study region is partitioned to grids of various sizes and the model prediction accuracy of the various macro models is considered within these grids of various sizes. These model comparison results for all crash types indicated that the models based on TADs consistently offer a better performance compared to the others. Besides, the models considering spatial autocorrelation outperform the ones that do not consider it. Based on the modeling results and motivation for developing the different zonal systems, it is recommended using CTs for socio-demographic data collection, employing TAZs for transportation demand forecasting, and adopting TADs for transportation safety planning. The findings from this study can help practitioners select appropriate zonal systems for traffic crash modeling, which leads to develop more efficient policies to enhance transportation safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  12. GOZCARDS Source Temperature 1 month L4 10 degree Zonal Averages on a Vertical Pressure Grid V1 (GozSmlpT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Temperature 1 month L4 10 degree Zonal Averages on a Vertical Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpT) contains zonal means and related...

  13. Structure of Triton's atmosphere from the occultation of Tr176

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, B.; Mousis, O.; Beisker, W.; Hummel, E.; Hubbard, W. B.; Hill, R.; Reitsema, H. J.; Anderson, P.; Ball, L.; Downs, B.; Hutcheon, S.; Moy, M.; Nielsen, G.; Pink, I.; Walters, R.

    1998-09-01

    The occultation of the star Tr176 by Triton (Mc Donald & Elliot, AJ 109, 1352, 1995) was observed on 18 July 1997 from three stations in Queensland, Australia (Bundaberg, Ducabrook and Lochington) and one station in Texas, USA (Brownsville). All observations were made with CCD (no filter) and with portable C14 telescopes, except at Bundaberg, where a fixed 48-cm telescope was used. Time sampling rate ranges from 0.33 sec (Bundaberg) to 0.66 sec (Ducabrook and Lochington), with the intermediate value 0.5 sec at Brownsville. Isothermal fits were performed to the lightcurves in order to determine the isothermal temperature, T_iso, and the radius at half-level, R_{1/2}, of Triton's atmosphere (assumed to be composed of pure N_2). Considering the level of noise, we cannot detect any departure from isothermal profiles, and we do not see any deviations from spherical shape. A global fit yields T_iso = 53.7 +/- 2 K and R_{1/2} = 1456 +/- 3 km. We also derive the pressure at 1400 km: p1400 = 1.9 +/- 0.3 mu bars. We will discuss these results and compare them with previous works obtained by Voyager teams from the 1989 observations, and by Olkin et al. (Icarus 129, 178, 1997), who analyze two Triton occultations observed in July 1993 (Tr60) and August 1995 (Tr148). We observe a general increase of pressure at 1400 km, since Olkin et al. derive p1400 = 1.4 +/- 0.1 mu bars from the Tr148 event. This result is actually confirmed by a recent work by Elliot et al., (Nature 393, 765 1998), who note a global warming on Triton, based in particular on a new HST occultation observation in November 1997 (Tr180).

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of occult fractures of the proximal femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haramati, N. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Unified Dept. of Radiology; Staron, R.B. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons; Barax, C. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Unified Dept. of Radiology; Feldman, F. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of the painful hip in the elderly osteoporotic patient with normal plain radiographs can be difficult. We studied 15 osteopenic patients with normal plain radiographs and suspected hip fractures with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and found MR to be an excellent aid in detecting occult fractures. A clear fracture was seen in 10 of the 15 patients, who then underwent surgical repair based on the MR study. The remaining patients had no MR-demonstrable fracture and were successfully treated nonoperatively. Some believe that a negative bone scan in this population of patients should be repeated within 3 days prior to a definitive ``no fracture`` decision being made. Unfortunately, bone scanning lacks spatial resolution, and increased osteoblastic activity may be caused by other pathologic processes besides fracture. Two of the 15 patients had MR-demonstrated bone infarcts near the fracture. One patient also had femoral head osteonecrosis on the side of the fracture. One patient with metastatic prostatic carcinoma had a hip fracture and one patient with metastatic breast carcinoma had no fracture. Not only is MR imaging an excellent technique for delineating occult fractures, but due to its spatial resolution, associated bone disorders adjacent to fractures can be detected in most instances. From a cost perspective, rapid diagnosis and early treatment of an occult femoral fracture is advisable. A reduced hospital stay pending diagnosis and the early institution of definitive therapy also decrease the chance that a simple non-displaced fracture will displace and require more complex management with resultant increased morbidity and cost. We propose that, especially in elderly, osteopenic patients with normal plain radiographs and a high index of suspicion for hip fracture, MR can serve as the sole additional imaging study in most instances. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of occult fractures of the proximal femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, N.; Staron, R.B.; Barax, C.; Feldman, F.

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of the painful hip in the elderly osteoporotic patient with normal plain radiographs can be difficult. We studied 15 osteopenic patients with normal plain radiographs and suspected hip fractures with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and found MR to be an excellent aid in detecting occult fractures. A clear fracture was seen in 10 of the 15 patients, who then underwent surgical repair based on the MR study. The remaining patients had no MR-demonstrable fracture and were successfully treated nonoperatively. Some believe that a negative bone scan in this population of patients should be repeated within 3 days prior to a definitive ''no fracture'' decision being made. Unfortunately, bone scanning lacks spatial resolution, and increased osteoblastic activity may be caused by other pathologic processes besides fracture. Two of the 15 patients had MR-demonstrated bone infarcts near the fracture. One patient also had femoral head osteonecrosis on the side of the fracture. One patient with metastatic prostatic carcinoma had a hip fracture and one patient with metastatic breast carcinoma had no fracture. Not only is MR imaging an excellent technique for delineating occult fractures, but due to its spatial resolution, associated bone disorders adjacent to fractures can be detected in most instances. From a cost perspective, rapid diagnosis and early treatment of an occult femoral fracture is advisable. A reduced hospital stay pending diagnosis and the early institution of definitive therapy also decrease the chance that a simple non-displaced fracture will displace and require more complex management with resultant increased morbidity and cost. We propose that, especially in elderly, osteopenic patients with normal plain radiographs and a high index of suspicion for hip fracture, MR can serve as the sole additional imaging study in most instances. (orig.)

  16. Combined parathyroid adenoma and an occult papillary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahid N.; Al-Saihati, Basima A.; Butt, Mohammad S.

    2004-01-01

    Although the pathological association of thyroid and parathyroid disease is common, the association of both parathyroid adenoma and thyroid cancer is rare. We report here a case of a 45-year-old saudi women who diagnosed to have primary hyperparathyrodism due to single parathyroid adenoma as confirmed biochemically and radiologically. At operation, the adenoma was found to be an intrathyroid and therefore a thyroid lobectomy was performed. Histology of the excised lobe revealed in addition to the intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma a concurrent occult thyroid papillary carcinoma. The interesting association is discussed based on a literature review. (author)

  17. Wave Optics Based LEO-LEO Radio Occultation Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2016-01-01

    optics based retrieval chain is used on a number of examples and the retrieved atmospheric parameters are compared to the parameters from a global ECMWF analysis model. This model is used in a forward propagator that simulates the electromagnetic field amplitudes and phases at the receiver on board...... receiver on board a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite. The technique is based on the Doppler shift imposed, by the atmosphere, on the signal emitted from the GPS satellite. Two LEO satellites are assumed in the occultations discussed in this paper and the retrieval is also dependent on the decrease...

  18. Presentation of occult Chiari I malformation following spinal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan P Ankichetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiari I malformation (CM-I manifests with tonsillar herniation below foramen magnum. These patients are at high risk of respiratory depression and bulbar dysfunction in the perioperative period with underlying obstructive sleep apnea. However, the safe use of both general and regional anaesthesia has been documented in a known CM-I parturients. We describe the successful management of a patient who had hypercapnic respiratory failure in the post-anaesthetic care unit following an uneventful subarachnoid block for left knee replacement surgery. This patient was retrospectively diagnosed with occult CM-I and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea in the postoperative period.

  19. Occult HBV Infection: A Faceless Enemy in Liver Cancer Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Morales-Romero; Gustavo Vargas; Rebeca García-Román

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) represents a worldwide public health problem; the virus is present in one third of the global population. However, this rate may in fact be higher due to occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI). This condition is characterized by the presence of the viral genome in the liver of individuals sero-negative for the virus surface antigen (HBsAg). The causes of the absence of HBsAg in serum are unknown, however, mutations have been identified that produce variants not r...

  20. Occult microscopic endometriosis: undetectable by laparoscopy in normal peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khaleque Newaz; Fujishita, Akira; Kitajima, Michio; Hiraki, Koichi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2014-03-01

    Is there any occurrence of hidden (occult) endometriotic lesions in normal peritoneum of women with and without visible endometriosis? We detected a slightly higher occurrence of occult microscopic endometriosis (OME) in normal peritoneum of women with visible endometriosis than in control women. Based on a small number of cases, the concept of invisible microscopic endometriosis in visually normal peritoneum has been reported for more than a decade but there is controversy regarding their tissue activity and clinical significance. This case-controlled research study was conducted with prospectively collected normal peritoneal samples from 151 women with and 62 women without visible endometriosis. Normal peritoneal biopsy specimens from different pelvic sites of were collected during laparoscopy. A histological search of all peritoneal biopsy specimens for the detection of invisible endometriosis was done by immunoreaction to Ber-EP4 (epithelial cell marker), CD10 (stromal cell marker) and Calretinin (mesothelial cell marker). Tissue expression of estrogen/progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and cell proliferation marker, Ki-67, was performed by immunohistochemistry to identify tissue activity. Three different patterns of OME were detected based on (I) the presence of typical gland/stroma, (II) reactive hyperplastic change of endometrioid epithelial cells with surrounding stroma and (III) single-layered epithelium-lined cystic lesions with surrounding stroma. A higher tendency toward the occurrence of OME was found in women with visible endometriosis (15.2%, 23/151) compared with control women (6.4%, 4/62) (P = 0.06, χ(2) test). The epithelial cells and/or stromal cells of OME lesions were immunoreactive to Ber-EP4 and CD10 but not reactive to Calretinin. ER and PR expression was observed in all patterns of OME lesions. Ki-67 index was significantly higher in pattern I/II OME lesions than in pattern III OME lesions (Pendometriosis due to the presence of adhesions in

  1. Calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale using occultation diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. H.; Morrison, D.; Telesco, C. M.; Brunk, W. E.

    1982-10-01

    The paper describes a new approach to the calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale, which relies on recent accurate occultation measurements of the diameters of 2 Pallas (Wasserman et al., 1979) and 3 Juno (Millis et al., 1981), and the Voyager diameter of J4 Callisto, as well as IR photometry of these objects obtained with the NASA 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility. It is shown that this calibration is internally consistent to better than 5%, and probably has an absolute accuracy of + or - 5%. It is noted that a revision of the TRIAD radiometric diameters downward is required to bring them into agreement with the new calibration.

  2. Rapid access imaging for occult fractured neck of femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; De Rover, W S; Dawson, S; Moran, C; Sahota, O

    2015-01-01

    We completed a full audit cycle to assess waiting times for inpatients with suspected occult femoral neck fracture to get MRI scan, identify the causes of delay and implement the changes to reduce the waiting times. We have proved that inpatient MRI waiting times can significantly be reduced by a targeted approach. The timely management of hip fractures is now underpinned by NICE Guidance, June 2011. This includes a statement that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be offered if occult femoral neck fracture is suspected and that MRI should be made available within 24 hours. We completed a full audit cycle: (1) analyse the time taken for inpatient MRI to be performed for suspected occult femoral neck fractures, (2) identify correctable reasons for delay, (3) develop and implement changes and (4) re-audit. Data was collected from the computerised radiology information system on consecutive patients between 01/04/2010 and 31/03/2012. This data was presented at a number of directorate audit meetings. Following the development and implementation of targeted improvements, a prospective re-audit was carried out between 01/08/2012 and 31/07/2013. After the initial audit, various reasons of delay were identified. The correctable causes for delay were (1) duty radiologist not directly contacted by clinician to request urgent scan, (2) slow vetting and protocoling of electronic requests, (3) resistance to weekend scanning and (4) delay in completing MRI safety questionnaire. After implementing strategies to address these remediable causes of delay, the re-audit demonstrated a 16% improvement in patients scanned within 24 h. The mean waiting time to get an MRI was 2,025.4 min (SD 2,406.4) for the baseline audit and 1,374 min (SD 1,635.7) for the re-audit. Mean difference is 651.4 min (95% CI 85.21, 1,217.5; p = 0.0243). MRI is a useful and sensitive tool to investigate occult femoral neck fracture. Inpatient MRI waiting times can significantly be reduced by a targeted

  3. ANGIODYSPLASIA OF THE SMALL INTESTINE — A RARE CAUSE OF OCCULT GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature shows the causes of occult gastrointestinal bleeding, and reports the role of angiodysplasias (arteriovenous malformations in their development. There are presented results of own research — identifying by the method of capsule endoscopy of arteriovenous malformation of the small intestine of large size, which was the cause of occult gastrointestinal bleeding, recurrent for 14 years.

  4. Multiple surface antigen mutations in five blood donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Torres, P.; Ontañón, A.; Ponte, L. González; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Lelie, P. N.; Hemert, F. J. van; Boot, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA while the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) remains undetectable. The HBV genomes in five asymptomatic blood donors with occult HBV infection and low viremia ( <10 to 1,000 HBV DNA copies/mL, genotype D) were studied. An

  5. Dynamical performance for science-mode stationkeeping with an external occulter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirbu, Dan; Karsten, Christian Vad; Kasdin, N Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    An external occulter flown in precise formation with a telescope is being considered for high-contrast direct imaging of exoplanets as a viable mission scenario. In this paper, the dynamics about the Sun-Earth L2 region for an occulter-telescope constellation are considered in conjunction...

  6. Occult constipation: faecal retention as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsbers, Carolien F M; Kneepkens, C M Frank; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Büller, Hans A

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children is generally believed to be functional. In practice, many children with RAP become pain-free with laxative therapy. The aims of the study were to establish the role of (occult) constipation in RAP and to investigate whether patients diagnosed with (occult) constipation could be identified by history and physical examination. During 2 years, all patients (age 4-16 years, secondary referral) fulfilling Apley criteria of RAP were included. After exclusion of gastrointestinal infections and food intolerance, laxatives were advised when pain persisted. (Occult) constipation was defined as 'abdominal pain disappearing with laxative treatment and not reappearing within a 6 month follow up period'; 'occult constipation' was diagnosed in patients who did not fulfil the Rome criteria of constipation. Two hundred children (87 M; median age 8.8 years) were evaluated. (Occult) constipation was found in 92 patients (46 %). Of these, 18 had considerable relief of pain when treated for a somatic cause but experienced complete relief only after laxative measures; they were considered to have two diagnoses. Using multivariate analysis, a simple model was developed with cystitis in past history, early satiety and flatulence as predictors for (occult) constipation. The risk of (occult) constipation ranged from 18/58 if no predictor was present to 4/4 if all three were present. Laxatives played a pivotal role in the recovery of patients with RAP. We developed a simple model to identify patients at risk of having (occult) constipation.

  7. James Webb Space Telescope Observations of Stellar Occultations by Solar System Bodies and Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; French, R. G.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Stansberry, J.; Lin, Z-Y.; Zhang, Z-W.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, Th.; Ortiz, J. L.; Braga-Ribas, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of Solar System bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun–Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a byproduct of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  8. Wave propagation simulation of radio occultations based on ECMWF refractivity profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a complete radio occultation simulation environment, including realistic refractivity profiles, wave propagation modeling, instrument modeling, and bending angle retrieval. The wave propagator is used to simulate radio occultation measurements. The radio waves are propagated...... of radio occultations. The output from the wave propagator simulator is used as input to a Full Spectrum Inversion retrieval module which calculates geophysical parameters. These parameters can be compared to the ECMWF atmospheric profiles. The comparison can be used to reveal system errors and get...... a better understanding of the physics. The wave propagation simulations will in this paper also be compared to real measurements. These radio occultations have been exposed to the same atmospheric conditions as the radio occultations simulated by the wave propagator. This comparison reveals that precise...

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of oblique chest radiograph for occult pneumothorax: comparison with ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shokei; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Orita, Tomohiko; Shimizu, Masayuki; Hayashida, Kei; Kazamaki, Taku; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kishikawa, Masanobu; Yamazaki, Motoyasu; Kitano, Mitsuhide

    2016-01-01

    An occult pneumothorax is a pneumothorax that is not seen on a supine chest X-ray but is detected by computed tomography scanning. However, critical patients are difficult to transport to the computed tomography suite. We previously reported a method to detect occult pneumothorax using oblique chest radiography (OXR). Several authors have also reported that ultrasonography is an effective technique for detecting occult pneumothorax. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of OXR in the diagnosis of the occult pneumothorax and to compare OXR with ultrasonography. All consecutive blunt chest trauma patients with clinically suspected pneumothorax on arrival at the emergency department were prospectively included at our tertiary-care center. The patients underwent OXR and ultrasonography, and underwent computed tomography scans as the gold standard. Occult pneumothorax size on computed tomography was classified as minuscule, anterior, or anterolateral. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were enrolled. Of the 70 occult pneumothoraces found in the 318 thoraces, 19 were minuscule, 32 were anterior, and 19 were anterolateral. The sensitivity and specificity of OXR for detecting occult pneumothorax was 61.4 % and 99.2 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of lung ultrasonography was 62.9 % and 98.8 %, respectively. Among 27 occult pneumothoraces that could not be detected by OXR, 16 were minuscule and 21 could be conservatively managed without thoracostomy. OXR appears to be as good method as lung ultrasonography in the detection of large occult pneumothorax. In trauma patients who are difficult to transfer to computed tomography scan, OXR may be effective at detecting occult pneumothorax with a risk of progression.

  10. Fluctuations of radio occultation signals in sounding the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Valery; Gorbunov, Michael E.; Sofieva, Viktoria F.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the relationships that link the observed fluctuation spectra of the amplitude and phase of signals used for the radio occultation sounding of the Earth's atmosphere, with the spectra of atmospheric inhomogeneities. Our analysis employs the approximation of the phase screen and of weak fluctuations. We make our estimates for the following characteristic inhomogeneity types: (1) the isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence and (2) the anisotropic saturated internal gravity waves. We obtain the expressions for the variances of the amplitude and phase fluctuations of radio occultation signals as well as their estimates for the typical parameters of inhomogeneity models. From the GPS/MET observations, we evaluate the spectra of the amplitude and phase fluctuations in the altitude interval from 4 to 25 km in the middle and polar latitudes. As indicated by theoretical and experimental estimates, the main contribution into the radio signal fluctuations comes from the internal gravity waves. The influence of the Kolmogorov turbulence is negligible. We derive simple relationships that link the parameters of internal gravity waves and the statistical characteristics of the radio signal fluctuations. These results may serve as the basis for the global monitoring of the wave activity in the stratosphere and upper troposphere.

  11. Waves in the Martian Atmosphere: Results from MGS Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.; Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    Temperatures retrieved from Mars Global Surveyor radio occultations have been searched for evidence of waves. Emphasis has been on the initial series of occultations between 29 deg N and 64 deg S, obtained during the early martian southern summer, L(sub s) = 264 deg - 308 deg. The profiles exhibit an undulatory behavior that is suggestive of vertically propagating waves. wavelengths approximately 10 km are often dominant, but structure on smaller scales is evident. The undulatory structure is most pronounced between latitudes 29 deg N and 10 deg S, usually in regions of "interesting" topography, e.g., in the Tharsis region and near the edge of Syrtis Major. Several temperature profiles, particularly within 30 deg of the equator, exhibit lapse rates that locally become superadiabatic near the 0.4-mbar level or at higher altitudes. This implies that the waves are "breaking" and depositing horizontal momentum into the atmosphere. Such a deposition may play an important role in modulating the atmospheric winds, and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of these momentum transfers can provide important clues to understanding how the global circulation is maintained.

  12. Influence of Ionospheric Weather on GNSS Radio Occultation Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Schreiner, W. S.; Pedatella, N. M.; Kuo, Y. H.

    2016-12-01

    Transient loss of lock (LOL) is one of the key space weather effects on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Based on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) observations during 2007-2011, we have analyzed the signal cycle slip (CS) occurrence comprehensively and its correlation to the ionospheric weather phenomena such as sporadic E (Es), equatorial F region irregularity (EFI), and the ionospheric equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The high vertical resolution of RO observations enables us to distinguish the CS resulting from different ionospheric layers clearly on a global scale. In the E layer, the CS is dominated by the Es occurrence, while in the F layer, the CS is mainly related to the EIA and EFI at low and equatorial latitudes. In the polar region, the CS is primarily related to polar cap electron density gradients. The overall average CS (> 6 cycles) occurrence is 23% per occultation, with the E (50-150 km) and F (150-600 km) layers contributing 8.3% and 14.7%, respectively. Awareness of the effect of the ionospheric weather on the CS of the low-Earth-orbit (LEO)-based GNSS signal could be beneficial to a variety of applications, including the LEO-based GNSS data processing and the corresponding hardware/firmware design.

  13. 'Trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce': Albert Moll's critique of occultism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2012-04-01

    In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his 1924 book Der Spiritismus [Spiritism]. Supported by some of Berlin's most prominent occultists, the plaintiff--the medium's husband--argued that Moll's use of terms such as 'trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce' in reference to Vollhardt's phenomena had been libellous. In the three-part trial that followed, however, Moll's putative affront to the medium--of which he was eventually acquitted--was overshadowed, on the one hand, by a debate over the scientific status of parapsychology, and on the other, by the question of who--parapsychologists, occultists, psychiatrists or jurists--was entitled to claim epistemic authority over the occult. This paper will use the Rudloff-Moll trial as a means of examining Moll's critique of occultism, not only as it stood in the mid-1920s, but also as it had developed since the 1880s. It will also provide insight into the views of Germany's occultists and parapsychologists, who argued that their legitimate bid for scientific credibility was hindered by Dunkelmänner [obscurantists] such as Albert Moll.

  14. Ex Luna Scientia: The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Occultation Explorer (LOX) is a next-generation mission concept that provides new capabilities for time-domain astrophysics and established the Moon as a platform for nuclear astrophysics. Performance requirements are driven by Type-Ia supernova (SNeIa) science goals that seek to revel details of these profoundly radioactive objects, including their diversity. Primary science objectives include, but are not limited to, probing the fundamental thermonuclear physics processes, performing a census of progenitors and their explosion mechanisms, and evaluating the environmental conditions and intrinsic systematics of these enigmatic objects. LOX provides new capabilities for all-sky, continuous monitoring in the MeV regime (0.1-10 MeV) by leveraging the Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT). Key benefits of the LOX/LOT approach include maximizing the ratio of sensitive-to-total deployed mass, low implementation risk, and demonstrated operational simplicity that leverages extensive experience with planetary orbital geochemistry investigations; LOX also enables long-term monitoring of MeV gamma-ray sources, a critical capability for SNeIa science. Proof-of-principle efforts validated all aspects of the mission using previously deployed lunar science assets, and led to the first high-energy gamma-ray source detected at the Moon. LOX mission performance, development progress, and expectations for science investigations will be presented.

  15. Comparison of ionospheric radio occultation CHAMP data with IRI 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available GPS radio occultation measurements on board low Earth orbiting satellites can provide vertical electron density profiles of the ionosphere from satellite orbit heights down to the bottomside. Ionospheric radio occultation (IRO measurements carried out onboard the German CHAMP satellite mission since 11 April 2001 were used to derive vertical electron density profiles (EDP’s on a routine basis. About 150 vertical electron density profiles may be retrieved per day thus providing a huge data basis for testing and developing ionospheric models. Although the validation of the EDP retrievals is not yet completed, the paper addresses a systematic comparison of about 78 000 electron density profiles derived from CHAMP IRO data with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2001. The results are discussed for quite different geophysical conditions, e.g. as a function of latitude, local time and geomagnetic activity. The comparison of IRO data with corresponding IRI data indicates that IRI generally overestimates the upper part of the ionosphere whereas it underestimates the lower part of the ionosphere under high solar activity conditions. In a first order correction this systematic deviation could be compensated by introducing a height dependence correction factor in IRI profiling.

  16. GNSS Clock Error Impacts on Radio Occultation Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jan; Sokolovskiy, Sergey; Schreiner, Bill; Yoon, Yoke

    2017-04-01

    We assess the impacts of GPS and GLONASS clock errors on radio occultation retrieval of bending angle, refractivity, and temperature from low Earth orbit. The major contributing factor is the interpretation of GNSS clock offsets sampled at 30 sec or longer intervals. Using 1 Hz GNSS clock estimates as truth we apply several interpolation and fitting schemes to evaluate how they affect the accuracy of atmospheric retrieval products. The results are organized by GPS and GLONASS space vehicle and the GNSS clock interpolation/fitting scheme. We find that bending angle error is roughly similar for all current GPS transmitters (about 0.7 mcrad) but note some differences related to the type of atomic oscillator onboard the transmitter satellite. GLONASS bending angle errors show more variation over the constellation and are approximately two times larger than GPS. An investigation of the transmitter clock spectra reveals this is due to more power in periods between 2-10 sec. Retrieved refractivity and temperature products show clear differences between GNSS satellite generations, and indicate that GNSS clocks sampled at intervals smaller than 5 sec significantly improve accuracy, particularly for GLONASS. We conclude by summarizing the tested GNSS clock estimation and application strategies in the context of current and future radio occultation missions.

  17. Drastic changes in Pluto atmosphere revealed by stellar occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, B.; Widemann, T.; Lellouch, T.; Colas, F.; Roques, F.; Veillet, C.; Cuillandre, J.-C.

    Pluto's tenuous nitrogen atmosphere was first detected by stellar occultations from Israel in 1985, and more extensively studied during a second event from Australia in June 1988. This atmosphere is poorly known, however, due to the rarity of these events. We report here the first Pluto occultation observations in 2002 (July 20 and august 21), after a lapse of fourteen years. The July data were gathered from northern Chile with a portable telescope, in the frame of a large campaign in South America, while the August event was observed from Hawaii (CFHT). Results of our analysis reveal drastic changes undergone by the atmosphere since 1988, namely a two-fold pressure increase, revealing the effect of seasonal changes on Pluto over this fourteen year interval. This provides insights into surface-atmosphere interactions and temporal variability on distant icy bodies of the solar system. Spikes observed in the CFHT lightcurve betrays the presence of a dynamical activity, either associated with shear instabilities caused by strong winds, or with a hypothetical troposphere near the surface of the planet.

  18. Results from the 2009 April 21 Pluto Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie; Buie, M. W.; Olkin, C. B.; Young, E. F.; Wasserman, L. W.; Regester, J.; Spencer, J. R.; Shoemaker, K.; Tamblyn, P. M.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Van Heerden, H. J.

    2009-09-01

    We observed the 2009 April 21 occultation by Pluto of a I=14.6 from five sites in Africa: (1) a 0.35-m telescope at Les Makes Observatory at Reunion Island (L. Wasserman, J. Regester), (2) a portable 0.35-m telescope at Mokuti Lodge, Namibia, near the east entrance of Etosha National Park (M. Buie, L. Young), (3) a 0.75-m telescope at HESS, Namibia (E. Young, J. Spencer), (4) a 1.5-m telescope at Boyden Observatory (C. Olkin, K. Shoemaker, H. Van Heerden) and (5) the 1.9-m telescope at SAAO (P. Tamblyn, A. Gulbis). Data was acquired at all five sites. Reunion Island turned out to be north of the shadow. A grazing event was observed at Etosha. HESS experienced scattered clouds; ingress was observed through up to 5 magnitudes of extinction. Deep occultations were observed at Boyden and SAAO. These lightcurves will allow us to measure the pressure, temperature, and bulk abundance of Pluto's changing atmosphere. We will present the combined analysis of these lightcurves.

  19. Progress in Turbulence Detection via GNSS Occultation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, L. B.; Goodrich, R. K.; Axelrad, P.; Barlow, E.

    2012-01-01

    The increased availability of radio occultation (RO) data offers the ability to detect and study turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere. An analysis of how RO data can be used to determine the strength and location of turbulent regions is presented. This includes the derivation of a model for the power spectrum of the log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of the permittivity (or index of refraction) field. The bulk of the paper is then concerned with the estimation of the model parameters. Parameter estimators are introduced and some of their statistical properties are studied. These estimators are then applied to simulated log-amplitude RO signals. This includes the analysis of global statistics derived from a large number of realizations, as well as case studies that illustrate various specific aspects of the problem. Improvements to the basic estimation methods are discussed, and their beneficial properties are illustrated. The estimation techniques are then applied to real occultation data. Only two cases are presented, but they illustrate some of the salient features inherent in real data.

  20. Anisotropic turbulence and zonal jets in rotating flows with a β-effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Galperin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical studies of small-scale forced, two-dimensional turbulent flows on the surface of a rotating sphere have revealed strong large-scale anisotropization that culminates in the emergence of quasi-steady sets of alternating zonal jets, or zonation. The kinetic energy spectrum of such flows also becomes strongly anisotropic. For the zonal modes, a steep spectral distribution, E(n=CZ (Ω/R2 n-5, is established, where CZ=O(1 is a non-dimensional coefficient, Ω is the angular velocity, and R is the radius of the sphere, respectively. For other, non-zonal modes, the classical, Kolmogorov-Batchelor-Kraichnan, spectral law is preserved. This flow regime, referred to as a zonostrophic regime, appears to have wide applicability to large-scale planetary and terrestrial circulations as long as those are characterized by strong rotation, vertically stable stratification and small Burger numbers. The well-known manifestations of this regime are the banded disks of the outer planets of our Solar System. Relatively less known examples are systems of narrow, subsurface, alternating zonal jets throughout all major oceans discovered in state-of-the-art, eddy-permitting simulations of the general oceanic circulation. Furthermore, laboratory experiments recently conducted using the Coriolis turntable have basically confirmed that the lateral gradient of ''planetary vorticity'' (emulated via the topographic β-effect is the primary cause of the zonation and that the latter is entwined with the development of the strongly anisotropic kinetic energy spectrum that tends to attain the same zonal and non-zonal distributions, −5 and , respectively, in both the slope and the magnitude, as the corresponding spectra in other environmental conditions. The non-dimensional coefficient CZ in the −5 spectral law appears to be invariant, , in a variety of simulated and natural flows. This paper provides a brief review of the zonostrophic regime. The review includes the

  1. Characteristics and Mechanisms of Zonal Oscillation of Western Pacific Subtropical High in Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, W.; Ren, X.; Hu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The zonal oscillation of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) influences the weather and climate over East Asia significantly. This study investigates the features and mechanisms of the zonal oscillation of the WPSH during summer on subseasonal time scales. The zonal oscillation index of the WPSH is defined by normalized subseasonal geopotential height anomaly at 500hPa averaged over the WPSH's western edge (110° - 140°E, 10° - 30°N). The index shows a predominant oscillation with a period of 10-40 days. Large positive index indicates a strong anticyclonic anomaly over East Asia and its coastal region south of 30°N at both 850hPa and 500hPa. The WPSH stretches more westward accompanied by warmer SST anomalies beneath the western edge of the WPSH. Meanwhile, above-normal precipitation is seen over the Yangtze-Huaihe river basin and below-normal precipitation over the south of the Yangtze River. Negative index suggests a more eastward position of WPSH. The anomalies in circulation and SST for negative index are almost the mirror image of those for the positive index. In early summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is affected by both the East Asia/Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern and the Silk road pattern (SRP). The positive (negative) phase of the EAP pattern is characterized by a low-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over the subtropical western Pacific, indicating the western extension (eastward retreat) of the WPSH. Comparing with the EAP pattern, the SRP forms an upper-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly in mid-latitudes of East Asia, and then leads to the westward (eastward) movement of the WPSH. In late summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is mainly affected by the EAP pattern, because the EAP pattern in late summer is stronger than that in early summer. The zonal shift of the WPSH is also influenced by the subseasonal air-sea interaction locally. During the early stage of WPSH's westward stretch, the local SST anomaly in late summer is

  2. Prevalence of occult adrenal insufficiency and the prognostic value of a short corticotropin stimulation test in patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Muzaffar; Shah, Zafar Amin; Wani, Fayaz Ahmad; Wahid, Abdul; Parveen, Shaheena; Nazir, Arjumand

    2009-01-01

    Corticosteroid insufficiency in acute illness can be difficult to discern clinically. Occult adrenal insufficiency (i.e., Deltamax 34 microg/dL, and maximum variation after test (Deltamax) of 9 microg/dL; a 28-day mortality rate of 33%),(II) intermediate (T0 > 34 microg/dL and Deltamax> 9 microg/dL or T0 34 microg/dL and Deltamax < or =9 microg/dL; a 28-day mortality rate of 82%). A short corticotropin test using low-dose corticotropin (1 microg) has a good prognostic value. High basal cortisol and a low increase in cortisol on corticotropin stimulation test are predictors of a poor outcome in patients with septic shock.

  3. Pediatric Sepsis Secondary to an Occult Dental Abscess: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Peter; Hellmich, Thomas; Homme, James

    2017-05-01

    In general, hematogenous spread of bacteria in children is uncommon. Bacteremia, however, is a known complication of dental procedures and severe caries, but is infrequently associated with primary, asymptomatic, non-procedural-related, dentoalveolar infection. The patient is a 7-year-old previously healthy boy who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with "fever, mottling, and shaking chills." In the ED, he appeared systemically ill with fever, mottling, delayed capillary refill, and rigors. Physical examination by three different physicians failed to reveal any focus of infection. Laboratory evaluation, including blood cultures, was obtained. The patient later developed unilateral facial swelling and pain, and a dentoalveolar abscess was found. He was started on antibiotics, underwent pulpectomy and eventually, extraction, prior to improvement in symptoms. Blood cultures grew two separate anaerobic bacteria (Veillonella and Lactobacillus). This is, to our knowledge, one of the first reported cases of pediatric sepsis with two different anaerobic organisms secondary to occult dentoalveolar abscess in a pediatric patient. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: It is imperative for emergency physicians to recognize the possibility of pediatric sepsis in the setting of acute maxillary or mandibular pain, as well as in patients for whom no clear focus of infection can be found. This is particularly important for those who appear ill at presentation or meet systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and would benefit from further laboratory evaluation, including blood cultures, and possibly antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using a Zonal Model To Assess the Effect of a Heated Floor on Thermal Comfort Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhris, Yosr; Gharbi, Leila; Ghrab-Morcos, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    People s perceptions of indoor air quality and thermal comfort are affected by air speed and temperature. We have extended the three-dimensional zonal model, ZAER, to be able to predict the temperature fields and the air distributions between and within rooms in the case of natural convection. This paper presents an application of the new zonal model dealing with the influence of a heated floor of one room upon the winter thermal comfort of an unconditioned Tunisian dwelling. Coupling ZAER with a thermal comfort model allows the assessment of the thermal quality of the dwelling through the prediction of a comfort indicator. The obtained results show that a heated floor can be a useful component to improve thermal comfort in the Tunisian context, even in another room

  5. Algorithms for Zonal Methods and Development of Three Dimensional Mesh Generation Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Spac a f Pln Fiur 1., WelOree WapdSheia)ri ap C ?I -17(x .Y, z (x.___Z Figure 2. Example of Mesh Embedding in Two Dimensions Figure 3. Example of...Navier-Stokes algorithm with a well stretched grid. Such negative arguments may be offset by additional advantages for zonal schemes. For one, steady...Stanford, California ! 11 ABSTRACT T superscript indicating transpose of a matrix An algorithm for generating computational grids x independent variable in

  6. The effect of the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn on its gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-04-01

    The penetration depth of Saturn’s cloud-level winds into its interior is unknown. A possible way of estimating the depth is through measurement of the effect of the winds on the planet’s gravitational field. We use a self-consistent perturbation approach to study how the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn contribute to its gravitational field. An important advantage of this approach is that the variation of its gravitational field solely caused by the winds can be isolated and identified because the leading-order problem accounts exactly for rotational distortion, thereby determining the irregular shape and internal structure of the hydrostatic Saturn. We assume that (i) the zonal winds are maintained by thermal convection in the form of non-axisymmetric columnar rolls and (ii) the internal structure of the winds, because of the Taylor-Proundman theorem, can be uniquely determined by the observed cloud-level winds. We calculate both the variation ΔJn , n = 2, 4, 6 … of the axisymmetric gravitational coefficients Jn caused by the zonal winds and the non-axisymmetric gravitational coefficients ΔJnm produced by the columnar rolls, where m is the azimuthal wavenumber of the rolls. We consider three different cases characterized by the penetration depth 0.36, R S, 0.2, R S and 0.1, R S, where R S is the equatorial radius of Saturn at the 1-bar pressure level. We find that the high-degree gravitational coefficient (J 12 + ΔJ 12) is dominated, in all the three cases, by the effect of the zonal flow with |ΔJ 12/J 12| > 100% and that the size of the non-axisymmetric coefficients ΔJ mn directly reflects the depth and scale of the flow taking place in the Saturnian interior.

  7. Spectroscopic methods for determining of zonal soils erosion (Chuvash Republic, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, V. V.; Vasyukov, S. V.; Usmanov, B. M.; Gainutdinova, G. F.

    2018-01-01

    Results of spectrographic study of zonal soils with different erosion degree on the territory of the Chuvash Republic are given. In the points of spectrographic research, the soil specimens were taken and agrochemically tested. Changes in received spectrograms were analyzed in soils subtypes context with subsequent comparison with agrochemical indicators. The obtained data will help to develop new rapid methods for determining soil fertility parameters for agricultural lands based on spectroscopic physical principles.

  8. Analyses of zonal atmospheric excitation functions and their correlation with polar motion excitation functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nastula

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric influence on the Earth's, rotation can be described by the effective atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM functions. In this study we focus on the analysis of short period variations of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions χ1 and χ2 and their influence on similar variations of polar motion. The global objective analysis data of the Japanese Meteorological Agency for the period 1986–1992 were used to compute the EAAM excitation functions in different latitude belts. Time- and latitude-variable amplitude spectra of variations of these functions with periods shorter than 150 days, containing pressure, pressure with the inverted barometric correction, and wind terms were computed. The spectra show distinct latitude and time variations of the prograde and retrograde oscillations which reach their maxima mainly in mid-latitudes. Prograde and retrograde oscillations with periods of about 40–60 days and about 110–120 days are seen in the spectra of pressure terms of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions. Additionally, correlation coefficients and cross-spectra between variations of the geodetic polar motion and equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions were computed to identify the latitude belts of the globe over which atmospheric circulation changes are correlated mostly with short period variations of the polar motion excitation functions. The correlation coefficients vary in time and latitude and reach maximum values in the northern latitudes from 50°N to 60°N. In the cross-spectra between the polar motion excitation functions and pressure terms of the zonal EAAM excitation functions there are peaks of common prograde oscillations with the periods around 20, 30, 40–50, 60 and 80–150 days and of common retrograde oscillations around 20, 30, 40 and 50–70 days.

  9. Analyses of zonal atmospheric excitation functions and their correlation with polar motion excitation functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nastula

    Full Text Available The atmospheric influence on the Earth's, rotation can be described by the effective atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM functions. In this study we focus on the analysis of short period variations of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions χ1 and χ2 and their influence on similar variations of polar motion. The global objective analysis data of the Japanese Meteorological Agency for the period 1986–1992 were used to compute the EAAM excitation functions in different latitude belts. Time- and latitude-variable amplitude spectra of variations of these functions with periods shorter than 150 days, containing pressure, pressure with the inverted barometric correction, and wind terms were computed. The spectra show distinct latitude and time variations of the prograde and retrograde oscillations which reach their maxima mainly in mid-latitudes. Prograde and retrograde oscillations with periods of about 40–60 days and about 110–120 days are seen in the spectra of pressure terms of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions. Additionally, correlation coefficients and cross-spectra between variations of the geodetic polar motion and equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions were computed to identify the latitude belts of the globe over which atmospheric circulation changes are correlated mostly with short period variations of the polar motion excitation functions. The correlation coefficients vary in time and latitude and reach maximum values in the northern latitudes from 50°N to 60°N. In the cross-spectra between the polar motion excitation functions and pressure terms of the zonal EAAM excitation functions there are peaks of common prograde oscillations with the periods around 20, 30, 40–50, 60 and 80–150 days and of common retrograde oscillations around 20, 30, 40 and 50–70 days.

  10. Biomimetic multidirectional scaffolds for zonal osteochondral tissue engineering via a lyophilization bonding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Drew; Nguyen, Andrew; Wei, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The zonal organization of osteochondral tissue underlies its long term function. Despite this, tissue engineering strategies targeted for osteochondral repair commonly rely on the use of isotropic biomaterials for tissue reconstruction. There exists a need for a new class of highly biomimetic, anisotropic scaffolds that may allow for the engineering of new tissue with zonal properties. To address this need, we report the facile production of monolithic multidirectional collagen-based scaffolds that recapitulate the zonal structure and composition of osteochondral tissue. First, superficial and osseous zone-mimicking scaffolds were fabricated by unidirectional freeze casting collagen-hyaluronic acid and collagen-hydroxyapatite-containing suspensions, respectively. Following their production, a lyophilization bonding process was used to conjoin these scaffolds with a distinct collagen-hyaluronic acid suspension mimicking the composition of the transition zone. Resulting matrices contained a thin, highly aligned superficial zone that interfaced with a cellular transition zone and vertically oriented calcified cartilage and osseous zones. Confocal microscopy confirmed a zone-specific localization of hyaluronic acid, reflecting the depth-dependent increase of glycosaminoglycans in the native tissue. Poorly crystalline, carbonated hydroxyapatite was localized to the calcified cartilage and osseous zones and bordered the transition zone. Compressive testing of hydrated scaffold zones confirmed an increase of stiffness with scaffold depth, where compressive moduli of chondral and osseous zones fell within or near ranges conducive for chondrogenesis or osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. With the combination of these biomimetic architectural and compositional cues, these multidirectional scaffolds hold great promise for the engineering of zonal osteochondral tissue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 948-958, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals

  11. A theory of self-organized zonal flow with fine radial structure in tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Liu, Z. Y.; Xie, T.; Mahajan, S. M.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The (low frequency) zonal flow-ion temperature gradient (ITG) wave system, constructed on Braginskii's fluid model in tokamak, is shown to be a reaction-diffusion-advection system; it is derived by making use of a multiple spatiotemporal scale technique and two-dimensional (2D) ballooning theory. For real regular group velocities of ITG waves, two distinct temporal processes, sharing a very similar meso-scale radial structure, are identified in the nonlinear self-organized stage. The stationary and quasi-stationary structures reflect a particular feature of the poloidal group velocity. The equation set posed to be an initial value problem is numerically solved for JET low mode parameters; the results are presented in several figures and two movies that show the spatiotemporal evolutions as well as the spectrum analysis—frequency-wave number spectrum, auto power spectrum, and Lissajous diagram. This approach reveals that the zonal flow in tokamak is a local traveling wave. For the quasi-stationary process, the cycle of ITG wave energy is composed of two consecutive phases in distinct spatiotemporal structures: a pair of Cavitons growing and breathing slowly without long range propagation, followed by a sudden decay into many Instantons that carry negative wave energy rapidly into infinity. A spotlight onto the motion of Instantons for a given radial position reproduces a Blob-Hole temporal structure; the occurrence as well as the rapid decay of Caviton into Instantons is triggered by zero-crossing of radial group velocity. A sample of the radial profile of zonal flow contributed from 31 nonlinearly coupled rational surfaces near plasma edge is found to be very similar to that observed in the JET Ohmic phase [J. C. Hillesheim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 165002 (2016)]. The theory predicts an interior asymmetric dipole structure associated with the zonal flow that is driven by the gradients of ITG turbulence intensity.

  12. On the fast response of the Southern Ocean to changes in the zonal wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Webb

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Model studies of the Southern Ocean, reported here, show that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current responds within two days to changes in the zonal wind stress at the latitudes of Drake Passage. Further investigation shows that the response is primarily barotropic and that, as one might expect, it is controlled by topography. Analysis of the results show that the changes in the barotropic flow are sufficient to transfer the changed surface wind stress to the underlying topography and that during this initial phase baroclinic processes are not involved.

    The model results also show that the Deacon Cell responds to changes in the wind stress on the same rapid time scale. It is shown that the changes in the Deacon Cell can also be explained by the change in the barotropic velocity field, an increase in the zonal wind stress producing an increased northward flow in shallow regions and southward flow where the ocean is deep. This new explanation is unexpected as previously the Deacon Cell has been thought of as a baroclinic feature of the ocean.

    The results imply that where baroclinic processes do appear to be involved in either the zonal momentum balance of the Southern Ocean or the formation of the Deacon Cell, they are part of the long term baroclinic response of the ocean's density field to the changes in the barotropic flow.

  13. Global observations of the zonal drift speed of equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Immel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Space-based measurements from an imager aboard the high-apogee NASA-IMAGE satellite allows for global-scale observations of nightside ionospheric densities and structure. Such a view cannot be provided by imagers in near-Earth orbit or based on the ground. The IMAGE Spectroscopic Imager (SI isolates the Far-ultraviolet (FUV O I 135.6nm emission which is produced through radiative recombination of O+. These observations clearly show the distribution of FUV emissions of the equatorial airglow bands over the range of local times between the evening terminator to points well after midnight. Determination of plasma drift speeds in these local time sectors is performed by identification and subsequent tracking of localized depressions in the FUV emissions. This determination is made for nearly 200 plasma bubbles in the March-May period of 2002. Important findings of this study include (1 an unambiguous association between Dst and zonal plasma drift speeds, and (2 a longitudinal dependence of the zonal plasma drift speeds, with a peak around the Indian sector. The first effect is attributed to penetrating ring current electric fields, while the second is apparently due to a longitudinal variability in the vertical polarization electric fields that directly affects the zonal plasma drift speeds.

  14. Global observations of the zonal drift speed of equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Immel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Space-based measurements from an imager aboard the high-apogee NASA-IMAGE satellite allows for global-scale observations of nightside ionospheric densities and structure. Such a view cannot be provided by imagers in near-Earth orbit or based on the ground. The IMAGE Spectroscopic Imager (SI isolates the Far-ultraviolet (FUV O I 135.6nm emission which is produced through radiative recombination of O+. These observations clearly show the distribution of FUV emissions of the equatorial airglow bands over the range of local times between the evening terminator to points well after midnight. Determination of plasma drift speeds in these local time sectors is performed by identification and subsequent tracking of localized depressions in the FUV emissions. This determination is made for nearly 200 plasma bubbles in the March-May period of 2002. Important findings of this study include (1 an unambiguous association between Dst and zonal plasma drift speeds, and (2 a longitudinal dependence of the zonal plasma drift speeds, with a peak around the Indian sector. The first effect is attributed to penetrating ring current electric fields, while the second is apparently due to a longitudinal variability in the vertical polarization electric fields that directly affects the zonal plasma drift speeds.

  15. Zonal Detached-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Unsteady Flow over Iced Airfoils

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yue

    2015-07-23

    This paper presentsamultiscale finite-element formulation for the second modeofzonal detached-eddy simulation. The multiscale formulation corrects the lack of stability of the standard Galerkin formulation by incorporating the effect of unresolved scales to the grid (resolved) scales. The stabilization terms arise naturally and are free of userdefined stability parameters. Validation of the method is accomplished via the turbulent flow over tandem cylinders. The boundary-layer separation, free shear-layer rollup, vortex shedding from the upstream cylinder, and interaction with the downstream cylinder are well reproduced. Good agreement with experimental measurements gives credence to the accuracy of zonal detached-eddy simulation in modeling turbulent separated flows. A comprehensive study is then conducted on the performance degradation of ice-contaminated airfoils. NACA 23012 airfoil with a spanwise ice ridge and Gates Learjet Corporation-305 airfoil with a leading-edge horn-shape glaze ice are selected for investigation. Appropriate spanwise domain size and sufficient grid density are determined to enhance the reliability of the simulations. A comparison of lift coefficient and flowfield variables demonstrates the added advantage that the zonal detached-eddy simulation model brings to the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Spectral analysis and instantaneous visualization of turbulent structures are also highlighted via zonal detached-eddy simulation. Copyright © 2015 by the CFD Lab of McGill University. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.

  16. Analysis of equatorial plasma bubble zonal drift velocities in the Pacific sector by imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Using 1024 nights of data from 2002–2005 taken by the Cornell Narrow Field Imager (CNFI, we examine equatorial plasma bubble (EPB zonal drift velocity characteristics. CNFI is located at the Maui Space Surveillance Site on the Haleakala Volcano (geographic: 20.71° N, 203.83° E; geomagnetic: 21.03° N, 271.84° E on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The imager is set up to view in a magnetic field-aligned geometry in order to maximize its resolution. We calculate the zonal drift velocities using two methods: a correlation routine and an EPB west-wall intensity gradient tracking routine. These two methods yield sizeable differences in the evenings, suggesting strong pre-local midnight EPB development. An analysis of the drift velocities is also performed based on the three influencing factors of season, geomagnetic activity, and solar activity. In general, our data match published trends and drift characteristics from past studies. However, we find that the drift magnitudes are much lower than results from other imagers at similar latitude sectors but at different longitude sectors, suggesting that zonal drift velocities have a longitudinal dependence.

  17. Multi-scale-nonlinear interactions among micro-turbulence, magnetic islands, and zonal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M.; Ramos, J.J.

    2006-10-01

    We investigate multi-scale-nonlinear interactions among micro-instabilities, macro-scale tearing instabilities and zonal flows, by solving reduced two-fluid equations numerically. We find that the nonlinear interactions of these instabilities trigger macro-scale MHD activity after an equilibrium is formed by a balance between the micro-turbulence and zonal flow. This MHD activity breaks magnetic surfaces then this breaking spreads the micro-turbulence over the plasma. These multi-scale-nonlinear interactions can explain the evolution of fluctuation observed in torus plasma experiments because micro-turbulence and MHD instabilities usually appear in the plasma at the same time, in spite of the fact that effects of micro-turbulence and MHD instabilities on plasma confinement have been investigated separately. For instance, MHD activities are observed in reversed shear tokamak plasmas with a transport barrier related to zonal flows and micro-turbulence, and micro-turbulence is observed in Large Helical Device plasmas that usually exhibit MHD activities. (author)

  18. MJO-Related Intraseasonal Variation in the Stratosphere: Gravity Waves and Zonal Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. J.; Grimsdell, A. W.; Stephan, C. C.; Hoffmann, L.

    2018-01-01

    Previous work has shown eastward migrating regions of enhanced temperature variance due to long-vertical wavelength stratospheric gravity waves that are in sync with intraseasonal precipitation and tropopause wind anomalies associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Here the origin of these intraseasonal gravity wave variations is investigated with a set of idealized gravity wave-resolving model experiments. The experiments specifically test whether tropopause winds act to control gravity wave propagation into the stratosphere by a critical level filtering mechanism or play a role in gravity wave generation through an obstacle source effect. All experiments use identical convective latent heating variability, but the large-scale horizontal wind profile is varied to investigate relationships between stratospheric gravity waves and zonal winds at different levels. Results show that the observed long vertical wavelength gravity waves are primarily sensitive to stratospheric zonal wind variations, while tropopause wind variations have only a very small effect. Thus, neither the critical level filter mechanism nor the obstacle source play much of a role in the observed intraseasonal gravity wave variations. Instead, the results suggest that the stratospheric waves follow the MJO precipitation sources, and tropopause wind anomalies follow the same sources. We further find evidence of intraseasonal wave drag effects on the stratospheric circulation in reanalyzed winds. The results suggest that waves drive intraseasonal stratospheric zonal wind anomalies that descend in altitude with increasing MJO phases 3 through 7. Eastward anomalies descend farther than westward, suggesting that MJO-related stratospheric waves cause larger eastward drag forces.

  19. Tidal signatures of the thermospheric mass density and zonal wind at midlatitude: CHAMP and GRACE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xiong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available By using the accelerometer measurements from CHAMP and GRACE satellites, the tidal signatures of the thermospheric mass density and zonal wind at midlatitudes have been analyzed in this study. The results show that the mass density and zonal wind at southern midlatitudes are dominated by a longitudinal wave-1 pattern. The most prominent tidal components in mass density and zonal wind are the diurnal tides D0 and DW2 and the semidiurnal tides SW1 and SW3. This is consistent with the tidal signatures in the F region electron density at midlatitudes as reported by Xiong and Lühr (2014. These same tidal components are observed both in the thermospheric and ionospheric quantities, supporting a mechanism that the non-migrating tides in the upper atmosphere are excited in situ by ion–neutral interactions at midlatitudes, consistent with the modeling results of Jones Jr. et al. (2013. We regard the thermospheric dynamics as the main driver for the electron density tidal structures. An example is the in-phase variation of D0 between electron density and mass density in both hemispheres. Further research including coupled atmospheric models is probably needed for explaining the similarities and differences between thermospheric and ionospheric tidal signals at midlatitudes.

  20. Occult HBV infection in HIV-infected adults and evaluation of pooled NAT for HBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesha, T R; Boobalan, J; Sivamalar, S; Subashini, D; Solomon, S S; Murugavel, K G; Balakrishnan, P; Smith, D M; Saravanan, S

    2018-01-06

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among HIV-infected persons and to evaluate the use of a pooling strategy to detect occult HBV infection in the setting of HIV infection. Five hundred and two HIV-positive individuals were tested for HBV, occult HBV and hepatitis C and D with serologic and nucleic acid testing (NAT). We also evaluated a pooled NAT strategy for screening occult HBV infection among the HIV-positive individuals. The prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive individuals was 32 (6.4%), and occult HBV prevalence was 10%. The pooling HBV NAT had a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 100%, compared to HBV DNA NAT of individual samples. In conclusion, this study found a high prevalence of occult HBV infection among our HIV-infected population. We also demonstrated that pooled HBV NAT is highly specific, moderately sensitive and cost-effective. As conventional HBV viral load assays are expensive in resource-limited settings such as India, pooled HBV DNA NAT might be a good way for detecting occult HBV infection and will reduce HBV-associated complications. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. MLS/Aura Level 3 Bromine Monoxide (BrO) Daily 10deg Lat Zonal Mean V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML3DZMBRO is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) daily zonal mean product for bromine monoxide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The...

  2. Profiles of zonal flows and turbulence mode numbers and probe system in the HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Wenyu; Zhao Kaijun; Yan Longwen; Dong Jiaqi; Cheng Jun; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    The toroidal and poloidal symmetries (m-0, n-0) of the measured low frequency zonal flows (f=0-5 kHz) and geodesic acoustic mode zonal flow (f=16 kHz) electric potential and radial promulgate features were unambiguously identified with displaced Langmuir probe arrays in the edge plasma of the HL-2A tokamak for the first time. The finite radial wave vector (K r-LF =0.6 cm -1 , K r-GAM =2 cm -1 ) of the flows was simultaneously estimated. The formation mechanism of the flows is identified to be nonlinear three wave coupling between high frequency turbulent fluctuations and the flows. Changes of zonal flow amplitude bring by ECRH power and the boundary safety factors were simply studied. Moreover, change of zonal flow amplitude in radial direction was too observed. (authors)

  3. TOMS EP UV Reflectivity Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008 (TOMSEPL3zref) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/EP UV Reflectivity Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format.The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Version 8...

  4. BUV/Nimbus-4 Level 3 Ozone Zonal Means V005 (BUVN4L3ZMT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-4 BUV Level 3 Ozone Zonal Means collection or ZMT contains total ozone, reflectivities, and ozone mixing ratios averaged in 10 degree latitude zones...

  5. MLS/Aura Level 3 Bromine Monoxide (BrO) Daily 10deg Lat Zonal Mean V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML3DZMBRO is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) daily zonal mean product for bromine monoxide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The...

  6. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Temperature Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data expressed as...

  7. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  8. TOMS Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008 (TOMSN7L3zref) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV Reflectivity Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)...

  9. TOMS EP Total Column Ozone Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008 (TOMSEPL3ztoz) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/EP Total Column Ozone Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format.The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)...

  10. TOMS EP UV Aerosol Index Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008 (TOMSEPL3zaer) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/EP UV Aerosol Index Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format.The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Version...

  11. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Rossby and drift wave turbulence and zonal flows: The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma, exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form, survive in more realistic and complicated models. As such, they form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. The jets in the strongly nonlinear case further roll up into vortex streets and saturate, while for the weaker nonlinearities, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet, which is slightly inclined to the zonal direction, and a dominant primary wave. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence-zonostrophy. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively well-conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjørtoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the well-known drift wave-zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation mechanisms, extracting energy from

  13. Structure and long-term change in the zonal asymmetry in Antarctic total ozone during spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Grytsai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-stationary asymmetry of total ozone over Antarctica during spring is studied by TOMS data during the period 1979–2005. Statistics on the amplitude and longitudinal position of zonal anomalies are obtained from the distribution of total ozone along seven individual latitudes at 5-degree intervals between 50° S and 80° S. As shown by the September-November means, the mid-latitude collar of ozone-rich stratospheric air has a sub-Antarctic maximum with a mean location in the quadrant 90° E–180° E and a total ozone level of about 380 DU between 50° S and 60° S. The steady displacement and elongation of the ozone hole under the influence of planetary waves causes a zonal anomaly of low ozone in the sector 0°–60° W with total ozone levels of about 200 DU between 70° S and 80° S. Climatologically, the highest amplitude of the zonal anomaly is 57.2±13.5 DU (relative asymmetry of 32% between high and low ozone levels at 65° S latitude. A significant eastward shift of approximately 45° in longitude is observed in the total ozone minimum over the Weddell Sea – South Atlantic sector during 1979–2005, whereas the zonal maximum is relatively stable in location. Also apparent is a long-term shift in tropopause temperature distribution in the region. The geographical distribution of the zonal extremes in total ozone for the seven latitudes shows that (i the extremes exhibit sensitivity to the shape of the Antarctic continent, (ii the stationarity of the extremes increases poleward above the edge of continent and (iii the positions of the extremes at the higher latitudes tend to follow the meridionally oriented elements of orography. It is suggested that the radiative influence of Antarctica contributes to the formation of this pattern. Anomalies in the horizontal structure of the tropopause, which appear related to orography, support this view. Mechanisms involved in the formation and decadal change in the total ozone asymmetry

  14. Management of occult stress urinary incontinence with prolapse surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandeel, H; Al-Badr, A

    2013-08-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI), are two common health-related conditions, each affecting up to 50% women worldwide. Stress urinary incontinence only observed after the reduction of co-existent prolapse is called occult SUI (OSUI), and is found in up to 80% of women with advanced POP. Although there is no consensus on how to diagnose OSUI, there are several reported methods to better diagnose. Counseling symptomatically continent women with POP concerning the potential risk for developing SUI postoperatively cannot be overstated. Evidence suggests that positive OSUI in symptomatically continent women who are planning to have POP repair is associated with a high risk of POSUI, furthermore, adding continence procedure is found to reduce postoperative SUI. Therefore, adding continence surgery at the time of POP surgery in patients who are found to have OSUI preoperatively is advocated.

  15. Radiographically Occult and Subtle Fractures: A Pictorial Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarraya, M.; Hayashi, D.; Roemer, F.W.; Crema, M.D.; Conlin, J.; Marra, M.D.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.W.; Crema, M.D.; Diaz, L.; Conlin, J.; Jomaah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Radiographically occult and subtle fractures are a diagnostic challenge. They may be divided into (1) high energy trauma fracture, (2) fatigue fracture from cyclical and sustained mechanical stress, and (3) insufficiency fracture occurring in weakened bone (e.g., in osteoporosis and post radiotherapy). Independently of the cause, the initial radiographic examination can be negative either because the findings seem normal or are too subtle. Early detection of these fractures is crucial to explain the patients symptoms and prevent further complications. Advanced imaging tools such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphy are highly valuable in this context. Our aim is to raise the awareness of radiologists and clinicians in these cases by presenting illustrative cases and a discussion of the relevant literature.

  16. Adolescent Occultism and the Philosophy of Things in Three Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Finegan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shirley Jackson’s 1962 We Have Always Lived in the Castle, Iain Banks’s 1984 The Wasp Factory and Sonya Hartnett’s 2009 Butterfly are novels separated not only by decades, but by distance being produced in the United States, Scotland and Australia respectively. Despite this, each of these texts depicts a young adult in a mimetically recognisable world struggling to reconcile their intuitive occultism with that world. The mediation of magic through assemblages of charged objects creates a philosophy of things – modelling in intuitive and narrative terms the essence and nature of objects familiar from the philosophies of Martin Heidegger and Walter Benjamin. As such, the supernaturalism of Iain Banks, Shirley Jackson and Sonya Hartnett’s narratives implicates their readers – breaking the boundaries of fiction to comment on the material world itself, not through analogy or metaphor but through direct modelling of the potential power and worth of things.

  17. Occult Orbitocranial Penetrating Pencil Injury in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Al-Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transorbital slow-penetrating injury is an uncommon type of head injury that is seen more often in the pediatric age group. This type of injury can be occult, which is often associated with serious complications. We report on a 4-year-old female who presented with orbital swelling after an unwitnessed right orbital injury following a fall on her face at her school. Three days after injury, the presence of a foreign body was discovered on imaging study when she presented with orbital swelling and purulent discharges. She recovered well after surgical and medical management. This paper sheds light on the importance of high suspicion for the presence and early surgical management of a penetrating foreign body.

  18. Do X-ray-occult fractures play a role in chronic pain following a whiplash injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum-Larsen, Rasmus; Petersen, Henrik; Kasch, Helge

    2014-01-01

    symptoms following an MVA was invited to have a cervical SPECT shortly post injury and again 6 months later. Associations between occult fractures and pain levels at baseline, 6 and 12 months of follow-up were analyzed. Eighty-eight patients had baseline SPECT performed at median 15 days (range 3-28) post...... injury, but only 49 patients accepted to have the follow-up SPECT at 6 months. Abnormal SPECT, defined as minimum one area of focal uptake, was seen in 32 patients at baseline, reflecting an occult fracture. Occult fractures were not associated with pain levels, neither at baseline nor at follow...

  19. Small Spacecraft Constellation Concept for Mars Atmospheric Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, S. W.; Mannucci, A. J.; Ao, C. O.; Kobayashi, M. M.; Lazio, J.; Marinan, A.; Massone, G.; McCandless, S. E.; Preston, R. A.; Seubert, J.; Williamson, W.

    2017-12-01

    First demonstrated in 1965 when Mariner IV flew by Mars and determined the salient features of its atmosphere, radio occultation experiments have been carried out on numerous planetary missions with great discoveries. These experiments utilize the now classic configuration of a signal from a single planetary spacecraft to Earth receiving stations, where the science data are acquired. The Earth science community advanced the technique to utilizing a constellation of spacecraft with the radio occultation links between the spacecraft, enabled by the infrastructure of the Global Positioning System. With the advent of small and less costly spacecraft, such as planetary CubeSats and other variations, such as the anticipated innovative Mars Cube One mission, crosslinks among small spacecraft can be used to study other planets in the near future. Advantages of this type of experiment include significantly greater geographical coverage, which could reach global coverage over a few weeks with a small number of spacecraft. Repeatability of the global coverage can lead to examining temperature-pressure profiles and ionospheric electron density profiles, on daily, seasonal, annual, or other time scales of interest. The higher signal-to-noise ratio for inter-satellite links, compared to a link to Earth, decreases the design demands on the instrumentation (smaller antennas and transmitters, etc.). After an actual Mars crosslink demonstration, this concept has been in development using Mars as a possible target. Scientific objectives, delivery methods, operational scenarios and end-to-end configuration have been documented. Science objectives include determining the state and variability of the lower Martian atmosphere, which has been an identified as a high priority objective by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group, particularly as it relates to entry, descent, and landing and ascent for future crewed and robotic missions. This paper will present the latest research on the

  20. Between occultism and drama. Henrik Ibsen and Aleister Crowley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano D' Amico

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the references to the works of Henrik Ibsen that the writer and occultist Aleister Crowley scattered in his writings around the turn of the 20th century, in the early phase of his career as a writer and occultist. Crowley’s reading of Ibsen has a marked a socio-political bent, especially in his interpretation of the work of the Norwegian playwright as an act of rebellion against the bourgeois (and for Crowley, Victorian system of values. Also, such view is enriched by a spiritual and individualistic interpretation of Ibsen as an “Artist”, i.e., in the light of Crowley’s occult doctrine, Thelema, of an individual who has found his own “Will” and can inspire others to do so. Such social and spiritual interpretations of Ibsen on Crowley’s part found their literary realization in his one-act play The Mother’s Tragedy (1899. The article claims that Crowley’s reading of Ibsen can give some new insight in the mechanisms of reception of the Norwegian playwright, by opening up for a reading of some of his plays within an occult discourse. Also, it is an occasion to treat Crowley – a figure that was constantly present in the European cultural and literary life of the last decade of the 19th century and of the first five decades of the 20th – with a different attitude than the irony and disdain to which he is often exposed.

  1. Changes in equatorial zonal circulations and precipitation in the context of the global warming and natural modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Hee; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2017-07-01

    The strengthening and westward shift of Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) is observed during the recent decades. However, the relative roles of global warming and natural variability on the change in PWC unclearly remain. By conducting numerical atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments using the spatial SST patterns in the global warming and natural modes which are obtained by the multi-variate EOF analysis from three variables including precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST), and divergent zonal wind, we indicated that the westward shift and strengthening of PWC are caused by the global warming SST pattern in the global warming mode and the negative Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation-like SST pattern in the natural mode. The SST distribution of the Pacific Ocean (PO) has more influence on the changes in equatorial zonal circulations and tropical precipitation than that of the Indian Ocean (IO) and Atlantic Ocean (AO). The change in precipitation is also related to the equatorial zonal circulations variation through the upward and downward motions of the circulations. The IO and AO SST anomalies in the global warming mode can affect on the changes in equatorial zonal circulations, but the influence of PO SST disturbs the changes in Indian Walker Circulation and Atlantic Walker Circulation which are affected by the anomalous SST over the IO and AO. The zonal shift of PWC is found to be highly associated with a zonal gradient of SST over the PO through the idealized numerical AGCM experiments and predictions of CMIP5 models.

  2. Changes in equatorial zonal circulations and precipitation in the context of the global warming and natural modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. H.; Ha, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    The strengthening and westward shift of Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) is observed during the recent decades. However, the relative roles of global warming and natural variability on the change in PWC unclearly remain. By conducting numerical atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments using the spatial SST patterns in the global warming and natural modes which are obtained by the multi-variate EOF analysis from three variables including precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST), and divergent zonal wind, we indicated that the westward shift and strengthening of PWC are caused by the global warming SST pattern in the global warming mode and the negative Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation-like SST pattern in the natural mode. The SST distribution of the Pacific Ocean (PO) has more influence on the changes in equatorial zonal circulations and tropical precipitation than that of the Indian Ocean (IO) and Atlantic Ocean (AO). The change in precipitation is also related to the equatorial zonal circulations variation through the upward and downward motions of the circulations. The IO and AO SST anomalies in the global warming mode can affect on the changes in equatorial zonal circulations, but the influence of PO SST disturbs the Indian Walker circulation and Atlantic Walker circulation changes by the IO and AO. The zonal shift of PWC is found to be highly associated with a zonal gradient of SST over the PO through the idealized numerical AGCM experiments and predictions of CMIP5 models.

  3. Parapsychology on the couch: the psychology of occult belief in Germany, c. 1870-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the attempts of academic psychologists and critical occultists in Germany during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to construct a psychology of occult belief. While they claimed that the purpose of this new subdiscipline was to help evaluate the work of occult researchers, the emergence of a psychology of occult belief in Germany served primarily to pathologize parapsychology and its practitioners. Not to be outdone, however, parapsychologists argued that their adversaries suffered from a morbid inability to accept the reality of the paranormal. Unable to resolve through experimental means the dispute over who should be allowed to mold the public's understanding of the occult, both sides resorted to defaming their opponent. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V019 (UARHA2FN) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 data product consists of daily vertical profiles of temperature, aerosol extinciton and pressure, as well as...

  5. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT V019 (UARHA3AT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT data product consists of daily vertical profiles of temperature, aerosol extinction and concentrations of HCl,...

  6. Observations of Hot-Jupiter occultations combining Spitzer and Kepler photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutson H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the status of an ongoing program which aim at measuring occultations by their parent stars of transiting hot giant exoplanets discovered recently by Kepler. The observations are obtained in the near infrared with WarmSpitzer Space Telescope and at optical wavelengths by combining more than a year of Kepler photometry. The investigation consists of measuring the mid-occultation times and the relative occultation depths in each band-passes. Our measurements of occultations depths in the Kepler bandpass is turned into the determination of the optical geometric albedo Ag in this wavelength domain. The brightness temperatures of these planets are deduced from the infrared observations. We combine the optical and near infrared planetary emergent fluxes to obtain broad band emergent spectra of individual planet. We finally compare these spectra to hot Jupiter atmospheric models in order broadly distinguishing these atmospheres between different classes of models.

  7. Low-Cost Small Satellite Atmospheric Rotating Solar Occultation Imager (ROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing a unique, new occultation technique involving imaging, the ROI concept will meet or exceed the quality of SAGE measurements at a small fraction of the...

  8. The ORA occultation radiometer on EURECA; Instrument description and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arijs, E.; Nevejans, D.; Fussen, D.; Frederick, P.; van Ransbeeck, E.; Taylor, F. W.; Calcutt, S. B.; Werrett, S. T.; Hepplewhite, C. L.; Pritchard, T. M.; Burchell, I.; Rodgers, C. D.

    A short description is given of the Occultation Radiometer which has been flown recently on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). A brief outline of the scientific rationale, instrument characteristics and status of the data reduction is presented.

  9. Trio of Stellar Occultations by Pluto One Year Prior to New Horizons’ Arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-02

    trio of occultations successfully observed and reported in this paper. Key words: Kuiper belt objects: individual (Pluto, Quaoar) – planets and...satellites: atmospheres – planets and satellites: individual (Nix) – occultations 1. INTRODUCTION Since the work of Elliot et al. (1989), observing...2014. Mt. John Observatory’s approximate location is marked as a red “ x ” in each image. The predicted shadow paths for Pluto are represented by three

  10. Retrieval of upper atmosphere pressure-temperature profiles from high resolution solar occultation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Park, J. H.; Namkung, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure-temperature profiles over the 18 to 75 km altitude range were retrieved from 0.01 cm(-1) resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the solar occultation mode during the Spacelab 3 shuttle mission (April 30 to May 1, 1985). The analysis method is described and preliminary results deduced for five occultation events are compared to correlative pressure-temperature measurments.

  11. Planet–Planet Occultations in TRAPPIST-1 and Other Exoplanet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rodrigo; Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Agol, Eric

    2017-12-01

    We explore the occurrence and detectability of planet–planet occultations (PPOs) in exoplanet systems. These are events during which a planet occults the disk of another planet in the same system, imparting a small photometric signal as its thermal or reflected light is blocked. We focus on the planets in TRAPPIST-1, whose orbital planes we show are aligned to https://github.com/rodluger/planetplanet).

  12. Three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation: part II—dynamical equations of horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shujuan; Cheng, Jianbo; Xu, Ming; Chou, Jifan

    2018-04-01

    The three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation (TPDGAC) partitions three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation into horizontal, meridional and zonal components to study the 3D structures of global atmospheric circulation. This paper incorporates the three-pattern decomposition model (TPDM) into primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics and establishes a new set of dynamical equations of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations in which the operator properties are studied and energy conservation laws are preserved, as in the primitive equations. The physical significance of the newly established equations is demonstrated. Our findings reveal that the new equations are essentially the 3D vorticity equations of atmosphere and that the time evolution rules of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations can be described from the perspective of 3D vorticity evolution. The new set of dynamical equations includes decomposed expressions that can be used to explore the source terms of large-scale atmospheric circulation variations. A simplified model is presented to demonstrate the potential applications of the new equations for studying the dynamics of the Rossby, Hadley and Walker circulations. The model shows that the horizontal air temperature anomaly gradient (ATAG) induces changes in meridional and zonal circulations and promotes the baroclinic evolution of the horizontal circulation. The simplified model also indicates that the absolute vorticity of the horizontal circulation is not conserved, and its changes can be described by changes in the vertical vorticities of the meridional and zonal circulations. Moreover, the thermodynamic equation shows that the induced meridional and zonal circulations and advection transport by the horizontal circulation in turn cause a redistribution of the air temperature. The simplified model reveals the fundamental rules between the evolution of the air temperature and the horizontal, meridional

  13. Instabilities of continuously stratified zonal equatorial jets in a periodic channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masina

    Full Text Available Several numerical experiments are performed in a nonlinear, multi-level periodic channel model centered on the equator with different zonally uniform background flows which resemble the South Equatorial Current (SEC. Analysis of the simulations focuses on identifying stability criteria for a continuously stratified fluid near the equator. A 90 m deep frontal layer is required to destabilize a zonally uniform, 10° wide, westward surface jet that is symmetric about the equator and has a maximum velocity of 100 cm/s. In this case, the phase velocity of the excited unstable waves is very similar to the phase speed of the Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs observed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The vertical scale of the baroclinic waves corresponds to the frontal layer depth and their phase speed increases as the vertical shear of the jet is doubled. When the westward surface parabolic jet is made asymmetric about the equator, in order to simulate more realistically the structure of the SEC in the eastern Pacific, two kinds of instability are generated. The oscillations that grow north of the equator have a baroclinic nature, while those generated on and very close to the equator have a barotropic nature. 

    This study shows that the potential for baroclinic instability in the equatorial region can be as large as at mid-latitudes, if the tendency of isotherms to have a smaller slope for a given zonal velocity, when the Coriolis parameter vanishes, is compensated for by the wind effect.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling – Oceanography: physics (fronts and jets

  14. Instabilities of continuously stratified zonal equatorial jets in a periodic channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masina

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Several numerical experiments are performed in a nonlinear, multi-level periodic channel model centered on the equator with different zonally uniform background flows which resemble the South Equatorial Current (SEC. Analysis of the simulations focuses on identifying stability criteria for a continuously stratified fluid near the equator. A 90 m deep frontal layer is required to destabilize a zonally uniform, 10° wide, westward surface jet that is symmetric about the equator and has a maximum velocity of 100 cm/s. In this case, the phase velocity of the excited unstable waves is very similar to the phase speed of the Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs observed in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The vertical scale of the baroclinic waves corresponds to the frontal layer depth and their phase speed increases as the vertical shear of the jet is doubled. When the westward surface parabolic jet is made asymmetric about the equator, in order to simulate more realistically the structure of the SEC in the eastern Pacific, two kinds of instability are generated. The oscillations that grow north of the equator have a baroclinic nature, while those generated on and very close to the equator have a barotropic nature.  This study shows that the potential for baroclinic instability in the equatorial region can be as large as at mid-latitudes, if the tendency of isotherms to have a smaller slope for a given zonal velocity, when the Coriolis parameter vanishes, is compensated for by the wind effect.Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling – Oceanography: physics (fronts and jets

  15. Climatology and modeling of ionospheric scintillations and irregularity zonal drifts at the equatorial anomaly crest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muella, Marcio T. A. H.; Duarte-Silva, Marcelo H.; Moraes, Alison O.; de Paula, Eurico R.; de Rezende, Luiz F. C.; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Affonso, Bruno J.

    2017-11-01

    In this study the climatology of ionospheric scintillations and the zonal drift velocities of scintillation-producing irregularities are depicted for a station located under the southern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly. Then, the α - μ ionospheric fading model is used for the first- and second-order statistical characterization of amplitude scintillations. In the statistical analyzes, data are used from single-frequency GPS receivers acquired during ˜ 17 years (September 1997-November 2014) at Cachoeira Paulista (22.4° S; 45.0° W), Brazil. The results reveal that the nocturnal occurrence of scintillations follows the seasonal distribution of plasma bubble irregularities observed in the longitudinal sector of eastern South America. In addition to the solar cycle dependence, the results suggest that the occurrence climatology of scintillations is also modulated by the secular variation in the dip latitude of Cachoeira Paulista, since the maximum occurrence of scintillations during the peak of solar cycle 24 was ˜ 20 % lower than that observed during the maximum of solar cycle 23. The dynamics of the irregularities throughout a solar cycle, as investigated from the estimates of the mean zonal drift velocities, presented a good correlation with the EUV and F10.7 cm solar fluxes. Meanwhile, the seasonal behavior showed that the magnitude of the zonal drift velocities is larger during the December solstice months than during the equinoxes. In terms of modeling, the results for the α - μ distribution fit quite well with the experimental data and with the temporal characteristics of fading events independently of the solar activity level.

  16. Non-Migrating Tides, with Zonally Symmetric Component, Generated in the Mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Porter, H. S.; Hines, C. O.

    2003-01-01

    For comparison with measurements from the TIMED satellite and coordinated ground based observations, we discuss results from our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) that incorporates the Doppler Spread Parameterization (Hines, 1997) for small-scale gravity waves (GWs). The NSM extends from the ground into the thermosphere and describes the major dynamical features of the atmosphere including the wave driven equatorial oscillations (QBO and SAO), and the seasonal variations of tides and planetary waves. With emphasis on the non-migrating tides, having periods of 24 and 12 hours, we discuss our modeling results that account for the classical migrating solar excitation sources only. As reported earlier, the NSM reproduces the observed seasonal variations and in particular the large equinoctial maxima in the amplitude of the migrating diurnal tide at altitudes around 90 km. Filtering of the tide by the zonal circulation and GW momentum deposition was identified as the cause. The GWs were also shown to produce a strong non-linear interaction between the diurnal and semi-diurnal tides. Confined largely to the mesosphere, the NSM produces through dynamical interactions a relatively large contribution of non-migrating tides. A striking feature is seen in the diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations of the zonal mean (m = 0). Eastward propagating tides are also generated for zonal wave numbers m = 1 to 4. When the NSM is run without GWs, the amplitudes for the non-migrating tides, including m = 0, are generally small. Planetary wave interaction and non-linear coupling that involves the filtering of GWs and related height integration of dynamical features are discussed as possible mechanisms for generating these non-migrating tides in the NSM. As is the case for the solar migrating tides, the non-migrating tides reveal persistent seasonal variations. Under the influence of the QBO and SAO, interannual variations are produced.

  17. Extent and kinetics of recovery of occult spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K. Kian; Jiang, G.-L.; Feng Yan; Stephens, L. Clifton; Tucker, Susan L.; Price, Roger E.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain clinically useful quantitative data on the extent and kinetics of recovery of occult radiation injury in primate spinal cord, after a commonly administered elective radiation dose of 44 Gy, given in about 2 Gy per fraction. Methods and Materials: A group of 56 rhesus monkeys was assigned to receive two radiation courses to the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord, given in 2.2 Gy per fraction. The dose of the initial course was 44 Gy in all monkeys. Reirradiation dose was 57.2 Gy, given after 1-year (n 16) or 2-year (n = 20) intervals, or 66 Gy, given after 2-year (n = 4) or 3-year (n = 14) intervals. Two animals developed intramedullary tumors before reirradiation and, therefore, did not receive a second course. The study endpoint was myeloparesis, manifesting predominantly as lower extremity weakness and decrease in balance, occurring within 2.5 years after reirradiation, complemented by histologic examination of the spinal cord. The data obtained were analyzed along with data from a previous study addressing single-course tolerance, and data from a preliminary study of reirradiation tolerance. Results: Only 4 of 45 monkeys completing the required observation period (2-2.5 years after reirradiation, 3-5.5 years total) developed myeloparesis. The data revealed a substantial recovery of occult injury induced by 44 Gy within the first year, and suggested additional recovery between 1 and 3 years. Fitting the data with a model, assuming that all (single course and reirradiation) dose-response curves were parallel, yielded recovery estimates of 33.6 Gy (76%), 37.6 Gy (85%), and 44.6 Gy (101%) of the initial dose, after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, at the 5% incidence (D 5 ) level. The most conservative estimate, using a model in which it was assumed that there was no recovery between 1 and 3 years following initial irradiation and that the combined reirradiation curve was not necessarily parallel to the single-course curve, still showed an

  18. 3D field induced collisionless zonal flow decay in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, G. J.; Hahm, T. S.

    2018-02-01

    We perform a gyrokinetic study of 3D resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field effect on zonal flows in tokamak plasmas. The result indicates that energy-dependent secular radial drift of particles due to the tangential component (δ B_\\Vert ) of the RMP field induces a further long term algebraic decay of the Rosenbluth–Hinton (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 724) residual flow expected in an axisymmetric tokamak. This mechanism could be related to an increase of H-mode transition power threshold in the presence of RMP observed in many tokamak experiments.

  19. Morpho-anatomy of stypopodium zonale (phaeophycota) from the coast of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, A.; Shameel, M.

    2014-01-01

    A brown alga Stypopodium zonale (Lamouroux) Papenfuss (Dictyotales) was collected from Manora and Buleji, the coastal areas near Karachi (Pakistan) during March 2006-April 2009 and investigated for its morphology, anatomy and reproductive structures. This is the first detailed study on the Pakistani specimens of this species from these points of view, where presence or absence of intercellular spaces, cell-wall thickness of different cells and structure of surface cells were examined. In this connection the apical, middle and basal parts of the thallus were investigated anatomically. (author)

  20. Final Scientific/Technical Report for "Nanite" for Better Well-Bore Integrity and Zonal Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veedu, Vinod [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Hadmack, Michael [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Pollock, Jacob [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Pernambuco-Wise, Paul [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Ah Yo, Derek [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Nanite™ is a cementitious material that contains a proprietary formulation of functionalized nanomaterial additive to transform conventional cement into a smart material responsive to pressure (or stress), temperature, and any intrinsic changes in composition. This project has identified optimal sensing modalities of smart well cement and demonstrated how real-time sensing of Nanite™ can improve long-term wellbore integrity and zonal isolation in shale gas and applicable oil and gas operations. Oceanit has explored Nanite’s electrical sensing properties in depth and has advanced the technology from laboratory proof-of-concept to sub-scale testing in preparation for field trials.

  1. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of occult hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Esaulenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HBsAg earlier was always considered as the required serological marker of the current HBV-infection, and the presence of НВsAb was considered as evidence of the previous infection with the elimination of virus and the recovery. Exceptions of this rule were discovered more than two decades ago, after which it appeared the concept «occult» hepatitis В.Aim: to characterize clinical course of chronic HBV-infection HBsAg-negative (occult depending on HBsAb levels in serum.Materials and methods: were examined 198 patients with HBsAg-negative chronic HBV-infection, with the confirmation mono-infection in the absence of factors of liver injury noninfectious etiology.Results: most of the patient was in 45–74 years old. In 53 patients (27,8% were identified HBcAb and HBsAb titer greater than 10 IU/l: positive HBcAb and HBsAb titre from 10 to 100 IU/l in 21,2% of cases; positive HBcAb and HBsAb titer more than 100 IU/l – 5,5%. DNA HBV was determined in 7,1% of cases. Cirrhotic stage of disease diagnosed in 30,2% of patients with low levels of HBsAb and 13,2% of patients with a high level of HBsAb. Evaluation of the degree of liver cirrhosis were revealed a class C in 86,9% of cases. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis are twice as likely HBsAb in low titre than high.Conclusion: chronic HBV-infection with the serological profile of «past infection» independently of the level HBsAb can estimate as disease with the latent flow and may progression of pathologic process up to cirrhosis of the liver. These patients are subject to regular medical check once a year in a day hospital of a specialized center.

  2. Rapid diagnosis of occult abscesses using sup 99m Tc-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coons, T.A.; Rhodes, B.A. (RhoMed, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Thakur, M.L. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Marcus, C.S. (Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (USA)); Ballou, B. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Acute infections, such as appendicitis and occult infections in AIDS patients, can be diagnosed within two hours by gamma scintigraphy after i.v. administration of {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibodies reactive with human granulocytes. The antibody, murine IgM anti-SSEA-1, is partially reduced using Sn(II) to expose and protect reactive sulfide groups. The antibody is then purified, stannous tartrate and stabilizers are added, and the mixture is lyophilized. To label, sodium pertechnetate is added. After a 15 minute incubation the tracer drug is injected. The rate of accumulation and degree of concentration at the site of infection is presumptively determinative of the severity of the infection. Acceptance criteria and tests for the {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibody product have been established and validated. Greater than 93% of the {sup 99m}Tc is firmly bound to the protein as determined by quantitative HPLC. Radiochemical impurities, colloidal {sup 99m}Tc and free pertechnetate are together less than 4% as determined by thin layer chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction, measured by binding to solid phase antigen, and affinity measured be ELISA, are unchanged by the {sup 99m}Tc-direct labeling process. Two hour blood clearance in rats is within 90% of the value of the {sup 125}I labeled analog. The immunoreactive fraction decreases less than 10% when incubated in human plasma for 24 hours. This method has been compared to other direct labeling methods, and found to give higher radiochemical yields. 5 figs.

  3. ASPIICS/PROBA-3 formation flying solar coronagraph: Stray light analysis and optimization of the occulter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, F.; Mazzoli, A.; Venet, M.; Vivès, S.; Romoli, M.; Lamy, P.; Massone, G.

    2017-11-01

    The "Association de Satellites Pour l'Imagerie et l'Interferometrie de la Couronne Solaire", ASPIICS, selected by ESA for the PROBA-3 mission, heralds the next generation of coronagraph for solar research, exploiting formation flying to gain access to the inner corona under eclipse-like conditions for long periods of time. A detailed description of the ASPIICS instrument and of its scientific objectives can be found in [1]. ASPIICS is distributed on the two PROBA 3 spacecrafts (S/C) separated by 150 m. The coronagraph optical assembly is hosted by the "coronagraph S/C" protected from direct solar disk light by the occulting disk on the "occulter S/C". The most critical issue in the design of a solar coronagraph is the reduction of the stray light due to the diffraction and scattering of the solar disk light by the occulter, the aperture and the optics. In the present article, we deal with two of these issues: - The analysis of the stray light inside the telescope. - The optimization of the external occulter edge, in order to eliminate the Poisson spot behind the occulter and to lower the stray light level going through the entrance pupil of the telescope. This work was performed in the framework of the ESA STARTIGER program which took place at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) during a 6-month period from September 2009 to March 2010. In general, it is a very complicated task to combine the above two stray light issues together in the simulation and design phase as it requires to consider the propagation inside the telescope of the light diffracted by the external occulter. Actually, the present literature only reports diffraction calculations performed for simple occulting systems (i.e., two disks and serrated disk). A more pragmatic approach, also driven by the tight schedule of the STARTIGER program, is to separate the two contributions, and perform two different stray light analyses. This paper is dedicated to the description of both analyses

  4. Multiple zonal jets and convective heat transport barriers in a quasi-geostrophic model of planetary cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.

    2017-10-01

    We study rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection driven by internal heating in a full sphere. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation for the velocity field, whereas the temperature field is 3-D. This approximation allows us to perform simulations for Ekman numbers down to 10-8, Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (˜10-1) and Reynolds numbers up to 3 × 104. Persistent zonal flows composed of multiple jets form as a result of the mixing of potential vorticity. For the largest Rayleigh numbers computed, the zonal velocity is larger than the convective velocity despite the presence of boundary friction. The convective structures and the zonal jets widen when the thermal forcing increases. Prograde and retrograde zonal jets are dynamically different: in the prograde jets (which correspond to weak potential vorticity gradients) the convection transports heat efficiently and the mean temperature tends to be homogenized; by contrast, in the cores of the retrograde jets (which correspond to steep gradients of potential vorticity) the dynamics is dominated by the propagation of Rossby waves, resulting in the formation of steep mean temperature gradients and the dominance of conduction in the heat transfer process. Consequently, in quasi-geostrophic systems, the width of the retrograde zonal jets controls the efficiency of the heat transfer.

  5. On the gravitational signature of zonal flows in Jupiter-like planets: An analytical solution and its numerical validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2017-02-01

    It is expected that the Juno spacecraft will provide an accurate spectrum of the Jovian zonal gravitational coefficients that would be affected by both the deep zonal flow, if it exists, and the basic rotational distortion. We derive the first analytical solution, under the spheroidal-shape approximation, for the density anomaly induced by an internal zonal flow in rapidly rotating Jupiter-like planets. We compare the density anomaly of the analytical solution to that obtained from a fully numerical solution based on a three-dimensional finite element method; the two show excellent agreement. We apply the analytical solution to a rapidly rotating Jupiter-like planet and show that there exists a close relationship between the spatial structure of the zonal flow and the spectrum of zonal gravitational coefficients. We check the accuracy of the spheroidal-shape approximation by computing both the spheroidal and non-spheroidal solutions with exactly the same physical parameters. We also discuss implications of the new analytical solution for interpreting the future high-precision gravitational measurements of the Juno spacecraft.

  6. Sensitivity of fecal occult blood testing in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinsky, Adam J; Guillaumin, Julien; Gilor, Chen

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The impact of dietary factors on fecal occult blood (FOB) testing has been previously evaluated in cats, but the analytical sensitivity of this point-of-care test remains unexamined. The primary goal of this study was to assess the analytical sensitivity of the FOB test in cats. Methods Five cats were used in a repeated measures study. Following oral administration of blood, feces were collected and tested every 12 h for FOB and melena. All cats were fed an animal protein-free diet starting the week before entry into the study. Blood was administered on a milligram of hemoglobin per kilogram of body weight basis, and dosed at 1.5, 3, 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin in series with a wash-out period between each trial. Results FOB was detected in one cat at 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin, three cats at 3 mg/kg hemoglobin and in all five cats at 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin. Melena was noted in one cat at 30 mg/kg and four cats at 45 mg/kg, but not at lower doses. Conclusions and relevance Administration of 15 mg/kg hemoglobin (equivalent to about 1.5 ml blood) was sufficient for positive results in all cats. However, detection occurred with as little as 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin. Thus, FOB has good analytical sensitivity in cats under appropriate clinical situations.

  7. Spinal metastasis of occult lung carcinoma causing cauda equina syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotil, Kadir; Kilinc, Bekir Mahmut; Bilge, Turgay

    2007-04-01

    Cauda equina syndrome (CES) may be caused by tumor, herniated disc, trauma and spinal infections. However, CES due to occult lung cancer has not been reported in the literature. A 50-year-old man presented with a subacute CES caused by an intradural metastasis of an adenocarcinoma of the lung to the lumbosacral cauda fibers. His lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showed a well-demarcated, intradural extramedullary mass lesion resembling a neurinoma at the L4/5 level. The patient underwent an L4-L5 laminectomy. The operative findings were also suggestive of neurinoma with involvement of three nerve roots, and a well-demarcated tumor without infiltration into the subarachnoid space. Although the findings of the operation were suggestive of neurinoma, final pathological diagnosis revealed metastatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma metastasis. Chest X-ray and high resolution contrasted pulmonary computed tomography were normal. Positron emission tomography (PET) showed a lung mass, at the left apex. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and post-operative spinal radiotherapy was also performed. The CES resolved after the operation and the patient was followed up for 2 years with no recurrence. MRI of intradural cauda equina metastasis may be similar to that of intradural nerve sheath tumor. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy may be effective for the treatment of CES due to lung carcinoma. Definitive diagnosis is by histopathological examination with immunohistochemistry. If the primary cancer cannot be detected by conventional radiological techniques, PET may be helpful.

  8. SOLAR OCCULTATION BY TITAN MEASURED BY CASSINI/UVIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capalbo, Fernando J.; Benilan, Yves [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), UMR 7583 du CNRS, Universites Paris Est Creteil (UPEC) and Paris Diderot - UPD, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi T.; Sandel, Bill R. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Holsclaw, Gregory M.; McClintock, William E., E-mail: fernando.capalbo@lisa.u-pec.fr [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We present the first published analysis of a solar occultation by Titan's atmosphere measured by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on board Cassini. The data were measured during flyby T53 in 2009 April and correspond to latitudes between 21 Degree-Sign and 28 Degree-Sign south. The analysis utilizes the absorption of two solar emission lines (584 A and 630 A) in the ionization continuum of the N{sub 2} absorption cross section and solar emission lines around 1085 A where absorption is due to CH{sub 4}. The measured transmission at these wavelengths provides a direct estimate of the N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} column densities along the line of sight from the spacecraft to the Sun, which we inverted to obtain the number densities. The high signal-to-noise ratio of the data allowed us to retrieve density profiles in the altitude range 1120-1400 km for nitrogen and 850-1300 km for methane. We find an N{sub 2} scale height of {approx}76 km and a temperature of {approx}153 K. Our results are in general agreement with those from previous work, although there are some differences. Particularly, our profiles agree, considering uncertainties, with the density profiles derived from the Voyager 1 Ultraviolet Spectrograph data, and with in situ measurements by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer with revised calibration.

  9. Exploring atmospheric blocking with GPS radio occultation observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brunner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric blocking has been closely investigated in recent years due to its impact on weather and climate, such as heat waves, droughts, and flooding. We use, for the first time, satellite-based observations from Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO and explore their ability to resolve blocking in order to potentially open up new avenues complementing models and reanalyses. RO delivers globally available and vertically highly resolved profiles of atmospheric variables such as temperature and geopotential height (GPH. Applying a standard blocking detection algorithm, we find that RO data robustly capture blocking as demonstrated for two well-known blocking events over Russia in summer 2010 and over Greenland in late winter 2013. During blocking episodes, vertically resolved GPH gradients show a distinct anomalous behavior compared to climatological conditions up to 300 hPa and sometimes even further up into the tropopause. The accompanying increase in GPH of up to 300 m in the upper troposphere yields a pronounced tropopause height increase. Corresponding temperatures rise up to 10 K in the middle and lower troposphere. These results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of RO to detect and resolve blocking and in particular to explore the vertical structure of the atmosphere during blocking episodes. This new observation-based view is available globally at the same quality so that blocking in the Southern Hemisphere can also be studied with the same reliability as in the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. Detection of Occult Erythrocytic Membrane Damages upon Pharmacological Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yu. Alekseyeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood administration of pharmaceuticals may cause occult effects of these agents on erythrocytic membranes. These effects may damage and cause additional membrane defects, but may strengthen. The type and degree of the effects of an agent were detected by calibrated irreversible electroporation with a pulsed electric field (PEF. The paper considers the erythrocytic membranous effects of a wide concentration range of agents used in anesthesiology, such as esmerone, tracrium, and mar-caine-adrenaline. Under the action of PEF and esmerone at the normal concentration N, the rate of erythrocytic hemolysis increased by several times as compared with the control. The similar effect also occurred when esmerone was added at the concentration C=10N. Tracrium exerted a fixing effect on erythrocytic membranes. Upon a combined exposure to PEF and tracrium in the normal concentration C=N; erythrocytic hemolysis was slow. So was with the concentration C=10N. The rate of hemolysis of the red blood cells subjected to a combined action of marcaine adrenaline at the normal concentration C=N and even at the concentration C=10N and PEF was comparable with the hemolytic rate of the reference suspension. 

  11. Occult radiological effects of lipomatosis of the lumbosacral plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, Mark A. [Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Howe, B.M.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurosurgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Lipomatosis of nerve (LN) is a condition of massive peripheral nerve enlargement frequently associated with hypertrophy within the distribution of the nerve, and most commonly affecting the distal limbs. We sought to understand if LN of the lumbosacral plexus would be associated with the trophic effects of LN on surrounding tissue within the pelvis, which may be clinically occult, but present on MRI. Fifty-one cases of LN, confirmed by pathology or pathognomonic appearance on MRI, were reviewed. Patients with LN of the sciatic nerve were investigated for radiological signs suggestive of overgrowth. Five patients had involvement of the sciatic nerve, 4 of whom had MR imaging of the pelvis. Three patients had LN involving the lumbosacral plexus, and one patient had isolated involvement of the sciatic nerve. All patients with involvement of the lumbosacral plexus demonstrated previously unrecognized evidence of nerve territory overgrowth in the pelvis, including: LN, profound adipose proliferation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, and bone hypertrophy and ankylosis. The patient with LN involving the intrapelvic sciatic nerve, but not the lumbosacral plexus did not demonstrate any radiological evidence of pelvic overgrowth. LN is broader in anatomical reach than previously understood. Proximal plexal innervation may be involved, with a consequent effect on axial skeleton and intrapelvic structures. (orig.)

  12. Occult HBV Infection: A Faceless Enemy in Liver Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morales-Romero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B virus (HBV represents a worldwide public health problem; the virus is present in one third of the global population. However, this rate may in fact be higher due to occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI. This condition is characterized by the presence of the viral genome in the liver of individuals sero-negative for the virus surface antigen (HBsAg. The causes of the absence of HBsAg in serum are unknown, however, mutations have been identified that produce variants not recognized by current immunoassays. Epigenetic and immunological host mechanisms also appear to be involved in HBsAg suppression. Current evidence suggests that OBI maintains its carcinogenic potential, favoring the progression of fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. In common with open HBV infection, OBI can contribute to the establishment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Epidemiological data regarding the global prevalence of OBI vary due to the use of detection methods of different sensitivity and specificity. In Latin America, which is considered an area of low prevalence for HBV, diagnostic screening methods using gene amplification tests for confirmation of OBI are not conducted. This prevents determination of the actual prevalence of OBI, highlighting the need for the implementation of cutting edge technology in epidemiological surveillance systems.

  13. Occult HBV infection: a faceless enemy in liver cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Romero, Jaime; Vargas, Gustavo; García-Román, Rebeca

    2014-04-08

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) represents a worldwide public health problem; the virus is present in one third of the global population. However, this rate may in fact be higher due to occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI). This condition is characterized by the presence of the viral genome in the liver of individuals sero-negative for the virus surface antigen (HBsAg). The causes of the absence of HBsAg in serum are unknown, however, mutations have been identified that produce variants not recognized by current immunoassays. Epigenetic and immunological host mechanisms also appear to be involved in HBsAg suppression. Current evidence suggests that OBI maintains its carcinogenic potential, favoring the progression of fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. In common with open HBV infection, OBI can contribute to the establishment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Epidemiological data regarding the global prevalence of OBI vary due to the use of detection methods of different sensitivity and specificity. In Latin America, which is considered an area of low prevalence for HBV, diagnostic screening methods using gene amplification tests for confirmation of OBI are not conducted. This prevents determination of the actual prevalence of OBI, highlighting the need for the implementation of cutting edge technology in epidemiological surveillance systems.

  14. Gamma-radiosurgery of angiographically occult vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takayuki; Oyama, Hirofumi; Iwakoshi, Takayasu

    1995-01-01

    Since the installation of Gamma-knife, we have treated 26 cases of AOVM (angiographically occult vascular malformations), who had enough follow-up period more than 12 months. There were 16 males and 10 females, whose ages ranged from 3 to 58 years with an average of 32.7. Their clinical presentations at the onset were hemorrhage in 17, seizure in 7, and progressive neurological deficits in 2. Three cases had multiple lesions of AOVM. Among 26 symptomatic lesions, 15 were located supratentorially, 7 in brain stem and 4 in cerebellar hemisphere. AOVMs were treated with radiosurgery at the marginal doses between 15 to 20 Gy (mean 17.9 Gy). Follow-up studies revealed a rebleeding in one after the treatment in the mean follow-up period of 17.7 months. Among 7 cases presented with seizure, 5 were improved and the other 2 showed no change. Imaging studies with MRI showed a major shrinkage in 1, minor shrinkage in 7, and no obvious change in 18. Symptomatic perifocal edema occurred in 5 (19.2%), especially those who were treated at the marginal dose more than 18 Gy. In conclusion our preliminary clinical results indicate that the radiosurgery with Gamma-knife has positive effects to prevent the rebleeding and to control the seizures associated with symptomatic AOVMs. (author)

  15. SOLAR OCCULTATION BY TITAN MEASURED BY CASSINI/UVIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capalbo, Fernando J.; Bénilan, Yves; Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi T.; Sandel, Bill R.; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; McClintock, William E.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first published analysis of a solar occultation by Titan's atmosphere measured by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on board Cassini. The data were measured during flyby T53 in 2009 April and correspond to latitudes between 21° and 28° south. The analysis utilizes the absorption of two solar emission lines (584 Å and 630 Å) in the ionization continuum of the N 2 absorption cross section and solar emission lines around 1085 Å where absorption is due to CH 4 . The measured transmission at these wavelengths provides a direct estimate of the N 2 and CH 4 column densities along the line of sight from the spacecraft to the Sun, which we inverted to obtain the number densities. The high signal-to-noise ratio of the data allowed us to retrieve density profiles in the altitude range 1120-1400 km for nitrogen and 850-1300 km for methane. We find an N 2 scale height of ∼76 km and a temperature of ∼153 K. Our results are in general agreement with those from previous work, although there are some differences. Particularly, our profiles agree, considering uncertainties, with the density profiles derived from the Voyager 1 Ultraviolet Spectrograph data, and with in situ measurements by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer with revised calibration.

  16. Scientific tradeoffs in pinhole/occulter facility accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    1988-12-01

    The Pinhole/Occulter Facility (P/OF) consists of state-of-the-art instruments for the study of particle acceleration in the solar corona, and uses a large structure to obtain very high angular resolution. P/OF has been studied in the past as an attached payload for the Space Shuttle, and has been the subject of study by a NASA Science Working Group (P/OFSWG). Appendix A lists various technical studies and reports carried out under the auspices of P/OFSWG and the Program Development Office of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Under the rationalization of NASA flight opportunities following the Challenger disaster, and the beginning of the Space Station Freedom program, the sortie-mode deployment of P/OF seemed less efficient and desirable. Thus, NASA decided to reconsider P/OF for deployment on the Space Station Freedom. The technical studies for this deployment continue at the present and will evolve as our knowledge of Space Station architecture and capabilities increase. MSFC contracted with Teledyne Brown Engineering for these technical studies.

  17. Ectoparasites of the occult bat, Myotis occultus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Ritzi, Christopher M.; Whitaker, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Only a single previous study has examined ectoparasites of the occult bat (Myotis occultus), from which only 2 species of fleas were identified. For our study, we examined 202 individuals, 52 fresh hosts and 150 museum specimens, from New Mexico and southern Colorado for ectoparasites. We recorded 2158 ectoparasites, 634 from fresh hosts and 1524 from museum specimens. Ectoparasites belonged to 10 families and 13 genera of insect or acari and represent new host and locality records. In general, ectoparasites collected from fresh hosts and museum specimens were represented by 4 major species of mite: Macronyssus crosbyi, Alabidocarpus calcaratus, Acanthophthirius lucifugus, and Alabidocarpus nr. eptesicus. From our study, we found fresh hosts to have significantly greater prevalence values for Myodopsylla gentilis (flea), Chiroptonyssus robustipes (mite), and Leptotrombidium myotis (chigger), whereas museum specimens had significantly greater prevalence values for A. calcaratus(mite) and A. nr. eptesicus (mite). There were no significant differences between prevalence values for 4 mites including M. crosbyi, A. lucifugus, Pteracarus nr. minutus, and Cryptonyssussp. Our study represents the only extensive study of ectoparasites on M. occultus and provides evidence for the importance of examining fresh hosts and museum specimens in future ectoparasite studies.

  18. Occult hepatitis B infection and transfusion-transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candotti, D; Boizeau, L; Laperche, S

    2017-09-01

    Advances in serology and viral nucleic acid testing (NAT) over the last decades significantly reduced the risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus (HBV). The combination of HBsAg testing and NAT efficiently prevents the majority of HBV transmission. However, a specific residual risk remains associated with extremely low viral DNA levels in blood donors with occult HBV infection (OBI) that are intermittently or not detectable even by highly sensitive individual donation (ID) NAT. Studies have reported HBV transfusion-transmission with blood components from donors with OBI that contained low amount of viruses (transfusion-transmission seems to depend on a combination of several factors including the volume of plasma associated with the infected blood components transfused, the anti-HBV immune status of both recipient and donor, and possibly the viral fitness of the infecting HBV strain. Models based on clinical and experimental evidences estimate a residual transmission risk of 3-14% associated with OBI donations testing HBsAg and ID-NAT non-reactive. Anti-HBc testing has the potential to improve further blood safety but it may also compromise blood availability in settings with medium/high HBV prevalence. Pathogen reduction procedures might be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Early detection of occult bronchopleural fistula after routine standard pneumonectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misthos, P; Konstantinou, M; Kokotsakis, J; Skottis, I; Lioulias, A

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to define symptoms and signs for early diagnosis of occult bronchopleural fistula (OBPF) after routine pneumonectomy. From 1999 to 2003, 301 pneumonectomies for malignancy were performed. The records of these patients were retrospectively analyzed for several clinicopathologic factors. All patients (group A) that presented postoperatively with one or more suspicious symptoms and signs were recorded. These cases were grouped according to bronchopleural fistula documentation (group A1) or not (group A2). Both groups were subjected to multivariate analysis. In 10 cases (3.3%) bronchopleural communication was confirmed (group A1). The most frequent signs included the lack of contracture or even enlargement of postpneumonectomy space (52.7%), subcutaneous emphysema (33.3%), fever (27.7%), respiratory insufficiency (27.7%), and cough (22.2%). Multivariate analysis disclosed failure of the postpneumonectomy space to contract as an independent prodromal sign for bronchopleural communication (P=0.03, odds ratio 58.3, 95% CI: 1.45-2335.9). Chest radiology proved to be the diagnostic modality of choice for early detection of bronchopleural fistula.

  20. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction) analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  1. Ionospheric observations using GPS radio occultation from a nanosat platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R. L.; Redding, M.; Straus, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Compact Total Electron Content Sensor (CTECS) is a GPS radio occultation instrument designed for cubesat platforms that utilizes a COTS receiver, modified firmware, and a custom designed antenna. CTECS was placed on the Pico Satellite Solar Cell Testbed 2 (PSSC2) nanosat that was installed on the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135). PSSC2 was successfully released from the shuttle on 20 July 2011 near 380 km altitude. Because of attitude control and power issues, only 13.5 hours of data was collected during its approximately 5-month mission life. Total Electron Content (TEC) observations were obtained and this presentation will present a summary of all TEC data analyzed from the mission. We will discuss the instrument challenges encountered, data issues, and future planned improvements to CTECS. Two CTECS flight units were delivered in the spring of 2012 for integration on the SMC/XR Space Environment NanoSatellite Experiment (SENSE) spacecrafts that are scheduled for launch in the second half of 2013. We will present a summary of the SENSE mission, performance of the improved CTECS sensors, and the results of ground and day-in-the-life testing.

  2. Cassini-VIMS at Jupiter: Solar occultation measurements using Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Bellucci, G.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.

    2003-01-01

    We report unusual and somewhat unexpected observations of the jovian satellite Io, showing strong methane absorption bands. These observations were made by the Cassini VIMS experiment during the Jupiter flyby of December/January 2000/2001. The explanation is straightforward: Entering or exiting from Jupiter's shadow during an eclipse, Io is illuminated by solar light which has transited the atmosphere of Jupiter. This light, therefore becomes imprinted with the spectral signature of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, which includes strong atmospheric methane absorption bands. Intercepting solar light refracted by the jovian atmosphere, Io essentially becomes a "miffor" for solar occultation events of Jupiter. The thickness of the layer where refracted solar light is observed is so large (more than 3000 km at Io's orbit), that we can foresee a nearly continuous multi-year period of similar events at Saturn, utilizing the large and bright ring system. During Cassini's 4-year nominal mission, this probing tecnique should reveal information of Saturn's atmosphere over a large range of southern latitudes and times. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Juno Perijove 1 radio occultation of the Io plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, P. H.; Withers, P.; Buccino, D.; Yang, Y. M.; Hinton, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Io's volcanic activity, the dominant source of plasma at Jupiter, releases material into Io's atmosphere which is lost to Jupiter's magnetosphere near Io. This material is then ionized and trapped by the magnetic field to form a torus of plasma around Jupiter, called the Io plasma torus. This plasma can be detected by radio occultations in which the plasma's total electron content affects properties of a spacecraft's radio signal as it propagates through the plasma on the way to the receiver. The total electron content of the Io plasma torus is derived from the duel frequency (Ka and X-band) gravity measurements from the Juno spacecraft during Perijove 1. These measurements, along with the 2-D Phipps and Withers (2017) torus model and a 3-D model of the torus based on recent reanalysis of Voyager PLS data by Bagenal et al. (2017), have been used to determine plasma properties of the torus at the time of Juno Perijove 1. The uncertainty in the data is around 2.25 TECU or 6.1% at the peak for an integration time of 10 seconds.

  4. A moist static energy framework for zonal-mean storm track intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, T.; Barpanda, P.; Donohoe, A.

    2017-12-01

    A moist static energy (MSE) framework for zonal-mean storm track intensity is derived and applied across a range of timescales. Storm track intensity is defined as the extremum of zonal-mean transient eddy MSE flux. According to the framework storm track intensity can be decomposed into contributions from net energy (sum of shortwave absorption and surface heat fluxes into the atmosphere minus outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and atmospheric storage) integrated from the pole to the storm track position and MSE flux by the mean meridional circulation or stationary eddies. The framework predicts storm tracks amplify in spring and decay in fall in response to seasonal insolation. When applied diagnostically the framework shows the amplitude of seasonal intensity in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is consistent with shortwave absorption and surface heat fluxes over land but compensated by OLR (Planck feedback) and stationary eddy MSE flux. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the negligible amplitude of seasonal intensity is consistent with compensation of shortwave absorption by OLR and surface heat fluxes over the ocean (ocean energy storage). On interannual timescales, El Nino minus La Nina conditions amplify the NH storm track and weaken the SH storm track consistent with oceanic surface heat flux changes poleward of the storm track. Finally, on centennial timescales, the CO2 direct and indirect effects produce competing responses on the NH summertime storm track: the indirect effect amplifies the storm track whereas the direct effect weakens it consistent with opposing surface heat flux responses over land and ocean.

  5. Some effects of a mean zonal thermocline gradient on planetary equatorial waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pontaud

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Planetary equatorial waves are studied with the shallow water equations in the presence of a mean zonal thermocline gradient. The interactions between this gradient and waves are represented by three non-linear terms in the equations: one in the wind-forcing formulation in the x-momentum equation, and two for the advection of mass and divergence of the velocity field in the continuity equation. When the mean gradient is imposed but small, these three (linearized terms will perturb the behaviour of the equatorial waves. This paper gives a simple analytic treatment of this problem. The equatorial Kelvin mode is first solved with all three contributions, using a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method. The Kelvin mode shows a spatial or/and temporal growth when the thermocline gradient is negative which is the usual situation in the equatorial Pacific ocean (deep thermocline in the west and shallow in the east. The more robust and efficient contribution comes from the advection term. The single effect of the advection of the mean zonal thermocline gradient is then studied for the Kelvin and planetary Rossby modes. The Kelvin mode remains unstable (damped, while the Rossby modes appear damped (unstable for a negative (positive thermocline gradient.

  6. Detecting Poor Cement Bonding and Zonal Isolation Problems Using Magnetic Cement Slurries

    KAUST Repository

    Nair, Sriramya D.

    2017-10-02

    There has been growing interest in the use of magnetorheological fluids to improve displacement efficiency of fluids (drilling fluids, spacer fluids, cement slurries) in the eccentric casing annuli. When magnetic particles are mixed with the cement slurry for improved displacement, they provide an excellent opportunity for sensing the presence and quality of cement in the annulus. This work focuses on using sophisticated 3D computational electromagnetics to simulate the use of a magnetic cement slurry for well cement monitoring. The main goal is to develop a new tool, which is capable of locating magnetic cement slurry that is placed behind a stainless steel casing. An electromagnetic coil was used to generate a magnetic field inside the borehole. It was found that when a current was passed through the electric coils, magnetic field lines passed through the stainless steel casing, the cement annulus and the rock formation. Three sensors were placed inside the cased borehole and the magnetic field strength variations were observed at these locations. Various factors that have a significant influence on zonal isolation were considered. These include, effect of debonding between casing and cement annulus, effect of changing annuli thickness, influence of a fracture in the rock formation, effect of changing magnetic permeability of cement and finally influence of annuli eccentricity. Based on the results shown in the paper along with the next generation of supersensitive magnetic sensors that are being developed, the magnetic approach appears to be a viable alternative for evaluating the quality of the cement annulus to ensure good zonal isolation.

  7. Temporal distribution characteristics of GNSS ionospheric occultation data and its effects in earthquake-ionosphere anomaly detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal distribution characteristics of COSMIC occultation data are analyzed in detail, and the limitations in earthquake-ionosphere anomaly detection caused by the temporal distribution characteristics of COSMIC occultation data are discussed using the example of the Wenchuan earthquake. The results demonstrate that there is no fixed temporal resolution for COSMIC occultation data when compared with other ionospheric observation techniques. Therefore, occultation data cannot currently be independently utilized in research studies but can only be used as a complement to other ionospheric observation techniques for applications with high temporal resolution demands, such as earthquake-ionosphere anomaly detection.

  8. The contribution of occult precipitation to nutrient deposition on the west coast of South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine M Nyaga

    Full Text Available The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3(-, NH4(+ and Li (as tracer for K through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation.

  9. A Method for Optimal Load Dispatch of a Multi-zone Power System with Zonal Exchange Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Durlav; Das, Ranjay

    2018-01-01

    This paper presented a method for economic generation scheduling of a multi-zone power system having inter zonal operational constraints. For this purpose, the generator rescheduling for a multi area power system having inter zonal operational constraints has been represented as a two step optimal generation scheduling problem. At first, the optimal generation scheduling has been carried out for the zone having surplus or deficient generation with proper spinning reserve using co-ordination equation. The power exchange required for the deficit zones and zones having no generation are estimated based on load demand and generation for the zone. The incremental transmission loss formulas for the transmission lines participating in the power transfer process among the zones are formulated. Using these, incremental transmission loss expression in co-ordination equation, the optimal generation scheduling for the zonal exchange has been determined. Simulation is carried out on IEEE 118 bus test system to examine the applicability and validity of the method.

  10. L-H bifurcations as phase transitions, the role of zonal flows and the spectral energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shats, M.G.; Punzmann, H.; Xia, H.; Solomon, W.M.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of new results related to the physics of confinement bifurcations in the H-1 heliac is presented. A macroscopic description of the transport modifications across L-H transitions in H-1 suggests several analogies between these bifurcations and phase transitions. Among them is the nucleation in phase transitions which is manifested in the plasma both in time and in space. A microscopic picture reveals the importance of zonal flows, or time-varying shear radial electric field in the spatio-temporal structure of confinement bifurcations. In particular, the effect of zonal flows on the fluctuation-driven transport in H-1 is discussed. Finally, new results on the mechanism of generation of large coherent structures and zonal flows are reviewed. It is shown that inverse energy cascades in turbulent spectra are responsible for the structure generation in H-1. (orig.)

  11. Relationship between eastern tropical Pacific cooling and recent trends in the Southern Hemisphere zonal-mean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James

    2017-07-01

    During 1979-2014, eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures significantly cooled, which has generally been attributed to the transition of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its negative phase after 1999. We find the eastern tropical Pacific cooling to be associated with: (1) an intensified Walker Circulation during austral summer (December-February, DJF) and autumn (March-May, MAM); (2) a weakened South Pacific Hadley cell and subtropical jet during MAM; and (3) a strengthening of the circumpolar westerlies between 50 and 60°S during DJF and MAM. Observed cooling in the eastern tropical Pacific is linearly congruent with 60-80 % of the observed Southern Hemisphere positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend between 50 and 60°S during DJF ( 35 % of the interannual variability), and around half of the observed positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend during MAM ( 15 % of the interannual variability). Although previous studies have linked the strengthened DJF and MAM circumpolar westerlies to stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases, we note that the continuation of the positive SAM trends into the twenty-first century is partially associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling, especially during MAM when zonal wind anomalies associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling project strongly onto the observed trends. Outside of DJF and MAM, eastern tropical Pacific cooling is associated with opposing zonal wind anomalies over the Pacific and Indian sectors, which we infer is the reason for the absence of significant positive SAM trends outside of DJF and MAM despite significant eastern tropical Pacific cooling seen during all seasons.

  12. [Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection and its phylogenetic features among mother-teenager pairs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-lian; Yao, Qing-qing; Wang, Xue-cai; Xu, Hai-tao; Wang, Xiao-li; Chen, Sheng-yu; Tang, Zhi-feng; Zheng, Ying-Jie

    2013-03-01

    Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) was investigated in a paired mother-teenager population and HBV S gene variation including overt and occult HBV, was determined. A follow-up study based on an initial survey of 135 mother-teenager pairs was carried out through collection of questionnaires and blood samples HBsAg were detected by ELISA method, viral load by PCR amplification and HBV S gene by phylogenetic analysis. 102 pairs of subjects were followed-up. Blood samples from 94 mothers and 101 children were collected. OBI prevalence in mothers was 10.0% (6/60), significantly higher than 2.0% (2/101) in teenagers. Medians of viral load were 399.9 IU/ml and 247.6 IU/ml in overt and occult HBV strains, but without significant difference. 1 occult HBV strain belonged to genotype B with serotype adw while the other 7 were genotype C with serotype adr. 15 of the overt HBV strains belonged to genotype B with serotype adw and the other 8 were genotype C with serotype adr. Proportions of genotype-C strains were significantly higher in occult HBV strains than in overt HBV strains. OBI was seen in teenage-mother population.

  13. Disparities in the receipt of fecal occult blood test versus endoscopy among Filipino American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Danao, Leda L; Crespi, Catherine M; Antonio, Cynthia; Garcia, Gabriel M; Bastani, Roshan

    2008-08-01

    This report examines disparities associated with the type of colorectal screening test, fecal occult blood test versus endoscopy, within a particular racial/ethnic group, Filipino American immigrants. Between July 2005 and October 2006, Filipino Americans aged 50 to 75 years from 31 community organizations in Los Angeles completed a 15-minute survey in English (65%) or Filipino (35%). Of the 487 respondents included in this analysis, 257 (53%) had never received any type of colorectal cancer screening. Among the 230 subjects who had ever received a routine screening test, 78 had fecal occult blood test only (16% of the total sample), and 152 had endoscopy with or without fecal occult blood test (31% of the total sample). After controlling for access to care and key demographic variables in a multivariate analysis, only two characteristics distinguished between respondents who had fecal occult blood test only versus those who had endoscopy: acculturation, assessed by percent lifetime in the United States and language of interview, and income. Our data suggest a two-tier system, fecal occult blood test for less acculturated Filipino Americans with lower income versus endoscopy for Filipino immigrants with higher levels of acculturation and income. The disparity persists after adjusting for access to care. Instead of treating minority groups as monolithic, differences within groups need to be examined so that interventions can be appropriately targeted.

  14. Zonal characterization of hillslope erosion processes in a semi-arid high mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Raquel; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Moñino, Antonio; Ángel Losada, Miguel; José Polo, María

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean and semi-arid catchments, generally suffer heterogeneous erosive processes at different spatio-temporal scales which produce, in a synergistic manner, a large amount of sediment supply. In mountainous catchments, the influence of pluvio-nival hydrological regime leads to a clear subdivision into homogeneous zones regarding the nature of hillslope processes. Here, a distinction could be addressed with 1) subsurface erosion due to saturated soil by intense snowmelt pulses and 2) steepest mid-mountain soil loss with rill/interrill, small-scale landslides and ephemeral or permanent gullying. Furthermore, the associated channels in these areas are formed by wide alluvial floodplains with important bedload contributions. This complexity conditions the evaluation of erosion and monitoring at catchment scale with elevated costs in time, devices and staff. The catchment of the Guadalfeo river encloses 1200 km², with important presence of snow in the summits height on its right margin, and semiarid low range hills with very erodible soils on its left margin. Gully erosion, landslides and stream bed-load processes, extremely actives in this area, are responsible of a real problem of soil loss and desertification with a high associated cost. This work suggests a methodology for the zonal assessment of different erosive processes taking into account the described heterogeneity and the reduction of research costs. To do this, high resolution bathymetric and topographic surveys supported in a reservoir (110 hm3) allowed the differentiation of bedload and suspended sediments as both are deposited in different locations and hence the validation of the hillslope sediment yield. In parallel, measurements in homogeneous areas were selected in order to obtain zonal results to achieve the representative processes involved. The use of portable samplers allows the remote changing of sampling routines, and thus to capture the temporal scale of the processes and the

  15. Role of Sonography in Clinically Occult Femoral Hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandel, David W; Girish, Gandikota; Brandon, Catherine J; Dong, Qian; Yablon, Corrie; Jamadar, David A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sonography in clinically occult femoral hernias and to describe our sonographic technique. The clinical and imaging data for 93 outpatients referred by general surgeons, all of whom underwent sonographic evaluation and surgery, were reviewed retrospectively. Of these, 55 patients who underwent surgical exploration for groin hernias within 3 months of sonography and met all inclusion criteria were included in the study. The sonographic technique involves using the pubic tubercle as an osseous landmark to identify and appropriately visualize the femoral canal. The Valsalva maneuver is then used to differentiate the movement of normal fat (a potential pitfall) from true herniation in the femoral canal. Surgical findings were used as the reference standard by which sonographic results were judged. Two-by-two contingency tables were used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. In these 55 patients, surgery revealed 15 femoral hernias. Eight femoral hernias occurred in women, and 7 occurred in men. For diagnosing femoral hernias, sonography demonstrated sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 88%, a positive predictive value of 71%, and a negative predictive value of 92%. True-positive cases of femoral hernias have a sonographic appearance of a hypoechoic sac with speckled internal echoes. When examining during the Valsalva maneuver, a femoral hernia passes deep to the inguinal ligament, expands the femoral canal, displacing the normal canal fat, and effaces the femoral vein. Sonography can exclude femoral hernias with high confidence in light of its exceptional negative predictive value. With attention to technique and imaging criteria, the diagnostic accuracy of sonography can be enhanced.

  16. [MRI findings and pathological features of occult breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Yang, X T; Du, X S; Zhang, J X; Hou, L N; Niu, J L

    2018-01-23

    Objective: To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinicopathological features of primary lesions in patients with occult breast cancer (OBC). Methods: The imaging reports from the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System in 2013 were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the morphology and the time signal intensity curve (TIC) of breast lesions in patients with OBC. The clinical and pathological characteristics of these patients were also included. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 24 patients underwent modified radical mastectomy and 18 of them had primary breast carcinoma in pathological sections. MRI detected 17 cases of primary lesions, including six masse lesions with a diameter of 0.6-1.2 cm (average 0.9 cm), and 11 non-mass lesions with four linear distributions, three segmental distributions, three focal distributions, and one regions distribution. Five patients had TIC typeⅠprimary lesions, ten had TIC type Ⅱ primary lesions, and two had TIC type Ⅲ primary lesions. Among all 34 cases, 23 of them had complete results of immunohistochemistry: 11 estrogen receptor (ER) positive lesions (47.8%), tenprogesterone receptor (PR) positive lesions (43.5%), seven human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positive lesions (30.4%), and 20high expression(>14%) of Ki-67 (87.0%). The proportion of type luminal A was 4.3%, type luminal B was 43.5%, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) was 30.4%, and HER-2 over expression accounted for 21.7%. Conclusions: The primary lesions of OBC usually manifested as small mass lesions, or focal, linear or segmental distribution of non-mass lesions. The positive rate of ER and PR was low, but the positive rate of HER-2 and the proliferation index of Ki-67 was high. Type luminal B is the most common molecular subtype.

  17. TWENTY-FIVE SUBARCSECOND BINARIES DISCOVERED BY LUNAR OCCULTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Rd., Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Fors, O. [Departament Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB/IEEC), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cusano, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Moerchen, M., E-mail: andrea4work@gmail.com [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2013-09-15

    We report on 25 subarcsecond binaries, detected for the first time by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared (near-IR) as part of a long-term program using the ISAAC instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 3.8-10.4, and the companions in the range K = 6.4-12.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.8, with the largest being 5.4. The projected separations are in the range 6-748 mas and with a median of 18 mas, or about three times less than the diffraction limit of the telescope. Among our binary detections are a pre-main-sequence star and an enigmatic Mira-like variable previously suspected to have a companion. Additionally, we quote an accurate first-time near-IR detection of a previously known wider binary. We discuss our findings on an individual basis as far as made possible by the available literature, and we examine them from a statistical point of view. We derive a typical frequency of binarity among field stars of Almost-Equal-To 10%, in the resolution and sensitivity range afforded by the technique ( Almost-Equal-To 0.''003 to Almost-Equal-To 0.''5, and K Almost-Equal-To 12 mag, respectively). This is in line with previous results using the same technique but we point out interesting differences that we can trace up to sensitivity, time sampling, and average distance of the targets. Finally, we discuss the prospects for further follow-up studies.

  18. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with isolated hepatitis B core antibody in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Khorvash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV genomes without detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs-Ag is termed occult HBV infection (OHBV that may be transmitted by blood transfusion or organ transplantation and has acute reactivation when an immunosuppressive status like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection occurs. We aimed to evaluate OHBV in HIV-infected patients with isolated antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study during August-September 2011, serum samples from HIV-infected patients who attended Isfahan Consultation Center for Behavioral Diseases were tested for HBs-Ag and anti-HBc using ELISA method. HBV-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was detected and quantified in plasma of HBs-Ag negative/anti-HBc positive subjects by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: From 64 HIV-positive individuals, 12 (18% patients were HBs-Ag negative/anti-HBc positive, and from those 3 (25% had detectable HBV-DNA in their plasma. Conclusion: It seems that occult HBV might be assessed and be treated in HIV-infected patients.

  19. Biliary microcrystals in idiopathic acute pancreatitis: clue for occult underlying biliary etiology

    OpenAIRE

    CHEBLI, Júlio Maria Fonseca; FERRARI Jr., Ângelo Paulo; SILVA, Maria Regina Regis; BORGES, Durval Rosa; ATALLAH, Álvaro Nagib; NEVES, Manoel Martins das

    2000-01-01

    As principais causas de inflamação pancreática no mundo são a litíase biliar e o alcoolismo crônico. Admite-se que 10 a 30% das pancreatites agudas sejam idiopáticas. Sugere-se que parte destas são causadas por microlitíase ou barro biliar, identificados pela presença de microcristais no sedimento biliar. Neste estudo, realizou-se análise microscópica da bile obtida por colangiopancreatografia endoscópica, em pacientes com pancreatite aguda idiopática, pancreatite aguda biliar e pancreatite c...

  20. ZONAL SCHEME OF ELECTRIC SUPPLY NETWORK FOR INSTITUTIONS OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsay M.A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regime of operation of existing electricity network of academic institutions in the district of Television Center of Chisinau was performed. Calculations were performed on the base of actual power consumption. Losses of electricity in all parts of the network have been estimated as well. It has been demonstrated that due to the low power consumption, transformers of the system have been loaded less than 20%. As a result, losses in the steel (idling losses of transformers dominate over value of losses of all networks (about 95%. Basic cause of increased losses was aging of the equipment. The losses in iron of transformers could be much greater than the certified value of the losses in transformers with a long life (20-30 years. Three efficient network configurations have been proposed. Power losses have been calculated for each topology of network. Advantages of the zonal scheme, as one of the most efficient power supply network, have been demonstrated.

  1. On the origin of pre-reversal enhancement of the zonal equatorial electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Kelley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In November 2004, a large and variable interplanetary electric field (IEF was felt in the reference frame of the Earth. This electric field penetrated to the magnetic equator and, when the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO was in the dusk sector, resulted in a reversal of the normal zonal component of the field. In turn, this caused a counter-electrojet (CEJ, a westward current rather than the usual eastward current. At the time of the normal pre-reversal enhancement (PRE of the eastward field, the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR observed that the westward component became even more westward. Two of the three current explanations for the PRE depend on the neutral wind patterns. However, this unique event was such that the neutral wind-driven dynamos could not have changed. The implication is that the Haerendel-Eccles mechanism, which involves partial closure of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ after sunset, must be the dominant mechanism for the PRE.

  2. Free Flow Zonal Electrophoresis for Fractionation of Plant Membrane Compartments Prior to Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2018-01-01

    Free flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) is a versatile, reproducible, and potentially high-throughput technique for the separation of plant organelles and membranes by differences in membrane surface charge. It offers considerable benefits over traditional fractionation techniques, such as density gradient centrifugation and two-phase partitioning, as it is relatively fast, sample recovery is high, and the method provides unparalleled sample purity. It has been used to successfully purify chloroplasts and mitochondria from plants but also, to obtain highly pure fractions of plasma membrane, tonoplast, ER, Golgi, and thylakoid membranes. Application of the technique can significantly improve protein coverage in large-scale proteomics studies by decreasing sample complexity. Here, we describe the method for the fractionation of plant cellular membranes from leaves by FFZE.

  3. Radiative modelling by the zonal method and WSGG model in inhomogeneous axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méchi, Rachid; Farhat, Habib; Said, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Nongray radiation calculations are carried out for a case problem available in the literature. The problem is a non-isothermal and inhomogeneous CO 2 -H 2 O- N 2 gas mixture confined within an axisymmetric cylindrical furnace. The numerical procedure is based on the zonal method associated with the weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) model. The effect of the wall emissivity on the heat flux losses is discussed. It is shown that this property affects strongly the furnace efficiency and that the most important heat fluxes are those leaving through the circumferential boundary. The numerical procedure adopted in this work is found to be effective and may be relied on to simulate coupled turbulent combustion-radiation in fired furnaces. (paper)

  4. Impact of impurities on zonal flow driven by trapped electron mode turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weixin; Wang, Lu; Zhuang, Ge

    2017-12-01

    The impact of impurities on the generation of zonal flow (ZF) driven by collisonless trapped electron mode turbulence in deuterium (D)-tritium (T) plasmas is investigated. An expression for ZF growth rate with impurities is derived by balancing the ZF potential shielded by polarization effects and the ZF modulated radial turbulent current. Then, it is shown that the maximum normalized ZF growth rate is reduced by the presence of fully ionized non-trace light impurities with relatively flat density profile, and slightly reduced by highly ionized trace tungsten, while the maximum normalized ZF growth rate can be enhanced by fully ionized non-trace light impurities with relatively steep density profile. In particular, the effects of high temperature helium from D-T reaction on ZF depend on the temperature ratio between electrons and high temperature helium. The possible relevance of our findings to recent experimental results and future burning plasmas is also discussed.

  5. Global characteristics of zonal flows due to the effect of finite bandwidth in drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, K.; Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The spectral effect of the zonal flow (ZF) on its generation is investigated based on the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima turbulence model. It is found that the effect of finite ZF bandwidth qualitatively changes the characteristics of ZF instability. A spatially localized (namely, global) nonlinear ZF state with an enhanced, unique growth rate for all spectral components is created under a given turbulent fluctuation. It is identified that such state originates from the successive cross couplings among Fourier components of the ZF and turbulence spectra through the sideband modulation. Furthermore, it is observed that the growth rate of the global ZF is determined not only by the spectral distribution and amplitudes of turbulent pumps as usual, but also statistically by the turbulence structure, namely, their probabilistic initial phase factors. A ten-wave coupling model of the ZF modulation instability involving the essential effect of the ZF spectrum is developed to clarify the basic features of the global nonlinear ZF state.

  6. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  7. Mesoscale plasma dynamics, transport barriers and zonal flows: simulations and paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyagaraja, A.; Knight, P.J. [Euratom/Ukaea Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Loureiro, N. [Plasma Physics Group, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-01

    Tokamaks are magnetic confinement fusion devices which seek to produce power from fusion reactions between the isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium). The understanding of turbulent transport processes which govern the energy, momentum and current distributions in tokamak plasmas is important to optimising the economically viable design of future power plants based on the tokamak concept. With the advent of powerful modern computers it has become possible to model the plasma dynamics on the so-called 'mesoscale' which consists of electromagnetic turbulence with wavelengths intermediate to the ion gyro radius and the system size of typical tokamaks. This paper attempts to describe one such approach which evolves the two-fluid model of a tokamak plasma globally (i.e., both on the macro-scale and the mesoscale), using a nonlinear, electromagnetic, three-dimensional code CUTIE. Recent researches, both theoretical and experimental, on tokamaks indicate the spontaneous (or, externally induced) generation of so-called 'zonal flows', which, under well-defined conditions, can lead to substantial reduction of turbulent transport in localized regions known as transport barriers. This type of confinement enhancement is of great importance in the design and construction of practical fusion power plants and has been the subject of intensive study. In addition to the computational approach based on CUTIE simulations, we also describe some simpler paradigmatic models which are designed to illustrate the genesis of zonal flows by characteristic drift wave fluctuations and the effects of such highly sheared advective flows on the system dynamics. These models help one to understand in a much clearer fashion the rather complex processes simulated by CUTIE. (authors)

  8. An integration time adaptive control method for atmospheric composition detection of occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Hou, Shuai; Yu, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Li, Chao; Zhe, Lin

    2018-01-01

    When sun is used as the light source for atmospheric composition detection, it is necessary to image sun for accurate identification and stable tracking. In the course of 180 second of the occultation, the magnitude of sun light intensity through the atmosphere changes greatly. It is nearly 1100 times illumination change between the maximum atmospheric and the minimum atmospheric. And the process of light change is so severe that 2.9 times per second of light change can be reached. Therefore, it is difficult to control the integration time of sun image camera. In this paper, a novel adaptive integration time control method for occultation is presented. In this method, with the distribution of gray value in the image as the reference variable, and the concepts of speed integral PID control, the integration time adaptive control problem of high frequency imaging. The large dynamic range integration time automatic control in the occultation can be achieved.

  9. Periprosthetic Occult Fractures of the Acetabulum Occur Frequently During Primary THA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kabata, Tamon; Kajino, Yoshitomo; Inoue, Daisuke; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum occurring during primary THA are rare. Periprosthetic occult fractures are defined as those not identified by the surgeon during the procedure which might be missed on a routine postoperative radiograph. However, it is unclear how frequently these fractures occur and whether their presence affects functional recovery. In this study, using routine CT scans that were obtained as part of another primary hip arthroplasty study protocol, we retrospectively assessed (1) the prevalence of occult fractures of the acetabulum occurring during primary THA, (2) the location of occult fractures of the acetabulum during THA, and (3) risk factors contributing to such occult fractures. Between 2004 and 2013, our institute performed 585 primary THAs (cementless or hybrid) in 494 patients with DICOM pre- and postoperative CT; during the period in question, all patients undergoing THA underwent CT before and after surgery. Preoperative CT images were taken as part of a CT-based three-dimensional templating software and navigation system. Postoperative CT images were taken an average of 1 week after surgery as part of a different protocol to evaluate cup position, restoration of leg length and offset, volume of postoperative hematoma to assess anticoagulation effects after THA, and fractures that were not found on routine postoperative radiographs (which we defined as occult fractures). Patients with a history of prior pelvic osteotomy, trauma, and infection were excluded (88 patients/99 hips); 406 patients (102 males and 304 females; 486 hips) form the basis of this report. The mean age of the patients was 60 ± 11 years, with a mean BMI of 23 ± 4 kg/m 2 . The mean followup of the patients with periprosthetic fracture of the acetabulum was 58 ± 28 months (range, 12-131 months). Potential risk factors for occult acetabular fracture including age, sex, BMI, preoperative diagnosis, additional dome screw fixation, composition and size of each

  10. Occult HCV infection: an unexpected finding in a population unselected for hepatic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occult Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a new pathological entity characterized by presence of liver disease and absence or very low levels of detectable HCV-RNA in serum. Abnormal values of liver enzymes and presence of replicative HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are also observed. Aim of the study was to evaluate occult HCV occurrence in a population unselected for hepatic disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We chose from previous epidemiological studies three series of subjects (n = 276, age range 40-65 years unselected for hepatic disease. These subjects were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA in plasma and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by using commercial systems. All subjects tested negative for HCV antibodies and plasma HCV-RNA and showed normal levels of liver enzymes; 9/276 patients (3.3% were positive for HCV-RNA in PBMCs, identifying a subset of subjects with potential occult HCV infection. We could determine the HCV type for 8 of the 9 patients finding type 1a (3 patients, type 1b (2 patients, and type 2a (3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show evidence that occult HCV infection may occur in a population unselected for hepatic disease. A potential risk of HCV infection spread by subjects harbouring occult HCV infection should be considered. Design of prospective studies focusing on the frequency of infection in the general population and on the clinical evolution of occult HCV infection will be needed to verify this unexpected finding.

  11. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark's club land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-generated zonal flows in the plasma turbulence driven by trapped-ion and trapped-electron instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.; Collard, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS - Université de Lorraine, 54 506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of the temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i} on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations n{sub e} and n{sub i} gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.

  13. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, So Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Jung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang CHA general Hospital, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  14. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, So Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  15. GPS Radio Occultation: Results from CHAMP, GRACE and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Wickert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan/US FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (FORMOsa SATellite mission - 3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate satellite nstellation was successfully launched on 14 April 2006. It is expected to leverage the use of the GPS (Global Positioning System radio occultation data for atmospheric and ionospheric research to improve global weather forecasts and aid climate change related studies. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, together with the European MetOp, German CHAMP and US/German GRACE-A satellites, form a 9 satellite constellation for precise atmospheric sounding on a global scale. This satellite constellation is expected to provide about 3500 occultation measurements daily.

  16. Occult injuries of the femoral neck in osteoporosis of aged patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fractures of the femoral neck in elderly patients are often a complication in osteoporosis. Diagnosis of fractures with displacement and compression of fragments is quite easy. The negative radiograph in old patients complaining of hip pain is generally considered a characteristic feature of presensile osteoporotic pain. Clinical examples present patients with hip pain caused by occult injuries of the femoral neck. They should be regarded as imminent fractures and adequately treated. Bone scan is very helpful in the early detection of such occult osteroporotic injuries. (orig.) [de

  17. Occult Hepatitis B in Patients Co-Infected With Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Majzoobi; Hashemi; Mahjoob; Khakizadeh; Nikbakht

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diagnosis of the occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is important due to the fact that the HBV infection may have a clinical impact on liver disease in coinfected HIV/HCV patients. Isolated hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) positive HBV infection has been reported in HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine the occult hepatitis B in patients co-infected with HCV...

  18. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a 3-year-old with occult myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Randall M; Redfearn, Sharon P; Marangi, Don; Davenport, Joseph P; Kuntz, Sean T; Schowengerdt, Kenneth O

    2002-10-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare clinical entity in children. Occult myocarditis has not been previously implicated as an etiologic agent. A 3-year-old female presents with a presumed breath-holding spell and is found to have ventricular fibrillation requiring DC cardioversion. An invasive electrophysiological study was performed demonstrating the absence of inducible ventricular arrhythmias. Low dose epinephrine confirmed the presence CPVT. Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsies sent for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis demonstrated the presence of adenoviral DNA. The authors hypothesize that occult myocarditis may be the inciting agent for CPVT in children.

  19. Remote Sensing of the Earth s Atmosphere by the Spaceborne Occultation Radiometer, ORA: Final Inversion Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussen, Didier; Vanhellemont, Filip; Bingen, Christine

    2001-02-01

    We describe the final inversion algorithm developed to process solar occultation data measured in 1992 -1993 by the Occultation Radiometer (ORA) spaceborne experiment. First we develop a new method to improve the ORA total extinction altitude profiles retrieved with the previously described Natural Orthogonal Polynomial Expansion (NOPE) method. Using these improved profiles, we perform spectral inversion and obtain altitude density profiles for O3 and NO2 and extinction profiles for the aerosols. Validation of number density profiles between the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) and the ORA shows satisfactory agreement.

  20. Remote Sensing of the Earth 's Atmosphere by the Spaceborne Occultation Radiometer, ORA: Final Inversion Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussen, D; Vanhellemont, F; Bingen, C

    2001-02-20

    We describe the final inversion algorithm developed to process solar occultation data measured in 1992-1993 by the Occultation Radiometer (ORA) spaceborne experiment. First we develop a new method to improve the ORA total extinction altitude profiles retrieved with the previously described Natural Orthogonal Polynomial Expansion (NOPE) method. Using these improved profiles, we perform spectral inversion and obtain altitude density profiles for O(3) and NO(2) and extinction profiles for the aerosols. Validation of number density profiles between the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) and the ORA shows satisfactory agreement.

  1. Pipeline for the Detection of Serendipitous Stellar Occultations by Kuiper Belt Objects with the Colibri Fast-photometry Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, E.; Metchev, S.; Brown, P.; Beauchemin, S.

    2018-01-01

    We report results from the preliminary trials of Colibri, a dedicated fast-photometry array for the detection of small Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) through serendipitous stellar occultations. Colibri’s novel data processing pipeline analyzed 4000 star hours with two overlapping-field EMCCD cameras, detecting no KBOs and one false positive occultation event in a high ecliptic latitude field. No occultations would be expected at these latitudes, allowing these results to provide a control sample for the upcoming main Colibri campaign. The empirical false positive rate found by the processing pipeline is consistent with the 0.002% simulation-determined false positive rate. We also describe Colibri’s software design, kernel sets for modeling stellar occultations, and method for retrieving occultation parameters from noisy diffraction curves. Colibri’s main campaign will begin in mid-2018, operating at a 40 Hz sampling rate. .

  2. Frank hematuria as the presentation feature of acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriya Owais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Muco-cutaneous bleeding is a common presenting feature of acute leukemias. Mucosal bleeding usually manifests as gum bleeding and/or epistaxis but may occur in any mucosal surface of the body. Hematuria as an isolated or main presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. We describe two cases of acute leukemia, a 19 year old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a 52 year old male with acute myeloid leukemia, both presenting with gross hematuria. There was no demonstrable leukemic infiltration of the urinary tract on imaging studies. Hematuria in these patients was likely to be due to occult leukemic infiltration of the urinary system, aggravated by thrombocytopenia, as it subsided after starting chemotherapy. Our cases highlight that hematuria should be remembered as a rare presenting feature of acute leukemia.

  3. Naturally occurring mutations in large surface genes related to occult infection of hepatitis B virus genotype C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kim

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms related to occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, particularly those based on genotype C infection, have rarely been determined thus far in the ongoing efforts to determine infection mechanisms. Therefore, we aim to elucidate the mutation patterns in the surface open reading frame (S ORF underlying occult infections of HBV genotype C in the present study. Nested PCRs were applied to 624 HBV surface antigen (HBsAg negative Korean subjects. Cloning and sequencing of the S ORF gene was applied to 41 occult cases and 40 control chronic carriers. Forty-one (6.6% of the 624 Korean adults with HBsAg-negative serostatus were found to be positive for DNA according to nested PCR tests. Mutation frequencies in the three regions labeled here as preS1, preS2, and S were significantly higher in the occult subjects compared to the carriers in all cases. A total of two types of deletions, preS1 deletions in the start codon and preS2 deletions as well as nine types of point mutations were significantly implicated in the occult infection cases. Mutations within the "a" determinant region in HBsAg were found more frequently in the occult subjects than in the carriers. Mutations leading to premature termination of S ORF were found in 16 occult subjects (39.0% but only in one subject from among the carriers (2.5%. In conclusion, our data suggest that preS deletions, the premature termination of S ORF, and "a" determinant mutations are associated with occult infections of HBV genotype C among a HBsAg-negative population. The novel mutation patterns related to occult infection introduced in the present study can help to broaden our understanding of HBV occult infections.

  4. Scintigraphy in the diagnosis of occult fractures of the calcaneus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, E.H.; Carty, H. (Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (UK). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-11-01

    Four toddlers presented with acute limp due to fracture of the calcaneus. Such fractures were originally described as rare, a contributory factor for this view almost certainly being the absence of radiographic abnormalities in a significant number of cases. The importance of bone scintigraphy early in the course of investigation is emphasized. (orig.).

  5. Scintigraphy in the diagnosis of occult fractures of the calcaneus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, E.H.; Carty, H.

    1990-01-01

    Four toddlers presented with acute limp due to fracture of the calcaneus. Such fractures were originally described as rare, a contributory factor for this view almost certainly being the absence of radiographic abnormalities in a significant number of cases. The importance of bone scintigraphy early in the course of investigation is emphasized. (orig.)

  6. The particle size distribution in Saturn's Main Rings from VIMS and UVIS stellar occultations and RSS radio occultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerousek, R. G.; Colwell, J. E.; Hedman, M. M.; Marouf, E. A.; French, R. G.; Esposito, L. W.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    The parameters of a simple power-law particle size distribution can be inferred from measurements of optical depth at multiple wavelengths (Marouf et al. 1982, 1983, Zebker et al. 1985) where the number of particles of radius between a and a+da is given by n(a)da = n0(a/a0)-qda with amin ≤ a ≤ amax. In the C ring and Cassini division where the surface mass density is low, the Toomre critical wavelength for gravitational collapse is comparable to the radii of the largest particles ( 1 m) and the effects of viewing geometry on measured normal optical depth can be ignored. In these regions, we fit optical depths measured by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) at λ = 2.9μm, the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) at λ = 0.15μm, and by the Radio Science Subsystem (RSS) at X band (λ = 3.6cm) and Ka band (λ = 9.4mm) to power-law derived optical depths and constrain the power-law parameters at 10km radial resolution. In the A and B rings where the Toomre critical wavelength is much larger than the radii of the largest particles, self-gravity wakes (ephemeral elongated particle aggregates canted to the direction of orbital motion by Keplerian shear) form. Occultations of these ring regions that occur at different viewing geometries measure different normal optical depths. We model and remove the geometric effects on the ring normal optical depth using the self-gravity wake model of Colwell et al. (2006, 2007) and fit wake model derived optical depths to power-law determined optical depths to constrain the parameters of the power-law particle size distribution. We find average values of amin 5 mm in the background C ring, the C ring plateaus, and in the Cassini Division. In the A and B ring and outside the strong density waves triggered by resonances with Janus and Mimas, we find amin 9 mm except in the trans-Encke region were the minimum particle radius drops to 5 mm and again to about 3.5 mm in the trans-Keeler region near the A ring outer

  7. Multidetector Computed Tomography in Acute Joint Fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapamaeki, V.V.; Kiuru, M.J.; Mustonen, A.O.; Koskinen, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional radiography plays an essential diagnostic role in the primary evaluation of acute joint trauma. In complex fractures, however, computed tomography (CT) is an imaging modality often used second to radiography. As a result of technical breakthroughs in the field, multidetector CT (MDCT) allows faster imaging and better temporal, spatial, and contrast resolution compared with conventional single-slice spiral CT. MDCT with multiplanar reformation is helpful in disclosing fracture patterns, particularly in complex joint fractures, where they reveal occult fractures and show the exact number of fracture components and their degree of displacement

  8. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary in adults occurs when squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck from an undetectable primary tumor. Treatment includes surgery and radiation therapy. Learn about the diagnosis, survival, staging, and treatment of these tumors.

  9. Detection of occult hepatitis B virus among chronic hepatitis C patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Concurrent infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increasingly recognized in patients with chronic hepatitis. In Egypt, the last decade showed a remarkable decline in HBV infection associated with remarkable rise in HCV infection. The probable impact of occult HBV in patients ...

  10. Earlier stages of colorectal cancer detected with immunochemical faecal occult blood tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, L. G. M.; van Rijn, A. F.; van Munster, I. P.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of colorectal cancer screening is to improve prognosis by the detection of early cancer and precursor stages. We compared the stage distribution of asymptomatic colorectal cancer patients detected by a positive immunochemical or guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (FOBT) with

  11. Post traumatic urinary extravasation in occult urinary obstruction: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bothra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary extravastion after blunt abdominal trauma is seen often and generally treated conservatively. However a blunt renal trauma causing huge amount of extravasations and symptoms disproportionate to the severity of trauma should alarm the surgeon towards an underlying occult renal pathology usually an obstruction. In this case series, we share three such experiences and their management.

  12. Occult Genres and the Certification of Madness in a 19th-Century Lunatic Asylum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkenkotter, Carol; Hanganu-Bresch, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Using archival admissions records and case histories of patients at a British asylum from the 1860s to the 1870s, the authors examine the medical certification process leading to the asylum confinement of individuals judged to be "of unsound mind." These institutional texts are, the authors suggest, "occult genres" that…

  13. Prevalence of Visible and Occult Blood on Airway Management Equipment Used Outside the Operating Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    of disinfection. Examples include blood pressure cuffs, skin temperature probes, pulse oximeter sensors, electrocardiogram cables and electrodes, and...established SOP s by units such as the Medical/Surgical ICU staff most likely explains the reduced overall prevalence of occult blood. Recommendations

  14. GEROS-ISS: GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Cardellach, Estel; Bandeiras, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    GEROS-ISS stands for GNSS REflectometry, radio occultation, and scatterometry onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is a scientific experiment, successfully proposed to the European Space Agency in 2011. The experiment as the name indicates will be conducted on the ISS. The main focus...

  15. Treatment for occult hepatocellular carcinoma: does it offer survival advantages over symptom-driven treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Min; Kim, Jiyu; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Hye Seung; Kim, Kyunga; Kang, Wonseok; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2018-04-03

    In order to claim a benefit of screen-based diagnosis for asymptomatic individuals, treatment of occult disease needs to offer survival advantages compared to the treatment of symptomatic disease, yet information on this issue is scarce with regard to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening. A total of 3353 treatment-naïve, consecutive, newly diagnosed HCC patients [age: 57.9 ± 10.3, male: 2,689 (80.2%), hepatitis B virus: 2555 (76.2%)], diagnosed between 2010 and 2013 were analyzed. Data on the mode of detection was prospectively collected at the time of HCC diagnosis and was used to group patients into occult or symptomatic cases. Overall, 643 (19.2%) patients were symptomatic cases. The proportion of patients undergoing resection, radiofrequency ablation or transplantation were lower in symptomatic cases than occult cases (20.8 vs. 56.2%, p offered a survival benefit to patients over symptomatic cases. These data support screening practices for asymptomatic individuals to diagnose occult HCC.

  16. Design and Verification of External Occulters for Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An occulter is an optical element which is placed in front of the telescope to block most of the light from a star before it reaches the optics inside, without blocking the planet.In our case, we use two spacecraft ying in formation: First has its edge shaped to cancel the starlight Second is the telescope which images the star and planet

  17. Laparoscopy or clinical follow-up to detect occult diaphragm injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean follow-up time was 24 months (median: 24; interquartile range: 1–40). There was no morbidity or mortality in Group B. Conclusions: Clinical and radiological follow-up are feasible and appear to be safe, in the short term, in patients who harbour occult diaphragm injuries after left TA stab wounds. Until studies ...

  18. Occult hepatitis B virus among the patients with abnormal alanine transaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvandi, Manoochehr; Neisi, Niloofar; Khalafkhany, Davod; Makvandi, Kamyar; Hajiani, Eskandar; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Masjedi Zadeh, Abdolrahim; Sina, Amir Hosein; Hamidifard, Mojtaba; Rasti, Mojtaba; Aryan, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-08-01

    The occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the sera or in the liver biopsy and the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by serological test. The current study aimed to evaluate the occult HBV infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and determine HBV genotyping among the patients with abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT) in Ahvaz city, Iran. The sera of 120 patients, 54 (45%) females and 66 (55%) males, with abnormal ALT 40-152 IU were collected. All the patients were negative for HBsAg for more than one year. The patients` sera were tested by PCR using primers specified for the S region of HBV. Then the positive PCR products were sequenced to determine HBV genotyping and phylogenic tree. Of these 120 subjects, 12 (10%) patients including 6 (5%) males and 6 (5%) females were found positive for HBV DNA by PCR, which indicated the presence of occult HBV infection among these patients. The sequencing results revealed that genotype D was predominant with sub-genotyping D1 among OBI patients. Occult hepatitis B infection is remarkably prevalent in Ahvaz, Iran, and should be considered as a potential risk factor for the transmission of Hepatitis B Virus throughout the community by the carriers.

  19. Endoscopic Follow-Up of Positive Fecal Occult Blood Testing in the Ontario FOBT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ontario FOBT Project is a pilot study of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT for colorectal cancer screening conducted among age-eligible volunteers (50 to 75 years in 12 of 37 public health regions in Ontario.

  20. Inappropriate use of the faecal occult blood test in a university hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Anne F.; Stroobants, An K.; Deutekom, Marije; Lauppe, Corinne; Sturk, Auguste; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although all international guidelines state that there is no indication to perform a faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in symptomatic patients, we believe the test is frequently used as a diagnostic test. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the current guidelines for FOBT

  1. Incidence and Risk Factors for Occult Level 3 Lymph Node Metastases in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, Sheila; Zaidi, Nisar; Norlen, Olov; Glover, Anthony; Kruijff, Schelto; Sywak, Mark; Delbridge, Leigh; Sidhu, Stan B.

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) frequently disseminates into cervical lymph nodes. Lateral node involvement is described in up to 50 % patients undergoing prophylactic lateral neck dissection. This study aimed to assess this finding and identify which factors predict for occult lateral node disease.

  2. Indeling occulte tumorcellen in de lymfklieren bij patiënten met darmkanker onvoldoende betrouwbaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zaag, E. S.; Welling, L.; Peters, H. M.; van de Vijver, M. J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Buskens, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess interobserver agreement between pathologists in judging photographs of lymph node preparations of occult tumour cells of patients with colon cancer. DESIGN: Descriptive and comparative study of interobserver variability. METHODS: All lymph nodes of 82 pN0 patients with colon

  3. Remote Sounding of the Stratosphere by the Occultation Method: The ORA Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussen, D.; Vanhellemont, F.; Bingen, C.

    The occultation technique is based on recording of the sun light above the horizon. Its benefit resides in the derivation of an absolute quantity (the slant path optical thickness) through the measurement of a relative signal. The ORA experiment is presented together with the inversion method used to retrieve the atmospheric components.

  4. Climatology and trends in the forcing of the stratospheric zonal-mean flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Monier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The momentum budget of the Transformed Eulerian-Mean (TEM equation is calculated using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40 and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP Reanalysis 2 (R-2. This study outlines the considerable contribution of unresolved waves, deduced to be gravity waves, to the forcing of the zonal-mean flow. A trend analysis, from 1980 to 2001, shows that the onset and break down of the Northern Hemisphere (NH stratospheric polar night jet has a tendency to occur later in the season in the more recent years. This temporal shift follows long-term changes in planetary wave activity that are mainly due to synoptic waves, with a lag of one month. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH, the polar vortex shows a tendency to persist further into the SH summertime. This also follows a statistically significant decrease in the intensity of the stationary EP flux divergence over the 1980–2001 period. Ozone depletion is well known for strengthening the polar vortex through the thermal wind balance. However, the results of this work show that the SH polar vortex does not experience any significant long-term changes until the month of December, even though the intensification of the ozone hole occurs mainly between September and November. This study suggests that the decrease in planetary wave activity in November provides an important feedback to the zonal wind as it delays the breakdown of the polar vortex. In addition, the absence of strong eddy feedback before November explains the lack of significant trends in the polar vortex in the SH early spring. A long-term weakening in the Brewer-Dobson (B-D circulation in the polar region is identified in the NH winter and early spring and during the SH late spring and is likely driven by the decrease in planetary wave activity previously mentioned. During the rest of the year, there are large discrepancies in the representation of the B

  5. Drift zonal plasma ionospheric in the Brazilian sector during a period of extreme low solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Tardelli-Coelho, Flavia Elaine

    2016-07-01

    The zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma irregularities of large scale were analyzed; these irregularities were observed using optical emission techniques OI 630.0 nm obtained by photometers imagers installed in two locations on the campus of Urbanova UNIVAP in São José dos Campos - SP designated SJC and Campus ULBRA in Palmas - TO cited as PAL. Data were collected from five years, from 2006 to 2010, low solar activity period. Of the total of 337 nights in SJC and 329 nights in PAL analyzed were selected a total of 18 nights of significant plasma bubble occurrences, 9 nights in SJC and 9 nights in PAL, and studied under two conditions: considering fixed altitude of 280 km OI emission layer of 630.0 nm and calculating the height of this variable layer over each night analyzed. To find these varying altitudes along each night we were assisted with the analysis of CADI digital ionosonde data operating in conjunction with the imaging photometer in its observatory. The radio data available in digisonde allowed to do the analysis on 12 variables altitudes of 18 nights studied for fixed altitude; this occurred because of scattering present in ionograms for those nights and times, due to the presence of plasma bubbles in the study through the of the observatory zenith. Quantitative analysis determined the drift velocity zone for each of the analyzed bubbles 18 nights during the given fixed height and 12 nights evaluating varying altitudes along each night. The means were obtained nights analyzed in each observatory for both methods; SJC in the average velocities is derived from the plasma zone 9 nights bubbles analyzed in the method is fixed altitude 84 ± 18 m / s in the case of PAL the average velocities found is 87 ± 12 m / s. In the other case with variable altitude emission to SJC 8 nights analyzed, we reached a mean value of 87 ± 12 m / s, and for PAL, 4 of 9 nights initially selected, the average speed of the zonal drift plasma bubbles were found 85

  6. Prostate Zonal Volumetry as a Predictor of Clinical Outcomes for Prostate Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, André Moreira de, E-mail: andre.assis@criep.com.br, E-mail: andre.maa@gmail.com; Maciel, Macello Sampaio, E-mail: macielmjs@gmail.com; Moreira, Airton Mota, E-mail: airton.mota@criep.com.br; Paula Rodrigues, Vanessa Cristina de, E-mail: vanessapaular@yahoo.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Radiology Institute (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto Azoubel, E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br; Srougi, Miguel, E-mail: srougi@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Urology Department (Brazil); Cerri, Giovanni Guido, E-mail: giovanni-cerri@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Radiology Institute (Brazil); Carnevale, Francisco Cesar, E-mail: francisco.carnevale@criep.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Radiology Institute (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo determine prostate baseline zonal volumetry and correlate these findings with clinical outcomes for patients who underwent prostate artery embolization (PAE) for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Materials and MethodsThis is a retrospective study that included patients treated by PAE from 2010 to 2014. Baseline and 6-month follow-up evaluations included prostate MRI with whole prostate (WP) and central gland (CG) volume measurements—as well as prostate zonal volumetry index (ZVi) calculation, defined as the CG/WP volumes relation—the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the Quality of life (QoL) index. Baseline WP, CG, and ZVi were statistical compared to IPSS and QoL values at 6 months.ResultsA total of 93 consecutive patients were included, with mean age of 63.4 years (range, 51–86). Clinical failure, defined as IPSS > 7 or QoL > 2, was seen in four cases (4.3%). Mean reductions in prostate volumes after PAE were of 30.6% and 31.2% for WP and CG, respectively (p < 0.0001). Clinical parameters had mean decrease from 21 to 3.3 points for IPSS, and from 4.7 to 1.2 points for QoL (p < 0.0001). Baseline WP, CG, and ZVi correlated to the degree of clinical improvement (p < 0.05 for all). The baseline ZVi cut-off calculated for better clinical outcomes was > 0.45, with 85% sensitivity and 75% specificity.ConclusionsBaseline CG and WP volumes as well as ZVi presented strong correlation with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PAE, and its assessment should be considered in pre-treatment evaluation whenever possible. Both patients and medical team should be aware of the possibility of less favorable outcomes when ZVi < 0.45.

  7. Prostate Zonal Volumetry as a Predictor of Clinical Outcomes for Prostate Artery Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, André Moreira de; Maciel, Macello Sampaio; Moreira, Airton Mota; Paula Rodrigues, Vanessa Cristina de; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Srougi, Miguel; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar

    2017-01-01

    PurposeTo determine prostate baseline zonal volumetry and correlate these findings with clinical outcomes for patients who underwent prostate artery embolization (PAE) for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Materials and MethodsThis is a retrospective study that included patients treated by PAE from 2010 to 2014. Baseline and 6-month follow-up evaluations included prostate MRI with whole prostate (WP) and central gland (CG) volume measurements—as well as prostate zonal volumetry index (ZVi) calculation, defined as the CG/WP volumes relation—the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the Quality of life (QoL) index. Baseline WP, CG, and ZVi were statistical compared to IPSS and QoL values at 6 months.ResultsA total of 93 consecutive patients were included, with mean age of 63.4 years (range, 51–86). Clinical failure, defined as IPSS > 7 or QoL > 2, was seen in four cases (4.3%). Mean reductions in prostate volumes after PAE were of 30.6% and 31.2% for WP and CG, respectively (p < 0.0001). Clinical parameters had mean decrease from 21 to 3.3 points for IPSS, and from 4.7 to 1.2 points for QoL (p < 0.0001). Baseline WP, CG, and ZVi correlated to the degree of clinical improvement (p < 0.05 for all). The baseline ZVi cut-off calculated for better clinical outcomes was > 0.45, with 85% sensitivity and 75% specificity.ConclusionsBaseline CG and WP volumes as well as ZVi presented strong correlation with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PAE, and its assessment should be considered in pre-treatment evaluation whenever possible. Both patients and medical team should be aware of the possibility of less favorable outcomes when ZVi < 0.45.

  8. Estimation and evaluation of COSMIC radio occultation excess phase using undifferenced measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pengfei; Ye, Shirong; Jiang, Kecai; Chen, Dezhong

    2017-05-01

    In the GPS radio occultation technique, the atmospheric excess phase (AEP) can be used to derive the refractivity, which is an important quantity in numerical weather prediction. The AEP is conventionally estimated based on GPS double-difference or single-difference techniques. These two techniques, however, rely on the reference data in the data processing, increasing the complexity of computation. In this study, an undifferenced (ND) processing strategy is proposed to estimate the AEP. To begin with, we use PANDA (Positioning and Navigation Data Analyst) software to perform the precise orbit determination (POD) for the purpose of acquiring the position and velocity of the mass centre of the COSMIC (The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) satellites and the corresponding receiver clock offset. The bending angles, refractivity and dry temperature profiles are derived from the estimated AEP using Radio Occultation Processing Package (ROPP) software. The ND method is validated by the COSMIC products in typical rising and setting occultation events. Results indicate that rms (root mean square) errors of relative refractivity differences between undifferenced and atmospheric profiles (atmPrf) provided by UCAR/CDAAC (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Centre) are better than 4 and 3 % in rising and setting occultation events respectively. In addition, we also compare the relative refractivity bias between ND-derived methods and atmPrf profiles of globally distributed 200 COSMIC occultation events on 12 December 2013. The statistical results indicate that the average rms relative refractivity deviation between ND-derived and COSMIC profiles is better than 2 % in the rising occultation event and better than 1.7 % in the setting occultation event. Moreover, the observed COSMIC refractivity profiles from ND processing strategy are further validated using European Centre for Medium

  9. Sizes of the Smallest Particles at Saturn Ring Edges from Diffraction in UVIS Stellar Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, S.; Colwell, J. E.; Becker, T. M.; Esposito, L. W.

    2017-12-01

    Cassini's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has observed more than 150 ring stellar occultations since its arrival at Saturn in 2004. We use stellar occultation data from the UVIS High Speed Photometer (HSP) to identify diffraction signals at ring edges caused by small particles diffracting light into the detector and consequently increasing the signal above that of the unocculted star. The shape of a diffraction signal is indicative of the particle size distribution at the ring edge, which may be a dynamically perturbed region. Becker et al. (2015 Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.11.001) analyzed diffraction signals at the outer edge of the A Ring and the edges of the Encke Gap. We apply the Becker et al. (2015) model to the outer edge of the B Ring as well as the edges of ringlets within the C Ring and Cassini Division. In addition, we analyze diffraction signatures at the A Ring outer edge in 2 new occultations. The best-fit model signals to these occultations are consistent with the findings of Becker et al. (2015) who found an average minimum particle size amin =4.5 mm and average power law slope q=3.2. At the B Ring outer edge, we detect a diffraction signal in 10 of 28 occultations in which the diffraction signal would be observable according to our criteria for star brightness and observation geometry. We find a mean amin =11 mm and a mean q=3.0. At both edges of the so-called "Strange" ringlet (R6) we find a mean amin = 20 mm and mean q values of 3.0 and 2.8 at the inner and outer edges, respectively. In contrast, we do not observe any clear diffraction signals at either edge of the wider Huygens ringlet. This could imply an absence of cm-scale or smaller particles and indicates that collisions here may be less vigorous than at the other ring edges analyzed in this study. We detect diffraction in a small fraction ( 10%) of occultations at 3 ringlets within the Cassini Division: the Herschel ringlet, the Laplace ringlet, and the Barnard ringlet. We

  10. Partially Transparent Petaled Mask/Occulter for Visible-Range Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ron Shahram; Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the Poisson Spot, also known as the spot of Arago, has been known since the 18th century. This spot is the consequence of constructive interference of light diffracted by the edge of the obstacle where the central position can be determined by symmetry of the object. More recently, many NASA missions require the suppression of this spot in the visible range. For instance, the exoplanetary missions involving space telescopes require telescopes to image the planetary bodies orbiting central stars. For this purpose, the starlight needs to be suppressed by several orders of magnitude in order to image the reflected light from the orbiting planet. For the Earth-like planets, this suppression needs to be at least ten orders of magnitude. One of the common methods of suppression involves sharp binary petaled occulters envisioned to be placed many thousands of miles away from the telescope blocking the starlight. The suppression of the Poisson Spot by binary sharp petal tips can be problematic when the thickness of the tips becomes smaller than the wavelength of the incident beam. First they are difficult to manufacture and also it invalidates the laws of physical optics. The proposed partially transparent petaled masks/occulters compensate for this sharpness with transparency along the surface of the petals. Depending on the geometry of the problem, this transparency can be customized such that only a small region of the petal is transparent and the remaining of the surface is opaque. This feature allows easy fabrication of this type of occultation device either as a mask or occulter. A partially transparent petaled mask/ occulter has been designed for the visible spectrum range. The mask/occulter can suppress the intensity along the optical axis up to ten orders of magnitude. The design process can tailor the mask shape, number of petals, and transparency level to the near-field and farfield diffraction region. The mask/occulter can be used in space

  11. Histopathological Parameters predicting Occult Nodal Metastases in Tongue Carcinoma Cases: An Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tina Elizabeth; Malathi, N; Rajan, Sharada T; Augustine, Dominic; Manish, N; Patil, Shankargouda

    2016-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that in squamous cell carcinoma cases, the presence of lymph node metastases decreased the 5-year survival rate by 50% and also caused the recurrence of the primary tumor with development of distant metastases. Till date, the predictive factors for occult cervical lymph nodes metastases in cases of tongue squamous cell carcinoma remain inconclusive. Therefore, it is imperative to identify patients who are at the greatest risk for occult cervical metastases. This study was thus performed with the aim to identify various histopathologic parameters of the primary tumor that predict occult nodal metastases. The clinicopathologic features of 56 cases of lateral tongue squamous cell carcinoma with cT1NoMo/cT2NoMo as the stage and without prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy were considered. The surgical excision of primary tumor was followed by elective neck dissection. The glossectomy specimen along with the neck nodes were fixed in formalin and 5 urn thick sections were obtained. The hematoxylin & eosin stained sections were then subjected to microscopic examination. The primary tumor characteristics that were analyzed include tumor grade, invading front, depth of tumor, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion and inflammatory response. The nodes were examined for possible metastases using hematoxylin & eosin followed by cytokeratin immunohistochemistry. A total of 12 cases were found with positive occult nodal metastases. On performing univariate analysis, the histopathologic parameters that were found to be statistically significant were lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.004) and perineural invasion (p = 0.003) along with a cut-off depth of infiltration more than 5 mm (p = 0.01). Histopathologic assessment of the primary tumor specimen therefore continues to provide information that is central to guide clinical management, particularly in cases of occult nodal metastases. Clinical significance The study highlights the importance of

  12. Zonal asymmetries in middle atmospheric ozone and water vapour derived from Odin satellite data 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stationary wave patterns in middle atmospheric ozone (O3 and water vapour (H2O are an important factor in the atmospheric circulation, but there is a strong gap in diagnosing and understanding their configuration and origin. Based on Odin satellite data from 2001 to 2010 we investigate the stationary wave patterns in O3 and H2O as indicated by the seasonal long-term means of the zonally asymmetric components O3* = O3-[O3] and H2O* = H2O-[H2O] ([O3], [H2O]: zonal means. At mid- and polar latitudes we find a pronounced wave one pattern in both constituents. In the Northern Hemisphere, the wave patterns increase during autumn, maintain their strength during winter and decay during spring, with maximum amplitudes of about 10–20 % of the zonal mean values. During winter, the wave one in O3* shows a maximum over the North Pacific/Aleutians and a minimum over the North Atlantic/Northern Europe and a double-peak structure with enhanced amplitude in the lower and in the upper stratosphere. The wave one in H2O* extends from the lower stratosphere to the upper mesosphere with a westward shift in phase with increasing height including a jump in phase at upper stratosphere altitudes. In the Southern Hemisphere, similar wave patterns occur mainly during southern spring. By comparing the observed wave patterns in O3* and H2O* with a linear solution of a steady-state transport equation for a zonally asymmetric tracer component we find that these wave patterns are primarily due to zonally asymmetric transport by geostrophically balanced winds, which are derived from observed temperature profiles. In addition temperature-dependent photochemistry contributes substantially to the spatial structure of the wave pattern in O3* . Further influences, e.g., zonal asymmetries in eddy

  13. Predictive factors of occult neck metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fortes Bittar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: It is well established that cervical lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The definition of parameters and classifications that could separate patients in groups of low, intermediate and high-risk is being attempted for several years. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine possible predictive factors related to the occurrence of occult cervical lymph node metastasis through the analysis of histopathological reports of surgical specimens obtained after oral squamous cell carcinoma resection and selective neck dissections of patients initially classified as N0. METHODS: This was a primary, retrospective, observational, case-control study. Histopathological reports were reviewed to determine if some findings were related to the occurrence of occult lymph node metastasis. The events analyzed were oral cavity subsites, pT-stage, muscular infiltration, desmoplasia, vascular emboli, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and compromised margins. RESULTS: Occult cervical metastasis accounted for 19.10 percent of the cases. Desmoplasia, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and pT4a stage are predictive factors of occult neck metastasis (p-value = 0.0488, 0.0326, 0.0395, 0.0488, respectively. CONCLUSION: The accurate definition of predictive factors of occult cervical metastasis may guide the selection of patients that should be referred to radiotherapy, avoiding the unnecessary exposure of low-risk patients to radiation and allowing a better regional control of the disease in those of moderate or high risk.

  14. Occult Hbv Infection in Hbsag Negative and Anti-Hbc Positive Blood Donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shebanizadeh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years with introduction of better screening tests, the risk of infection with transfusion-transmitted viruses has been reduced remarkably, although obtaining a zero-risk blood supply still remains international blood transfusion services goal. The routine test for detection of HBV infected blood samples is examination of HBsAg with ELISA method but in occult HBV infection, HBsAg is not detectable by ELISA. Therefore, a more sensitive or complementary test is needed. Some international blood transfusion services have introduced anti-HBc screening as a surrogate test for the presence of HBV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection in Isfahanian blood donors and the potential value of anti-HBc testing of donors as a screening test to detect occult HBV infection. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 545 blood units were collected (from Isfahan blood center and tested by HBsAg ELISA kit from April to June 2004 and then all HBsAg negative samples were tested by anti-HBc ELISA kit. To detect occult HBV infection, all HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples were tested by PCR method. Results: All samples were negative for HBsAg while 43 blood units were anti-HBc positive (8%. These HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood units were tested for HBV DNA of which five units (%11.6 were HBV DNA positive. Conclusion: Occult HBV infection is a clinical form of HBV infection that cannot be detected by usual method (ELISA for HBsAg and therefore more sensitive techniques are needed for detection of HBV infection. PCR is a sensitive technique that detects HBV DNA even in a trace mounts. Our results identified that more sensitive and complementary tests such as, PCR and anti-HBc, are essential and helpful to ensure safety of blood units.

  15. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... well it can be treated. Complications of acute pancreatitis may include: Acute kidney failure Long-term lung damage (ARDS) Buildup ...

  16. Equatorial ionospheric zonal drift model and vertical drift statistics from UHF scintillation measurements in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Sheehan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available UHF scintillation measurements of zonal ionospheric drifts have been conducted at Ancon, Peru since 1994 using antennas spaced in the magnetic east-west direction to cross-correlate geo-synchronous satellite signals. An empirical model of average drift over a wide range of Kp and solar flux conditions was constructed from successive two-dimensional fits of drift vs. the parameters and day of year. The model exhibits the typical local time trend of maximum eastward velocity in the early evening with a gradual decrease and reversal in the early morning hours. As expected, velocities at all hours increase with the solar flux and decrease with Kp activity. It was also found that vertical drifts could contribute to the variability of drift measurements to the east of Ancon at a low elevation angle. The vertical drift at the ionospheric intersection to the east can be estimated when combined with nearly overhead observations at Ancon or a similar spaced-antenna site at Antofagasta, Chile. Comparisons on five days with nearly simultaneous measurements of vertical drift by the Julia radar at Jicamarca, Peru show varying agreement with the spaced-antenna estimates. Statistical results from 1997 to 2001 generally agree with radar and satellite studies.

  17. Deformation and Failure Mechanism of Roadway Sensitive to Stress Disturbance and Its Zonal Support Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangling Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 6163 haulage roadway in the Qidong coal mine passes through a fault zone, which causes severe deformation in the surrounding rock, requiring repeated roadway repairs. Based on geological features in the fault area, we analyze the factors affecting roadway deformation and failure and propose the concept of roadway sensitive to stress disturbance (RSSD. We investigate the deformation and failure mechanism of the surrounding rocks of RSSD using field monitoring, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulation. The deformation of the surrounding rocks involves dilatation of shallow rocks and separation of deep rocks. Horizontal and longitudinal fissures evolve to bed separation and fracture zones; alternatively, fissures can evolve into fracture zones with new fissures extending to deeper rock. The fault affects the stress field of the surrounding rock to ~27 m radius. Its maximum impact is on the vertical stress of the rib rock mass and its minimum impact is on the vertical stress of the floor rock mass. Based on our results, we propose a zonal support system for a roadway passing through a fault. Engineering practice shows that the deformation of the surrounding rocks of the roadway can be effectively controlled to ensure normal and safe production in the mine.

  18. Atmospheric statistical dynamic models. Climate experiments: albedo experiments with a zonal atmospheric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.L.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; MacCracken, M.C.; Luther, F.M.

    1978-06-01

    The zonal model experiments with modified surface boundary conditions suggest an initial chain of feedback processes that is largest at the site of the perturbation: deforestation and/or desertification → increased surface albedo → reduced surface absorption of solar radiation → surface cooling and reduced evaporation → reduced convective activity → reduced precipitation and latent heat release → cooling of upper troposphere and increased tropospheric lapse rates → general global cooling and reduced precipitation. As indicated above, although the two experiments give similar overall global results, the location of the perturbation plays an important role in determining the response of the global circulation. These two-dimensional model results are also consistent with three-dimensional model experiments. These results have tempted us to consider the possibility that self-induced growth of the subtropical deserts could serve as a possible mechanism to cause the initial global cooling that then initiates a glacial advance thus activating the positive feedback loop involving ice-albedo feedback (also self-perpetuating). Reversal of the cycle sets in when the advancing ice cover forces the wave-cyclone tracks far enough equatorward to quench (revegetate) the subtropical deserts

  19. Three-dimensional features of GAM zonal flows in the HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, L.W.; Cheng, J.; Hong, W.Y.; Zhao, K.J.; Lan, T.; Dong, J.Q.; Liu, A.D.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, D.L.; Qian, J.; Huang, Y.; Yang, Q.W.; Ding, X.T.; Liu, Y.; Pan, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    A novel design of the three-step Langmuir probe (TSLP) array has been developed to investigate the zonal flow (ZF) physics in the HL-2A tokamak. Three TSLP arrays are applied to measure the three-dimensional (3D) features of ZFs. They are separated by 65 mm in the poloidal and 800 mm in the toroidal directions, respectively. The 3D properties of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) ZFs are presented. The poloidal and toroidal modes of the radial electric fields of the GAM perturbations are simultaneously determined in the HL-2A tokamak for the first time. The modes have narrow radial wave numbers (k r ρ i = 0.03-0.07) and short radial scale lengths (2.4-4.2 cm). High coherence of both the GAM and the ambient turbulence separated by toroidal 22.5 0 along a magnetic field line is observed, which contrasts with the high coherence of the GAM and the low coherence of the ambient turbulence apart from the field line. The nonlinear three wave coupling between the turbulent fluctuations and the ZFs is a plausible mechanism for flow generation. The skewness and kurtosis spectra of the probability distribution function of the potential perturbations are contrasted with the corresponding bicoherence for the first time, which support the three wave coupling mechanism

  20. Zonal Dynamic Equivalents Based on the Concept of Relative Electrical Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rimjhim; Dhadbanjan, Thukaram

    2013-05-01

    Abstract: This article presents a systematic approach to construct the zonal dynamic equivalents of a large-power system based on the concept of relative electrical distance (RED). The task of dynamic equivalencing is to eliminate the full model of the external system and replace it with an equivalent model, which has dynamic characteristics close enough to the full model. The dynamic equivalent models are used for large-scale power system offline transient stability analysis with large disturbance. Dynamic equivalencing also helps in reducing the computation burden and memory requirements in wide area monitoring system (WAMS) for online stability assessment. The procedure is illustrated on IEEE 39 bus system and on a practical 205 bus system consisting of three zones of Indian Southern grid, where an equivalent of a zone has been constructed. The simulation results of the original system and equivalent system are compared. The proposed approach is also compared with the existing Ward equivalent method and the results are found to be similar. The simulation results show that the developed equivalent system has close accuracy in representing the dynamic characteristics of the original system.

  1. Composition of structural fragments and the mineralization rate of organic matter in zonal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, A. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Kolyagin, Yu. G.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Kaganov, V. V.; Kudeyarov, V. N.

    2015-10-01

    Comparative analysis of the climatic characteristics and the recalcitrance against decomposition of organic matter in the zonal soil series of European Russia, from peat surface-gley tundra soil to brown semidesert soil, has assessed the relationships between the period of biological activity, the content of chemically stable functional groups, and the mineralization of humus. The stability of organic matter has been determined from the ratio of functional groups using the solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of soil samples and the direct measurements of organic matter mineralization from CO2 emission. A statistically significant correlation has been found between the period of biological activity and the humification indices: the CHA/CFA ratio, the aromaticity, and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio in organic matter. The closest correlation has been observed between the period of biological activity and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio; therefore, this parameter can be an important indicator of the soil humus status. A poor correlation between the mineralization rate and the content of chemically stable functional groups in soil organic matter has been revealed for the studied soil series. At the same time, the lowest rate of carbon mineralization has been observed in southern chernozem characterized by the maximum content of aromatic groups (21% Corg) and surface-gley peat tundra soil, where an extremely high content of unsubstituted CH2 and CH3 alkyl groups (41% Corg) has been noted.

  2. Vaporization and Zonal Mixing in Performance Modeling of Advanced LOX-Methane Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    Initial modeling of LOX-Methane reaction control (RCE) 100 lbf thrusters and larger, 5500 lbf thrusters with the TDK/VIPER code has shown good agreement with sea-level and altitude test data. However, the vaporization and zonal mixing upstream of the compressible flow stage of the models leveraged empirical trends to match the sea-level data. This was necessary in part because the codes are designed primarily to handle the compressible part of the flow (i.e. contraction through expansion) and in part because there was limited data on the thrusters themselves on which to base a rigorous model. A more rigorous model has been developed which includes detailed vaporization trends based on element type and geometry, radial variations in mixture ratio within each of the "zones" associated with elements and not just between zones of different element types, and, to the extent possible, updated kinetic rates. The Spray Combustion Analysis Program (SCAP) was leveraged to support assumptions in the vaporization trends. Data of both thrusters is revisited and the model maintains a good predictive capability while addressing some of the major limitations of the previous version.

  3. Zonal drifts of ionospheric irregularities at temperate latitude in the Indian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The systematic time differences observed in the onset of postsunset VHF scintillations recorded simultaneously at Ujjain (Geogr. lat. 23.2°N, Geogr. long. 75.6°E and Bhopal (Geogr. lat. 23.2°N, Geogr. long. 77.6°E, situated at the peak of the anomaly crest in the Indian region, have been analysed to determine the zonal drifts of scintillation-producing irregularities. The method is based on the assumption that the horizontal movement of irregularities does not change while crossing the F-region cross-over points of these stations. The calculated velocities of irregularities indicate an eastward drift decreasing from about 180 m s–1 to 55 m s–1 during the course of night. In the premidnight period, the drifts are reduced under the magnetically disturbed conditions. The average east-west extension of irregularites is found to be in the range of 200–500 km.

  4. Occult Intra-articular Knee Injuries in Children With Hemarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenberger, Marie; Ekström, Wilhelmina; Finnbogason, Thröstur; Janarv, Per-Mats

    2014-07-01

    Hemarthrosis after acute knee trauma is a sign of a potentially serious knee injury. Few studies have described the epidemiology and detailed injury spectrum of acute knee injuries in a general pediatric population. To document the current injury spectrum of acute knee injuries with hemarthrosis in children aged 9 to 14 years and to describe the distribution of sex, age at injury, type of activity, and activity frequency in this population. Descriptive epidemiology study. All patients in the Stockholm County area aged 9 to 14 years who suffered acute knee trauma with hemarthrosis were referred to Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, from September 2011 to April 2012. The patients underwent clinical examination, radiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The type of activity when injured, regular sports activity/frequency, and patient sex and age were registered. The diagnoses were classified into minor and serious injuries. The study included 117 patients (47 girls and 70 boys; mean age, 13.2 years). Seventy percent had a serious knee injury. Lateral patellar dislocations, anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, and anterior tibial spine fractures were the most common injuries, with an incidence of 0.6, 0.2, and 0.1 per 1000 children, respectively. The sex distribution was equal up to age 13 years; twice as many boys were seen at the age of 14 years. The majority of injuries occurred during sports. Forty-six patients (39%) had radiographs without a bony injury but with a serious injury confirmed on MRI. Seventy percent of the patients aged 9 to 14 years with traumatic knee hemarthrosis had a serious intra-articular injury that needed specific medical attention. Fifty-six percent of these patients had no visible injury on plain radiographs. Physicians who treat this group of patients should consider MRI to establish the diagnosis when there is no or minimal radiographic findings. The most common serious knee injury was a lateral

  5. Occult etiologies of complete atrioventricular block: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Bachani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In patients presenting with complete atrioventricular (AV block, the common causes are degeneration of the conduction system, acute myocardial infarction, congenital and metabolic disorders (such as azotemia. However, at times, no cause can be ascribed and the label congenital or degenerative is applied depending on the patient's age and the QRS complex width. We present two cases of patients with complete AV block, who were subsequently found to have rare etiologies – sarcoidosis (with isolated feature of AV block and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  6. Changes in the zonal propagation of El Niño-related SST anomalies: a possible link to the PDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Barros, Vicente R.

    2017-07-01

    Long-term variability of El Niño (EN) cycle has been the topic of several studies, mainly because of its impacts on climate around the globe. This variability has been mainly described by changes in the intensity and frequency of EN events. In this study, interdecadal changes in the zonal evolution of EN-related sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and their possible link with a well-known mode of Pacific interdecadal variability are analyzed. EN events are classified according to the sense of zonal propagation of SSTA along the equatorial Pacific during the period 1900-2012. As a result, two types of EN are defined: eastward-directed and westward-directed EN. It is found that EN-related SSTA preferably evolves to the east (west) during the warm (cold) phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Hence, this study offers new insights into the possible causes of long-term EN changes.

  7. Zonal drifts of plasma bubbles in South American sector during the extreme low solar activity 2008 - 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, J. R.; Coelho, F. E.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Pillat, V. G.; de Abreu, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Transequatorial F region plasma bubbles are large-scale ionospheric depleted regions that develop in the bottomside of equatorial F region due to plasma instability processes. All-sky imaging observations of the OI 630.0 nm nightglow emissions were carried out at Sao Jose dos Campos - SJC (23.21°S, 45.86°W; dip latitude 17.6°S) and Palmas - PAL (10.28°S, 48.33°W; dip latitude 6.7°S), Brazil, during the years 2008 and 2010, a period of minimum extreme solar activity. In this work we present and discuss the height-resolved nocturnal F region zonal drift velocities obtained from plasma bubbles observed in imaging observations of OI 630.0 nm emissions result from excitation mechanisms by dissociative recombination of O2. We have investigated the nighttime zonal plasma drift variations using fixed emission peak altitudes, used by earlier investigators, as well as emission peak altitudes based on simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations for both observatories. The average maximum and minimum zonal plasma drift velocities inferred for OI 630.0 nm emission, using emission peak altitudes based on simultaneous ionospheric observations, (SJC: 116 ± 7 and 57 ± 15 m/s; PAL: 119 ± 6 and 58 ± 10 m/s) are lower and with less scatter than that using fixed emission peak altitudes (SJC: 119 ± 6 and 58 ± 10 m/s; PAL: 111 ± 5 and 85 ± 10 m/s). Also, the nocturnal variations of the zonal plasma drift velocities obtained with peak altitudes based on simultaneous ionospheric observations show better agreement than for the case with fixed emission peak altitudes (h = 280 km).

  8. Evidence of long-term change in zonal wind in the tropical lower mesosphere: Observations and model simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratnam, M. V.; Kumar, G. K.; Rao, N. V.; Murthy, B. V. K.; Laštovička, Jan; Qian, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2013), s. 397-401 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : mesosphere * zonal wind * long-term trends * TIME-GCM * climate change Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 4.456, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/grl.50158/abstract

  9. Cone beam CT with zonal filters for simultaneous dose reduction, improved target contrast and automated set-up in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C J; Marchant, T E; Amer, A M

    2006-01-01

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) using a zonal filter is introduced. The aims are reduced concomitant imaging dose to the patient, simultaneous control of body scatter for improved image quality in the tumour target zone and preserved set-up detail for radiotherapy. Aluminium transmission diaphragms added to the CBCT x-ray tube of the Elekta Synergy TM linear accelerator produced an unattenuated beam for a central 'target zone' and a partially attenuated beam for an outer 'set-up zone'. Imaging doses and contrast noise ratios (CNR) were measured in a test phantom for transmission diaphragms 12 and 24 mm thick, for 5 and 10 cm long target zones. The effect on automatic registration of zonal CBCT to conventional CT was assessed relative to full-field and lead-collimated images of an anthropomorphic phantom. Doses along the axis of rotation were reduced by up to 50% in both target and set-up zones, and weighted dose (two thirds surface dose plus one third central dose) was reduced by 10-20% for a 10 cm long target zone. CNR increased by up to 15% in zonally filtered CBCT images compared to full-field images. Automatic image registration remained as robust as that with full-field images and was superior to CBCT coned down using lead-collimation. Zonal CBCT significantly reduces imaging dose and is expected to benefit radiotherapy through improved target contrast, required to assess target coverage, and wide-field edge detail, needed for robust automatic measurement of patient set-up error

  10. Zonal flow shear amplification by depletion of anisotropic potential eddies in a magnetized plasma: idealized models and laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorczak, N; Manz, P; Chakraborty Thakur, S; Xu, M; Tynan, G R

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of vorticity conservation on the spatio-temporal interaction of a E × B zonal shear with a generic pattern of plasma potential modes are investigated in a magnetized plasma environment. Eddies organized on a chain along the zonal direction are locally depleted, resulting in what appears to be a radial decorrelation by the shear flow in the absence of dissipation. The eddy depletion occurs due to a transfer of enstrophy from the chain to the shear flow during the progressive growth in the chain anisotropy. The rate of zonal shear acceleration is derived analytically and its expression is validated by numerical simulations. The rate is proportional to the chain amplitude in the weak shear regime and to the shearing rate in the strong shear regime. Basic properties of the model are validated with fast visible imaging data collected on a magnetized plasma column experiment. A characteristic vorticity flux across the edge shear layer of tokamak plasmas is associated with the model predictions. The dependence of the interaction rate with turbulence amplitude and shearing rate could be an important ingredient of the low to high confinement mode transition. (paper)

  11. A Simulation Model for Drift Resistive Ballooning Turbulence Examining the Influence of Self-consistent Zonal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim; Joseph, Ilon

    2015-11-01

    Progress is reported on including self-consistent zonal flows in simulations of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence using the BOUT + + framework. Previous published work addressed the simulation of L-mode edge turbulence in realistic single-null tokamak geometry using the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations. The effects of imposed sheared ExB poloidal rotation were included, with a static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In new work our goal is to include the self-consistent effects on the radial electric field driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We describe a model for including self-consistent zonal flows and an algorithm for maintaining underlying plasma profiles to enable the simulation of steady-state turbulence. We examine the role of Braginskii viscous forces in providing necessary dissipation when including axisymmetric perturbations. We also report on some of the numerical difficulties associated with including the axisymmetric component of the fluctuating fields. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL-ABS-674950).

  12. Generation of Zonal Flow and Magnetic Field by Electromagnetic Planetary Waves in the Ionospheric E-Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    We review the excitation of zonal flow and magnetic field by coupled electromagnetic (EM) ULF planetary waves in the Earth's ionospheric E layer. Coupling of different planetary low-frequency electromagnetic waves under the typical ionospheric E-layer conditions is revealed. Propagation of coupled internal-gravity-Alfvén (CIGA), coupled Rossby-Khantadze (CRK) and coupled Rossby-Alfvén-Khantadze (CRAK) waves is shown and studied. A set of appropriate nonlinear equations describing the interaction of such waves with sheared zonal flow is derived. The conclusion on the instability of short wavelength turbulence of such coupled waves with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbation of the sheared zonal flow and sheared magnetic field is inferred. This nonlinear instability's mechanism is depended on the parametric excitation of triple finite-amplitude coupled waves leading to the inverse energy cascade towards the longer wavelength. The possibility of generation of the intense mean magnetic field is shown. Obtained growth rates are discussed for each considered coupled waves.

  13. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  14. An Explanation of Jupiter's Equatorially Symmetric Gravitational Field using a Four-layer, Non-spheroidal Model with Zonal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John

    2017-10-01

    The structure/amplitude of the Jovian equatorially symmetric gravitational field is affected by both rotational distortion and the fast equatorially symmetric zonal flow. We construct a fully self-consistent, four-layer, non-spheroidal (i.e, the shape is irregular) model of Jupiter that comprises an inner core, a metallic region, an outer molecular envelope and a thin transition layer between the metallic and molecular regions. While the core is assumed to have a uniform density, three different equations of state are adopted for the metallic, molecular and transition regions. We solve the governing equations via a perturbation approach. The leading-order problem accounts for the full effect of rotational distortion, and determines the density, size and shape of the core, the location and thickness of the transition layer, and the shape of the 1-bar pressure level; it also produces the mass, the equatorial and polar radii of Jupiter, and the even zonal gravitational coefficients caused by the rotational distortion. The next-order problem determines the corrections caused by the zonal flow which is assumed to be confined within the molecular envelope and on cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. Our model provides the total even gravitational coefficients that can be compared with those acquired by the Juno spacecraft.

  15. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCN2O) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCN2O) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  16. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitric Acid (HNO3) 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCHNO3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitric Acid (HNO3) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCHNO3) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  17. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Water Vapor (H2O) 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCH2O) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Water Vapor (H2O) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCH2O) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  18. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Geopotential Height 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCGPH) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Geopotential Height Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCGPH) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  19. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Ozone (O3) 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCO3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Ozone (O3) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCO3) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data expressed as...

  20. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 12.1 Microns 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFC12MEXT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 12.1 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFC12MEXT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  1. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Dinitrogen Pentoxide (N2O5) 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCN2O5) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Dinitrogen Pentoxide (N2O5) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCN2O) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  2. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorine Nitrate (ClONO2) 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCCLONO2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorine Nitrate (ClONO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCCLONO2) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  3. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCCFC11) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCCFC11) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of...

  4. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCCFC11) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCCFC12) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of...

  5. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 8.3 Microns 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFC8MEXT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 8.3 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFC8MEXT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  6. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 1deg Lat Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007 (H3ZFCNO2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCNO2) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  7. MLS/Aura Level 3 Bromine Monoxide (BrO) Daily 10degrees Lat Zonal Mean V004 (ML3DZMBRO) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML3DZMBRO is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) daily zonal mean product for bromine monoxide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The...

  8. TOMS Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily and Monthly Zonal Means V008 (TOMSN7L3ztoz) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily and Monthly Zonal Means Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)...

  9. Circulating Tumor Cells Predict Occult Metastatic Disease and Prognosis in Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Colin M; Ankeny, Jacob S; Sho, Shonan; Winograd, Paul; Hou, Shuang; Song, Min; Wainberg, Zev A; Girgis, Mark D; Graeber, Thomas G; Agopian, Vatche G; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Tomlinson, James S

    2018-04-01

    Occult metastatic tumors, below imaging thresholds, are a limitation of staging systems that rely on cross-sectional imaging alone and are a cause of the routine understaging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). We investigated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a preoperative predictor of occult metastatic disease and as a prognostic biomarker for PDAC patients. A total of 126 patients (100 with cancer, 26 with benign disease) were enrolled in our study and CTCs were identified and enumerated from 4 mL of venous blood using the microfluidic NanoVelcro assay. CTC enumeration was correlated with clinicopathologic variables and outcomes following both surgical and systemic therapies. CTCs were identified in 78% of PDAC patients and CTC counts correlated with increasing stage (ρ = 0.42, p < 0.001). Of the 53 patients taken for potentially curative surgery, 13 (24.5%) had occult metastatic disease intraoperatively. Patients with occult disease had significantly more CTCs than patients with local disease only (median 7 vs. 1 CTC, p < 0.0001). At a cut-off of three or more CTCs/4 mL, CTCs correctly identified patients with occult metastatic disease preoperatively (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-0.98, p < 0.0001). CTCs were a univariate predictor of recurrence-free survival following surgery [hazard ratio (HR) 2.36, 95% CI 1.17-4.78, p = 0.017], as well as an independent predictor of overall survival on multivariate analysis (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.01-1.88, p = 0.040). CTCs show promise as a prognostic biomarker for PDAC patients at all stages of disease being treated both medically and surgically. Furthermore, CTCs demonstrate potential as a preoperative biomarker for identifying patients at high risk of occult metastatic disease.

  10. Saturn’s Helium Abundance from Cassini VIMS Stellar Occultations and CIRS Limb Temperature Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Don; Gierasch, Peter J.; Conrath, Barney J.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Nicholson, Phillip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.

    2014-11-01

    We have used Saturn stellar occultations as observed by Cassini VIMS, in concert with Saturn limb temperature profiles derived from Cassini CIRS data to determine the Helium abundance in Saturn’s atmosphere near a few mbars. This quantity is long sought, as indication of the internal evolution that Saturn has undergone. Additionally, previous attempts to determine this quantity have produced inconsistent results ranging from He/H2=0.03±0.02 using Voyager IRIS and RSS (Conrath et al., 1984) to He/H2=0.13±0.02 using only Voyager IRIS (Conrath & Gautier, 2000) with a similar result being found by Orton and Ingersoll (1980) using Pioneer IRR and RSS (He/H2=0.11±0.04). These discordant results motivate us to try yet another approach to yield this quantity, in this case using the Cassini VIMS stellar occultations to yield a profile of atmospheric density, and nearly co-located Cassini CIRS limb profiles to yield atmospheric temperature. Combining the two results then yields the mean molecular weight and thus the He/H2 mixing ratio. We reported preliminary values from an occultation from the 151st Cassini orbit at DPS in 2011 (He/H2=0.14±0.05), but have since identified errors in that analysis that have caused us to revisit the problem. Additionally, that occultation occurred near the large Saturn northern hemisphere storm, with significant longitudinal temperature gradients present. The longitudinal separation between the CIRS and VIMS footprints could have skewed the results. In this report, we will discuss our latest results with the algorithm errors corrected, and using data from an occultation of Betelgeuse on the 161st Cassini orbit. These data have the best S/N of all stellar occultations caught by Cassini VIMS to date, and the combination of the VIMS/CIRS data doesn’t suffer from problems due to proximity to the storm and its associated spatial gradients in temperature.

  11. An intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave potential energy densities from METOP GPS radio occultation measurements and ECMWF model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Kaifler, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    Temperature profiles based on radio occultation (RO) measurements with the operational European METOP satellites are used to derive monthly mean global distributions of stratospheric (20-40 km) gravity wave (GW) potential energy densities (EP) for the period July 2014-December 2016. In order to test whether the sampling and data quality of this data set is sufficient for scientific analysis, we investigate to what degree the METOP observations agree quantitatively with ECMWF operational analysis (IFS data) and reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data. A systematic comparison between corresponding monthly mean temperature fields determined for a latitude-longitude-altitude grid of 5° by 10° by 1 km is carried out. This yields very low systematic differences between RO and model data below 30 km (i.e., median temperature differences is between -0.2 and +0.3 K), which increases with height to yield median differences of +1.0 K at 34 km and +2.2 K at 40 km. Comparing EP values for three selected locations at which also ground-based lidar measurements are available yields excellent agreement between RO and IFS data below 35 km. ERA-Interim underestimates EP under conditions of strong local mountain wave forcing over northern Scandinavia which is apparently not resolved by the model. Above 35 km, RO values are consistently much larger than model values, which is likely caused by the model sponge layer, which damps small-scale fluctuations above ˜ 32 km altitude. Another reason is the well-known significant increase of noise in RO measurements above 35 km. The comparison between RO and lidar data reveals very good qualitative agreement in terms of the seasonal variation of EP, but RO values are consistently smaller than lidar values by about a factor of 2. This discrepancy is likely caused by the very different sampling characteristics of RO and lidar observations. Direct comparison of the global data set of RO and model EP fields shows large correlation coefficients (0

  12. Urothelial Cancer With Occult Bone Marrow Metastases and Isolated Thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajjai Alva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer rarely presents clinically with a myelophthisic picture from diffuse bone marrow infiltration especially in the absence of detectable skeletal metastases. A 75-year old man presented with newly diagnosed urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder. Pathology from transurethral resection of bladder tumor demonstrated muscle-invasive disease. Pre-therapy imaging including CT abdomen/pelvis, CXR and bone scan demonstrated liver lesions concerning for metastatic disease but no skeletal metastases. Labs were notable for isolated thrombocytopenia, hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury prompting hospitalization. Hematologic work-up including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by urothelial cancer. The case illustrates the importance of fully investigating otherwise unexplained clinical findings in patients with clinically localized urothelial cancer prior to curative intent surgery.

  13. Climate contributes to zonal forest mortality in Southern California's San Jacinto Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, A.; Goulden, M.

    2010-12-01

    An estimated 4.6 million trees died over ~375,000 acres of Southern California forest in 2002-2004. This mortality punctuated a decline in forest health that has been attributed to air pollution, stem densification, or drought. Bark beetles were the proximate cause of most tree death but the underlying cause of this extensive mortality is arguably poor forest health. We investigated the contributions that climate, particularly drought, played in tree mortality and how physiological drought stress may have structured the observed patterns of mortality. Field surveys showed that conifer mortality was zonal in the San Jacinto Mountains of Southern California. The proportion of conifer mortality increased with decreasing elevation (p=0.01). Mid-elevation conifers (White Fir, Incense Cedar, Coulter Pine, Sugar Pine, Ponderosa and Jeffrey Pine) died in the lower portions of their respective ranges, which resulted in an upslope lean in species’ distribution and an upslope shift in species’ mean elevation. Long-term precipitation (P) is consistent with elevation over the conifer elevation range (p=0.43). Potential evapotranspiration (ET) estimated by Penman Monteith declines with elevation by nearly half over the same range. These trends suggest that ET, more than P, is critical in structuring the elevational trend in drought stress and may have contributed to the patterns of mortality that occurred in 2002-04. Physiological measurements in a mild drought year (2009) showed late summer declines in plant water availability with decreasing elevation (p < 0.01) and concomitant reductions in carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance with decreasing elevation. We tie these observations together with a simple water balance model.

  14. Development of a zonal applicability tool for remote handling equipment in DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madzharov, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.madzharov@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Material Handling and Logistics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Mittwollen, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Material Handling and Logistics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy F4E, Barcelona (Spain); Hermon, Gary [Culham Center for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Radiation-hardness assessment of remote handling (RH) components used in DEMO. • A radiation assessment tool for supporting remote handling engineers. • Connecting data from the radiation field analysis to the radiation hardness data. • Output is the expected lifetime of the selected RH component used for maintenance. - Abstract: A radiation-induced damage caused by the ionizing radiation can induce a malfunctioning of the remote handling equipment (RHE) used during maintenance in fusion power plants, other nuclear power stations and high-energy accelerators facilities like e.g. IFMIF. Therefore to achieve a sufficient length of operational time inside future fusion power plants, a suitable radiation tolerant RHE for maintenance operations in radiation environments is inevitably required. To assess the influence of the radiation on remote handling equipment (RHE), an investigation about radiation hardness assessment of typically used RHE components, has been performed. Additionally, information about the absorbed total dose that every component can withstand before failure was collected. Furthermore, the development of a zonal applicability tool for supporting RHE designers has been started using Excel VBA. The tool connects the data from the radiation field analysis (3-D radiation map) to the radiation hardness data of the planned RHE for DEMO remote maintenance. The intelligent combination of the available information for the radiation behaviour and radiation level at certain time and certain location may help with the taking of decisions about the application of RHE in radiation environment. The user inputs the following parameters: the specific device used in the RHE, the planned location and the maintenance period. The output is the expected lifetime of the selected RHE component at the given location and maintenance period. Planned action times have to be also considered. After having all the parameters it can be decided, if specific RHE

  15. Development of a zonal applicability tool for remote handling equipment in DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madzharov, Vladimir; Mittwollen, Martin; Leichtle, Dieter; Hermon, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation-hardness assessment of remote handling (RH) components used in DEMO. • A radiation assessment tool for supporting remote handling engineers. • Connecting data from the radiation field analysis to the radiation hardness data. • Output is the expected lifetime of the selected RH component used for maintenance. - Abstract: A radiation-induced damage caused by the ionizing radiation can induce a malfunctioning of the remote handling equipment (RHE) used during maintenance in fusion power plants, other nuclear power stations and high-energy accelerators facilities like e.g. IFMIF. Therefore to achieve a sufficient length of operational time inside future fusion power plants, a suitable radiation tolerant RHE for maintenance operations in radiation environments is inevitably required. To assess the influence of the radiation on remote handling equipment (RHE), an investigation about radiation hardness assessment of typically used RHE components, has been performed. Additionally, information about the absorbed total dose that every component can withstand before failure was collected. Furthermore, the development of a zonal applicability tool for supporting RHE designers has been started using Excel VBA. The tool connects the data from the radiation field analysis (3-D radiation map) to the radiation hardness data of the planned RHE for DEMO remote maintenance. The intelligent combination of the available information for the radiation behaviour and radiation level at certain time and certain location may help with the taking of decisions about the application of RHE in radiation environment. The user inputs the following parameters: the specific device used in the RHE, the planned location and the maintenance period. The output is the expected lifetime of the selected RHE component at the given location and maintenance period. Planned action times have to be also considered. After having all the parameters it can be decided, if specific RHE

  16. Valuation of storage under zonal pricing market structure. Case study: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprescu, Bogdan; Quoilin, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission has proposed to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050. Intermediately there is a binding legislation regarding the climate and energy targets for 2020. These targets, known as the ''20-20-20'' targets, set three key objectives for 2020: a 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels, raising the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% and a 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. This policy is to be followed by the actions proposed in a policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030: a new reduction target for domestic GHG emissions of 40% compared to 1990 for the year 2030, a target at European level for renewable energy of at least 27% for the year 2030 and a proposal for a 30% energy savings target for 2030. The 2020 targets for Italy translate into a 17% share of gross final energy consumption being delivered by Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E). Various studies consider the integration of energy storage at the same time as RES-E as a solution to provide more flexibility in the energy system. Even though some studies model the electricity in higher detail, the case of Italy is rarely covered as an individual country. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding storage in the Italian power system under different assumptions. The base case is the simplified assumption of a copper plate system where no transmission constraints are considered. This is then compared to the zonal dispatch which considers a simplified grid to underline the importance of locational signals for storage.

  17. Fluctuating zonal flows in the I-mode regime in Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziegler, I.; Diamond, P. H.; Fedorczak, N.; Manz, P.; Tynan, G. R.; Xu, M.; Churchill, R. M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Lipschultz, B.; Sierchio, J. M.; Terry, J. L.; Theiler, C.

    2013-05-01

    Velocity fields and density fluctuations of edge turbulence are studied in I-mode [F. Ryter et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 40, 725 (1998)] plasmas of the Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] tokamak, which are characterized by a strong thermal transport barrier in the edge while providing little or no barrier to the transport of both bulk and impurity particles. Although previous work showed no clear geodesic-acoustic modes (GAM) on C-Mod, using a newly implemented, gas-puff-imaging based time-delay-estimate velocity inference algorithm, GAM are now shown to be ubiquitous in all I-mode discharges examined to date, with the time histories of the GAM and the I-mode specific [D. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] Weakly Coherent Mode (WCM, f = 100-300 kHz, Δf/f≈0.5, and kθ≈1.3 cm-1) closely following each other through the entire duration of the regime. Thus, the I-mode presents an example of a plasma state in which zero frequency zonal flows and GAM continuously coexist. Using two-field (density-velocity and radial-poloidal velocity) bispectral methods, the GAM are shown to be coupled to the WCM and to be responsible for its broad frequency structure. The effective nonlinear growth rate of the GAM is estimated, and its comparison to the collisional damping rate seems to suggest a new view on I-mode threshold physics.

  18. Amplification and protein overexpression of cyclin D1: Predictor of occult nodal metastasis in early oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlag, Rob; Boeve, Koos; Witjes, Max J H; Koole, Ronald; Peeters, Ton L M; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M; van Es, Robert J J

    2017-02-01

    Accurate nodal staging is pivotal for treatment planning in early (stage I-II) oral cancer. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack sensitivity to detect occult nodal metastases. Chromosomal region 11q13, including genes CCND1, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), and CTTN, is often amplified in oral cancer with nodal metastases. However, evidence in predicting occult nodal metastases is limited. In 158 patients with early tongue and floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinomas, both CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1, FADD, and cortactin protein expression were correlated with occult nodal metastases. CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression correlated with occult nodal metastases. Cyclin D1 expression was validated in an independent multicenter cohort, confirming the correlation with occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Cyclin D1 is a predictive biomarker for occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Prospective research on biopsy material should confirm these results before implementing its use in routine clinical practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 326-333, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Theory of anisotropic refractive scintillation - Application to stellar occultations by Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Hubbard, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    A theory of refractive scintillation due to a thin phase-changing screen with an anisotropic power-law spectrum of phase fluctuations is presented. Scintillation theory for an isotropic medium is discussed, and anisotropy of the mean density and anisotropy in the scattering are discussed. The theory of refractive scintillation in an anisotropic medium is developed, deriving a general expression for the cross-correlation of flux variations at two points on the 'observer screen'. From this, estimates of the coherence lengths and amplitudes of flux variations are obtained for important parameter regimes. The application of the theory to the analysis of two occultations by Neptune is addressed. The projected dimensions of the occulting stars, a normalization constant to describe the phase fluctuations, and an anisotropy parameter are determined, and the theory is shown to agree well with observation. The significance of the theory for understanding of the physics of Neptune's atmosphere is discussed.

  20. Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S. -P.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...... occultations with CALIPSO profiles over deep convection. Results show a sharp spike in GPS bending angle highly correlated to the top of the clouds, corresponding to anomalously cold temperatures within the clouds. Above the clouds the temperatures return to background conditions, and there is a strong...

  1. Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...... occultations with CALIPSO profiles over deep convection. Results show a sharp spike in GPS bending angle highly correlated to the top of the clouds, corresponding to anomalously cold temperatures within the clouds. Above the clouds the temperatures return to background conditions, and there is a strong...

  2. Novel use of gamma correction for precise {sup 99m}Tc-HDP pinhole bone scan diagnosis and classification of knee occult fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee [Sung Ae General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, Ho-Seung [Sung Ae General Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jang Min [Sung Ae General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Park, Jung Mee; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Soo-Kyo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Yong-An [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Institute of Catholic Integrative Medicine (ICIM), Incheon (Korea); Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Incheon (Korea); Kim, E.E. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this study was to introduce gamma correction pinhole bone scan (GCPBS) to depict specific signs of knee occult fractures (OF) on {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxydiphosphonate (HDP) scan. Thirty-six cases of six different types of knee OF in 27 consecutive patients (male = 20, female = 7, and age = 18-86 years) were enrolled. The diagnosis was made on the basis of a history of acute or subacute knee trauma, local pain, tenderness, cutaneous injury, negative conventional radiography, and positive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of the impracticability of histological verification of individual OF, MRI was utilized as a gold standard of diagnosis and classification. All patients had {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scanning and supplementary GCPBS. GCPBS signs were correlated and compared with those of MRI. The efficacy of gamma correction of ordinary parallel collimator and pinhole collimator scans were collated. Gamma correction pinhole bone scan depicted the signs characteristic of six different types of OF. They were well defined stuffed globular tracer uptake in geographic I fractures (n = 9), block-like uptake in geographic II fractures (n = 7), simple or branching linear uptake in linear cancellous fractures (n = 4), compression in impacted fractures (n = 2), stippled-serpentine uptake in reticular fractures (n = 11), and irregular subcortical uptake in osteochondral fractures (n = 3). All fractures were equally well or more distinctly depicted on GCPBS than on MRI except geographic II fracture, the details of which were not appreciated on GCPBS. Parallel collimator scan also yielded to gamma correction, but the results were inferior to those of the pinhole scan. Gamma correction pinhole bone scan can depict the specific diagnostic signs in six different types of knee occult fractures. The specific diagnostic capability along with the lower cost and wider global availability of bone scanning would make GCPBS an effective alternative. (orig.)

  3. Characteristic arthroscopic signs of cartilage injuries indicating concomitant occult medial meniscal peripheral tears of posterior horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xintao; You, Tian; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Zhang, Honglei; Zhang, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Medial posterior horn meniscal tear is difficult to visualise during arthroscopy and is occasionally undetected by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, attention should be paid to performing a thorough examination and to some characteristic signs that indicate occult meniscal tear. The purpose of this study was to assess an indicative correlation between arthroscopic features of cartilage injury and a concomitant occult meniscal tear. We performed a retrospective clinical and radiographic study of a consecutive series of patients between January 2013 and December 2014. Of 1,596 patients, all 78 with wave-like chondral injury of the medial femoral condyle diagnosed at arthroscopy were included in the study. The occurrence, pattern, location and concomitant pathology of medial meniscal injury were analysed. The characteristic wave sign associated with chondral injury in the medial femoral condyle was detected by MRI preoperatively in two cases only; all others were discovered intraoperatively at arthroscopy. Cartilage injury was rated as Outerbridge type II in 53 patients, type III in 24, and type IV in one. Wave sign defects were all characterised by their transverse orientation in the load-bearing femoral condyle. The occult longitudinal peripheral meniscus tear of the posterior horn was seen in all patients with a positive wave sign visualised under arthroscopy. The wave sign was positively correlated with medial peripheral meniscal injury of the posterior horn (P < 0.01). Wave sign chondral injury in the medial femoral condyle seen at arthroscopy is a characteristic indicator for concomitant occult medial longitudinal peripheral meniscus tears of the posterior horn. Case series, Level IV.

  4. Combining asteroid models derived by lightcurve inversion with asteroidal occultation silhouettes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďurech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Herald, D.; Dunham, D.; Timerson, B.; Hanuš, J.; Frappa, E.; Talbot, J.; Hayamizu, T.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Galád, Adrián

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 2 (2011), s. 652-750 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107; GA ČR GD205/08/H005 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/10/0537 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Asteroid s * occultations * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.385, year: 2011

  5. Incidence of occult leiomyosarcoma in presumed morcellation cases: a database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ana M; Asoglu, Mehmet R; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Tan, Alai; Borahay, Mostafa A; Kilic, Gokhan S

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to estimate the incidence of uterine leiomyosarcoma in patients with leiomyomas following laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and myomectomy procedures. For this study, we analyzed records of 13,964 women aged 25-64 years who underwent laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomies or myomectomies for leiomyomas from 2002 to 2011 using Clinformatics DataMart. Patient records were divided into two groups: history of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and history of myomectomy. Subjects were tracked to identify diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma within 1 year of the procedure. We analyzed data from the 25-39, 40-49, and 50-64 age brackets. Evidence was obtained from a cohort study from national private insurance claims in the US. Our results showed the incidence of occult leiomyosarcoma developing within 1 year following supracervical hysterectomy using a laparoscopic-assisted approach are 9.8, 10.7, and 33.4 per 10,000 for the 25-39, 40-49, and 50-64 age brackets, respectively; the overall incidence rate is 13.1 per 10,000. The incidence rate of occult leiomyosarcoma developing within 1 year following myomectomy using a laparoscopic-assisted approach are 0.0, 33.8, and 90.1 per 10,000 for the 25-39, 40-49, and 50-64 age brackets, respectively; the overall incidence rate is 17.3 per 10,000. Our analysis shows the overall risk of being diagnosed with occult leiomyosarcoma is 12.9 per 10,000 in laparoscopic-assisted supracervical hysterectomy and myomectomy for patients younger than 49. There is no evidence of occult leiomyosarcoma 1 year after operation for patients younger than 40 who underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Frontal bone metastasis from an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: Diagnosed by FNAC

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Rajnish; Pawar, Richa; Hasija, Sonia; Chandna, Abha; Sankla, Manoj; Malhotra, Chanchal

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic deposits in skull bones from follicular thyroid carcinoma is rare, and metastatic disease in skull being the presenting symptom without obvious thyroid lesion (occult primary) is even rarer. A 60-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the frontal region of the skull. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done which revealed an adenocarcinoma with repeated follicular pattern, reminiscent of follicular neoplasm of thyroid, which on immunocytochemistry revealed positivity for ...

  7. Solitary cystic lymph neck node metastasis of occult thyroid papillary carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    González García, R.; Román Romero, Leticia; Sastre Pérez, Jesús; Rodríguez Campo, Francisco José; Naval Gias, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The appearance of a solitary lateral cervical cystic mass as the only initial presenting symptom of occult thyroid carcinoma is uncommon. Its presence is often misdiagnosed due to the more frequent branchial cyst in young people. Although oronasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has been reported as the main cause of lymph neck node metastasis, thyroid papillary carcinoma may be responsible for solitary cervical cystic masses as the initial manifestation of the disease. This situation ha...

  8. High prevalence of occult left heart disease in scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Benjamin D; Shimony, Avi; Langleben, David; Hirsch, Andrew; Rudski, Lawrence; Schlesinger, Robert; Eisenberg, Mark J; Joyal, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Boutet, Kim; Serban, Alexandrina; Masetto, Ariel; Baron, Murray

    2013-10-01

    Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult left-heart disease in patients with scleroderma and pulmonary hypertension. In patients with pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure (mean PAP)≥25 mmHg), differentiation between pre- and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension has been made according to pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) less than or more than 15 mmHg, respectively. We performed a retrospective chart review of 107 scleroderma patients. All patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension had routine right or left heart catheterisation with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) measurement pre-/post-fluid challenge. We extracted demographic, haemodynamic and echocardiographic data. Patients were classified into one of four groups: haemodynamically normal (mean PAP15 mmHg); occult PVH (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP≤15 mmHg, LVEDP>15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge); and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP≤15 mmHg and LVEDP≤15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge). 53 out of 107 patients had pulmonary hypertension. Based on the PAWP-based definition, 29 out of 53 had PAH and 24 out of 53 had PVH. After considering the resting and post-fluid-challenge LVEDP, 11 PAH patients were reclassified as occult PVH. The occult PVH group was haemodynamically, echocardiographically and demographically closer to the PVH group than the PAH group. PVH had high prevalence in our scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension population. Distinguishing PAH from PVH with only PAWP may result in some PVH patients being misclassified as having PAH.

  9. The occult nature of intramedullary spinal cord metastases from renal cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are characterised by a tendency to metastasise widely, often while remaining occult. Intramedullary spinal cord metastases (ISCM) from RCC may be the presenting feature of the disease or present at any time in the disease course. This case report discusses an ISCM from RCC which became manifested at the time of resection of the primary tumour. We review the literature published on ISCM from RCC from 1990 to date comparing disease characteristics and presentations.

  10. TITAN’S UPPER ATMOSPHERE FROM CASSINI/UVIS SOLAR OCCULTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capalbo, Fernando J.; Bénilan, Yves [Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), UMR 7583 du CNRS, Universités Paris Est Créteil (UPEC) and Paris Diderot - UPD, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, F-94010, Créteil Cédex (France); Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi T., E-mail: fernando.capalbo@lisa.u-pec.fr [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Titan’s atmosphere is composed mainly of molecular nitrogen, methane being the principal trace gas. From the analysis of 8 solar occultations measured by the Extreme Ultraviolet channel of the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on board Cassini, we derived vertical profiles of N{sub 2} in the range 1100–1600 km and vertical profiles of CH{sub 4} in the range 850–1300 km. The correction of instrument effects and observational effects applied to the data are described. We present CH{sub 4} mole fractions, and average temperatures for the upper atmosphere obtained from the N{sub 2} profiles. The occultations correspond to different times and locations, and an analysis of variability of density and temperature is presented. The temperatures were analyzed as a function of geographical and temporal variables, without finding a clear correlation with any of them, although a trend of decreasing temperature toward the north pole was observed. The globally averaged temperature obtained is (150 ± 1) K. We compared our results from solar occultations with those derived from other UVIS observations, as well as studies performed with other instruments. The observational data we present confirm the atmospheric variability previously observed, add new information to the global picture of Titan’s upper atmosphere composition, variability, and dynamics, and provide new constraints to photochemical models.

  11. GNSS Radio Occultation Methods for CubeSat Missions: The University of Calgary and Spire Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skone, S.; Swab, M.; Platzer, P.; Johl, S.; Cappaert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In 2008, the University of Calgary deployed a low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf dual frequency GPS receiver onboard the CanX-2 nanosatellite, with the goal of demonstrating single-antenna single-receiver GNSS radio occultation capabilities. The team successfully produced ionospheric electron density profiles and continues to operate the CanX-2 GPS payload and collect reliable data six years into the mission. Recently the University of Calgary partnered with Spire to develop low-cost atmospheric sounding methods based on GNSS radio occultations for nanosatellite platforms. The rapidly increasing capabilities on nanosatellites with regards to power production, pointing accuracy and antenna sensitivities provide an ever more attractive platform to create relevant solutions for space and terrestrial weather data. This paper describes future mission concepts and capabilities for multi-GNSS methods to generate high-resolution atmospheric profiles. Building on lessons learned from CanX-2, the system requirements are defined and recommendations made for efficient GNSS payload operations. New methods are assessed for multi-frequency multi-constellation GNSS radio occultation approaches. Software and hardware simulations are conducted for validation of proposed methods using appropriate receiver architectures. Analyses include signal tracking for LEO trajectories (and Dopplers) and high-precision navigation solutions. Initial data analysis is also presented for a miniaturized, multi-frequency, software-­defined GNSS receiver currently operating onboard Spire's innovative CubeSat platform.

  12. Radio-holographic analysis of Microlab-1 radio occultation data in the lower troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, M. E.

    2002-06-01

    The interpretation of radio occultation data in the lower troposphere is a complicated problem due to strong multipath effects. This problem can be solved on the basis of the wave optics. We analyze Microlab-1 radio occultation using two radio-holographic approaches: the radio-optics method, which employs the analysis of the local spatial spectra of the registered wave field, and the canonical transform method, which is based on the principles of the theory of Fourier integral operators. The radio-optics method is a means of data visualizaion, while the canonical transform method must be used for achieving accurate numerical results in processing measurements in multipath areas. The comparison of the results of the application of these two methods is a useful method of data quality control. We show examples of radio occultations with multipath propagation and reflection from the Earth's surface. The application of the radio-holographic methods also allows for the detection of corrupted data caused by phase lock loop failure.

  13. Assimilation of Radio Occultation Data From the Chinese Fengyun Meterological Satellite at GRAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Y.

    2016-12-01

    GNOS (GNSS Occultation Sounder) is a new radio occultation payload onboard the Chinese FY-3 series satellites, which probes the Earth's neutral atmosphere and the ionosphere. GNOS is capable of tracking the signals of both the Beidou (the Chinese navigation satellite system) and the GPS navigation satellite systems. The first FY-3C satellite with GNOS launch on 23 September 2013 successfully, and has more than 500 RO events daily, including approximately 400 GPS and 100 Beidou RO events. In this paper the data quality from FY3C GNOS, including GPS and Beidou radio accultation data, will be presented. The impact experiments of assimilating GNOS radio accultation refractivity profiles in GRAPES (Global and Regional Assimilation Prediction System) a new generation numerical model system of China Meteorological Administration, are also presented. Results show that the lowest probing height of 90% GNOS profile can reach 4KM away from the surface. The bias of GNOS refractivity profiles compared to reanalysis and radiosonde data is greater than those of COSMIC and GRAS, but after data quality control the standard deviation of GNOS refractivity is approximately 2%. The results of the GNOS assimilation experiments show that GNOS data can improve the analysis in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, particularly in the southern hemisphere and the ocean, which produce the neutral and positive impacts in GRAPES assimilation system. The combined impact of assimilating both GPS and Beidou GNOS radio occultation is greater than assimilating either instrument individually.

  14. Management of occult adrenocorticotropin-secreting bronchial carcinoids: limits of endocrine testing and imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, P; Vignati, F; Grossrubatscher, E; Dalino, P; Possa, M; Zurleni, F; Lomuscio, G; Rossetti, O; Ravini, M; Vanzulli, A; Bacchetta, C; Galli, C; Valente, D

    2003-03-01

    The differential diagnosis and the identification of the source of ACTH in occult ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to a bronchial carcinoid still represents a challenge for the endocrinologist. We report our experience in six patients with occult bronchial carcinoid in whom extensive hormonal, imaging, and scintigraphic evaluation was performed. All patients presented with hypercortisolism associated with high plasma ACTH values. The CRH test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test suggested an ectopic source of ACTH in three of six patients. During bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling, none of the patients showed a central to peripheral ACTH gradient. At the time of diagnosis, none of the patients had radiological evidence of the ectopic source of ACTH, whereas pentetreotide scintigraphy identified the lesion in two of four patients. Finally, a chest computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a bronchial lesion in all patients, and pentetreotide scintigraphy identified four of six lesions. In all patients a bronchial carcinoid was found and removed. In one patient with scintigraphic evidence of residual disease after two operations, radioguided surgery, using a hand-held gamma probe after iv administration of radiolabeled pentetreotide, was performed; this allowed detection and removal of residual multiple mediastinal lymph node metastases. In conclusion, our data show that there is not a single endocrine test or imaging procedure accurate enough to diagnose and localize occult ectopic ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. Radioguided surgery appears to be promising in the presence of multiple tumor foci and previous incomplete removal of the tumor.

  15. Size of Self-Gravity Wakes from Cassini UVIS Tracking Occultations and Ring Transparency Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.; Rehnberg, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Sremcevic, M.

    2017-12-01

    We compare two methods for determining the size of self-gravity wakes in Saturn's rings. Analysis of gaps seen in UVIS occultations gives a power law distribution from 10-100m (Rehnberg etal 2017). Excess variance from UVIS occultations can be related to characteristic clump widths, a method which extends the work of Showalter and Nicholson (1990) to more arbitrary shadow distributions. In the middle A ring, we use results from Colwell etal (2017) for the variance and results from Jerousek etal (2016) for the relative size of gaps and wakes to estimate the wake width consistent with the excess variance observed there. Our method gives: W= sqrt (A) * E/T2 * (1+ S/W)Where A is the area observed by UVIS in an integration period, E is the measured excess variance above Poisson statistics, T is the mean transparency, and S and W are the separation and width of self-gravity wakes in the granola bar model of Colwell etal (2006). We find: W 10m and infer the wavelength of the fastest growing instability lamdaT = S + W 30m. This is consistent with the calculation of the Toomre wavelength from the surface mass density of the A ring, and with the highest resolution UVIS star occultations.

  16. Analysis of reflections in GNSS radio occultation measurements using the phase matching amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Thomas; Rasch, Joel; Carlström, Anders; Pettersson, Mats Ingemar

    2018-01-01

    It is well-known that in the presence of super-refractive layers in the lower-tropospheric inversion of GNSS radio occultation (RO) measurements using the Abel transform yields biased refractivity profiles. As such it is problematic to reconstruct the true refractivity from the RO signal. Additional information about this lower region of the atmosphere might be embedded in reflected parts of the signal. To retrieve the bending angle, the phase matching operator can be used. This operator produces a complex function of the impact parameter, and from its phase we can calculate the bending angle. Instead of looking at the phase, in this paper we focus on the function's amplitude. The results in this paper show that the signatures of surface reflections in GNSS RO measurements can be significantly enhanced when using the phase matching method by processing only an appropriately selected segment of the received signal. This signature enhancement is demonstrated by simulations and confirmed with 10 hand-picked MetOp-A occultations with reflected components. To validate that these events show signs of reflections, radio holographic images are generated. Our results suggest that the phase matching amplitude carries information that can improve the interpretation of radio occultation measurements in the lower troposphere.

  17. The Pluto stellar Occultation of 2006 June 12: Observations and Joint Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Catherine T.; Blow, G.; Broughton, J.; Buie, M.; Christie, G.; Dickie, R.; French, R.; Gault, D.; George, M.; Jaquiery, P.; Lade, B.; Natusch, T.; Olkin, C.; Regester, J.; Shoemaker, K.; Young, E.; Young, L.

    2006-09-01

    Stellar occultations by Pluto provide rare opportunities to study the vertical profiles of temperature, density, and pressure in Pluto's atmosphere. Occultations in 1988 and 2002 showed that the pressure in Pluto's atmosphere doubled during the intervening 14 years, despite Pluto's heliocentric recession. To continue monitoring Pluto's volatile atmosphere, we deployed to several sites in Australia and New Zealand for the 2006 June 12 occultation of P384.2 (McDonald and Elliot 2000, AJ 119:1999) by Pluto. A lightcurve was obtained from the 4-m Anglo-Australian Telescope(AAT) at 5 Hz with a SNR of >25; per point. Additional lightcurves were provided from smaller telescopes near Longford (Tasmania), Reedy Creek (Queensland), Wellington (NZ), Stockport Observatory (South Australia), and Hawkesbury Heights (NSW). Weather precluded observations at Wanaka (NZ) and Auckland (NZ). The lightcurves from smaller telescopes are critical in constraining the shadow path of the event. The quality of the AAT lightcurve is sufficient to measure changes in Pluto's bulk atmosphere, as well as temperatures and densities at a sampling of 10 points per scale height. Small spikes in the AAT lightcurve indicate density perturbations in Pluto's atmosphere. We will present pressures, temperatures, and densities in Pluto's atmosphere from June 2006, and place these in historical context. This work was supported by grants from NSF Major Research Instrumentation and NASA Planetary Atmospheres.

  18. Tomography of the Earth's atmosphere by the spaceborne occultation radiometer ORA: Spatial inversion algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussen, Didier; Arijs, Etienne; Leclere, Fabienne; Nevejans, Dennis; Bingen, Christine

    1997-02-01

    The occultation radiometer ORA was designed to perform measurements of O3, NO2, H2O, number density, and aerosol extinction altitude profiles in the Earth's atmosphere through the occultation method viewing the full solar disk. The experiment was mounted on the EURECA satellite and measured the relative transmission of light during about 7000 orbital sunsets and sunrises from August 11, 1992, to May 13, 1993. The spatial inversion algorithm developed to retrieve the total extinction altitude profiles from these data is described here. It is shown that the signal measured by an instrument having a large field of view can be successfully processed to give a much better altitude resolution than the one related to the angular size of the Sun. The main difficulties concern the inclusion of all refractive effects, the application of a new inversion scheme and its associated mapping strategy to refine the aerosol layer detection. The algorithm applies to fully nonlinear occultation experiments requiring global and nonheuristic inversion schemes.

  19. Optimal configuration of a planet-finding mission consisting of a telescope and a constellation of occulters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolemen, Egemen

    Occulter-based telescopy offers a promising new terrestrial planet-finding methodology that involves the formation flying of a conventional space telescope with a large external occulter, which will block the light of a star and allow imaging of its dim, close-by planetary companion. Recent advances in shaped-pupil technology have enabled the design of occulters that have superior diffraction performance and that can be manufactured easily. This approach is attractive because it eliminates the precision-optical requirements of the alternative coronagraphic or interferometric approaches. However, it introduces new scientific challenges in the area of precise dynamics and control, which is the topic of this dissertation. Due to the large distances between satellites, realignment is fuel intensive, which increases the mission cost and reduces its lifetime. In order to overcome this problem, this dissertation focuses on the trajectory design of the mask satellite and conducts an optimization study to select the order and timing of imaging sessions. The optimal configuration of satellite formations consisting of a telescope and multiple occulters around Sun-Earth L2 Halo orbits is studied first. Focusing on the Quasi-Halo orbits, which are of interest for fuel-free occulter placement, the phase space around L2 is examined. The periodic orbits of interest around L2 are numerically computed and their stability properties analyzed. Quasi-Halos are good candidates for occulter placement, as they are fuel-free orbits and have large sky coverage with respect to the Halo orbit, where the telescope is placed. With the aim of identifying these orbits, a new fully numerical method that employs multiple Poincare sections to find quasi-periodic orbits is developed. This methodology has the advantage of very fast execution times and robust behavior near chaotic regions that leads to full convergence. Its numerical implementations for Lissajous and Quasi-Halo orbits are explained

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Calculating the relative coordinates of Galilean satellites by fitting the flux variation during the mutual occultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. L.; Arlot, J.-E.; Liu, Z.

    File table 2 contains the photometric data of mutual occultations between Galilean satellites observed at Yunnan Observatory in 2009, and the number of data is 411. The observational data in this file belongs to four different mutual occultations, 200908281o2, 200911092o1, 200911283o1 and 200912112o1 respectively, which can be distinguished from the date. '200908281o2' represents the event of J1(Io) occulted J2(Europa) occured on 28 Aug, 2009. (1 data file).

  1. Atmospheric gravity wave detection following the 2011 Tohoku earthquakes combining COSMIC occultation and GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Tao, Y.; Xia, C.; Qi, Y.; Zuo, X.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have reported the earthquake-induced atmospheric gravity waves detected by some new technologies such as airglow (Makela et al., 2011), GOCE (Garcia et al., 2013), GRACE (Yang et al., 2014), F3/C radio occultation sounding (Coïsson et al., 2015). In this work, we collected all occultation events on 11 March, and selected four events to analyze at last. The original and filtered podTEC is represented as function of the altitude of the impact parameter and UT of the four events. Then, the travel time diagrams of filtered podTEC derived from the events were analyzed. The occultation signal from one event (marked as No.73) is consistent with the previous results reported by Coïsson. 2015, which is corresponds to the ionospheric signal induced from tsunami gravity wave. What is noticeable, in this work, is that three occultation events of No.403, 77 and 118 revealed a disturbance of atmospheric gravity wave with velocity 300m/s, preceding the tsunami. It would probably be correspond to the gravity waves caused by seismic rupture but not tsunami. In addition, it can be seen that the perturbation height of occultation observation TEC is concentrated at 200-400km, corresponding ionosphere F region. The signals detected above are compared with GPS measurements of TEC from GEONET and IGS. From GPS data, traveling ionospheric disturbances were observed spreading out from the epicenter as a quasi-circular propagation pattern with the time. Exactly, we observed an acoustic wave coupled with Rayleigh wave starting from the epicenter with a speed of 3.0km/s and a superimposed acoustic-gravity wave moving with a speed of 800m/s. The acoustic-gravity wave generated at the epicenter and gradually attenuated 800km away, then it is replaced by a gravity wave coupled with the tsunami that moves with a speed of between 100 and 300m/s. It is necessary to confirm the propagation process of the waves if we attempt to evaluate the use of ionospheric seismology as a

  2. Development and testing of the GNSS Instrument System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS) airborne instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, J. L.; Ventre, B. D.; Haase, J.; Boehme, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    The GNSS Instrument System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS) is a new remote sensing system being developed for the HIAPER Gulfstream V aircraft, under support of the National Science Foundation. This system is designed to use occulted and reflected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals to retrieve tropospheric water vapor, ocean surface roughness and soil moisture during long duration, high altitude, flights. This presentation will summarize the preliminary design and engineering testing of the GISMOS instruments. Applications of this system to ocean and land reflection measurements and calibration/validation activities for satellite missions, will be emphasized. GISMOS will use five GNSS antennas on the aircraft fuselage. One will be used for precision navigation. Two antennas, one mounted in the window blanks on each side of the fuselage, will be used to track occulting GPS signals. A pair of antennas will be mounted on the bottom of the fuselage to record both the right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized components of the reflected GNSS signal. A GNSS recorder will also sample and record the intermediate frequency (IF) signal from up to three dual- frequency antennas. This would allow simultaneous recording of RHCP and LHCP reflected signals, at both L1 and L2 frequencies, and the direct signal for power and delay calibration. Occultation measurements could also be collected in conjunction with reflection measurements. The automatic gain control (AGC) gain is sampled at 1 Hz, and stored in the data stream, to allow an absolute calibration of power measurements. A software receiver will be used to generate delay-Doppler waveforms from the reflected signals, which can be inverted using a scattering model to estimate the statistics of the reflecting surface. Waveform generation at L2 will be done using the L2C code on the modernized GPS satellites. The software receiver will also allow open-loop tracking of occulted GPS signals

  3. Advances in the interpretation and analysis of lunar occultation light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richichi, A.; Glindemann, A.

    2012-02-01

    Context. The introduction of fast 2D detectors and the use of very large telescopes have significantly advanced the sensitivity and accuracy of the lunar occultation technique. Recent routine observations at the ESO Very Large Telescope have yielded hundreds of events with results, especially in the area of binary stars, which are often beyond the capabilities of any other techniques. Aims: With the increase in the quality and in the number of the events, subtle features in the light curve patterns have occasionally been detected which challenge the standard analytical definition of the lunar occultation phenomenon as diffraction from an infinite straight edge. We investigate the possible causes for the observed peculiarities. Methods: We have evaluated the available statistics of distortions in occultation light curves observed at the ESO VLT, and compared it to data from other facilities. We have developed an alternative approach to model and interpret lunar occultation light curves, based on 2D diffraction integrals describing the light curves in the presence of an arbitrary lunar limb profile. We distinguish between large limb irregularities requiring the Fresnel diffraction formalism, and small irregularities described by Fraunhofer diffraction. We have used this to generate light curves representative of several limb geometries, and attempted to relate them to some of the peculiar data observed. Results: We conclude that the majority of the observed peculiarities is due to limb irregularities, which can give origin both to anomalies in the amplitude of the diffraction fringes and to varying limb slopes. We investigate also other possible effects, such as detector response and atmospheric perturbations, finding them negligible. We have developed methods and procedures that for the first time allow us to analyze data affected by limb irregularities, with large ones bending the fringe pattern along the shape of the irregularity, and small ones creating fringe

  4. Correction of the anion gap for albumin in order to detect occult tissue anions in shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherill, M; Waggie, Z; Purves, L; Reynolds, L; Argent, A

    2002-12-01

    It is believed that hypoalbuminaemia confounds interpretation of the anion gap (AG) unless corrected for serum albumin in critically ill children with shock. To compare the ability of the AG and the albumin corrected anion gap (CAG) to detect the presence of occult tissue anions. Prospective observational study in children with shock in a 22 bed multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit of a university childrenrsquo;s hospital. Blood was sampled at admission and at 24 hours, for acid-base parameters, serum albumin, and electrolytes. Occult tissue anions (lactate + truly "unmeasured" anions) were calculated from the strong ion gap. The anion gap ((Na + K) - (Cl + bicarbonate)) was corrected for serum albumin using the equation of Figge: AG + (0.25 x (44 - albumin)). Occult tissue anions (TA) predicted by the anion gap were calculated by (anion gap - 15 mEq/l). Optimal cut off values of anion gap were compared by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Ninety three sets of data from 55 children (median age 7 months, median weight 4.9 kg) were analysed. Data are expressed as mean (SD), and mean bias (limits of agreement). The incidence of hypoalbuminaemia was 76% (n = 42/55). Mean serum albumin was 25 g/l (SD 8). Mean AG was 15.0 mEq/l (SD 6.1), compared to the CAG of 19.9 mEq/l (SD 6.6). Mean TA was 10.2 mmol/l (SD 6.3). The AG underestimated TA with mean bias 10.2 mmol/l (4.1-16.1), compared to the CAG, mean bias 5.3 mmol/l (0.4-10.2). A clinically significant increase of TA >5 mmol/l was present in 83% (n = 77/93) of samples, of which the AG detected 48% (n = 36/77), and the CAG 87% (n = 67/77). Post hoc ROC analysis revealed optimal cut off values for detection of TA >5 mmol/l to be AG >10 mEq/l, and CAG >15.5 mEq/l. Hypoalbuminaemia is common in critically ill children with shock, and is associated with a low observed anion gap that may fail to detect clinically significant amounts of lactate and other occult tissue anions. We suggest that

  5. Particle sizes in Saturn's rings from UVIS stellar occultations 1. Variations with ring region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, J. E.; Esposito, L. W.; Cooney, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) includes a high speed photometer (HSP) that has observed stellar occultations by Saturn's rings with a radial resolution of ∼10 m. In the absence of intervening ring material, the time series of measurements by the HSP is described by Poisson statistics in which the variance equals the mean. The finite sizes of the ring particles occulting the star lead to a variance that is larger than the mean due to correlations in the blocking of photons due to finite particle size and due to random variations in the number of individual particles in each measurement area. This effect was first exploited by Showalter and Nicholson (1990) with the stellar occultation observed by Voyager 2. At a given optical depth, a larger excess variance corresponds to larger particles or clumps that results in greater variation of the signal from measurement to measurement. Here we present analysis of the excess variance in occultations observed by Cassini UVIS. We observe differences in the best-fitting particle size in different ring regions. The C ring plateaus show a distinctly smaller effective particle size, R, than the background C ring, while the background C ring itself shows a positive correlation between R and optical depth. The innermost 700 km of the B ring has a distribution of excess variance with optical depth that is consistent with the C ring ramp and C ring but not with the remainder of the B1 region. The Cassini Division, while similar to the C ring in spectral and structural properties, has different trends in effective particle size with optical depth. There are discrete jumps in R on either side of the Cassini Division ramp, while the C ring ramp shows a smooth transition in R from the C ring to the B ring. The A ring is dominated by self-gravity wakes whose shadow size depends on the occultation geometry. The spectral ;halo; regions around the strongest density waves in the A ring correspond to

  6. Climatology of mesopause region nocturnal temperature, zonal wind, and sodium density observed by sodium lidar over Hefei, China (32°N, 117°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Ban, C.; Fang, X.; Li, J.; Wu, Z.; Xiong, J.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Science and Technology of China narrowband sodium temperature/wind lidar, located in Hefei, China (32°N, 117°E), was installed in November 2011 and have made routine nighttime measurements since January 2012. We obtained 154 nights ( 1400 hours) of vertical profiles of temperature, sodium density, and zonal wind, and 83 nights ( 800 hours) of vertical flux of gravity wave (GW) zonal momentum in the mesopause region (80-105 km) during the period of 2012 to 2016. In temperature, it is likely that the diurnal tide dominates below 100 km in spring, while the semidiurnal tide dominates above 100 km throughout the year. A clear semiannual variation in temperature is revealed near 90 km, likely related to the tropical mesospheric semiannual oscillation (MSAO). The variability of sodium density is positively correlated with temperature, suggesting that in addition to dynamics, the chemistry may also play an important role in the formation of sodium atoms. The observed sodium peak density is 1000 cm-3 higher than that simulated by the model. In zonal wind, the diurnal tide dominates in both spring and fall, while semidiurnal tide dominates in winter. The observed semiannual variation in zonal wind near 90 km is out-of-phase with that in temperature, consistent with tropical MSAO. The GW zonal momentum flux is mostly westward in fall and winter, anti-correlated with eastward zonal wind. The annual mean flux averaged over 87-97 km is -0.3 m2/s2 (westward), anti-correlated with eastward zonal wind of 10 m/s. The comparisons of lidar results with those observed by satellite, nearby radar, and simulated by model show generally good agreements.

  7. Precise predictions of stellar occultations by Pluto, Charon, Nix, and Hydra for 2008-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assafin, M.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Vieira Martins, R.; Andrei, A. H.; Sicardy, B.; Young, L.; da Silva Neto, D. N.; Braga-Ribas, F.

    2010-06-01

    Context. We investigate transneptunian objects, including Pluto and its satellites, by stellar occultations. Aims: Our aim is to derive precise, astrometric predictions for stellar occultations by Pluto and its satellites Charon, Hydra and Nix for 2008-2015. We construct an astrometric star catalog in the UCAC2 system covering Plutoarcmins sky path. Methods: We carried out in 2007 an observational program at the ESO2p2/WFI instrument covering the sky path of Pluto from 2008 to 2015. We made the astrometry of 110 GB of images with the Platform for Reduction of Astronomical Images Automatically (PRAIA). By relatively simple astrometric techniques, we treated the overlapping observations and derived a field distortion pattern for the WFI mosaic of CCDs to within 50 mas precision. Results: Positions were obtained in the UCAC2 frame with errors of 50 mas for stars up to magnitude R = 19, and 25 mas up to R = 17. New stellar proper motions were also determined with 2MASS and the USNO B1.0 catalog positions as first epoch. We generated 2252 predictions of stellar occultations by Pluto, Charon, Hydra and Nix for 2008-2015. An astrometric catalog with proper motions was produced, containing 2.24 million stars covering Plutoarcmins sky path with 30arcmin width. Its magnitude completeness is about R = 18-19 with a limit about R = 21. Based on the past 2005-2008 occultations successfully predicted, recorded and fitted, a linear drift with time in declination with regard to DE418/plu017 ephemerides was determined for Pluto and used in the current predictions. For offset (mas) = A * (t (yr) - 2005.0) + B, we find A = +30.5 ± 4.3 mas yr-1 and B = -31.5 ± 11.3 mas, with standard deviation of 14.4 mas for the offsets. For these past occultations, predictions and follow-up observations were made with the 0.6 m and 1.6 m telescopes at the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica/Brazil. Conclusions: Recurrent issues in stellar occultation predictions were addressed and properly

  8. Comparative statistical analysis of strong zonal jet flows generated in a laboratory device and a Global Climate Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, S.; Spiga, A.; Guerlet, S.; Aurnou, J. M.; Favier, B.; Le Bars, M.

    2017-12-01

    The strong zonal (i.e. east-west) jet flows on the gas giants, Jupiter and Saturn, have persisted for hundreds of years. Zonal jets are large-scale features ubiquitous in planetary atmosphere and result from multi-scales interactions in rapidly rotating turbulent flows. Here we use a new Saturn Global Climate Model (GCM) coupling seasonal radiative model tailored for Saturn with a new hydrodynamical solver, developed in Laboratoire de Météorology Dynamique, which uses an original icosahedral mapping of the planetary sphere to ensure excellent conservation and scalability properties in massively parallel computing resources. Strong and quasi-steady Saturn jets are reproduced in our GCM simulations with both unprecedented horizontal resolutions (reference at 1/2 ° latitude/longitude, and tests at 1/4 ° and 1/8 ° ), integrated time (up to ten simulated Saturn years), and large vertical extent (from the troposphere to the stratosphere). We perform statistical analysis on the resulting flows to explore scales interactions and kinetic energy distribution at all scale. It appears that horizontal resolution as well as subgrid-scale (unresolved) dissipation, included as an additional hyperdiffusion term, strongly affect jets' intensity and statistical properties. In parallel, we set the first laboratory device capable to achieve the relevant regime to form planetary like zonal jets. We report that in a rapidly rotating cylindrical container, turbulent laboratory flow naturally generate multiple, alternating jets that share basic properties of the one observed on gas planets. By performing similar statistical analysis we directly confront flow properties of laboratory versus GCM generated jets and point out the effect of limited numerical resolution and subgrid-scale assumptions on atmospheric dynamics at large/jets scale.

  9. Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noersomadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We retrieved temperature (T profiles with a high vertical resolution using the full spectrum inversion (FSI method from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO data from January 2007 to December 2009. We studied the characteristics of temperature perturbations in the stratosphere at 20–27 km altitude. This height range does not include a sharp jump in the background Brunt–Väisälä frequency squared (N2 near the tropopause, and it was reasonably stable regardless of season and latitude. We analyzed the vertical wavenumber spectra of gravity waves (GWs with vertical wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 km, and we integrated the (total potential energy EpT. Another integration of the spectra from 0.5 to 1.75 km was defined as EpS for short vertical wavelength GWs, which was not studied with the conventional geometrical optics (GO retrievals. We also estimated the logarithmic spectral slope (p for the saturated portion of spectra with a linear regression fitting from 0.5 to 1.75 km.Latitude and time variations in the spectral parameters were investigated in two longitudinal regions: (a 90–150° E, where the topography was more complicated, and (b 170–230° E, which is dominated by oceans. We compared EpT, EpS, and p, with the mean zonal winds (U and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR. We also show a ratio of EpS to EpT and discuss the generation source of EpS. EpT and p clearly showed an annual cycle, with their maximum values in winter at 30–50° N in region (a, and 50–70° N in region (b, which was related to the topography. At 30–50° N in region (b, EpT and p exhibited some irregular variations in addition to an annual cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, we also found an annual oscillation in EpT and p, but it showed a time lag of about 2 months relative to U. Characteristics of EpTand p in the tropical region seem to be related to

  10. Global distribution of vertical wavenumber spectra in the lower stratosphere observed using high-vertical-resolution temperature profiles from COSMIC GPS radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noersomadi; Tsuda, T.

    2016-02-01

    We retrieved temperature (T) profiles with a high vertical resolution using the full spectrum inversion (FSI) method from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO) data from January 2007 to December 2009. We studied the characteristics of temperature perturbations in the stratosphere at 20-27 km altitude. This height range does not include a sharp jump in the background Brunt-Väisälä frequency squared (N2) near the tropopause, and it was reasonably stable regardless of season and latitude. We analyzed the vertical wavenumber spectra of gravity waves (GWs) with vertical wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 km, and we integrated the (total) potential energy EpT. Another integration of the spectra from 0.5 to 1.75 km was defined as EpS for short vertical wavelength GWs, which was not studied with the conventional geometrical optics (GO) retrievals. We also estimated the logarithmic spectral slope (p) for the saturated portion of spectra with a linear regression fitting from 0.5 to 1.75 km.Latitude and time variations in the spectral parameters were investigated in two longitudinal regions: (a) 90-150° E, where the topography was more complicated, and (b) 170-230° E, which is dominated by oceans. We compared EpT, EpS, and p, with the mean zonal winds (U) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). We also show a ratio of EpS to EpT and discuss the generation source of EpS. EpT and p clearly showed an annual cycle, with their maximum values in winter at 30-50° N in region (a), and 50-70° N in region (b), which was related to the topography. At 30-50° N in region (b), EpT and p exhibited some irregular variations in addition to an annual cycle. In the Southern Hemisphere, we also found an annual oscillation in EpT and p, but it showed a time lag of about 2 months relative to U. Characteristics of EpTand p in the tropical region seem to be related to convective activity. The ratio of EpT to the

  11. Occult hepatitis B virus coinfection in HIV-positive African migrants to the UK: a point prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D; Doyle, T; Ellis, S; Price, D; Abbas, I; Valappil, M; Geretti, A M

    2014-03-01

    Occult (surface antigen-negative/DNA-positive) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in areas of the world where HBV is endemic. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected African migrants to the UK and to determine factors associated with occult coinfection. This anonymized point-prevalence study identified Africans attending three HIV clinics, focussing on patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Stored blood samples were tested for HBV DNA. Prevalence was calculated in the entire cohort, as well as in subpopulations. Risk factors for occult HBV coinfection were identified using logistic regression analysis. Among 335 HIV-positive African migrants, the prevalence of occult HBV coinfection was 4.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-7.4%] overall, and 6.5% (95% CI 3.9-10.6%) and 0.8% (95% CI 0.2-4.6%) in ART-naïve and ART-experienced patients, respectively. Among ART-naïve anti-HBV core (anti-HBc)-positive patients, the prevalence was 16.4% (95% CI 8.3-25.6%). The strongest predictor of occult coinfection was anti-HBc positivity [odds ratio (OR) 7.4; 95% CI 2.0-27.6]. Median HBV DNA and ALT levels were 54 IU/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 33-513 IU/mL] and 22 U/L (IQR 13-27 U/L), respectively. Occult HBV coinfection remains under-diagnosed in African HIV-infected patients in the UK. Given the range of HBV DNA levels observed, further studies are warranted to determine its clinical significance and to guide screening strategies and ART selection in these patients. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  12. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    Based on analysis of the extensive source base, including complex landscape, component, paleogeographic and archeological published and scientific materials as well as the connected analysis of published paleogeographical, paleolandscape and historical and geographic maps of the territory of Russia landscape and zonal features of the transition from appropriating economy to producing economy were determined. All the specifics of historical changes in the landscape use of the vast areas of Russia is caused by the variety of its landscape zones and the specifics of their constituent landscapes. Human economic activities as a factor of differentiation and development of landscapes became apparent almost in all landscape zones together with the emergence of the producing type of economy from the Aeneolithic-Bronze Age (Atlantic period) in the southern steppe regions (in the northern areas of the main centers of the producing economy) and from the Bronze Age in the forest areas. The emergence of the producing economy in the forest-steppe and steppe landscape zones on the territory of Russia is dated IV (Aeneolithic) - III (Early Bronze Age) millennium BC. It is from this period that on the European part of Russia and in Siberia the so-called Neolithic revolution begins. The use of copper and bronze axes helped to develop new areas for planting crops in the forest-steppe zone. In the forest-steppe zone swidden and lea tillage cultivation develops. In the steppe and forest-steppe Eurasia depending on the local landscape conditions two ways of producing economy with a predominance of cattle-breeding developed: nomadic cattle breeding and house cattle breeding with a significant influence of agriculture in the economy and long-term settlements. The steppe areas were completely dominated by the mobile nomadic herding, breeding cattle and small cattle. Along with the valley landscapes the interfluvial landscapes were also actively explored. Almost in all the steppe areas

  13. In search of zonal flows using cross-bispectrum analysis in the boundary plasma of the Hefei Tokamak-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Song, M.

    2002-01-01

    Langmuir probes have been used to measure the electrostatic Reynolds stress and the floating potential fluctuation in the boundary plasma of the Hefei Tokamak-7 (HT-7) [J. Li, B. N. Wan, and J. S. Mao, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 42, 135 (2000)]. The cross bispectrum of r V(tilde sign) θ φ(tilde sign) f > indicates the existence of difference-frequency nonlinear phase coupling and the generation of fluctuations near the geodesic acoustic mode frequency. The inverse cascade process might be linked to the generation of zonal flows by small-scale electrostatic drift-wave turbulence

  14. Secular variations in zonal harmonics of Earth's geopotential and their implications for mantle viscosity and Antarctic melting history due to the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi

    2017-06-01

    Secular variations in zonal harmonics of Earth's geopotential based on the satellite laser ranging observations, {\\dot{J}_n}, contain important information about the Earth's deformation due to the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and recent melting of glaciers and the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Here, we examine the GIA-induced {\\dot{J}_n}, \\dot{J}_n^{GIA} (2 ≤ n ≤ 6), derived from the available geopotential zonal secular rate and recent melting taken from the IPCC 2013 Report (AR5) to explore the possibility of additional information on the depth-dependent lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model inferred from the analyses of the \\dot{J}_2^{GIA} and relative sea level changes. The sensitivities of the \\dot{J}_n^{GIA} to lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model with a global averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) of ∼130 m indicate that the secular rates for n = 3 and 4 are mainly caused by the viscous response of the lower mantle to the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet regardless of GIA ice models adopted in this study. Also, the analyses of the \\dot{J}_n^{GIA} based on the available geopotential zonal secular rates indicate that permissible lower-mantle viscosity structure satisfying even zonal secular rates of n = 2, 4 and 6 is obtained for the GIA ice model with an Antarctic ESL component of ∼20 or ∼30 m, but there is no viscosity solution satisfying \\dot{J}_3^{GIA} and \\dot{J}_5^{GIA} values. Moreover, the inference model for the lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model from each odd zonal secular rate is distinctly different from that satisfying GIA-induced even zonal secular rate. The discrepancy between the inference models for the even and odd zonal secular rates may partly be attributed to uncertainties of the geopotential zonal secular rates for n > 2 and particularly those for odd zonal secular rates due to weakness in the orbital geometry. If this problem is overcome at least for the secular rates of n < 5, then the analyses of

  15. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Prevention5. Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is acute bronchitis? Acute ... heartburn, you can get acute bronchitis when stomach acid gets into the bronchial tree. How is acute ...

  16. Factors affecting compliance in faecal occult blood testing: a cluster randomized study of the faecal immunochemical test versus the guaiac faecal occult test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenfeld, Shlomo; Belfer, Rachel Gingold; Chared, Miri; Vilkin, Alex; Barchana, Micha; Lifshitz, Irena; Fruchter, Dana; Aronski, Dina; Balicer, Ran; Niv, Yaron; Levi, Zohar

    2011-01-01

    To compare the uptake of faecal immunochemical occult blood test (FIT) with guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) in a screening programme, with specific attention to the demographic and socioeconomic factors that might affect test uptake. The Clalit Health Service screening programme, Israel. Average-risk individuals aged 50-75 years were randomized into a FIT arm or gFOBT arm using a programme based on the socioeconomic status (SES) of their primary care clinics. G-FOBT was performed with Hemoccult SENSA™ (3 evacuations) and FIT with the OC- MICRO(TM) (3 evacuations, refrigerating mandated). The GLIMMIX model was used. There were 5,464 and 10,668 eligible participants in the FIT and gFOBT arms respectively. Compliance in taking the kits was better (but not statistically significantly better) with gFOBT (37.8% vs. 29.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.43 [95% CI 0.73-2.80]; P = 0.227). Kit return was higher in the FIT arm (65.0% vs. 78.9%; OR 0.45 [95% CI 0.24-0.83], P = 0.021). Overall test uptake was affected by age, gender, being immigrant and SES (determined by whether or not the participant paid national insurance tax, and the SES of the primary care clinic). The overall uptake of gFOBT and FIT was comparable (OR 0.996 [95% CI 0.46-2.17], P = 0.99). Overall compliance for test uptake was comparable between the two methods despite the more demanding procedure in the FIT arm. Sociodemographic parameters were the major determinants of compliance. An educational programme, with emphasis on the sociodemographic characteristics of the target population, should be instigated.

  17. Spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in patients with occult spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xuetao; Nie, Binbin; Wang, Hong; Duan, Shaofeng; Zhang, Zan; Dai, Guanghui; Ma, Qiaozhi; Shan, Baoci; Ma, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) is a common type of cerebral palsy (CP), which presents as a group of motor-impairment syndromes. Previous conventional MRI studies have reported abnormal structural changes in SDCP, such as periventricular leucomalacia. However, there are roughly 27.8% SDCP patients presenting normal appearance in conventional MRI, which were considered as occult SDCP. In this study, sixteen patients with occult SDCP and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were collected and the data were acquired on a 3T MR system. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis to investigate whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP. By using VBM method, the grey matter volume reduction was revealed in the bilateral basal ganglia regions, thalamus, insula, and left cerebral peduncle, whereas the white matter atrophy was found to be located in the posterior part of corpus callosum and right posterior corona radiata in the occult SDCP patients. By using TBSS, reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in multiple white matter regions, including bilateral white matter tracts in prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, internal and external capsule, corpus callosum, cingulum, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum. Additionally, several regions of white matter tracts injury were found to be significantly correlated with motor dysfunction. These results collectively revealed the spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP.

  18. Occultism in an African context: a case for the Vhavenda-speaking people of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Mashau

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Occultism in Africa is as old as the primal religion itself, or what came to be known as African Traditional Religion (ATR in mo- dern times. It dates back to time immemorial. Occultism in Africa has taken various forms and has manifested in different ways over the ages, i.e. spiritism, divination, witchcraft and ma- gic. The underlying premise of African occultism is the belief in a spiritual world with spiritual forces that have power to inflict harm on the living. In the traditional African worldview suffering of every sort – illness, barrenness, drought and death – is nor- mally explained in personal terms: “there is always somebody”. This “somebody” often belongs to the world of the occult: a “spirit” has brought pain to human beings and must therefore be repelled or accommodated. This is very common among the Vhavenda-speaking people of the Limpopo Province. This ar- ticle seeks to investigate how occultism is practised among these people and to provide a reformed perspective as to how people who are suffering under demonic attacks can be helped. Contrary to other Christian traditions that see exorcism as the only way out, reformed theology suggests a missio-pastoral approach in dealing with the problem.

  19. Comparison of entropy production rates in two different types of self-organized flows: Benard convection and zonal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawazura, Y.; Yoshida, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Two different types of self-organizing and sustaining ordered motion in fluids or plasmas--one is a Benard convection (or streamer) and the other is a zonal flow--have been compared by introducing a thermodynamic phenomenological model and evaluating the corresponding entropy production rates (EP). These two systems have different topologies in their equivalent circuits: the Benard convection is modeled by parallel connection of linear and nonlinear conductances, while the zonal flow is modeled by series connection. The ''power supply'' that drives the systems is also a determinant of operating modes. When the energy flux is a control parameter (as in usual plasma experiments), the driver is modeled by a constant-current power supply, and when the temperature difference between two separate boundaries is controlled (as in usual computational studies), the driver is modeled by a constant-voltage power supply. The parallel (series)-connection system tends to minimize (maximize) the total EP when a constant-current power supply drives the system. This minimum/maximum relation flips when a constant-voltage power supply is connected.

  20. Are there differences in zonal distribution and tumor volume of prostate cancer in patients with a positive family history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade J. Sexton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine if there are any differences in the zonal distribution and tumor volumes of familial and sporadic prostate cancers (PC in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 839 patients underwent a radical prostatectomy in the absence of prior neoadjuvant therapy between 1987 and 1996. Telephone interviews were conducted to obtain an updated family history. A positive family history was defined as the diagnosis of PC in at least one first degree relative. Prostatectomy specimens were examined to determine the number of tumor foci, zonal origin of the dominant tumor focus, tumor volume of the largest cancer focus, total tumor volume, Gleason score and stage, and the surgical margin status. Results were stratified according to family history and ethnicity. RESULTS: We successfully contacted 437 patients (52%. Prostatectomy specimens from 55 patients were excluded from review due to a history of prior transurethral resection of the prostate (n = 26 or uncertain pathological stage (n = 29. Of the remaining 382 patients, 76 (20% reported having a first-degree relative with PC. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the pathologic variables between the two groups of patients with or without a family history of PC. CONCLUSIONS: Familial and sporadic PC share similar characteristics. No histopathological differences account for the increased positive predictive value of PC screening tests among patients with a family history of PC.